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1

Tracking Viral Evolution during a Disease Outbreak: the Rapid and Complete Selective Sweep of a Circovirus in the Endangered Echo Parakeet  

PubMed Central

Circoviruses are among the smallest and simplest of all viruses, but they are relatively poorly characterized. Here, we intensively sampled two sympatric parrot populations from Mauritius over a period of 11 years and screened for the circovirus Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV). During the sampling period, a severe outbreak of psittacine beak and feather disease, which is caused by BFDV, occurred in Echo parakeets. Consequently, this data set presents an ideal system for studying the evolution of a pathogen in a natural population and to understand the adaptive changes that cause outbreaks. Unexpectedly, we discovered that the outbreak was most likely caused by changes in functionally important regions of the normally conserved replication-associated protein gene and not the immunogenic capsid. Moreover, these mutations were completely fixed in the Echo parakeet host population very shortly after the outbreak. Several capsid alleles were linked to the replication-associated protein outbreak allele, suggesting that whereas the key changes occurred in the latter, the scope of the outbreak and the selective sweep may have been influenced by positive selection in the capsid. We found evidence for viral transmission between the two host populations though evidence for the invasive species as the source of the outbreak was equivocal. Finally, the high evolutionary rate that we estimated shows how rapidly new variation can arise in BFDV and is consistent with recent results from other small single-stranded DNA viruses. PMID:22345474

Faulkes, Christopher G.; Greenwood, Andrew G.; Jones, Carl G.; Kaiser, Pete; Lyne, Owen D.; Black, Simon A.; Chowrimootoo, Aurelie; Groombridge, Jim J.

2012-01-01

2

Lessons from nosocomial viral haemorrhagic fever outbreaks.  

PubMed

The outbreak of Marburg haemorrhagic fever in Angola in 2004-2005 shows once again the devastating and rapid spread of viral haemorrhagic fevers in medical settings where hygiene practices are poorly applied or ignored. The legacy of years of war and poverty in Angola has resulted in very poor medical education and services. The initial high rate of infection among infants in Angola may have been related to poor hospital practices, possibly administration of vaccines. Though the outbreak in Angola was in a part of Africa not previously known to have filovirus infection, prior ecological modelling had predicted this location and many others. Prevention of future outbreaks will not be easy. The urgent need is dissemination of knowledge and the training, discipline and resources for good clinical practice. Educating the public to demand higher standards could be a powerful tool. Good practices are difficult to establish and maintain on the scale needed. PMID:16373655

Fisher-Hoch, Susan P

2005-01-01

3

Swimming Associated Disease Outbreaks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of recreational waterborne outbreaks and cases of disease, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) retrospective and prospective epidemiological studies; (2) predictive models of the risk of recreational waterborn disease. A list of 35 references is also presented. (HM)

Cabelli, V. J.

1978-01-01

4

Viral Disease Networks?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viral infections induce multiple perturbations that spread along the links of the biological networks of the host cells. Understanding the impact of these cascading perturbations requires an exhaustive knowledge of the cellular machinery as well as a systems biology approach that reveals how individual components of the cellular system function together. Here we describe an integrative method that provides a new approach to studying virus-human interactions and its correlations with diseases. Our method involves the combined utilization of protein - protein interactions, protein -- DNA interactions, metabolomics and gene - disease associations to build a ``viraldiseasome''. By solely using high-throughput data, we map well-known viral associated diseases and predict new candidate viral diseases. We use microarray data of virus-infected tissues and patient medical history data to further test the implications of the viral diseasome. We apply this method to Epstein-Barr virus and Human Papillomavirus and shed light into molecular development of viral diseases and disease pathways.

Gulbahce, Natali; Yan, Han; Vidal, Marc; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

2010-03-01

5

Protection of chickens against overt clinical disease and determination of viral shedding following vaccination with commercially available Newcastle disease virus vaccines upon challenge with highly virulent virus from the California 2002 exotic Newcastle disease outbreak  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 2002–2003, exotic Newcastle disease (END) virus caused a major outbreak among commercial and backyard poultry in southern California and adjacent states. The outbreak raised concerns regarding the protective immunity of commercially available vaccines for prevention and control of this virus in poultry. We sought to determine if existing commercial live and inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccines could provide

Darrell R. Kapczynski; Daniel J. King

2005-01-01

6

Disease Outbreaks Caused by Water.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of the disease outbreaks caused by drinking polluted water, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the waterborn outbreaks included are: (1) cholera; (2) gastroenteritis; (3) giardiasis; and (4) typhoid fever and salmonellosis. A list of 66 references is also presented. (HM)

Craun, Gunther F.

1978-01-01

7

INVESTIGATIONS OF WATERBORNE DISEASE OUTBREAKS  

EPA Science Inventory

From 1971-2000, there were about 751 waterborne disease outbreaks recognized and reported, with over 500,000 associated cases of illness. From 1989-1994, of 90 total outbreaks, 2% were associated with untreated surface water, 30% with untreated ground water, 42% with treatment de...

8

Protection of chickens against overt clinical disease and determination of viral shedding following vaccination with commercially available Newcastle disease virus vaccines upon challenge with highly virulent virus from the California 2002 exotic Newcastle disease outbreak.  

PubMed

During 2002-2003, exotic Newcastle disease (END) virus caused a major outbreak among commercial and backyard poultry in southern California and adjacent states. The outbreak raised concerns regarding the protective immunity of commercially available vaccines for prevention and control of this virus in poultry. We sought to determine if existing commercial live and inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccines could provide protection against the 2002-2003 END virus, and whether current commercial NDV-vaccination programs for broiler-breeders (BB) and broilers (Br) would protect against END-challenge. In the first experiment, birds received a single dose of either inactivated or live B1-type vaccine at 2 weeks-of-age and were challenged 2 weeks post-vaccination with a lethal dose of END. In the second experiment, a high (10(6.9)EID50/bird) or low (10(3.9)EID50/bird) dose of live B1 was applied to 8-week-old chickens, followed by lethal END challenge. In the third experiment, NDV field-vaccinated commercial BB (65 weeks-of-age) and Br (36 days-of-age) were challenged against END virus. Results indicated that both the live and inactivated vaccines protected against morbidity and mortality and significantly reduced the incidence and viral titers shed from chickens in comparison with sham controls, but did not prevent infection and virus shedding. In addition, both doses of live vaccine protected birds and significantly decreased the number of birds shedding virus. All unvaccinated control chickens challenged with END died within 6 days post-challenge (pc). Protection from disease correlated with the presence of antibody titers (determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or hemagglutination inhibition (HI)) at day of challenge. Commercial BB were protected from disease and exhibited low incidence and titer of challenge virus shed. In contrast, commercial Br exhibited 66% mortality and shed significantly more virus than the BB birds. These results underscore the need to develop new NDV vaccines and vaccine strategies for use during outbreak situations to protect birds from both disease and infection to reduce virus shedding. PMID:15837366

Kapczynski, Darrell R; King, Daniel J

2005-05-16

9

Nosocomial Spread of Viral Disease  

PubMed Central

Viruses are important causes of nosocomial infection, but the fact that hospital outbreaks often result from introduction(s) from community-based epidemics, together with the need to initiate specific laboratory testing, means that there are usually insufficient data to allow the monitoring of trends in incidences. The most important defenses against nosocomial transmission of viruses are detailed and continuing education of staff and strict adherence to infection control policies. Protocols must be available to assist in the management of patients with suspected or confirmed viral infection in the health care setting. In this review, we present details on general measures to prevent the spread of viral infection in hospitals and other health care environments. These include principles of accommodation of infected patients and approaches to good hygiene and patient management. They provide detail on individual viral diseases accompanied in each case with specific information on control of the infection and, where appropriate, details of preventive and therapeutic measures. The important areas of nosocomial infection due to blood-borne viruses have been extensively reviewed previously and are summarized here briefly, with citation of selected review articles. Human prion diseases, which present management problems very different from those of viral infection, are not included. PMID:11432812

Aitken, Celia; Jeffries, Donald J.

2001-01-01

10

Incentives for Reporting Disease Outbreaks  

PubMed Central

Background Countries face conflicting incentives to report infectious disease outbreaks. Reports of outbreaks can prompt other countries to impose trade and travel restrictions, which has the potential to discourage reporting. However, reports can also bring medical assistance to contain the outbreak, including access to vaccines. Methods We compiled data on reports of meningococcal meningitis to the World Health Organization (WHO) from 54 African countries between 1966 and 2002, a period is marked by two events: first, a large outbreak reported from many countries in 1987 associated with the Hajj that resulted in more stringent requirements for meningitis vaccination among pilgrims; and second, another large outbreak in Sub-Saharan Africa in 1996 that led to a new international mechanism to supply vaccines to countries reporting a meningitis outbreak. We used fixed-effects regression modeling to statistically estimate the effect of external forcing events on the number of countries reporting cases of meningitis to WHO. Findings We find that the Hajj vaccination requirements started in 1988 were associated with reduced reporting, especially among countries with relatively fewer cases reported between 1966 and 1979. After the vaccine provision mechanism was in place in 1996, reporting among countries that had previously not reported meningitis outbreaks increased. Interpretation These results indicate that countries may respond to changing incentives to report outbreaks when they can do so. In the long term, these incentives are likely to be more important than surveillance assistance in prompt reporting of outbreaks. PMID:24603414

Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Reif, Julian; Malani, Anup

2014-01-01

11

Fungal Diseases Outbreaks  

MedlinePLUS

... Sheet [PDF - 2 pages] Fungal meningitis after contaminated steroid injections Multistate outbreak of fungal meningitis and other fungal infections associated with contaminated steroid injections, October 2012 This investigation is ongoing. For ...

12

Disease Outbreak News  

MedlinePLUS

... for communicating with the public during an outbreak Communication for behavioural impact (COMBI) COMBI toolkit for behavioural ... WHO Western Pacific Region RSS Feeds WHO YouTube channel Follow WHO on Twitter WHO Facebook page WHO ...

13

Chronic viral diseases.  

PubMed Central

Until 20 years ago the only chronic viral diseases known were those considered to be confined to the nervous system. As a result of recent advances in epidemiology, molecular biology and immunology, new viral diseases have been recognized and their clinical features and pathogenesis elucidated. Chronic disease may result from infection with the hepatitis B and D viruses and whatever agent or agents cause hepatitis non-A, non-B, the herpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus and human T-lymphotropic virus type III. These diseases have common features, including long-term or even lifetime asymptomatic carriage, viremia, with virus free in the plasma or attached to circulating mononuclear cells, presence of virus in body secretions, irreversible tissue injury in target organs and oncogenic potential. New information on these diseases is reviewed. Other chronic diseases for which the cause is currently unknown may eventually prove to be due to viral infection. In addition, vaccines may be developed for prophylaxis of some chronic viral diseases and associated malignant diseases. PMID:3022903

Berris, B

1986-01-01

14

Nosocomial Outbreak of Multiple Bloodborne Viral Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

In resource-limited countries, nosocomial transmission of bloodborne pathogens is a major public health concern. After a major outbreak of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in- fection in ?400 children in 1998 in Libya, we tested HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) markers in 148 children and collected epidemiological data in a subgroup of 37 children and 46

Sabine Yerly; Rafael Quadri; Francesco Negro; Philippe Burgisser; Luc Perrin

2001-01-01

15

Souvenirs: Investigating a Disease Outbreak  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Starting with a case study based on the outbreak of a pulmonary disease in Southwest US, the interactions between human behavior, exposure, and confusing clinical symptoms are highlighted. As we search for the cause, these complications reflect real life difficulty in making diagnoses. The real questions extend beyond what disease has been contracted to cascading effects on the society we live in. * weigh the personal risks of exposure to a potentially fatal virus

Janet Yagoda Shagam (RhizoTech;Biology); Ethel D. Stanley (Beloit College;Biology); Janet M. Decker (University of Arizona;Biology)

0002-11-30

16

DISEASE OUTBREAKS CAUSED BY DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Thirty-two waterborne disease outbreaks were reported to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the Environmental Protection Agency in 1981. The outbreaks occurred in 17 states and involved 4430 cases. This was only 64% of the number of outbreaks that were reported in 1980 and...

17

Global rise in human infectious disease outbreaks.  

PubMed

To characterize the change in frequency of infectious disease outbreaks over time worldwide, we encoded and analysed a novel 33-year dataset (1980-2013) of 12,102 outbreaks of 215 human infectious diseases, comprising more than 44 million cases occuring in 219 nations. We merged these records with ecological characteristics of the causal pathogens to examine global temporal trends in the total number of outbreaks, disease richness (number of unique diseases), disease diversity (richness and outbreak evenness) and per capita cases. Bacteria, viruses, zoonotic diseases (originating in animals) and those caused by pathogens transmitted by vector hosts were responsible for the majority of outbreaks in our dataset. After controlling for disease surveillance, communications, geography and host availability, we find the total number and diversity of outbreaks, and richness of causal diseases increased significantly since 1980 (p < 0.0001). When we incorporate Internet usage into the model to control for biased reporting of outbreaks (starting 1990), the overall number of outbreaks and disease richness still increase significantly with time (p < 0.0001), but per capita cases decrease significantly ( p = 0.005). Temporal trends in outbreaks differ based on the causal pathogen's taxonomy, host requirements and transmission mode. We discuss our preliminary findings in the context of global disease emergence and surveillance. PMID:25401184

Smith, Katherine F; Goldberg, Michael; Rosenthal, Samantha; Carlson, Lynn; Chen, Jane; Chen, Cici; Ramachandran, Sohini

2014-12-01

18

Incentives for Reporting Infectious Disease Outbreaks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The global spread of diseases such as swine flu and SARS highlights the difficult decision governments face when presented with evidence of a local outbreak. Reporting the outbreak may bring medical assistance but is also likely to trigger trade sanctions by countries hoping to contain the disease. Suppressing the information may avoid trade…

Malani, Anup; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

2011-01-01

19

Maternal immunization against viral disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protective effect of maternal antibody against many viral diseases has been recognized. The use of maternal immunization has been considered as a means to augment this protection in the young infant against disease. Advantages of maternal immunization include the fact that young infants are most susceptible to infections but least responsive to vaccines, that pregnant women are accessible to

Janet Englund; W. Paul Glezen; Pedro A. Piedra

1998-01-01

20

Exotic viral diseases.  

PubMed Central

Marburg virus disease, Lassa fever, monkeypox, and Ebola virus diseases of humans have all been recognized since 1967. These are examples of some of the exotic virus diseases which through importation may present a potential public health problem in the United States. Some of these viruses are also highly hazardous to laboratory and medical personnel. This paper is a review of the general characteristics, the epidemiology, and laboratory diagnosis of the exotic viruses which have been described during the last 25 years. PMID:6246685

Dowdle, W. R.

1980-01-01

21

[Emerging viral diseases].  

PubMed

Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases have again entered the public arena in recent years. This is due to factors such as evolving lifestyles, ecological and socio-political upheavals, and recent diagnostic advances. Numerous pathogens, including viruses like West Nile, Chikungunya and Japanese encephalitis on the one hand, and hemorrhagic fever viruses like Ebola and Maburg, are particular concerns. Recently, the Corona virus responsible for SARS, which caused an epidemic sufficiently worrisome to challenge crisis management concepts, was successfully isolated. It is in this context that so-called "bird flu'", may be on the verge of causing a human pandemic. Pox and Monkeypox are "virtually emerging" viruses that have potential for use in bioterrorism. The management and treatment of these emerging infectious diseases calls for new approaches, organizations and infrastructures. PMID:17140098

Bricaire, François; Bossi, Philippe

2006-03-01

22

OutbreakTools: A new platform for disease outbreak analysis using the R software  

PubMed Central

The investigation of infectious disease outbreaks relies on the analysis of increasingly complex and diverse data, which offer new prospects for gaining insights into disease transmission processes and informing public health policies. However, the potential of such data can only be harnessed using a number of different, complementary approaches and tools, and a unified platform for the analysis of disease outbreaks is still lacking. In this paper, we present the new R package OutbreakTools, which aims to provide a basis for outbreak data management and analysis in R. OutbreakTools is developed by a community of epidemiologists, statisticians, modellers and bioinformaticians, and implements classes and methods for storing, handling and visualizing outbreak data. It includes real and simulated outbreak datasets. Together with a number of tools for infectious disease epidemiology recently made available in R, OutbreakTools contributes to the emergence of a new, free and open-source platform for the analysis of disease outbreaks. PMID:24928667

Jombart, Thibaut; Aanensen, David M.; Baguelin, Marc; Birrell, Paul; Cauchemez, Simon; Camacho, Anton; Colijn, Caroline; Collins, Caitlin; Cori, Anne; Didelot, Xavier; Fraser, Christophe; Frost, Simon; Hens, Niel; Hugues, Joseph; Höhle, Michael; Opatowski, Lulla; Rambaut, Andrew; Ratmann, Oliver; Soubeyrand, Samuel; Suchard, Marc A.; Wallinga, Jacco; Ypma, Rolf; Ferguson, Neil

2014-01-01

23

WATERBORNE DISEASES OUTBREAK SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (WBDOSS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Waterborne Diseases Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) is a collaborative effort of the National Center for Infectious Diseases (NCID) of CDC and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for collecting and periodically reporting data relating to occurrences and causes of...

24

Mosquito-Host Interactions during and after an Outbreak of Equine Viral Encephalitis in Eastern Panama  

PubMed Central

Mosquito blood meals provide information about the feeding habits and host preference of potential arthropod-borne disease vectors. Although mosquito-borne diseases are ubiquitous in the Neotropics, few studies in this region have assessed patterns of mosquito-host interactions, especially during actual disease outbreaks. Based on collections made during and after an outbreak of equine viral encephalitis, we identified the source of 338 blood meals from 10 species of mosquitoes from Aruza Abajo, a location in Darien province in eastern Panama. A PCR based method targeting three distinct mitochondrial targets and subsequent DNA sequencing was used in an effort to delineate vector-host relationships. At Aruza Abajo, large domesticated mammals dominated the assemblage of mosquito blood meals while wild bird and mammal species represented only a small portion of the blood meal pool. Most mosquito species fed on a variety of hosts; foraging index analysis indicates that eight of nine mosquito species utilize hosts at similar proportions while a stochastic model suggests dietary overlap among species was greater than would be expected by chance. The results from our null-model analysis of mosquito diet overlap are consistent with the hypothesis that in landscapes where large domestic animals dominate the local biomass, many mosquito species show little host specificity, and feed upon hosts in proportion to their biomass, which may have implications for the role of livestocking patterns in vector-borne disease ecology. PMID:24339965

Navia-Gine, Wayra G.; Loaiza, Jose R.; Miller, Matthew J.

2013-01-01

25

Mosquito-host interactions during and after an outbreak of equine viral encephalitis in Eastern Panama.  

PubMed

Mosquito blood meals provide information about the feeding habits and host preference of potential arthropod-borne disease vectors. Although mosquito-borne diseases are ubiquitous in the Neotropics, few studies in this region have assessed patterns of mosquito-host interactions, especially during actual disease outbreaks. Based on collections made during and after an outbreak of equine viral encephalitis, we identified the source of 338 blood meals from 10 species of mosquitoes from Aruza Abajo, a location in Darien province in eastern Panama. A PCR based method targeting three distinct mitochondrial targets and subsequent DNA sequencing was used in an effort to delineate vector-host relationships. At Aruza Abajo, large domesticated mammals dominated the assemblage of mosquito blood meals while wild bird and mammal species represented only a small portion of the blood meal pool. Most mosquito species fed on a variety of hosts; foraging index analysis indicates that eight of nine mosquito species utilize hosts at similar proportions while a stochastic model suggests dietary overlap among species was greater than would be expected by chance. The results from our null-model analysis of mosquito diet overlap are consistent with the hypothesis that in landscapes where large domestic animals dominate the local biomass, many mosquito species show little host specificity, and feed upon hosts in proportion to their biomass, which may have implications for the role of livestocking patterns in vector-borne disease ecology. PMID:24339965

Navia-Gine, Wayra G; Loaiza, Jose R; Miller, Matthew J

2013-01-01

26

Primate viral diseases in perspective.  

PubMed

The recent occurrence of fatal Herpesvirus simiae (B virus) infection in human subjects has again focused the attention of primatologists on this virus. B virus, however, is only one of a number of viral diseases that plays a role in primate colony management. This report is to emphasize to the primatologist a number of viruses other than H. simiae, with high morbidity and mortality rates, of importance for health management of nonhuman primate animal colonies. This concept is supported by the recent occurrence in colonies of nonhuman primates of simian hemorrhagic fever virus, SA8, herpesvirus, respiratory syncytial virus, encephalomyocarditis virus, Ebola virus, and simian immunodeficiency viruses. PMID:2174083

Kalter, S S; Heberling, R L

1990-01-01

27

A review of critical care nursing and disease outbreak preparedness.  

PubMed

The impact of disease outbreaks continues to increase globally. As frontline staff, critical care nurses (CCNs) are more likely to be confronted with the need to care for affected patients. With different pathological diseases emerging, CCNs play an integral role in disease outbreaks. The advanced skill set of CCNs is pivotal in the management and care of patients during an outbreak. Lack of planning and preparation before disease outbreaks leads to detrimental patient outcomes. Panic, chaos, and fear for personal safety cause stress and anxiety for unprepared nurses. However, this problem can be resolved. Comprehensive planning, training, and education can better prepare intensive care unit nurses for disease outbreaks. This article reviews some of the current literature on intensive care unit nurse preparedness for disease outbreaks in the United States. This article also offers strategies that may be used to better prepare CCNs for disease outbreaks. PMID:23759903

Makamure, Miranda; Makamure, Muriel; Mendiola, Williane; Renteria, Daisy; Repp, Melissa; Willden, Azshwee

2013-01-01

28

The 1995 Kikwit Ebola outbreak--model of virus properties on system capacity and function: a lesson for future viral epidemics.  

PubMed

The 1995 Kikwit Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo is one of the first Ebola outbreaks to be treated in a hospital setting and is one of the most well-studied Ebola epidemics to have occurred to date. Many of the lessons learned from identifying, containing, and treating the epidemic are applicable to future viral outbreaks. This article looks at the characteristics of the Ebola virus and health system issues, which affected the healthcare providers' ability to contain and treat the virus. It specifically examines factors such as the disease characteristics, surge capacity, supply issues, press involvement, and the involvement of voluntary organizations. PMID:18491842

Hall, Ryan C W; Hall, Richard C W

2007-01-01

29

Investigation of an outbreak of mucosal disease in a beef cattle herd in southwestern Saskatchewan.  

PubMed

This study describes the epidemiological investigation of an outbreak of mucosal disease that occurred on a ranch in southwestern Saskatchewan. Over a six month period during the fall and winter of 1991-1992,in a herd of 515 beef cattle and 96 bison, 20 yearling cattle from a group of 105 housed in one feedlot pen died from mucosal disease. A further eight yearlings were slaughtered for salvage because they were at risk of dying from mucosal disease. Mucosal disease mortalities were the first observed evidence of fetal infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus in this herd. Animals that died from mucosal disease exhibited signs of ill thrift prior to death. Deaths from mucosal disease were confined to the progeny of one herd of beef cows. Following an outbreak of fetal infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus during 1989-1990, at least 28 (22%) of the 128 calves born from this herd of cows in the spring of 1990 were persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus. However, only one calf born from this herd in 1991, and five calves born from all herds in 1992 were persistently infected. Of the five persistently infected calves born in 1992, three were born to persistently infected replacement heifers born in 1990. These heifers calved without assistance in 1992, but only one of their calves survived past three days of age, and it was persistently infected. In January 1992, 82% of the total herd had reciprocal antibody titers to bovine viral diarrhea virus of >/=1024 which suggested a high level of herd immunity to bovine viral diarrhea virus. Thus, following the outbreak of fetal infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus in 1989-1990, herd immunity to bovine viral diarrhea virus had developed rapidly in the breeding cows and heifers. Subsequently, in the next two years, there was a dramatic decline in the number of calves born persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus. PMID:8076288

Taylor, L F; Van Donkersgoed, J; Radostits, O M; Booker, C W; Dubovi, E J; van den Hurk, J V; Janzen, E D

1994-07-01

30

[Emerging viral diseases in Europe].  

PubMed

Emergence of viral agents in Europe is influenced by various factors. Climatic changes influencing possible vectors, insufficient vaccination, and travel of man and goods are among the most important reasons to explain these changes. Fever and arthralgia are the leading symptoms in infection with Dengue, Sindbis, or Chikungunya virus. In contrast, tick-born encephalitis (TBE), Toscana, or West Nile virus infections mainly lead to meningo-encephalitis. In Europe, hemorrhagic fever is caused by Crimean Congo and Hanta virus. Protective vaccines are available for emerging viral agents like TBE, influenza and measles. PMID:22511281

Löbermann, M; Gürtler, L G; Eichler-Löbermann, B; Reisinger, E C

2012-04-01

31

Genomics-enabled sensor platform for rapid detection of viruses related to disease outbreak.  

SciTech Connect

Bioweapons and emerging infectious diseases pose growing threats to our national security. Both natural disease outbreak and outbreaks due to a bioterrorist attack are a challenge to detect, taking days after the outbreak to identify since most outbreaks are only recognized through reportable diseases by health departments and reports of unusual diseases by clinicians. In recent decades, arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) have emerged as some of the most significant threats to human health. They emerge, often unexpectedly, from cryptic transmission foci causing localized outbreaks that can rapidly spread to multiple continents due to increased human travel and trade. Currently, diagnosis of acute infections requires amplification of viral nucleic acids, which can be costly, highly specific, technically challenging and time consuming. No diagnostic devices suitable for use at the bedside or in an outbreak setting currently exist. The original goals of this project were to 1) develop two highly sensitive and specific diagnostic assays for detecting RNA from a wide range of arboviruses; one based on an electrochemical approach and the other a fluorescent based assay and 2) develop prototype microfluidic diagnostic platforms for preclinical and field testing that utilize the assays developed in goal 1. We generated and characterized suitable primers for West Nile Virus RNA detection. Both optical and electrochemical transduction technologies were developed for DNA-RNA hybridization detection and were implemented in microfluidic diagnostic sensing platforms that were developed in this project.

Brozik, Susan Marie; Manginell, Ronald Paul; Moorman, Matthew Wallace; Xiao, Xiaoyin; Edwards, Thayne L.; Anderson, John Moses; Pfeifer, Kent Bryant; Branch, Darren W.; Wheeler, David Roger; Polsky, Ronen; Lopez, DeAnna M.; Ebel, Gregory D. [Colorado State University; Prasad, Abhishek N. [Colorado State University; Brozik, James A. [Washington State University; Rudolph, Angela R. [Washington State University; Wong, Lillian P. [Washington State University

2013-09-01

32

[Ebola and Marburg fever--outbreaks of viral haemorrhagic fever].  

PubMed

With an increasing frequency of traveling and tourism to exotic countries, a new threat-import of rare, very dangerous infections-emerges in humane medicine. Ebola fever and Marburg fever, whose agents come from the same group of Filoviridae family, belong among these diseases. The natural reservoir of these viruses has not yet been precisely determined. The pathogenesis of the diseases is not absolutely clear, there is neither a possibility of vaccination, nor an effective treatment. Fever and haemorrhagic diathesis belong to the basic symptoms of the diseases. Most of the infected persons die, the death rate is 70-88 %. The history of Ebola fever is relatively short-30 years, Marburg fever is known almost 40 years. Hundreds of people have died of these diseases so far. The study involves epidemics recorded in the world and their epidemiological relations. Not a single case has been recorded in the Czech Republic, nevertheless a sick traveler or infected animals are the highest risk of import these diseases. In our conditions, the medical staff belong to a highly endangered group of people because of stringent isolation of patients, strict rules of barrier treatment regime and high infectivity of the diseases. For this reason, the public should be prepared for possible contact with these highly virulent infections. PMID:17230375

Chlíbek, R; Smetana, J; Vacková, M

2006-12-01

33

OUTBREAKS OF WATERBORNE DISEASE IN THE UNITED STATES, 1978  

EPA Science Inventory

Surveillance of outbreaks of waterborne disease is jointly conducted by the Center for Disease Control (CDC), Atlanta, Ga., and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Cincinnati, Ohio. Waterborne outbreaks are reported to the CDC and EPA by state and local health departments ...

34

How outbreaks of infectious disease are detected: a review of surveillance systems and outbreaks.  

PubMed Central

To learn how outbreaks of infectious disease are detected and to describe the entities and information systems that together function to identify outbreaks in the U.S., the authors drew on multiple sources of information to create a description of existing surveillance systems and how they interact to detect outbreaks. The results of this analysis were summarized in a system diagram. The authors reviewed a sample of recent outbreaks to determine how they were detected, with reference to the system diagram. The de facto U.S. system for detection of outbreaks consists of five components: the clinical health care system, local/state health agencies, federal agencies, academic/professional organizations, and collaborating governmental organizations. Primary data collection occurs at the level of clinical health care systems and local health agencies. The review of a convenience sample of outbreaks showed that all five components of the system participated in aggregating, analyzing, and sharing data. The authors conclude that the current U.S. approach to detection of disease outbreaks is complex and involves many organizations interacting in a loosely coupled manner. State and local health departments and the health care system are major components in the detection of outbreaks. PMID:15313109

Dato, Virginia; Wagner, Michael M.; Fapohunda, Abi

2004-01-01

35

Emerging viral diseases in dromedary camels in the Southern Morocco.  

PubMed

During the last fifteen years, new viral diseases such Bluetongue (BT), West Nile (WN), African horse sickness (AHS), Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) and Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) have extended their geographic distribution and emerged in North Africa and in Europe. Camel (Camelus dromedarius) is considered as a potential vector in the transmission of some of these diseases while it is host-specific for Camelpox (CP). A serological survey was conducted on 1392 sera to estimate changes of these diseases prevalence in camels over two different time spans (2003 and 2009) and across different sites of South Morocco. Results indicate clearly that BT was circulating in camels before the first notified outbreak in Morocco (2004) with 42% positive sera in Guelmim in 2003. BT and WN prevalence's increased over time from 11 to 25% and from 10 to 13% respectively. Higher prevalence of both diseases was found in camels living in oases indicating an increased intensity of viral circulation in these sites. Camels have been tested negative for AHS, EHD and PPR viruses while higher CP prevalence has been detected in camels living in Smara, the most closed site to eastern borders (i.e. Mauritania). The seroprevalence of CP in camels at interval of 7 years increases from 23% to 37%. This survey could provide information on the possible use of camel as a sentinel animal for surveillance of emerging diseases such BT and WN. PMID:22222004

Touil, N; Cherkaoui, Z; Lmrabih, Z; Loutfi, C; Harif, B; El Harrak, M

2012-04-01

36

Outbreak detection algorithms for seasonal disease data: a case study using ross river virus disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Detection of outbreaks is an important part of disease surveillance. Although many algorithms have been designed for detecting outbreaks, few have been specifically assessed against diseases that have distinct seasonal incidence patterns, such as those caused by vector-borne pathogens. METHODS: We applied five previously reported outbreak detection algorithms to Ross River virus (RRV) disease data (1991-2007) for the four

Anita M Pelecanos; Peter A Ryan; Michelle L Gatton

2010-01-01

37

Lessons from the West Nile viral encephalitis outbreak in New York City, 1999: implications for bioterrorism preparedness.  

PubMed

The involvement and expertise of infectious disease physicians, microbiologists, and public health practitioners are essential to the early detection and management of epidemics--both those that are naturally occurring, such as the 1999 outbreak of West Nile virus (WN virus) in New York City, and those that might follow covert acts of bioterrorism. The experience with the WN virus outbreak offers practical lessons in outbreak detection, laboratory diagnosis, investigation, and response that might usefully influence planning for future infectious disease outbreaks. Many of the strategies used to detect and respond to the WN virus outbreak resemble those that would be required to confront other serious infectious disease threats, such as pandemic influenza or bioterrorism. We provide an overview of the critical elements needed to manage a large-scale, fast-moving infectious disease outbreak, and we suggest ways that the existing public health capacity might be strengthened to ensure an effective response to both natural and intentional disease outbreaks. PMID:11170918

Fine, A; Layton, M

2001-01-15

38

Climate variability and outbreaks of infectious diseases in Europe  

PubMed Central

Several studies provide evidence of a link between vector-borne disease outbreaks and El Niño driven climate anomalies. Less investigated are the effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Here, we test its impact on outbreak occurrences of 13 infectious diseases over Europe during the last fifty years, controlling for potential bias due to increased surveillance and detection. NAO variation statistically influenced the outbreak occurrence of eleven of the infectious diseases. Seven diseases were associated with winter NAO positive phases in northern Europe, and therefore with above-average temperatures and precipitation. Two diseases were associated with the summer or spring NAO negative phases in northern Europe, and therefore with below-average temperatures and precipitation. Two diseases were associated with summer positive or negative NAO phases in southern Mediterranean countries. These findings suggest that there is potential for developing early warning systems, based on climatic variation information, for improved outbreak control and management. PMID:23639950

Morand, Serge; Owers, Katharine A.; Waret-Szkuta, Agnes; McIntyre, K. Marie; Baylis, Matthew

2013-01-01

39

Climate variability and outbreaks of infectious diseases in Europe.  

PubMed

Several studies provide evidence of a link between vector-borne disease outbreaks and El Niño driven climate anomalies. Less investigated are the effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Here, we test its impact on outbreak occurrences of 13 infectious diseases over Europe during the last fifty years, controlling for potential bias due to increased surveillance and detection. NAO variation statistically influenced the outbreak occurrence of eleven of the infectious diseases. Seven diseases were associated with winter NAO positive phases in northern Europe, and therefore with above-average temperatures and precipitation. Two diseases were associated with the summer or spring NAO negative phases in northern Europe, and therefore with below-average temperatures and precipitation. Two diseases were associated with summer positive or negative NAO phases in southern Mediterranean countries. These findings suggest that there is potential for developing early warning systems, based on climatic variation information, for improved outbreak control and management. PMID:23639950

Morand, Serge; Owers, Katharine A; Waret-Szkuta, Agnes; McIntyre, K Marie; Baylis, Matthew

2013-01-01

40

WATERBORNE DISEASE IN COLORADO: THREE YEAR SURVEILLANCE AND 18 OUTBREAKS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Colorado Department of Health conducted intensive surveillance for waterborne diseases during the three-year period July 1, 1980-June 30, 1983. Eighteen outbreaks of waterborne illness were investigated. Outbreaks involved from 15 to 1,500 ill persons. Giardia lamblia was con...

41

Teachers' Risk Perception and Needs in Addressing Infectious Disease Outbreak  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The outbreak of the Influenza A (H1N1) virus has led to numerous precautionary school closures in several countries. No research is available on the school teachers' perceptions as a health protective resource in controlling communicable disease outbreaks. The purposes of this study were to examine the risk perception, the perceived understanding…

Wong, Emmy M. Y.; Cheng, May M. H.; Lo, S.K.

2010-01-01

42

Infectious Disease Outbreaks in Competitive Sports, 2005-2010  

PubMed Central

Context Old, evolving, and new infectious agents continually threaten the participation of competitors in sports. Objective To provide an update of the medical literature on infectious disease outbreaks in sport for the last 5 years (May 2005–November 2010). Main Outcome Measure(s) A total of 21 outbreaks or clusters were identified. Results Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (n = 7, 33%; mainly community acquired) and tinea (trichophytosis: n = 6, 29%) were the most common pathogens responsible for outbreaks. Skin and soft tissue was the most common site of infection (n = 15, 71%). Conclusions The majority of outbreaks reported occurred in close-contact sports, mainly combat sports (ie, wrestling, judo) and American football. Twelve outbreaks (57%) involved high school or collegiate competitors. Common community outbreak pathogens, such as influenza virus and norovirus, have received little attention. PMID:23068588

Collins, Cathal James; O'Connell, Brian; BCh, SI MB

2012-01-01

43

WATERBORNE DISEASE OUTBREAKS, 1986-1988  

EPA Science Inventory

From 1986 to 1988, 24 states and Puerto Rico reported 50 outbreaks of illness due to water that people intended to drink, affecting 25,846 persons. he protozoal parasite Giardia lamblia was the agent most commonly implicated in outbreaks, as it has been for the last 10 years; man...

44

Investigating an outbreak of acute viral hepatitis caused by hepatitis E virus variants in Karachi, South Pakistan.  

PubMed

Hepatitis E is a classic water-borne disease in developing countries. Detection of anti-HEV IgM and IgG antibodies, in addition to HEV RNA are useful epidemiological markers in diagnosis of hepatitis E. This study was conducted to investigate an outbreak of acute viral hepatitis in South-Pakistan. Anti-HEV IgM and IgG were assessed comparatively with serological kits manufactured by Abbott, Cosmic, TGH, and Wantai, selecting HEV RNA as reference assay. Molecular evolutionary analysis was performed by phylogeny and HEV spread time analysis by Bayesian Coalescent Theory approach. Of the 89 patients, 24 (26.9%) did not have acute hepatitis viral marker. Of the remaining 65 cases, 4 (6.1%) were positive for anti-HAV IgM, one (1.5%) for anti-HBc IgM, 2 (3%) for HCV, 53 (81.5%) for anti-HEV IgM, and 5 (7.7%) were hepatitis-negative. The Wantai test was 100% sensitive and specific followed by Cosmic (98.1% and 100%), TGH (98.1% and 97.2%) and Abbott (79.2% and 83.3%). Two HEV variant strains were detected by phylogeny responsible for this acute hepatitis outbreak. Estimates on demographic history of HEV showed that HEV in Pakistan has remained at a steady nonexpanding phase from around 1970 to the year 2005, in which it expanded explosively with the emergence of new HEV variants. In conclusion, the limited sensitivity of available assay (Abbott anti-HEV EIA) may be a concern in HEV diagnosis in Pakistan. This study cautions that the dissemination of the variant strains to other areas of Pakistan may lead to explosive HEV outbreaks. PMID:21328376

Khan, Anis; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Kurbanov, Fuat; Elkady, Abeer; Abbas, Zaigham; Azam, Zahid; Subhan, Amna; Raza, Sajjad; Razza, Sajjad; Hamid, Saeed; Jafri, Wasim; Shih, James; Xia, Ningshao; Takahashi, Kazuaki; Mishiro, Shunji; Mizokami, Masashi

2011-04-01

45

Outbreake of Marburg virus disease in Johannesburg.  

PubMed Central

The first recognised outbreak of Marburg virus disease in Africa, and the first since the original epidemic in West Germany and Yugoslavia in 1967, occurred in South Africa in February 1975. The primary case was in a young Australian man , who was admitted to the Johannesburg Hospital after having toured Rhodesia. Two secondary cases occurred, one being in the first patient's travelling companion, and the other in a nurse. Features of the illness included high fever, myalgia, vomiting and diarrhoea, hepatitis, a characteristic maculopapular rash, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, and a bleeding tendency. The first patient died on the seventh day from haemorrhage resulting from a combination of disseminated intravascular coagulation and hepatic failure. The other two patients were given vigorous supportive treatment and prophylactic heparin and recovered after an acute phase lasting about seven days. During this period on developed pancreatitis, the serum amylase remaining raised until the 32nd day after the onset of the illness. The other developed unilateral uveitis after having been asymptomatic for two months. This persisted for several weeks and Marburg virus was cultured from the anterior chamber of the eye. PMID:811315

Gear, J S; Cassel, G A; Gear, A J; Trappler, B; Clausen, L; Meyers, A M; Kew, M C; Bothwell, T H; Sher, R; Miller, G B; Schneider, J; Koornhof, H J; Gomperts, E D; Isaacson, M; Gear, J H

1975-01-01

46

Modeling Estimated Personnel Needs for a Potential Foot and Mouth Disease Outbreak  

SciTech Connect

Foot and Mouth disease (FMD) is a highly infectious and contagious viral disease affecting cloven-hoofed livestock that was last detected in the United States (US) in 1929. The prevalence of FMD in other countries, as well as the current potential for this virus to be used as a form of agroterrorism, has made preparations for a potential FMD outbreak a national priority. To assist in the evaluation of national preparedness, all 50 states were surveyed via e-mail, telephone and web search to obtain emergency response plans for FMD or for foreign animal diseases in general. Information from 33 states was obtained and analyzed for estimates of personnel resources needed to respond to an outbreak. These estimates were consolidated and enhanced to create a tool that could be used by individual states to better understand the personnel that would be needed to complete various tasks over time during an outbreak response. The estimates were then coupled, post-processing, to the output from FMD outbreaks simulated in California using the Multiscale Epidemiological/Economic Simulation and Analysis (MESA) model at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to estimate the personnel resource demands, by task, over the course of an outbreak response.

Simmons, K; Hullinger, P

2008-01-29

47

Nurses are in the forefront of Ebola virus disease outbreak.  

PubMed

The outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa is a global threat. It is of particular concern that many front line medical personnel are being infected, with nurses who have close contact with patients at particular risk. PMID:25294483

Wiwanitkit, Viroj

2014-10-01

48

The effect of opinion clustering on disease outbreaks  

E-print Network

a constant threat to the public health worldwide. Measles, a highly contagious disease caused by a virus: infectious diseases; herd immunity; clustering 1. INTRODUCTION Infectious diseases such as measles pose and thus constitute a subpopulation in which the disease can spread and cause local outbreaks

Bonhoeffer, Sebastian

49

Waterborne disease in Colorado: three years' surveillance and 18 outbreaks.  

PubMed Central

The Colorado Department of Health conducted intensive surveillance for waterborne diseases during the three-year period July 1, 1980-June 30, 1983. Eighteen outbreaks of waterborne illness were investigated. Outbreaks involved from 15 to 1,500 ill persons. Giardia lamblia was confirmed or suspected as the agent in nine outbreaks, rotavirus in one, and no agent could be identified in eight. Seventeen outbreaks occurred on surface-water systems; none of these had adequate chemical pretreatment and filtration. Investigation of water systems exhibiting positive coliform results during the first year detected no outbreaks. Activities important to effective surveillance included educational outreach programs to local health agencies, physicians and the public, and the designation of one individual to whom all water-related public complaints and health department inquiries were directed. PMID:3976949

Hopkins, R S; Shillam, P; Gaspard, B; Eisnach, L; Karlin, R J

1985-01-01

50

What's unusual in online disease outbreak news?  

PubMed Central

Background Accurate and timely detection of public health events of international concern is necessary to help support risk assessment and response and save lives. Novel event-based methods that use the World Wide Web as a signal source offer potential to extend health surveillance into areas where traditional indicator networks are lacking. In this paper we address the issue of systematically evaluating online health news to support automatic alerting using daily disease-country counts text mined from real world data using BioCaster. For 18 data sets produced by BioCaster, we compare 5 aberration detection algorithms (EARS C2, C3, W2, F-statistic and EWMA) for performance against expert moderated ProMED-mail postings. Results We report sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), mean alerts/100 days and F1, at 95% confidence interval (CI) for 287 ProMED-mail postings on 18 outbreaks across 14 countries over a 366 day period. Results indicate that W2 had the best F1 with a slight benefit for day of week effect over C2. In drill down analysis we indicate issues arising from the granular choice of country-level modeling, sudden drops in reporting due to day of week effects and reporting bias. Automatic alerting has been implemented in BioCaster available from http://born.nii.ac.jp. Conclusions Online health news alerts have the potential to enhance manual analytical methods by increasing throughput, timeliness and detection rates. Systematic evaluation of health news aberrations is necessary to push forward our understanding of the complex relationship between news report volumes and case numbers and to select the best performing features and algorithms. PMID:20618980

2010-01-01

51

Anxiety and Depression: Linkages with Viral Diseases  

PubMed Central

Anxiety and mood disorders are common in the general population in countries around the world. This article provides a review of the recent literature on anxiety and depressive disorders with a focus on linkages with several important viral diseases. Although the majority of studies have been conducted in developed countries such as the United States and Great Britain, some studies have been carried out in less developed nations where only a small percentage of persons with mental illness receive treatment for their condition. The studies summarized in this review indicate that there are important linkages between anxiety and depression and viral diseases such as influenza A (H1N1) and other influenza viruses, varicella-zoster virus, herpes simplex virus, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and hepatitis C. Additional studies are needed to further clarify the mechanisms for interactions between mental health and communicable diseases, in order to assist patients and further prevention and control efforts.

Coughlin, Steven S.

2012-01-01

52

Detecting Disease Outbreaks Using Local Spatiotemporal Methods  

PubMed Central

Summary A real-time surveillance method is developed with emphasis on rapid and accurate detection of emerging outbreaks. We develop a model with relatively weak assumptions regarding the latent processes generating the observed data, ensuring a robust prediction of the spatiotemporal incidence surface. Estimation occurs via a local linear fitting combined with day-of-week effects, where spatial smoothing is handled by a novel distance metric that adjusts for population density. Detection of emerging outbreaks is carried out via residual analysis. Both daily residuals and AR model-based de-trended residuals are used for detecting abnormalities in the data given that either a large daily residual or an increasing temporal trend in the residuals signals a potential outbreak, with the threshold for statistical significance determined using a resampling approach. PMID:21418049

Zhao, Yingqi; Zeng, Donglin; Herring, Amy H.; Ising, Amy; Waller, Anna; Richardson, David; Kosorok, Michael R.

2013-01-01

53

APPROACHES TO ESTIMATING THE WATERBORNE DISEASE OUTBREAK BURDEN IN THE U.S.: USES AND LIMITATIONS OF THE WATERBORNE DISEASE OUTBREAK SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Approaches to Estimating the Waterborne Disease Outbreak Burden in the United States: Uses and Limitations of the Waterborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System (External Review Draft) document presents approaches for estimating the epidemiologic and economic burden o...

54

Factors Contributing to Decline in Foodborne Disease Outbreak Reports, United States  

PubMed Central

The number of foodborne disease outbreaks reported in the United States declined substantially in 2009, when the surveillance system transitioned from reporting only foodborne disease outbreaks to reporting all enteric disease outbreaks. A 2013 survey found that some outbreaks that would have been previously reported as foodborne are now reported as having other transmission modes. PMID:25147912

Imanishi, Maho; Murthy, Bhavini P.; Gould, L. Hannah

2014-01-01

55

Viral diseases in Ethiopia: a review.  

PubMed

Ethiopia is endemic for many viral diseases. Serosurveys have demonstrated the high prevalence rate of hepatitis B virus. There are also indications of high transmission for hepatitis C, hepatitis E and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The population is exposed to poliomyelitis, hepatitis A, measles, rubella and mumps early in life. Rotaviral diarrhoea is an important cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Vast areas of the country are endemic for yellow fever and rabies. The extent of many other viral diseases in the country is unknown. There is a need for a well organised national laboratory to assess the impact of vaccination efforts and to support control as well as surveillance measures within the country. PMID:8187657

Aseffa, A

1993-10-01

56

Contributing factors to disease outbreaks associated with untreated groundwater.  

PubMed

Disease outbreaks associated with drinking water drawn from untreated groundwater sources represent a substantial proportion (30.3%) of the 818 drinking water outbreaks reported to CDC's Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) during 1971 to 2008. The objectives of this study were to identify underlying contributing factors, suggest improvements for data collection during outbreaks, and inform outbreak prevention efforts. Two researchers independently reviewed all qualifying outbreak reports (1971 to 2008), assigned contributing factors and abstracted additional information (e.g., cases, etiology, and water system attributes). The 248 outbreaks resulted in at least 23,478 cases of illness, 390 hospitalizations, and 13 deaths. The majority of outbreaks had an unidentified etiology (n?=?135, 54.4%). When identified, the primary etiologies were hepatitis A virus (n?=?21, 8.5%), Shigella spp. (n?=?20, 8.1%), and Giardia intestinalis (n?=?14, 5.7%). Among the 172 (69.4%) outbreaks with contributing factor data available, the leading contamination sources included human sewage (n?=?57, 33.1%), animal contamination (n?=?16, 9.3%), and contamination entering via the distribution system (n?=?12, 7.0%). Groundwater contamination was most often facilitated by improper design, maintenance or location of the water source or nearby waste water disposal system (i.e., septic tank; n?=?116, 67.4%). Other contributing factors included rapid pathogen transport through hydrogeologic formations (e.g., karst limestone; n?=?45, 26.2%) and preceding heavy rainfall or flooding (n?=?36, 20.9%). This analysis underscores the importance of identifying untreated groundwater system vulnerabilities through frequent inspection and routine maintenance, as recommended by protective regulations such as Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Groundwater Rule, and the need for special consideration of the local hydrogeology. PMID:24116713

Wallender, Erika K; Ailes, Elizabeth C; Yoder, Jonathan S; Roberts, Virginia A; Brunkard, Joan M

2014-11-01

57

Inter- and Intra-Host Viral Diversity in a Large Seasonal DENV2 Outbreak  

PubMed Central

Background High genetic diversity at both inter- and intra-host level are hallmarks of RNA viruses due to the error-prone nature of their genome replication. Several groups have evaluated the extent of viral variability using different RNA virus deep sequencing methods. Although much of this effort has been dedicated to pathogens that cause chronic infections in humans, few studies investigated arthropod-borne, acute viral infections. Methods and Principal Findings We deep sequenced the complete genome of ten DENV2 isolates from representative classical and severe cases sampled in a large outbreak in Brazil using two different approaches. Analysis of the consensus genomes confirmed the larger extent of the 2010 epidemic in comparison to a previous epidemic caused by the same viruses in another city two years before (genetic distance?=?0.002 and 0.0008 respectively). Analysis of viral populations within the host revealed a high level of conservation. After excluding homopolymer regions of 454/Roche generated sequences, we found 10 to 44 variable sites per genome population at a frequency of >1%, resulting in very low intra-host genetic diversity. While up to 60% of all variable sites at intra-host level were non-synonymous changes, only 10% of inter-host variability resulted from non-synonymous mutations, indicative of purifying selection at the population level. Conclusions and Significance Despite the error-prone nature of RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase, dengue viruses maintain low levels of intra-host variability. PMID:23936406

Romano, Camila Malta; Lauck, Michael; Salvador, Felipe S.; Lima, Celia Rodrigues; Villas-Boas, Lucy S.; Araujo, Evaldo Stanislau A.; Levi, Jose Eduardo; Pannuti, Claudio Sergio; O'Connor, David; Kallas, Esper Georges

2013-01-01

58

A Bayesian spatio-temporal method for disease outbreak detection  

PubMed Central

A system that monitors a region for a disease outbreak is called a disease outbreak surveillance system. A spatial surveillance system searches for patterns of disease outbreak in spatial subregions of the monitored region. A temporal surveillance system looks for emerging patterns of outbreak disease by analyzing how patterns have changed during recent periods of time. If a non-spatial, non-temporal system could be converted to a spatio-temporal one, the performance of the system might be improved in terms of early detection, accuracy, and reliability. A Bayesian network framework is proposed for a class of space-time surveillance systems called BNST. The framework is applied to a non-spatial, non-temporal disease outbreak detection system called PC in order to create the spatio-temporal system called PCTS. Differences in the detection performance of PC and PCTS are examined. The results show that the spatio-temporal Bayesian approach performs well, relative to the non-spatial, non-temporal approach. PMID:20595315

Cooper, Gregory F

2010-01-01

59

Surveillance and reporting of disease outbreaks: private incentives and WHO policy levers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of the obvious global public goods nature of warnings about infectious disease outbreaks, international legal requirements for re- porting outbreaks remain weak and disclosure of outbreaks depends on the self-interest of nations. Using a simple game-theoretic model, we explore the incentives of countries to invest in disease surveillance and to report outbreaks to international health authorities. We eval-

Ramanan Laxminarayan; Anup Malani

60

Detection and isolation of infectious laryngotracheitis virus on a broiler farm after a disease outbreak.  

PubMed

A broiler farm in North Alabama suffered a mild infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) outbreak, as determined by clinical disease and PCR. The poultry integrator sought help to control further outbreaks in subsequent flocks. Samples were collected from various areas of the poultry houses on the farm over an 8-wk period. The first sampling was conducted 8 days after the infected farm was depopulated; the second was conducted 2 days prior to subsequent flock placement; and the third was conducted when the new flock was 5 wk of age. Samples were examined for ILT virus (ILTV) DNA by real-time PCR and virus isolation in embryos. The infected houses were cleaned, disinfected, heated, litter composted, and curtains replaced after the first sampling and prior to placement of the next flock. Samples from all periods were positive for ILTV DNA. However, the number of positive samples and crossing point values indicated a decrease in the amount of viral DNA, while virus isolation in embryos was successful only on the first sampling. The subsequent flock was vaccinated against ILTV by in ovo route using a commercial recombinant vaccine. Cleaning and sanitation after the disease outbreak reduced the amount of ILTV on the farm and together with in ovo vaccination of the new flock may have prevented a recurrence of another ILT outbreak. PMID:24597126

Dormitorio, Teresa V; Giambrone, Joseph J; Macklin, Kenneth S

2013-12-01

61

Complex social contagion makes networks more vulnerable to disease outbreaks  

PubMed Central

Social network analysis is now widely used to investigate the dynamics of infectious disease spread. Vaccination dramatically disrupts disease transmission on a contact network, and indeed, high vaccination rates can potentially halt disease transmission altogether. Here, we build on mounting evidence that health behaviors - such as vaccination, and refusal thereof - can spread across social networks through a process of complex contagion that requires social reinforcement. Using network simulations that model health behavior and infectious disease spread, we find that under otherwise identical conditions, the process by which the health behavior spreads has a very strong effect on disease outbreak dynamics. This dynamic variability results from differences in the topology within susceptible communities that arise during the health behavior spreading process, which in turn depends on the topology of the overall social network. Our findings point to the importance of health behavior spread in predicting and controlling disease outbreaks. PMID:23712758

Campbell, Ellsworth; Salathe, Marcel

2013-01-01

62

Outbreak of viral gastroenteritis due to sewage-contaminated drinking water.  

PubMed

In August 1998, a large outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred in a Swiss village of 3500 inhabitants whereof more than 50% were affected. A high contamination of drinking water with faecal coliforms revealed a defect in the waste water system. The objective of the present study was to investigate the outbreak in respect of the presence of human pathogenic viruses. Drinking water and clinical samples from patients were examined for the presence of 'Norwalk-like viruses' (NLVs) and enteroviruses. NLVs and enteroviruses were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in one of two drinking water samples. Five of seven stool samples from ill persons were positive for NLVs. Typing of NLV-specific RT-PCR products by DNA sequencing revealed the presence of an identical genogroup-1 strain closely related to Southampton virus in both the water and one of the stool samples. A genogroup-2 NLV strain was identified in all positive stool samples. The enteroviral amplicon showed high sequence similarity with swine vesicular disease virus. These results demonstrate that the drinking water was highly contaminated with enteric viruses and that at least two NLV strains were involved in this outbreak of gastroenteritis. PMID:10746582

Häfliger, D; Hübner, P; Lüthy, J

2000-03-10

63

Bayesian Biosurveillance of Disease Outbreaks Gregory F. Cooper  

E-print Network

Bayesian networks to model spatio-temporal patterns of a non-contagious disease (respiratory anthrax) or bioterrorist- induced (e.g., anthrax and smallpox), is a critically important problem today. We need to detect outbreaks as early as possible in order to provide the best response and treatment, as well as improve

Wong, Weng-Keen

64

Factors that make an infectious disease outbreak controllable  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to identify general properties of emerging infectious agents that determine the likely success of two simple public health measures in controlling outbreaks, namely (i) isolating symptomatic individuals and (ii) tracing and quarantining their con- tacts. Because these measures depend on the recognition of specific disease symptoms, we investigate the relative timing of infectious- ness

Christophe Fraser; Steven Riley; Roy M. Anderson; Neil M. Ferguson

2004-01-01

65

SURVEILLANCE AND INVESTIGATION OF WATERBORNE DISEASE OUTBREAKS - VOLUME I: HANDBOOK  

EPA Science Inventory

This work consists of two volumes. olume I is a series of articles based on selected presentations made at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Association of State Drinking Water Administrators Workshop on Methods for Investigation of Water-borne Disease Outbreaks ...

66

Information Extraction for Enhanced Access to Disease Outbreak Reports  

E-print Network

of reports of infectious disease outbreaks. The system, Proteus-BIO, automatically creates a table to use database operations such as selection and sorting to find relevant documents. Proteus-BIO consists with Proteus-BIO. #12;- 2 - I. Introduction Keyword-based document search, which is at the heart of almost all

67

Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy outbreak in freshwater fish farmed in Italy.  

PubMed

Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), otherwise known as viral nervous necrosis (VNN), is a neuropathological condition affecting > 40 species of fish. Although VER affects mainly marine fish, the disease has also been detected in certain species reared in freshwater environments. There are relatively few reports concerning the disease in freshwater species, and there is not much information on clinical signs. Nevertheless, the most common clinical findings reported from affected freshwater species are consistent with the typical signs observed in marine species. In this paper we describe the main clinical signs and the laboratory results associated with the detection of a betanodavirus in hybrid striped bass x white bass (Morone saxatilis x Morone chrysops) and largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, reared in a freshwater environment. We also detected the virus by real-time PCR and isolated it in cell culture from a batch of pike-perch Sander lucioperca farmed in the same system. PMID:21991664

Bovo, G; Gustinelli, A; Quaglio, F; Gobbo, F; Panzarin, V; Fusaro, A; Mutinelli, F; Caffara, M; Fioravanti, M L

2011-08-29

68

Emergence of viral diseases: mathematical modeling as a tool for infection control, policy and decision making.  

PubMed

Mathematical modeling can be used for the development and implementation of infection control policy to combat outbreaks and epidemics of communicable viral diseases. Here an outline is provided of basic concepts and approaches used in mathematical modeling and parameterization of disease transmission. The use of mathematical models is illustrated, using the 2001 UK foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemic, the 2003 global severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic, and human influenza pandemics, as examples. This provides insights in the strengths, limitations, and weaknesses of the various models, and demonstrates their potential for supporting policy and decision making. PMID:20218764

Louz, Derrick; Bergmans, Hans E; Loos, Birgit P; Hoeben, Rob C

2010-08-01

69

Vulnerability of a killer whale social network to disease outbreaks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emerging infectious diseases are among the main threats to conservation of biological diversity. A crucial task facing epidemiologists is to predict the vulnerability of populations of endangered animals to disease outbreaks. In this context, the network structure of social interactions within animal populations may affect disease spreading. However, endangered animal populations are often small and to investigate the dynamics of small networks is a difficult task. Using network theory, we show that the social structure of an endangered population of mammal-eating killer whales is vulnerable to disease outbreaks. This feature was found to be a consequence of the combined effects of the topology and strength of social links among individuals. Our results uncover a serious challenge for conservation of the species and its ecosystem. In addition, this study shows that the network approach can be useful to study dynamical processes in very small networks.

Guimarães, Paulo R., Jr.; de Menezes, Márcio Argollo; Baird, Robin W.; Lusseau, David; Guimarães, Paulo; Dos Reis, Sérgio F.

2007-10-01

70

Outbreak!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Outbreak! is an online, interactive educational game that helps students and teachers learn and evaluate clinical microbiology skills. When the game was used in introductory microbiology laboratories, qualitative evaluation by students showed very positiv

Smith, Geoffrey B.; Clark, Sherri

2004-09-01

71

Outbreak of viral hemorrhagic fever caused by dengue virus type 3 in Al-Mukalla, Yemen  

PubMed Central

Background Investigations were conducted by the authors to explore an outbreak of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) reported in 2010 from Al-Mukalla city, the capital of Hadramout in Yemen. Methods From 15–17 June 2010, the outbreak investigation period, specimens were obtained within 7?days after onset of illness of 18 acutely ill patients hospitalized with VHF and 15 household asymptomatic contacts of 6 acute cases. Additionally, 189 stored sera taken from acutely ill patients with suspected VHF hospitalized in the preceding 12?months were obtained from the Ministry of Health of Yemen. Thus, a total of 222 human specimens were collected; 207 specimens from acute cases and 15 specimens from contacts. All samples were tested with RT-PCR for dengue (DENV), Alkhumra (ALKV), Rift Valley Fever (RVFV), Yellow Fever (YFV), and Chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses. Samples were also tested for DENV IgM, IgG, and NS1-antigen. Medical records of patients were reviewed and demographic, clinical, and laboratory data was collected. Results Of 207 patients tested, 181 (87.4%) patients were confirmed to have acute dengue with positive dengue NS1-antigen (97 patients, 46.9%) and/or IgM (163 patients, 78.7%). Of the 181 patients with confirmed dengue, 100 (55.2%) patients were IgG-positive. DENV RNA was detected in 2 (1%) patients with acute symptoms; both samples were molecularly typed as DENV type 3. No other VHF viruses were detected. For the 15 contacts tested, RT-PCR tests for the five viruses were negative, one contact was dengue IgM positive, and another one was dengue IgG positive. Of the 181 confirmed dengue patients, 120 (66.3%) patients were males and the median age was 24?years. The most common manifestations included fever (100%), headache (94.5%), backache (93.4%), malaise (88.4%), arthralgia (85.1%), myalgia (82.3%), bone pain (77.9%), and leukopenia (76.2%). Two (1.1%) patients died. Conclusions DENV-3 was confirmed to be the cause of an outbreak of VHF in Al-Mukalla. It is important to use both IgM and NS1-antigen tests to confirm acute dengue particularly under the adverse field conditions, where proper storage and transportation of specimens are missing, which substantially reduce the sensitivity of the RT-PCR for detecting DENV RNA. PMID:23497142

2013-01-01

72

Host behavior alters spiny lobster-viral disease dynamics: a simulation study.  

PubMed

Social behavior confers numerous benefits to animals but also risks, among them an increase in the spread of pathogenic diseases. We examined the trade-off between risk of predation and disease transmission under different scenarios of host spatial structure and disease avoidance behavior using a spatially explicit, individual-based model of the host pathogen interaction between juvenile Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) and Panulirus argus Virus 1 (PaV1). Spiny lobsters are normally social but modify their behavior to avoid diseased conspecifics, a potentially effective means of reducing transmission but one rarely observed in the wild. We found that without lobster avoidance of diseased conspecifics, viral outbreaks grew in intensity and duration in simulations until the virus was maintained continuously at unrealistically high levels. However, when we invoked disease avoidance at empirically observed levels, the intensity and duration of outbreaks was reduced and the disease extirpated within five years. Increased lobster (host) spatial aggregation mimicking that which occurs when sponge shelters for lobsters are diminished by harmful algal blooms, did not significantly increase PaV1 transmission or persistence in lobster populations. On the contrary, behavioral aversion of diseased conspecifics effectively reduced viral prevalence, even when shelters were limited, which reduced shelter availability for all lobsters but increased predation, especially of infected lobsters. Therefore, avoidance of diseased conspecifics selects against transmission by contact, promotes alternative modes of transmission, and results in a more resilient host-pathogen system. PMID:25230484

Dolan, Thomas W; Butler, Mark J; Shields, Jeffrey D

2014-08-01

73

An Epidemiological Network Model for Disease Outbreak Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAdvanced disease-surveillance systems have been deployed worldwide to provide early detection of infectious disease outbreaks and bioterrorist attacks. New methods that improve the overall detection capabilities of these systems can have a broad practical impact. Furthermore, most current generation surveillance systems are vulnerable to dramatic and unpredictable shifts in the health-care data that they monitor. These shifts can occur during

Ben Y. Reis; Isaac S. Kohane; Kenneth D. Mandl

2007-01-01

74

Border disease outbreak leads to ongoing sheep losses.  

PubMed

Botulism in dairy heifers and barley beef bulls Transport-associated acetonaemia in dairy heifers Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy in a three-month-old heifer Border disease outbreak in sheep Serological survey for porcine reproductive and respiratory virus and swine influenza virus in pig herds These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for July from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). PMID:25395566

2014-11-15

75

Viral diseases of olive flounder in Korean hatcheries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to elucidate the state of diseases, especially viral diseases, and to prevent viral diseases from occurring in olive flounder hatcheries, a range of studies, including epidemiological study, were performed from 1997 to 2003. The location of the hatcheries investigated includes several representative sites in the east (Kangnung, Uljin, Pohang, Yangsan, Ulsan, Pusan), south (Wando, Changheung, Goheung, Yeosu, Namhae, Tongyeong, Geoje, Jeju) and west (Seosan, Kunsan, Gochang, Yeongkwang, Mokpo, Chindo) costal areas of the Korea Peninsula. A total of 2000 cases have been examined in 7 years, in which mortality caused by viral agents accounts for 22%, or 446 cases. Mortalities associated with viral infection considerably increased from 14% in 1997 to 27% in 2003. A variety of viral diseases were observed, and the occurrences of viral epidermal hyperplasia, viral ascites and viral deformity, viral nervous necrosis, and hirame rhabdoviral disease are 14%, 51%, 25%, and 8% respectively. By investigating the viral infection of broodstock flounder, the infection rate of marine birnavirus (MABV) in hatcheries was identified to be approximately 30%, therefore, it is highly necessary to acquire and keep non-infected broodstock fishes.

Oh, M.-J.; Jung, S.-J.; Kitamura, S.-I.; Kim, H.-Y.; Kang, S. Y.

2006-01-01

76

Extensive HLA-driven viral diversity following a narrow-source HIV-1 outbreak in rural China  

PubMed Central

Obstacles to developing an HIV-1 vaccine include extensive viral diversity and lack of correlates of protective immunity. High mutation rates allow HIV-1 to adapt rapidly to selective forces such as antiretroviral therapy and immune pressure, including HIV-1–specific CTLs that select viral variants which escape T-cell recognition. Multiple factors contribute to HIV-1 diversity, making it difficult to disentangle the contribution of CTL selection without using complex analytical approaches. We describe an HIV-1 outbreak in 231 former plasma donors in China, where a narrow-source virus that had contaminated the donation system was apparently transmitted to many persons contemporaneously. The genetic divergence now evident in these subjects should uniquely reveal how much viral diversity at the population level is solely attributable to host factors. We found significant correlations between pair-wise divergence of viral sequences and HLA class I genotypes across epitope-length windows in HIV-1 Gag, reverse transcriptase, integrase, and Nef, corresponding to sites of 140 HLA class I allele-associated viral polymorphisms. Of all polymorphic sites across these 4 proteins, 24%-56% were sites of HLA-associated selection. These data confirm that CTL pressure has a major effect on inter-host HIV-1 viral diversity and probably represents a key element of viral control. PMID:21562042

Zhang, Yonghong; Xu, Ke Yi; Yan, Huiping; James, Ian; Peng, Yanchun; Blais, Marie-Eve; Gaudieri, Silvana; Chen, Xinyue; Lun, Wenhui; Wu, Hao; Qu, Wen Yan; Rostron, Tim; Li, Ning; Mao, Yu; Mallal, Simon; Xu, Xiaoning; McMichael, Andrew; John, Mina

2011-01-01

77

ENGINEERING ASPECTS OF WATERBORNE DISEASE OUTBREAK INVESTIGATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Two recent headline causing events have reinforced the concern about the spread f diseases through waterborne routes. hese events include the current cholera epidemic in the Western Hemisphere that has caused more than 750,000 reported case of cholera through April, 1993, and the...

78

Asymmetry in the Presence of Migration Stabilizes Multistrain Disease Outbreaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the effect of migration between coupled populations, or patches, on the stability properties of multistrain disease\\u000a dynamics. The epidemic model used in this work displays a Hopf bifurcation to oscillations in a single, well-mixed population.\\u000a It is shown numerically that migration between two non-identical patches stabilizes the endemic steady state, delaying the\\u000a onset of large amplitude outbreaks and

Simone Bianco; Leah B. Shaw

2011-01-01

79

Climate Teleconnections and Recent Patterns of Human and Animal Disease Outbreaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundRecent clusters of outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases (Rift Valley fever and chikungunya) in Africa and parts of the Indian Ocean islands illustrate how interannual climate variability influences the changing risk patterns of disease outbreaks. Although Rift Valley fever outbreaks have been known to follow periods of above-normal rainfall, the timing of the outbreak events has largely been unknown. Similarly, there

Assaf Anyamba; Kenneth J. Linthicum; Jennifer L. Small; Kathrine M. Collins; Compton J. Tucker; Edwin W. Pak; Seth C. Britch; James Ronald Eastman; Jorge E. Pinzon; Kevin L. Russell

2012-01-01

80

Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp  

PubMed Central

The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change. PMID:20409453

Walker, Peter J.; Winton, James R.

2010-01-01

81

Two Different Epidemiological Scenarios of Border Disease in the Populations of Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra p. pyrenaica) after the First Disease Outbreaks  

PubMed Central

Since 2001 several outbreaks of a new disease associated with Border disease virus (BDV) infection have caused important declines in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) populations in the Pyrenees. The goal of this study was to analyze the post-outbreak BDV epidemiology in the first two areas affected by disease with the aim to establish if the infection has become endemic. We also investigated if BDV infected wild and domestic ruminants sharing habitat with chamois. Unexpectedly, we found different epidemiological scenarios in each population. Since the disease outbreaks, some chamois populations recuperated quickly, while others did not recover as expected. In chamois from the first areas, prevalence was high (73.47%) and constant throughout the whole study period and did not differ between chamois born before and after the BDV outbreak; in all, BDV was detected by RT-PCR in six chamois. In the other areas, prevalence was lower (52.79%) and decreased during the study period; as well, prevalence was significantly lower in chamois born after the disease outbreak. No BDV were detected in this population. A comparative virus neutralisation test performed with four BDV strains and one Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) strain showed that all the chamois had BDV-specific antibodies. Pestivirus antibodies were detected in all the rest of analyzed species, with low prevalence values in wild ruminants and moderate values in domestic ruminants. No viruses were detected in these species. These results confirm the hypothesis that outbreaks of BDV infection only affect the Pyrenean chamois, although other wild ruminants can occasionally be infected. In conclusion, two different scenarios have appeared since the first border disease outbreaks in Pyrenean chamois: on the one hand frequent BDV circulation with possible negative impact on population dynamics in some areas and on the other, lack of virus circulation and quick recovery of the chamois population. PMID:23251417

Fernandez-Sirera, Laura; Cabezon, Oscar; Allepuz, Alberto; Rosell, Rosa; Riquelme, Cristina; Serrano, Emmanuel; Lavin, Santiago; Marco, Ignasi

2012-01-01

82

Outbreak of Legionnaires' disease in Glasgow Royal Infirmary: microbiological aspects.  

PubMed Central

The bacteriological investigation of an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease in Glasgow Royal Infirmary affecting 16 patients is described. Most of the patients had been treated in high-dependency areas on two floors of the hospital supplied by the same two air-conditioned ventilation systems. The source of infection was traced to contamination of a cooling tower from which a plume of spray discharged into the intake vents of the two ventilation systems. Rubber grommets within the cooling tower probably provided a nidus of infection there. The control and management of the outbreak are discussed: a policy of frankness about the course and progress of the investigations was adopted and helped to allay anxiety on the part of both staff and media. PMID:3540109

Timbury, M. C.; Donaldson, J. R.; McCartney, A. C.; Fallon, R. J.; Sleigh, J. D.; Lyon, D.; Orange, G. V.; Baird, D. R.; Winter, J.; Wilson, T. S.

1986-01-01

83

Molecular Epidemiology of Human Oral Chagas Disease Outbreaks in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Background Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, displays significant genetic variability revealed by six Discrete Typing Units (TcI-TcVI). In this pathology, oral transmission represents an emerging epidemiological scenario where different outbreaks associated to food/beverages consumption have been reported in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador and Venezuela. In Colombia, six human oral outbreaks have been reported corroborating the importance of this transmission route. Molecular epidemiology of oral outbreaks is barely known observing the incrimination of TcI, TcII, TcIV and TcV genotypes. Methodology and Principal Findings High-throughput molecular characterization was conducted performing MLMT (Multilocus Microsatellite Typing) and mtMLST (mitochondrial Multilocus Sequence Typing) strategies on 50 clones from ten isolates. Results allowed observing the occurrence of TcI, TcIV and mixed infection of distinct TcI genotypes. Thus, a majority of specific mitochondrial haplotypes and allelic multilocus genotypes associated to the sylvatic cycle of transmission were detected in the dataset with the foreseen presence of mitochondrial haplotypes and allelic multilocus genotypes associated to the domestic cycle of transmission. Conclusions These findings suggest the incrimination of sylvatic genotypes in the oral outbreaks occurred in Colombia. We observed patterns of super-infection and/or co-infection with a tailored association with the severe forms of myocarditis in the acute phase of the disease. The transmission dynamics of this infection route based on molecular epidemiology evidence was unraveled and the clinical and biological implications are discussed. PMID:23437405

Ramírez, Juan David; Montilla, Marleny; Cucunubá, Zulma M.; Floréz, Astrid Carolina; Zambrano, Pilar; Guhl, Felipe

2013-01-01

84

Food- and waterborne disease outbreaks in Australian long-term care facilities, 2001-2008.  

PubMed

Abstract Food- or waterborne diseases in long-term care facilities (LTCF) can result in serious outcomes, including deaths, and they are potentially preventable. We analyzed data collected by OzFoodNet on food- and waterborne disease outbreaks occurring in LTCF in Australia from 2001 to 2008. We compared outbreaks by the number of persons affected, etiology, and implicated vehicle. During 8 years of surveillance, 5.9% (55/936) of all food- and waterborne outbreaks in Australia occurred in LTCF. These LTCF outbreaks affected a total of 909 people, with 66 hospitalized and 23 deaths. The annual incidence of food- or waterborne outbreaks was 1.9 (95% confidence intervals 1.0-3.7) per 1000 facilities. Salmonella caused 17 outbreaks, Clostridium perfringens 14 outbreaks, Campylobacter 8 outbreaks, and norovirus 1 outbreak. Residents were at higher risk of death during outbreaks of salmonellosis than for all other outbreaks combined (relative risk 7.8, 95% confidence intervals 1.8-33.8). Of 15 outbreaks of unknown etiology, 11 were suspected to be due to C. perfringens intoxication. Food vehicles were only identified in 27% (14/52) of outbreaks, with six outbreak investigations implicating pureed foods. Dishes containing raw eggs were implicated as the cause of four outbreaks. Three outbreaks of suspected waterborne disease were attributed to rainwater collected from facility roofs. To prevent disease outbreaks, facilities need to improve handling of pureed foods, avoid feeding residents raw or undercooked eggs, and ensure that rainwater tanks have a scheduled maintenance and disinfection program. PMID:21034268

Kirk, Martyn D; Lalor, Karin; Raupach, Jane; Combs, Barry; Stafford, Russell; Hall, Gillian V; Becker, Niels

2011-01-01

85

Relating phylogenetic trees to transmission trees of infectious disease outbreaks.  

PubMed

Transmission events are the fundamental building blocks of the dynamics of any infectious disease. Much about the epidemiology of a disease can be learned when these individual transmission events are known or can be estimated. Such estimations are difficult and generally feasible only when detailed epidemiological data are available. The genealogy estimated from genetic sequences of sampled pathogens is another rich source of information on transmission history. Optimal inference of transmission events calls for the combination of genetic data and epidemiological data into one joint analysis. A key difficulty is that the transmission tree, which describes the transmission events between infected hosts, differs from the phylogenetic tree, which describes the ancestral relationships between pathogens sampled from these hosts. The trees differ both in timing of the internal nodes and in topology. These differences become more pronounced when a higher fraction of infected hosts is sampled. We show how the phylogenetic tree of sampled pathogens is related to the transmission tree of an outbreak of an infectious disease, by the within-host dynamics of pathogens. We provide a statistical framework to infer key epidemiological and mutational parameters by simultaneously estimating the phylogenetic tree and the transmission tree. We test the approach using simulations and illustrate its use on an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease. The approach unifies existing methods in the emerging field of phylodynamics with transmission tree reconstruction methods that are used in infectious disease epidemiology. PMID:24037268

Ypma, Rolf J F; van Ballegooijen, W Marijn; Wallinga, Jacco

2013-11-01

86

Health Care-Acquired Viral Respiratory Diseases  

PubMed Central

Health care–associated viral respiratory infections, common among hospitalized children, also occur among adults and institutionalized persons and result in increased patient morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. Approximately 20% of patients with health care–associated pneumonia have viral respiratory infections, with 70% of these infections caused by adenovirus, influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).1 These infections typically reflect the level of viral activity within the community.1,2 This article focuses on the epidemiology, transmission, and control of health care–associated RSV and influenza virus. PMID:21316002

Goins, William P.; Talbot, H. Keipp; Talbot, Thomas R.

2014-01-01

87

Outbreak of viral gastroenteritis due to sewage-contaminated drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

In August 1998, a large outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred in a Swiss village of 3500 inhabitants whereof more than 50% were affected. A high contamination of drinking water with faecal coliforms revealed a defect in the waste water system. The objective of the present study was to investigate the outbreak in respect of the presence of human pathogenic viruses. Drinking

D Häfliger; Ph Hübner; J Lüthy

2000-01-01

88

Outbreaks of Enteric Disease Associated with Animal Contact: Not Just a Foodborne Problem Anymore  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past 10 years, an increasing number of outbreaks of enteric disease associated with animals in public settings, such as fairs and petting zoos, have been reported. Fifty-five of these outbreaks that occurred in the United States during 1991- 2005 are reviewed in this article. Lessons learned from these outbreaks and recommendations for prevention are also discussed. Physicians should

Frederick J. Angulo; Nicole Steinmuller; Linda Demma; Jeff B. Bender; Millicent Eidson

2006-01-01

89

Emerging viral diseases: confronting threats with new technologies.  

PubMed

Emerging viral diseases pose ongoing health threats, particularly in an era of globalization; however, new biomedical research technologies such as genome sequencing and structure-based vaccine and drug design have improved our ability to respond to viral threats. PMID:25210060

Marston, Hilary D; Folkers, Gregory K; Morens, David M; Fauci, Anthony S

2014-09-10

90

Origin Detection During Food-borne Disease Outbreaks - A Case Study of the 2011 EHEC/HUS Outbreak in Germany  

PubMed Central

The key challenge during food-borne disease outbreaks, e.g. the 2011 EHEC/HUS outbreak in Germany, is the design of efficient mitigation strategies based on a timely identification of the outbreak's spatial origin. Standard public health procedures typically use case-control studies and tracings along food shipping chains. These methods are time-consuming and suffer from biased data collected slowly in patient interviews. Here we apply a recently developed, network-theoretical method to identify the spatial origin of food-borne disease outbreaks. Thereby, the network captures the transportation routes of contaminated foods. The technique only requires spatial information on case reports regularly collected by public health institutions and a model for the underlying food distribution network. The approach is based on the idea of replacing the conventional geographic distance with an effective distance that is derived from the topological structure of the underlying food distribution network. We show that this approach can efficiently identify most probable epicenters of food-borne disease outbreaks. We assess and discuss the method in the context of the 2011 EHEC epidemic. Based on plausible assumptions on the structure of the national food distribution network, the approach can correctly localize the origin of the 2011 German EHEC/HUS outbreak. PMID:24818065

Manitz, Juliane; Kneib, Thomas; Schlather, Martin; Helbing, Dirk; Brockmann, Dirk

2014-01-01

91

Origin Detection During Food-borne Disease Outbreaks - A Case Study of the 2011 EHEC/HUS Outbreak in Germany.  

PubMed

The key challenge during food-borne disease outbreaks, e.g. the 2011 EHEC/HUS outbreak in Germany, is the design of efficient mitigation strategies based on a timely identification of the outbreak's spatial origin. Standard public health procedures typically use case-control studies and tracings along food shipping chains. These methods are time-consuming and suffer from biased data collected slowly in patient interviews. Here we apply a recently developed, network-theoretical method to identify the spatial origin of food-borne disease outbreaks. Thereby, the network captures the transportation routes of contaminated foods. The technique only requires spatial information on case reports regularly collected by public health institutions and a model for the underlying food distribution network. The approach is based on the idea of replacing the conventional geographic distance with an effective distance that is derived from the topological structure of the underlying food distribution network. We show that this approach can efficiently identify most probable epicenters of food-borne disease outbreaks. We assess and discuss the method in the context of the 2011 EHEC epidemic. Based on plausible assumptions on the structure of the national food distribution network, the approach can correctly localize the origin of the 2011 German EHEC/HUS outbreak. PMID:24818065

Manitz, Juliane; Kneib, Thomas; Schlather, Martin; Helbing, Dirk; Brockmann, Dirk

2014-01-01

92

Point-of-Care Microdevices for Blood Plasma Analysis in Viral Infectious Diseases.  

PubMed

Each year, outbreaks of viral infections cause illness, disability, death, and economic loss. As learned from past incidents, the detrimental impact grows exponentially without effective quarantine. Therefore, rapid on-site detection and analysis are highly desired. In addition, for high-risk areas of viral contamination, close monitoring should be provided during the potential disease incubation period. As the epidemic progresses, a response protocol needs tobe rapidly implemented and the virus evolution fully tracked. For these scenarios, point-of-care microdevices can provide sensitive, accurate, rapid and low-cost analysis for a large population, especially in handling complex patient samples, such as blood, urine and saliva. Blood plasma can be considered as a mine of information containing sources and clues of biomarkers, including nucleic acids, immunoglobulin and other proteins, as well as pathogens for clinical diagnosis. However, blood plasma is also the most complicated body fluid. For targeted plasma biomarker detection or untargeted plasma biomarker discovery, the challenges can be as difficult as identifying a needle in a haystack. A useful platform must not only pursue single performance characteristics, but also excel at multiple performance parameters, such as speed, accuracy, sensitivity, selectivity, cost, portability, reliability, and user friendliness. Throughout the decades, tremendous progress has been made in point-of-care microdevices for viral infectious diseases. In this paper, we review fully integrated lab-on-chip systems for blood analysis of viral infectious disease. PMID:24879614

Yeh, Yin-Ting; Nisic, Merisa; Yu, Xu; Xia, Yiqiu; Zheng, Si-Yang

2014-11-01

93

Ebola virus disease outbreak - Nigeria, july-september 2014.  

PubMed

On July 20, 2014, an acutely ill traveler from Liberia arrived at the international airport in Lagos, Nigeria, and was confirmed to have Ebola virus disease (Ebola) after being admitted to a private hospital. This index patient potentially exposed 72 persons at the airport and the hospital. The Federal Ministry of Health, with guidance from the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC), declared an Ebola emergency. Lagos, (pop. 21 million) is a regional hub for economic, industrial, and travel activities and a setting where communicable diseases can be easily spread and transmission sustained. Therefore, implementing a rapid response using all available public health assets was the highest priority. On July 23, the Federal Ministry of Health, with the Lagos State government and international partners, activated an Ebola Incident Management Center as a precursor to the current Emergency Operations Center (EOC) to rapidly respond to this outbreak. The index patient died on July 25; as of September 24, there were 19 laboratory-confirmed Ebola cases and one probable case in two states, with 894 contacts identified and followed during the response. Eleven patients with laboratory-confirmed Ebola had been discharged, an additional patient was diagnosed at convalescent stage, and eight patients had died (seven with confirmed Ebola; one probable). The isolation wards were empty, and 891 (all but three) contacts had exited follow-up, with the remainder due to exit on October 2. No new cases had occurred since August 31, suggesting that the Ebola outbreak in Nigeria might be contained. The EOC, established quickly and using an Incident Management System (IMS) to coordinate the response and consolidate decision making, is largely credited with helping contain the Nigeria outbreak early. National public health emergency preparedness agencies in the region, including those involved in Ebola responses, should consider including the development of an EOC to improve the ability to rapidly respond to urgent public health threats. PMID:25275332

Shuaib, Faisal; Gunnala, Rajni; Musa, Emmanuel O; Mahoney, Frank J; Oguntimehin, Olukayode; Nguku, Patrick M; Nyanti, Sara Beysolow; Knight, Nancy; Gwarzo, Nasir Sani; Idigbe, Oni; Nasidi, Abdulsalam; Vertefeuille, John F

2014-10-01

94

Update: ebola virus disease outbreak - west Africa, october 2014.  

PubMed

CDC is assisting ministries of health and working with other organizations to control and end the ongoing outbreak of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in West Africa. The updated data in this report were compiled from situation reports from the Guinea Interministerial Committee for Response Against the Ebola Virus and the World Health Organization, the Liberia Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, and the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation. Total case counts include all suspected, probable, and confirmed cases as defined by each country. These data reflect reported cases, which make up an unknown proportion of all actual cases and reporting delays that vary from country to country. PMID:25356606

2014-10-31

95

Ebola virus disease outbreak - west Africa, september 2014.  

PubMed

CDC is assisting ministries of health and working with other organizations to control and end the ongoing outbreak of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in West Africa. The updated data in this report were compiled from ministry of health situation reports and World Health Organization (WHO) sources. Total case counts include all suspected, probable, and confirmed cases as defined by each country. These data reflect reported cases, which make up an unknown proportion of all actual cases. The data also reflect reporting delays that might vary from country to country. PMID:25275331

2014-10-01

96

The contribution of molecular epidemiology to the understanding and control of viral diseases of salmonid aquaculture  

PubMed Central

Molecular epidemiology is a science which utilizes molecular biology to define the distribution of disease in a population (descriptive epidemiology) and relies heavily on integration of traditional (or analytical) epidemiological approaches to identify the etiological determinants of this distribution. The study of viral pathogens of aquaculture has provided many exciting opportunities to apply such tools. This review considers the extent to which molecular epidemiological studies have contributed to better understanding and control of disease in aquaculture, drawing on examples of viral diseases of salmonid fish of commercial significance including viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), salmonid alphavirus (SAV) and infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV). Significant outcomes of molecular epidemiological studies include: Improved taxonomic classification of viruses A better understanding of the natural distribution of viruses An improved understanding of the origins of viral pathogens in aquaculture An improved understanding of the risks of translocation of pathogens outwith their natural host range An increased ability to trace the source of new disease outbreaks Development of a basis for ensuring development of appropriate diagnostic tools An ability to classify isolates and thus target future research aimed at better understanding biological function While molecular epidemiological studies have no doubt already made a significant contribution in these areas, the advent of new technologies such as pyrosequencing heralds a quantum leap in the ability to generate descriptive molecular sequence data. The ability of molecular epidemiology to fulfil its potential to translate complex disease pathways into relevant fish health policy is thus unlikely to be limited by the generation of descriptive molecular markers. More likely, full realisation of the potential to better explain viral transmission pathways will be dependent on the ability to assimilate and analyse knowledge from a range of more traditional information sources. The development of methods to systematically record and share such epidemiologically important information thus represents a major challenge for fish health professionals in making the best future use of molecular data in supporting fish health policy and disease control. PMID:21466673

2011-01-01

97

Deadly outbreak of iron storage disease (ISD) in Italian birds of the family Turdidae.  

PubMed

A widespread deadly outbreak occurred in captive birds belonging to the family Turdidae in Italy. The present study was performed on 46 dead birds coming from 3 small decoy-bird breeders in central Italy. Only Turdus pilaris, Turdus iliacus, Turdus philomelos and Turdus merula were affected. No other species of bird held by these breeders died. A change of diet before the hunting season was reported from all breeders. Full necropsy of the animals and histological investigations of representative tissue samples were performed. Microscopical examination showed marked iron deposits in liver samples. Bacteriological investigations and molecular analysis to exclude bacterial and viral diseases were carried out. Contamination of food pellet samples by mycotoxins and analysis to detect heavy metal contaminants in food pellet samples were considered. An interesting result was the high iron content found in food pellets. It was higher than that considered suitable for birds, especially for species susceptible to development iron storage disease (ISD). Taken together, the results suggested an outbreak of ISD caused by the high iron content of food given to the birds before the hunting season. The high mortality recorded only in species belonging to the family Turdidae suggests a genetic predisposition in the affected birds. PMID:24920545

Pavone, Silvia; Salamida, Sonia; Pecorelli, Ivan; Rossi, Elisabetta; Manuali, Elisabetta

2014-09-01

98

Deadly Outbreak of Iron Storage Disease (ISD) in Italian Birds of the Family Turdidae  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT A widespread deadly outbreak occurred in captive birds belonging to the family Turdidae in Italy. The present study was performed on 46 dead birds coming from 3 small decoy-bird breeders in central Italy. Only Turdus pilaris, Turdus iliacus, Turdus philomelos and Turdus merula were affected. No other species of bird held by these breeders died. A change of diet before the hunting season was reported from all breeders. Full necropsy of the animals and histological investigations of representative tissue samples were performed. Microscopical examination showed marked iron deposits in liver samples. Bacteriological investigations and molecular analysis to exclude bacterial and viral diseases were carried out. Contamination of food pellet samples by mycotoxins and analysis to detect heavy metal contaminants in food pellet samples were considered. An interesting result was the high iron content found in food pellets. It was higher than that considered suitable for birds, especially for species susceptible to development iron storage disease (ISD). Taken together, the results suggested an outbreak of ISD caused by the high iron content of food given to the birds before the hunting season. The high mortality recorded only in species belonging to the family Turdidae suggests a genetic predisposition in the affected birds. PMID:24920545

PAVONE, Silvia; SALAMIDA, Sonia; PECORELLI, Ivan; ROSSI, Elisabetta; MANUALI, Elisabetta

2014-01-01

99

INFECTIOUS DISEASE OUTBREAKS Avian Flu, measles, Mumps, SARs, and other infectious diseases can pose a threat to the  

E-print Network

INFECTIOUS DISEASE OUTBREAKS Avian Flu, measles, Mumps, SARs, and other infectious diseases can of infectious disease that threatens the University of South Florida, University officials will collaborate at the University. Information related to any widespread infectious disease outbreak will be available

Meyers, Steven D.

100

Antiviral agents for the control of viral diseases*  

PubMed Central

Infectious viral diseases are an important worldwide problem and as a result of more efficient epidemiological studies and improved techniques of viral diagnosis ”new” diseases are periodically identified. More importantly, as we learn to control cancer and perform tissue and organ transplants, the immunosuppressed patient is at greater risk of viral infection. There are currently very few generally accepted antiviral agents, but recent research efforts are encouraging. The status of the approved agents and of those showing the greatest promise is discussed in this article. PMID:6172211

Galasso, George J.

1981-01-01

101

Overcoming barriers in evaluating outbreaks of diarrheal disease in resource poor settings: assessment of recurrent outbreaks in Chobe District, Botswana  

PubMed Central

Background Diarrheal illness remains a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality, with the majority of deaths occurring in children <5 years of age. Lack of resources often prohibits the evaluation of outbreak characteristics and limits progress in managing this important disease syndrome, particularly in Africa. Relying only on existing medical staff and hospital resources, we assess the use of a questionnaire survey tool to identify baseline outbreak characteristics during recurrent diarrheal outbreaks in Chobe, Botswana. Methods Using historical surveillance data (2006–2009), the temporal pattern of recurrent diarrheal outbreaks was evaluated among patients <5 years of age presenting to health facilities in Chobe District. Using a questionnaire survey tool, medical staff from selected health facilities assessed patients (all ages) presenting with diarrheal disease during two diarrheal outbreaks (2011–2012). Cluster analysis and classification and regression trees (CART) were used to evaluate patient attributes by outbreak. Results We identified a bimodal, annual pattern of acute diarrhea in children <5 years of age across years (Wilcox test, W?=?456.5, p?=?0.052). Historical outbreak periods appeared to coincide with major hydrological phenomena (rainfall/flood recession). Across health facilities, a significant percent of patients in the prospective study were in the ?5 age class (44%, n?=?515 and 35%, n?=?333 in the dry and wet season outbreaks, respectively). Cluster analysis of questionnaire data identified two main branches associated with patient age (<5 and ?5 years of age). Patients did not cluster by outbreak or village. CART examination identified sex and hospitalization as being most predictive of patients <5 years and household diarrhea in patients ?5 years. Water shortages and water quality deficiencies were identified in both outbreaks. Conclusions Diarrhea is a persistent, seasonally occurring disease in Chobe District, Botswana. Lack of variation in outbreak variables suggests the possibility of environmental drivers influencing outbreak dynamics and the potential importance of human-environmental linkages in this region. Public health strategy should be directed at securing improved water service and correcting water quality deficiencies. Public health education should include increased emphasis on sanitation practices when providing care to household members with diarrhea. While global diarrheal disease surveillance is directed at the under-5 age group, this may not be appropriate in areas of high HIV prevalence such as that found in our study area where a large immune-compromised population may warrant increased surveillance across age groups. The approach used in this study provided the first detailed characterization of diarrheal disease outbreaks in the area, an important starting point for immediate intervention and development of working hypotheses for future disease investigations. While data derived from this approach are necessarily limited, they identify critical information on outbreak characteristics in resource poor settings where data gaps continue and disease incidence is high. PMID:23971427

2013-01-01

102

A past Haff disease outbreak associated with eating freshwater pomfret in South China  

PubMed Central

Background Haff disease is unexplained rhabdomyolysis caused by consumption of fishery products in the previous 24 h. It was first identified in Europe in 1924 but the condition is extremely rare in China. Here we describe a past outbreak of acute food borne muscle poisoning that occurred in Guangdong Province (South China) in 2009. Methods The first full outbreak of Haff disease reported in Jiangsu Province (East China) in 2010, indicated that the incidence of the disease may be increasing in China. We, therefore first retrospectively reviewed epidemiologic, trace-back, environmental studies, and laboratory analyses, including oral toxicity testing to ascertain risk and chemical analysis to identify toxin(s), from the 2009 Guangdong outbreak. Then we compared data from the 2009 outbreak with data from all other Haff disease outbreaks that were available. Results Clinical symptoms and laboratory findings indicated that the 2009 Guangdong outbreak disease was consistent with rhabdomyolysis. Epidemiologic, trace-back, environmental studies and laboratory analyses implied that the disease was caused by freshwater Pomfrets consumed prior to the onset of symptoms. We also identified common factors between the 2009 Guangdong outbreak and previous Haff disease outbreaks reported around the world, while as with other similar outbreaks, the exact etiological factor(s) of the disease remains unknown. Conclusions The 2009 Guangdong outbreak of ‘muscle poisoning’ was retrospectively identified as an outbreak of Haff disease. This comprised the highest number of cases reported in China thus far. Food borne diseases emerging in this unusual form and the irregular pattern of outbreaks present an ongoing public health risk, highlighting the need for improved surveillance and diagnostic methodology. PMID:23642345

2013-01-01

103

Occurrence and phylogenetic analysis of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in outbreaks of respiratory disease in Norway  

PubMed Central

Background Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is one of the major pathogens involved in the bovine respiratory disease (BRD) complex. The seroprevalence to BRSV in Norwegian cattle herds is high, but its role in epidemics of respiratory disease is unclear. The aims of the study were to investigate the etiological role of BRSV and other respiratory viruses in epidemics of BRD and to perform phylogenetic analysis of Norwegian BRSV strains. Results BRSV infection was detected either serologically and/or virologically in 18 (86%) of 21 outbreaks and in most cases as a single viral agent. When serology indicated that bovine coronavirus and/or bovine parainfluenza virus 3 were present, the number of BRSV positive animals in the herd was always higher, supporting the view of BRSV as the main pathogen. Sequencing of the G gene of BRSV positive samples showed that the current circulating Norwegian BRSVs belong to genetic subgroup II, along with other North European isolates. One isolate from an outbreak in Norway in 1976 was also investigated. This strain formed a separate branch in subgroup II, clearly different from the current Scandinavian sequences. The currently circulating BRSV could be divided into two different strains that were present in the same geographical area at the same time. The sequence variations between the two strains were in an antigenic important part of the G protein. Conclusion The results demonstrated that BRSV is the most important etiological agent of epidemics of BRD in Norway and that it often acts as the only viral agent. The phylogenetic analysis of the Norwegian strains of BRSV and several previously published isolates supported the theory of geographical and temporal clustering of BRSV. PMID:24423030

2014-01-01

104

A review of outbreaks of foodborne disease associated with passenger ships: evidence for risk management.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Foodborne disease outbreaks on ships are of concern because of their potentially serious health consequences for passengers and crew and high costs to the industry. The authors conducted a review of outbreaks of foodborne diseases associated with passenger ships in the framework of a World Health Organization project on setting guidelines for ship sanitation. METHODS: The authors reviewed data on 50 outbreaks of foodborne disease associated with passenger ships. For each outbreak, data on pathogens/toxins, type of ship, factors contributing to outbreaks, mortality and morbidity, and food vehicles were collected. RESULTS: The findings of this review show that the majority of reported outbreaks were associated with cruise ships and that almost 10,000 people were affected. Salmonella spp were most frequently associated with outbreaks. Foodborne outbreaks due to enterotoxigenic E. coli spp, Shigella spp, noroviruses (formally called Norwalk-like viruses), Vibrio spp, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Cyclospora sp, and Trichinella sp also occurred on ships. Factors associated with the outbreaks reviewed include inadequate temperature control, infected food handlers, contaminated raw ingredients, cross-contamination, inadequate heat treatment, and onshore excursions. Seafood was the most common food vehicle implicated in outbreaks. CONCLUSIONS: Many ship-associated outbreaks could have been prevented if measures had been taken to ensure adequate temperature control, avoidance of cross-contamination, reliable food sources, adequate heat treatment, and exclusion of infected food handlers from work. PMID:15219800

Rooney, Roisin M.; Cramer, Elaine H.; Mantha, Stacey; Nichols, Gordon; Bartram, Jamie K.; Farber, Jeffrey M.; Benembarek, Peter K.

2004-01-01

105

Asymmetry in the presence of migration stabilizes multistrain disease outbreaks.  

PubMed

We study the effect of migration between coupled populations, or patches, on the stability properties of multistrain disease dynamics. The epidemic model used in this work displays a Hopf bifurcation to oscillations in a single, well-mixed population. It is shown numerically that migration between two non-identical patches stabilizes the endemic steady state, delaying the onset of large amplitude outbreaks and reducing the total number of infections. This result is motivated by analyzing generic Hopf bifurcations with different frequencies and with diffusive coupling between them. Stabilization of the steady state is again seen, indicating that our observation in the full multistrain model is based on qualitative characteristics of the dynamics rather than on details of the disease model. PMID:20464521

Bianco, Simone; Shaw, Leah B

2011-01-01

106

Asymmetry in the presence of migration stabilizes multistrain disease outbreaks  

PubMed Central

We study the effect of migration between coupled populations, or patches, on the stability properties of multistrain disease dynamics. The epidemic model used in this work displays a Hopf bifurcation to oscillations in a single well mixed population. It is shown numerically that migration between two non-identical patches stabilizes the endemic steady state, delaying the onset of large amplitude outbreaks and reducing the total number of infections. This result is motivated by analyzing generic Hopf bifurcations with different frequencies and with diffusive coupling between them. Stabilization of the steady state is again seen, indicating that our observation in the full multistrain model is based on qualitative characteristics of the dynamics rather than on details of the disease model. PMID:20464521

Bianco, Simone; Shaw, Leah B.

2010-01-01

107

Modelling disease outbreaks in realistic urban social networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most mathematical models for the spread of disease use differential equations based on uniform mixing assumptions or ad hoc models for the contact process. Here we explore the use of dynamic bipartite graphs to model the physical contact patterns that result from movements of individuals between specific locations. The graphs are generated by large-scale individual-based urban traffic simulations built on actual census, land-use and population-mobility data. We find that the contact network among people is a strongly connected small-world-like graph with a well-defined scale for the degree distribution. However, the locations graph is scale-free, which allows highly efficient outbreak detection by placing sensors in the hubs of the locations network. Within this large-scale simulation framework, we then analyse the relative merits of several proposed mitigation strategies for smallpox spread. Our results suggest that outbreaks can be contained by a strategy of targeted vaccination combined with early detection without resorting to mass vaccination of a population.

Eubank, Stephen; Guclu, Hasan; Anil Kumar, V. S.; Marathe, Madhav V.; Srinivasan, Aravind; Toroczkai, Zoltán; Wang, Nan

2004-05-01

108

A sequential study of pathological findings in Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus (L), throughout one year after an acute outbreak of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy.  

PubMed

Following a natural outbreak of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER) at a commercial farm in Norway, surviving Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus, were sequentially studied for distribution of nodavirus, immune response and histopathology over 1 year. Typical clinical signs and histopathology of VER were observed during the acute stage of the disease. Most of the surviving fish became subclinical carriers of nodavirus with clusters of nodavirus-containing cells in the central nervous system. Four random samplings of presumably healthy fish were performed from two fish groups, with low and high growth rates respectively, over a 7-month period. Immunohistochemical (IHC) examination revealed a higher number of nodavirus-positive cells in fish with a low growth rate than in fish with a high growth rate. All IHC positive fish were also reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) positive for nodavirus and for nodavirus antibodies detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at all sampling points. The percentage of PCR- and ELISA-positive fish remained high throughout the year, while the number of IHC-positive fish decreased, especially in the group with a high growth rate. Several other histopathological changes were observed, including pericarditis, steatitis, changes in liver and kidney, and necrosis of the intestinal wall. None of these findings seemed to be related to the nodavirus infection. Nodavirus was reisolated in cell culture from subclinically infected fish one year after the acute VER outbreak, which indicates that the virus was still infectious. PMID:15189373

Johansen, R; Grove, S; Svendsen, A K; Modahl, I; Dannevig, B

2004-06-01

109

Challenges to Global Surveillance and Response to Infectious Disease Outbreaks of International Importance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a notional scheme of global surveillance and response to infectious disease outbreaks and reviews 14 in- ternational surveillance and response programs. In combination, the scheme and the programs illustrate how, in an ideal world and in the real world, infectious disease outbreaks of public health significance could be detected and contained. No- table practices and achievements of

Penny Hitchcock; Allison Chamberlain; Megan Van Wagoner; Thomas V. Inglesby; Tara O'Toole

2007-01-01

110

Association between temperature, humidity and ebolavirus disease outbreaks in Africa, 1976 to 2014.  

PubMed

Ebolavirus disease (EVD) outbreaks have been occurring sporadically in Central Africa since 1976. In 2014, the first outbreak in West Africa was reported in Guinea. Subsequent outbreaks then appeared in Liberia, Sierra Leone and Nigeria. The study of environmental factors underlying EVD epidemiology may provide useful insights into when and where EVD outbreaks are more likely to occur. In this paper, we aimed to investigate the association between climatic factors and onset of EVD outbreaks in humans. Our results suggest lower temperature and higher absolute humidity are associated with EVD outbreak onset in the previous EVD outbreaks in Africa during 1976 to 2014. Potential mechanisms through which climate may have an influence on ebolavirus infection in the natural host, intermediate hosts and humans are discussed. Current and future surveillance efforts should be supported to further understand ebolavirus transmission events between and within species. PMID:25210981

Ng, S; Basta, N E; Cowling, B J

2014-01-01

111

Norwalk-like viral gastroenteritis outbreak in U.S. Army trainees.  

PubMed Central

An outbreak of acute gastroenteritis hospitalized 99 (12%) of 835 U. S. Army trainees at Fort Bliss, El Paso, Texas, from August 27 to September 1, 1998. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction tests for Norwalk-like virus were positive for genogroup 2. Gastroenteritis was associated with one post dining facility and with soft drinks. PMID:10756159

Arness, M. K.; Feighner, B. H.; Canham, M. L.; Taylor, D. N.; Monroe, S. S.; Cieslak, T. J.; Hoedebecke, E. L.; Polyak, C. S.; Cuthie, J. C.; Fankhauser, R. L.; Humphrey, C. D.; Barker, T. L.; Jenkins, C. D.; Skillman, D. R.

2000-01-01

112

A Call to Action to Enhance Filovirus Disease Outbreak Preparedness and Response  

PubMed Central

The frequency and magnitude of recognized and declared filovirus-disease outbreaks have increased in recent years, while pathogenic filoviruses are potentially ubiquitous throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Meanwhile, the efficiency and effectiveness of filovirus-disease outbreak preparedness and response efforts are currently limited by inherent challenges and persistent shortcomings. This paper delineates some of these challenges and shortcomings and provides a proposal for enhancing future filovirus-disease outbreak preparedness and response. The proposal serves as a call for prompt action by the organizations that comprise filovirus-disease outbreak response teams, namely, Ministries of Health of outbreak-prone countries, the World Health Organization, Médecins Sans Frontières, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention—Atlanta, and others. PMID:25271875

Roddy, Paul

2014-01-01

113

Outbreak of poliomyelitis in Finland in 1984-85 - Re-analysis of viral sequences using the current standard approach.  

PubMed

In 1984, a wild type 3 poliovirus (PV3/FIN84) spread all over Finland causing nine cases of paralytic poliomyelitis and one case of aseptic meningitis. The outbreak was ended in 1985 with an intensive vaccination campaign. By limited sequence comparison with previously isolated PV3 strains, closest relatives of PV3/FIN84 were found among strains circulating in the Mediterranean region. Now we wanted to reanalyse the relationships using approaches currently exploited in poliovirus surveillance. Cell lysates of 22 strains isolated during the outbreak and stored frozen were subjected to RT-PCR amplification in three genomic regions without prior subculture. Sequences of the entire VP1 coding region, 150 nucleotides in the VP1-2A junction, most of the 5' non-coding region, partial sequences of the 3D RNA polymerase coding region and partial 3' non-coding region were compared within the outbreak and with sequences available in data banks. In addition, complete nucleotide sequences were obtained for 2 strains isolated from two different cases of disease during the outbreak. The results confirmed the previously described wide intraepidemic variation of the strains, including amino acid substitutions in antigenic sites, as well as the likely Mediterranean region origin of the strains. Simplot and bootscanning analyses of the complete genomes indicated complicated evolutionary history of the non-capsid coding regions of the genome suggesting several recombinations with different HEV-C viruses in the past. PMID:19883702

Simonen, Marja-Leena; Roivainen, Merja; Iber, Jane; Burns, Cara; Hovi, Tapani

2010-01-01

114

Estimating Costs Associated with a Community Outbreak of Meningococcal Disease in a Colombian Caribbean City  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Meningococcal disease is a serious and potentially life-threatening infection that is caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis), and it can cause meningitis, meningococcaemia outbreaks and epidemics. The disease is fatal in 9-12% of cases and with a death rate of up to 40% among patients with meningococcaemia. The objective of this study was to estimate the costs of a meningococcal outbreak that occurred in a Caribbean city of Colombia. We contacted experts involved in the outbreak and asked them specific questions about the diagnosis and treatment for meningococcal cases during the outbreak. Estimates of costs of the outbreak were also based on extensive review of medical records available during the outbreak. The costs associated with the outbreak were divided into the cost of the disease response phase and the cost of the disease surveillance phase. The costs associated with the outbreak control and surveillance were expressed in US$ (2011) as cost per 1,000 inhabitants. The average age of patients was 4.6 years (SD 3.5); 50% of the cases died; 50% of the cases were reported to have meningitis (3/6); 33% were diagnosed with meningococcaemia and myocarditis (2/6); 50% of the cases had bacteraemia (3/6); 66% of the cases had a culture specimen positive for Neisseria meningitidis; 5 of the 6 cases had RT-PCR positive for N. meningitidis. All N. meningitidis were serogroup B; 50 doses of ceftriaxone were administered as prophylaxis. Vaccine was not available at the time. The costs associated with control of the outbreak were estimated at US$ 0.8 per 1,000 inhabitants, disease surveillance at US$ 4.1 per 1,000 inhabitants, and healthcare costs at US$ 5.1 per 1,000 inhabitants. The costs associated with meningococcal outbreaks are substantial, and the outbreaks should be prevented. The mass chemoprophylaxis implemented helped control the outbreak.

Pinzon-Redondo, Hernando; Coronell-Rodriguez, Wilfrido; Diaz-Martinez, Ines; Guzman-Corena, Angel; Constenla, Dagna

2014-01-01

115

Surveillance for Waterborne Disease Outbreaks and Other Health Events Associated with Recreational Water -United States, 2007-2008  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: Since 1978, CDC, EPA, and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have collaborated on the Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) to capture data on waterborne disease outbreaks associated with recreational water. WBDOSS is the prima...

116

The importance of waterborne disease outbreak surveillance in the United States.  

PubMed

Analyses of the causes of disease outbreaks associated with contaminated drinking water in the United States have helped inform prevention efforts at the national, state, and local levels. This article describes the changing nature of disease outbreaks in public water systems during 1971-2008 and discusses the importance of a collaborative waterborne outbreak surveillance system established in 1971. Increasing reports of outbreaks throughout the early 1980s emphasized that microbial contaminants remained a health-risk challenge for suppliers of drinking water. Outbreak investigations identified the responsible etiologic agents and deficiencies in the treatment and distribution of drinking water, especially the high risk associated with unfiltered surface water systems. Surveillance information was important in establishing an effective research program that guided government regulations and industry actions to improve drinking water quality. Recent surveillance statistics suggest that prevention efforts based on these research findings have been effective in reducing outbreak risks especially for surface water systems. PMID:23247140

Craun, Gunther Franz

2012-01-01

117

Surveillance for Waterborne Disease Outbreaks Associated with Drinking Water United States, 2007-2008  

EPA Science Inventory

Problem/Condition: Since 1971, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have maintained a collaborative Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOS...

118

Ebola Virus Disease The current outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in West Africa has involved the  

E-print Network

Ebola Virus Disease The current outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in West Africa has involved the countries of Sierra Leone, Liberia, Guinea, and Nigeria. This has become the largest outbreak of Ebola want to make sure you have the most accurate information about this illness. What is Ebola Virus

MacAdam, Keith

119

Planning for smallpox outbreaks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mathematical models of viral transmission and control are important tools for assessing the threat posed by deliberate release of the smallpox virus and the best means of containing an outbreak. Models must balance biological realism against limitations of knowledge, and uncertainties need to be accurately communicated to policy-makers. Smallpox poses the particular challenge that key biological, social and spatial factors affecting disease spread in contemporary populations must be elucidated largely from historical studies undertaken before disease eradication in 1979. We review the use of models in smallpox planning within the broader epidemiological context set by recent outbreaks of both novel and re-emerging pathogens.

Ferguson, Neil M.; Keeling, Matt J.; John Edmunds, W.; Gani, Raymond; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Anderson, Roy M.; Leach, Steve

2003-10-01

120

Arthropod- and rodent-borne viral and rickettsial diseases in the WHO South-East Asia and Western Pacific Regions: Memorandum from a WHO Meeting*  

PubMed Central

Arthropod- and rodent-borne viral and rickettsial diseases continue to be one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in the WHO South-East Asia and Western Pacific Regions. Both epidemics and sporadic cases occur. In some years, outbreaks of dengue haemorrhagic fever and Japanese encephalitis reached alarming proportions. The significance of other arthropod- and rodent-borne viral and rickettsial diseases has still to be determined. Therefore, continuous epidemiological surveillance, diagnosis, and control of these groups of diseases remains an urgent task. The objectives, targets, priority areas, and strategies for future plans of action have been identified and recommendations formulated. PMID:6603917

1983-01-01

121

Alert Notification and Resource Allocation against Disease Outbreak using Web Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

When there is an outbreak of a certain disease, gathering individual patient history is a time-critical task. So is the allocating and finding medical products for the remedy. To address this problem, we introduce an infrastructure with Web services that provides a timely and effective way for the government, healthcare institutions, and businesses to cooperate, focusing on the outbreak notification

D. T. T. Lin; D. K. W. Chiu

2007-01-01

122

Beyond compliance: environmental health problem solving, interagency collaboration, and risk assessment to prevent waterborne disease outbreaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systems approach to environmental health problem solving was used to investigate two waterborne norovirus outbreaks in Wyoming and can serve in the development of improved prevention strategies. An interagency collaboration to prevent waterborne disease involving local, state, and federal partners was designed to coordinate response to outbreak investigations. Improved risk assessment and reporting procedures were also integrated to ensure

Joslyn D Cassady; Charles Higgins; Hugh M Mainzer; Scott A Seys; John Sarisky; Myfanwy Callahan; Karl J Musgrave

2006-01-01

123

Etiological and Epizootological Factors Associated with Outbreaks of Proliferative Gill Disease in Channel Catfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water, sediment, and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus were sampled from seven farms experiencing proliferative gill disease (PGD) outbreaks in spring 1992. At each farm, samples were collected from the pond that experienced the outbreak (PGD-positive pond) and from another pond where no PGD was observed (control pond). Seven species of Actinosporea were detected in the oligochaete populations of the ponds

B. L. Bellerud; L. M. Pote; T. L. Lin; M. J. Johnson; C. R. Boyle

1995-01-01

124

Impact of the 2001 Foot-and-Mouth Disease Outbreak in Britain: Implications for Rural Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper assesses the impact of the 2001 foot-and-mouth disease outbreak in terms of its implications for the discipline of rural studies. In particular, it focuses on the position of agriculture in rural economy and society, the standing of the government after its management of the outbreak, and the performance of the new devolved regional…

Scott, Alister; Christie, Michael; Midmore, Peter

2004-01-01

125

Energy Fields as Alternative Cures for Viral Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

As days go by, we hear more and more about HIV, Ebola, Bird Flu and other dreadful viruses which were unknown a few decades ago. In both detecting and fighting viral diseases ordinary methods have come across some basic and important difficulties. Vaccination is by a sense introduction of the virus to the immune system before the occurrence of the

S. Amirhassan Monadjemi; Narges Zarrabi; Naser Neamatbakhsh

2008-01-01

126

Viral Antibody Patterns in Laboratory Dogs With Respiratory Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Serologic tests were carried out to determine the occurrence of viral infections in 169 dogs during a 3-week conditioning period after their arrival at a laboratory. One hundred twenty-three (72.8%) of the dogs developed respiratory disease and 22 (13.0%)...

L. N. Binn, E. C. Lazar, J. Helms, R. E. Cross

1969-01-01

127

How infectious disease outbreaks affect community-based primary care physicians  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To compare how the infectious disease outbreaks H1N1 and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) affected community-based GPs and FPs. Design A mailed survey sent after the H1N1 outbreak compared with the results of similar survey completed after the SARS outbreak. Setting Greater Toronto area in Ontario. Participants A total of 183 randomly selected GPs and FPs who provided office-based care. Main outcome measures The perceptions of GPs and FPs on how serious infectious disease outbreaks affected their clinical work and personal lives; their preparedness for a serious infectious disease outbreak; and the types of information they want to receive and the sources they wanted to receive information from during a serious infectious disease outbreak. The responses from this survey were compared with the responses of GPs and FPs in the greater Toronto area who completed a similar survey in 2003 after the SARS outbreak. Results After the H1N1 outbreak, GPs and FPs still had substantial concerns about the effects of serious infectious disease outbreaks on the health of their family members. Physicians made changes to various office practices in order to manage and deal with patients with serious infectious diseases. They expressed concerns about the effects of an infectious disease on the provision of health care services. Also, physicians wanted to quickly receive accurate information from the provincial government and their medical associations. Conclusion Serious community-based infectious diseases are a personal concern for GPs and FPs, and have considerable effects on their clinical practice. Further work examining the timely flow of relevant information through different health care sectors and government agencies still needs to be undertaken. PMID:25316747

Jaakkimainen, R. Liisa; Bondy, Susan J.; Parkovnick, Meredith; Barnsley, Jan

2014-01-01

128

[A new viral infectious disease: Ebola haemorrhagic fever (author's transl)].  

PubMed

All references about a new viral infection, which was seen in Sudan and Zaire at 1976 called "Ebola Haemorrhagic Fever" with high fever, diarrhoea, vomiting and great systemic haemorrhagic manifestations were reviewed. We discussed the history, etiology, epidemiology, source of infections, mode of transmission, period of communicability, clinical and laboratory findings and control measures of the disease. Some comments were made about what could be done, if a new disease of unknown etiology is seen in any part of our country. PMID:7453587

Tuncer, A

1980-01-01

129

Estimating the Burden of Disease Associated with Outbreaks Reported to the U.S. Waterborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System: Identifying Limitations and Improvements (Final Report)  

EPA Science Inventory

This report demonstrates how data from the Waterborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) can be used to estimate disease burden and presents results using 30 years of data. This systematic analysis does not attempt to provide an estimate of the actual incidence and b...

130

Disease course and viral shedding in experimental Norwalk virus and Snow Mountain virus infection.  

PubMed

Norovirus is the most common cause of acute infectious gastroenteritis, causing approximately 21 million cases annually in the USA. The virus is highly contagious and resistant to decontamination, making outbreaks difficult to control. To facilitate the development of better control methods, this study characterized the viral shedding patterns in stools from subjects experimentally infected with genogroup I or II norovirus. Viral stool titers were determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR for all stools produced in the first 7 days post-challenge and representative stools through day 35 post-challenge. The shedding titers and disease course were analyzed with respect to virus type, illness, and subject demographics. Infection with GII.2 Snow Mountain (SMV) resulted in more symptoms and a higher frequency of painful symptoms compared to GI.1 Norwalk (NV) infection. However, NV infection produced stool viral titers approximately 2 logs higher than those seen in SMV infections. Both NV and SMV were shed in stools for up to 3 weeks after the resolution of symptoms, but long shedding durations were more common in NV infections. For each challenge virus, shedding titers and patterns were not correlated with subject demographics or clinical course. This is the first study to report shedding dynamics in experimental GII norovirus infection. J. Med. Virol. 86:2055-2064, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24531909

Kirby, A E; Shi, J; Montes, J; Lichtenstein, M; Moe, C L

2014-12-01

131

Epidemiology of the spread of viral diseases under aquaculture.  

PubMed

Aquaculture production is increasing rapidly worldwide. However, production has been associated with the emergence of several novel diseases, including viral diseases, that have caused serious problems for producers. Using examples largely from salmon farming in Scotland I review briefly the factors that allow transmission to occur in aquaculture. These include transmission through the water, which is relatively local to the infected farm, and anthropogenic transports (such as transport of fish between sites) that may occur over very long distances. A Disease Management Area (DMA) approach, as developed in Scotland to fight infectious salmon anaemia, can be effective at reducing pathogen transmission and hence disease emergence. PMID:23206337

Murray, Alexander G

2013-02-01

132

Fungi associated with drug recalls and rare disease outbreaks.  

PubMed

Fungi rarely cause disease outbreaks associated with use of microbe-contaminated drugs. These rare episodes typically involve a restricted spectrum of common environmental species with relatively low virulence, rather than classical pathogens. Review of data involving over-the-counter contact lens solutions and prescription drug-related recalls revealed six episodes during the past decade with significant adverse health and financial impact (including loss of vision and death). Contaminations involved fungi mostly identified with the genera Aspergillus, Exserohilum, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, and Rhizopus. These organisms are noted for their capacity to produce resistant morphotypes (chlamydoconidia, ascospores) under various adverse conditions, generally with temperature survival/tolerances markedly in excess of maximal growth temperatures. High constituent levels of melanin, trehalose and heat-shock proteins facilitate differential survival of morphotypes following exposures to toxic chemicals and temperatures above 80 °C. Adverse environmental factors that induce resistant morphotypes are suggested to occur more readily in situ than during in vitro testing. Rare unexplained, sporadic drug contamination episodes with select thermotolerant fungi may relate, in part, to resistant dormant stages. PMID:25173741

Ahearn, Donald G; Doyle Stulting, R

2014-11-01

133

Entomologic Investigations during an Outbreak of West Nile Virus Disease in Maricopa County, Arizona, 2010  

PubMed Central

Entomologic investigations were conducted during an intense outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) disease in Maricopa County, Arizona during July 31–August 9, 2010. The investigations compared the East Valley outbreak area, and a demographically similar control area in northwestern metropolitan Phoenix where no human cases were reported. Five mosquito species were identified in each area, and species composition was similar in both areas. Significantly more Culex quinquefasciatus females were collected by gravid traps at Outbreak sites (22.2 per trap night) than at control sites (8.9 per trap night), indicating higher Cx. quinquefasciatus abundance in the outbreak area. Twenty-eight WNV TaqMan reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction–positive mosquito pools were identified, including 24 of Cx. quinquefasciatus, 3 of Psorophora columbiae, and 1 of Culex sp. However, Cx. quinquefasciatus WNV infection rates did not differ between outbreak and control sites. At outbreak sites, 30 of 39 engorged Cx. quinquefasciatus had fed on birds, 8 of 39 on humans, and 1 of 39 on a lizard. At control sites, 20 of 20 identified blood meals were from birds. Data suggest that Cx. quinquefasciatus was the primary enzootic and epidemic vector of this outbreak. The most important parameters in the outbreak were vector abundance and blood meal analysis, which suggested more frequent contact between Cx. quinquefasciatus and human hosts in the outbreak area compared with the control area. PMID:23109372

Godsey, Marvin S.; Burkhalter, Kristen; Young, Ginger; Delorey, Mark; Smith, Kirk; Townsend, John; Levy, Craig; Mutebi, John-Paul

2012-01-01

134

Recent Weather Extremes and Impacts on Agricultural Production and Vector-Borne Disease Outbreak Patterns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We document significant worldwide weather anomalies that affected agriculture and vector-borne disease outbreaks during the 2010 2012 period. We utilized 2000 2012 vegetation index and land surface temperature data from NASA s satellite-based Moderate Res...

A. Anyamba, C. J. Tucker, E. W. Pak, J. L. Small, S. C. Britch

2014-01-01

135

A Nosocomial Norovirus Outbreak Masquerading as Clostridium Difficile Disease  

PubMed Central

Noroviruses (NoVs) are increasingly being recognized as an important enteric pathogen. We investigated a nosocomial NoV outbreak at a university-based hospital that was originally attributed to Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). We describe the unique challenges and the important lessons learned in the identification of noroviruses as the true etiologic pathogen in an outbreak healthcare setting, where CDI is endemic. PMID:19245344

Koo, Hoonmo L.; Ajami, Nadim J.; Jiang, Zhi-Dong; DuPont, Herbert L.; Atmar, Robert L.; Lewis, Debra; Byers, Patricia; Abraham, Paula; Quijano, Ricardo A.; Musher, Daniel M.; Young, Edward J.

2013-01-01

136

War diseases revealed by the social media: massive leishmaniasis outbreak in the Syrian Spring  

PubMed Central

Social media introduce pivotal changes to communication between individuals, organizations and communities. A clear example of the power of social media is the spread of the revolutionary outbreaks in the Arabic countries during 2011, where people used Facebook, YouTube and Skype to communicate, organise meetings and protest actions. Here I report how Doctor-Activists use these social media as an alarm system for ‘war diseaseoutbreaks in the Syrian Spring. Social media are used as an alarm system to attract the attention of international organizations, which should assume their responsibilities and play their part in controlling the outbreak of such war diseases. PMID:23587258

2013-01-01

137

Viral hemorrhagic fever  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) is a severe, often fatal disease in humans and nonhuman primates (e.g., monkeys and chimpanzees). The two main causes of VHF are Marburg and Ebola virus infection. Lassa fever and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever occur less commonly. Marburg and Ebola viruses are RNA filoviruses. Filoviruses first emerged as the cause of significant clinical outbreaks of VHF in

Amy Boardman

2003-01-01

138

General outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease (IID) in hospitals, England and Wales, 1992–2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1992 and 2000, 26.6% (1396\\/5257) of all general outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease (IID) reported to the Public Health Laboratory Service (PHLS) Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre (CDSC) occurred in hospitals. Over 29000 patients and staff were affected and the mortality risk was higher than for outbreaks in other settings [relative risk 2.00 (95% CI: 1.52–2.63) P<0.001]. Person-to-person spread was

S. M. Meakins; G. K. Adak; B. A. Lopman; S. J. O'Brien

2003-01-01

139

Respiratory-borne Disease Outbreaks in Populations: Contact Networks and the Spread of Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large class of infectious diseases spread through direct person-to-person contact. Traditional ``compartmental'' modeling in epidemiology assumes that in population groups every individual has an equal chance of spreading the disease to every other. The patterns of these contacts, however, tend to be highly heterogeneous. Explicit models of the patterns of contact among individuals in a community, contact network models, underlie a powerful approach to predicting and controlling the spread of such infectious disease and provide detailed and valuable insight into the fate and control of an outbreak. We use contact network epidemiology to predict the impact of various control policies for both a mildly contagious disease such as SARS and a more highly contagious disease such as smallpox. We demonstrate how integrating these tools into public health decision-making should facilitate more rational strategies for managing newly emerging diseases, bioterrorism and pandemic influenza in situations where empirical data are not yet available to guide decision making.

Pourbohloul, Babak; Meyers, Lauren A.; Newman, Mark E. J.; Skowronski, Danuta M.

2005-03-01

140

Large outbreak of Legionnaires' disease and Pontiac fever at a military base.  

PubMed

We investigated a mixed outbreak of Legionnaires' disease (LD) and Pontiac fever (PF) at a military base to identify the outbreak's environmental source as well as known legionellosis risk factors. Base workers with possible legionellosis were interviewed and, if consenting, underwent testing for legionellosis. A retrospective cohort study collected information on occupants of the buildings closest to the outbreak source. We identified 29 confirmed and probable LD and 38 PF cases. All cases were exposed to airborne pathogens from a cooling tower. Occupants of the building closest to the cooling tower were 6·9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2·2-22·0] and 5·5 (95% CI 2·1-14·5) times more likely to develop LD and PF, respectively, than occupants of the next closest building. Thorough preventive measures and aggressive responses to outbreaks, including searching for PF cases in mixed legionellosis outbreaks, are essential for legionellosis control. PMID:25267405

Ambrose, J; Hampton, L M; Fleming-Dutra, K E; Marten, C; McClusky, C; Perry, C; Clemmons, N A; McCormic, Z; Peik, S; Mancuso, J; Brown, E; Kozak, N; Travis, T; Lucas, C; Fields, B; Hicks, L; Cersovsky, S B

2014-11-01

141

Rapid induction of virus-neutralizing antibodies and viral clearance in a single-source outbreak of hepatitis C  

PubMed Central

In contrast to a detailed understanding of antiviral cellular immune responses, the impact of neutralizing antibodies for the resolution of acute hepatitis C is poorly defined. The analysis of neutralizing responses has been hampered by the fact that patient cohorts as well as hepatitis C virus (HCV) strains are usually heterogeneous, and that clinical data from acute-phase and long-term follow-up after infection are not readily available. Using an infectious retroviral HCV pseudoparticle model system, we studied a cohort of women accidentally exposed to the same HCV strain of known sequence. In this single-source outbreak of hepatitis C, viral clearance was associated with a rapid induction of neutralizing antibodies in the early phase of infection. Neutralizing antibodies decreased or disappeared after recovery from HCV infection. In contrast, chronic HCV infection was characterized by absent or low-titer neutralizing antibodies in the early phase of infection and the persistence of infection despite the induction of cross-neutralizing antibodies in the late phase of infection. These data suggest that rapid induction of neutralizing antibodies during the early phase of infection may contribute to control of HCV infection. This finding may have important implications for understanding the pathogenesis of HCV infection and for the development of novel preventive and therapeutic antiviral strategies. PMID:17392433

Pestka, Jan M.; Zeisel, Mirjam B.; Bläser, Edith; Schürmann, Peter; Bartosch, Birke; Cosset, Francois-Loïc; Patel, Arvind H.; Meisel, Helga; Baumert, Jens; Viazov, Sergei; Rispeter, Kay; Blum, Hubert E.; Roggendorf, Michael; Baumert, Thomas F.

2007-01-01

142

Fault tree analysis of the causes of waterborne outbreaks.  

PubMed

Prevention and containment of outbreaks requires examination of the contribution and interrelation of outbreak causative events. An outbreak fault tree was developed and applied to 61 enteric outbreaks related to public drinking water supplies in the EU. A mean of 3.25 causative events per outbreak were identified; each event was assigned a score based on percentage contribution per outbreak. Source and treatment system causative events often occurred concurrently (in 34 outbreaks). Distribution system causative events occurred less frequently (19 outbreaks) but were often solitary events contributing heavily towards the outbreak (a mean % score of 87.42). Livestock and rainfall in the catchment with no/inadequate filtration of water sources contributed concurrently to 11 of 31 Cryptosporidium outbreaks. Of the 23 protozoan outbreaks experiencing at least one treatment causative event, 90% of these events were filtration deficiencies; by contrast, for bacterial, viral, gastroenteritis and mixed pathogen outbreaks, 75% of treatment events were disinfection deficiencies. Roughly equal numbers of groundwater and surface water outbreaks experienced at least one treatment causative event (18 and 17 outbreaks, respectively). Retrospective analysis of multiple outbreaks of enteric disease can be used to inform outbreak investigations, facilitate corrective measures, and further develop multi-barrier approaches. PMID:17890833

Risebro, Helen L; Doria, Miguel F; Andersson, Yvonne; Medema, Gertjan; Osborn, Keith; Schlosser, Olivier; Hunter, Paul R

2007-01-01

143

Factors influencing psychological distress during a disease epidemic: Data from Australia's first outbreak of equine influenza  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In 2007 Australia experienced its first outbreak of highly infectious equine influenza. Government disease control measures were put in place to control, contain, and eradicate the disease; these measures included movement restrictions and quarantining of properties. This study was conducted to assess the psycho-social impacts of this disease, and this paper reports the prevalence of, and factors influencing, psychological

Melanie R Taylor; Kingsley E Agho; Garry J Stevens; Beverley Raphael

2008-01-01

144

Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 2. Description of outbreaks by size, severity, and settings.  

PubMed

This article is the second in a series of several by members of the Committee on the Control of Foodborne Illness of the International Association of Food Protection, and it continues the analysis of 816 outbreaks where food workers were implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. In this article, we discuss case morbidity and mortality and the settings where the 816 outbreaks occurred. Some of the outbreaks were very large; 11 involved more than 1,000 persons, 4 with more than 3,000 ill. The larger outbreaks tended to be extended over several days with a continuing source of infections, such as at festivals, resorts, and community events, or the contaminated product had been shipped to a large number of customers, e.g., icing on cakes or exported raspberries. There were five outbreaks with more than 100 persons hospitalized, with rates ranging from 9.9 to 100%. However, overall, the hospitalization rate was low (1.4%), and deaths were rare (0.11% of the 80,682 cases). Many of the deaths were associated with high-risk persons (i.e., those who had underlying diseases, malnutrition, or both, as in a refugee camp, or young children), but a few occurred with apparently healthy adults. An analysis of the settings for the food worker-related events showed that most of the outbreaks came from food service facilities (376 outbreaks [46.1%]), followed by catered events (126 outbreaks [15.4%]), the home (83 outbreaks [10.2%]), schools and day care centers (49 [6.0%]), and health care institutions (43 outbreaks [5.3%]). However, many cases resulted from relatively few outbreaks (< 30 each) associated with community events (9,726), processing plants (8,580), mobile/temporary service (5,367), and camps/ armed forces (5,117). The single most frequently reported setting was restaurants, with 324 outbreaks and 16,938 cases. Improper hygienic practices in homes, on picnics, or at community events accounted for 89 of the 816 outbreaks. There were 18 outbreaks associated with commercial travel in air flights, trains, and cruise ships over several decades, although only the last seems to be a major concern today. Sixteen outbreaks occurred where food, primarily produce, was harvested and shipped from one country to another. Sometimes the presence of an infected worker preparing food was only one of several factors contributing to the outbreak. PMID:17803160

Todd, Ewen C D; Greig, Judy D; Bartleson, Charles A; Michaels, Barry S

2007-08-01

145

Genome Sequence of Coxsackievirus A6, Isolated during a Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease Outbreak in Finland in 2008  

PubMed Central

Reports of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) outbreaks caused by coxsackievirus A6 have increased worldwide after the report of the first outbreak in Finland in 2008. The complete genome of the first outbreak strain from a vesicle fluid specimen was determined. PMID:25323709

Koskinen, Satu; Merilahti, Pirjo; Pursiheimo, Juha-Pekka; Blomqvist, Soile; Roivainen, Merja; Laiho, Asta; Susi, Petri; Waris, Matti

2014-01-01

146

Outbreaks of Disease Suspected of Being Due to Human Monkeypox Virus Infection in the Democratic Republic of Congo in 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven outbreaks of disease characterized by a pustular rash and suspected to have been caused by human monkeypox virus were investigated. The outbreaks occurred between February and August 2001 in the province of Equateur in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The outbreaks involved a total of 31 persons and caused five deaths. Specimens from 14 patients were available and were

Hermann Meyer; Mathilde Perrichot; Markus Stemmler; Petra Emmerich; Herbert Schmitz; Francis Varaine; Robert Shungu; Florimond Tshioko; Pierre Formenty

2002-01-01

147

Infectious diseases and their outbreaks in Asia-Pacific: biodiversity and its regulation loss matter.  

PubMed

Despite increasing control measures, numerous parasitic and infectious diseases are emerging, re-emerging or causing recurrent outbreaks particularly in Asia and the Pacific region, a hot spot of both infectious disease emergence and biodiversity at risk. We investigate how biodiversity affects the distribution of infectious diseases and their outbreaks in this region, taking into account socio-economics (population size, GDP, public health expenditure), geography (latitude and nation size), climate (precipitation, temperature) and biodiversity (bird and mammal species richness, forest cover, mammal and bird species at threat). We show, among countries, that the overall richness of infectious diseases is positively correlated with the richness of birds and mammals, but the number of zoonotic disease outbreaks is positively correlated with the number of threatened mammal and bird species and the number of vector-borne disease outbreaks is negatively correlated with forest cover. These results suggest that, among countries, biodiversity is a source of pathogens, but also that the loss of biodiversity or its regulation, as measured by forest cover or threatened species, seems to be associated with an increase in zoonotic and vector-borne disease outbreaks. PMID:24587201

Morand, Serge; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Abdullah, Mohd Tajuddin; Huan, Tan Boon

2014-01-01

148

2011 Arctic Seal Disease Outbreak Updated November 10, 2011  

E-print Network

to date, and samples thus far have tested negative for poxvirus, herpesvirus, papillomavirus the numbers of affected animals are above what is considered usual, we are calling this an "outbreak." What researchers continue to test for a wide range of possible factors. Biologists and veterinarians are taking

149

Seroepidemiological Study after a Long-Distance Industrial Outbreak of Legionnaires' Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following a long-distance outbreak of Legionnaires' disease from an industrial air scrubber in Norway in 2005, a seroepidemiological study measuring levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies to Legio- nella pneumophila was performed with a polyvalent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. One year after the outbreak, IgG levels in employees (n 213) at the industrial plant harboring the scrubber and in

E. Wedege; T. Bergdal; K. Bolstad; D. A. Caugant; J. Efskind; H. E. Heier; A. Kanestrom; B. H. Strand; I. S. Aaberge

2009-01-01

150

A Simulation Model of Waterborne Gastro-Intestinal Disease Outbreaks: Description and Initial Evaluation  

PubMed Central

We present an agent-based simulation model for generating realistic multivariable outbreak signals. The model defines a synthetic population and simulates the dissemination of pathogenic organisms through a municipal water distribution system, the mobility of individuals between geographic locations, their exposure to pathogens through water consumption, and disease progression in infected individuals. We present the results of an initial evaluation of the model – a simulation study replicating the historical outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Milwaukee in 1993. PMID:21347040

Okhmatovskaia, Anya; Verma, Aman D.; Barbeau, Benoit; Carriere, Annie; Pasquet, Romain; Buckeridge, David L.

2010-01-01

151

Sensitivity of three serum antibody tests in a large outbreak of Legionnaires' disease in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1999, an outbreak involving 188 patients with Legionnaires' disease (LD) occurred at a flower show in the Netherlands. This large outbreak provided the opportunity to evaluate serum antibody tests to assay anti-Legionella pneumophila, since limited data are available on the sensitivity of these tests. The sensitivities of an indirect serotype 1-6 immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), a rapid micro-agglutination test

Ed P. F. Yzerman; Boer de J. W; Kamilla D. Lettinga; Arnoud J. Schel; Joop Schellekens; Marcel Peeters

2006-01-01

152

Bayesian Reconstruction of Disease Outbreaks by Combining Epidemiologic and Genomic Data  

PubMed Central

Recent years have seen progress in the development of statistically rigorous frameworks to infer outbreak transmission trees (“who infected whom”) from epidemiological and genetic data. Making use of pathogen genome sequences in such analyses remains a challenge, however, with a variety of heuristic approaches having been explored to date. We introduce a statistical method exploiting both pathogen sequences and collection dates to unravel the dynamics of densely sampled outbreaks. Our approach identifies likely transmission events and infers dates of infections, unobserved cases and separate introductions of the disease. It also proves useful for inferring numbers of secondary infections and identifying heterogeneous infectivity and super-spreaders. After testing our approach using simulations, we illustrate the method with the analysis of the beginning of the 2003 Singaporean outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), providing new insights into the early stage of this epidemic. Our approach is the first tool for disease outbreak reconstruction from genetic data widely available as free software, the R package outbreaker. It is applicable to various densely sampled epidemics, and improves previous approaches by detecting unobserved and imported cases, as well as allowing multiple introductions of the pathogen. Because of its generality, we believe this method will become a tool of choice for the analysis of densely sampled disease outbreaks, and will form a rigorous framework for subsequent methodological developments. PMID:24465202

Jombart, Thibaut; Cori, Anne; Didelot, Xavier; Cauchemez, Simon; Fraser, Christophe; Ferguson, Neil

2014-01-01

153

Marek's Disease Marek's Disease is a viral tumor-causing disease of chickens. Marek's is distributed worldwide and is  

E-print Network

Marek's Disease Marek's Disease is a viral tumor-causing disease of chickens. Marek of whether they show symptoms or not. There are 4 different forms of Marek's: Marek's Disease is caused by 6 and is shed in dander. Marek's disease-causing virus particles can survive for months in chicken-house dust

New Hampshire, University of

154

Detection of Severe Respiratory Disease Epidemic Outbreaks by CUSUM-Based Overcrowd-Severe-Respiratory-Disease-Index Model  

PubMed Central

A severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreak correlates with a high demand of specific supplies and specialized personnel to hold it back in a wide region or set of regions; these supplies would be beds, storage areas, hemodynamic monitors, and mechanical ventilators, as well as physicians, respiratory technicians, and specialized nurses. We describe an online cumulative sum based model named Overcrowd-Severe-Respiratory-Disease-Index based on the Modified Overcrowd Index that simultaneously monitors and informs the demand of those supplies and personnel in a healthcare network generating early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks through the interpretation of such variables. A post hoc historical archive is generated, helping physicians in charge to improve the transit and future allocation of supplies in the entire hospital network during the outbreak. The model was thoroughly verified in a virtual scenario, generating multiple epidemic outbreaks in a 6-year span for a 13-hospital network. When it was superimposed over the H1N1 influenza outbreak census (2008–2010) taken by the National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubiran in Mexico City, it showed that it is an effective algorithm to notify early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks with a minimal rate of false alerts. PMID:24069063

Castanon-Gonzalez, Jorge Alberto; Macias, Alejandro E.; Samaniego, Jose Lino; Buhse, Thomas; Villanueva-Martinez, Sebastian

2013-01-01

155

In 2005, an outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) disease occurred in Sacramento County, California; 163 human cas-  

E-print Network

the economic impact of the outbreak, including the vector control event and the medical cost to treat WNVIn 2005, an outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) disease occurred in Sacramento County, California disease. WNV disease in Sacramento County cost $2.28 million for medical treatment and patients' pro

Peterson, Robert K. D.

156

Estimating challenge load due to disease outbreaks and other challenges using reproduction records of sows.  

PubMed

A method was developed and tested to estimate challenge load due to disease outbreaks and other challenges in sows using reproduction records. The method was based on reproduction records from a farm with known disease outbreaks. It was assumed that the reduction in weekly reproductive output within a farm is proportional to the magnitude of the challenge. As the challenge increases beyond certain threshold, it is manifested as an outbreak. The reproduction records were divided into 3 datasets. The first dataset called the Training dataset consisted of 57,135 reproduction records from 10,901 sows from 1 farm in Canada with several outbreaks of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). The known disease status of sows was regressed on the traits number born alive, number of losses as a combination of still birth and mummified piglets, and number of weaned piglets. The regression coefficients from this analysis were then used as weighting factors for derivation of an index measure called challenge load indicator. These weighting factors were derived with i) a two-step approach using residuals or year-week solutions estimated from a previous step, and ii) a single-step approach using the trait values directly. Two types of models were used for each approach: a logistic regression model and a general additive model. The estimates of challenge load indicator were then compared based on their ability to detect PRRS outbreaks in a Test dataset consisting of records from 65,826 sows from 15 farms in the Netherlands. These farms differed from the Canadian farm with respect to PRRS virus strains, severity and frequency of outbreaks. The single-step approach using a general additive model was best and detected 14 out of the 15 outbreaks. This approach was then further validated using the third dataset consisting of reproduction records of 831,855 sows in 431 farms located in different countries in Europe and America. A total of 41 out of 48 outbreaks detected using data analysis were confirmed based on diagnostic information received from the farms. Among these, 30 outbreaks were due to PRRS while 11 were due to other diseases and challenging conditions. The results suggest that proposed method could be useful for estimation of challenge load and detection of challenge phases such as disease outbreaks. PMID:25367523

Mathur, P K; Herrero-Medrano, J M; Alexandri, P; Knol, E F; Napel, J Ten; Rashidi, H; Mulder, H A

2014-12-01

157

The role of phenoloxidase suppression in QX disease outbreaks among Sydney rock oysters  

E-print Network

The role of phenoloxidase suppression in QX disease outbreaks among Sydney rock oysters (Saccostrea in Sydney rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata). QX disease affects the farming of oysters in Queensland for oyster production. This study investigated the relationship between oyster host defense systems and QX

Raftos, David

158

Modeling and simulating a disease outbreak by learning a contagion parameter-based model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various advanced disease-surveillance models have been developed to provide early detection of infectious disease outbreaks and bioterrorist attacks. New methods that increase the overall detection capabilities of these systems can have a broad practical impact. This paper considers the problem of learning the Contagion Parameter (CP) in a black box model involving healthy, sick and contagious individuals. We base our

B. John Oommen; Dragos Calitoiu

2008-01-01

159

Stochastical modeling for Viral Disease: Statistical Mechanics and Network Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical methods of statistical mechanics are developed and applied to study the immunological response against viral disease, such as dengue. We use this theory to show how the immune response to four different dengue serotypes may be sculpted. It is the ability of avian influenza, to change and to mix, that has given rise to the fear of a new human flu pandemic. Here we propose to utilize a scale free network based stochastic model to investigate the mitigation strategies and analyze the risk.

Zhou, Hao; Deem, Michael

2007-04-01

160

Climate Teleconnections and Recent Patterns of Human and Animal Disease Outbreaks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent clusters of outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases (Rift Valley fever and chikungunya) in Africa and parts of the Indian Ocean islands illustrate how interannual climate variability influences the changing risk patterns of disease outbreaks. Extremes in rainfall (drought and flood) during the period 2004 - 2009 have privileged different disease vectors. Chikungunya outbreaks occurred during the severe drought from late 2004 to 2006 over coastal East Africa and the western Indian Ocean islands and in the later years India and Southeast Asia. The chikungunya pandemic was caused by a Central/East African genotype that appears to have been precipitated and then enhanced by global-scale and regional climate conditions in these regions. Outbreaks of Rift Valley fever occurred following excessive rainfall period from late 2006 to late 2007 in East Africa and Sudan, and then in 2008 - 2009 in Southern Africa. The shift in the outbreak patterns of Rift Valley fever from East Africa to Southern Africa followed a transition of the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomena from the warm El Nino phase (2006-2007) to the cold La Nina phase (2007-2009) and associated patterns of variability in the greater Indian Ocean basin that result in the displacement of the centres of above normal rainfall from Eastern to Southern Africa. Understanding the background patterns of climate variability both at global and regional scale and their impacts on ecological drivers of vector borne-diseases is critical in long-range planning of appropriate response and mitigation measures.

Anyamba, Assaf; Linthicum, Kenneth J.; Small, Jennifer L.; Collins, Katherine M.; Tucker, Compton J.; Pak, Edwin W.; Britch, Seth C.; Eastman, James Ronald; Pinzon, Jorge E.; Russell, Kevin L.

2011-01-01

161

Clinical Disease Severity of Respiratory Viral Co-Infection versus Single Viral Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Results from cohort studies evaluating the severity of respiratory viral co-infections are conflicting. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the clinical severity of viral co-infections as compared to single viral respiratory infections. Methods We searched electronic databases and other sources for studies published up to January 28, 2013. We included observational studies on inpatients with respiratory illnesses comparing the clinical severity of viral co-infections to single viral infections as detected by molecular assays. The primary outcome reflecting clinical disease severity was length of hospital stay (LOS). A random-effects model was used to conduct the meta-analyses. Results Twenty-one studies involving 4,280 patients were included. The overall quality of evidence applying the GRADE approach ranged from moderate for oxygen requirements to low for all other outcomes. No significant differences in length of hospital stay (LOS) (mean difference (MD) ?0.20 days, 95% CI ?0.94, 0.53, p?=?0.59), or mortality (RR 2.44, 95% CI 0.86, 6.91, p?=?0.09) were documented in subjects with viral co-infections compared to those with a single viral infection. There was no evidence for differences in effects across age subgroups in post hoc analyses with the exception of the higher mortality in preschool children (RR 9.82, 95% CI 3.09, 31.20, p<0.001) with viral co-infection as compared to other age groups (I2 for subgroup analysis 64%, p?=?0.04). Conclusions No differences in clinical disease severity between viral co-infections and single respiratory infections were documented. The suggested increased risk of mortality observed amongst children with viral co-infections requires further investigation. PMID:24932493

Asner, Sandra A.; Science, Michelle E.; Tran, Dat; Smieja, Marek; Merglen, Arnaud; Mertz, Dominik

2014-01-01

162

An emerging recombinant human enterovirus 71 responsible for the 2008 outbreak of hand foot and mouth disease in Fuyang city of China.  

PubMed

Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), a common contagious disease that usually affects children, is normally mild but can have life-threatening manifestations. It can be caused by enteroviruses, particularly Coxsackieviruses and human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) with highly variable clinical manifestations. In the spring of 2008, a large, unprecedented HFMD outbreak in Fuyang city of Anhui province in the central part of southeastern China resulted in a high aggregation of fatal cases. In this study, epidemiologic and clinical investigations, laboratory testing, and genetic analyses were performed to identify the causal pathogen of the outbreak. Of the 6,049 cases reported between 1 March and 9 May of 2008, 3023 (50%) were hospitalized, 353 (5.8%) were severe and 22 (0.36%) were fatal. HEV71 was confirmed as the etiological pathogen of the outbreak. Phylogenetic analyses of entire VP1 capsid protein sequence of 45 Fuyang HEV71 isolates showed that they belong to C4a cluster of the C4 subgenotype. In addition, genetic recombinations were found in the 3D region (RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, a major component of the viral replication complex of the genome) between the Fuyang HEV71 strain and Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16), resulting in a recombination virus. In conclusion, an emerging recombinant HEV71 was responsible for the HFMD outbreak in Fuyang City of China, 2008. PMID:20459851

Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Zhen; Yang, Weizhong; Ren, Jun; Tan, Xiaojuan; Wang, Yu; Mao, Naiying; Xu, Songtao; Zhu, Shuangli; Cui, Aili; Zhang, Yong; Yan, Dongmei; Li, Qun; Dong, Xiaoping; Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Yueping; Wan, Junfeng; Feng, Zijian; Sun, Junling; Wang, Shiwen; Li, Dexin; Xu, Wenbo

2010-01-01

163

The AFHSC-Division of GEIS Operations Predictive Surveillance Program: a multidisciplinary approach for the early detection and response to disease outbreaks.  

PubMed

The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System Operations (AFHSC-GEIS) initiated a coordinated, multidisciplinary program to link data sets and information derived from eco-climatic remote sensing activities, ecologic niche modeling, arthropod vector, animal disease-host/reservoir, and human disease surveillance for febrile illnesses, into a predictive surveillance program that generates advisories and alerts on emerging infectious disease outbreaks. The program's ultimate goal is pro-active public health practice through pre-event preparedness, prevention and control, and response decision-making and prioritization. This multidisciplinary program is rooted in over 10 years experience in predictive surveillance for Rift Valley fever outbreaks in Eastern Africa. The AFHSC-GEIS Rift Valley fever project is based on the identification and use of disease-emergence critical detection points as reliable signals for increased outbreak risk. The AFHSC-GEIS predictive surveillance program has formalized the Rift Valley fever project into a structured template for extending predictive surveillance capability to other Department of Defense (DoD)-priority vector- and water-borne, and zoonotic diseases and geographic areas. These include leishmaniasis, malaria, and Crimea-Congo and other viral hemorrhagic fevers in Central Asia and Africa, dengue fever in Asia and the Americas, Japanese encephalitis (JE) and chikungunya fever in Asia, and rickettsial and other tick-borne infections in the U.S., Africa and Asia. PMID:21388561

Witt, Clara J; Richards, Allen L; Masuoka, Penny M; Foley, Desmond H; Buczak, Anna L; Musila, Lillian A; Richardson, Jason H; Colacicco-Mayhugh, Michelle G; Rueda, Leopoldo M; Klein, Terry A; Anyamba, Assaf; Small, Jennifer; Pavlin, Julie A; Fukuda, Mark M; Gaydos, Joel; Russell, Kevin L; Wilkerson, Richard C; Gibbons, Robert V; Jarman, Richard G; Myint, Khin S; Pendergast, Brian; Lewis, Sheri; Pinzon, Jorge E; Collins, Kathrine; Smith, Matthew; Pak, Edwin; Tucker, Compton; Linthicum, Kenneth; Myers, Todd; Mansour, Moustafa; Earhart, Ken; Kim, Heung Chul; Jiang, Ju; Schnabel, Dave; Clark, Jeffrey W; Sang, Rosemary C; Kioko, Elizabeth; Abuom, David C; Grieco, John P; Richards, Erin E; Tobias, Steven; Kasper, Matthew R; Montgomery, Joel M; Florin, Dave; Chretien, Jean-Paul; Philip, Trudy L

2011-01-01

164

Using multitype branching processes to quantify statistics of disease outbreaks in zoonotic epidemics.  

PubMed

Branching processes have served as a model for chemical reactions, biological growth processes, and contagion (of disease, information, or fads). Through this connection, these seemingly different physical processes share some common universalities that can be elucidated by analyzing the underlying branching process. In this work we focus on coupled branching processes as a model of infectious diseases spreading from one population to another. An exceedingly important example of such coupled outbreaks are zoonotic infections that spill over from animal populations to humans. We derive several statistical quantities characterizing the first spillover event from animals to humans, including the probability of spillover, the first passage time distribution for human infection, and disease prevalence in the animal population at spillover. Large stochastic fluctuations in those quantities can make inference of the state of the system at the time of spillover difficult. Focusing on outbreaks in the human population, we then characterize the critical threshold for a large outbreak, the distribution of outbreak sizes, and associated scaling laws. These all show a strong dependence on the basic reproduction number in the animal population and indicate the existence of a novel multicritical point with altered scaling behavior. The coupling of animal and human infection dynamics has crucial implications, most importantly allowing for the possibility of large human outbreaks even when human-to-human transmission is subcritical. PMID:24730870

Singh, Sarabjeet; Schneider, David J; Myers, Christopher R

2014-03-01

165

Simulation study of the mechanisms underlying outbreaks of clinical disease caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in finishing pigs.  

PubMed

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a major cause of respiratory disease in pigs. Many farms are endemically infected without apparent disease, but occasionally severe outbreaks of pleuropneumonia occur. To prevent and control these outbreaks without antibiotics, the underlying mechanisms of these outbreaks need to be understood. Outbreaks are probably initiated by a trigger (common risk factor) changing the host-pathogen interaction, but it is unclear whether this trigger causes all cases directly (trigger mechanism), or whether the first case starts a transmission chain inducing disease in the infected contacts (transmission mechanism). The aim of this study was to identify conditions under which these mechanisms could cause A.?pleuropneumoniae outbreaks, and to assess means for prevention and control. Outbreaks were first characterised by data from a literature review, defining an average outbreak at 12?weeks of age, affecting 50% of animals within 4?days. Simple mathematical models describing the two mechanisms can reproduce average outbreaks, with two observations supporting the trigger mechanism: (1) disease should be transmitted 50 times faster than supported by literature if there is a transmission chain; and (2) the trigger mechanism is consistent with the absence of reported outbreaks in young pigs as they have not yet been colonised by the bacterium. In conclusion, outbreaks of A.?pleuropneumoniae on endemic farms are most likely caused by a trigger inducing pneumonia in already infected pigs, but more evidence is needed to identify optimum preventive interventions. PMID:25155305

Klinkenberg, D; Tobias, T J; Bouma, A; van Leengoed, L A M G; Stegeman, J A

2014-10-01

166

Experimental pathogenesis for chickens, turkeys, and pigeons of exotic Newcastle disease virus from an outbreak in California during 2002-2003.  

PubMed

Exotic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from chickens during the 2002-2003 California outbreak (CA exotic Newcastle disease [END] virus) was inoculated into 4-week-old specific-pathogen-free (SPF) White Leghorn chickens, 3-week-old SPF Beltsville White turkeys, 6-week-old commercial Broad Breasted White turkeys, and 10- to 20-week-old racing pigeons, and the clinicopathologic features of disease were compared. Birds were monitored clinically and euthanized sequentially with collection of tissues. Tissues were examined by histopathology, by immunohistochemistry to detect viral nucleoprotein, and by in situ hybridization to detect viral mRNA. Clinically, infected chickens and SPF turkeys showed severe depression, and all died or were euthanized because of severe clinical signs by day 5 postinoculation. In these birds, histologic lesions were widespread and virus was detected in multiple organs. All infected commercial turkeys showed mild depression, and incoordination was observed in some birds. Histologic lesions were mild, and viral distribution was limited. In pigeons, only 1 bird showed overt clinical disease, and histologic lesions and viral distribution were present in limited organs. Consequently, susceptibility to highly virulent NDV was shown to vary among chickens, SPF turkeys, commercial turkeys, and pigeons. Additionally, we have evidence of CA END virus subclinical infections that suggest pigeons could be subclinical carriers of other virulent NDV. PMID:17099149

Wakamatsu, N; King, D J; Kapczynski, D R; Seal, B S; Brown, C C

2006-11-01

167

Emergence of salsa and guacamole as frequent vehicles of foodborne disease outbreaks in the United States, 1973-2008.  

PubMed

Fresh salsa and guacamole often contain diced raw produce, are often made in large batches, and are often poorly refrigerated, which may make them prone to contamination that can cause foodborne illness. The safety of salsa and guacamole is increasingly important as these foods gain popularity. Since 1973, local, state, and territorial health departments have voluntarily reported foodborne disease outbreaks to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System (FDOSS) using a standard reporting form. FDOSS used paper-based reporting for 1973-1997 and switched to electronic reporting for 1998-2008. We reviewed all reports of outbreaks during 1973-2008 in which salsa or guacamole was reported as a vehicle. We found 136 outbreaks in which salsa or guacamole was reported as a possible vehicle, which resulted in 5,658 illnesses. Of these 136 salsa- or guacamole-associated (SGA) outbreaks additional possible food vehicles were reported for 33 (24%) outbreaks. There were no SGA outbreaks reported before 1984. Among reported outbreaks, most were caused by norovirus (24%), nontyphoidal Salmonella (19%), and Shigella (7%). Eighty-four percent of outbreaks were caused by foods prepared in restaurants or delis; of these, 19% reported ill foodworkers, and 29% reported improper storage as possible contributing factors. Among all foodborne disease outbreaks with a reported food vehicle during 1984-1997, 26 (0.9%) of 2,966 outbreaks were SGA, and during 1998-2008, 110 (1.4%) of 7,738 outbreaks were SGA. The number of reported foodborne disease outbreaks attributable to salsa or guacamole increased in the United States from 1984 to 2008, especially in later years, and especially in restaurants. Fresh salsa and guacamole require careful preparation and storage. Focused prevention strategies should reduce the risk of illness and ensure that these foods are enjoyed safely. PMID:23461608

Kendall, Magdalena E; Mody, Rajal K; Mahon, Barbara E; Doyle, Michael P; Herman, Karen M; Tauxe, Robert V

2013-04-01

168

RNA virus quasispecies: significance for viral disease and epidemiology.  

PubMed

The experimental evidence available for animal and plant RNA viruses, as well as other RNA genetic elements (viroids, satellites, retroelements, etc.), reinforces the view that many different types of genetic alterations may occur during RNA genome replication. This is fundamentally because of infidelity of genome replication and large population sizes. Homologous and heterologous recombination, as well as gene reassortments occur frequently during replication of retroviruses and most riboviruses, especially those that use enzymes with limited processivity. Following the generation of variant genomes, selection, which is dependent on environmental parameters in ways that are poorly understood, sorts out those genome fits enough to generate viable quasispecies. Chance events can also be destabilizing, as illustrated by recent results on fitness loss and other phenotypic changes accompanying bottleneck transmission. Variation, selection, and random sampling of genomes occur continuously and unavoidably during virus evolution. Evolution of RNA viruses is largely unpredictable because of the stochastic nature of mutation and recombination events, as well as the subtle effects of chance transmission events and host/environmental factors. Among environmental factors, alterations resulting from human intervention (deforestation, agricultural activities, global climatic changes, etc.) may alter dispersal patterns and provide new adaptive possibilities to viral quasispecies. Current understanding of RNA virus evolution suggests several strategies to control and diagnose viral diseases. The new generation of chemically defined vaccines and diagnostic reagents (monoclonal antibodies, peptide antigens, oligonucleotides for polymerase chain reaction amplification, etc.) may be adequate to prevent disease and detect some or even most of the circulating quasispecies of any given RNA pathogen. However, the dynamics of viral quasispecies mandate careful consideration of those reagents to be incorporated into diagnostic kits. Broadening diagnosis without jeopardizing specificity of detection will be challenging. There is a finite probability (impossible to quantify at present) that a defined vaccine may promote selection of escape mutants or a particular diagnostic kit may fail to detect a viral pathogen. Of particular concern are the potential long-term effects of weak selective pressures that may initially go unnoticed. Variant viruses resulting from evolutionary pressure imposed by vaccines or drugs may insidiously and gradually replace previous quasispecies. The great potential for variation and phenotypic diversity of some important RNA virus pathogens (human immunodeficiency virus, the hepatitis viruses, the newly recognized human hantaviruses, etc.) has become clear. Prevention and therapy should rely on multicomponent vaccines and antiviral agents to address the complexity of RNA quasispecies mutant spectra.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7827789

Duarte, E A; Novella, I S; Weaver, S C; Domingo, E; Wain-Hobson, S; Clarke, D K; Moya, A; Elena, S F; de la Torre, J C; Holland, J J

1994-08-01

169

Preventing diseases and outbreaks at child care centers using an education, evaluation, and inspection method.  

PubMed

From 2005 to 2008, Washoe County, Nevada, child care centers experienced an increase in illnesses from communicable disease outbreaks. The number of ill children and caregivers from these outbreaks went from 26 in 2005 to 266 in 2008, an increase of 923%. A clear need to reverse this trend existed. Therefore, in 2009 Washoe County strengthened its regulations for child care facilities by adding numerous communicable disease prevention standards. In addition, in 2009 a two-year education, evaluation, and inspection program was implemented at Washoe County child care centers. Following the implementation of this program, a decline occurred in the number of illnesses. The number of ill children and caregivers from outbreaks went from 266 in 2008 to 13 in 2011, a decrease of 95%. PMID:24683935

Wagner, Jordan; Clodfelter, Sharon

2014-03-01

170

Water-Borne Infectious Disease Outbreaks Associated with Water Scarcity and Rainfall Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a An important number of major infectious diseases are related to water. The greatest consequences for the human population\\u000a are the faecal-oral water-borne infectious diseases, which are transmitted by ingestion of the causal agents that are released\\u000a into water through faeces. The occurrence of outbreaks of water-borne infectious diseases could be affected by water scarcity\\u000a at different degrees depending on the

Juan Jofre; Anicet R. Blanch; Francisco Lucena

171

Variation in virulence among clades of Escherichia coli O157:H7 associated with disease outbreaks  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli O157:H7, a toxin-producing food and waterborne bacterial pathogen, has been linked to large outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness for more than two decades. E. coli O157 causes a wide range of clinical illness that varies by outbreak, although factors that contribute to variation in disease severity are poorly understood. Several recent outbreaks involving O157 contamination of fresh produce (e.g., spinach) were associated with more severe disease, as defined by higher hemolytic uremic syndrome and hospitalization frequencies, suggesting that increased virulence has evolved. To test this hypothesis, we developed a system that detects SNPs in 96 loci and applied it to >500 E. coli O157 clinical strains. Phylogenetic analyses identified 39 SNP genotypes that differ at 20% of SNP loci and are separated into nine distinct clades. Differences were observed between clades in the frequency and distribution of Shiga toxin genes and in the type of clinical disease reported. Patients with hemolytic uremic syndrome were significantly more likely to be infected with clade 8 strains, which have increased in frequency over the past 5 years. Genome sequencing of a spinach outbreak strain, a member of clade 8, also revealed substantial genomic differences. These findings suggest that an emergent subpopulation of the clade 8 lineage has acquired critical factors that contribute to more severe disease. The ability to detect and rapidly genotype O157 strains belonging to such lineages is important and will have a significant impact on both disease diagnosis and treatment guidelines. PMID:18332430

Manning, Shannon D.; Motiwala, Alifiya S.; Springman, A. Cody; Qi, Weihong; Lacher, David W.; Ouellette, Lindsey M.; Mladonicky, Janice M.; Somsel, Patricia; Rudrik, James T.; Dietrich, Stephen E.; Zhang, Wei; Swaminathan, Bala; Alland, David; Whittam, Thomas S.

2008-01-01

172

Outbreak of acute respiratory disease caused by human adenovirus type 7 in a military training camp in Shaanxi, China.  

PubMed

Outbreaks of ARD associated with HAdV have been reported in military populations in many countries. Here, we report an ARD outbreak caused by HAdV-7 in a military training camp in Shaanxi Province, China, from February to March of 2012. Epidemic data and samples from the patients were collected, and viral nucleotides from samples and viral isolations were detected and sequenced. IgG and IgA antibodies against HAdV, and the neutralization antibodies against the viral strain isolated in this outbreak, were detected. Epidemiological study showed that all personnel affected were males with an average age of 19.1 years. Two peaks appeared on the epicurve and there was an 8-day interval between peaks. Laboratory results of viral nucleotide detection carried out with clinical specimens were positive for HAdV (83.33%, 15/18). Further study through serum antibody assay, virus isolation and phylogenetic analysis showed that HAdV-7 was the etiological agent responsible for the outbreak. IgA antibody began to appear on the 4th day after the onset and showed 100% positivity on the 8th day. The virus strain in the present outbreak was highly similar to the virus isolated in Hanzhong Shaanxi in 2009. We conclude that HAdV-7 was the pathogen corresponding to the outbreak, and this is the first report of an ARD outbreak caused by HAdV-7 in military persons in China. Vaccine development, as well as enhanced epidemiological and virological surveillance of HAdV infections in China should be emphasized. PMID:23734976

Yu, Pengbo; Ma, Chaofeng; Nawaz, Muhammad; Han, Lei; Zhang, Jianfang; Du, Quanli; Zhang, Lixia; Feng, Qunling; Wang, Jingjun; Xu, Jiru

2013-08-01

173

Infectious Disease Outbreaks in Competitive Sports A Review of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent outbreaks of infectious diseases in athletes in competitive sports have stimulated considerable interest. The environ- ments in which these athletes compete, practice, receive therapy for injuries, and travel, both domestically and internationally, provide varied opportunities for the transmission of infectious organisms. The purpose of this medical literature review is to iden- tify the agents most commonly reported in the

Sean D. Turbeville; Linda D. Cowan; Ronald A. Greenfield

174

The Estimation of the Effective Reproductive Number from Disease Outbreak Data  

E-print Network

The Estimation of the Effective Reproductive Number from Disease Outbreak Data Ariel Cintr #12;Keywords: Effective reproductive number, basic reproduction ratio, reproduction number, R, R(t), R-Infected-Recovered (SIR) model and correspond- ing estimation procedures for the corresponding effective reproduction

175

SURVEILLANCE FOR WATERBORNE-DISEASE OUTBREAKS - UNITED STATES, 1999-2000  

EPA Science Inventory

PROBLEM/CONDITION: Since 1971, CDC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) have maintained a collaborative surveillance system for the occurrences and causes of waterborne-disease outbreaks (WBDOs).This surv...

176

SURVEILLANCE FOR WATERBORNE-DISEASE OUTBREAKS-UNITED STATES, 1997-1998  

EPA Science Inventory

PROBLEM/CONDITION: Since 1971, CDC and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have maintained a collaborative surveillance system for collecting and periodically reporting data relating to occurrences and causes of waterborne-disease outbreaks (WBDOs). REPORTING PERIOD CO...

177

1982 Shellfish-Related Disease Outbreak in New York State: Agency Response and Interaction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The shellfish-related disease outbreak of 1982 and initial public and private response to the problem pose important policy issues for the state in inter-agency relationships, enforcement of common properties, and value of public health versus economic he...

M. Becker

1983-01-01

178

VIRAL EVOLUTION Genomic surveillance elucidates  

E-print Network

VIRAL EVOLUTION Genomic surveillance elucidates Ebola virus origin and transmission during the 2014,12,13 � Robert F. Garry,8 � S. Humarr Khan,3 � Pardis C. Sabeti1,2 � In its largest outbreak, Ebola virus disease is spreading through Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Nigeria. We sequenced 99 Ebola virus genomes from 78

Napp, Nils

179

Receptor modification as a therapeutic approach against viral diseases  

PubMed Central

Poliovirus causes flaccid paralysis through the destruction of motor neurons in the CNS. Susceptibility to its infection is mainly due to the interaction in between the surface capsid proteins and its receptors on the host cell surface, important for binding, penetration and other necessary events during early infection. Receptor modification is a new approach to treat viral diseases by the modification of target proteins structure. Binding domains are modified in an effective way to make it difficult for the virus to recognize it. In this study, tolerant and intolerant induced mutations in the poliovirus receptor, VP1 and VP2 were identified and substituted in the seed sequence to get the modified versions. Substitutions causing changes in initial folding were short listed and further analyzed for high level folding, physiochemical properties and interactions. Highest RMSD values were observed in between the seed and the mutant K90F (3.265 ?) and Q130W (3.270?) respectively. The proposed substitutions were found to have low functional impact and thus can be further tested and validated by the experimental researchers. Interactions analyses proved most of the substitutions having decreased affinity for both the VP1 and VP2 and thus are of significant importance against poliovirus. This study will play an important role for bridging computational biology to other fields of applied biology and also will provide an insight to develop resistance against viral diseases. It is also expected that same approach can also be applicable against other viruses like HCV, HIV and other in near future. PMID:22553391

Farid, Rabia; Khan, Mohammad Haroon; Rashid, Hamid

2012-01-01

180

Receptor modification as a therapeutic approach against viral diseases.  

PubMed

Poliovirus causes flaccid paralysis through the destruction of motor neurons in the CNS. Susceptibility to its infection is mainly due to the interaction in between the surface capsid proteins and its receptors on the host cell surface, important for binding, penetration and other necessary events during early infection. Receptor modification is a new approach to treat viral diseases by the modification of target proteins structure. Binding domains are modified in an effective way to make it difficult for the virus to recognize it. In this study, tolerant and intolerant induced mutations in the poliovirus receptor, VP1 and VP2 were identified and substituted in the seed sequence to get the modified versions. Substitutions causing changes in initial folding were short listed and further analyzed for high level folding, physiochemical properties and interactions. Highest RMSD values were observed in between the seed and the mutant K90F (3.265 ?) and Q130W (3.270?) respectively. The proposed substitutions were found to have low functional impact and thus can be further tested and validated by the experimental researchers. Interactions analyses proved most of the substitutions having decreased affinity for both the VP1 and VP2 and thus are of significant importance against poliovirus. This study will play an important role for bridging computational biology to other fields of applied biology and also will provide an insight to develop resistance against viral diseases. It is also expected that same approach can also be applicable against other viruses like HCV, HIV and other in near future. PMID:22553391

Farid, Rabia; Khan, Mohammad Haroon; Rashid, Hamid

2012-01-01

181

Ross River Virus Disease in Australia, 1886–1998, with Analysis of Risk Factors Associated with Outbreaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

J. Med. Entomol. 41(2): 133Ð150 (2004) ABSTRACT Ross River virus (RR) is a mosquito-borne arbovirus responsible for outbreaks of polyarthritic disease throughout Australia. To better understand human and environmental factors driving such events, 57 historical reports on RR outbreaks between 1896 and 1998 were examined collectively. The magnitude, regularity, seasonality, and locality of outbreaks were found to be wide ranging;

Louise A. Kelly-Hope; David M. Purdie; Brian H. Kay

2004-01-01

182

Auditing the Management of Vaccine-Preventable Disease Outbreaks: The Need for a Tool  

PubMed Central

Public health activities, especially infectious disease control, depend on effective teamwork. We present the results of a pilot audit questionnaire aimed at assessing the quality of public health services in the management of VPD outbreaks. Audit questionnaire with three main areas indicators (structure, process and results) was developed. Guidelines were set and each indicator was assessed by three auditors. Differences in indicator scores according to median size of outbreaks were determined by ANOVA (significance at p?0.05). Of 154 outbreaks; eighteen indicators had a satisfactory mean score, indicator “updated guidelines” and “timely reporting” had a poor mean score (2.84±106 and 2.44±1.67, respectively). Statistically significant differences were found according to outbreak size, in the indicators “availability of guidelines/protocol updated less than 3 years ago” (p?=?0.03) and “days needed for outbreak control” (p?=?0.04). Improving availability of updated guidelines, enhancing timely reporting and adequate recording of control procedures taken is needed to allow for management assessment and improvement. PMID:21249188

Torner, Nuria; Carnicer-Pont, Dolors; Castilla, Jesus; Cayla, Joan; Godoy, Pere; Dominguez, Angela

2011-01-01

183

Proximity of the home to a cooling tower and risk of non-outbreak Legionnaires' disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To study the source of non-outbreak legionnaires' disease, particularly the role of cooling towers, by comparing the locations of patients' homes in relation to the location of cooling towers. DESIGN--Retrospective, descriptive study of a case series of patients with legionnaires' disease ill between 1978 and 1986 and, for comparison, a case series of patients with lung cancer. A prospectively developed

R S Bhopal; R J Fallon; E C Buist; R J Black; J D Urquhart

1991-01-01

184

Viral infection and human disease - insights from minimotifs  

PubMed Central

Short functional peptide motifs cooperate in many molecular functions including protein interactions, protein trafficking, and posttranslational modifications. Viruses exploit these motifs as a principal mechanism for hijacking cells and many motifs are necessary for the viral life-cycle. A virus can accommodate many short motifs in its small genome size providing a plethora of ways for the virus to acquire host molecular machinery. Host enzymes that act on motifs such as kinases, proteases, and lipidation enzymes, as well as protein interaction domains, are commonly mutated in human disease, suggesting that the short peptide motif targets of these enzymes may also be mutated in disease; however, this is not observed. How can we explain why viruses have evolved to be so dependent on motifs, yet these motifs, in general do not seem to be as necessary for human viability? We propose that short motifs are used at the system level. This system architecture allows viruses to exploit a motif, whereas the viability of the host is not affected by mutation of a single motif. PMID:18508672

Kadaveru, Krishna; Vyas, Jay; Schiller, Martin R.

2008-01-01

185

Outbreak of meningococcal disease associated with an elementary school -- Oklahoma, March 2010.  

PubMed

During March 10-31, 2010, the Oklahoma State Department of Health (OSDH) investigated an outbreak of meningococcal (Neisseria meningitidis) disease involving a consolidated school district of 1,850 students in rural northeastern Oklahoma. An OSDH field investigation team and the Rogers County Health Department (RCHD) established operations at the affected elementary school as soon as the outbreak was recognized. Five cases of meningococcal disease (including one probable case) were identified among four elementary school students and one high school student. Two students died; two recovered fully, and one survivor required amputation of all four limbs and facial reconstruction. All N. meningitidis isolates were serogroup C with the same multilocus sequence type and an indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern. To interrupt the outbreak, mass vaccination and chemoprophylaxis clinics were conducted in the population at risk; 1,459 vaccinations and 1,063 courses of antibiotics were administered. Children eligible for the Vaccines for Children (VFC) program received 1,092 of the vaccine doses, demonstrating that VFC is a feasible funding source for vaccine during an outbreak response. PMID:22475849

2012-04-01

186

Complete genome sequence of acute viral necrosis virus associated with massive mortality outbreaks in the Chinese scallop, Chlamys farreri  

PubMed Central

Background Acute viral necrosis virus (AVNV) is the causative agent of a serious disease resulting in high mortality in cultured Chinese scallops, Chlamys farreri. We have sequenced and analyzed the complete genome of AVNV. Results The AVNV genome is a linear, double-stranded DNA molecule of 210,993 bp with a nucleotide composition of 38.5% G + C. A total of 123 open reading frames were predicted to encode functional proteins, ranging from 41 to 1,878 amino acid residues. The DNA sequence of AVNV is 97% identical to that of ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1), and the amino acid sequences of the encoded proteins of these two viruses are 94-100% identical. The genomic organization of AVNV is similar to that of OsHV-1, and consists of two unique regions (170.4 kb and 3.4 kb, respectively), each flanked by two inverted repeats (7.6 kb and 10.2 kb, respectively), with a third unique region (1.5 kb) situated between the two internal repeats. Conclusions Our results indicate that AVNV is a variant of OsHV-1. The AVNV genome sequence provides information useful for understanding the evolution and divergence of OsHV-1 in marine molluscs. PMID:23566284

2013-01-01

187

Get the news out loudly and quickly: the influence of the media on limiting emerging infectious disease outbreaks.  

PubMed

During outbreaks of infectious diseases with high morbidity and mortality, individuals closely follow media reports of the outbreak. Many will attempt to minimize contacts with other individuals in order to protect themselves from infection and possibly death. This process is called social distancing. Social distancing strategies include restricting socializing and travel, and using barrier protections. We use modeling to show that for short-term outbreaks, social distancing can have a large influence on reducing outbreak morbidity and mortality. In particular, public health agencies working together with the media can significantly reduce the severity of an outbreak by providing timely accounts of new infections and deaths. Our models show that the most effective strategy to reduce infections is to provide this information as early as possible, though providing it well into the course of the outbreak can still have a significant effect. However, our models for long-term outbreaks indicate that reporting historic infection data can result in more infections than with no reporting at all. We examine three types of media influence and we illustrate the media influence with a simulated outbreak of a generic emerging infectious disease in a small city. Social distancing can never be complete; however, for a spectrum of outbreaks, we show that leaving isolation (stopping applying social distancing measures) for up to 4 hours each day has modest effect on the overall morbidity and mortality. PMID:23990974

Mummert, Anna; Weiss, Howard

2013-01-01

188

Learning from history, predicting the future: the UK Dutch elm disease outbreak in relation to contemporary tree disease threats  

PubMed Central

Expanding international trade and increased transportation are heavily implicated in the growing threat posed by invasive pathogens to biodiversity and landscapes. With trees and woodland in the UK now facing threats from a number of disease systems, this paper looks to historical experience with the Dutch elm disease (DED) epidemic of the 1970s to see what can be learned about an outbreak and attempts to prevent, manage and control it. The paper draws on an interdisciplinary investigation into the history, biology and policy of the epidemic. It presents a reconstruction based on a spatial modelling exercise underpinned by archival research and interviews with individuals involved in the attempted management of the epidemic at the time. The paper explores what, if anything, might have been done to contain the outbreak and discusses the wider lessons for plant protection. Reading across to present-day biosecurity concerns, the paper looks at the current outbreak of ramorum blight in the UK and presents an analysis of the unfolding epidemiology and policy of this more recent, and potentially very serious, disease outbreak. The paper concludes by reflecting on the continuing contemporary relevance of the DED experience at an important juncture in the evolution of plant protection policy. PMID:21624917

Potter, Clive; Harwood, Tom; Knight, Jon; Tomlinson, Isobel

2011-01-01

189

Foreign animal disease outbreaks, the animal welfare implications for Canada: Risks apparent from international experience  

PubMed Central

Any outbreak of an Office International des Épizooties List A disease, such as classical swine fever or foot and mouth disease, has severe consequences for animal welfare, livestock production, exports of animals and animal products, and the environment. The public concern with the animal welfare effects of methods of disease eradication that result in the destruction of large numbers of uninfected animals has initiated a reconsideration of disease eradication policy in Europe. In many recent List A disease epizootics, the financial cost of addressing animal welfare concerns in healthy animals has greatly exceeded the cost of stamping out disease in infected herds. In the event of a similar incursion in Canada, the number of animals subject to welfare slaughter will be far greater than the number of infected animals killed. Current national disease eradication plans in Canada do not address the animal welfare component of disease control methods. PMID:14601676

Whiting, Terry L.

2003-01-01

190

Recognition and management of rodent-borne infectious disease outbreaks after heavy rainfall and flooding.  

PubMed

Climatic events, especially heavy rains and flooding following periods of relative drought, have precipitated both arthropod-borne and rodent-borne infectious disease outbreaks. Heavy rainfall encourages excessive wild grass seed production that supports increased outdoor rodent populations, and flooding forces rodents from their burrows near water sources into the built environment and closer to humans. The objectives of this review are to alert clinicians to the climatic conditions common to hurricane-prone regions, such as Louisiana, that can precipitate outbreaks of the two rodent-borne diseases most often associated with periods of heavy rainfall and flooding, leptospirosis (LS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). It will also describe the epidemiology, presenting clinical manifestations and outcomes of these rodent-borne infectious diseases, and recommend both prophylactic therapies and effective control and prevention strategies for rodent-borne infectious disease outbreaks. Healthcare providers should maintain high levels of suspicion for LS in patients developing febrile illnesses after contaminated freshwater exposures during flooding or recreational events, and for HPS in patients with febrile illnesses that progress rapidly to respiratory failure following rodent exposures in enclosed spaces. Public health educational strategies should encourage limiting human contact with all wild and peridomestic rats and mice, avoiding all contact with rodent excreta, safely disposing of all rodent excreta, and modifying the built environment to deter rodents from colonizing households and workplaces. PMID:25369218

Diaz, James H

2014-01-01

191

Evaluating alternative approaches to managing animal disease outbreaks--the role of modelling in policy formulation.  

PubMed

Modelling is a powerful tool for informing development of policies for the control of animal diseases. By permitting the study of 'what if' scenarios, this tool can be used to help identify and evaluate strategies to reduce the number of animals destroyed to eradicate diseases. To be useful, models need to be fit for purpose and appropriately verified and validated. For informing disease control policy, modelling will be most useful when used before an outbreak, particularly in the areas of retrospective analysis of previous outbreaks, contingency planning, resource planning, risk assessments and training. Recent experience suggests that predictive modelling during actual outbreaks needs to be viewed and used with caution. It is important to recognise that models are just one tool for providing scientific advice and should not be considered in isolation from experimental studies and collection and analysis of epidemiological data. Collaborative studies and international cooperation can help address validation issues and improve the utility of models for emergency disease management. One such initiative, involving the 'Quadrilateral countries' (Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States), Ireland and the United Kingdom is discussed. PMID:20411517

Garner, M Graeme; Dubé, Caroline; Stevenson, Mark A; Sanson, Robert L; Estrada, Conrad; Griffin, John

2007-01-01

192

Diversity in pathogenicity can cause outbreaks of meningococcal disease  

E-print Network

January 30, 2004) Neisseria meningitidis, the meningococcus, is a major cause of bacterial meningitis criticality epidemiology meningitis septicemia Meningococcal disease is the collective name for the patho of the cerebro- spinal fluid and meninges, resulting in meningitis, and the release of highly active

193

VESSEL SANITATION PROGRAM (VSP) - DISEASES SURVEILLANCE AND OUTBREAK INVESTIGATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Under the authority of the Public Health Service Act to take measures necessary to prevent the introduction, transmission, or spread of communicable diseases in the United States from a foreign country [42 United States Code Section 264(a)], a surveillance system for diarrhea ill...

194

2011 Arctic Seal Disease Outbreak Update on Investigation and Findings  

E-print Network

, and Arctic and Bering Strait communities. As a dynamic disease investigation, events continue to be reported-October (NSB 2011). In the Bering Strait Region, a total of 67 live/dead carcasses have been reported between been reported from the North Slope Borough, Bering Strait, and Chukotka region of Russia. The extent

195

The mathematics of diseases On Modeling Hong Kong's SARS Outbreak  

E-print Network

disease modeling Mathematical models can: predict rate of spread, peak, etc., of epidemics predict effects of the simplest epidemic model, the SIR model Population size is large and constant - No birth through the three classes in the following order. Basic Assumptions of the SIR model Susceptible St

Ng, Tuen Wai "Patrick"

196

Beyond compliance: environmental health problem solving, interagency collaboration, and risk assessment to prevent waterborne disease outbreaks  

PubMed Central

A systems approach to environmental health problem solving was used to investigate two waterborne norovirus outbreaks in Wyoming and can serve in the development of improved prevention strategies. An interagency collaboration to prevent waterborne disease involving local, state, and federal partners was designed to coordinate response to outbreak investigations. Improved risk assessment and reporting procedures were also integrated to ensure better availability of necessary data. Public health entities should implement sustainable intersectoral interventions to prevent waterborne disease that not only improve regulatory compliance but also have a positive impact on community health outcomes. Collaborative preventive health and water system protection activities should receive priority attention for implementation in state and local jurisdictions. PMID:16840755

Cassady, Joslyn D; Higgins, Charles; Mainzer, Hugh M; Seys, Scott A; Sarisky, John; Callahan, Myfanwy; Musgrave, Karl J

2006-01-01

197

Outbreaks of Ebola virus disease in Africa: the beginnings of a tragic saga.  

PubMed

The tremendous outbreak of Ebola virus disease occurring in West Africa since the end of 2013 surprises by its remoteness from previous epidemics and dramatic extent. This review aims to describe the 27 manifestations of Ebola virus that arose after its discovery in 1976. It provides an update on research on the ecology of Ebola viruses, modes of contamination and human transmission of the disease that are mainly linked to close contact with an infected animal or a patient suffering from the disease. The recommendations to contain the epidemic and challenges to achieve it are reminded. PMID:25320574

Chippaux, Jean-Philippe

2014-01-01

198

Public health and economic costs of investigating a suspected outbreak of Legionnaires' disease  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY This paper provides one of the first assessments of the burden of both the public health investigation and the economic costs associated with an apparent outbreak of Legionnaires' disease (LD) in South East London. In addition to epidemiological, microbiological and environmental investigations, we collected data on the staff time and resources committed by the 11 main organizations responsible for managing the outbreak. Of the overall estimated costs of £455 856, only 14% (£64 264) was spent on investigation and control of the outbreak compared with 86% (£391 592) spent on the hospital treatment of the patients. The time and money spent on public health services in this investigation appear to represent good value for money considering the potential costs of a major outbreak, including the high case-fatality rate in LD generally and the high health-care costs. Further research is needed to determine optimum strategies for the cost-effective use of health system resources in investigations of LD. Whether the threshold for investigation of cases should be based on observed incidence rates or the cost-effectiveness of investigations, or both, should be debated further. PMID:18088448

LOCK, K.; MILLETT, C.; HEATHCOCK, R.; JOSEPH, C. A.; HARRISON, T. G.; LEE, J. V.; RAO, G.; SURMAN-LEE, S.

2008-01-01

199

An Empirical Study of Sections in Classifying Disease Outbreak Reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Identifying articles that relate to infectious diseases is a necessary step for any automatic bio-surveillance system that\\u000a monitors news articles from the Internet. Unlike scientific articles that are available in a strongly structured form, news\\u000a articles are usually loosely structured. In this chapter, we investigate the importance of each section and the effect of\\u000a section weighting on the performance of

Son Doan; Mike Conway; Nigel Collier

200

Disease Outbreaks Caused by Emerging Paramyxoviruses of Bat Origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Newly emerging and re-emerging infections are recognized as a global problem and 75% of these are potentially zoonotic (Woolhouse\\u000a & Gowtage-Sequeria, 2005). Emergence of a new “killer” disease in any part of the world is likely to be a threat world wide\\u000a in today’s society with very rapid means of transportation of both human and animal\\/animal products. Recent examples include

Lin-Fa Wang; John S. Mackenzie; Bryan T. Eaton

201

An Outbreak of Respiratory Disease Complex in Sheep in Central Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was carried out into an outbreak of respiratory disease complex (RDC) in 3641 Menz and Awassi×Menz cross sheep in Central Ethiopia between 1998 and 1999 by clinical, serological, microbiological, post-mortem and histopathological examinations. The monthly incidence of RDC varied from 2.8% to 4.0% and the prevalence was as high as 17%. The case fatality rate was 18%, despite

Markos Tibbo; Moges Woldemeskel; Abraham Gopilo

2001-01-01

202

Decision support system for mass dispensing of medications for infectious disease outbreaks and bioterrorist attacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simulation and decision support system, RealOpt©, for planning large-scale emergency dispensing clinics to respond to biological threats and infectious disease outbreaks\\u000a is described. The system allows public health administrators to investigate clinic design and staffing scenarios quickly.\\u000a \\u000a RealOpt© incorporates efficient optimization technology seamlessly interfaced with a simulation module. The system's correctness and\\u000a computational advantage are validated via comparisons against

Eva K. Lee; Siddhartha Maheshwary; Jacquelyn Mason; William Glisson

2006-01-01

203

Serogroup B Meningococcal Disease Outbreaks The following information on serogroup B meningococcal disease outbreaks is provided by  

E-print Network

and distributing meningitis awareness materials on campus. Available resources include: o The CDC Preteen and Teen Vaccines page o Meningococcal Disease and Vaccination Fact Sheet from the National Meningitis Association [pdf] #12;o Meningococcal Meningitis Flyer from the National Meningitis Association [pdf] We encourage

Royer, Dana

204

Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 3. Factors contributing to outbreaks and description of outbreak categories.  

PubMed

In this article, the third in a series of several reviewing the role of food workers in 816 foodborne outbreaks, factors contributing to outbreaks and descriptions of different categories of worker involvement are discussed. All the outbreaks had worker involvement of some kind, and the majority of food workers were infected. The most frequently reported factor associated with the involvement of the infected worker was bare hand contact with the food followed by failure to properly wash hands, inadequate cleaning of processing or preparation equipment or utensils, cross-contamination of ready-to-eat foods by contaminated raw ingredients, and (for bacterial pathogens) temperature abuse. Many of the workers were asymptomatic shedders or had infected family members and/or used improper hygienic practices. Outbreaks were sorted into categories based on how many workers were implicated, the origin of the infective agent (outbreak setting or off site), the degree of certainty that the worker(s) were the cause or were victims, whether or not the workers denied illness, the ability of the agent to grow in the food, whether only the workers and not the patrons were ill, and whether patrons were more responsible for their illnesses than were the workers. The most frequent scenarios were (i) a single worker causing an outbreak by directly infecting patrons; (ii) an infected worker fecally contaminating foods that were then temperature abused, leading to an outbreak; and (iii) multiple workers linked to an outbreak but with no clear initiating source. Multi-ingredient foods with limited descriptions were most frequently implicated and usually were served in restaurants or hotels, at schools, and at catered events. Identified contaminated ready-to-eat foods included produce, baked goods, beverages, and meat and poultry items. In some situations, it was not clear whether some of the workers were the cause or the victims of the outbreak. However, in other situations there may have been an underestimation of the role of the worker. For instance, workers sometimes denied infection or illness for a variety of reasons, but subsequent investigation provided evidence of infection. PMID:17900100

Todd, Ewen C D; Greig, Judy D; Bartleson, Charles A; Michaels, Barry S

2007-09-01

205

Borna Disease Virus Nucleoprotein Requires both Nuclear Localization and Export Activities for Viral Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear transport of viral nucleic acids is crucial to the life cycle of many viruses. Borna disease virus (BDV) belongs to the order Mononegavirales and replicates its RNA genome in the nucleus. Previous studies have suggested that BDV nucleoprotein (N) and phosphoprotein (P) have important functions in the nuclear import of the viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes via their nuclear targeting

TAKESHI KOBAYASHI; WATARU KAMITANI; GUOQI ZHANG; MAKIKO WATANABE; KEIZO TOMONAGA; KAZUYOSHI IKUTA

2001-01-01

206

A large outbreak of Legionnaires' disease at a flower show, the Netherlands, 1999.  

PubMed

In 1999, an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease affected many visitors to a flower show in the Netherlands. To identify the source of the outbreak, we performed an environmental investigation, as well as a case-control study among visitors and a serologic cohort study among exhibitors to measure exposure to possible sources. Of 77,061 visitors, 188 became ill (133 confirmed and 55 probable cases), for an attack rate of 0.23% for visitors and 0.61% for exhibitors. Two whirlpool spas in halls 3 and 4 of the exhibition and a sprinkler in hall 8 were culture positive for Legionella pneumophila. One of three genotypes found in both whirlpool spas was identical to the isolates from 28 of 29 culture-positive patients. Persons who paused at the whirlpool spa in hall 3 were at increased risk for becoming ill. This study illustrates that whirlpool spas may be an important health hazard if disinfection fails. PMID:11749746

Den Boer, Jeroen W; Yzerman, Ed P F; Schellekens, Joop; Lettinga, Kamilla D; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Van Steenbergen, Jim E; Bosman, Arnold; Van den Hof, Susan; Van Vliet, Hans A; Peeters, Marcel F; Van Ketel, Ruud J; Speelman, Peter; Kool, Jacob L; Conyn-Van Spaendonck, Marina A E

2002-01-01

207

Foot & Mouth Disease & Ulcerative/Vesicular Rule-outs: Challenges Encountered in Recent Outbreaks  

SciTech Connect

Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly infectious and contagious viral disease affecting bovidae (cattle, zebus, domestic buffaloes, yaks), sheep, goats, swine, all wild ruminants and suidae. Camelidae (camels, dromedaries, llamas, vicunas) have low susceptibility. Foot and mouth disease is caused by a RNS virus of the family Picornaviridae, genus Aphthovirus. There are seven immunologically distinct serotypes: A, O, C, SAT1, SAT2, SAT3, Asia 1. Foot and mouth disease causes significant economic loss both to countries who manage it as an endemic disease (with or without vaccination), as well as those FMD free countries which may become infected. The mortality rate is low in adult animals, but often higher in young due to myocarditis. Foot and mouth disease is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, the Middle East and South America (sporadic outbreaks in free areas). The Office of International Epizootics (OIE), also referred to the World Organization for Animal Health maintains an official list of free countries and zones.1 The OIE Terrestrial Code (Chapter 2.2.10) provides detailed information on the categories of freedom that can be allocated to a country as well as guidelines for the surveillance for foot and mouth disease (Appendix 3.8.7). In short, countries may be completely free of FMD, free with vaccination or infected with foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV). Source of FMDV include incubating and clinically affected animals with virus present in breath, saliva, faeces, urine, milk and semen. In experimental settings virus has been detected in milk several days before the onset of clinical signs2. Additional sources of virus are meat and by-products in which pH has remained above 6.0 as well as persistently infected carrier animals. Carrier animals may include cattle and water buffalo; convalescent animals and exposed vaccinates (virus persists in the oropharynx for up to 30 months in cattle or longer in buffalo, 9 months in sheep). Pigs do not become carriers. It has been shown that the African Cape buffalo are the major maintenance host of SAT serotypes. FMDV transmission can occur by either direct or indirect contact. Indirect transmission can occur via contaminated animate vectors (humans, etc.), inanimate vectors (vehicles, implements) or airborne transmission. Indirect disease transmission via animate or inanimate vectors can play a major role in disease transmission. Good biosecurity can significantly reduce this type of transmission. Airborne transmission is often debated and is known to be serotype and species specific as well as require specific environmental conditions to occur. Airborne transmission is favored in temperate zones and has been postulated to occur over distances of up to 60 km overland and 300 km by sea. Foot and mouth disease virus is an unenveloped virus which is preserved by refrigeration and freezing and progressively inactivated by temperatures above 50 C. FMDV is highly sensitive to pH change and is inactivated by pH < 6.0 or > 9.0. There are many disinfectants which are effective against FMDV including sodium hydroxide (2%), sodium carbonate (4%), and citric acid (0.2%). FMDV is resistant to iodophores, quaternary ammonium compounds, hypochlorite and phenol, especially in the presence of organic matter. The virus can survive in lymph nodes and bone marrow at neutral pH, but is destroyed in muscle when is pH < 6.0 i.e. after rigor mortis. FMDV can persist in contaminated feed/commodities and the environment for over to 1 month, depending on the temperature and pH conditions. The incubation period for FMD is 2-14 days. Animals transition through latent (infected but not infectious), subclinically infected (infectious but lacking clinical signs) clinically infected and recovered disease states. In cattle clinical signs include pyrexia, reluctance to eat, bruxism, drooling, lameness, treading or stamping of the feet and decreased milk production. Most clinical signs are related to the development and subsequent rupturing of vesicles at the coronary band and in the oral cavity. V

Hullinger, P

2008-01-28

208

Sex influences immune responses to viruses, and efficacy of prophylaxis and therapeutic treatments for viral diseases  

PubMed Central

Summary The intensity and prevalence of viral infections are typically higher in males, whereas disease outcome can be worse for females. Females mount higher innate and adaptive immune responses than males, which can result in faster clearance of viruses, but also contributes to increased development of immunopathology. In response to viral vaccines, females mount higher antibody responses and experience more adverse reactions than males. The efficacy of antiviral drugs at reducing viral load differs between the sexes, and the adverse reactions to antiviral drugs are typically greater in females than males. Several variables should be considered when evaluating male/female differences in responses to viral infection and treatment: these include hormones, genes, and gender-specific factors related to access to, and compliance with, treatment. Knowledge that the sexes differ in their responses to viruses and to treatments for viral diseases should influence the recommended course of action differently for males and females. PMID:23012250

Klein, Sabra L.

2014-01-01

209

Disturbance Driven Colony Fragmentation as a Driver of a Coral Disease Outbreak  

PubMed Central

In September of 2010, Brewer's Bay reef, located in St. Thomas (U.S. Virgin Islands), was simultaneously affected by abnormally high temperatures and the passage of a hurricane that resulted in the mass bleaching and fragmentation of its coral community. An outbreak of a rapid tissue loss disease among coral colonies was associated with these two disturbances. Gross lesion signs and lesion progression rates indicated that the disease was most similar to the Caribbean coral disease white plague type 1. Experiments indicated that the disease was transmissible through direct contact between colonies, and five-meter radial transects showed a clustered spatial distribution of disease, with diseased colonies being concentrated within the first meter of other diseased colonies. Disease prevalence and the extent to which colonies were bleached were both significantly higher on unattached colony fragments than on attached colonies, and disease occurred primarily on fragments found in direct contact with sediment. In contrast to other recent studies, disease presence was not related to the extent of bleaching on colonies. The results of this study suggest that colony fragmentation and contact with sediment played primary roles in the initial appearance of disease, but that the disease was capable of spreading among colonies, which suggests secondary transmission is possible through some other, unidentified mechanism. PMID:23437335

Brandt, Marilyn E.; Smith, Tyler B.; Correa, Adrienne M. S.; Vega-Thurber, Rebecca

2013-01-01

210

Disturbance driven colony fragmentation as a driver of a coral disease outbreak.  

PubMed

In September of 2010, Brewer's Bay reef, located in St. Thomas (U.S. Virgin Islands), was simultaneously affected by abnormally high temperatures and the passage of a hurricane that resulted in the mass bleaching and fragmentation of its coral community. An outbreak of a rapid tissue loss disease among coral colonies was associated with these two disturbances. Gross lesion signs and lesion progression rates indicated that the disease was most similar to the Caribbean coral disease white plague type 1. Experiments indicated that the disease was transmissible through direct contact between colonies, and five-meter radial transects showed a clustered spatial distribution of disease, with diseased colonies being concentrated within the first meter of other diseased colonies. Disease prevalence and the extent to which colonies were bleached were both significantly higher on unattached colony fragments than on attached colonies, and disease occurred primarily on fragments found in direct contact with sediment. In contrast to other recent studies, disease presence was not related to the extent of bleaching on colonies. The results of this study suggest that colony fragmentation and contact with sediment played primary roles in the initial appearance of disease, but that the disease was capable of spreading among colonies, which suggests secondary transmission is possible through some other, unidentified mechanism. PMID:23437335

Brandt, Marilyn E; Smith, Tyler B; Correa, Adrienne M S; Vega-Thurber, Rebecca

2013-01-01

211

Susceptibility and protection of naive and vaccinated racing pigeons (Columbia livia) against exotic Newcastle disease virus from the California 2002-2003 outbreak.  

PubMed

The susceptibility, immune response, and protection to challenge after vaccination in racing pigeons (Columbia livia) was assessed with the 2002-2003 exotic Newcastle disease (END) virus responsible for the most recent major outbreak in Southern California. Immunologically naïve pigeons appeared resistant to disease, regardless of dose, after a natural route of exposure. Twenty percent morbidity was observed in each group of birds receiving between 10(2.1) and 10(8.1) 50% embryo infectious dose (EID50) per bird, with one bird succumbing to challenge in the 10(8.1) EID50/bird group at day 12 postinoculation. Although resistant to disease, birds in all groups continued to shed virus from either oral or cloacal route at the end of the 14-day sampling period, and seroconversion was only observed in birds receiving > or =10(6.1) EID50. Single or double vaccination of juvenile and adult birds with pigeon paramyxovirus virus type 1 (PPMV-1) vaccine followed by END challenge with 10(6.1) EID50/bird decreased the duration, incidence, and viral load. A positive correlation was observed between the presence of hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody titers at challenge and decreased viral shedding. Overt clinical signs of disease were not observed in any PPMV-1-vaccinated birds after challenge. PMID:17039831

Kapczynski, Darrell R; Wise, Mark G; King, Daniel J

2006-09-01

212

Algal bloom-associated disease outbreaks among users of freshwater lakes--United States, 2009-2010.  

PubMed

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are excessive accumulations of microscopic photosynthesizing aquatic organisms (phytoplankton) that produce biotoxins or otherwise adversely affect humans, animals, and ecosystems. HABs occur sporadically and often produce a visible algal scum on the water. This report summarizes human health data and water sampling results voluntarily reported to CDC's Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) via the National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS) and the Harmful Algal Bloom-Related Illness Surveillance System (HABISS)* for the years 2009-2010. For 2009-2010, 11 waterborne disease outbreaks associated with algal blooms were reported; these HABs all occurred in freshwater lakes. The outbreaks occurred in three states and affected at least 61 persons. Health effects included dermatologic, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and neurologic signs and symptoms. These 11 HAB-associated outbreaks represented 46% of the 24 outbreaks associated with untreated recreational water reported for 2009-2010, and 79% of the 14 freshwater HAB-associated outbreaks that have been reported to CDC since 1978. Clinicians should be aware of the potential for HAB-associated illness among patients with a history of exposure to freshwater. PMID:24402467

Hilborn, Elizabeth D; Roberts, Virginia A; Backer, Lorraine; Deconno, Erin; Egan, Jessica S; Hyde, James B; Nicholas, David C; Wiegert, Eric J; Billing, Laurie M; Diorio, Mary; Mohr, Marika C; Hardy, Joan F; Wade, Timothy J; Yoder, Jonathan S; Hlavsa, Michele C

2014-01-10

213

Quantitative microbial risk assessment model for Legionnaires' disease: assessment of human exposures for selected spa outbreaks.  

PubMed

Evaluation of a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) model for Legionnaires' disease (LD) required Legionella exposure estimates for several well-documented LD outbreaks. Reports for a whirlpool spa and two natural spring spa outbreaks provided data for the exposure assessment, as well as rates of infection and mortality. Exposure estimates for the whirlpool spa outbreak employed aerosol generation, water composition, exposure duration data, and building ventilation parameters with a two-zone model. Estimates for the natural hot springs outbreaks used bacterial water to air partitioning coefficients and exposure duration information. The air concentration and dose calculations used input parameter distributions with Monte Carlo simulations to estimate exposures as probability distributions. The assessment considered two sets of assumptions about the transfer of Legionella from the water phase to the aerosol emitted from the whirlpool spa. The estimated air concentration near the whirlpool spa was 5 to 18 colony forming units per cubic meter (CFU/m(3)) and 50 to 180 CFU/m(3) for each of the alternate assumptions. The estimated 95th percentile ranges of Legionella dose for workers within 15 m of the whirlpool spa were 0.13-3.4 CFU and 1.3-34.5 CFU, respectively. The modeling for hot springs Spas 1 and 2 resulted in estimated arithmetic mean air concentrations of 360 and 17 CFU/m(3), respectively, and 95 percentile ranges for Legionella dose of 28 to 67 CFU and 1.1 to 3.7 CFU, respectively. The Legionella air concentration estimates fall in the range of limited reports on air concentrations of Legionella (0.33 to 190 CFU/m(3)) near showers, aerated faucets, and baths during filling with Legionella-contaminated water. These measurements may provide some indication that the estimates are of a reasonable magnitude, but they do not clarify the exposure estimates accuracy, since they were not obtained during LD outbreaks. Further research to improve the data used for the Legionella exposure assessment would strengthen the results. Several of the primary additional data needs include improved data for bacterial water to air partitioning coefficients, better accounting of time-activity-distance patterns and exposure potential in outbreak reports, and data for Legionella-containing aerosol viability decay instead of loss of capability for growth in culture. PMID:17577752

Armstrong, Thomas W; Haas, Charles N

2007-08-01

214

The relationship between infecting dose and severity of disease in reported outbreaks of Salmonella infections.  

PubMed Central

The relationship between size of the infecting dose and severity of the resulting disease has been investigated for salmonella infections by reanalysis of data within epidemics for 32 outbreaks, and comparing data between outbreaks for 68 typhoid epidemics and 49 food-poisoning outbreaks due to salmonellas. Attack rate, incubation period, amount of infected food consumed and type of vehicle are used as proxy measures of infecting dose, while case fatality rates for typhoid and case hospitalization rates for food poisoning salmonellas were used to assess severity. Limitations of the data are discussed. Both unweighted and logit analysis models are used. There is no evidence for a dose-severity relationship for Salmonella typhi, but evidence of a correlation between dose and severity is available from within-epidemic or between-epidemic analysis, or both, for Salmonella typhimurium, S. enteritidis, S. infantis, S. newport, and S. thompson. The presence of such a relationship affects the way in which control interventions should be assessed. PMID:1468522

Glynn, J. R.; Bradley, D. J.

1992-01-01

215

Minimization of the impact of Aujeszky's disease outbreaks in The Netherlands: a conceptual framework.  

PubMed

In the Netherlands, outbreaks of Aujeszky's Disease (AD) are controlled by vaccination and movement restriction zones (MRZ). Although this strategy avoids the socio-ethical concerns associated with pre-emptive slaughter, it can easily result in animal welfare problems and negative economic consequences. These arise because movement restrictions result in surpluses of live (vaccinated) piglets on farms. The aim is to provide insight into the development of these surpluses and its impact and to describe how measures that allow early transportation of pigs under certain conditions and to specific destinations (channelling) could reduce these problems. For the analysis, a deterministic simulation model was developed, which calculates surpluses of piglets at multiplier farms during AD outbreaks. This is performed on a weekly basis for two areas (with and without piglet surplus), three outbreak durations (minimum, moderate and long) and three strategies for movement restrictions (strict, transports within the MRZ allowed and transports outside the MRZ allowed). The results show that in case of complete movement restrictions, surpluses of piglets varying in age and vaccination status will quickly arise. These surpluses are larger for longer epidemics and can become as large as 180-340 thousand piglets (45-75% of weekly domestic production) for moderate and long epidemics, respectively. Implementation of channelling strategies that allow earlier transportation within the MRZ can reduce surpluses by about 50% to 100-150 thousand piglets maximum. Strategies that also allow transportation outside the MRZ can reduce surpluses even further to below 100 thousand piglets. It was concluded that channelling of live piglets during AD outbreaks results in a drastic reduction of problems with accommodating ready-for-transport piglets. Moreover, it reduces shortages during movement restrictions and peak supply immediately after removing the restrictions. Channelling could therefore be an important instrument to reduce the economic and animal welfare impacts of containment measures. PMID:22690811

Bosman, K J; Mourits, M C M; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Saatkamp, H W

2013-08-01

216

Modeling CNS neurodegeneration by overexpression of disease-causing proteins using viral vectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defective handling of proteins is a central feature of major neurodegenerative diseases. The discovery that neuronal dysfunction or degeneration can be caused by mutations in single cellular proteins has given new opportunities to model the underlying disease processes by genetic modification of cells in vitro or by generation of transgenic animals carrying the disease-causing gene. Recent developments in recombinant viral-vector

Deniz Kirik; Anders Björklund

2003-01-01

217

Spatial Simulation Model for Infectious Viral Diseases with Focus on SARS and the Common Flu  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on simulating the infectious process on a computer. To simulate how an infectious viral disease spreads not only shows how people get sick, it can also be a powerful tool in disease prevention. You can test actions such as to isolate people that get sick and analyze if the disease spread can be circumscribed or stopped. Special

Christoph Aschwanden

2004-01-01

218

Hearts of darkness and hot zones: The ideologeme of imperial contagion in recent accounts of viral outbreaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study situates recent popularized accounts of emerging lethal viral strains within the context of a late nineteenth?century rationale for imperialism?i.e., the ideologeme of scenic contamination. Defining non?European lands and peoples as “active” agents capable of “contaminating” the civilized natures of the imperialists who would seek to rule them, this ideologeme justified imperialism as a “defensive” measure designed to control

Jeff D. Bass

1998-01-01

219

Comparative Cost Analysis of Alternative Animal Tracing Strategies Directed Toward Foot and Mouth Disease Outbreaks in the Texas High Plains  

E-print Network

methods for a FMD outbreak (Ekboir, 2001). Schoenbaum and Disney (2003) also looked at the effectiveness of slaughter and vaccination strategies under different conditions of herd sizes and disease spread rates in the U.S. Three different.... Median governmental costs for the outbreaks ranged from $300,000 to $2.8 billion depending on the scenario. The study also found that changes in consumer and producer surpluses could amount to an annual $789.9 million dollar loss (Schoenbaum and Disney...

Looney, John C.

2010-07-14

220

Get the News Out Loudly and Quickly: Modeling the Influence of the Media on Limiting Infectious Disease Outbreaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

During outbreaks of serious infectious diseases many individuals closely follow media reports of the outbreak and take steps, including self-isolation, to protect themselves from infection and possibly death. Self-isolation can take many forms including restricting local and long-distance travel, using face masks, and choosing to receive a vaccine. We use mathematical modeling to show that public health agencies working together

Anna Mummert; Howard Weiss

2010-01-01

221

[From alert to laboratory: a coherent network designed to deal with to naturally occurring infectious disease outbreaks and bioterrorism].  

PubMed

Public health prevention requires early detection of disease outbreaks, whether naturally occurring or due to bioterrorism. Permanent surveillance and a network of laboratories are the two main pillars of effective outbreak management. Coordination of information, training, and procedures are under the responsibility of the French public health watch institute and the scientific advisory board for the Biotox-Piratox laboratory network. Protective capacities against bioterrorism are improving but efforts must continue. PMID:18402161

Binder, Patrice; Brucker, Gilles; Josseran, Loïc

2007-06-01

222

Modeling alternative mitigation strategies for a hypothetical outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative mitigation strategies were compared during hypothetical outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the USA using a computer-simulation model. The epidemiologic and economic consequences were compared during these simulated outbreaks. Three vaccination and four slaughter strategies were studied along with two speeds of FMD virus spread among three susceptible populations of animals. The populations represented typical animal demographics in the

Mark A Schoenbaum; W Terry Disney

2003-01-01

223

An outbreak of blackhead disease (Histomonas meleagridis) in farm-reared bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus).  

PubMed

An outbreak of blackhead disease (Histomonas meleagridis) in farm-reared flock of 13,500 bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) resulted in mortality totaling approximately 1500 in 4 wk. Necropsy of 56 dead birds at midoutbreak (from a total that day of 131) revealed that 55 had severe cecal lesions typical of blackhead, and only 3 had visible lesions in the liver. Necropsy of apparently healthy birds failed to detect any signs of infection. Presence of H. meleagridis in affected ceca was proved by culture in vitro and PCR tests. PMID:23397851

McDougald, L R; Abraham, M; Beckstead, R B

2012-12-01

224

Recent weather extremes and impacts on agricultural production and vector-borne disease outbreak patterns.  

PubMed

We document significant worldwide weather anomalies that affected agriculture and vector-borne disease outbreaks during the 2010-2012 period. We utilized 2000-2012 vegetation index and land surface temperature data from NASA's satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to map the magnitude and extent of these anomalies for diverse regions including the continental United States, Russia, East Africa, Southern Africa, and Australia. We demonstrate that shifts in temperature and/or precipitation have significant impacts on vegetation patterns with attendant consequences for agriculture and public health. Weather extremes resulted in excessive rainfall and flooding as well as severe drought, which caused ?10 to 80% variation in major agricultural commodity production (including wheat, corn, cotton, sorghum) and created exceptional conditions for extensive mosquito-borne disease outbreaks of dengue, Rift Valley fever, Murray Valley encephalitis, and West Nile virus disease. Analysis of MODIS data provided a standardized method for quantifying the extreme weather anomalies observed during this period. Assessments of land surface conditions from satellite-based systems such as MODIS can be a valuable tool in national, regional, and global weather impact determinations. PMID:24658301

Anyamba, Assaf; Small, Jennifer L; Britch, Seth C; Tucker, Compton J; Pak, Edwin W; Reynolds, Curt A; Crutchfield, James; Linthicum, Kenneth J

2014-01-01

225

Recent Weather Extremes and Impacts on Agricultural Production and Vector-Borne Disease Outbreak Patterns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We document significant worldwide weather anomalies that affected agriculture and vector-borne disease outbreaks during the 2010-2012 period. We utilized 2000-2012 vegetation index and land surface temperature data from NASA's satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to map the magnitude and extent of these anomalies for diverse regions including the continental United States, Russia, East Africa, Southern Africa, and Australia. We demonstrate that shifts in temperature and/or precipitation have significant impacts on vegetation patterns with attendant consequences for agriculture and public health. Weather extremes resulted in excessive rainfall and flooding as well as severe drought, which caused,10 to 80% variation in major agricultural commodity production (including wheat, corn, cotton, sorghum) and created exceptional conditions for extensive mosquito-borne disease outbreaks of dengue, Rift Valley fever, Murray Valley encephalitis, and West Nile virus disease. Analysis of MODIS data provided a standardized method for quantifying the extreme weather anomalies observed during this period. Assessments of land surface conditions from satellite-based systems such as MODIS can be a valuable tool in national, regional, and global weather impact determinations.

Anyamba, Assaf; Small, Jennifer L.; Britch, Seth C.; Tucker, Compton J.; Pak, Edwin W.; Reynolds, Curt A.; Crutchfield, James; Linthicum, Kenneth J.

2014-01-01

226

Nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis of Newcastle disease virus isolates from recent outbreaks in Taiwan.  

PubMed

Portions of the hemagglutinin neuraminidase (HN) gene of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates from two recent outbreaks were sequenced to investigate epidemiology of this disease in Taiwan. These NDV isolates were all viscerotropic velogenic according to the clinical lesions produced in chickens. Sequence data were obtained from 14 NDV isolates (12 from 1995 and 2 from 1984). All isolates differed in their nucleotide sequences (from 0.3 to 15.3%), and represented potentially different strains of NDV. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these isolates are closely related to viruses isolated from Japan and Malaysia. Some viruses isolated in 1995 appeared to evolve from viruses isolated in 1984. The results suggest that the 1995 outbreak of Newcastle disease (ND) in Taiwan may have been caused by multiple strains of velogenic NDV that have cocirculated in Taiwan for some time. Moreover, NDV isolates from racing pigeons were very similar to isolates from chickens in the same period, suggesting that both domestic and free-living birds were involved in the spread of ND in Taiwan. PMID:9201401

Yang, C Y; Chang, P C; Hwang, J M; Shieh, H K

1997-01-01

227

Occupational neurotoxic diseases in Taiwan: a review of the outbreaks and clinical features.  

PubMed

In the past 20 years, several outbreaks of neurotoxic disease due to occupational exposure have occurred in Taiwan. The most notorious outbreaks were 'Yu-cheng' due to contamination of polychlorinated biphenyls in cooking oil, lead poisoning in battery manufacturers and workers in a ship-scrapping yard, tile factory and battery recycling plants, and n-Hexane intoxication in press-proffers and ball-manufacturers. In addition, there were manganese intoxication in ferromanganese smelters, mercury intoxication in lamp-socket workers, carbon disulfide intoxication in viscose rayon workers and hydrogen sulfide intoxication in chemical synthetic plants. Although the incidence of occupational neurotoxic diseases has increased, the real incidence is probably still underestimated. The reasons for the underestimation include: 1) the education for workers in industrial hygiene is inadequate; 2) high risk workers are not screened well; 3) physicians are not well trained in early diagnosis of occupational diseases; 4) material safety data information is not readily available in the factories; and 5) the threshold limit values for toxic substances are relatively high in Taiwan, compared with other developed countries. PMID:9260365

Huang, C C; Chu, N S; Shih, T S; Wu, T N

1997-06-01

228

Methods of treating Parkinson's disease using viral vectors  

SciTech Connect

Methods of delivering viral vectors, particularly recombinant AAV virions, to the central nervous system (CNS) are provided for the treatment of CNS disorders, particularly those disorders which involve the neurotransmitter dopamine. The methods entail providing rAAV virions that comprise a transgene encoding aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) and administering the virions to the brain of a mammal using a non-manual pump.

Bankiewicz, Krys; Cunningham, Janet

2012-11-13

229

Factors influencing psychological distress during a disease epidemic: Data from Australia's first outbreak of equine influenza  

PubMed Central

Background In 2007 Australia experienced its first outbreak of highly infectious equine influenza. Government disease control measures were put in place to control, contain, and eradicate the disease; these measures included movement restrictions and quarantining of properties. This study was conducted to assess the psycho-social impacts of this disease, and this paper reports the prevalence of, and factors influencing, psychological distress during this outbreak. Methods Data were collected using an online survey, with a link directed to the affected population via a number of industry groups. Psychological distress, as determined by the Kessler 10 Psychological Distress Scale, was the main outcome measure. Results In total, 2760 people participated in this study. Extremely high levels of non-specific psychological distress were reported by respondents in this study, with 34% reporting high psychological distress (K10 > 22), compared to levels of around 12% in the Australian general population. Analysis, using backward stepwise binary logistic regression analysis, revealed that those living in high risk infection (red) zones (OR = 2.00; 95% CI: 1.57–2.55; p < 0.001) and disease buffer (amber) zones (OR = 1.83; 95% CI: 1.36–2.46; p < 0.001) were at much greater risk of high psychological distress than those living in uninfected (white zones). Although prevalence of high psychological distress was greater in infected EI zones and States, elevated levels of psychological distress were experienced in horse-owners nationally. Statistical analysis indicated that certain groups were more vulnerable to high psychological distress; specifically younger people, and those with lower levels of formal educational qualifications. Respondents whose principal source of income was from horse-related industry were more than twice as likely to have high psychological distress than those whose primary source of income was not linked to horse-related industry (OR = 2.23; 95% CI: 1.82–2.73; p < 0.001). Conclusion Although, methodologically, this study had good internal validity, it has limited generalisability because it was not possible to identify, bound, or sample the target population accurately. However, this study is the first to collect psychological distress data from an affected population during such a disease outbreak and has potential to inform those involved in assessing the potential psychological impacts of human infectious diseases, such as pandemic influenza. PMID:18831770

Taylor, Melanie R; Agho, Kingsley E; Stevens, Garry J; Raphael, Beverley

2008-01-01

230

Zoonotic viral diseases and the frontier of early diagnosis, control and prevention.  

PubMed

Public awareness of the human health risks of zoonotic infections has grown in recent years. Currently, concern of H5N1 flu transmission from migratory bird populations has increased with foci of fatal human cases. This comes on the heels of other major zoonotic viral epidemics in the last decade. These include other acute emerging or re-emerging viral diseases such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), West-Nile virus, Ebola virus, monkeypox, as well as the more inapparent insidious slow viral and prion diseases. Virus infections with zoonotic potential can become serious killers once they are able to establish the necessary adaptations for efficient human-to-human transmission under circumstances sufficient to reach epidemic proportions. The monitoring and early diagnosis of these potential risks are overlapping frontiers of human and veterinary medicine. Here, current viral zoonotics and evolving threats are reviewed. PMID:17040245

Heeney, J L

2006-11-01

231

University of California Santa Barbara (UCSB) Meningococcal Disease Outbreak Information for UCSB Students and their Physicians November 22, 2013  

E-print Network

University of California Santa Barbara (UCSB) Meningococcal Disease Outbreak Information for UCSB is complex and takes time. Santa Barbara County, UCSB, the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) have already had preliminary discussions about the vaccine. Santa

Akhmedov, Azer

232

Predator disease out-break modulates top-down, bottom-up and climatic effects on herbivore  

E-print Network

LETTER Predator disease out-break modulates top-down, bottom-up and climatic effects on herbivore-introduced disease and climatic change are increasingly perturbing natural ecosystems worldwide, but scientists know lupus, climate change, food chain, Isle Royale, moose, trophic cascade, wolves. Ecology Letters (2006) 9

Wilmers, Chris

233

Marble Spleen Disease (MSD) : an outbreak in game pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) anatomo -pathological and histo-pathological findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION Marble Speen Disease (MSD) is one of the foremost virosis (aviadenovirus II) of pheasants. Actually are not known outbreaks in wild animals, while it is a typical disease in 3-6 months old farmed pheasants. Anatomo-pathologic and Histo- pathological findings are described in order to make easy the laboratory diagnosis and the control in the farmed flock. In march 2004,

S. Gavaudan; S. Fiorelli; C. Bartolini; P. Mancini; E. Manuali; F. Savelli; F. Barchiesi; M. Delogu

234

What is Pandemic Influenza? A pandemic is a global disease outbreak. A flu pandemic occurs when a new  

E-print Network

What is Pandemic Influenza? A pandemic is a global disease outbreak. A flu pandemic occurs when as many as 40 million deaths worldwide. What is swine flu? H1N1 Influenza is a respiratory disease of pigs swine flu, but human infections can and do happen. Swine flu viruses have been reported to spread from

235

Long-term RNA persistence of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV-LPMV) after an outbreak of a natural infection: the detection of viral mRNA in sentinel pigs suggests viral transmission.  

PubMed

The persistence of porcine rubulavirus (PorPV-LPMV) in five pigs that had survived an outbreak of a natural infection was determined. After the resolution of the outbreak, each animal was housed in an isolation pen together with one sentinel pig. Approximately every 2 months thereafter one group of animals was euthanized and tissue samples taken for virological and serological analysis. Infectious virus was not isolated from any samples; antibodies to PorPV-LPMV were detected in convalescent pigs by virus neutralisation test and blocking ELISA but not in sentinel pigs. PorPV-LPMV mRNA of the nucleoprotein (NP) and phosphoprotein (P) genes was detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) in samples of trigeminal and optic nerves, cervical spinal cord, tonsils, salivary gland, lung and pancreas from convalescent pigs. mRNA was also detected in the midbrain, corpus callosum, or olfactory bulb in four out of five pigs by nRT-PCR, this result was confirmed by the sequencing of a 260bp PCR product of P gene region. The highest average viral copies/?g of total RNA occurred in the olfactory bulb and pancreas tissues of convalescent pigs and midbrain, tonsil and pancreas of sentinel pigs housed with the convalescent pigs. Satellitosis and gliosis of the midbrain, olfactory bulb, corpus callosum, medulla oblongata or choroid plexus were microscopically observed in four convalescent pigs. The control pig remained negative in all tests. The results indicate that PorPV-LPMV mRNA persists and induces a durable humoral immune response in pigs that have recovered from a natural infection. After a possible reactivation of the virus, it was transmitted to sentinel pigs in contact with the convalescent pigs. PMID:24768705

Cuevas-Romero, S; Hernández-Baumgarten, E; Kennedy, S; Hernández-Jáuregui, P; Berg, M; Moreno-López, J

2014-08-01

236

MINIREVIEW Acute and Persistent Viral Life Strategies and Their Relationship to Emerging Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

stinct life strategies.However, since various acute viruses can be both avirgin soil epidemic (r-selected) and a childhood infectionat equilibrium in the population (K-selected), theselife strategies cannot be applied to individual viral species(Villarreal, 1999). Yet viruses do appear to havedistinct patterns of acute and persistent host infection.Viral persistence has been considered with respect tosources of epidemic disease (Mahy, 1985; Domingo etal.,

Luis P. Villarreal; Victor R. Defilippis; Keith A. Gottlieb

237

Detection of infectious disease outbreaks in twenty-two fragile states, 2000-2010: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Fragile states are home to a sixth of the world's population, and their populations are particularly vulnerable to infectious disease outbreaks. Timely surveillance and control are essential to minimise the impact of these outbreaks, but little evidence is published about the effectiveness of existing surveillance systems. We did a systematic review of the circumstances (mode) of detection of outbreaks occurring in 22 fragile states in the decade 2000-2010 (i.e. all states consistently meeting fragility criteria during the timeframe of the review), as well as time lags from onset to detection of these outbreaks, and from detection to further events in their timeline. The aim of this review was to enhance the evidence base for implementing infectious disease surveillance in these complex, resource-constrained settings, and to assess the relative importance of different routes whereby outbreak detection occurs. We identified 61 reports concerning 38 outbreaks. Twenty of these were detected by existing surveillance systems, but 10 detections occurred following formal notifications by participating health facilities rather than data analysis. A further 15 outbreaks were detected by informal notifications, including rumours. There were long delays from onset to detection (median 29 days) and from detection to further events (investigation, confirmation, declaration, control). Existing surveillance systems yielded the shortest detection delays when linked to reduced barriers to health care and frequent analysis and reporting of incidence data. Epidemic surveillance and control appear to be insufficiently timely in fragile states, and need to be strengthened. Greater reliance on formal and informal notifications is warranted. Outbreak reports should be more standardised and enable monitoring of surveillance systems' effectiveness. PMID:21861869

2011-01-01

238

Etiological Role of Viruses in Outbreaks of Acute Gastroenteritis in The Netherlands from 1994 through 2005?  

PubMed Central

Acute gastroenteritis is one of the most common diseases worldwide. In developed countries, viruses, particularly noroviruses, are recognized as the leading cause. In The Netherlands, the surveillance of gastroenteritis outbreaks with suspected viral etiologies (as determined by Kaplan criteria) was established by the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment in 1994. This paper presents an overview of viral gastroenteritis outbreaks reported from 1994 through 2005. A minimum epidemiological data set consisting of the associated setting(s), the probable transmission mode, the date of the first illness and the date of sampling, the number of persons affected, and the number of hospitalizations was requested for each reported outbreak. Stool samples were tested for the presence of norovirus, sapovirus, rotavirus, astrovirus, adenovirus, and Aichi virus by electron microscopy, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and/or reverse transcription-PCR. A total of 6,707 stool samples from 941 gastroenteritis outbreaks were investigated. Noroviruses were detected as the causative agent in 735 (78.1%) of the outbreaks, and rotaviruses, adenoviruses, and astroviruses were found to be responsible for 46 (4.9%), 9 (1.0%), and 5 (0.5%) outbreaks, respectively. Among the gastroenteritis outbreaks in which a mode of transmission was identified, most outbreaks (38.1%) were associated with person-to-person transmission, and the majority (54.9%) of the outbreaks investigated were reported by residential institutions. Since 2002, the total number of outbreaks reported and the number of unexplained outbreaks have increased. Furthermore, the number of rotavirus-associated outbreaks has increased, especially in nursing homes. Despite thorough testing, 115 (12.2%) outbreaks suspected of having viral etiologies remain unexplained. Increases in numbers of reported outbreaks may indicate undefined changes in the criteria for reporting or the emergence of new pathogens. PMID:17360839

Svraka, Sanela; Duizer, Erwin; Vennema, Harry; de Bruin, Erwin; van der Veer, Bas; Dorresteijn, Bram; Koopmans, Marion

2007-01-01

239

Identification of viral and phytoplasmal agents causing diseases in Gaillardia Foug. plants in Lithuania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gaillardia plants exhibiting symptoms characteristic of viral and phytoplasmal diseases were collected at botanical gardens and floriculture farms in Lithuania. Cucumber mosaic cucumovirus was isolated from diseased plants exhibiting symptoms characterized by stunting, flower breaking and malformation of petals. The virus was characterized based on electron microscopy, serology, reactions of inoculated test-plants, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Symptoms

D. Vali?nas; M. Samuitien?; M. Navalinskien?; R. E. Davis

240

Viral vectors for vaccine applications  

PubMed Central

Traditional approach of inactivated or live-attenuated vaccine immunization has resulted in impressive success in the reduction and control of infectious disease outbreaks. However, many pathogens remain less amenable to deal with the traditional vaccine strategies, and more appropriate vaccine strategy is in need. Recent discoveries that led to increased understanding of viral molecular biology and genetics has rendered the used of viruses as vaccine platforms and as potential anti-cancer agents. Due to their ability to effectively induce both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, viral vectors are deemed as an attractive alternative to the traditional platforms to deliver vaccine antigens as well as to specifically target and kill tumor cells. With potential targets ranging from cancers to a vast number of infectious diseases, the benefits resulting from successful application of viral vectors to prevent and treat human diseases can be immense. PMID:23858400

Choi, Youngjoo

2013-01-01

241

Hematopoietic cell-derived interferon controls viral replication and virus-induced disease.  

PubMed

Type I interferon (IFN-I) strongly inhibits viral replication and is a crucial factor in controlling virus infections and diseases. Cellular activation through pattern recognition receptors induces interferon production in a wide variety of hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cell types, including dendritic cells, fibroblasts, hepatocytes, and cells of neuronal origin. The relative contribution of hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells to the overall interferon response is an important issue which has not been fully addressed. Using irf7(-/-) and wild-type bone marrow chimeras we analyzed the contribution of IFN-I from bone marrow-derived sources in the control of viral infections and immunopathology in mice. We found that during systemic cytopathic virus infection, hematopoietic cells were essential for production of IFN-I, inhibition of viral spread to peripheral organs, and limiting cell damage. In a model of autoimmune diabetes induced by noncytopathic virus infection, hematopoietic cell-derived IFN-I was essential for CD8(+) T cell-dependent cytotoxicity in pancreatic beta-islet cells and induction of diabetes. These data suggest that during systemic viral infection primarily hematopoietic cell-derived IFN-I controls viral replication and viral-induced disease. PMID:18971424

Lang, Philipp A; Cervantes-Barragan, Luisa; Verschoor, Admar; Navarini, Alexander A; Recher, Mike; Pellegrini, Marc; Flatz, Lukas; Bergthaler, Andreas; Honda, Kenya; Ludewig, Burkhard; Ohashi, Pamela S; Lang, Karl S

2009-01-29

242

Animal-induced injuries and disease, neonatal jaundice, viral infections, and immunizations.  

PubMed

This section features recent information in four areas of interest to the practicing pediatrician: animal-induced injuries and disease, neonatal jaundice, viral infections, and immunizations. The focus is on areas of major current discussion: the clinical spectrum and etiology of cat-scratch disease, the debate on new neonatal bilirubin recommendations, viral etiology of previously recognized clinical diagnoses, new immunization recommendations, and new vaccines. In addition, isolated but thought-provoking papers in the four areas over the past year are briefly discussed. By paying careful attention to highlighted articles, the busy practitioner should be able to keep abreast of rapid new developments. PMID:8374681

McIntire, S C; Urbach, A H; Bloom, M D; Mendelsohn, M J; Zitelli, B J; Gartner, J C

1993-08-01

243

1st International Symposium on Stress-Associated RNA Granules in Human Disease and Viral Infection  

PubMed Central

In recent years, important linkages have been made between RNA granules and human disease processes. On June 8-10 of this year, we hosted a new symposium, dubbed the 1st International Symposium on Stress-Associated RNA Granules in Human Disease and Viral Infection. This symposium brought together experts from diverse research disciplines ranging from cancer and neuroscience to infectious disease. This report summarizes speaker presentations and highlights current challenges in the field. PMID:25256393

Banfield, Bruce W.; Mouland, Andrew J.; McCormick, Craig

2014-01-01

244

1st International Symposium on Stress-associated RNA Granules in Human Disease and Viral Infection.  

PubMed

In recent years, important linkages have been made between RNA granules and human disease processes. On June 8-10 of this year, we hosted a new symposium, dubbed the 1st International Symposium on Stress-Associated RNA Granules in Human Disease and Viral Infection. This symposium brought together experts from diverse research disciplines ranging from cancer and neuroscience to infectious disease. This report summarizes speaker presentations and highlights current challenges in the field. PMID:25256393

Banfield, Bruce W; Mouland, Andrew J; McCormick, Craig

2014-09-01

245

Bluetongue, Schmallenberg - what is next? Culicoides-borne viral diseases in the 21st Century  

PubMed Central

In the past decade, two pathogens transmitted by Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus, have caused serious economic losses to the European livestock industry, most notably affecting sheep and cattle. These outbreaks of arboviral disease have highlighted large knowledge gaps on the biology and ecology of indigenous Culicoides species. With these research gaps in mind, and as a means of assessing what potential disease outbreaks to expect in the future, an international workshop was held in May 2013 at Wageningen University, The Netherlands. It brought together research groups from Belgium, France, Germany, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom and The Netherlands, with diverse backgrounds in vector ecology, epidemiology, entomology, virology, animal health, modelling, and genetics. Here, we report on the key findings of this workshop. PMID:24685104

2014-01-01

246

Epidemiological determinants in outbreaks of bitter crab disease (Hematodinium sp.) in snow crabs Chionoecetes opilio from Conception Bay, Newfoundland, Canada.  

PubMed

Bitter crab disease (BCD) is caused by Hematodinium sp., an endoparasitic dinoflagellate. It lives within the hemocoeloms of snow crabs Chionoecetes opilio and Tanner crabs C. bairdi, making them unmarketable due to their bitter flavor. Two recent outbreaks of BCD have occurred in Conception Bay, Newfoundland, one from 1999 to 2000 and another from 2003 to 2005. In the earlier outbreak, prevalence was highest in juvenile and primiparous females and juvenile males. It was thought to be highest in these hosts because they molt more frequently than larger males and the disease is transmitted to newly molted crabs. In the 2003 to 2005 outbreak, the prevalence of BCD changed and was at its highest, 24% in trapped males and 13.5% in trawled males. This apparent shift in the dynamics of the infection between the earlier 1999 to 2000 and later 2003 to 2005 outbreaks was highly correlated with 2 factors: an increase in bottom temperatures, associated with the recent climatic warming trend in the Northwest Atlantic, and an increase in molting activity of the snow crabs due presumably to the temperature increase within Conception Bay. That is, rising temperatures occurring from 2003 to 2005 likely stimulated molting activity in snow crabs, which led to an increase in susceptible hosts in the population. Given the positive correlation between increased bottom temperature, increased molting activity, and the latest outbreak of BCD, we predict that further trends in climatic warming will enhance transmission, spreading the parasite into additional fishing areas. PMID:17933398

Shields, Jeffrey D; Taylor, David M; O'Keefe, Paul G; Colbourne, Eugene; Hynick, Elaine

2007-08-13

247

Modeling cholera outbreaks  

PubMed Central

Mathematical modeling can be a valuable tool for studying infectious disease outbreak dynamics and simulating the effects of possible interventions. Here, we describe approaches to modeling cholera outbreaks and how models have been applied to explore intervention strategies, particularly in Haiti. Mathematical models can play an important role in formulating and evaluating complex cholera outbreak response options. Major challenges to cholera modeling are insufficient data for calibrating models and the need to tailor models for different outbreak scenarios. PMID:23412687

Longini, Ira M.; Morris, J. Glenn

2014-01-01

248

Evaluation of methods for the euthanasia of cattle in a foreign animal disease outbreak.  

PubMed Central

In anticipation of the need to euthanize large numbers of cattle in the event of a foreign animal disease outbreak, two models of captive bolt gun and various firearms and ammunition loads were tested in order to assess their suitability. In the first phase of the project, two models of captive bolt stunner were used in an abattoir, and assessed for effectiveness. In the second phase, several firearms and ammunition were used on isolated bovine heads and assessed for effectiveness. Little difference was found between the two captive bolt stunners. Of the firearms and ammunition evaluated, the Ruger Mini-14 and the Core-Shot round, a prefragmented projectile, were determined to be most suitable. In situations where large herds of livestock are to be depopulated, and where the restraint required for the use of captive bolt stunners is not practical, there are commercially available firearms and ammunition that are suitable for this purpose. PMID:7757921

Baker, H J; Scrimgeour, H J

1995-01-01

249

EFFECTS OF POLLUTANTS ON HUMAN VIRAL RESPIRATORY DISEASE  

EPA Science Inventory

Many epidemiologic studies have shown excessive respiratory disease morbidity in areas of high atmospheric pollution. This study was designed to develop and characterize an animal model and investigate the possible interactive effects of infection and particulate air pollutants u...

250

An outbreak of Legionnaire's disease among visitors to a fair in Belgium in 1999.  

PubMed

This paper describes an outbreak of Legionnaire's disease at Kapellen in Belgium among visitors of the annual fair. The investigation started on 13th November 1999 after a respiratory physician notified the health authorities of the province of Antwerp of presumptive cases of legionellosis. The annual commercial fair at Kapellen, a small town in northern Belgium, was held 10 days previously and attracted 50,000 visitors. Stand employees (professionals or volunteers), technical staff of the hall and visitors at the fair were affected cases. An exploratory case-control study was conducted to trace the source of the epidemic. To complete the inventory study and to evaluate other risk factors, a cohort study of exhibitors and staff was conducted. Ninety-three people met the case definition, 41 of whom were considered as confirmed, 14 as presumptive cases and 38 as possible/clinical cases. Five people died. Further testing at the reference laboratory confirmed all strains to be Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. The sensitivity for culture was low (29.2%), and sensitivity for seroconversion was high (90.9%). For urinary antigen test, a sensitivity with Biotest EIA of 65.6% was found, and the sensitivity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was 85.7%. In all cases, the individual had visited the fair. Those individuals working in the central areas of the tent, near the aerosol-producing devices, were at higher risk of disease. Legionella was detected by PCR on swabs of the surfaces of the whirlpool. Although not fully proven, an aerosol-producing device was the most probable source of the outbreak. PMID:12802978

De Schrijver, K; Dirven, K; Van Bouwel, K; Mortelmans, L; Van Rossom, P; De Beukelaar, T; Vael, C; Fajo, M; Ronveaux, O; Peeters, M F; Van der Zee, A; Bergmans, A; Ieven, M; Goossens, H

2003-03-01

251

Molecular Analysis of Spring Viraemia of Carp Virus in China: A Fatal Aquatic Viral Disease that Might Spread in East Asian  

PubMed Central

Spring viraemia of carp (SVC) is a fatal viral disease for cyprinid fish, which is caused by spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV). To date, no SVC outbreak has been reported in China. Between 1998 and 2002, outbreaks of SVC were reported in ornamental and wild fish in Europe and America, imported from multiple sources including China. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the viral strain isolated from America was shown to be originated from Asia. These outbreaks not only resulted in huge economic losses, but also raise an interesting question as to whether SVCV really exists in China and if so, is it responsible for SVC outbreaks? From 2002 to 2006, we screened 6700 samples from ornamental fish farms using the cell culture method of the Office International des Epizooties (OIE), and further verified the presence of SVCV by ELISA and real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Two infected samples were found and the complete genome of SVCV was sequenced from one of the isolates, termed SVCV-C1. Several unique hallmarks of SVCV-C1 were identified, including six amino acid (KSLANA) insertion in the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L) protein and ten nucleotide insertion in the region between glycoprotein (G) and L genes in European SVCV strains. Phylogenetic tree analysis of the full-length G protein of selected SVCV isolates from the United Kingdom and United States revealed that G proteins could be classified into Ia and Id sub genogroups. The Ia sub genogroup can be further divided into newly defined sub genogroups Ia-A and Ia-B. The isolates derived from the United States and China including the SVCV-C1 belongs to in the Ia-A sub genogroup. The SVCV-C1 G protein shares more than 99% homology with the G proteins of the SVCV strains from England and the United States, making it difficult to compare their pathogenicity. Comparison of the predicted three-dimensional structure based on the published G protein sequences from five SVCV strains revealed that the main differences were in the loops of the pleckstrin homology domains. Since SVCV is highly pathogenic, we speculate that SVC may therefore pose a serious threat to farmed cyprinid fish in China. PMID:19623265

Jiang, Yi Nan; Zhang, Ting; Xia, Chun

2009-01-01

252

PHYSICAL REVIEW E 89, 032702 (2014) Using multitype branching processes to quantify statistics of disease outbreaks in zoonotic epidemics  

E-print Network

of disease outbreaks in zoonotic epidemics Sarabjeet Singh* Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Sibley School and pattern formation [1], and epidemic models have been useful in under- standing the spread of infectious, branching processes often form the basis of such models. In describing epidemics, the susceptible

Myers, Chris

253

Surveillance for Waterborne Disease Outbreaks and Other Health Events Associated with Recreational Water -United States, 2007-2008*  

EPA Science Inventory

Problem/Condition: Since 1978, CDC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have collaborated on the Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) for collecting and reporting data on occurrences and causes...

254

Building PulseNet International: An Interconnected System of Laboratory Networks to Facilitate Timely Public Health Recognition and Response to Foodborne Disease Outbreaks and Emerging Foodborne Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

PulseNet USA, the national molecular subtyping network for foodborne disease surveillance, began functioning in the United States in 1996 and soon established itself as a critical early warning system for foodborne disease outbreaks, particularly those in which cases may be geographically dispersed. The PulseNet network is now be- ing replicated in different ways in Canada, Europe, the Asia Pacific region,

Bala Swaminathan; Peter Gerner-Smidt; Lai-King Ng; Susanna Lukinmaa; Kai-Man Kam; Sharon Rolando; Enrique Perez Gutierrez; Norma Binsztein

2006-01-01

255

Molecular Mechanisms Deployed by Virally Encoded G Protein Coupled Receptors in Human Diseases  

PubMed Central

G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent the largest family of cell surface molecules involved in signal transduction. Surprisingly, open reading frames for multiple GPCRs were hijacked in the process of co-evolution between herpesviridae family viruses and their human and mammalian hosts. Virally encoded GPCRs (vGPCRs) evolved as parts of viral genomes, which allowed harnessing the power of host GPCR signaling circuitries to ensure viral replicative success. Although vGPCRs are phylogenetically related to human chemokine receptors, they feature a number of unique characteristics. Here, we describe the molecular mechanisms underlying vGPCR-mediated viral pathogenesis which include constitutive activity, aberrant coupling to human G-proteins and ?-arrestins, binding and activation by human chemokines, and dimerization with human GPCRs expressed in infected cells. The likely structural basis for these molecular events is described for the two closest viral homologs of human GPCRs. This information can be exploited for developing novel targeted therapeutic strategies against viral diseases. PMID:23092247

Montaner, Silvia; Kufareva, Irina; Abagyan, Ruben; Gutkind, J. Silvio

2014-01-01

256

Outbreak of variant hand-foot-and-mouth disease caused by coxsackievirus A6 in Auckland, New Zealand.  

PubMed

Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is a common, usually mild childhood illness caused by enteroviruses. Over the last five years, coxsackievirus A6 has been identified as a causative agent in outbreaks in Europe, South-East Asia and America. It has an atypical presentation compared with other enteroviruses, with more widespread rash, larger blisters and subsequent skin peeling and/or nail shedding. We give the first description of an outbreak of coxsackievirus A6 in New Zealand and how health-care communication networks enabled detection of and dissemination of information about this emergent strain. PMID:25123330

Hayman, Rebecca; Shepherd, Michael; Tarring, Claire; Best, Emma

2014-10-01

257

Did viral disease of humans wipe out the Neandertals?  

PubMed

Neandertals were an anatomically distinct hominoid species inhabiting a vast geographical area ranging from Portugal to western Siberia and from northern Europe to the Middle East. The species became extinct 28,000 years ago, coinciding with the arrival of anatomically modern humans (AMHs) in Europe 40,000 years ago. There has been considerable debate surrounding the main causes of the extinction of Neandertals. After at least 200,000 years of successful adaption to the climate, flora and fauna of Eurasia, it is not clear why they suddenly failed to survive. For many years, climate change or competition with anatomically modern human (AMH) have been the leading hypotheses. Recently these hypotheses have somewhat fallen out of favour due to the recognition that Neandertals were a highly developed species with complex social structure, culture and technical skills. Were AMHs lucky and survived some catastrophe that eradicated the Neandertals? It seems unlikely that this is the case considering the close timing of the arrival of AMHs and the disappearance of Neandertals. Perhaps the arrival of AMHs also brought additional new non-human microscopic inhabitants to the regions where Neandertals lived and these new inhabitants contributed to the disappearance of the species. We introduce a medical hypothesis that complements other recent explanations for the extinction of Neandertals. After the ancestors of Neandertals left Africa, their immune system adapted gradually to the pathogens in their new Eurasian environment. In contrast, AMHs continued to co-evolve with east African pathogens. More than 200,000 years later, AMHs carried pathogens that would have been alien to pre-historic Europe. First contact between long separated populations can be devastating. Recent European and American history provides evidence for similar events, where introduction of viral, protozoan or bacterial pathogens to immunologically naïve populations lead to mass mortality and local population extinction. We propose that a virus, possibly from the family Herpesviridae, contributed to Neandertal extinction. PMID:20172660

Wolff, Horst; Greenwood, Alex D

2010-07-01

258

Disease outbreaks, bleaching and a cyclone drive changes in coral assemblages on an inshore reef of the Great Barrier Reef  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coral disease is a major threat to the resilience of coral reefs; thus, understanding linkages between disease outbreaks and disturbances predicted to increase with climate change is becoming increasingly important. Coral disease surveys conducted twice yearly between 2008 and 2011 at a turbid inshore reef in the central Great Barrier Reef spanned two disturbance events, a coral bleaching event in 2009 and a severe cyclone (cyclone `Yasi') in 2011. Surveys of coral cover, community structure and disease prevalence throughout this 4-yr study provide a unique opportunity to explore cumulative impacts of disturbance events and disease for inshore coral assemblages. The principal coral disease at the study site was atramentous necrosis (AtN), and it primarily affected the key inshore, reef-building coral Montipora aequituberculata. Other diseases detected were growth anomalies, white syndrome and brown band syndrome. Diseases affected eight coral genera, although Montipora was, by far, the genus mostly affected. The prevalence of AtN followed a clear seasonal pattern, with disease outbreaks occurring only in wet seasons. Mean prevalence of AtN on Montipora spp. (63.8 % ± 3.03) was three- to tenfold greater in the wet season of 2009, which coincided with the 2009 bleaching event, than in other years. Persistent wet season outbreaks of AtN combined with the impacts of bleaching and cyclone events resulted in a 50-80 % proportional decline in total coral cover. The greatest losses of branching and tabular acroporids occurred following the low-salinity-induced bleaching event of 2009, and the greatest losses of laminar montiporids occurred following AtN outbreaks in 2009 and in 2011 following cyclone Yasi. The shift to a less diverse coral assemblage and the concomitant loss of structural complexity are likely to have long-term consequences for associated vertebrate and invertebrate communities on Magnetic Island reefs.

Haapkylä, J.; Melbourne-Thomas, J.; Flavell, M.; Willis, B. L.

2013-09-01

259

Contribution of Viral Mimics of Cellular Genes to KSHV Infection and Disease  

PubMed Central

Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, also named Human herpesvirus 8 HHV-8) is the cause of Kaposi sarcoma (KS), the most common malignancy in HIV-infected individuals worldwide, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and multicentric Castleman disease (MCD). KSHV is a double-stranded DNA virus that encodes several homologues of cellular proteins. The structural similarity between viral and host proteins explains why some viral homologues function as their host counterparts, but sometimes at unusual anatomical sites and inappropriate times. In other cases, structural modification in the viral proteins can suppress or override the function of the host homologue, contributing to KSHV-related diseases. For example, viral IL-6 (vIL-6) is sufficiently different from human IL-6 to activate gp130 signaling independent of the ? subunit. As a consequence, vIL-6 can activate many cell types that are unresponsive to cellular IL-6, contributing to MCD disease manifestations. Here, we discuss the molecular biology of KSHV homologues of cellular products as conduits of virus/host interaction with a focus on identifying new strategies for therapy of KS and other KSHV-related diseases. PMID:25243371

Sakakibara, Shuhei; Tosato, Giovanna

2014-01-01

260

The Structure of Marek Disease Virus DNA: The Presence of Unique Expansion in Nonpathogenic Viral DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA of Marek disease virus (MDV) consists of two unique regions UL and US flanked by long inverted repeat regions TRL and IRL, and short inverted repeat regions TRS and IRS, respectively, similar to herpes simplex virus DNA. Comparison of restriction patterns between pathogenic and nonpathogenic MDV DNA was made to identify a region of viral DNA different between these

K. Fukuchi; A. Tanaka; L. W. Schierman; R. L. Witter; M. Nonoyama

1985-01-01

261

EFFECTS OF PHOSGENE EXPOSURE ON BACTERIAL VIRAL AND NEOPLASTIC LUNG DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY IN MICE  

EPA Science Inventory

The effects of phosgene inhalation exposure on host resistance models representative of bacterial, viral, and neoplastic lung diseases were assessed. ingle 4 h exposure to concentrations of phosgene of 0.025 ppm and above significantly enhanced mortality due to aerosol infection ...

262

Acute and Chronic Airway Responses to Viral Infection: Implications for Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the high clinical impact of established and emerging respi- ratory viruses, some critical aspects of the host response to these pathogens still need to be defined. In that context, we aimed at two major issues: first, what are the innate immune mechanisms that control common respiratory viral infections; and second, whether these mechanisms also cause long-term airway disease. Using

Michael J. Holtzman; Jeffrey W. Tyner; Edy Y. Kim; Mindy S. Lo; Anand C. Patel; Laurie P. Shornick; Eugene Agapov; Yong Zhang

2005-01-01

263

The Impact of Movements and Animal Density on Continental Scale Cattle Disease Outbreaks in the United States  

PubMed Central

Globalization has increased the potential for the introduction and spread of novel pathogens over large spatial scales necessitating continental-scale disease models to guide emergency preparedness. Livestock disease spread models, such as those for the 2001 foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemic in the United Kingdom, represent some of the best case studies of large-scale disease spread. However, generalization of these models to explore disease outcomes in other systems, such as the United States’s cattle industry, has been hampered by differences in system size and complexity and the absence of suitable livestock movement data. Here, a unique database of US cattle shipments allows estimation of synthetic movement networks that inform a near-continental scale disease model of a potential FMD-like (i.e., rapidly spreading) epidemic in US cattle. The largest epidemics may affect over one-third of the US and 120,000 cattle premises, but cattle movement restrictions from infected counties, as opposed to national movement moratoriums, are found to effectively contain outbreaks. Slow detection or weak compliance may necessitate more severe state-level bans for similar control. Such results highlight the role of large-scale disease models in emergency preparedness, particularly for systems lacking comprehensive movement and outbreak data, and the need to rapidly implement multi-scale contingency plans during a potential US outbreak. PMID:24670977

Buhnerkempe, Michael G.; Tildesley, Michael J.; Lindstrom, Tom; Grear, Daniel A.; Portacci, Katie; Miller, Ryan S.; Lombard, Jason E.; Werkman, Marleen; Keeling, Matt J.; Wennergren, Uno; Webb, Colleen T.

2014-01-01

264

Review article Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp  

E-print Network

has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been the challenges presented by climate change. disease emergence / shrimp / fish / virus Table of contents 1 CSIRO Livestock Industries, Australian Animal Health Laboratory (AAHL), 5 Portarlington Road, Geelong

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

265

Homelessness and the Response to Emerging Infectious Disease Outbreaks: Lessons from SARS  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in Toronto, the potential introduction of SARS into the\\u000a homeless population was a serious concern. Although no homeless individual in Toronto contracted SARS, the outbreak highlighted\\u000a the need to develop an outbreak preparedness plan that accounts for unique issues related to homeless people. We conducted\\u000a key informant interviews with homeless service

Cheryl S. Leung; Minnie M. Ho; Alex Kiss; Adi V. Gundlapalli; Stephen W. Hwang

2008-01-01

266

The Evolution and Expansion of Regional Disease Surveillance Networks and Their Role in Mitigating the Threat of Infectious Disease Outbreaks  

PubMed Central

We examine the emergence, development, and value of regional infectious disease surveillance networks that neighboring countries worldwide are organizing to control cross-border outbreaks at their source. The regional perspective represented in the paper is intended to serve as an instructive framework for others who decide to launch such networks as new technologies and emerging threats bring countries even closer together. Distinct from more formal networks in geographic regions designated by the World Health Organization (WHO), these networks usually involve groupings of fewer countries chosen by national governments to optimize surveillance efforts. Sometimes referred to as sub-regional, these “self-organizing” networks complement national and local government recognition with informal relationships across borders among epidemiologists, scientists, ministry officials, health workers, border officers, and community members. Their development over time reflects both incremental learning and growing connections among network actors; and changing disease patterns, with infectious disease threats shifting over time from local to regional to global levels. Not only has this regional disease surveillance network model expanded across the globe, it has also expanded from a mostly practitioner-based network model to one that covers training, capacity-building, and multidisciplinary research. Today, several of these networks are linked through Connecting Organizations for Regional Disease Surveillance (CORDS). We explore how regional disease surveillance networks add value to global disease detection and response by complementing other systems and efforts, by harnessing their power to achieve other goals such as health and human security, and by helping countries adapt to complex challenges via multi-sectoral solutions. We note that governmental commitment and trust among participating individuals are critical to the success of regional infectious disease surveillance networks. PMID:23362414

Bond, Katherine C.; Macfarlane, Sarah B.; Burke, Charlanne; Ungchusak, Kumnuan; Wibulpolprasert, Suwit

2013-01-01

267

The History of Dengue Outbreaks in the Americas  

PubMed Central

Dengue is a viral disease usually transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Dengue outbreaks in the Americas reported in medical literature and to the Pan American Health Organization are described. The outbreak history from 1600 to 2010 was categorized into four phases: Introduction of dengue in the Americas (1600–1946); Continental plan for the eradication of the Ae. aegypti (1947–1970) marked by a successful eradication of the mosquito in 18 continental countries by 1962; Ae. aegypti reinfestation (1971–1999) caused by the failure of the mosquito eradication program; Increased dispersion of Ae. aegypti and dengue virus circulation (2000–2010) characterized by a marked increase in the number of outbreaks. During 2010 > 1.7 million dengue cases were reported, with 50,235 severe cases and 1,185 deaths. A dramatic increase in the number of outbreaks has been reported in recent years. Urgent global action is needed to avoid further disease spread. PMID:23042846

Brathwaite Dick, Olivia; San Martin, Jose L.; Montoya, Romeo H.; del Diego, Jorge; Zambrano, Betzana; Dayan, Gustavo H.

2012-01-01

268

Review: Micronutrient Selenium Deficiency Influences Evolution of Some Viral Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently emerged viral infectious diseases (VIDs) include HIV\\/AIDS, influenzas H5N1 and 2009 H1N1, SARS, and Ebola hemorrhagic\\u000a fevers. Earlier research determined metabolic oxidative stress in hosts deficient in antioxidant selenium (Se) (<1 ?Mol Se\\/L\\u000a of blood) induces both impaired human host immunocompetence and rapidly mutated benign variants of RNA viruses to virulence.\\u000a These viral mutations are consistent, rather than stochastic, and long-lived.

Michalann Harthill

269

Magnetic resonance imaging in viral and prion diseases of the central nervous system.  

PubMed

The early detection and specific diagnosis of viral infections of the central nervous system are important because many of these diseases are potentially treatable. However, clinical symptoms and physical examination are often nonspecific, and rapid diagnostic tests are available for some, but not all, viruses. Neuroimaging, in conjunction with clinical history and laboratory tests, plays an important role in narrowing the differential diagnoses. In this article, we review the clinical features, imaging characteristics, diagnosis, and treatment of the more common viral infections and prions that involve the central nervous system. PMID:25296274

Vachha, Behroze; Rojas, Rafael; Prabhu, Sanjay P; Bhadelia, Rafeeque; Moonis, Gul

2014-10-01

270

The effectiveness of mass vaccination on Marek's disease virus (MDV) outbreaks and detection within a broiler barn: a modeling study.  

PubMed

Marek's disease virus (MDV), a poultry pathogen, has been increasing in virulence since the mid twentieth century. Since multiple vaccines have been developed and widely implemented, losses due to MDV have decreased. However, vaccine failure has occurred in the past and vaccine breakthroughs remain a problem. Failure of disease control with current vaccines would have significant economic and welfare consequences. Nevertheless, the epidemiology of the disease during a farm outbreak is not well understood. Here we present a mathematical model to predict the effectiveness of vaccines to reduce the outbreak probability and disease burden within a barn. We find that the chance of an outbreak within a barn increases with the virulence of an MDV strain, and is significantly reduced when the flock is vaccinated, especially when there the contaminant strain is of low virulence. With low quantities of contaminated dust, there is nearly a 100% effectiveness of vaccines to reduce MDV outbreaks. However, the vaccine effectiveness drops to zero with an increased amount of contamination with a middle virulence MDV strain. We predict that the larger the barn, and the more virulent the MDV strain is, the more virus is produced by the time the flock is slaughtered. With the low-to-moderate virulence of the strains studied here, the number of deaths due to MDV is very low compared to all-cause mortality regardless of the vaccination status of the birds. However, the cumulative MD incidence can reach 100% for unvaccinated cohorts, and 35% for vaccinated cohorts. These results suggest that death due to MDV is an insufficient metric to assess the prevalence of MDV broiler barns regardless of vaccine status, such that active surveillance is required to successfully assess the probability of MDV outbreaks, and to limit transmission of MDV between successive cohorts of broiler chickens. PMID:24267877

Atkins, Katherine E; Read, Andrew F; Walkden-Brown, Stephen W; Savill, Nicholas J; Woolhouse, Mark E J

2013-12-01

271

[Kenya Research Station and viral infectious disease research].  

PubMed

The Institute of Tropical Medicine, Kenya Research Station, Nagasaki University was established by a fund of the Ministry of Education (MEXT) in 2005. Currently, the station has been on ''The Clinical and Epidemiological Research Program of Tropical Medicine and Emerging Infectious Diseases-Establishment of Education and Research System between Africa and Japan- ''. The project has been supported by about 20 Japanese staff and 85 Kenyan staff, and in the research station, 10 research teams have worked on their researches for the prevention of tropical medicine and emerging diseases collaborating with other researches and The JICA Grassroots Technical Cooperation Project has also started in 2012. In April 2010, Nagasaki University, Africa Station has been established along with Kenya Research Station, and it made possible for other faculties to join research in Kenya. School of Dentistry has started oral health survey in Mbita, while School of Fishery, School of Engineering and School of Health Science have a plan of a joint project targeting areas by Lake Victoria. Our aim is to develop a foundation which enables all researchers from different fields to carry out their research for improvement health and living standards of the locals. PMID:24769581

Ichinose, Yoshio

2013-01-01

272

Carriage Rate and Effects of Vaccination after Outbreaks of Serogroup C Meningococcal Disease, Brazil, 2010  

PubMed Central

During 2010, outbreaks of serogroup C meningococcal (MenC) disease occurred in 2 oil refineries in São Paulo State, Brazil, leading to mass vaccination of employees at 1 refinery with a meningococcal polysaccharide A/C vaccine. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of meningococci carriage among workers at both refineries and to investigate the effect of vaccination on and the risk factors for pharyngeal carriage of meningococci. Among the vaccinated and nonvaccinated workers, rates of overall meningococci carriage (21.4% and 21.6%, respectively) and of MenC carriage (6.3% and 4.9%, respectively) were similar. However, a MenC strain belonging to the sequence type103 complex predominated and was responsible for the increased incidence of meningococcal disease in Brazil. A low education level was associated with higher risk of meningococci carriage. Polysaccharide vaccination did not affect carriage or interrupt transmission of the epidemic strain. These findings will help inform future vaccination strategies. PMID:24751156

Carvalhanas, Telma Regina Marques Pinto; Paula de Lemos, Ana; Gorla, Maria Cecilia Outeiro; Salgado, Maristela; Fukasawa, Lucila O.; Goncalves, Maria Gisele; Higa, Fabio; Brandileone, Maria Cristina Cunto; Sacchi, Claudio Tavares; Ribeiro, Ana Freitas; Sato, Helena Keico; Bricks, Lucia Ferro; Cassio de Moraes, Jose

2014-01-01

273

Carriage rate and effects of vaccination after outbreaks of serogroup C meningococcal disease, Brazil, 2010.  

PubMed

During 2010, outbreaks of serogroup C meningococcal (MenC) disease occurred in 2 oil refineries in São Paulo State, Brazil, leading to mass vaccination of employees at 1 refinery with a meningococcal polysaccharide A/C vaccine. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of meningococci carriage among workers at both refineries and to investigate the effect of vaccination on and the risk factors for pharyngeal carriage of meningococci. Among the vaccinated and nonvaccinated workers, rates of overall meningococci carriage (21.4% and 21.6%, respectively) and of MenC carriage (6.3% and 4.9%, respectively) were similar. However, a MenC strain belonging to the sequence type103 complex predominated and was responsible for the increased incidence of meningococcal disease in Brazil. A low education level was associated with higher risk of meningococci carriage. Polysaccharide vaccination did not affect carriage or interrupt transmission of the epidemic strain. These findings will help inform future vaccination strategies. PMID:24751156

Sáfadi, Marco Aurelio Palazzi; Carvalhanas, Telma Regina Marques Pinto; Paula de Lemos, Ana; Gorla, Maria Cecilia Outeiro; Salgado, Maristela; Fukasawa, Lucila O; Gonçalves, Maria Gisele; Higa, Fabio; Brandileone, Maria Cristina Cunto; Sacchi, Claudio Tavares; Ribeiro, Ana Freitas; Sato, Helena Keico; Bricks, Lucia Ferro; Cassio de Moraes, José

2014-05-01

274

Leptospirosis Outbreak in Sri Lanka in 2008: Lessons for Assessing the Global Burden of Disease  

PubMed Central

Global leptospirosis disease burden estimates are hampered by the lack of scientifically sound data from countries with probable high endemicity and limited diagnostic capacities. We describe the seroepidemiologic and clinical characteristics of the leptospirosis outbreak in 2008 in Sri Lanka. Definitive/presumptive case definitions proposed by the World Health Organization Leptospirosis Epidemiology Reference Group were used for case confirmation. Of the 404 possible cases, 155 were confirmed to have leptospirosis. Highest titers of patient seum samples reacted with serovars Pyrogenes (28.7%), Hardjo (18.8%), Javanica (11.5%), and Hebdomadis (11.5%). Sequencing of the 16S ribosomal DNA gene identified six infections: five with Leptospira interrogans and one with L. weilli. In this patient population, acute renal failure was the main complication (14.8%), followed by myocarditis (7.1%) and heart failure (3.9%). The case-fatality rate was 1.3%. This report strengthens the urgent need for increasing laboratory diagnostic capabilities to determine the causes of epidemic and endemic infectious diseases in Sri Lanka, a finding relevant to other tropical regions. PMID:21896807

Agampodi, Suneth B.; Peacock, Sharon J.; Thevanesam, Vasanthi; Nugegoda, Danaseela B.; Smythe, Lee; Thaipadungpanit, Janjira; Craig, Scott B.; Burns, Mary Ann; Dohnt, Michael; Boonsilp, Siriphan; Senaratne, Thamarasi; Kumara, Athula; Palihawadana, Paba; Perera, Sahan; Vinetz, Joseph M.

2011-01-01

275

Implementation of a data fusion algorithm for RODS, a real-time outbreak and disease surveillance system.  

SciTech Connect

Due to the nature of many infectious agents, such as anthrax, symptoms may either take several days to manifest or resemble those of less serious illnesses leading to misdiagnosis. Thus, bioterrorism attacks that include the release of such agents are particularly dangerous and potentially deadly. For this reason, a system is needed for the quick and correct identification of disease outbreaks. The Real-time Outbreak Disease Surveillance System (RODS), initially developed by Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh, was created to meet this need. The RODS software implements different classifiers for pertinent health surveillance data in order to determine whether or not an outbreak has occurred. In an effort to improve the capability of RODS at detecting outbreaks, we incorporate a data fusion method. Data fusion is used to improve the results of a single classification by combining the output of multiple classifiers. This paper documents the first stages of the development of a data fusion system that can combine the output of the classifiers included in RODS.

Brown, Douglas (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Gray, Genetha Anne (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

2005-10-01

276

Risk factors for outbreaks of infectious salmon anemia in farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious salmon anemia (ISA) is a viral disease occurring in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) that is characterized by lethargy, anorexia, anemia and death. To control the disease in New Brunswick, Canada, 7.5 million fish from outbreak cages have been destroyed since 1997. Despite changes made by farmers, 2002 was the worst year ever for ISA losses in the region.We

Carol A. McClure; K. Larry Hammell; Ian R. Dohoo

2005-01-01

277

First outbreak of sleeping disease in Switzerland: disease signs and virus characterization.  

PubMed

Sleeping disease is a contagious disease mainly of freshwater farmed rainbow trout, caused by salmonid alphavirus (SAV) Subtype 2. Here we describe the first case in Switzerland. Pathological changes ranged from acute pancreas necrosis to more chronic lesions with complete loss of exocrine pancreas and simultaneous degenerative, inflammatory and regenerative heart and muscle lesions. The partial sequencing of SAV E2 and nsp3 genes placed the Swiss SAV variant within the Subtype 2 clustering together with freshwater isolates from UK and continental Europe. Although mortality stayed low, growth rates were significantly reduced, making the disease economically relevant. PMID:25266904

Schmidt-Posthaus, Heike; Diserens, Nicolas; Jankowska Hjortaas, Monika; Knüsel, Ralph; Hirschi, Regula; Taksdal, Torunn

2014-09-30

278

Learning from outbreaks of bovine tuberculosis near Riding Mountain National Park: Applications to a foreign animal disease outbreak  

PubMed Central

Abstract Riding Mountain National Park, Manitoba, is home to a population of free-roaming elk (Cervus elaphus manitobensis) that have been found to be infected with Mycobacterium bovis, the agent of bovine tuberculosis (TB). The disease has also been found in a number of cattle herds near the Park and, as a result, Manitoba has been assigned a split status for bovine TB. A number of government agencies, with input from representatives from the wildlife and agricultural sectors, have responded by devising a program to detect, investigate, control, eradicate, and prevent TB in both wild and domestic animals. Experience from these efforts can be applied to the control of other diseases, such a foreign animal disease, elsewhere in Canada. PMID:14992251

2004-01-01

279

Rapid Diagnosis of Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever by Reverse Transcription-PCR in an Outbreak Setting and Assessment of Patient Viral Load as a Predictor of Outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The largest outbreak on record of Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) occurred in Uganda from August 2000 to January 2001. The outbreak was centered in the Gulu district of northern Uganda, with secondary transmis- sion to other districts. After the initial diagnosis of Sudan ebolavirus by the National Institute for Virology in Johannesburg, South Africa, a temporary diagnostic laboratory was established

Jonathan S. Towner; Pierre E. Rollin; Daniel G. Bausch; Anthony Sanchez; Sharon M. Crary; Martin Vincent; William F. Lee; Christina F. Spiropoulou; Thomas G. Ksiazek; Mathew Lukwiya; Felix Kaducu; Robert Downing; Stuart T. Nichol

2004-01-01

280

Transgenic tobacco plants expressing the geminivirus BL1 protein exhibit symptoms of viral disease.  

PubMed Central

Bipartite geminiviruses, such as squash leaf curl virus (SqLCV), encode two movement proteins (MPs), BR1 and BL1, that are essential for viral movement in and subsequent infection of the host plant. To elucidate the biochemical functions of these MPs and define their respective contributions to viral infection, we have generated transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants expressing SqLCV BR1 and BL1. Transgenic plants expressing BR1 or a truncated BL1 were phenotypically indistinguishable from wild-type N. benthamiana. In contrast, transgenic plants expressing full-length BL1, alone or in combination with BR1, were strikingly abnormal both in their growth properties and phenotypic appearance, with leaves that were mosaic and curled under, thus mimicking typical SqLCV disease symptoms in this host. BL1 was localized to the cell wall and plasma membrane fractions, whereas BR1 was predominantly in the microsomal membrane fraction. These findings demonstrate that expression of BL1 in transgenic plants is sufficient to produce viral disease symptoms, and they further suggest that BL1 and BR1 carry out distinct and independent functions in viral movement. PMID:8364356

Pascal, E; Goodlove, P E; Wu, L C; Lazarowitz, S G

1993-01-01

281

Foodborne disease in Australia: incidence, notifications and outbreaks. Annual report of the OzFoodNet network, 2002.  

PubMed

In 2002, OzFoodNet continued to enhance surveillance of foodborne diseases across Australia. The OzFoodNet network expanded to cover all Australian states and territories in 2002. The National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health together with OzFoodNet concluded a national survey of gastroenteritis, which found that there were 17.2 (95% C.I. 14.5-19.9) million cases of gastroenteritis each year in Australia. The credible range of gastroenteritis that may be due to food each year is between 4.0-6.9 million cases with a mid-point of 5.4 million. During 2002, there were 23,434 notifications of eight bacterial diseases that may have been foodborne, which was a 7.7 per cent increase over the mean of the previous four years. There were 14,716 cases of campylobacteriosis, 7,917 cases of salmonellosis, 505 cases of shigellosis, 99 cases of yersiniosis, 64 cases of typhoid, 62 cases of listeriosis, 58 cases of shiga toxin producing E. coli and 13 cases of haemolytic uraemic syndrome. OzFoodNet sites reported 92 foodborne disease outbreaks affecting 1,819 persons, of whom 5.6 per cent (103/1,819) were hospitalised and two people died. There was a wide range of foods implicated in these outbreaks and the most common agent was Salmonella Typhimurium. Sites reported two outbreaks with potential for international spread involving contaminated tahini from Egypt resulting in an outbreak of Salmonella Montevideo infection and an outbreak of suspected norovirus infection associated with imported Japanese oysters. In addition, there were three outbreaks associated with animal petting zoos or poultry hatching programs and 318 outbreaks of suspected person-to-person transmission. Sites conducted 100 investigations into clusters of gastrointestinal illness where a source could not be identified, including three multi-state outbreaks of salmonellosis. OzFoodNet identified important risk factors for foodborne disease infection, including: Salmonella infections due to chicken and egg consumption, bakeries as a source of Salmonella infection, and problems associated with spit roast meals served by mobile caterers. There were marked improvements in surveillance during 2002, with all jurisdictions contributing to national cluster reports, increasing use of analytical studies to investigate outbreaks and 96.9 per cent of Salmonella notifications on state and territory surveillance databases recording complete information about serotype and phage type. During 2002, there were several investigations that showed the benefits of national collaboration to control foodborne disease. Sharing surveillance data from animals, humans and foods and rapid sharing of molecular typing information for human isolates of potentially foodborne organisms could further improve surveillance of foodborne disease in Australia. PMID:12926736

2003-01-01

282

West Nile fever--a reemerging mosquito-borne viral disease in Europe.  

PubMed Central

West Nile virus causes sporadic cases and outbreaks of human and equine disease in Europe (western Mediterranean and southern Russia in 1962-64, Belarus and Ukraine in the 1970s and 1980s, Romania in 1996-97, Czechland in 1997, and Italy in 1998). Environmental factors, including human activities, that enhance population densities of vector mosquitoes (heavy rains followed by floods, irrigation, higher than usual temperature, or formation of ecologic niches that enable mass breeding of mosquitoes) could increase the incidence of West Nile fever. PMID:10511520

Hubalek, Z.; Halouzka, J.

1999-01-01

283

Outbreak of legionnaires' disease from a cooling water system in a power station.  

PubMed

In September and October 1981 six cases of pneumonia occurred among men working in a power station under construction. Three were identified as cases of legionella pneumonia and two others had serology suggestive of legionella infection. In a sample of 92 men from the site 10 had low levels of antibodies to legionella; a similar sample of men working on an adjacent site showed none with positive serology. In a case control study it was found that cases of pneumonia were more likely than controls to have worked on a part of the site where four small capacity cooling towers were located. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from the water systems of these four towers but was not found in samples from any other cooling towers or hot or cold water outlets on the site. It would appear that there was airborne spread of the organism from these cooling water systems which had not received conventional treatment to inhibit corrosion and organic growth. This is the first outbreak of legionnaires' disease to be recorded in an industrial setting in the United Kingdom. No cases of legionella infection have occurred on the site since the introduction of control measures. PMID:3756116

Morton, S; Bartlett, C L; Bibby, L F; Hutchinson, D N; Dyer, J V; Dennis, P J

1986-09-01

284

Outbreak of legionnaires' disease from a cooling water system in a power station.  

PubMed Central

In September and October 1981 six cases of pneumonia occurred among men working in a power station under construction. Three were identified as cases of legionella pneumonia and two others had serology suggestive of legionella infection. In a sample of 92 men from the site 10 had low levels of antibodies to legionella; a similar sample of men working on an adjacent site showed none with positive serology. In a case control study it was found that cases of pneumonia were more likely than controls to have worked on a part of the site where four small capacity cooling towers were located. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from the water systems of these four towers but was not found in samples from any other cooling towers or hot or cold water outlets on the site. It would appear that there was airborne spread of the organism from these cooling water systems which had not received conventional treatment to inhibit corrosion and organic growth. This is the first outbreak of legionnaires' disease to be recorded in an industrial setting in the United Kingdom. No cases of legionella infection have occurred on the site since the introduction of control measures. PMID:3756116

Morton, S; Bartlett, C L; Bibby, L F; Hutchinson, D N; Dyer, J V; Dennis, P J

1986-01-01

285

Intervention strategies for carcass disposal: pareto analysis of exposures for exotic disease outbreaks.  

PubMed

An enhanced methodology for the policy-level prioritization of intervention options during carcass disposal is presented. Pareto charts provide a semiquantitative analysis of opportunities for multiple exposures to human health, animal health, and the wider environment during carcass disposal; they identify critical control points for risk management and assist in waste technology assessment. Eighty percent of the total availability of more than 1300 potential exposures to human, animal, or environmental receptors is represented by 16 processes, these being dominated by on-farm collection and carcass processing, reinforcing the criticality of effective controls during early stages of animal culling and waste processing. Exposures during mass burials are dominated by ground- and surface-water exposures with noise and odor nuisance prevalent for mass pyres, consistent with U.K. experience. Pareto charts are discussed in the context of other visualization formats for policy officials and promoted as a communication tool for informing the site-specific risk assessments required during the operational phases of exotic disease outbreaks. PMID:20536266

Delgado, João; Longhurst, Phil; Hickman, Gordon A W; Gauntlett, Daniel M; Howson, Simon F; Irving, Phil; Hart, Alwyn; Pollard, Simon J T

2010-06-15

286

[Outbreak of intestinal infectious diseases due to contamination of two-time pressure water supply with sewage].  

PubMed

Two outbreaks of intestinal infectious disease occurred due to contaminations of Two-time pressure water supply at Hai-zhou and Tai-ping districts in 1985 and 1986. There were 659 cases, the incidence rate was 55%. The cause of contamination was that the underground water storage tanks were contaminated by domestic sewage, which back-flowed into the tanks through an overflow pipe, connecting the tank with observation well of the sewage system. PMID:2786465

Liu, S Y

1989-01-01

287

Fire fighting truck-based emergency mosquito biolarviciding to prevent outbreaks of malaria and arboviral disease in Kabul, Afghanistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emergency control of disease vectors requires high efficacy, rapid reaction and safe use of biocides in order interrupt transmission\\u000a cycles without harming humans, non-target animals and the environment. In countries with complex emergencies, air-borne large-scale\\u000a vector control is often limited, or impossible, due to questionable security as well as military, safety, equipment, or logistical\\u000a constraints. While facing a potential outbreak

M. K. Faulde; J. J. Scharninghausen; M. Tisch

2008-01-01

288

Resolution of a Meningococcal Disease Outbreak from Whole-Genome Sequence Data with Rapid Web-Based Analysis Methods  

PubMed Central

The increase in the capacity and reduction in cost of whole-genome sequencing methods present the imminent prospect of such data being used routinely in real time for investigations of bacterial disease outbreaks. For this to be realized, however, it is necessary that generic, portable, and robust analysis frameworks be available, which can be readily interpreted and used in real time by microbiologists, clinicians, and public health epidemiologists. We have achieved this with a set of analysis tools integrated into the PubMLST.org website, which can in principle be used for the analysis of any pathogen. The approach is demonstrated with genomic data from isolates obtained during a well-characterized meningococcal disease outbreak at the University of Southampton, United Kingdom, that occurred in 1997. Whole-genome sequence data were collected, de novo assembled, and deposited into the PubMLST Neisseria BIGSdb database, which automatically annotated the sequences. This enabled the immediate and backwards-compatible classification of the isolates with a number of schemes, including the following: conventional, extended, and ribosomal multilocus sequence typing (MLST, eMLST, and rMLST); antigen gene sequence typing (AGST); analysis based on genes conferring antibiotic susceptibility. The isolates were also compared to a reference isolate belonging to the same clonal complex (ST-11) at 1,975 loci. Visualization of the data with the NeighborNet algorithm, implemented in SplitsTree 4 within the PubMLST website, permitted complete resolution of the outbreak and related isolates, demonstrating that multiple closely related but distinct strains were simultaneously present in asymptomatic carriage and disease, with two causing disease and one responsible for the outbreak itself. PMID:22785191

Hill, Dorothea M. C.; Bratcher, Holly B.; Harrison, Odile B.; Feavers, Ian M.; Parkhill, Julian; Maiden, Martin C. J.

2012-01-01

289

The contribution of molecular epidemiology to the understanding and control of viral diseases of salmonid aquaculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular epidemiology is a science which utilizes molecular biology to define the distribution of disease in a population\\u000a (descriptive epidemiology) and relies heavily on integration of traditional (or analytical) epidemiological approaches to\\u000a identify the etiological determinants of this distribution. The study of viral pathogens of aquaculture has provided many\\u000a exciting opportunities to apply such tools. This review considers the extent

Michael Snow

2011-01-01

290

SEROSURVEY FOR SELECTED VIRAL DISEASES AND DEMOGRAPHY OF AFRICAN WILD DOGS IN TANZANIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are endangered, with only 3,000-5,000 remaining in the wild. It is believed that wild dogs are unusually vulnerable to viral diseases, particularly rabies and canine distemper (CDV). However, canine distemper has been confirmed by laboratory diagnosis in only one free-living wild dog. The 43,000 km2 Selous Game Reserve (SGR; Tanzania) holds approximately 900 adult wild

Scott Creel; Nancy Marusha Creel; Linda Munson; Dane Sanderlin; Max J. G. AppeI

1997-01-01

291

Bench-to-bedside review: Paediatric viral lower respiratory tract disease necessitating mechanical ventilation – should we use exogenous surfactant?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of infants with viral lower respiratory tract disease (LRTD) necessitating mechanical ventilation is mainly symptomatic. The therapeutic use of surfactant seems rational because significantly lower levels of surfactant phospholipids and proteins, and impaired capacity to reduce surface tension were observed among infants and young children with viral LRTD. This article reviews the role of pulmonary surfactant in the pathogenesis

Martin CJ Kneyber; Frans B Plötz; Jan LL Kimpen

2005-01-01

292

Pacheco's parrot disease in macaws of the Lisbon's Zoological Garden. Description of an outbreak, diagnosis and management, including vaccination.  

PubMed

The Lisbon's Zoological Garden, Portugal, has maintained for many years a large collection of psittacine birds without any serious health problems. Unexpectedly, in April 1999, a total of nine macaws died after a short period of illness. Clinical signs consisted mainly of anorexia, ruffled feathers and yellowish droppings. A herpesvirus was isolated from brain, trachea, lung, liver, spleen, kidney and intestine of each of the examined dead birds, confirming that all animals succumbed during viraemia. Serotyping of the isolate in cross neutralization tests with reference sera prove that the outbreak was caused by serotype 3 of Pacheco's parrot disease herpesviruses. An autogenous, formalin-inactivated vaccine with adjuvant (aluminium hydroxid gel) was prepared from one of the isolates and injected intramuscularly 14 days and six weeks after the onset of mortality in an attempt to protect the remaining psittacine birds in the zoo from the disease. The autogenous vaccine was well tolerated and was able to rapidly stop virus spread and morbidity and mortality among the psittacine birds. Follow-up studies demonstrate that all nine blood samples from vaccinated birds obtained nine month' after the second vaccination contain neutralizing antibodies. Twenty five month' after vaccination two out of four serum samples were still antibody positive. No herpesvirus was isolated from faecal samples nine and twenty five months after the onset of the outbreak. These data prove that the autogenous vaccine played a major role in containing a severe outbreak of Pacheco's parrot disease in a large collection of psittacine birds. PMID:18077933

Barão Da Cunha, M; Correia, J J; Fagulha, T; Fevereiro, M; Peleteiro, M C; Vollrath, G; Kaleta, E F

2007-11-01

293

The Viral Replication Complex Is Associated with the Virulence of Newcastle Disease Virus?  

PubMed Central

Virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus ([NDV] also known as avian paramyxovirus type 1) can be discriminated from low-virulence strains by the presence of multiple basic amino acid residues at the proteolytic cleavage site of the fusion (F) protein. However, some NDV variants isolated from pigeons (pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 [PPMV-1]) have low levels of virulence, despite the fact that their F protein cleavage sites contain a multibasic amino acid sequence and have the same functionality as that of virulent strains. To determine the molecular basis of this discrepancy, we examined the role of the internal proteins in NDV virulence. Using reverse genetics, the genes encoding the nucleoprotein (NP), phosphoprotein (P), matrix protein (M), and large polymerase protein (L) were exchanged between the nonvirulent PPMV-1 strain AV324 and the highly virulent NDV strain Herts. Recombinant viruses were evaluated for their pathogenicities and replication levels in day-old chickens, and viral genome replication and plaque sizes were examined in cell culture monolayers. We also tested the contributions of the individual NP, P, and L proteins to the activity of the viral replication complex in an in vitro replication assay. The results showed that the replication proteins of Herts are more active than those of AV324 and that the activity of the viral replication complex is directly related to virulence. Although the M protein affected viral replication in vitro, it had only a minor effect on virulence. PMID:20660202

Dortmans, J. C. F. M.; Rottier, P. J. M.; Koch, G.; Peeters, B. P. H.

2010-01-01

294

Ebola virus disease outbreak: incorporating ethical analysis into the health system response.  

PubMed

The current outbreak of Ebola in western Africa has been unprecedented for various reasons, mostly because of its magnitude, its expansion across the borders of several countries of the region, and its propagation in capital cities. The outbreak initially involved no more than a few hundred people mainly in the rural parts of Africa, but by mid-September it had affected more than 5800 persons and caused more than 2500 deaths in four countries (mainly in urban locations). PMID:25377031

Saxena, Abha

2014-01-01

295

Animal-induced injuries and disease, viral infections, neonatal jaundice, and immunizations.  

PubMed

This review highlights recent advances in four areas of interest to the pediatrician: animal-induced injuries and disease, viral infections, neonatal jaundice, and immunizations. Molecular biology techniques are dramatically impacting our understanding of the pathophysiology of disease states. The application of this "modern medicine" to the bedside is rapidly becoming commonplace. As clinicians we need to understand the opportunities this affords us as well as its potential limitations. The above four areas of concern will be explored with this in mind. PMID:7951675

Gerson, W T

1994-08-01

296

[The concept of emerging viral diseases: what risk for Reunion Island?].  

PubMed

In Reunion Island, the risk of emerging infectious diseases lies mainly in several viral zoonoses: West Nile fever, Sindbis virus, Nipah virus, Wesselsbron virus, Rift Valley fever and Japanese encephalitis. There morbidity and consequences are more or less important but they all have a non-negligible epidemic potential, so they have to be monitored. Indeed, the struggle against these emerging infectious diseases requires an early detection of the cases, thus a surveillance system capable of detecting them as early as possible, thanks to a real international network of information, warning and prevention. PMID:23765703

Peton, M; Vilain, P; Reilhes, O; Cardinale, E; Gaüzère, B A; Filleul, L

2013-08-01

297

Outbreak Simulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page provides a problem-based activity on risk assessment of environmental health issues. The activity asks students to "study and research emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, particularly through vector-borne, food-borne, and water-borne educational activities" and "understand that certain exposures in the environment cause various infectious diseases." The activity asks students to simulate a food borne salmonella outbreak, and carry out the resulting investigation. This resource is free to download. Users must first create a login with ATEEC's website to access the file.

2013-07-22

298

Adventures in Infectious Diseases  

ScienceCinema

Dr. Susan Fisher-Hoch, Virologist and Epidemiologist, will discuss her research and travels associated with viral hemorrhagic fevers. From the Ebola outbreak in Reston, Virginia to outbreaks of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in South Africa, Senegal, and Saudi Arabia, Dr. Fisher-Hoch has studied and tracked the pathophysiology of these viral diseases. These studies have led her from the Center for Disease Control in the United States, to Lyon, France where she was instrumental in designing, constructing, and rendering operational a laboratory capable of containing some of the world's most dangerous diseases.

Fisher-Hoch, Susan [University of Texas School of Public Health

2014-06-25

299

Adventures in Infectious Diseases  

SciTech Connect

Dr. Susan Fisher-Hoch, Virologist and Epidemiologist, will discuss her research and travels associated with viral hemorrhagic fevers. From the Ebola outbreak in Reston, Virginia to outbreaks of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in South Africa, Senegal, and Saudi Arabia, Dr. Fisher-Hoch has studied and tracked the pathophysiology of these viral diseases. These studies have led her from the Center for Disease Control in the United States, to Lyon, France where she was instrumental in designing, constructing, and rendering operational a laboratory capable of containing some of the world's most dangerous diseases.

Fisher-Hoch, Susan [University of Texas School of Public Health

2011-11-01

300

Viral Load Distribution in  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unprecedented community outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) occurred in the Amoy Gardens, a high-rise residential complex in Hong Kong. Droplet, air, contaminated fomites, and rodent pests have been proposed to be mechanisms for transmitting SARS in a short period. We studied nasopharyngeal viral load of SARS patients on admission and their geographic distribu- tion. Higher nasopharyngeal viral

SARS Outbreak; Chung-Ming Chu; Vincent C. C. Cheng; Ivan F. N. Hung; Kin-Sang Chan; Bone S. F. Tang; Thomas H. F. Tsang; Kwok-Hung Chan; Kwok-Yung Yuen

2005-01-01

301

Quality assurance for the diagnostics of viral diseases to enhance the emergency preparedness in Europe.  

PubMed

The threat posed by emerging and re-emerging communicable diseases and, more recently, by the intentional release of infectious agents in a susceptible population, has been receiving considerable attention at the national and international levels. Public health efforts to strengthen disease detection, surveillance and control have been intensified. However, clinicians and clinical microbiology laboratories play an important role in the early detection of disease, the identification of the putative agent, and notification of the appropriate authorities. To be effective in this role, laboratories must be specially prepared to handle viral agents safely, and need, among other things, the appropriate rapid and sensitive diagnostic tests. In 1998 the European Network for Diagnostics of 'Imported' Viral Diseases (ENIVD) was established. ENIVD presently comprises, as permanent members, 44 expert laboratories in 21 European Union (EU) member states and 4 non-EU countries and is one of the networks on infectious diseases funded by the European Commission. ENIVD fulfils many of the important tasks required for the surveillance and control of imported, rare and emerging viral infections such as the exchange of expertise and the organisation of external quality assurance (EQA) programmes, both of which are needed to improve diagnostics. Here, we summarise the data generated by recent EQA activities focussed on the diagnostics of infections with hantavirus, dengue virus, filovirus, Lassa virus, orthopox virus and the SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV). These were carried out between 1999 and 2004 and involved 93 laboratories from 41 countries, including laboratories from additional countries outside of Europe. Particularly the EU-candidate countries and Eastern neighbouring countries will be invited to join the network in the near future. A public website is available at http://www.enivd.de. PMID:16077216

Donoso Mantke, O; Schmitz, H; Zeller, Herve; Heyman, P; Papa, A; Niedrig, M

2005-06-01

302

Aptamer-Based Therapeutics: New Approaches to Combat Human Viral Diseases  

PubMed Central

Viruses replicate inside the cells of an organism and continuously evolve to contend with an ever-changing environment. Many life-threatening diseases, such as AIDS, SARS, hepatitis and some cancers, are caused by viruses. Because viruses have small genome sizes and high mutability, there is currently a lack of and an urgent need for effective treatment for many viral pathogens. One approach that has recently received much attention is aptamer-based therapeutics. Aptamer technology has high target specificity and versatility, i.e., any viral proteins could potentially be targeted. Consequently, new aptamer-based therapeutics have the potential to lead a revolution in the development of anti-infective drugs. Additionally, aptamers can potentially bind any targets and any pathogen that is theoretically amenable to rapid targeting, making aptamers invaluable tools for treating a wide range of diseases. This review will provide a broad, comprehensive overview of viral therapies that use aptamers. The aptamer selection process will be described, followed by an explanation of the potential for treating virus infection by aptamers. Recent progress and prospective use of aptamers against a large variety of human viruses, such as HIV-1, HCV, HBV, SCoV, Rabies virus, HPV, HSV and influenza virus, with particular focus on clinical development of aptamers will also be described. Finally, we will discuss the challenges of advancing antiviral aptamer therapeutics and prospects for future success. PMID:24287493

Shum, Ka-To; Zhou, Jiehua; Rossi, John J.

2013-01-01

303

Planning for smallpox outbreaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mathematical models of viral transmission and control are important tools for assessing the threat posed by deliberate release of the smallpox virus and the best means of containing an outbreak. Models must balance biological realism against limitations of knowledge, and uncertainties need to be accurately communicated to policy-makers. Smallpox poses the particular challenge that key biological, social and spatial factors

Matt J. Keeling; W. John Edmunds; Raymond Gani; Bryan T. Grenfell; Roy M. Anderson; Steve Leach; Neil M. Ferguson

2003-01-01

304

Comparing the impact of two concurrent infectious disease outbreaks on The Netherlands population, 2009, using disability-adjusted life years.  

PubMed

SUMMARY In 2009 two notable outbreaks, Q fever and the novel influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, occurred in The Netherlands. Using a composite health measure, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), the outbreaks were quantified and compared. DALYs were calculated using standardized methodology incorporating age- and sex-stratified data in a disease progression model; years lost due to disability and years of life lost were computed by outcome. Nationally, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 caused more DALYs (24 484) than Q fever (5797). However, Q fever was 8·28 times more severe [497 DALYs/1000 symptomatic cases (DP1SC)] than A(H1N1)pdm09 (60 DP1SC). The A(H1N1)pdm09 burden is largely due to mortality while the Q fever burden is due primarily to long-term sequelae. Intervention prioritization for influenza should support patients in a critical condition while for Q fever it should target immediate containment and support for patients with long-term sequelae. Burden estimates provide guidance for focusing intervention options during outbreaks of infectious diseases. PMID:24476696

Brooke, R J; VAN Lier, A; Donker, G A; VAN DER Hoek, W; Kretzschmar, M E E

2014-11-01

305

Homelessness and the Response to Emerging Infectious Disease Outbreaks: Lessons from SARS  

PubMed Central

During the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in Toronto, the potential introduction of SARS into the homeless population was a serious concern. Although no homeless individual in Toronto contracted SARS, the outbreak highlighted the need to develop an outbreak preparedness plan that accounts for unique issues related to homeless people. We conducted key informant interviews with homeless service providers and public health officials (n?=?17) and identified challenges specific to the homeless population in the areas of communication, infection control, isolation and quarantine, and resource allocation. Planning for future outbreaks should take into account the need to (1) develop systems that enable rapid two-way communication between public health officials and homeless service providers, (2) ensure that homeless service providers have access to infection control supplies and staff training, (3) prepare for possible homeless shelter closures due to staff shortages or high attack rates among clients, and (4) plan for where and how clinically ill homeless individuals will be isolated and treated. The Toronto SARS experience provided insights that are relevant to response planning for future outbreaks in cities with substantial numbers of homeless individuals. PMID:18347991

Leung, Cheryl S.; Ho, Minnie M.; Kiss, Alex; Gundlapalli, Adi V.

2008-01-01

306

Homelessness and the response to emerging infectious disease outbreaks: lessons from SARS.  

PubMed

During the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in Toronto, the potential introduction of SARS into the homeless population was a serious concern. Although no homeless individual in Toronto contracted SARS, the outbreak highlighted the need to develop an outbreak preparedness plan that accounts for unique issues related to homeless people. We conducted key informant interviews with homeless service providers and public health officials (n = 17) and identified challenges specific to the homeless population in the areas of communication, infection control, isolation and quarantine, and resource allocation. Planning for future outbreaks should take into account the need to (1) develop systems that enable rapid two-way communication between public health officials and homeless service providers, (2) ensure that homeless service providers have access to infection control supplies and staff training, (3) prepare for possible homeless shelter closures due to staff shortages or high attack rates among clients, and (4) plan for where and how clinically ill homeless individuals will be isolated and treated. The Toronto SARS experience provided insights that are relevant to response planning for future outbreaks in cities with substantial numbers of homeless individuals. PMID:18347991

Leung, Cheryl S; Ho, Minnie M; Kiss, Alex; Gundlapalli, Adi V; Hwang, Stephen W

2008-05-01

307

Exploring relationships between whole carcass condemnation abattoir data, non-disease factors and disease outbreaks in swine herds in Ontario (2001-2007)  

PubMed Central

Background Improving upon traditional animal disease surveillance systems may allow more rapid detection of disease outbreaks in animal populations. In Ontario, between the years 2001 – 2007, widespread outbreaks of several diseases caused major impacts to the swine industry. This study was undertaken to investigate whether whole carcass condemnation data of market pigs from provincial abattoirs from 2001 – 2007 could have provided useful information for disease surveillance of Ontario swine. The objective was to examine the suitability of these data for detection of disease outbreaks using multi-level models and spatial scan statistics. We investigated the ability of these data to provide spatially-relevant surveillance information by determining the approximate distance pigs are shipped from farm to provincial abattoirs in the province, and explored potentially biasing non-disease factors within these data. Results Provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario were found to be located in close proximity to the hog farms of origin. The fall season and increasing abattoir capacity were associated with a decrease in condemnation rates. Condemnation rates varied across agricultural regions by year, and some regions showed yearly trends consistent with the timing of emergence of new disease strains that affected the Ontario swine population. Scan statistics identified stable clusters of condemnations in space that may have represented stable underlying factors influencing condemnations. The temporal scans detected the most likely cluster of high condemnations during the timeframe in which widespread disease events were documented. One space-time cluster took place during the beginning of the historical disease outbreaks and may have provided an early warning signal within a syndromic surveillance system. Conclusions Spatial disease surveillance methods may be applicable to whole carcass condemnation data collected at provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario for disease detection on a local scale. These data could provide useful information within a syndromic disease surveillance system for protecting swine herd health within the province. However, non-disease factors including region, season and abattoir size need to be considered when applying quantitative methods to abattoir data for disease surveillance. PMID:24674622

2014-01-01

308

A review of viral diseases of the European wild boar: Effects of population dynamics and reservoir role  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a worldwide increase in the number and geographical spread of wild boar populations in recent decades leading to an increase in both the circulation of disease agents and greater contact with domestic animals and humans. Diseases affect the population dynamics of wildlife but the effects of most viral diseases on the European wild boar are largely unknown.

Francisco Ruiz-Fons; Joaquim Segales; Christian Gortazar

2007-01-01

309

A review of viral diseases of the European wild boar: Effects of population dynamics and reservoir rôle  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a worldwide increase in the number and geographical spread of wild boar populations in recent decades leading to an increase in both the circulation of disease agents and greater contact with domestic animals and humans. Diseases affect the population dynamics of wildlife but the effects of most viral diseases on the European wild boar are largely unknown.

Francisco Ruiz-Fons; Joaquim Segalés; Christian Gortázar

2008-01-01

310

Borna Disease Virus Nucleoprotein Requires both Nuclear Localization and Export Activities for Viral Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling  

PubMed Central

Nuclear transport of viral nucleic acids is crucial to the life cycle of many viruses. Borna disease virus (BDV) belongs to the order Mononegavirales and replicates its RNA genome in the nucleus. Previous studies have suggested that BDV nucleoprotein (N) and phosphoprotein (P) have important functions in the nuclear import of the viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes via their nuclear targeting activity. Here, we showed that BDV N has cytoplasmic localization activity, which is mediated by a nuclear export signal (NES) within the sequence. Our analysis using deletion and substitution mutants of N revealed that NES of BDV N consists of a canonical leucine-rich motif and that the nuclear export activity of the protein is mediated through the chromosome region maintenance protein-dependent pathway. Interspecies heterokaryon assay indicated that BDV N shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm as a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein. Furthermore, interestingly, the NES region overlaps a binding site to the BDV P protein, and nuclear export of a 38-kDa form of BDV N is prevented by coexpression of P. These results suggested that BDV N has two contrary activities, nuclear localization and export activity, and plays a critical role in the nucleocytoplasmic transport of BDV RNP by interaction with other viral proteins. PMID:11238866

Kobayashi, Takeshi; Kamitani, Wataru; Zhang, Guoqi; Watanabe, Makiko; Tomonaga, Keizo; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

2001-01-01

311

Multiple Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Strains Are Associated with Disease Outbreaks in Sudan, 2008-2009  

PubMed Central

Background Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) activity has recently been detected in the Kordufan region of Sudan. Since 2008, several sporadic cases and nosocomial outbreaks associated with high case-fatality have been reported in villages and rural hospitals in the region. Principal Findings In the present study, we describe a cluster of cases occurring in June 2009 in Dunkop village, Abyei District, South Kordufan, Sudan. Seven CCHF cases were involved in the outbreak; however, clinical specimens could be collected from only two patients, both of whom were confirmed as acute CCHF cases using CCHF-specific reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Phylogenetic analysis of the complete S, M, and L segment sequences places the Abyei strain of CCHF virus in Group III, a virus group containing strains from various countries across Africa, including Sudan, South Africa, Mauritania, and Nigeria. The Abyei strain detected in 2009 is genetically distinct from the recently described 2008 Sudanese CCHF virus strains (Al-fulah 3 and 4), and the Abyei strain S and L segments closely match those of CCHF virus strain ArD39554 from Mauritania. Conclusions The present investigation illustrates that multiple CCHF virus lineages are circulating in the Kordufan region of Sudan and are associated with recent outbreaks of the disease occurring during 2008–2009. PMID:21655310

Aradaib, Imadeldin E.; Erickson, Bobbie R.; Karsany, Mubarak S.; Khristova, Marina L.; Elageb, Rehab M.; Mohamed, Mohamed E. H.; Nichol, Stuart T.

2011-01-01

312

Hazard analysis of critical control points assessment as a tool to respond to emerging infectious disease outbreaks.  

PubMed

Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI) strain H5N1 has had direct and indirect economic impacts arising from direct mortality and control programmes in over 50 countries reporting poultry outbreaks. HPAI H5N1 is now reported as the most widespread and expensive zoonotic disease recorded and continues to pose a global health threat. The aim of this research was to assess the potential of utilising Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points (HACCP) assessments in providing a framework for a rapid response to emerging infectious disease outbreaks. This novel approach applies a scientific process, widely used in food production systems, to assess risks related to a specific emerging health threat within a known zoonotic disease hotspot. We conducted a HACCP assessment for HPAI viruses within Vietnam's domestic poultry trade and relate our findings to the existing literature. Our HACCP assessment identified poultry flock isolation, transportation, slaughter, preparation and consumption as critical control points for Vietnam's domestic poultry trade. Introduction of the preventative measures highlighted through this HACCP evaluation would reduce the risks posed by HPAI viruses and pressure on the national economy. We conclude that this HACCP assessment provides compelling evidence for the future potential that HACCP analyses could play in initiating a rapid response to emerging infectious diseases. PMID:23967294

Edmunds, Kelly L; Hunter, Paul R; Few, Roger; Bell, Diana J

2013-01-01

313

Detection of Viral Proteins after Infection of Cultured Hepatocytes with Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus  

PubMed Central

The calicivirus rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), which replicates predominantly in the livers of infected rabbits, cannot be propagated in tissue culture. To enable the performance of in vitro studies, rabbit hepatocytes were isolated by liver perfusion and gradient centrifugation. After inoculation with purified RHDV, more than 50% of the cells proved to be infected. Protein analyses led to the detection of 13 RHDV-specific polypeptides within the infected cells. These proteins were assigned to defined regions of the viral genome, resulting in a refined model of RHDV genome organization. PMID:9557747

Konig, Matthias; Thiel, Heinz-Jurgen; Meyers, Gregor

1998-01-01

314

Improved diagnosis for nine viral diseases considered as notifiable by the world organization for animal health.  

PubMed

Nine viral diseases included in the World Organization for Animal Health list of notifiable diseases (former list A) were chosen for their contagiousness and high capacity of spreading to improve their diagnosis using new and emerging technologies. All the selected diseases--foot-and-mouth disease, swine vesicular disease, vesicular stomatitis, classical swine fever, African swine fever, bluetongue, African horse sickness, Newcastle disease and highly pathogenic avian influenza--are considered as transboundary diseases, which detection causes the prohibition of livestock exportation, and, thus, it leads to high economical losses. The applied diagnostic techniques can fall into two categories: (i) nucleic-acid detection, including padlock probes, real-time PCR with TaqMan, minor groove binding probes and fluorescence energy transfer reaction probes, isothermal amplification like the Cleavase/Invader assay or the loop-mediated amplification technology and the development of rapid kits for 'mobile' PCR and (ii) antigen-antibody detection systems like simplified and more sensitive ELISA tests. Besides, internal controls have been improved for nucleic acid-detecting methods by using an RNA plant virus--Cowpea Mosaic Virus--to ensure the stability of the RNA used as a positive control in diagnostic real-time RT-PCR assays. The development of these diagnosis techniques has required the joint efforts of a European consortium in which nine diagnostic laboratories and an SME who have collaborated since 2004 within the European Union-funded Lab-on-site project. The results obtained are shown in this paper. PMID:18666965

Rodriguez-Sanchez, B; Sanchez-Vizcaino, J M; Uttenthal, A; Rasmussen, T B; Hakhverdyan, M; King, D P; Ferris, N P; Ebert, K; Reid, S M; Kiss, I; Brocchi, E; Cordioli, P; Hjerner, B; McMenamy, M; McKillen, J; Ahmed, J S; Belak, S

2008-08-01

315

A phylogenetic analysis using full-length viral genomes of South American dengue serotype 3 in consecutive Venezuelan outbreaks reveals novel NS5 mutation  

PubMed Central

Dengue virus currently causes 50-100 million infections annually. Comprehensive knowledge about the evolution of Dengue in response to selection pressure is currently unavailable, but would greatly enhance vaccine design efforts. In the current study, we sequenced 187 new dengue virus serotype 3(DENV-3) genotype III whole genomes isolated from Asia and the Americas. We analyzed them together with previously-sequenced isolates to gain a more detailed understanding of the evolutionary adaptations existing in this prevalent American serotype. In order to analyze the phylogenetic dynamics of DENV-3 during outbreak periods; we incorporated datasets of 48 and 11 sequences spanning two major outbreaks in Venezuela during 2001 and 2007-2008 respectively. Our phylogenetic analysis of newly sequenced viruses shows that subsets of genomes cluster primarily by geographic location, and secondarily by time of virus isolation. DENV-3 genotype III sequences from Asia are significantly divergent from those from the Americas due to their geographical separation and subsequent speciation. We measured amino acid variation for the E protein by calculating the Shannon entropy at each position between Asian and American genomes. We found a cluster of 7 amino acid substitutions having high variability within E protein domain III, which has previously been implicated in serotype-specific neutralization escape mutants. No novel mutations were found in the E protein of sequences isolated during either Venezuelan outbreak. Shannon entropy analysis of the NS5 polymerase mature protein revealed that a G374E mutation, in a region that contributes to interferon resistance in other flaviviruses by interfering with JAK-STAT signaling was present in both the Asian and American sequences from the 2007-2008 Venezuelan outbreak, but was absent in the sequences from the 2001 Venezuelan outbreak. In addition to E, several NS5 amino acid changes were unique to the 2007-2008 epidemic in Venezuela and may give additional insight into the adaptive response of DENV-3 at the population level. PMID:21964598

Schmidt, DJ; Pickett, BE; Camacho, D; Comach, G; Xhaja, K; Lennon, NJ; Rizzolo, K; de Bosch, N; Becerra, A; Nogueira, ML; Mondini, A; da Silva, EV; Vasconcelos, PF; Munoz-Jordan, JL; Santiago, GA; Ocazionez, R; Gehrke, L; Lefkowitz, EJ; Birren, BW; Henn, MR; Bosch, I

2013-01-01

316

A phylogenetic analysis using full-length viral genomes of South American dengue serotype 3 in consecutive Venezuelan outbreaks reveals a novel NS5 mutation.  

PubMed

Dengue virus currently causes 50-100 million infections annually. Comprehensive knowledge about the evolution of Dengue in response to selection pressure is currently unavailable, but would greatly enhance vaccine design efforts. In the current study, we sequenced 187 new dengue virus serotype 3 (DENV-3) genotype III whole genomes isolated from Asia and the Americas. We analyzed them together with previously-sequenced isolates to gain a more detailed understanding of the evolutionary adaptations existing in this prevalent American serotype. In order to analyze the phylogenetic dynamics of DENV-3 during outbreak periods; we incorporated datasets of 48 and 11 sequences spanning two major outbreaks in Venezuela during 2001 and 2007-2008, respectively. Our phylogenetic analysis of newly sequenced viruses shows that subsets of genomes cluster primarily by geographic location, and secondarily by time of virus isolation. DENV-3 genotype III sequences from Asia are significantly divergent from those from the Americas due to their geographical separation and subsequent speciation. We measured amino acid variation for the E protein by calculating the Shannon entropy at each position between Asian and American genomes. We found a cluster of seven amino acid substitutions having high variability within E protein domain III, which has previously been implicated in serotype-specific neutralization escape mutants. No novel mutations were found in the E protein of sequences isolated during either Venezuelan outbreak. Shannon entropy analysis of the NS5 polymerase mature protein revealed that a G374E mutation, in a region that contributes to interferon resistance in other flaviviruses by interfering with JAK-STAT signaling was present in both the Asian and American sequences from the 2007-2008 Venezuelan outbreak, but was absent in the sequences from the 2001 Venezuelan outbreak. In addition to E, several NS5 amino acid changes were unique to the 2007-2008 epidemic in Venezuela and may give additional insight into the adaptive response of DENV-3 at the population level. PMID:21964598

Schmidt, D J; Pickett, B E; Camacho, D; Comach, G; Xhaja, K; Lennon, N J; Rizzolo, K; de Bosch, N; Becerra, A; Nogueira, M L; Mondini, A; da Silva, E V; Vasconcelos, P F; Muñoz-Jordán, J L; Santiago, G A; Ocazionez, R; Gehrke, L; Lefkowitz, E J; Birren, B W; Henn, M R; Bosch, I

2011-12-01

317

Yellow Fever in Africa: Estimating the Burden of Disease and Impact of Mass Vaccination from Outbreak and Serological Data  

PubMed Central

Background Yellow fever is a vector-borne disease affecting humans and non-human primates in tropical areas of Africa and South America. While eradication is not feasible due to the wildlife reservoir, large scale vaccination activities in Africa during the 1940s to 1960s reduced yellow fever incidence for several decades. However, after a period of low vaccination coverage, yellow fever has resurged in the continent. Since 2006 there has been substantial funding for large preventive mass vaccination campaigns in the most affected countries in Africa to curb the rising burden of disease and control future outbreaks. Contemporary estimates of the yellow fever disease burden are lacking, and the present study aimed to update the previous estimates on the basis of more recent yellow fever occurrence data and improved estimation methods. Methods and Findings Generalised linear regression models were fitted to a dataset of the locations of yellow fever outbreaks within the last 25 years to estimate the probability of outbreak reports across the endemic zone. Environmental variables and indicators for the surveillance quality in the affected countries were used as covariates. By comparing probabilities of outbreak reports estimated in the regression with the force of infection estimated for a limited set of locations for which serological surveys were available, the detection probability per case and the force of infection were estimated across the endemic zone. The yellow fever burden in Africa was estimated for the year 2013 as 130,000 (95% CI 51,000–380,000) cases with fever and jaundice or haemorrhage including 78,000 (95% CI 19,000–180,000) deaths, taking into account the current level of vaccination coverage. The impact of the recent mass vaccination campaigns was assessed by evaluating the difference between the estimates obtained for the current vaccination coverage and for a hypothetical scenario excluding these vaccination campaigns. Vaccination campaigns were estimated to have reduced the number of cases and deaths by 27% (95% CI 22%–31%) across the region, achieving up to an 82% reduction in countries targeted by these campaigns. A limitation of our study is the high level of uncertainty in our estimates arising from the sparseness of data available from both surveillance and serological surveys. Conclusions With the estimation method presented here, spatial estimates of transmission intensity can be combined with vaccination coverage levels to evaluate the impact of past or proposed vaccination campaigns, thereby helping to allocate resources efficiently for yellow fever control. This method has been used by the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI Alliance) to estimate the potential impact of future vaccination campaigns. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24800812

Garske, Tini; Van Kerkhove, Maria D.; Yactayo, Sergio; Ronveaux, Olivier; Lewis, Rosamund F.; Staples, J. Erin; Perea, William; Ferguson, Neil M.

2014-01-01

318

Pertussis Outbreak Trends  

MedlinePLUS

... IAC) Parents of Kids with Infectious Diseases (PKIDs) Pertussis Outbreak Trends Language: English Español (Spanish) Share Compartir ... ol: Tendencias de los brotes de tosferina California Whooping Cough Epidemic, 2014 See California's latest numbers of reported ...

319

How Ambient Humidity May Affect the Transmission of Viral Infectious Diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viral infectious diseases such as influenza have been a great burden to public health. The airborne transmission route is an important venue for the spread of many respiratory viral diseases. Many airborne viruses have been shown to be sensitive to ambient humidity, yet the mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon remain elusive. A thorough understanding of this phenomenon may provide insight into the temporal and spatial distribution of diseases. For instance, studies have repeatedly suggested ambient humidity as an important environmental determinant in the transmission of influenza in temperate regions. Further, knowing how to optimize humidity so as to minimize virus survival may have practical implications for disease prevention. In this talk, we will discuss multiple mechanisms that may account for the association between humidity and viability of viruses in aerosols, including water activity, surface inactivation, salt toxicity, and conformational changes to the virus in response to varying pH. As a case study, we will discuss our work on the effect of relative humidity (RH) on survival of influenza A virus (IAV) and how it may contribute to the transmission patterns of seasonal flu around the world. We measured the change in viability of IAV in droplets at various RHs. Results suggest three potential regimes defined by humidity: physiological (~100% RH) with high viability, concentrated (~50% to near 100% RH) with lower viability, and dry (<~50% RH) with high viability. Based on these results, we propose a mechanistic basis for the dependence of IAV's transmission on humidity. In temperate regions, the increase in influenza activity in winter may be due to enhanced transmission via the aerosol route thanks to IAV's higher viability in droplets at low RH. In tropical regions, transmission could be enhanced due to high viability of IAV at extremely high RH (rainy season), as observed in our study, possibly through both the aerosol route and the contact route.

Yang, Wan; Marr, Linsey; Elankumaran, Subbiah

2013-04-01

320

Free-ranging Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep and an outbreak of inflammatory bowel disease along the Clark Fork River in Plains, Montana  

PubMed Central

Nine individuals with ulcerative colitis or Crohn disease grew up or lived in Plains, Montana, a 1,200-person community adjacent to the Clark Fork River near herds of free ranging Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep. This inflammatory bowel disease outbreak is similar to others that have occurred along rivers contaminated by animal feces. PMID:23076274

Pierce, Ellen S.

2012-01-01

321

Dengue and Chikungunya Fever among Viral Diseases in Outpatient Febrile Children in Kilosa District Hospital, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Introduction Viral etiologies of fever, including dengue, Chikungunya, influenza, rota and adeno viruses, cause major disease burden in tropical and subtropical countries. The lack of diagnostic facilities in developing countries leads to failure to estimate the true burden of such illnesses, and generally the diseases are underreported. These diseases may have similar symptoms with other causes of acute febrile illnesses including malaria and hence clinical diagnosis without laboratory tests can be difficult. This study aimed to identify viral etiologies as a cause of fever in children and their co-infections with malaria. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted for 6 months at Kilosa district hospital, Tanzania. The participants were febrile children aged 2–13 years presented at the outpatient department. Diagnostic tests such as IgM and IgG ELISA, and PCR were used. Results A total of 364 patients were enrolled, of these 83(22.8%) had malaria parasites, 76 (20.9%) had presumptive acute dengue infection and among those, 29(38.2%) were confirmed cases. Dengue was more likely to occur in children ? 5 years than in <5 years (OR 2.28, 95% CI: 1.35–3.86). Presumptive acute Chikungunya infection was identified in 17(4.7%) of patients. We observed no presenting symptoms that distinguished patients with Chikungunya infection from those with dengue infection or malaria. Co-infections between malaria and Chikungunya, malaria and dengue fever as well as Chikungunya and dengue were detected. Most patients with Chikungunya and dengue infections were treated with antibacterials. Furthermore, our results revealed that 5(5.2%) of patients had influenza virus while 5(12.8%) had rotavirus and 2(5.1%) had adenovirus. Conclusion Our results suggest that even though viral diseases are a major public health concern, they are not given due recognition as a cause of fever in febrile patients. Emphasis on laboratory diagnostic tests for proper diagnosis and management of febrile patients is recommended. PMID:25412076

Chipwaza, Beatrice; Mugasa, Joseph P.; Selemani, Majige; Amuri, Mbaraka; Mosha, Fausta; Ngatunga, Steve D.; Gwakisa, Paul S.

2014-01-01

322

Adaptive modeling of viral diseases in bats with a focus on rabies.  

PubMed

Many emerging and reemerging viruses, such as rabies, SARS, Marburg, and Ebola have bat populations as disease reservoirs. Understanding the spillover from bats to humans and other animals, and the associated health risks requires an analysis of the disease dynamics in bat populations. Traditional compartmental epizootic models, which are relatively easy to implement and analyze, usually impose unrealistic aggregation assumptions about disease-related structure and depend on parameters that frequently are not measurable in field conditions. We propose a novel combination of computational and adaptive modeling approaches that address the maintenance of emerging diseases in bat colonies through individual (intra-host) models of the response of the host to a viral challenge. The dynamics of the individual models are used to define survival, susceptibility and transmission conditions relevant to epizootics as well as to develop and parametrize models of the disease evolution into uniform and diverse populations. Applications of the proposed approach to modeling the effects of immunological heterogeneity on the dynamics of bat rabies are presented. PMID:18761020

Dimitrov, Dobromir T; Hallam, Thomas G; Rupprecht, Charles E; McCracken, Gary F

2008-11-01

323

Transgenic models of Alzheimer's disease: better utilization of existing models through viral transgenesis.  

PubMed

Animal models have been used for decades in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) research field and have been crucial for the advancement of our understanding of the disease. Most models are based on familial AD mutations of genes involved in the amyloidogenic process, such as the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PS1). Some models also incorporate mutations in tau (MAPT) known to cause frontotemporal dementia, a neurodegenerative disease that shares some elements of neuropathology with AD. While these models are complex, they fail to display pathology that perfectly recapitulates that of the human disease. Unfortunately, this level of pre-existing complexity creates a barrier to the further modification and improvement of these models. However, as the efficacy and safety of viral vectors improves, their use as an alternative to germline genetic modification is becoming a widely used research tool. In this review we discuss how this approach can be used to better utilize common mouse models in AD research. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Animal Models of Disease. PMID:23619198

Platt, Thomas L; Reeves, Valerie L; Murphy, M Paul

2013-09-01

324

Use of multiple molecular subtyping techniques to investigate a Legionnaires' disease outbreak due to identical strains at two tourist lodges.  

PubMed Central

A multistate outbreak of Legionnaires' disease occurred among nine tour groups of senior citizens returning from stays at one of two lodges in a Vermont resort in October 1987. Interviews and serologic studies of 383 (85%) of the tour members revealed 17 individuals (attack rate, 4.4%) with radiologically documented pneumonia and laboratory evidence of legionellosis. A survey of tour groups staying at four nearby lodges and of Vermont-area medical facilities revealed no additional cases. Environmental investigation of common tour stops revealed no likely aerosol source of Legionella infection outside the lodges. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from water sources at both implicated lodges, and the monoclonal antibody subtype matched those of the isolates from six patients from whom clinical isolates were obtained. The cultures reacted with monoclonal antibodies MAB1, MAB2, 33G2, and 144C2 to yield a 1,2,5,7 or a Benidorm 030E pattern. The strains were also identical by alloenzyme electrophoresis and DNA ribotyping techniques. The epidemiologic and laboratory data suggest that concurrent outbreaks occurred following exposures to the same L. pneumophila serogroup 1 strain at two separate lodges. Multiple molecular subtyping techniques can provide essential information for epidemiologic investigations of Legionnaires' disease. PMID:8253953

Mamolen, M; Breiman, R F; Barbaree, J M; Gunn, R A; Stone, K M; Spika, J S; Dennis, D T; Mao, S H; Vogt, R L

1993-01-01

325

A community-wide outbreak of legionnaires disease linked to industrial cooling towers--how far can contaminated aerosols spread?  

PubMed

A community-wide outbreak of legionnaires disease occurred in Pas-de-Calais, France, in November 2003-January 2004. Eighteen (21%) of 86 laboratory-confirmed cases were fatal. A case-control study identified smoking, silicosis, and spending >100 min outdoors daily as risk factors for acquiring the disease. Legionella pneumophila strain Lens was isolated from cooling towers, wastewater, and air samples from plant A. This unique strain matched all 23 clinical isolates, as assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis subtyping. Modeling of atmospheric dispersion of aerosols emitted from plant A cooling towers showed good coverage of the communes where patients lived and showed that the dispersion extended over a distance of at least 6 km from plant A. No other aerosol-producing installation was identified as a plausible source, and no common source of indoor exposure was found. These findings implicate plant A as the most likely outbreak source and suggest that the distance of airborne transmission of L. pneumophila may be greater than previously reported. PMID:16323138

Nguyen, Tran Minh Nhu; Ilef, Daniele; Jarraud, Sophie; Rouil, Laurence; Campese, Christine; Che, Didier; Haeghebaert, Sylvie; Ganiayre, Francois; Marcel, Frederic; Etienne, Jerome; Desenclos, Jean-Claude

2006-01-01

326

Outbreak of Newcastle disease due to pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 in grey partridges (Perdix perdix) in Scotland in October 2006.  

PubMed

In October 2006, following an initially non-statutory disease investigation affecting 12-week-old grey partridges (Perdix perdix), an outbreak of Newcastle disease due to infection with the avian paramyxovirus type 1 virus responsible for the current panzootic in pigeons (PPMV-1) was confirmed in Scotland. Two pens of partridges were affected by signs including loss of condition, diarrhoea, progressive neurological signs and mortality totalling approximately 24 per cent, and laboratory evidence of the infection was obtained only in these groups. The premises had approximately 17,000 poultry including a collection of 375 birds of rare breeds, containing endangered breeds of significant conservation value, which were not culled but subjected to a health monitoring and testing programme. Investigations suggested that a population of feral pigeons living above the affected pens of partridges was the likely source of the outbreak. Laboratory and genetic analyses confirmed that the isolate recovered from the clinically affected partridges was PPMV-1, belonging to genetic lineage 4b. However, the virus could not be isolated from or detected in dead pigeons collected from the affected buildings. PMID:19880861

Irvine, R M; Aldous, E W; Manvell, R J; Cox, W J; Ceeraz, V; Fuller, C M; Wood, A M; Milne, J C; Wilson, M; Hepple, R G; Hurst, A; Sharpe, C E; Alexander, D J; Brown, I H

2009-10-31

327

The Role of Viral and Host MicroRNAs in the Aujeszky's Disease Virus during the Infection Process  

PubMed Central

Porcine production is a primary market in the world economy. Controlling swine diseases in the farm is essential in order to achieve the sector necessities. Aujeszky’s disease is a viral condition affecting pigs and is endemic in many countries of the world, causing important economic losses in the swine industry. microRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs which modulates gene expression in animals, plants and viruses. With the aim of understanding miRNA roles during the Aujeszky’s disease virus [ADV] (also known as suid herpesvirus type 1 [SuHV-1]) infection, the expression profiles of host and viral miRNAs were determined through deep sequencing in SuHV-1 infected porcine cell line (PK-15) and in an animal experimental SuHV-1 infection with virulent (NIA-3) and attenuated (Begonia) strains. In the in vivo approach miR-206, miR-133a, miR-133b and miR-378 presented differential expression between virus strains infection. In the in vitro approach, most miRNAs were down-regulated in infected groups. miR-92a and miR-92b-3p were up-regulated in Begonia infected samples. Functional analysis of all this over expressed miRNAs during the infection revealed their association in pathways related to viral infection processes and immune response. Furthermore, 8 viral miRNAs were detected by stem loop RT-qPCR in both in vitro and in vivo approaches, presenting a gene regulatory network affecting 59 viral genes. Most described viral miRNAs were related to Large Latency Transcript (LLT) and to viral transcription activators EP0 and IE180, and also to regulatory genes regarding their important roles in the host – pathogen interaction during viral infection. PMID:24475202

Timoneda, Oriol; Nunez-Hernandez, Fernando; Balcells, Ingrid; Munoz, Marta; Castello, Anna; Vera, Gonzalo; Perez, Lester J.; Egea, Raquel; Mir, Gisela; Cordoba, Sarai; Rosell, Rosa; Segales, Joaquim; Tomas, Anna; Sanchez, Armand; Nunez, Jose I.

2014-01-01

328

Comparative study to evaluate the anti-viral efficacy of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract and ribavirin against the Newcastle disease virus  

PubMed Central

Background: The Newcastle disease represents as one of the most infectious viral disease, which afflicts almost every species of the birds. The causative agent of the disease is a single-stranded RNA virus with rapid replication capability. Objective: This study was performed to evaluate the comparative anti-viral efficacy and toxicity of Glycyrrhiza glabra aqueous extract and ribavirin against the Newcastle disease virus. Materials and Methods: The embryonated eggs were divided into six groups (A, B, C, D, E and F). Groups A, B, C, and D were further subdivided into three subgroups. The virus was identified by hemagglutination inhibition test. Spot hemagglutination test and viability of embryos were also evaluated. Three different concentrations i-e., 30 mg/100 ml, 60 mg/100 ml, and 120 mg/100 ml of the Glycyrrhiza aqueous extract and 10 ?g/ml, 20 ?g/ml, and 40 ?g/ml ribavirin in deionized water were evaluated for their toxicity and anti-viral activity in the embryonated eggs. Results: 60 mg/100 ml concentration of Glycyrrhiza extract did not produce any toxicity in the embryonated eggs and showed anti-viral activity against the virus. Similarly, 20 ?g/ml ribavirin was non-toxic in the embryonated eggs and contained anti-viral activity. Conclusion: It may conclude from the presented study that 60 mg/100 ml Glycyrrhiza extract inhibits replication of Newcastle disease virus and is non-toxic in the embryonated eggs. So, Glycyrrhiza glabra extract may be further evaluated in future to determine the potentially active compounds for their anti-viral activity against Newcastle disease virus. Furthermore, the mechanism of action of these active phytochemicals as an antiviral agent would be helpful to elucidate the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:24497736

Omer, Muhammad Ovais; AlMalki, Waleed Hassan; Shahid, Imran; Khuram, Shahzada; Altaf, Imran; Imran, Saeed

2014-01-01

329

Viral respiratory diseases (ILT, aMPV infections, IB): are they ever under control?  

PubMed

1. The use of vaccines is the main approach to control of the economically important poultry viral respiratory diseases infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) infections and infectious bronchitis (IB). This paper appraises the current methods of vaccine control in the light of the nature of each virus and epidemiological factors associated with each disease. 2. Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) exists as a single type with a wide range of disease severity. It is a serious disease in certain regions of the world. Recent work has distinguished molecular differences between vaccine and field strains and vaccine virus can be a cause of disease. Vaccines have remained unaltered for many years but new ones are being developed to counter vaccine side effects and reversion and reactivation of latent virus. 3. Avian metapneumoviruses, the cause of turkey rhinotracheitis and respiratory disease in chickens exists as 4 subtypes, A, B, C and D. A and B are widespread and vaccines work well provided that accurate doses are given. Newer vaccine developments are designed to eliminate reversion and possibly counter the appearance of newer field strains which may break through established vaccine coverage. 4. IB presents the biggest problem of the three. Being an unstable RNA virus, part of the viral genome that codes for the S1 spike gene can undergo mutation and recombination so that important antigenic variants can appear irregularly which may evade existing vaccine protection. While conventional vaccines work well against homologous types, new strategies are needed to counter this instability. Molecular approaches involving tailoring viruses to suit field challenges are in progress. However, the simple use of two genetically different vaccines to protect against a wide range of heterologous types is now a widespread practice that is very effective. 5. None of the three diseases described can claim to be satisfactorily controlled and it remains to be seen whether the newer generations of vaccines will be more efficacious and cost effective. The importance of constant surveillance is emphasised and the testing of novel vaccines cannot be achieved without the use of vaccine-challenge experiments in poultry. PMID:20390564

Jones, Richard C

2010-02-01

330

The Role of Research in Viral Disease Eradication and Elimination Programs: Lessons for Malaria Eradication  

PubMed Central

By examining the role research has played in eradication or regional elimination initiatives for three viral diseases—smallpox, poliomyelitis, and measles—we derive nine cross-cutting lessons applicable to malaria eradication. In these initiatives, some types of research commenced as the programs began and proceeded in parallel. Basic laboratory, clinical, and field research all contributed notably to progress made in the viral programs. For each program, vaccine was the lynchpin intervention, but as the programs progressed, research was required to improve vaccine formulations, delivery methods, and immunization schedules. Surveillance was fundamental to all three programs, whilst polio eradication also required improved diagnostic methods to identify asymptomatic infections. Molecular characterization of pathogen isolates strengthened surveillance and allowed insights into the geographic source of infections and their spread. Anthropologic, sociologic, and behavioural research were needed to address cultural and religious beliefs to expand community acceptance. The last phases of elimination and eradication became increasingly difficult, as a nil incidence was approached. Any eradication initiative for malaria must incorporate flexible research agendas that can adapt to changing epidemiologic contingencies and allow planning for posteradication scenarios. PMID:21311582

Breman, Joel G.; de Quadros, Ciro A.; Dowdle, Walter R.; Foege, William H.; Henderson, Donald A.; John, T. Jacob; Levine, Myron M.

2011-01-01

331

Studies on the transmission of viral disease via the CO2 laser plume and ejecta.  

PubMed

While recent reports have noted the presence of viral DNA sequences in the laser plume, no significant effort has been made to study transmission of the virus in vivo via airborne laser debris. Studies were undertaken to identify potential hazards to operating room occupants in gynecologic laser surgery. ACO2 laser in the continuous wave mode using a power density of 666 W/cm2 was fired through a 5-cm metal cylinder at virus-infected tissues. Airborne particulate debris, 100-200 microns, was removed from the cylinder's inner surfaces. In one instance, deposition of the debris was found on the surgeon's eyeglasses 1 m from the site of impact despite the use of a smoke evacuator. The first set of studies involved confirmed human papillomavirus (HPV) lesions of the human female lower genital tract. Specimens were collected for electron microscopy and Southern Blot viral hybridization. Additional cervical electron microscopy specimens were recovered from the speculum during pulsed CO2 laser treatment at 13 W average power during conization. Electron microscopy of the vulvar debris revealed only anucleate keratinized squamous epithelial cells. Cervical specimens demonstrated similar cells with nearly instantaneous vaporization of intracellular water and apparent condensation of cellular carbon. HPV Southern Blot testing revealed insufficient quantities of DNA for that technique. The second set of studies involved bovine papillomavirus lesions from dairy cattle. The debris was transmitted to susceptible animals. The bovine studies failed to demonstrate the transmission of disease in vivo.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2178190

Wisniewski, P M; Warhol, M J; Rando, R F; Sedlacek, T V; Kemp, J E; Fisher, J C

1990-12-01

332

Serological Evidence of Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis in Rainbow Trout from a French Outbreak of Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the detection of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in France in April 1987, a serological survey was conducted of the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (formerly Salmo gairdneri) from an infected cultured stock previously known to be contaminated with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) for 3 years. The work lasted from April to December 1987, at which time all the

A.-M. Hattenberger-Baudouy; M. Danton; G. Merle; C. Torchy; P. De Kinkelin

1989-01-01

333

Animal viral diseases and global change: bluetongue and West Nile fever as paradigms.  

PubMed

Environmental changes have an undoubted influence on the appearance, distribution, and evolution of infectious diseases, and notably on those transmitted by vectors. Global change refers to environmental changes arising from human activities affecting the fundamental mechanisms operating in the biosphere. This paper discusses the changes observed in recent times with regard to some important arboviral (arthropod-borne viral) diseases of animals, and the role global change could have played in these variations. Two of the most important arboviral diseases of animals, bluetongue (BT) and West Nile fever/encephalitis (WNF), have been selected as models. In both cases, in the last 15 years an important leap forward has been observed, which has lead to considering them emerging diseases in different parts of the world. BT, affecting domestic ruminants, has recently afflicted livestock in Europe in an unprecedented epizootic, causing enormous economic losses. WNF affects wildlife (birds), domestic animals (equines), and humans, thus, beyond the economic consequences of its occurrence, as a zoonotic disease, it poses an important public health threat. West Nile virus (WNV) has expanded in the last 12 years worldwide, and particularly in the Americas, where it first occurred in 1999, extending throughout the Americas relentlessly since then, causing a severe epidemic of disastrous consequences for public health, wildlife, and livestock. In Europe, WNV is known long time ago, but it is since the last years of the twentieth century that its incidence has risen substantially. Circumstances such as global warming, changes in land use and water management, increase in travel, trade of animals, and others, can have an important influence in the observed changes in both diseases. The following question is raised: What is the contribution of global changes to the current increase of these diseases in the world? PMID:22707955

Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Á

2012-01-01

334

Animal viral diseases and global change: bluetongue and West Nile fever as paradigms  

PubMed Central

Environmental changes have an undoubted influence on the appearance, distribution, and evolution of infectious diseases, and notably on those transmitted by vectors. Global change refers to environmental changes arising from human activities affecting the fundamental mechanisms operating in the biosphere. This paper discusses the changes observed in recent times with regard to some important arboviral (arthropod-borne viral) diseases of animals, and the role global change could have played in these variations. Two of the most important arboviral diseases of animals, bluetongue (BT) and West Nile fever/encephalitis (WNF), have been selected as models. In both cases, in the last 15 years an important leap forward has been observed, which has lead to considering them emerging diseases in different parts of the world. BT, affecting domestic ruminants, has recently afflicted livestock in Europe in an unprecedented epizootic, causing enormous economic losses. WNF affects wildlife (birds), domestic animals (equines), and humans, thus, beyond the economic consequences of its occurrence, as a zoonotic disease, it poses an important public health threat. West Nile virus (WNV) has expanded in the last 12 years worldwide, and particularly in the Americas, where it first occurred in 1999, extending throughout the Americas relentlessly since then, causing a severe epidemic of disastrous consequences for public health, wildlife, and livestock. In Europe, WNV is known long time ago, but it is since the last years of the twentieth century that its incidence has risen substantially. Circumstances such as global warming, changes in land use and water management, increase in travel, trade of animals, and others, can have an important influence in the observed changes in both diseases. The following question is raised: What is the contribution of global changes to the current increase of these diseases in the world? PMID:22707955

Jimenez-Clavero, Miguel A

2012-01-01

335

Restaurant outbreak of Legionnaires' disease associated with a decorative fountain: an environmental and case-control study  

PubMed Central

Background From June to November 2005, 18 cases of community-acquired Legionnaires' disease (LD) were reported in Rapid City South Dakota. We conducted epidemiologic and environmental investigations to identify the source of the outbreak. Methods We conducted a case-control study that included the first 13 cases and 52 controls randomly selected from emergency department records and matched on underlying illness. We collected information about activities of case-patients and controls during the 14 days before symptom onset. Environmental samples (n = 291) were cultured for Legionella. Clinical and environmental isolates were compared using monoclonal antibody subtyping and sequence based typing (SBT). Results Case-patients were significantly more likely than controls to have passed through several city areas that contained or were adjacent to areas with cooling towers positive for Legionella. Six of 11 case-patients (matched odds ratio (mOR) 32.7, 95% CI 4.7-?) reported eating in Restaurant A versus 0 controls. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from four clinical specimens: 3 were Benidorm type strains and 1 was a Denver type strain. Legionella were identified from several environmental sites including 24 (56%) of 43 cooling towers tested, but only one site, a small decorative fountain in Restaurant A, contained Benidorm, the outbreak strain. Clinical and environmental Benidorm isolates had identical SBT patterns. Conclusion This is the first time that small fountain without obvious aerosol-generating capability has been implicated as the source of a LD outbreak. Removal of the fountain halted transmission. PMID:17688692

O'Loughlin, Rosalyn E; Kightlinger, Lon; Werpy, Matthew C; Brown, Ellen; Stevens, Valerie; Hepper, Clark; Keane, Tim; Benson, Robert F; Fields, Barry S; Moore, Matthew R

2007-01-01

336

A Model for a Chikungunya Outbreak in a Rural Cambodian Setting: Implications for Disease Control in Uninfected Areas  

PubMed Central

Following almost 30 years of relative silence, chikungunya fever reemerged in Kenya in 2004. It subsequently spread to the islands of the Indian Ocean, reaching Southeast Asia in 2006. The virus was first detected in Cambodia in 2011 and a large outbreak occurred in the village of Trapeang Roka Kampong Speu Province in March 2012, in which 44% of the villagers had a recent infection biologically confirmed. The epidemic curve was constructed from the number of biologically-confirmed CHIKV cases per day determined from the date of fever onset, which was self-reported during a data collection campaign conducted in the village after the outbreak. All individuals participating in the campaign had infections confirmed by laboratory analysis, allowing for the identification of asymptomatic cases and those with an unreported date of fever onset. We develop a stochastic model explicitly including such cases, all of whom do not appear on the epidemic curve. We estimate the basic reproduction number of the outbreak to be 6.46 (95% C.I. [6.24, 6.78]). We show that this estimate is particularly sensitive to changes in the biting rate and mosquito longevity. Our model also indicates that the infection was more widespread within the population on the reported epidemic start date. We show that the exclusion of asymptomatic cases and cases with undocumented onset dates can lead to an underestimation of the reproduction number which, in turn, could negatively impact control strategies implemented by public health authorities. We highlight the need for properly documenting newly emerging pathogens in immunologically naive populations and the importance of identifying the route of disease introduction. PMID:25210729

Duong, Veasna; Ly, Sowath; Ngan, Chantha; Buchy, Philippe; Tarantola, Arnaud; Rodo, Xavier

2014-01-01

337

Genes controlling vaccine responses and disease resistance to respiratory viral pathogens in cattle  

PubMed Central

Farm animals remain at risk of endemic, exotic and newly emerging viruses. Vaccination is often promoted as the best possible solution, and yet for many pathogens, either there are no appropriate vaccines or those that are available are far from ideal. A complementary approach to disease control may be to identify genes and chromosomal regions that underlie genetic variation in disease resistance and response to vaccination. However, identification of the causal polymorphisms is not straightforward as it generally requires large numbers of animals with linked phenotypes and genotypes. Investigation of genes underlying complex traits such as resistance or response to viral pathogens requires several genetic approaches including candidate genes deduced from knowledge about the cellular pathways leading to protection or pathology, or unbiased whole genome scans using markers spread across the genome. Evidence for host genetic variation exists for a number of viral diseases in cattle including bovine respiratory disease and anecdotally, foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV). We immunised and vaccinated a cattle cross herd with a 40-mer peptide derived from FMDV and a vaccine against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). Genetic variation has been quantified. A candidate gene approach has grouped high and low antibody and T cell responders by common motifs in the peptide binding pockets of the bovine major histocompatibility complex (BoLA) DRB3 gene. This suggests that vaccines with a minimal number of epitopes that are recognised by most cattle could be designed. Whole genome scans using microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers has revealed many novel quantitative trait loci (QTL) and SNP markers controlling both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, some of which are in genes of known immunological relevance including the toll-like receptors (TLRs). The sequencing, assembly and annotation of livestock genomes and is continuing apace. In addition, provision of high-density SNP chips should make it possible to link phenotypes with genotypes in field populations without the need for structured populations or pedigree information. This will hopefully enable fine mapping of QTL and ultimate identification of the causal gene(s). The research could lead to selection of animals that are more resistant to disease and new ways to improve vaccine efficacy. PMID:21621277

Glass, Elizabeth J.; Baxter, Rebecca; Leach, Richard J.; Jann, Oliver C.

2012-01-01

338

Genes controlling vaccine responses and disease resistance to respiratory viral pathogens in cattle.  

PubMed

Farm animals remain at risk of endemic, exotic and newly emerging viruses. Vaccination is often promoted as the best possible solution, and yet for many pathogens, either there are no appropriate vaccines or those that are available are far from ideal. A complementary approach to disease control may be to identify genes and chromosomal regions that underlie genetic variation in disease resistance and response to vaccination. However, identification of the causal polymorphisms is not straightforward as it generally requires large numbers of animals with linked phenotypes and genotypes. Investigation of genes underlying complex traits such as resistance or response to viral pathogens requires several genetic approaches including candidate genes deduced from knowledge about the cellular pathways leading to protection or pathology, or unbiased whole genome scans using markers spread across the genome. Evidence for host genetic variation exists for a number of viral diseases in cattle including bovine respiratory disease and anecdotally, foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV). We immunised and vaccinated a cattle cross herd with a 40-mer peptide derived from FMDV and a vaccine against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). Genetic variation has been quantified. A candidate gene approach has grouped high and low antibody and T cell responders by common motifs in the peptide binding pockets of the bovine major histocompatibility complex (BoLA) DRB3 gene. This suggests that vaccines with a minimal number of epitopes that are recognised by most cattle could be designed. Whole genome scans using microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers has revealed many novel quantitative trait loci (QTL) and SNP markers controlling both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, some of which are in genes of known immunological relevance including the toll-like receptors (TLRs). The sequencing, assembly and annotation of livestock genomes and is continuing apace. In addition, provision of high-density SNP chips should make it possible to link phenotypes with genotypes in field populations without the need for structured populations or pedigree information. This will hopefully enable fine mapping of QTL and ultimate identification of the causal gene(s). The research could lead to selection of animals that are more resistant to disease and new ways to improve vaccine efficacy. PMID:21621277

Glass, Elizabeth J; Baxter, Rebecca; Leach, Richard J; Jann, Oliver C

2012-07-15

339

Genomic variation between Campylobacter jejuni isolates associated with milk-borne-disease outbreaks.  

PubMed

Bacterial genome sequencing has led to the development of new approaches for the analysis of food-borne epidemics and the exploration of the relatedness of outbreak-associated isolates and their separation from nonassociated isolates. Using Illumina technology, we sequenced a total of six isolates (two from patients, two from raw bulk milk, and two from dairy cattle) associated with a milk-borne Campylobacter jejuni outbreak in a farming family and compared their genomes. These isolates had identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) types, and their multilocus sequence typing (MLST) type was ST-50. We used the Ma_1 isolate (milk) as the reference, and its genome was assembled and tentatively ordered using the C. jejuni NCTC 11168 genome as the scaffold. Using whole-genome MLST (wgMLST), we identified a total of three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and differences in poly(G or C) or poly(A or T) tracts in 12 loci among the isolates. Several new alleles not present in the database were detected. In contrast, the sequences of the unassociated C. jejuni strains P14 and 1-12S (both ST-50) differed by 420 to 454 alleles from the epidemic-associated isolates. We found that the fecal contamination of bulk tank milk occurred by highly related sequence variants of C. jejuni, which are reflected as SNPs and differences in the length of the poly(A or T) tracts. Poly(G or C) tracts are reversibly variable and are thus unstable markers for comparison. Further, unrelated strains of ST-50 were clearly separated from the outbreak-associated isolates, indicating that wgMLST is an excellent tool for analysis. In addition, other useful data related to the genes and genetic systems of the isolates were obtained. PMID:24850348

Revez, Joana; Zhang, Ji; Schott, Thomas; Kivistö, Rauni; Rossi, Mirko; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa

2014-08-01

340

Epidemiological Investigation of an Outbreak of Acute Diarrheal Disease: A Shoe Leather Epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Background: Health care problems faced by migrant construction workers are always neglected. Fifteen patients were admitted with the complaints of loose motion and pain in the abdomen from a labor settlement at a construction site near our city. Three stool samples revealed darting motility. Objectives: To find out more number of cases, the source of infection and to recommend necessary actions to control the outbreak. Study Design: A cross-sectional epidemiological study. Materials and Methods: Pre-tested, pre-designed epidemiological case sheet was used. Sanitary survey and assessment of ecological correlation was also done. Stool samples of all the admitted patients and seven water samples from the site were collected for laboratory analysis. Results: Out of 99 inhabitants, 69 were suffering from the same complaints. Male sufferers were more in number. The age groups affected prominently were 1–4 years and 15–44 years. Peculiar epidemic curve with one peak was noted down. There was a history of heavy rains 2 days before the complaints had started. The construction site was situated on the plateau. The source of the water – dug well – was situated on a slope. The water from the site while moving along the slope was getting mixed into the well. Considering the person, time, place distribution and the peculiar symptoms, presumptive diagnosis of outbreak (point source) of acute gastroenteritis was made. The well water was thought to be the source of infection. Three stool samples and three water samples including the sample from drinking well water grew Vibrio cholerae O1. These results support an earlier hypothesis. The timely interventions were done. Conclusion: The impending outbreak can be brought under control with the rapid and simple field epidemiological investigation (shoe leather epidemiology). PMID:22224000

Patil, Sandip Bharat; Deshmukh, Durgesh; Dixit, JV; Damle, AS

2011-01-01

341

Animal-induced injuries and disease, neonatal jaundice, immunizations, and viral infections.  

PubMed

Highlights from the past years' literature on the topics of animal-induced injuries and diseases, neonatal jaundice, immunizations, and viral infections are discussed from the perspective of the general pediatrician. An effort is made to place recent advances in care or understanding of clinical problems into the context of the pediatric office practice. The current reality of health care-be it managed care, care for the underserved, or the recent pressures on academic and hospital-based medicine-does not alter the importance of the delivery of quality care at the office level. Although it is now popular to define quality of health care in cute advertising copy, as if we are selling durable goods, excellence in pediatric office-based practice continues to require broad strokes of medical knowledge coupled with a unswerving commitment to and advocacy for the needs and well-being of infants, children, and young adults. PMID:8954278

Gerson, W T

1996-08-01

342

Viral competition and maternal immunity influence the clinical disease caused by very virulent infectious bursal disease virus.  

PubMed

The very virulent form of infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) causes an immunosuppressive disease that is further characterized by the rapid onset of morbidity and high mortality in susceptible chickens. In 2009, vvIBDV was first reported in California, U. S. A., and since that time only a few cases of acute infectious bursal disease attributed to vvIBDV have been recognized in California. In other countries where vvIBDV has become established, it rapidly spreads to most poultry-producing regions. Two factors that may be involved in limiting the spread or reducing the severity of the clinical disease caused by vvIBDV in the U. S. A. are maternal immunity and competition with endemic variant strains of the virus. In this study, the ability of vvIBDV to infect and cause disease in maternally immune layer chickens was examined at weekly intervals over a 5-wk period during which their neutralizing maternal antibodies waned. Birds inoculated with vvIBDV at 2, 3, and 4 wk of age seemed healthy throughout the duration of the experiment, but macroscopic and microscopic lesions were observed in their bursa tissues. A real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay also confirmed the presence of vvIBDV RNA in their bursa tissues, indicating this virus was infecting the birds even at 2 wk of age when neutralizing maternal antibodies to infectious bursal disease virus were still relatively high (> 2000 geometric mean antibody titer). No mortality was observed in any birds when inoculated at 2, 3, or 4 wk of age; however, inoculation at 5 and 6 wk of age resulted in 10% and 20% mortality, respectively. Three experiments on the competition between vvIBDV and the two variant viruses T1 and FF6 were conducted. In all three experiments, specific-pathogen-free (SPF) birds that were inoculated with only the vvIBDV became acutely moribund, and except for Experiment 1 (62% mortality) all succumbed to the infection within 4 days of being exposed. When the variant viruses were inoculated into SPF chickens at 4 wk of age and the vvIBDV was administered 10 days later, a real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR assay was positive for the variant T1 and FF6 viral RNA but negative for vvIBDV RNA, indicating the vvIBDV isolate could not establish an infection in the bursa tissues of these birds. No clinical disease or mortality was observed in the birds, but macroscopic and microscopic lesions typical of a variant virus infection were observed. When the interval was shortened to 2 days, both variant viruses and vvIBDV were detected by RT-PCR, but the vvIBDV viral load in the bursa tissue was significantly lower compared with that of birds inoculated with vvIBDV alone. No clinical disease or mortality was observed, and macroscopic and microscopic lesions in the bursa of these birds were not typical of a vvIBDV infection but instead resembled a pathogenic classic virus infection. When the variant viruses and vvIBDV were inoculated simultaneously into 4-wk-old SPF chickens only the vvIBDV RNA was detected in the bursa tissues of the birds, and no reduction in viral load as measured by real-time RT-PCR was detected. Mortality (30%-40%) was reduced in these duel-infected birds compared with the 100% mortality observed in birds that received vvIBDV alone. The data suggest that maternal immunity and competition with variant viruses are acting to reduce the clinical signs and anticipated mortality after an vvIBDV infection, which may increase the chances that vvIBDV is not being recognized in commercial poultry operations. PMID:22017037

Jackwood, Daral J

2011-09-01

343

Predator disease out-break modulates top-down, bottom-up and climatic effects on herbivore population dynamics.  

PubMed

Human-introduced disease and climatic change are increasingly perturbing natural ecosystems worldwide, but scientists know very little about how they interact to affect ecological dynamics. An outbreak of canine parvovirus (CPV) in the wolf population on Isle Royale allowed us to test the transient effects of an introduced pathogen and global climatic variation on the dynamics of a three-level food chain. Following the introduction of CPV, wolf numbers plummeted, precipitating a switch from top-down to bottom-up regulation of the moose population; consequently, the influence of climate on moose population growth rate doubled. This demonstrates that synergistic interactions between pathogens and climate can lead to shifts in trophic control, and suggests that predators in this system may play an important role in dampening the effects of climate change on the dynamics of their prey. PMID:16623723

Wilmers, Christopher C; Post, Eric; Peterson, Rolf O; Vucetich, John A

2006-04-01

344

Use of plasmid profiles in epidemiologic surveillance of disease outbreaks and in tracing the transmission of antibiotic resistance.  

PubMed Central

Plasmids are circular deoxyribonucleic acid molecules that exist in bacteria, usually independent of the chromosome. The study of plasmids is important to medical microbiology because plasmids can encode genes for antibiotic resistance or virulence factors. Plasmids can also serve as markers of various bacterial strains when a typing system referred to as plasmid profiling, or plasmid fingerprinting is used. In these methods partially purified plasma deoxyribonucleic acid species are separated according to molecular size by agarose gel electrophoresis. In a second procedure, plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid which has been cleaved by restriction endonucleases can be separated by agarose gel electrophoresis and the resulting pattern of fragments can be used to verify the identity of bacterial isolates. Because many species of bacteria contain plasmids, plasmid profile typing has been used to investigate outbreaks of many bacterial diseases and to trace inter- and intra-species spread of antibiotic resistance. Images PMID:2852997

Mayer, L W

1988-01-01

345

Multi-pathogen waterborne disease outbreak associated with a dinner cruise on Lake Michigan.  

PubMed

We report an outbreak associated with a dinner cruise on Lake Michigan. This took place on the same day as heavy rainfall, which resulted in 42·4 billion liters of rainwater and storm runoff containing highly diluted sewage being released into the lake. Of 72 cruise participants, 41 (57%) reported gastroenteritis. Stool specimens were positive for Shigella sonnei (n=3), Giardia (n=3), and Cryptosporidium (n=2). Ice consumption was associated with illness (risk ratio 2·2, P=0·011). S. sonnei was isolated from a swab obtained from the one of the boat's ice bins. Environmental inspection revealed conditions and equipment that could have contributed to lake water contaminating the hose used to load potable water onto the boat. Knowledge of water holding and distribution systems on boats, and of potential risks associated with flooding and the release of diluted sewage into large bodies of water, is crucial for public health guidance regarding recreational cruises. PMID:21676362

Serdarevic, F; Jones, R C; Weaver, K N; Black, S R; Ritger, K A; Guichard, F; Dombroski, P; Emanuel, B P; Miller, L; Gerber, S I

2012-04-01

346

Dynamics of Viral Disease and Population Fluctuations in Western Tent Caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) in Southwestern British Columbia, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models of the dynamics of forest caterpillars and viral disease are sensitive to virus persistence at low host densities. Nuclear polyhedral virus could persist in the environment on tree bark or in the soil, or by infecting caterpillars even at low host population numbers. We monitored populations of western tent caterpillars at 4 locations in southwestern British Columbia, Canada, to

BARBARA KUKAN; JUDITH H. MYERS

1999-01-01

347

Electron microscopic studies of bovine viral diarrhea virus in tissues of diseased calves and in cell cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Pathomorfological studies by electron microscopy (EM) were carried out on the intestines and lymphoid tissues, the buffy coat cells and cultured lymphocytes from calves suffering from mucosal disease (MD). This led to the detection of particles, 45–55 nm in diameter, within characteristic vesicular structures. As these findings coincided with the isolation of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) from the

H. Bielefeldt Ohmann; B. Bloch

1982-01-01

348

Emergency euthanasia of cattle challenged with Escherichia coli O157:H7 - A case study for evaluating the response to an infectious disease outbreak  

PubMed Central

In the event of an infectious disease outbreak in cattle, carcasses must be disposed of in a rapid and contained manner. This brief communication details injection of a barbiturate to euthanize cattle inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 followed by carcass composting in a manner that prevents the spread of infectious agents. PMID:23388438

Gilroyed, Brandon H.; Reuter, Tim; Kastelic, John P.

2013-01-01

349

Communications: Motile Stage of Aurantiactinomyxon sp. (Actinosporea: Triactinomyxidae) Isolated from Dero digitata Found in Channel Catfish Ponds during Outbreaks of Proliferative Gill Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dero digitata infected with Aurantiactinomyxon sp. were obtained from a pond with channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus during an outbreak of proliferative gill disease. These worms were maintained until actinosporeans were released. Aurantiactinomyxon sp. was exposed to channel catfish gills then observed microscopically. After exposure to gills, the sporoplasm of the actinosporean began to change and a motile stage was observed.

L. M. Pote; P. Waterstrat

1993-01-01

350

Surveillance for waterborne disease and outbreaks associated with drinking water and water not intended for drinking-United States, 2005-2006  

EPA Science Inventory

PROBLEM/CONDITION: Since 1971, CDC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have maintained a collaborative Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) for collecting and reporting data related to o...

351

Surveillance for waterborne disease and outbreaks associated with recreational water use and other aquatic facility-associated health events-United States, 2005-2006  

EPA Science Inventory

PROBLEM/CONDITION: Since 1971, CDC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have collaboratively maintained the Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System for collecting and reporting data related to waterborne-d...

352

Plant Disease Note 2005 | Outbreak of Iris yellow spot virus in Onion Seed Crops in Central Oregon Overview Current Issue Past Issues Search PD Search APS Journals  

E-print Network

Plant Disease Note 2005 | Outbreak of Iris yellow spot virus in Onion Seed Crops in Central Oregon of Iris yellow spot virus in Onion Seed Crops in Central Oregon. F. J. Crowe, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University, Central Oregon Agricultural Research Center, 850 NW Dogwood

Pappu, Hanu R.

353

vLIP, a Viral Lipase Homologue, Is a Virulence Factor of Marek's Disease Virus  

PubMed Central

The genome of Marek's disease virus (MDV) has been predicted to encode a secreted glycoprotein, vLIP, which bears significant homology to the ?/? hydrolase fold of pancreatic lipases. Here it is demonstrated that MDV vLIP mRNA is produced via splicing and that vLIP is a late gene, due to its sensitivity to inhibition of DNA replication. While vLIP was found to conserve several residues essential to hydrolase activity, an unfavorable asparagine substitution is present at the lipase catalytic triad acid position. Consistent with structural predictions, purified recombinant vLIP did not show detectable activity on traditional phospholipid or triacylglyceride substrates. Two different vLIP mutant viruses, one bearing a 173-amino-acid deletion in the lipase homologous domain, the other having an alanine point mutant at the serine nucleophile position, caused a significantly lower incidence of Marek's disease in chickens and resulted in enhanced survival relative to two independently produced vLIP revertants or parental virus. These data provide the first evidence that vLIP enhances the replication and pathogenic potential of MDV. Furthermore, while vLIP may not serve as a traditional lipase enzyme, the data indicate that the serine nucleophile position is nonetheless essential in vivo for the viral functions of vLIP. Therefore, it is suggested that this particular example of lipase homology may represent the repurposing of an ?/? hydrolase fold toward a nonenzymatic role, possibly in lipid bonding. PMID:15890938

Kamil, Jeremy P.; Tischer, B. Karsten; Trapp, Sascha; Nair, Venugopal K.; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Kung, Hsing-Jien

2005-01-01

354

Synthetic viruses: a new opportunity to understand and prevent viral disease  

PubMed Central

Rapid progress in DNA synthesis and sequencing is spearheading the deliberate, large-scale genetic alteration of organisms. These new advances in DNA manipulation have been extended to the level of whole-genome synthesis, as evident from the synthesis of poliovirus, from the resurrection of the extinct 1918 strain of influenza virus and of human endogenous retroviruses and from the restructuring of the phage T7 genome. The largest DNA synthesized so far is the 582,970 base pair genome of Mycoplasma genitalium, although, as yet, this synthetic DNA has not been ‘booted’ to life. As genome synthesis is independent of a natural template, it allows modification of the structure and function of a virus’s genetic information to an extent that was hitherto impossible. The common goal of this new strategy is to further our understanding of an organism’s properties, particularly its pathogenic armory if it causes disease in humans, and to make use of this new information to protect from, or treat, human viral disease. Although only a few applications of virus synthesis have been described as yet, key recent findings have been the resurrection of the 1918 influenza virus and the generation of codon- and codon pair–deoptimized polioviruses. PMID:20010599

Wimmer, Eckard; Mueller, Steffen; Tumpey, Terrence M; Taubenberger, Jeffery K

2010-01-01

355

Targeting the detection of chronic wasting disease using the hunter harvest during early phases of an outbreak in Saskatchewan, Canada.  

PubMed

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal disease of North American cervids that was first detected in a wild, hunter-shot deer in Saskatchewan along the border with Alberta in Canada in 2000. Spatially explicit models for assessing factors affecting disease detection are needed to guide surveillance and control programs. Spatio-temporal patterns in CWD prevalence can be complicated by variation in individual infection probability and sampling biases. We assessed hunter harvest data of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during the early phases of an outbreak in Saskatchewan (i.e., 2002-2007) for targeting the detection of CWD by defining (1) where to look, and (2) how much effort to use. First, we accounted for known demographic heterogeneities in infection to model the probability, P(E), that a harvested deer was infected with CWD given characteristics of the harvest location. Second, in areas where infected deer were harvested we modelled the probability, P(D), of the hunter harvest re-detecting CWD within sample units of varying size (9-54 km(2)) given the demographics of harvested deer and time since first detection in the study area. Heterogeneities in host infection were consistent with those reported elsewhere: mule deer 3.7 times >white-tailed deer, males 1.8 times>females, and quadratically related to age in both sexes. P(E) increased with number of years since the first detection in our study area (2002) and proximity to known disease sources, and also varied with distance to the South Saskatchewan River and small creek drainages, terrain ruggedness, and extent of agriculture lands within a 3 km radius of the harvest. The majority (75%) of new CWD-positive deer from our sample were found within 20 km of infected deer harvested in the previous year, while approximately 10% were greater than 40 km. P(D) modelled at 18 km(2) was best supported, but for all scales, P(D) depended on the number of harvested deer and time since the first infected deer was harvested. Within an 18 km(2) sampling unit, there was an 80% probability of detecting a CWD-positive deer with 16 harvested deer five years after the initial infected harvest. Identifying where and how much to sample to detect CWD can improve targeted surveillance programs early in the outbreak of the disease when based on hunter harvest. PMID:22137503

Rees, Erin E; Merrill, Evelyn H; Bollinger, Trent K; Hwang, Yeen Ten; Pybus, Margo J; Coltman, Dave W

2012-04-01

356

Biosurveillance in outbreak investigations.  

PubMed

Following the terrorist attacks of September 11 and the anthrax attacks in 2001, public health entities implemented automated surveillance systems based on disease syndromes for early detection of bioterror events and to increase timeliness of responses. Despite widespread adoption, syndromic surveillance systems' ability to provide early notification of outbreaks is unproven, and there is little documentation on their role in outbreak response. We hypothesized that biosurveillance is used in practice to augment classical outbreak investigations, and we used case studies conducted in 2007-08 to determine (1) which steps in outbreak investigations were best served by biosurveillance, and (2) which steps presented the greatest opportunities for improvement. The systems used in the case studies varied in how they functioned, and there were examples in which syndromic systems had identified outbreaks before other methods. Biosurveillance was used successfully for all steps of outbreak investigations. Key advantages of syndromic systems were sensitivity, timeliness, and flexibility and as a source of data for situational awareness. Limitations of biosurveillance were a lack of specificity, reliance on chief complaint data, and a lack of formal training for users. Linking syndromic data to triage notes and medical chart data would substantially increase the value of biosurveillance in the conduct of outbreak investigations and reduce the burden on health department staff. PMID:23448272

Kaydos-Daniels, S Cornelia; Rojas Smith, Lucia; Farris, Tonya R

2013-03-01

357

Antigenic differences among Newcastle disease virus strains of different genotypes used in vaccine formulation affect viral shedding after a virulent challenge.  

PubMed

Strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) can be separated into genotypes based on genome differences even though they are antigenically considered to be of a single serotype. It is widely recognized that an efficacious Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine made with any NDV does induce protection against morbidity and mortality from a virulent NDV challenge. However, those ND vaccines do not protect vaccinates from infection and viral shed from such a challenge. Vaccines prepared from ND viruses corresponding to five different genotypes were compared to determine if the phylogenetic distance between vaccine and challenge strain influences the protection induced and the amount of challenge virus shed. Six groups of 4-week-old specific pathogen-free Leghorn chickens were given oil-adjuvanted vaccines prepared from one of five different inactivated ND viruses including strains B1, Ulster, CA02, Pigeon84, Alaska 196, or an allantoic fluid control. Three weeks post-vaccination, serum was analyzed for antibody content using a hemagglutination inhibition assay against each of the vaccine antigens and a commercial NDV ELISA. After challenge with virulent CA02, the birds were examined daily for morbidity and mortality and were monitored at selected intervals for virus shedding. All vaccines except for the control induced greater than 90% protection to clinical disease and mortality. The vaccine homologous with the challenge virus reduced oral shedding significantly more than the heterologous vaccines. NDV vaccines formulated to be phylogenetically closer to potential outbreak viruses may provide better ND control by reducing virus transmission from infected birds. PMID:17719150

Miller, Patti J; King, Daniel J; Afonso, Claudio L; Suarez, David L

2007-10-10

358

RAPID RISK ASSESSMENT Outbreak of Ebola haemorrhagic fever in the Democratic Republic of Congo  

E-print Network

An outbreak of Ebola haemorrhagic fever is ongoing in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) with 15 cases reported, including nine deaths in Orientale province. It is the first time that the Ebola species Bundibugyo has been laboratory confirmed as the cause of an Ebola outbreak in DRC. This finding indicates that the current outbreak in DRC is not related to the recently ended outbreak in Uganda, which was caused by the Ebola species Sudan. The epidemiological features of this outbreak are consistent with previous outbreaks of Ebola haemorrhagic fever, although the currently observed case fatality rate is significantly higher than the one observed in the first outbreak of Bundingbuyo virus in 2007 in Uganda. However, it is premature to draw final conclusions about the pathogenicity of this Bundingbuyo viral strain. As the incubation period can last up to three weeks, it is likely that additional cases will be identified in the coming weeks. However, control measures currently implemented in DRC with the support of international partners, e.g. isolation of cases and active monitoring of contacts, should prevent further spread of the disease. It is unlikely, but not impossible, that travellers infected in DRC could arrive in the EU while incubating the disease and develop symptoms while in the EU. These cases would seek medical attention and be isolated, preventing further transmission.

Main Conclusions

2012-01-01

359

When the human viral infectome and diseasome networks collide: towards a systems biology platform for the aetiology of human diseases  

PubMed Central

Background Comprehensive understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying viral infection is a major challenge towards the discovery of new antiviral drugs and susceptibility factors of human diseases. New advances in the field are expected from systems-level modelling and integration of the incessant torrent of high-throughput "-omics" data. Results Here, we describe the Human Infectome protein interaction Network, a novel systems virology model of a virtual virus-infected human cell concerning 110 viruses. This in silico model was applied to comprehensively explore the molecular relationships between viruses and their associated diseases. This was done by merging virus-host and host-host physical protein-protein interactomes with the set of genes essential for viral replication and involved in human genetic diseases. This systems-level approach provides strong evidence that viral proteomes target a wide range of functional and inter-connected modules of proteins as well as highly central and bridging proteins within the human interactome. The high centrality of targeted proteins was correlated to their essentiality for viruses' lifecycle, using functional genomic RNAi data. A stealth-attack of viruses on proteins bridging cellular functions was demonstrated by simulation of cellular network perturbations, a property that could be essential in the molecular aetiology of some human diseases. Networking the Human Infectome and Diseasome unravels the connectivity of viruses to a wide range of diseases and profiled molecular basis of Hepatitis C Virus-induced diseases as well as 38 new candidate genetic predisposition factors involved in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Conclusions The Human Infectome and Diseasome Networks described here provide a unique gateway towards the comprehensive modelling and analysis of the systems level properties associated to viral infection as well as candidate genes potentially involved in the molecular aetiology of human diseases. PMID:21255393

2011-01-01

360

Emerging roles of chicken and viral microRNAs in avian disease  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background MicroRNAs are short RNAs (~22 nt) expressed by plants, animals and viruses that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally, and their importance is highlighted by distinct patterns of expression in many physiological processes, including development, hematopoeisis, stress resistance, and disease. Our group has characterized the microRNAs encoded by the avian herpesviruses; namely, oncogenic Marek’s disease (MD) virus (MDV1), non-oncogenic MDV (MDV2) herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT), and infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). Methods MicroRNAs encoded by the avian herpesviruses were identified using next generation sequencing technologies (454, Illumina). Results The microRNAs of each the avian herpesviruses have unique sequences, but the genomic locations are similar, in that the microRNAs tend to be clustered in the rapidly evolving repeat regions of the viral genomes. For a given viral species the microRNA sequence is highly conserved in different strains with the exception of a virulence-associated polymorphism in the putative promoter of the MDV1 microRNAs upstream of the meq oncogene. These microRNAs are relatively highly expressed in tumors produced by very virulent MDV1 isolates compared to tumors produced by less virulent strains. MDV1 and HVT encode homologs of the host microRNA, miR-221, which targets a gene important in cell cycle regulation. MDV1 encodes a microRNA (mdv1-miR-M4) that shares a seed sequence with miR-155, a microRNA important in immune function. Mdv-miR-M4 is highly expressed in MDV induced tumors, while miR-155 is present at very low levels. Conclusions MicroRNAs are highly conserved among different field strains of MDV1, and they are expressed in lytic and latent infections and in MDV1-derived tumors. This suggests that these small molecules are very important to the virus, and roles in immune evasion, anti-apoptosis, or proliferation are likely. PMID:21645299

2011-01-01

361

Surveillance of pneumococcal serotype 1 carriage during an outbreak of serotype 1 invasive pneumococcal disease in central Australia 2010-2012  

PubMed Central

Background An outbreak of serotype 1 invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) occurred in Central Australia from October 2010 to the latter part of 2012. Surveillance of serotype 1 carriage was conducted to determine epidemiological features of asymptomatic carriage that could potentially be driving the outbreak. Methods 130 patients and accompanying persons presenting at Alice Springs Hospital Emergency Department consented to nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) collection. NPS were processed by standard methods, including culture, pneumococcal lytA quantitative real-time PCR, serotype 1-specific real-time PCR and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Results Pneumococcal carriage was detected in 16% of participants. Carriage was highest in the under 10 year olds from remote communities surrounding Alice Springs (75%). Four NPS were positive for serotype 1 DNA by PCR; 3 were also culture-positive for serotype 1 pneumococci. Serotype 1 isolates had atypical colony morphology on primary culture. All serotype 1 carriers were healthy children 5 to 8 years of age from remote communities. By MLST, serotype 1 isolates were ST306, as were IPD isolates associated with this outbreak. Conclusions During an outbreak of serotype 1 ST306 IPD, carriage of the outbreak strain was detected in 3% NPS collected. All carriers were healthy children 5 to 8 years of age. PMID:24138669

2013-01-01

362

Modulation of Borna Disease Virus Phosphoprotein Nuclear Localization by the Viral Protein X Encoded in the Overlapping Open Reading Frame  

PubMed Central

Borna disease virus (BDV) is a nonsegmented, negative-strand RNA virus that belongs to the Mononegavirales order. Unlike other animal viruses in this order, BDV replicates and transcribes in the nucleus of infected cells. Therefore, regulation of the intracellular movement of virus components must be critical for accomplishing the BDV life cycle in mammalian cells. Previous studies have demonstrated that BDV proteins are prone to accumulate in the nucleus of cells transiently transfected with each expression plasmid of the viral proteins. In BDV infection, however, cytoplasmic distribution of the viral proteins is frequently found in cultured cells and animal brains. In this study, to understand the modulation of subcellular localization of BDV proteins, we investigated the intracellular localization of the viral phosphoprotein (P). Transient-transfection analysis with a cDNA clone corresponding to a bicistronic transcript that expresses both viral X and P revealed that P efficiently localizes in the cytoplasm only when BDV X is expressed in the cells. Furthermore, our analysis revealed that the direct binding between X and P is necessary for the cytoplasmic localization of the P. Interestingly, we showed that X is not detectably expressed in the BDV-infected cells in which P is predominantly found in the nucleus, with little or no signal in the cytoplasm. These observations suggested that BDV P can modulate their subcellular localization through binding to X and that BDV may regulate the expression ratio of each viral product in infected cells to control the intracellular movement of the viral protein complexes. The results presented here provide a new insight into the regulation of the intracellular movement of viral proteins of a unique, nonsegmented, negative-strand RNA virus. PMID:12829848

Kobayashi, Takeshi; Zhang, Guoqi; Lee, Byeong-Jae; Baba, Satoko; Yamashita, Makiko; Kamitani, Wataru; Yanai, Hideyuki; Tomonaga, Keizo; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

2003-01-01

363

A remote sensing tool to monitor and predict epidemiologic outbreaks of Hanta virus infections and Lyme disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lyme disease and Hanta virus infection are the result of the conjunction of several climatic and ecological conditions. Although both affections have different causal agents, they share an important characteristic which is the fact that rodents play an important role in the contagium. One of the most important agents in the dispersion of these diseases is the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareoulus). The bank vole is a common host for both, the Borrelia bacteria which via the ticks (Ixodes ricinus) reaches the human body and causes the Lyme disease, and the Nephropatia epidemica which is caused by Puumala Hantavirus and affects kidneys in humans. The prefered habitat of bank voles is broad-leaf forests with an important presence of beeches (Fagus sylvatica) and oaks (Quercus sp.) and a relatively dense low vegetation layer. These vegetation systems are common in West-Europe and their dynamics have a great influence in the bank voles population and, therefore, in the spreading of the infections this study is concerned about. The fact that the annual seed production is not stable in time has an important effect in bank voles population and, as it has been described in other studies, in the number of reported cases of Hanta virus infections and Lyme disease. The years in which an abundant production of seeds is observed are referred to as mast years which are believed to obey to cyclic patterns and to certain climatological characteristics of the preceding years. Statistical analysis have confirmed the correlation in the behaviour of the number of infected cases and the presence of mast years. This project aims at the design of a remote sensing based system (INFOPRESS - INFectious disease Outbreak Prediction REmote Sensing based System) that should enable local and national health care instances to predict and locate the occurrence of infection outbreaks and design policies to counteract undesired effects. The predictive capabilities of the system are based on the understanding and modelling of the interactions between relevant climatic parameters (temperature, humidity, precipitation) and the main features of vegetation systems which host the vectors and determine the survival and infectious potential of the causal agents. Among the most important study subjects in this research initiative one can mention the time series analysis of vegetation parameters derived from satellite remote sensing and its relatation to climatic time series and historical records of infected cases; with special attention to the assessment of remotely sensed evidences of the mast phenomenon. These analysis will constitute important buildind bricks in the construction of the INFOPRESS system in what concerns the assessment of the potentials of satellite remote sensing as information source for the prediction of infection outbreaks. The bank voles habitat description will also be supported by on-gound remote sensing techniques, specially Lidar technology and soil humidity modelling. These measurements are to be coupled to bank voles and ticks epidemiologic features obtained from field capturing and lab analysis.

Barrios, J. M.

2009-04-01

364

A remote sensing tool to monitor and predict epidemiologic outbreaks of Hanta virus infections and Lyme disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lyme disease and Hanta virus infection are the result of the conjunction of several climatic and ecological conditions. Although both affections have different causal agents, they share an important characteristic which is the fact that rodents play an important role in the contagion. One of the most important agents in the dispersion of these diseases is the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareoulus). The bank vole is a common host for both, the Borrelia bacteria which via the ticks (Ixodes ricinus) reaches the human body and causes the Lyme disease, and the Nephropatia epidemica which is caused by Puumala Hantavirus and affects kidneys in humans. The prefered habitat of bank voles is broad-leaf forests with an important presence of beeches (Fagus sylvatica) and oaks (Quercus sp.) and a relatively dense low vegetation layer. These vegetation systems are common in West-Europe and their dynamics have a great influence in the bank voles population and, therefore, in the spreading of the infections this study is concerned about. The fact that the annual seed production is not stable in time has an important effect in bank voles population and, as it has been described in other studies, in the number of reported cases of Hanta virus infections and Lyme disease. The years in which an abundant production of seeds is observed are referred to as mast years which are believed to obey to cyclic patterns and to certain climatologically characteristics of the preceding years. Statistical analysis have confirmed the correlation in the behaviour of the number of infected cases and the presence of mast years. This project aims at the design of a remote sensing based system (INFOPRESS - INFectious disease Outbreak Prediction REmote Sensing based System) that should enable local and national health care instances to predict and locate the occurrence of infection outbreaks and design policies to counteract undesired effects. The predictive capabilities of the system are based on the understanding and modelling of the interactions between relevant climatic parameters (temperature, humidity, precipitation) and the main features of vegetation systems which host the vectors and determine the survival and infectious potential of the causal agents. Among the most important study subjects in this research initiative one can mention the time series analysis of vegetation parameters derived from satellite remote sensing and its relation to climatic time series and historical records of infected cases; with special attention to the assessment of remotely sensed evidences of the mast phenomenon. This analysis will constitute important buildind bricks in the construction of the INFOPRESS system in what concerns the assessment of the potentials of satellite remote sensing as information source for the prediction of infection outbreaks. The bank voles habitat description will also be supported by on-ground remote sensing techniques, specially LiDAR technology and soil humidity modelling. These measurements are to be coupled to bank voles epidemiologic features obtained from field capturing and lab analysis in which the presence of Hanta virus will be assessed.

Barrios, M.; Verstraeten, W. W.; Amipour, S.; Wambacq, J.; Aerts, J.-M.; Maes, P.; Berckmans, D.; Lagrou, K.; van Ranst, M.; Coppin, P.

2009-04-01

365

Targeting inside-out phosphatidylserine as a therapeutic strategy for viral diseases.  

PubMed

There is a pressing need for antiviral agents that are effective against multiple classes of viruses. Broad specificity might be achieved by targeting phospholipids that are widely expressed on infected host cells or viral envelopes. We reasoned that events occurring during virus replication (for example, cell activation or preapoptotic changes) would trigger the exposure of normally intracellular anionic phospholipids on the outer surface of virus-infected cells. A chimeric antibody, bavituximab, was used to identify and target the exposed anionic phospholipids. Infection of cells with Pichinde virus (a model for Lassa fever virus, a potential bioterrorism agent) led to the exposure of anionic phospholipids. Bavituximab treatment cured overt disease in guinea pigs lethally infected with Pichinde virus. Direct clearance of infectious virus from the blood and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity of virus-infected cells seemed to be the major antiviral mechanisms. Combination therapy with bavituximab and ribavirin was more effective than either drug alone. Bavituximab also bound to cells infected with multiple other viruses and rescued mice with lethal mouse cytomegalovirus infections. Targeting exposed anionic phospholipids with bavituximab seems to be safe and effective. Our study demonstrates that anionic phospholipids on infected host cells and virions may provide a new target for the generation of antiviral agents. PMID:19029986

Soares, M Melina; King, Steven W; Thorpe, Philip E

2008-12-01

366

Primary immunodeficiency diseases associated with increased susceptibility to viral infections and malignancies.  

PubMed

Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are commonly characterized by an increased susceptibility to specific infections and, in certain instances, a higher than usual incidence of malignancies. Although improved diagnosis and early treatment of PIDs have reduced early morbidity and mortality from infection, the development of cancer remains a significant cause of premature death. The emergence of cancer in patients with PIDs often results from impairments in the immune response that lead to weakened surveillance against oncogenic viruses, premalignant or malignant cells, or both. Here we review the clinical and biologic features of several PIDs associated with enhanced susceptibility to viral infections and cancer, including X-linked lymphoproliferative disease; IL-2-inducible T-cell kinase deficiency; epidermodysplasia verruciformis; warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections, and myelokathexis syndrome; autosomal recessive hyper-IgE syndrome; X-linked agammaglobulinemia; and common variable immunodeficiency. It is of importance that we gain in-depth insights into the fundamental molecular nature of these unique PIDs to better understand the pathogenesis of virus-associated malignancies and to develop innovative therapeutic strategies. PMID:21514636

Rezaei, Nima; Hedayat, Mona; Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Nichols, Kim E

2011-06-01

367

Spatial and temporal aberration detection methods for disease outbreaks in syndromic surveillance systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early surveillance of notifiable infectious diseases is a key element for their control by public health agencies. The goal of syndromic disease surveillance is to identify emerging infectious risks to public health in real or near real time as a method of early detection, trend monitoring, and false-alarm avoidance. This article reviews temporal, spatial, and spatial–temporal aberration detection techniques that

Dongmei Chen; John Cunningham; Kieran Moore; Jie Tian

2011-01-01

368

Human Papillomavirus 16, 18, 31 and 45 viral load, integration and methylation status stratified by cervical disease stage  

PubMed Central

Background Persistent infection with oncogenic Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with the development of cervical cancer with each genotype differing in their relative contribution to the prevalence of cervical disease. HPV DNA testing offers improved sensitivity over cytology testing alone but is accompanied by a generally low specificity. Potential molecular markers of cervical disease include type-specific viral load (VL), integration of HPV DNA into the host genome and methylation of the HPV genome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between HPV type-specific viral load, integration and methylation status and cervical disease stage in samples harboring HPV16, HPV18, HPV31 or HPV45. Methods Samples singly infected with HPV16 (n?=?226), HPV18 (n?=?32), HPV31 (n?=?75) or HPV45 (n?=?29) were selected from a cohort of 4,719 women attending cervical screening in England. Viral load and integration status were determined by real-time PCR while 3’L1-URR methylation status was determined by pyrosequencing or sequencing of multiple clones derived from each sample. Results Viral load could differentiate between normal and abnormal cytology with a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 80% (odds ratio [OR] 12.4, 95% CI 6.2–26.1; p?Viral integration was poorly associated with cervical disease. Few samples had fully integrated genomes and these could be found throughout the course of disease. Overall, integration status could distinguish between normal and abnormal cytology with a sensitivity of 72% and a specificity of 50% (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.0–6.8; p?=?0.054). Methylation levels were able to differentiate normal and low grade cytology from high grade cytology with a sensitivity of 64% and a specificity of 82% (OR 8.2, 95% CI 3.8–18.0; p?viral load and CpG methylation status, but not integration status, to be considered as potential biomarkers of cervical disease. PMID:24885011

2014-01-01

369

Research Paper Pre-West Nile Virus Outbreak: Perceptions and Practices to Prevent Mosquito Bites and Viral Encephalitis in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mosquitoes can transmit over 100 of the viruses that can cause encephalitis, meningitis, and hemorrhagic disease in humans (Chin 2000; Gubler 1996; Monath 1989). While much is known about the ecology, epidemiology, and clinical manifestations of the arboviral encephalitides (Campbell et al. 2002; Centers for Disease Control and Pre- vention 1997; Gubler 1998; Hayes 1989; Hubá lek and Halouzka 1999),

JAMES E. HERRINGTON

370

Emerging Pathogens and Vehicles of Food- and Water-borne Disease Outbreaks in Korea, 2007-2012  

PubMed Central

Objectives Food- and water-borne disease outbreaks (FBDOs) are an important public health problem worldwide. This study investigated the trends in FBDOs in Korea and established emerging causal pathogens and causal vehicles. Methods We analyzed FBDOs in Korea by year, location, causal pathogens, and causal vehicles from 2007 to 2012. Information was collected from the FBDOs database in the Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Results During 2007–2012, a total of 1794 FBDOs and 48,897 patients were reported. After 2007, FBDOs and patient numbers steadily decreased over the next 2 years and then plateaued until 2011. However, in 2012, FBDOs increased slightly accompanied by a large increase in the number of affected patients. Our results highlight the emergence of norovirus and pathogenic Escherichia coli other than enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) in schools in 2012. We found that pickled vegetables is an emerging causal vehicle responsible for this problem. Conclusion On the basis of this study we recommend intensified inspections of pickled vegetable manufacturers and the strengthening of laboratory surveillance of relevant pathogens. PMID:24955310

Moon, Shinje; Sohn, Il-Woong; Hong, Yeongseon; Lee, Hyungmin; Park, Ji-Hyuk; Kwon, Geun-Yong; Lee, Sangwon; Youn, Seung-Ki

2014-01-01

371

SURVEILLANCE FOR WATERBORNE DISEASE AND OUTBREAK ASSOCIATED WITH RECREATIONAL WATER - UNITED STATES 2003-2004  

EPA Science Inventory

Problem/Condition: Since 1971, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have maintained a collaborative surveillance system for collecting and periodically reporting da...

372

Participatory epidemiology : harnessing the HealthMap platform for community-based disease outbreak monitoring  

E-print Network

Due to increasing global trade and travel along with a range of environmental factors, emerging infectious diseases such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), drug-resistant tuberculosis, and 2009 HiNi continue to ...

Freifeld, Clark

2010-01-01

373

Respiratory disease associated with bovine coronavirus infection in cattle herds in Southern Italy.  

PubMed

Four outbreaks of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) associated with bovine coronavirus (BCoV) infection in Italian cattle herds were reported. In 3 outbreaks, BRD was observed only in 2-3-month-old feedlot calves, whereas in the remaining outbreak, lactating cows, heifers, and calves were simultaneously affected. By using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), BCoV RNA was detected in all outbreaks without evidence of concurrent viral pathogens (i.e., bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus type 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine parainfluenza virus). Common bacteria of cattle were recovered only from 2 outbreaks of BRD: Staphylococcus spp. and Proteus mirabilis (outbreak 1) and Mannheimia haemolytica (outbreak 4). A recently established real-time RT-PCR assay showed that viral RNA loads in nasal secretions ranged between 3.10 x 10(2) and 7.50 x 10(7) RNA copies/microl of template. Bovine coronavirus was isolated from respiratory specimens from all outbreaks except outbreak 1, in which real-time RT-PCR found very low viral titers in nasal swabs. PMID:18182504

Decaro, Nicola; Campolo, Marco; Desario, Costantina; Cirone, Francesco; D'Abramo, Maria; Lorusso, Eleonora; Greco, Grazia; Mari, Viviana; Colaianni, Maria Loredana; Elia, Gabriella; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

2008-01-01

374

Ebola and Marburg Hemorrhagic Fevers: Neglected Tropical Diseases?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) and Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF) are rare viral diseases, endemic to central Africa. The overall burden of EHF and MHF is small in comparison to the more common protozoan, helminth, and bacterial diseases typically referred to as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). However, EHF and MHF outbreaks typically occur in resource-limited settings, and many aspects of these

Adam MacNeil; Pierre E. Rollin

2012-01-01

375

Epidemiological dynamics of Ebola outbreaks.  

PubMed

Ebola is a deadly virus that causes frequent disease outbreaks in the human population. In this study, we analyse its rate of new introductions, case fatality ratio, and potential to spread from person to person. The analysis is performed for all completed outbreaks and for a scenario where these are augmented by a more severe outbreak of several thousand cases. The results show a fast rate of new outbreaks, a high case fatality ratio, and an effective reproductive ratio of just less than 1. PMID:25217532

House, Thomas

2014-01-01

376

Field-deployable real-time polymerase chain reaction detection of bluetongue and epizootic haemorrhagic disease viral ribonucleic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Nucleic acid sequence information from molecular evolution studies of bluetongue virus (BTV) and related epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) strains has resulted in a large database of genomic information. Published sequence data and sequence data from our laboratory were used to design real-time field-deployable reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assays for the detection of BTV or EHDV viral RNA. The

W. C. Wilson; D. E. Stallknecht; J. O. Mecham

377

Clinical features and rapid viral diagnosis of human disease associated with avian influenza A H5N1 virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background Human infection with an avian influenza A virus (subtype H5N1) was reported recently in Hong Kong. We describe the clinical presentation of the first 12 patients and options for rapid viral diagnosis. Methods Case notes of 12 patients with virus-culture- confirmed influenza A H5N1 infection were analysed. The clinical presentation and risk factors associated with severe disease were

KY Yuen; PKS Chan; M Peiris; DNC Tsang; TL Que; KF Shortridge; PT Cheung; ETF Ho; R Sung; AFB Cheng

1998-01-01

378

Recombinant Newcastle Disease Virus Expressing a Foreign Viral Antigen Is Attenuated and Highly Immunogenic in Primates  

PubMed Central

Paramyxoviruses such as human parainfluenza viruses that bear inserts encoding protective antigens of heterologous viruses can induce an effective immunity against the heterologous viruses in experimental animals. However, vectors based on common human pathogens would be expected to be restricted in replication in the adult human population due to high seroprevalence, an effect that would reduce vector immunogenicity. To address this issue, we evaluated Newcastle disease virus (NDV), an avian paramyxovirus that is serotypically distinct from common human pathogens, as a vaccine vector. Two strains were evaluated: the attenuated vaccine strain LaSota (NDV-LS) that replicates mostly in the chicken respiratory tract and the Beaudette C (NDV-BC) strain of intermediate virulence that produces mild systemic infection in chickens. A recombinant version of each virus was modified by the insertion, between the P and M genes, of a gene cassette encoding the human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein, a test antigen with considerable historic data. The recombinant viruses were administered to African green monkeys (NDV-BC and NDV-LS) and rhesus monkeys (NDV-BC only) by combined intranasal and intratracheal routes at a dose of 106.5 PFU per site, with a second equivalent dose administered 28 days later. Little or no virus shedding was detected in nose-throat swabs or tracheal lavages following immunization with either strain. In a separate experiment, direct examination of lung tissue confirmed a highly attenuated, restricted pattern of replication by parental NDV-BC. The serum antibody response to the foreign HN protein induced by the first immunization with either NDV vector was somewhat less than that observed following a wild-type HPIV3 infection; however, the titer following the second dose exceeded that observed with HPIV3 infection, even though HPIV3 replicates much more efficiently than NDV in these animals. NDV appears to be a promising vector for the development of vaccines for humans; one application would be in controlling localized outbreaks of emerging pathogens. PMID:16227250

Bukreyev, Alexander; Huang, Zhuhui; Yang, Lijuan; Elankumaran, Subbiah; St. Claire, Marisa; Murphy, Brian R.; Samal, Siba K.; Collins, Peter L.

2005-01-01

379

Intracerebral Borna Disease Virus Infection of Bank Voles Leading to Peripheral Spread and Reverse Transcription of Viral RNA  

PubMed Central

Bornaviruses, which chronically infect many species, can cause severe neurological diseases in some animal species; their association with human neuropsychiatric disorders is, however, debatable. The epidemiology of Borna disease virus (BDV), as for other members of the family Bornaviridae, is largely unknown, although evidence exists for a reservoir in small mammals, for example bank voles (Myodes glareolus). In addition to the current exogenous infections and despite the fact that bornaviruses have an RNA genome, bornavirus sequences integrated into the genomes of several vertebrates millions of years ago. Our hypothesis is that the bank vole, a common wild rodent species in traditional BDV-endemic areas, can serve as a viral host; we therefore explored whether this species can be infected with BDV, and if so, how the virus spreads and whether viral RNA is transcribed into DNA in vivo. We infected neonate bank voles intracerebrally with BDV and euthanized them 2 to 8 weeks post-infection. Specific Ig antibodies were detectable in 41%. Histological evaluation revealed no significant pathological alterations, but BDV RNA and antigen were detectable in all infected brains. Immunohistology demonstrated centrifugal spread throughout the nervous tissue, because viral antigen was widespread in peripheral nerves and ganglia, including the mediastinum, esophagus, and urinary bladder. This was associated with viral shedding in feces, of which 54% were BDV RNA-positive, and urine at 17%. BDV nucleocapsid gene DNA occurred in 66% of the infected voles, and, surprisingly, occasionally also phosphoprotein DNA. Thus, intracerebral BDV infection of bank vole led to systemic infection of the nervous tissue and viral excretion, as well as frequent reverse transcription of the BDV genome, enabling genomic integration. This first experimental bornavirus infection in wild mammals confirms the recent findings regarding bornavirus DNA, and suggests that bank voles are capable of bornavirus transmission. PMID:21935357

Kinnunen, Paula Maria; Inkeroinen, Hanna; Ilander, Mette; Kallio, Eva Riikka; Heikkila, Henna Pauliina; Koskela, Esa; Mappes, Tapio; Palva, Airi; Vaheri, Antti; Kipar, Anja; Vapalahti, Olli

2011-01-01

380

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells: sensing nucleic acids in viral infection and autoimmune diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are important mediators of antiviral immunity through their ability to produce large amounts of type I interferons (IFNs) on viral infection. This function of pDCs is linked to their expression of Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) and TLR9, which sense viral nucleic acids within the early endosomes. Exclusion of self nucleic acids from TLR-containing early endosomes normally

Michel Gilliet; Wei Cao; Yong-Jun Liu

2008-01-01

381

Viral carcinogenesis: revelation of molecular mechanisms and etiology of human disease  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The RNA and DNA tumor viruses have made fundamental contributions to two major areas of cancer research. Viruses were vital, first, to the discovery and analysis of cellular growth control pathways and the synthesis of current concepts of cancer biology and, second, to the recognition of the etiology of some human cancers. Transforming retroviruses carry oncogenes derived from cellular genes that are involved in mitogenic signalling and growth control. DNA tumor viruses encode oncogenes of viral origin that are essential for viral replication and cell transformation; viral oncoproteins complex with cellular proteins to stimulate cell cycle progression and led to the discovery of tumor suppressors. Viral systems support the concept that cancer development occurs by the accumulation of multiple cooperating events. Viruses are now accepted as bona fide etiologic factors of human cancer; these include hepatitis B virus, Epstein-Barr virus, human papillomaviruses, human T-cell leukemia virus type I and hepatitis C virus, plus several candidate human cancer viruses. It is estimated that 15% of all human tumors worldwide are caused by viruses. The infectious nature of viruses distinguishes them from all other cancer-causing factors; tumor viruses establish long-term persistent infections in humans, with cancer an accidental side effect of viral replication strategies. Viruses are usually not complete carcinogens, and the known human cancer viruses display different roles in transformation. Many years may pass between initial infection and tumor appearance and most infected individuals do not develop cancer, although immunocompromised individuals are at elevated risk of viral-associated cancers. Variable factors that influence viral carcinogenesis are reviewed, including possible synergy between viruses and environmental cofactors. The difficulties in establishing an etiologic role for a virus in human cancer are discussed, as well as the different approaches that proved viral links to cancer. Future directions for tumor virus studies are considered.

Butel, J. S.

2000-01-01

382

Marek's disease virus influences the core gut microbiome of the chicken during the early and late phases of viral replication.  

PubMed

Marek's disease (MD) is an important neoplastic disease of chickens caused by the Marek's disease virus (MDV), an oncogenic alphaherpesvirus. In this study, dysbiosis induced by MDV on the core gut flora of chicken was assessed using next generation sequence (NGS) analysis. Total fecal and cecum-derived samples from individual birds were used to estimate the influence of MDV infection on the gut microbiome of chicken. Our analysis shows that MDV infection alters the core gut flora in the total fecal samples relatively early after infection (2-7 days) and in the late phase of viral infection (28-35 days) in cecal samples, corresponding well with the life cycle of MDV. Principle component analyses of total fecal and cecal samples showed clustering at the early and late time points, respectively. The genus Lactobacillus was exclusively present in the infected samples in both total fecal and cecal bird samples. The community colonization of core gut flora was altered by viral infection, which manifested in the enrichment of several genera during the early and late phases of MDV replication. The results suggest a relationship between viral infection and microbial composition of the intestinal tract that may influence inflammation and immunosuppression of T and B cells in the host. PMID:25065611

Perumbakkam, Sudeep; Hunt, Henry D; Cheng, Hans H

2014-10-01

383

WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION'S RESPONSE TO WATERBORNE DISEASE OUTBREAKS  

EPA Science Inventory

The WSWRD in NRMRL/ORD has had a successful collaborative relationship with the Cetners for Disease Control & Prevention (CDCP) for over twenty years. When invited, EPA has supplied technical assistance and advice on traking causative events, evaluation of drinking water problems...

384

A Novel Inactivated Intranasal Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine Promotes Viral Clearance without Th2 Associated Vaccine-Enhanced Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in young children worldwide, and no vaccine is currently available. Inactivated RSV vaccines tested in the 1960's led to vaccine-enhanced disease upon viral challenge, which has undermined RSV vaccine development. RSV infection is increasingly being recognized as an important pathogen in the elderly, as well as other individuals with compromised pulmonary immunity. A safe and effective inactivated RSV vaccine would be of tremendous therapeutic benefit to many of these populations. Principal Findings In these preclinical studies, a mouse model was utilized to assess the efficacy of a novel, nanoemulsion-adjuvanted, inactivated mucosal RSV vaccine. Our results demonstrate that NE-RSV immunization induced durable, RSV-specific humoral responses, both systemically and in the lungs. Vaccinated mice exhibited increased protection against subsequent live viral challenge, which was associated with an enhanced Th1/Th17 response. In these studies, NE-RSV vaccinated mice displayed no evidence of Th2 mediated immunopotentiation, as has been previously described for other inactivated RSV vaccines. Conclusions These studies indicate that nanoemulsion-based inactivated RSV vaccination can augment viral-specific immunity, decrease mucus production and increase viral clearance, without evidence of Th2 immune mediated pathology. PMID:21789184

Lindell, Dennis M.; Morris, Susan B.; White, Maria P.; Kallal, Lara E.; Lundy, Phillip K.; Hamouda, Tarek; Baker, James R.; Lukacs, Nicholas W.

2011-01-01

385

Eleven years of malaria surveillance in a Sudanese village highlights unexpected variation in individual disease susceptibility and outbreak severity.  

PubMed

An analysis is presented of continuous data collected over 11 years based on 1,902,600 person/days of observation on the malaria experience of the people of Daraweesh, a village in eastern Sudan. Malaria transmission is hypo-endemic: the acquisition of clinical immunity with age is not as obvious as in more holo-endemic areas and malaria remained a problem in all age groups throughout the study. However, this population, who are of Fulani origin, showed a distinctly variable level of disease susceptibility. Thirty-two percent of the village never reported malaria symptoms or required malaria treatment while others experienced up to 8 clinical episodes over the 11 years of observation. Malaria incidence was clearly influenced by drought but much less obviously by rainfall. To what extent outbreak patterns are explicable in terms of anopheline factors, and to human immune factors, remains an interesting question for malaria modelling in this, and in other low transmission zones, such as the burgeoning urban areas of modern Africa. PMID:15471002

Creasey, A; Giha, H; Hamad, A A; El Hassan, I M; Theander, T G; Arnot, D E

2004-09-01

386

General Rules for Decontamination Following an Outbreak of Avian Influenza or Newcastle Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid application of strict biosecurity measures is the first step to prevent and control the introduction of avian influenza\\u000a (AI) or Newcastle disease (ND) viruses. Biosecurity comprises two elements: bio-exclusion and bio-containment. Bio-exclusion\\u000a includes all measures aimed at excluding infectious agents from uninfected premises. It requires the prevention of direct\\u000a and indirect contact of infected animals or contaminated inanimate carriers

Maria Serena Beato; Paola De Benedictis

387

Climate Change Promotes the Emergence of Serious Disease Outbreaks of Filarioid Nematodes  

PubMed Central

Filarioid parasites represent major health hazards with important medical, veterinary, and economic implications, and considerable potential to affect the everyday lives of tens of millions of people globally (World Health Organization, 2007). Scenarios for climate change vary latitudinally and regionally and involve direct and indirect linkages for increasing temperature and the dissemination, amplification, and invasiveness of vector-borne parasites. High latitude regions are especially influenced by global climate change and thus may be prone to altered associations and dynamics for complex host-pathogen assemblages and emergence of disease with cascading effects on ecosystem structure. Although the potential for substantial ecological perturbation has been identified, few empirical observations have emanated from systems across the Holarctic. Coincidental with decades of warming, and anomalies of high temperature and humidity in the sub-Arctic region of Fennoscandia, the mosquito-borne filarioid nematode Setaria tundra is now associated with emerging epidemic disease resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality for reindeer and moose. We describe a host-parasite system that involves reindeer, arthropods, and nematodes, which may contribute as a factor to ongoing declines documented for this ungulate species across northern ecosystems. We demonstrate that mean summer temperatures exceeding 14°C drive the emergence of disease due to S. tundra. An association between climate and emergence of filarioid parasites is a challenge to ecosystem services with direct effects on public health, sustainability of free-ranging and domestic ungulates, and ultimately food security for subsistence cultures at high latitudes. PMID:20422252

Pusenius, Jyrki; Kumpula, Jouko; Venalainen, Ari; Kortet, Raine; Oksanen, Antti; Hoberg, Eric

2010-01-01

388

Do marketing margins change with food scares?: Examining the effects of food recalls and disease outbreaks in the us red meat industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of food scares on marketing margins in the US beef and pork industry. We analyze how market stresses induced by different food recalls and disease outbreaks affect price margins and the extent of price transmission at the slaughter-to-wholesale and wholesale-to-retail levels. We use monthly data for the period 1986–2008. The results indicate that marketing margins

Manuel Hernandez; Sergio Colin-Castillo; Oral Capps Jr.

2011-01-01

389

Do Marketing Margins Change with Food Scares? Examining the Effects of Food Recalls and Disease Outbreaks in the U.S. Red Meat Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of food scares on marketing margins in the US beef and pork industries. We analyze how market stresses induced by different food recalls and disease outbreaks affect price spreads and the extent of price transmission at the slaughter-to-wholesale and wholesale-to-retail levels. We use monthly data for the period 1986–2008. The results indicate that marketing margins

Sergio Colin-Castillo; Oral Capps Jr.; Manuel A. Hernandez

2012-01-01

390

Fitting outbreak models to data from many small norovirus outbreaks.  

PubMed

Infectious disease often occurs in small, independent outbreaks in populations with varying characteristics. Each outbreak by itself may provide too little information for accurate estimation of epidemic model parameters. Here we show that using standard stochastic epidemic models for each outbreak and allowing parameters to vary between outbreaks according to a linear predictor leads to a generalized linear model that accurately estimates parameters from many small and diverse outbreaks. By estimating initial growth rates in addition to transmission rates, we are able to characterize variation in numbers of initially susceptible individuals or contact patterns between outbreaks. With simulation, we find that the estimates are fairly robust to the data being collected at discrete intervals and imputation of about half of all infectious periods. We apply the method by fitting data from 75 norovirus outbreaks in health-care settings. Our baseline regression estimates are 0.0037 transmissions per infective-susceptible day, an initial growth rate of 0.27 transmissions per infective day, and a symptomatic period of 3.35 days. Outbreaks in long-term-care facilities had significantly higher transmission and initial growth rates than outbreaks in hospitals. PMID:24593918

O'Dea, Eamon B; Pepin, Kim M; Lopman, Ben A; Wilke, Claus O

2014-03-01

391

Molecular Epidemiology of Outbreak-Associated and Wild-Waterfowl-Derived Newcastle Disease Virus Strains in Finland, Including a Novel Class I Genotype  

PubMed Central

Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious, severe disease of poultry caused by pathogenic strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV; or avian paramyxovirus-1). NDV is endemic in wild birds worldwide and one of the economically most important poultry pathogens. Most of the published strains are outbreak-associated strains, while the apathogenic NDV strains that occur in wild birds, posing a constant threat to poultry with their capability to convert into more virulent forms, have remained less studied. We screened for NDV RNA in cloacal and oropharyngeal samples from wild waterfowl in Finland during the years 2006 to 2010: 39 of 715 birds were positive (prevalence, 5.5%). The partial or full-length F genes of 37 strains were sequenced for phylogenetic purposes. We also characterized viruses derived from three NDV outbreaks in Finland and discuss the relationships between these outbreak-associated and the wild-bird-associated strains. We found that all waterfowl NDV isolates were lentogenic strains of class I or class II genotype I. We also isolated a genetically distinct class I strain (teal/Finland/13111/2008) grouping phylogenetically together with only strain HIECK87191, isolated in Northern Ireland in 1987. Together they seem to form a novel class I genotype genetically differing from other known NDVs by at least 12%. PMID:22972821

Ek-Kommonen, Christine; Väänänen, Veli-Matti; Alasaari, Jukka; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli

2012-01-01

392

Predicting and Mitigating Outbreaks of Vector-Borne Disease Utilizing Satellite Remote Sensing Technology and Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Public Health application area focuses on Earth science applications to public health and safety, particularly regarding infectious disease, emergency preparedness and response, and environmental health issues. The application explores issues of toxic and pathogenic exposure, as well as natural and man-made hazards and their effects, for risk characterization/mitigation and improvements to health and safety. The program elements of the NASA Applied Sciences Program are: Agricultural Efficiency, Air Quality, Climate, Disaster Management, Ecological Forecasting, Water Resources, Weather, and Public Health.

Estes, Sue M.

2009-01-01

393

Recurrent disease outbreaks in corneous demosponges of the genus Ircinia : epidemic incidence and defense mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 2008 and 2009, an epidemic affected sponges of the genus Ircinia in the Western Mediterranean. Investigations at a site on the European coast (6º43?08.80??N; 3º43?52.20??W) and another on\\u000a the African coast (35º10?51.00??N; 2º25?33.00??W) revealed healthier African populations. The disease started with small pustules\\u000a on the sponge surface, which subsequently coalesced forming larger, extensive lesions. An ultrastructural study suggested\\u000a that

Manuel Maldonado; Luis Sánchez-Tocino; Carlos Navarro

2010-01-01

394

Paradigm shift: contribution of field epidemiology training in advancing the "One Health" approach to strengthen disease surveillance and outbreak investigations in Africa  

PubMed Central

The occurrence of major zoonotic disease outbreaks in Sub-Saharan Africa has had a significant impact on the already constrained public health systems. This has, as a result, justified the need to identify creative strategies to address threats from emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases at the human-animal-environmental interface, and implement robust multi-disease public health surveillance systems that will enhance early detection and response. Additionally, enhanced reporting and timely investigation of all suspected notifiable infectious disease threats within the health system is vital. Field epidemiology and laboratory training programs (FELTPs) have made significant contributions to public health systems for more than 10 years by producing highly skilled field epidemiologists. These epidemiologists have not only improved disease surveillance and response to outbreaks, but also improved management of health systems. Furthermore, the FETPs/FELTPs have laid an excellent foundation that brings clinicians, veterinarians, and environmental health professionals drawn from different governmental sectors, to work with a common purpose of disease control and prevention. The emergence of the One Health approach in the last decade has coincided with the present, paradigm, shift that calls for multi-sectoral and cross-sectoral collaboration towards disease surveillance, detection, reporting and timely response. The positive impact from the integration of FETP/FELTP and the One Health approach by selected programs in Africa has demonstrated the importance of multi-sectoral collaboration in addressing threats from infectious and non- infectious causes to man, animals and the environment. PMID:22359701

Monday, Busuulwa; Gitta, Sheba Nakacubo; Wasswa, Peter; Namusisi, Olivia; Bingi, Aloysius; Musenero, Monica; Mukanga, David

2011-01-01

395

Therapeutic options for diseases due to potential viral agents of bioterrorism.  

PubMed

The etiologic agents of smallpox and viral hemorrhagic fever have emerged as potential agents of bioterrorism due to their virulence, potential for human to human dissemination and limited strategies for treatment and prevention. Cidofovir has shown significant promise in animal models, and limited case reports in humans are encouraging. Ribavirin is the treatment of choice for certain hemorrhagic fever viral infections, but has no current application to Ebola and Marburg infections. Current vaccine strategies for smallpox are effective, but carry significant risk for complications. Licensed vaccines for hemorrhagic fever viruses are limited to yellow fever, but animal studies are promising. Genomic analysis of the viral pathogen and the animal model response to infection may provide valuable information enabling the development of novel treatment and prevention strategies. Current knowledge of these strategies is reviewed. PMID:12669378

Bronze, Michael S; Greenfield, Ronald A

2003-02-01

396

High human bocavirus viral load is associated with disease severity in children under five years of age.  

PubMed

Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a parvovirus and detected worldwide in lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs), but its pathogenic role in respiratory illness is still debatable due to high incidence of co-infection with other respiratory viruses. To determine the prevalence of HBoV infection in patients with LRTI in Shanghai and its correlation with disease severity, we performed a 3-year prospective study of HBoV in healthy controls, outpatients and inpatients under five years of age with X-ray diagnosed LRTIs. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were tested by PCR for common respiratory viruses and by real time PCR for HBoV subtypes 1-4. Nasopharyngeal swabs from healthy controls and serum samples and stools from inpatients were also tested for HBoV1-4 by real time PCR. Viral loads were determined by quantitative real time PCR in all HBoV positive samples. HBoV1 was detected in 7.0% of inpatients, with annual rates of 5.1%, 8.0% and 4.8% in 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) subtype A was the most frequent co-infection detected; HBoV1 and RSVA appeared to co-circulate with similar seasonal variations. High HBoV viral loads (>10(6) copies/ml) were significantly more frequent in inpatients and outpatients than in healthy controls. There was a direct correlation of high viral load with increasing disease severity in patients co-infected with HBoV1 and at least one other respiratory virus. In summary, our data suggest that HBoV1 can cause LRTIs, but symptomatic HBoV infection is only observed in the context of high viral load. PMID:23638038

Zhao, Baihui; Yu, Xuelian; Wang, Chuanxian; Teng, Zheng; Wang, Chun; Shen, Jiaren; Gao, Ye; Zhu, Zhaokui; Wang, Jiayu; Yuan, Zhengan; Wu, Fan; Zhang, Xi; Ghildyal, Reena

2013-01-01

397

A survey of viral diseases in farmed and feral salmonids in Switzerland.  

PubMed

A field survey was carried out to study the occurrence and distribution of viruses causing diseases of major impact in fish farming, namely viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS), infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN) and infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) in farmed and wild fish in Switzerland. The presence of VHS virus (VHSV), IHN virus (IHNV) and IPN virus (IPNV) in the tissue samples was tested by virus isolation in cell cultures, and subsequent virus identification by immunofluorescence. The sera were screened for anti-VHSV antibodies (VHSV-AB) using a serum plaque neutralization test with complement addition. These data were then compared with results of a similar survey performed in 1984/85, and with data from routine diagnostic work completed at the Centre for Fish and Wildlife Health (FIWI) of the University of Bern from 1978 to 2001. Sampling sites included private and government fish farms as well as natural habitats from all major river catchments in Switzerland. In 2000/01, 522 tissue samples and 1910 sera were collected from 3400 fish. In 1984/85 1239 tissue samples and 694 sera were collected from 1628 fish. During the last 24 years of routine diagnostics at the FIWI, 1776 tissue samples were examined for presence of viruses. The results of the tissue analysis from the surveys in 1984/85 and 2000/01 showed low numbers of sites with virus-positive fish (five VHSV, three IPNV and three VHSV, one IPNV, respectively) in Swiss fish farms and rivers. The sites with virus-positive fish were located throughout the country. The decline in virus-positive cases observed between the two surveys agrees with data from the routine diagnostic work of the FIWI which show a decrease in total virus isolations from approximately 35 cases per year in the late 1970s, to approximately 10 cases per year during the last 10 years. However, in 1984/85 8.3% (58 of 694 serum samples) and in 2000/01 6.3% (121 of 1910 serum samples) proved to be positive for VHSV-AB. The 58 positive samples in 1984/85 originated from 40 of 175 sites (23%) and the 121 positive samples in 2000/01 were from 84 of 217 (29%) sites. These results are indicative of a wider distribution of VHSV than expected from the results of the virus isolations. PMID:12962226

Knuesel, R; Segner, H; Wahli, T

2003-03-01

398

An Outbreak of Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease in Western Afghanistan Associated with Exposure to Wheat Flour Contaminated with Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids  

PubMed Central

Pyrrolizidine alakloids (PAs) are known to cause hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD). Outbreaks have occurred in Western Afghanistan since 1974, the latest in February 2008. We conducted an outbreak investigation using a case-control design. Sixty-seven cases of VOD were compared with 199 community controls. Consumption of bread was strongly associated with disease (adjusted odds ratio: 35.8 [95%CI: 7.6–168.2]). Toxic doses of PA were found in plant extracts and in samples of wheat flour taken from the study area. Compared to wheat flour there was 1000 times less PA in milk and whey and in water samples the PA content was zero. Although direct analysis was not possible, contaminated wheat flour used to make bread was the likely source of PA causing the outbreak. Eating a more varied diet including meat and fruit may be protective. Prevention and control measures will rely on community awareness and agricultural interventions to ensure safety of the food supply. PMID:20652038

Kakar, Faizullah; Akbarian, Zarif; Leslie, Toby; Mustafa, Mir Lais; Watson, John; van Egmond, Hans P.; Omar, Mohammad Fahim; Mofleh, Jawad

2010-01-01

399

Viral meningitis.  

PubMed

Viral meningitis is part of the aseptic meningitis syndrome but must be distinguished from bacterial meningitis on the basis of a careful examination of the CSF and sound clinical judgment. Enteroviruses probably account for the bulk of cases of aseptic meningitis that occur in the United States and which are reported to the Centers for Disease Control each year. The seasonal pattern in the incidence of aseptic meningitis is largely due to the seasonal variation of enteroviral infections. Early on, the CSF in patients with viral meningitis frequently contains a predominance of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and may even have a low glucose level. The presence of neutrophils in the initial CSF sample is especially common in patients with enteroviral infections. A CSF glucose level lower than 50 per cent of a simultaneously drawn blood glucose determination is not uncommon in patients with viral meningitis due to mumps, LCM, and herpes simplex. In a patient with a predominance of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the initial CSF specimen and in whom a viral infection is suspected, antibiotics may be withheld if a spinal tap is repeated within 12 hours. A shift from polymorphonuclear leukocytes to mononuclear cells makes viral meningitis the likely diagnosis. Both herpes simplex and varicella-zoster may infect the meninges by means of spread from cervical and dorsal root ganglia in a retrograde fashion much the way they spread in an antegrade fashion to the skin. HSV-2 is more likely to cause the clinical syndrome of viral meningitis, while HSV-1 is more likely to cause a meningoencephalitis with serious brain dysfunction. The identification of a specific viral agent in body fluids, especially the CSF, in a patient with aseptic meningitis is of more than academic interest, since it can shorten duration of hospital stay and eliminate unnecessary antimicrobial therapy. The diagnosis of enteroviral infections depends upon the isolation of a virus from CSF, stool, or throat plus a fourfold antibody response in the serum to the viral isolate. The 60-odd serotypes of enterovirus, each with different antigenic determinants, preclude serologic testing alone as a useful diagnostic test to identify the patient infected with coxsackievirus or echovirus. For infections, due to herpes simplex, varicella-zoster, LCM, and arboviruses, a serologic test alone can be useful.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3990441

Ratzan, K R

1985-03-01

400

Simian hemorrhagic fever virus infection of rhesus macaques as a model of viral hemorrhagic fever: Clinical characterization and risk factors for severe disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simian Hemorrhagic Fever Virus (SHFV) has caused sporadic outbreaks of hemorrhagic fevers in macaques at primate research facilities. SHFV is a BSL-2 pathogen that has not been linked to human disease; as such, investigation of SHFV pathogenesis in non-human primates (NHPs) could serve as a model for hemorrhagic fever viruses such as Ebola, Marburg, and Lassa viruses. Here we describe

Reed F. Johnson; Lori E. Dodd; Srikanth Yellayi; Wenjuan Gu; Jennifer A. Cann; Catherine Jett; John G. Bernbaum; Dan R. Ragland; Marisa St. Claire; Russell Byrum; Jason Paragas; Joseph E. Blaney; Peter B. Jahrling

2011-01-01