Sample records for viral disease outbreaks

  1. Shellfish-borne viral outbreaks: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bellou, M; Kokkinos, P; Vantarakis, A

    2013-03-01

    Investigations of disease outbreaks linked to shellfish consumption have been reported in the scientific literature; however, only few countries systematically collate and report such data through a disease surveillance system. We conducted a systematic review to investigate shellfish-borne viral outbreaks and to explore their distribution in different countries, and to determine if different types of shellfish and viruses are implicated. Six databases (Medline, Embase, Scopus, PubMed, Eurosurveillance Journal and Spingerlink electronic Journal) and a global electronic reporting system (ProMED) were searched from 1980 to July 2012. About 359 shellfish-borne viral outbreaks, alongside with nine ProMED reports, involving shellfish consumption, were identified. The majority of the reported outbreaks were located in East Asia, followed by Europe, America, Oceania, Australia and Africa. More than half of the outbreaks (63.6 %) were reported from Japan. The most common viral pathogens involved were norovirus (83.7 %) and hepatitis A virus (12.8 %). The most frequent type of consumed shellfish which was involved in outbreaks was oysters (58.4 %). Outbreaks following shellfish consumption were often attributed to water contamination by sewage and/or undercooking. Differences in reporting of outbreaks were seen between the scientific literature and ProMED. Consumption of contaminated shellfish represents a risk to public health in both developed and developing countries, but impact will be disproportionate and likely to compound existing health disparities. PMID:23412719

  2. Fish and Shellfish Associated Disease Outbreaks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, M.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of disease outbreaks related to fish and shellfish, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers the chemical, bacterial, and viral diseases that are transmitted by fish and shellfish. A list of 50 references is also presented. (HM)

  3. Disease Outbreak News

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for communicating with the public during an outbreak Communication for behavioural impact (COMBI) COMBI toolkit for behavioural and social communication in outbreak response Field workbook for COMBI planning ...

  4. Viral Disease Networks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulbahce, Natali; Yan, Han; Vidal, Marc; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2010-03-01

    Viral infections induce multiple perturbations that spread along the links of the biological networks of the host cells. Understanding the impact of these cascading perturbations requires an exhaustive knowledge of the cellular machinery as well as a systems biology approach that reveals how individual components of the cellular system function together. Here we describe an integrative method that provides a new approach to studying virus-human interactions and its correlations with diseases. Our method involves the combined utilization of protein - protein interactions, protein -- DNA interactions, metabolomics and gene - disease associations to build a ``viraldiseasome''. By solely using high-throughput data, we map well-known viral associated diseases and predict new candidate viral diseases. We use microarray data of virus-infected tissues and patient medical history data to further test the implications of the viral diseasome. We apply this method to Epstein-Barr virus and Human Papillomavirus and shed light into molecular development of viral diseases and disease pathways.

  5. Viral Gastroenteritis Outbreaks in Europe, 1995-2000

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben A. Lopman; Mark H. Reacher; Yvonne van Duijnhoven; François-Xavier Hanon; David Brown; Marion Koopmans

    2003-01-01

    To gain understanding of surveillance and epidemiology of viral gastroenteritis outbreaks in Europe, we compiled data from 10 surveillance systems in the Foodborne Viruses in Europe network. Established surveillance systems found Norovirus to be responsible for >85% (N=3,714) of all nonbac- terial outbreaks of gastroenteritis reported from 1995 to 2000. However, the absolute number and population-based rates of viral gastroenteritis

  6. Disease Outbreaks Caused by Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craun, Gunther F.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the disease outbreaks caused by drinking polluted water, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the waterborn outbreaks included are: (1) cholera; (2) gastroenteritis; (3) giardiasis; and (4) typhoid fever and salmonellosis. A list of 66 references is also presented. (HM)

  7. Chronic viral diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Berris, B

    1986-01-01

    Until 20 years ago the only chronic viral diseases known were those considered to be confined to the nervous system. As a result of recent advances in epidemiology, molecular biology and immunology, new viral diseases have been recognized and their clinical features and pathogenesis elucidated. Chronic disease may result from infection with the hepatitis B and D viruses and whatever agent or agents cause hepatitis non-A, non-B, the herpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus and human T-lymphotropic virus type III. These diseases have common features, including long-term or even lifetime asymptomatic carriage, viremia, with virus free in the plasma or attached to circulating mononuclear cells, presence of virus in body secretions, irreversible tissue injury in target organs and oncogenic potential. New information on these diseases is reviewed. Other chronic diseases for which the cause is currently unknown may eventually prove to be due to viral infection. In addition, vaccines may be developed for prophylaxis of some chronic viral diseases and associated malignant diseases. PMID:3022903

  8. Souvenirs: Investigating a Disease Outbreak

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Janet Yagoda Shagam (RhizoTech; Biology)

    0000-00-00

    Starting with a case study based on the outbreak of a pulmonary disease in Southwest US, the interactions between human behavior, exposure, and confusing clinical symptoms are highlighted. As we search for the cause, these complications reflect real life difficulty in making diagnoses. The real questions extend beyond what disease has been contracted to cascading effects on the society we live in. * weigh the personal risks of exposure to a potentially fatal virus

  9. Itchy fish and viral dermatopathies: sampling, diagnosis, and management of common viral diseases.

    PubMed

    Weber, E P Scott

    2013-09-01

    Viral dermatopathies of fish bear clinical signs similar to those of dermatopathies from other causes. This article offers an overview to approaching dermatologic presentations in fish, with an emphasis on sampling, diagnosis, and management of viral dermatopathies, building on previous publications. It is vital to recognize clinical signs associated with viral dermatopathies because there are currently no treatments available. Avoidance and prevention is the key to controlling viral diseases in fish. Optimizing husbandry practices and providing appropriate quarantine procedures can help prevent viral disease outbreaks in collection and aquaculture stocks. PMID:24018032

  10. Investigating a Mystery Disease: Tales from a Viral Detective

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Viral outbreak investigation is challenging logistically as well as scientifically. In the context of addressing a fictional emerging viral disease, I describe the process of discovery, from the initial report of a problem through discussions of intellectual property and sample management, study design, management, experimental execution, and reporting of results. PMID:25165103

  11. Dengue disease outbreak definitions are implicitly variable

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Oliver J.; Smith, David L.; Scott, Thomas W.; Hay, Simon I.

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases rarely exhibit simple dynamics. Outbreaks (defined as excess cases beyond response capabilities) have the potential to cause a disproportionately high burden due to overwhelming health care systems. The recommendations of international policy guidelines and research agendas are based on a perceived standardised definition of an outbreak characterised by a prolonged, high-caseload, extra-seasonal surge. In this analysis we apply multiple candidate outbreak definitions to reported dengue case data from Brazil to test this assumption. The methods identify highly heterogeneous outbreak characteristics in terms of frequency, duration and case burden. All definitions identify outbreaks with characteristics that vary over time and space. Further, definitions differ in their timeliness of outbreak onset, and thus may be more or less suitable for early intervention. This raises concerns about the application of current outbreak guidelines for early warning/identification systems. It is clear that quantitatively defining the characteristics of an outbreak is an essential prerequisite for effective reactive response. More work is needed so that definitions of disease outbreaks can take into account the baseline capacities of treatment, surveillance and control. This is essential if outbreak guidelines are to be effective and generalisable across a range of epidemiologically different settings. PMID:25979287

  12. Characterisation of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) isolates from an outbreak with haemorrhagic enteritis and severe pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Ye?ilba?, Kadir; Förster, Christine; Ozyi?it, M Ozgür; Alpay, Gizem; Tuncer, Pelin; Thiel, Heinz-Jürgen; König, Matthias

    2014-02-21

    During 2007 a disease outbreak occurred in cattle in the Marmara region of western Turkey characterised by severe pneumonia and haemorrhagic enteritis in calves. Cases from three farms at different locations were examined and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) isolated in all cases. Phylogenetic characterisation of the virus isolates allocated them in a new cluster tentatively named as BVDV-1r. PMID:24447942

  13. IMPROVING WATERBORNE DISEASE OUTBREAK INVESTIGATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article summarizes the discussions and conclusions of a workshop held December 7-8, 1998, to consider the inherent limitations and weaknesses of waterborne outbreak investigations and make recommendations for their improvement. In recent years, an increased number of suspec...

  14. WATERBORNE DISEASES OUTBREAK SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (WBDOSS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Waterborne Diseases Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) is a collaborative effort of the National Center for Infectious Diseases (NCID) of CDC and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for collecting and periodically reporting data relating to occurrences and causes of...

  15. Chikungunya Outbreaks — The Globalization of Vectorborne Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rémi N. Charrel; Xavier de Lamballerie; Didier Raoult

    2007-01-01

    n 2006, an outbreak of chi k un - gunya fever — an arthralgic disease caused by a mosquito- borne alphavirus — swept over a number of islands in the Indian Ocean (the Comoros, Mauritius, the Seychelles, Madagascar, May- otte, and Reunion). In Reunion, which has a population of 770,000, there were 265,000 clinical cases (an incidence of 34%), and

  16. Real-Time Event Extraction Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    E-print Network

    Real-Time Event Extraction for Infectious Disease Outbreaks Ralph Grishman grishman of information on infectious disease outbreaks. A web crawler is used to retrieve current news stories of information on infectious disease outbreaks, linked back to the reports from which they are derived

  17. A review of critical care nursing and disease outbreak preparedness.

    PubMed

    Makamure, Miranda; Makamure, Muriel; Mendiola, Williane; Renteria, Daisy; Repp, Melissa; Willden, Azshwee

    2013-01-01

    The impact of disease outbreaks continues to increase globally. As frontline staff, critical care nurses (CCNs) are more likely to be confronted with the need to care for affected patients. With different pathological diseases emerging, CCNs play an integral role in disease outbreaks. The advanced skill set of CCNs is pivotal in the management and care of patients during an outbreak. Lack of planning and preparation before disease outbreaks leads to detrimental patient outcomes. Panic, chaos, and fear for personal safety cause stress and anxiety for unprepared nurses. However, this problem can be resolved. Comprehensive planning, training, and education can better prepare intensive care unit nurses for disease outbreaks. This article reviews some of the current literature on intensive care unit nurse preparedness for disease outbreaks in the United States. This article also offers strategies that may be used to better prepare CCNs for disease outbreaks. PMID:23759903

  18. Norwalk Viral Gastroenteritis Outbreak Affecting Patients and Staff on a Geriatric Psychiatry Unit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sanikop; K. Agnes; M-C Roghmann

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Norwalk-like viral (NLV) gastroenteritis is a frequent cause of outbreaks in extended-care facilities (ECFs); however, outbreaks in geriatric psychiatry units (GPUs) present unique containment challenges and are disruptive to patient treatment plans that include group and social activities. GPU patients have difficulty in adhering to restrictions on movement and good personal hygiene practices due to their illnesses. The 40-bed

  19. Safety of community drinking-water and outbreaks of waterborne enteric disease: Israel, 1976-97.

    PubMed Central

    Tulchinsky, T. H.; Burla, E.; Clayman, M.; Sadik, C.; Brown, A.; Goldberger, S.

    2000-01-01

    Waterborne disease remains a major public health problem in many countries. We report findings on nearly three decades of waterborne disease in Israel and the part these diseases play in the total national burden of enteric disease. During the 1970s and 1980s, Israel's community water supplies were frequently of poor quality according to the microbiological standards at that time, and the country experienced many outbreaks of waterborne enteric disease. New regulations raised water quality standards and made chlorination of community water supplies mandatory, as well as imposing more stringent guidelines on maintaining water sources and distribution systems for both surface water and groundwater. This was followed by improved compliance and water quality, and a marked decline in the number of outbreaks of waterborne disease; no outbreaks were detected between 1992 and 1997. The incidence of waterborne salmonellosis, shigellosis, and typhoid declined markedly as proportions of the total burden of these diseases, but peaked during the time in which there were frequent outbreaks of waterborne disease (1980-85). Long-term trends in the total incidence of reported infectious enteric diseases from all sources, including typhoid, shigellosis, and viral hepatitis (all types) declined, while the total incidence of salmonellosis increased. Mandatory chlorination has had an important impact on improving water quality, in reducing outbreaks of waterborne disease in Israel, and reducing the total burden of enteric disease in the country. PMID:11196499

  20. Haemorrhagic Fevers, Viral

    MedlinePLUS

    ... haemorrhagic fevers), Filoviridae (Ebola and Marburg) and Flaviviridae (yellow fever, dengue, Omsk haemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur forest disease). Ebola ... topics Dengue Disease outbreaks Infectious diseases Tropical diseases Yellow fever You are here: Health topics Haemorrhagic fevers, Viral ...

  1. Oral Manifestations of Viral Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denis P. Lynch

    other chapters dealing with specific viruses. Second, the clinical oral manifestations of such infections are described, with an emphasis on the differential diagnosis of specific oral viral lesions. Third, the methods used in the diagno- sis of oral viral lesions are presented. Fourth, a summary of current therapeutic management strategies is presented, along with their relation- ship to long-term prognosis.

  2. Genomics-enabled sensor platform for rapid detection of viruses related to disease outbreak.

    SciTech Connect

    Brozik, Susan Marie; Manginell, Ronald Paul; Moorman, Matthew Wallace; Xiao, Xiaoyin; Edwards, Thayne L.; Anderson, John Moses; Pfeifer, Kent Bryant; Branch, Darren W.; Wheeler, David Roger; Polsky, Ronen; Lopez, DeAnna M.; Ebel, Gregory D. [Colorado State University; Prasad, Abhishek N. [Colorado State University; Brozik, James A. [Washington State University; Rudolph, Angela R. [Washington State University; Wong, Lillian P. [Washington State University

    2013-09-01

    Bioweapons and emerging infectious diseases pose growing threats to our national security. Both natural disease outbreak and outbreaks due to a bioterrorist attack are a challenge to detect, taking days after the outbreak to identify since most outbreaks are only recognized through reportable diseases by health departments and reports of unusual diseases by clinicians. In recent decades, arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) have emerged as some of the most significant threats to human health. They emerge, often unexpectedly, from cryptic transmission foci causing localized outbreaks that can rapidly spread to multiple continents due to increased human travel and trade. Currently, diagnosis of acute infections requires amplification of viral nucleic acids, which can be costly, highly specific, technically challenging and time consuming. No diagnostic devices suitable for use at the bedside or in an outbreak setting currently exist. The original goals of this project were to 1) develop two highly sensitive and specific diagnostic assays for detecting RNA from a wide range of arboviruses; one based on an electrochemical approach and the other a fluorescent based assay and 2) develop prototype microfluidic diagnostic platforms for preclinical and field testing that utilize the assays developed in goal 1. We generated and characterized suitable primers for West Nile Virus RNA detection. Both optical and electrochemical transduction technologies were developed for DNA-RNA hybridization detection and were implemented in microfluidic diagnostic sensing platforms that were developed in this project.

  3. Legionnaires' disease outbreaks and cooling towers with amplified Legionella concentrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian G. Shelton; W. Dana Flanders; George K. Morris

    1994-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the possible association of high colony counts of legionellae from cooling towers and evaporative condensers with Legionnaires' disease outbreaks. We obtained legionellae counts from samples of cooling towers and evaporative condensers that were the likely sources of two different Legionnaires' disease outbreaks and compared these counts with those from cooling towers that were not

  4. OUTBREAKS OF WATERBORNE DISEASE IN THE UNITED STATES, 1978

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surveillance of outbreaks of waterborne disease is jointly conducted by the Center for Disease Control (CDC), Atlanta, Ga., and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Cincinnati, Ohio. Waterborne outbreaks are reported to the CDC and EPA by state and local health departments ...

  5. Viral Perturbations of Host Networks Reflect Disease Etiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natali Gulbahce; Han Yan; Amélie Dricot; Megha Padi; Danielle Byrdsong; Rachel Franchi; Deok-Sun Lee; Orit Rozenblatt-Rosen; Jessica C. Mar; Michael A. Calderwood; Amy Baldwin; Bo Zhao; Balaji Santhanam; Pascal Braun; Nicolas Simonis; Kyung-Won Huh; Karin Hellner; Miranda Grace; Alyce Chen; Renee Rubio; Jarrod A. Marto; Nicholas A. Christakis; Elliott Kieff; Frederick P. Roth; Jennifer Roecklein-Canfield; James A. DeCaprio; Michael E. Cusick; John Quackenbush; David E. Hill; Karl Münger; Marc Vidal; Albert-László Barabási

    2012-01-01

    Many human diseases, arising from mutations of disease susceptibility genes (genetic diseases), are also associated with viral infections (virally implicated diseases), either in a directly causal manner or by indirect associations. Here we examine whether viral perturbations of host interactome may underlie such virally implicated disease relationships. Using as models two different human viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human papillomavirus

  6. [An update on viral diseases of the dog and cat].

    PubMed

    Bodewes, R; Egberink, H F

    2009-04-15

    In this review, recent developments in the field of viral diseases of the dog and the cat are discussed. In the dog, infection with the coronavirus type 2 is associated with respiratory signs, while infection of a highly pathogenic strain of the coronavirus type 1 has been identified as the cause of mortality in puppies. A new strain of the canine parvovirus is identified, from which the pathogenicity is not yet completely clarified. Infection with West Nile virus is associated with progressive neurological disease and subclinical infections in dogs. Infection with equine influenza A (H3N8) or a highly related influenza virus can cause severe respiratory disease and mortality in greyhounds and other dogs. Infection with avian influenza A (H5N1) can cause disease and mortality in cats and is mostly subclinical in dogs. A number of outbreaks of highly virulent strains of the calicivirus in cats have been described. PMID:19462619

  7. Ebola virus disease outbreak: what's going on.

    PubMed

    Giraldi, G; Marsella, L T

    2015-01-01

    The current West African Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak was confirmed in March, 2014, and after months of slow, fragmented responses, the EVD has been recognized as a public health emergency of international concern. The early diagnosis of the disease is difficult without laboratory testing, because its symptoms can be seen in many other infections. In the wake of international agencies advices, the Italian Ministry of Health, on October 1, 2014, released to the Healthcare Professional Workers (HPWs) the Protocol about the management of cases and contacts within the national territory. Due to the increasing number of humanitarian groups and HPWs involved in the field, the probability to have new cases of contamination is higher than ever. Proven specific treatments against EVD are not yet available, however, a variety of compounds have been under testing. The most effective are select monoclonal antibodies that have a high neutralizing potential against epitopes of Ebola Virus. For facing the matter, it is important a comprehensive approach according to the recommendations proposed by the international agencies because no single institution or country has all the capacities to respond to a new and emerging infectious disease. PMID:25748509

  8. Foodborne disease outbreaks in Australia, 1995 to 2000.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Craig B; Gregory, Joy; Kirk, Martyn D; Stafford, Russell J; Givney, Rod; Kraa, Ed; Gould, David

    2004-01-01

    Health agencies are increasingly conducting systematic reviews of foodborne disease outbreak investigations to develop strategies to prevent future outbreaks. We surveyed state and territory health departments to summarise the epidemiology of foodborne disease outbreaks in Australia from 1995 to 2000. From 1995 through 2000, 293 outbreaks were identified, with 214 being of foodborne origin. One hundred and seventy-four (81%) had a known aetiology, and accounted for 80 per cent (6,472/8,124) of illnesses. There were 20 deaths attributed to foodborne illness. Of the 214 outbreaks, bacterial disease was responsible for 61 per cent of outbreaks, 64 per cent of cases and 95 per cent of deaths. The most frequent aetiology of outbreaks was Salmonella in 75 (35%) outbreaks, Clostridium perfringens in 30 (14%), ciguatera toxin in 23 (11%), scombrotoxin in 7 (3%) and norovirus in 6 (3%). Salmonellosis was responsible for eight of the 20 (40%) deaths, as was Listeria monocytogenes. Restaurants and commercial caterers were associated with the highest number of outbreak reports and cases. Outbreaks in hospitals and aged care facilities were responsible for 35 per cent of deaths. The most frequently implicated vehicles in the 173 outbreaks with known vehicles were meats 64 (30%), fish 34 (16%), seafood 13 (6%), salad 12 (6%), sandwiches 11 (5%) and eggs 9 (4%). Chicken, the most frequently implicated meat, was associated with 27 (13%) outbreaks. This summary demonstrates the serious nature of foodborne disease and supports the move to risk-based food safety interventions focusing on mass catering and hospital and aged care facilities. PMID:15460958

  9. Climate variability and outbreaks of infectious diseases in Europe.

    PubMed

    Morand, Serge; Owers, Katharine A; Waret-Szkuta, Agnes; McIntyre, K Marie; Baylis, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Several studies provide evidence of a link between vector-borne disease outbreaks and El Niño driven climate anomalies. Less investigated are the effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Here, we test its impact on outbreak occurrences of 13 infectious diseases over Europe during the last fifty years, controlling for potential bias due to increased surveillance and detection. NAO variation statistically influenced the outbreak occurrence of eleven of the infectious diseases. Seven diseases were associated with winter NAO positive phases in northern Europe, and therefore with above-average temperatures and precipitation. Two diseases were associated with the summer or spring NAO negative phases in northern Europe, and therefore with below-average temperatures and precipitation. Two diseases were associated with summer positive or negative NAO phases in southern Mediterranean countries. These findings suggest that there is potential for developing early warning systems, based on climatic variation information, for improved outbreak control and management. PMID:23639950

  10. Climate variability and outbreaks of infectious diseases in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Morand, Serge; Owers, Katharine A.; Waret-Szkuta, Agnes; McIntyre, K. Marie; Baylis, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Several studies provide evidence of a link between vector-borne disease outbreaks and El Niño driven climate anomalies. Less investigated are the effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Here, we test its impact on outbreak occurrences of 13 infectious diseases over Europe during the last fifty years, controlling for potential bias due to increased surveillance and detection. NAO variation statistically influenced the outbreak occurrence of eleven of the infectious diseases. Seven diseases were associated with winter NAO positive phases in northern Europe, and therefore with above-average temperatures and precipitation. Two diseases were associated with the summer or spring NAO negative phases in northern Europe, and therefore with below-average temperatures and precipitation. Two diseases were associated with summer positive or negative NAO phases in southern Mediterranean countries. These findings suggest that there is potential for developing early warning systems, based on climatic variation information, for improved outbreak control and management. PMID:23639950

  11. Resilient information networks for coordination of foodborne disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Liaquat; Hassan, Muhammad Rabiul; Wigand, Rolf T

    2015-04-01

    Foodborne disease outbreaks are increasingly being seen as a greater concern by public health authorities. It has also become a global research agenda to identify improved pathways to coordinating outbreak detection. Furthermore, a significant need exists for timely coordination of the detection of potential foodborne disease outbreaks to reduce the number of infected individuals and the overall impact on public health security. This study aimed to offer an effective approach for coordinating foodborne disease outbreaks. First, we identify current coordination processes, complexities, and challenges. We then explore social media surveillance strategies, usage, and the power of these strategies to influence decision-making. Finally, based on informal (social media) and formal (organizational) surveillance approaches, we propose a hybrid information network model for improving the coordination of outbreak detection. PMID:25882125

  12. Teachers' Risk Perception and Needs in Addressing Infectious Disease Outbreak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Emmy M. Y.; Cheng, May M. H.; Lo, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    The outbreak of the Influenza A (H1N1) virus has led to numerous precautionary school closures in several countries. No research is available on the school teachers' perceptions as a health protective resource in controlling communicable disease outbreaks. The purposes of this study were to examine the risk perception, the perceived understanding…

  13. WATERBORNE DISEASE IN COLORADO: THREE YEAR SURVEILLANCE AND 18 OUTBREAKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Colorado Department of Health conducted intensive surveillance for waterborne diseases during the three-year period July 1, 1980-June 30, 1983. Eighteen outbreaks of waterborne illness were investigated. Outbreaks involved from 15 to 1,500 ill persons. Giardia lamblia was con...

  14. Emerging viral diseases in dromedary camels in the Southern Morocco.

    PubMed

    Touil, N; Cherkaoui, Z; Lmrabih, Z; Loutfi, C; Harif, B; El Harrak, M

    2012-04-01

    During the last fifteen years, new viral diseases such Bluetongue (BT), West Nile (WN), African horse sickness (AHS), Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) and Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) have extended their geographic distribution and emerged in North Africa and in Europe. Camel (Camelus dromedarius) is considered as a potential vector in the transmission of some of these diseases while it is host-specific for Camelpox (CP). A serological survey was conducted on 1392 sera to estimate changes of these diseases prevalence in camels over two different time spans (2003 and 2009) and across different sites of South Morocco. Results indicate clearly that BT was circulating in camels before the first notified outbreak in Morocco (2004) with 42% positive sera in Guelmim in 2003. BT and WN prevalence's increased over time from 11 to 25% and from 10 to 13% respectively. Higher prevalence of both diseases was found in camels living in oases indicating an increased intensity of viral circulation in these sites. Camels have been tested negative for AHS, EHD and PPR viruses while higher CP prevalence has been detected in camels living in Smara, the most closed site to eastern borders (i.e. Mauritania). The seroprevalence of CP in camels at interval of 7 years increases from 23% to 37%. This survey could provide information on the possible use of camel as a sentinel animal for surveillance of emerging diseases such BT and WN. PMID:22222004

  15. WATERBORNE DISEASE OUTBREAKS, 1986-1988

    EPA Science Inventory

    From 1986 to 1988, 24 states and Puerto Rico reported 50 outbreaks of illness due to water that people intended to drink, affecting 25,846 persons. he protozoal parasite Giardia lamblia was the agent most commonly implicated in outbreaks, as it has been for the last 10 years; man...

  16. Modeling Estimated Personnel Needs for a Potential Foot and Mouth Disease Outbreak

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, K; Hullinger, P

    2008-01-29

    Foot and Mouth disease (FMD) is a highly infectious and contagious viral disease affecting cloven-hoofed livestock that was last detected in the United States (US) in 1929. The prevalence of FMD in other countries, as well as the current potential for this virus to be used as a form of agroterrorism, has made preparations for a potential FMD outbreak a national priority. To assist in the evaluation of national preparedness, all 50 states were surveyed via e-mail, telephone and web search to obtain emergency response plans for FMD or for foreign animal diseases in general. Information from 33 states was obtained and analyzed for estimates of personnel resources needed to respond to an outbreak. These estimates were consolidated and enhanced to create a tool that could be used by individual states to better understand the personnel that would be needed to complete various tasks over time during an outbreak response. The estimates were then coupled, post-processing, to the output from FMD outbreaks simulated in California using the Multiscale Epidemiological/Economic Simulation and Analysis (MESA) model at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to estimate the personnel resource demands, by task, over the course of an outbreak response.

  17. Infectious bill atrophy syndrome caused by parvovirus in a co-outbreak with duck viral hepatitis in ducklings in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y S; Lin, D F; Lee, Y L; Liao, Y K; Tsai, H J

    1993-01-01

    In October 1989, an epizootic duckling disease with high mortality occurred in Taiwan. The disease was characterized by droopiness, inappetence, ataxia, ruffled feathers, and watery diarrhea. Affected ducklings were lame, were unable to stand, showed opisthotonos, and often died 3 or 4 days after the onset of the disease. Tolerant maturing ducklings displayed atrophic upper bills with a protruding tongue and became stunted as they reached maturity. No diagnostic histopathologic lesions were found in these ducklings. Fourteen parvovirus isolates, 33 duck viral hepatitis virus (DVHV) isolates, two adenovirus isolates, and two reovirus isolates were obtained and identified from more than 500 sick ducklings in the epizootic. The epizootic was diagnosed as a co-outbreak of duck parvovirus infections and duck viral hepatitis. The high mortality in ducklings and the bill atrophy syndrome were reproduced in ducklings by inoculating the parvovirus isolates alone. The epizootic was controlled by an emergency immunization program of ducklings with sera collected from recovered ducks or a bivalent inactivated vaccine composed of local DVHV and parvovirus isolates. PMID:8395811

  18. APPROACHES TO ESTIMATING THE WATERBORNE DISEASE OUTBREAK BURDEN IN THE U.S.: USES AND LIMITATIONS OF THE WATERBORNE DISEASE OUTBREAK SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Approaches to Estimating the Waterborne Disease Outbreak Burden in the United States: Uses and Limitations of the Waterborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System (External Review Draft) document presents approaches for estimating the epidemiologic and economic burden o...

  19. New viral vaccines for dermatologic disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Orlova Urman; Alice B. Gottlieb

    Two new viral vaccines have recently been approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is intended to reduce infection with the most common HPV types that cause anogenital disease, including cervical cancer and genital warts. Herpes zoster (HZ) vaccine is intended to prevent shingles and its complications. The use of these two vaccines will immediately begin

  20. Viral perturbations of host networks reflect disease etiology.

    PubMed

    Gulbahce, Natali; Yan, Han; Dricot, Amélie; Padi, Megha; Byrdsong, Danielle; Franchi, Rachel; Lee, Deok-Sun; Rozenblatt-Rosen, Orit; Mar, Jessica C; Calderwood, Michael A; Baldwin, Amy; Zhao, Bo; Santhanam, Balaji; Braun, Pascal; Simonis, Nicolas; Huh, Kyung-Won; Hellner, Karin; Grace, Miranda; Chen, Alyce; Rubio, Renee; Marto, Jarrod A; Christakis, Nicholas A; Kieff, Elliott; Roth, Frederick P; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer; Decaprio, James A; Cusick, Michael E; Quackenbush, John; Hill, David E; Münger, Karl; Vidal, Marc; Barabási, Albert-László

    2012-01-01

    Many human diseases, arising from mutations of disease susceptibility genes (genetic diseases), are also associated with viral infections (virally implicated diseases), either in a directly causal manner or by indirect associations. Here we examine whether viral perturbations of host interactome may underlie such virally implicated disease relationships. Using as models two different human viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human papillomavirus (HPV), we find that host targets of viral proteins reside in network proximity to products of disease susceptibility genes. Expression changes in virally implicated disease tissues and comorbidity patterns cluster significantly in the network vicinity of viral targets. The topological proximity found between cellular targets of viral proteins and disease genes was exploited to uncover a novel pathway linking HPV to Fanconi anemia. PMID:22761553

  1. Emergence of viral hemorrhagic fevers: is recent outbreak of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in India an indication?

    PubMed

    Lahariya, C; Goel, M K; Kumar, A; Puri, M; Sodhi, A

    2012-01-01

    The emerging and re-emerging diseases are posing a great health risk for the last few years. One such category of diseases is viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHFs), which have emerged in the new territories, worldwide. Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) cases, for the first time in India, were reported from Gujarat, in January 2011. The emergence of diseases not reported earlier, pose great economic and social challenge, burden health system, and create panic reaction. Nonetheless, with recent experience in control of epidemic diseases, and advances in basic scientific knowledge; the public health community is better prepared for these unexpected events. This review provides information to physicians on CCHF for managing outbreak, and identifies public health measures to prevent emergence and re-emergence of VHFs (including CCHF) in future. The authors suggest that though, there are a few challenging and unanswered questions, the public health preparedness still remains the key to control emerging and re-emerging diseases. The countries where virus activities have been reported need to be prepared accordingly. PMID:22387647

  2. Bayesian Biosurveillance of Disease Outbreaks Gregory F. Cooper

    E-print Network

    Wong, Weng-Keen

    Bayesian networks to model spatio-temporal patterns of a non-contagious disease (respiratory anthrax) or bioterrorist- induced (e.g., anthrax and smallpox), is a critically important problem today. We need to detect of people. We concentrate on modeling non-contagious outbreak diseases, such as airborne anthrax or West

  3. Diversity in pathogenicity can cause outbreaks of meningococcal disease

    E-print Network

    criticality epidemiology meningitis septicemia Meningococcal disease is the collective name for the pathoDiversity in pathogenicity can cause outbreaks of meningococcal disease Nico Stollenwerk*, Martin C January 30, 2004) Neisseria meningitidis, the meningococcus, is a major cause of bacterial meningitis

  4. Detection and isolation of infectious laryngotracheitis virus on a broiler farm after a disease outbreak.

    PubMed

    Dormitorio, Teresa V; Giambrone, Joseph J; Macklin, Kenneth S

    2013-12-01

    A broiler farm in North Alabama suffered a mild infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) outbreak, as determined by clinical disease and PCR. The poultry integrator sought help to control further outbreaks in subsequent flocks. Samples were collected from various areas of the poultry houses on the farm over an 8-wk period. The first sampling was conducted 8 days after the infected farm was depopulated; the second was conducted 2 days prior to subsequent flock placement; and the third was conducted when the new flock was 5 wk of age. Samples were examined for ILT virus (ILTV) DNA by real-time PCR and virus isolation in embryos. The infected houses were cleaned, disinfected, heated, litter composted, and curtains replaced after the first sampling and prior to placement of the next flock. Samples from all periods were positive for ILTV DNA. However, the number of positive samples and crossing point values indicated a decrease in the amount of viral DNA, while virus isolation in embryos was successful only on the first sampling. The subsequent flock was vaccinated against ILTV by in ovo route using a commercial recombinant vaccine. Cleaning and sanitation after the disease outbreak reduced the amount of ILTV on the farm and together with in ovo vaccination of the new flock may have prevented a recurrence of another ILT outbreak. PMID:24597126

  5. Inter- and Intra-Host Viral Diversity in a Large Seasonal DENV2 Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Camila Malta; Lauck, Michael; Salvador, Felipe S.; Lima, Célia Rodrigues; Villas-Boas, Lucy S.; Araújo, Evaldo Stanislau A.; Levi, José Eduardo; Pannuti, Claudio Sergio; O’Connor, David; Kallas, Esper Georges

    2013-01-01

    Background High genetic diversity at both inter- and intra-host level are hallmarks of RNA viruses due to the error-prone nature of their genome replication. Several groups have evaluated the extent of viral variability using different RNA virus deep sequencing methods. Although much of this effort has been dedicated to pathogens that cause chronic infections in humans, few studies investigated arthropod-borne, acute viral infections. Methods and Principal Findings We deep sequenced the complete genome of ten DENV2 isolates from representative classical and severe cases sampled in a large outbreak in Brazil using two different approaches. Analysis of the consensus genomes confirmed the larger extent of the 2010 epidemic in comparison to a previous epidemic caused by the same viruses in another city two years before (genetic distance?=?0.002 and 0.0008 respectively). Analysis of viral populations within the host revealed a high level of conservation. After excluding homopolymer regions of 454/Roche generated sequences, we found 10 to 44 variable sites per genome population at a frequency of >1%, resulting in very low intra-host genetic diversity. While up to 60% of all variable sites at intra-host level were non-synonymous changes, only 10% of inter-host variability resulted from non-synonymous mutations, indicative of purifying selection at the population level. Conclusions and Significance Despite the error-prone nature of RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase, dengue viruses maintain low levels of intra-host variability. PMID:23936406

  6. Clinical Presentation Resembling Mucosal Disease Associated with 'HoBi'-like Pestivirus in a Field Outbreak.

    PubMed

    Weber, M N; Mósena, A C S; Simões, S V D; Almeida, L L; Pessoa, C R M; Budaszewski, R F; Silva, T R; Ridpath, J F; Riet-Correa, F; Driemeier, D; Canal, C W

    2014-04-16

    The genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae consists of four recognized species: Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 2 (BVDV-2), Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and Border disease virus (BDV). Recently, atypical pestiviruses ('HoBi'-like pestiviruses) were identified in batches of contaminated foetal calf serum and in naturally infected cattle with and without clinical symptoms. Here, we describe the first report of a mucosal disease-like clinical presentation (MD) associated with a 'HoBi'-like pestivirus occurring in a cattle herd. The outbreak was investigated using immunohistochemistry, antibody detection, viral isolation and RT-PCR. The sequence and phylogenetic analysis of 5'NCR, N(pro) and E2 regions of the RT-PCR positive samples showed that four different 'HoBi'-like strains were circulating in the herd. The main clinical signs and lesions were observed in the respiratory and digestive systems, but skin lesions and corneal opacity were also observed. MD characteristic lesions and a pestivirus with cytopathic biotype were detected in one calf. The present study is the first report of a MD like presentation associated with natural infection with 'HoBi'-like pestivirus. This report describes the clinical signs and provides a pathologic framework of an outbreak associated with at least two different 'HoBi'-like strains. Based on these observations, it appears that these atypical pestiviruses are most likely underdiagnosed in Brazilian cattle. PMID:24735072

  7. Serogroup B Meningococcal Disease Outbreaks The following information on serogroup B meningococcal disease outbreaks is provided by

    E-print Network

    Royer, Dana

    Vaccines page o Meningococcal Disease and Vaccination Fact Sheet from the National Meningitis Association [pdf] #12;o Meningococcal Meningitis Flyer from the National Meningitis Association [pdf] We encourageSerogroup B Meningococcal Disease Outbreaks The following information on serogroup B meningococcal

  8. Virus Excretion from Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus Carrier Cattle and Their Potential Role in Causing New Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Parthiban, Aravindh Babu R.; Mahapatra, Mana; Gubbins, Simon; Parida, Satya

    2015-01-01

    The role of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) carrier cattle in causing new outbreaks is still a matter of debate and it is important to find out these carrier animals by post-outbreak serosurveillance to declare freedom from FMDV infection. In this study we explore the differences in viral shedding between carrier and non-carrier animals, quantify the transmission rate of FMDV infection from carriers to susceptible animals and identify potential viral determinants of viral persistence. We collected nasal and saliva samples from 32 vaccinated and 7 unvaccinated FMDV carrier cattle and 48 vaccinated and 13 unvaccinated non-carrier cattle (total n=100) during the acute phase of infection (up to 28 days post-challenge) and then from limited number of animals up to a maximum 168 days post-challenge. We demonstrate that unvaccinated cattle excrete significantly higher levels of virus for longer periods compared with vaccinated cattle and this is independent of whether or not they subsequently become carriers. By introducing naïve cattle in to the FMDV carrier population we show the risk of new outbreaks is clearly very low in controlled conditions, although there could still be a potential threat of these carrier animals causing new outbreaks in the field situation. Finally, we compared the complete genome sequences of viruses from carrier cattle with the challenge virus and found no evidence for viral determinants of the carrier state. PMID:26110772

  9. Investigation of an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease: Hereford, UK 2003.

    PubMed

    Kirrage, David; Reynolds, Gary; Smith, Gillian E; Olowokure, Babatunde

    2007-08-01

    This report describes the investigation and control of a community outbreak of Legionnaires' disease in Hereford, UK, in November 2003. Outbreak investigation consisted of epidemiological survey, identification and environmental investigation of potential sources, microbiological analysis of clinical and environmental samples and mapping the location of potential sources and the movement and residence of cases. Each identified source was allocated a 'composite score' based on different zones of exposure and wind direction. Altogether, 28 cases were identified, with an overall case fatality rate of 7%. All cases had epidemiological links to Hereford city centre. The 'composite score' identified a cluster of cooling towers as being the most likely source of the outbreak. Environmental samples from one of the cooling towers in the cluster and clinical samples from two patients were positive for Legionella pneumophilia serogroup 1 and were indistinguishable by molecular sub-typing. In this outbreak, the use of microbiological, environmental and epidemiological techniques facilitated the rapid identification of a cooling tower as the source of this outbreak. This study illustrates the continuing importance of cooling towers as a source of Legionnaires' disease and the utility of obtaining and comparing both clinical and environmental samples. PMID:17513103

  10. An outbreak of viral gastroenteritis following environmental contamination at a concert hall.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, M. R.; Meldrum, R.; Lane, W.; Gardner, D.; Ribeiro, C. D.; Gallimore, C. I.; Westmoreland, D.

    2002-01-01

    In January 1999, an outbreak of viral gastroenteritis affected more than 300 people who attended a metropolitan concert hall over a 5-day period. Norwalk-like virus (NLV) was confirmed in faecal samples by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay. The index case was a concert attendee who vomited in the auditorium and adjacent male toilet. Gastrointestinal illness occurred among members of 8/15 school parties who attended the following day. Children who sat on the same level of the auditorium as the index case were much more likely to be ill than those seated elsewhere (relative risk 7.1, 95% confidence interval 5.4-9.2. P < 0.001). The majority of other reported cases had not been present on the evening of the vomiting incident. Disinfection procedure was poor and the disinfectant used contained no sodium hypochlorite. Transmission most likely occurred through direct contact with contaminated fomites. The outbreak has implications for disinfection procedures following vomiting incidents at public venues. PMID:12403111

  11. The effect of opinion clustering on disease outbreaks

    E-print Network

    Bonhoeffer, Sebastian

    , is a potentially dangerous infection and a leading cause of vaccine- preventable childhood mortality (Measles large outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases such as measles despite the availability of highly effective vaccines. This phenomenon lacks an explanation in countries where vaccination rates are rising

  12. SURVEILLANCE AND INVESTIGATION OF WATERBORNE DISEASE OUTBREAKS - VOLUME I: HANDBOOK

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work consists of two volumes. olume I is a series of articles based on selected presentations made at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Association of State Drinking Water Administrators Workshop on Methods for Investigation of Water-borne Disease Outbreaks ...

  13. Factors that make an infectious disease outbreak controllable

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christophe Fraser; Steven Riley; Roy M. Anderson; Neil M. Ferguson

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify general properties of emerging infectious agents that determine the likely success of two simple public health measures in controlling outbreaks, namely (i) isolating symptomatic individuals and (ii) tracing and quarantining their con- tacts. Because these measures depend on the recognition of specific disease symptoms, we investigate the relative timing of infectious- ness

  14. Bayesian Network Anomaly Pattern Detection for Disease Outbreaks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weng-keen Wong; Andrew W. Moore; Gregory F. Cooper; Michael Wagner

    2003-01-01

    Early disease outbreak detection systems typically monitor health care data for irreg- ularities by comparing the distribution of re- cent data against a baseline distribution. De- termining the baseline is difficult due to the presence of different trends in health care data, such as trends caused by the day of week and by seasonal variations in temper- ature and weather.

  15. Rule-Based Anomaly Pattern Detection for Detecting Disease Outbreaks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weng-keen Wong; Andrew W. Moore; Gregory F. Cooper; Michael Wagner

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for performing early detection of disease outbreaks by searching a database of emergency department cases for anomalous patterns. Traditional techniques for anomaly detection are unsat- isfactory for this problem because they identify individ- ual data points that are rare due to particular combina- tions of features. When applied to our scenario, these traditional algorithms discover

  16. Camelpox, an emerging orthopox viral disease.

    PubMed

    Balamurugan, Vinayagamurthy; Venkatesan, Gnanavel; Bhanuprakash, Veerakyathappa; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Camelpox is considered as emerging public health problem during this decade due to increased reported cases and outbreaks in camels. Camelpox is a contagious, often sporadic, and notifiable skin disease of camelids and is socio-economically significant as it incurs considerable loss in terms of morbidity, mortality, loss of weight and reduction in milk yield and confined to camel-rearing countries. The causative agent, camelpox virus (CMLV) is genetically closely related to variola virus and has gained much attention from researchers due to its recent emergence in human. The virus carrying genes responsible for host immune evasion mechanisms owing to the threat posed by potential bio-warfare agents. Although the disease can be diagnosed based on clinical features, the similar confounding skin lesions necessitate identification, detection and differentiation of the CMLV by molecular techniques. Vaccines are available in some countries and the available live attenuated vaccine provides long-lasting immunity. Further, novel highly sensitive and specific techniques would be useful in the identification of emerging and re-emerging virus, thereby therapeutic, prophylactic, preventive measures would be applied in time to curtail further spread of camelpox like other zoonotic diseases. This review provide overview of the camelpox particularly on its epidemiology, pathogenesis and biology of the disease, diagnostic approaches and control measures. PMID:24426291

  17. Media impact switching surface during an infectious disease outbreak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yanni; Tang, Sanyi; Wu, Jianhong

    2015-01-01

    There are many challenges to quantifying and evaluating the media impact on the control of emerging infectious diseases. We modeled such media impacts using a piecewise smooth function depending on both the case number and its rate of change. The proposed model was then converted into a switching system, with the switching surface determined by a functional relationship between susceptible populations and different subgroups of infectives. By parameterizing the proposed model with the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza outbreak data in the Shaanxi province of China, we observed that media impact switched off almost as the epidemic peaked. Our analysis implies that media coverage significantly delayed the epidemic's peak and decreased the severity of the outbreak. Moreover, media impacts are not always effective in lowering the disease transmission during the entire outbreak, but switch on and off in a highly nonlinear fashion with the greatest effect during the early stage of the outbreak. The finding draws the attention to the important role of informing the public about `the rate of change of case numbers' rather than `the absolute number of cases' to alter behavioral changes, through a self-adaptive media impact switching on and off, for better control of disease transmission.

  18. Media impact switching surface during an infectious disease outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yanni; Tang, Sanyi; Wu, Jianhong

    2015-01-01

    There are many challenges to quantifying and evaluating the media impact on the control of emerging infectious diseases. We modeled such media impacts using a piecewise smooth function depending on both the case number and its rate of change. The proposed model was then converted into a switching system, with the switching surface determined by a functional relationship between susceptible populations and different subgroups of infectives. By parameterizing the proposed model with the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza outbreak data in the Shaanxi province of China, we observed that media impact switched off almost as the epidemic peaked. Our analysis implies that media coverage significantly delayed the epidemic's peak and decreased the severity of the outbreak. Moreover, media impacts are not always effective in lowering the disease transmission during the entire outbreak, but switch on and off in a highly nonlinear fashion with the greatest effect during the early stage of the outbreak. The finding draws the attention to the important role of informing the public about ‘the rate of change of case numbers' rather than ‘the absolute number of cases' to alter behavioral changes, through a self-adaptive media impact switching on and off, for better control of disease transmission. PMID:25592757

  19. Gene expression associated with compatible viral diseases in grapevine cultivars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Espinoza; A. Vega; C. Medina; K. Schlauch; G. Cramer; P. Arce-Johnson

    2007-01-01

    Viral diseases affect grapevine cultures without inducing any resistance response. Thus, these plants develop systemic diseases\\u000a and are chronically infected. Molecular events associated with viral compatible infections responsible for disease establishment\\u000a and symptoms development are poorly understood. In this study, we surveyed viral infection in grapevines at a transcriptional\\u000a level. Gene expression in the Vitis vinifera red wine cultivars Carmnre

  20. An investigation of 11 outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease in villages in northern Thailand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. C. Cleland; P. Chamnanpood; F. C. Baldock; L. J. Gleeson

    1995-01-01

    The results of investigations of 11 outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease in villages in northern Thailand are described. The causative virus was Asia in one in seven outbreaks, Type O in two outbreaks and unknown in two outbreaks. The most probable sources of the outbreaks were co-mingling of cattle and\\/or buffalo with livestock from an infected neighbouring village (four) and recent

  1. Seasonal increase in sea temperature triggers pancreas disease outbreaks in Norwegian salmon farms.

    PubMed

    Stene, A; Bang Jensen, B; Knutsen, Ø; Olsen, A; Viljugrein, H

    2014-08-01

    Pancreas disease (PD) is a viral disease causing negative impacts on economy of salmon farms and fish welfare. Its transmission route is horizontal, and water transport by ocean currents is an important factor for transmission. In this study, the effect of temperature changes on PD dynamics in the field has been analysed for the first time. To identify the potential time of exposure to the virus causing PD, a hydrodynamic current model was used. A cohort of salmon was assumed to be infected the month it was exposed to virus from other infective cohorts by estimated water contact. The number of months from exposure to outbreak defined the incubation period, which was used in this investigation to explore the relationship between temperature changes and PD dynamics. The time of outbreak was identified by peak in mortality based on monthly records from active sites. Survival analysis demonstrated that cohorts exposed to virus at decreasing sea temperature had a significantly longer incubation period than cohorts infected when the sea temperature was increasing. Hydrodynamic models can provide information on the risk of being exposed to pathogens from neighbouring farms. With the knowledge of temperature-dependent outbreak probability, the farmers can emphasize prophylactic management, avoid stressful operations until the sea temperature is decreasing and consider removal of cohorts at risk, if possible. PMID:23980568

  2. ENGINEERING ASPECTS OF WATERBORNE DISEASE OUTBREAK INVESTIGATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two recent headline causing events have reinforced the concern about the spread f diseases through waterborne routes. hese events include the current cholera epidemic in the Western Hemisphere that has caused more than 750,000 reported case of cholera through April, 1993, and the...

  3. Viral respiratory infections during the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) outbreak in the West Midlands Region, UK.

    PubMed

    Tanner, H E; Curran, M D; Boxall, E H; Osman, H

    2012-09-01

    In spring 2009 a new strain of influenza A(H1N1) emerged and caused a worldwide pandemic. This study utilized a large collection of respiratory specimens from suspected cases of influenza A(H1N1) in the UK West Midlands during the pandemic in order to investigate which other respiratory viruses were circulating and whether they played any role in the increased hospitalization rates seen during that period. Study specimens were selected from community and hospitalized patients positive and negative for influenza A(H1N1) and tested by PCR for other respiratory viruses. A number of infections diagnosed as influenza during the summer influenza outbreak were found to be due to other virus infections (most commonly rhinovirus). No statistically significant difference was found between the rates of respiratory virus co-infection with H1N1 in patients from community or hospital locations suggesting underlying factors were likely to be more significant than viral co-infections in determining severity of influenza A(H1N1) disease. PMID:22074791

  4. Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winton, James R.; Walker, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change.

  5. Review article Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Review article Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp Peter J. WALKER 1*, James R. WINTON 2 1 and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular the challenges presented by climate change. disease emergence / shrimp / fish / virus Table of contents 1

  6. An outbreak of viral meningitis associated with a public swimming pond.

    PubMed

    Hauri, A M; Schimmelpfennig, M; Walter-Domes, M; Letz, A; Diedrich, S; Lopez-Pila, J; Schreier, E

    2005-04-01

    From July to October 2001, 215 cases of aseptic meningitis occurred among the inhabitants of the German city of Kassel and neighbouring counties. A matched case-control study identified bathing in a public, nature-like pond during the beginning of the outbreak as a risk factor for disease [matched odds ratio (mOR) 44.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.9-515.6]. Among bathers, patients with meningitis spent more time in the water (mOR 18.8, 95% CI 2.0-174.1) and swallowed water more frequently (mOR = 7.3, 95% CI 0.7-81.8). Of 30 cerebrospinal fluid samples tested, echovirus 30 was cultured from 16, and echovirus 13 from seven. An echovirus 30 sequence obtained from one pond water sample showed a 99% nucleotide and 100% amino-acid homology with patient isolates. This outbreak demonstrates the potential of nature-like swimming ponds to cause widespread community infection with substantial public health impact. PMID:15816154

  7. An outbreak of viral meningitis associated with a public swimming pond.

    PubMed Central

    Hauri, A. M.; Schimmelpfennig, M.; Walter-Domes, M.; Letz, A.; Diedrich, S.; Lopez-Pila, J.; Schreier, E.

    2005-01-01

    From July to October 2001, 215 cases of aseptic meningitis occurred among the inhabitants of the German city of Kassel and neighbouring counties. A matched case-control study identified bathing in a public, nature-like pond during the beginning of the outbreak as a risk factor for disease [matched odds ratio (mOR) 44.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.9-515.6]. Among bathers, patients with meningitis spent more time in the water (mOR 18.8, 95% CI 2.0-174.1) and swallowed water more frequently (mOR = 7.3, 95% CI 0.7-81.8). Of 30 cerebrospinal fluid samples tested, echovirus 30 was cultured from 16, and echovirus 13 from seven. An echovirus 30 sequence obtained from one pond water sample showed a 99% nucleotide and 100% amino-acid homology with patient isolates. This outbreak demonstrates the potential of nature-like swimming ponds to cause widespread community infection with substantial public health impact. PMID:15816154

  8. Outbreak of Legionnaires' disease in Glasgow Royal Infirmary: microbiological aspects.

    PubMed Central

    Timbury, M. C.; Donaldson, J. R.; McCartney, A. C.; Fallon, R. J.; Sleigh, J. D.; Lyon, D.; Orange, G. V.; Baird, D. R.; Winter, J.; Wilson, T. S.

    1986-01-01

    The bacteriological investigation of an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease in Glasgow Royal Infirmary affecting 16 patients is described. Most of the patients had been treated in high-dependency areas on two floors of the hospital supplied by the same two air-conditioned ventilation systems. The source of infection was traced to contamination of a cooling tower from which a plume of spray discharged into the intake vents of the two ventilation systems. Rubber grommets within the cooling tower probably provided a nidus of infection there. The control and management of the outbreak are discussed: a policy of frankness about the course and progress of the investigations was adopted and helped to allay anxiety on the part of both staff and media. PMID:3540109

  9. Changes in prevention and outbreak management of Legionnaires disease in the Netherlands between two large outbreaks in 1999 and 2006.

    PubMed

    Sonder, G J; van den Hoek, J A; Bovée, L P; Aanhane, F E; Worp, J; Du Ry van Beest Holle, M; van Steenbergen, J E; den Boer, J W; Ijzerman, E P; Coutinho, R A

    2008-09-18

    We describe an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease in 2006 in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Comparisons with the outbreak that took place in 1999 are made to evaluate changes in legionella prevention and outbreak management. The 2006 outbreak was caused by a wet cooling tower. Thirty-one patients were reported. The outbreak was detected two days after the first patient was admitted to hospital, and the source was eliminated five days later. The 1999 outbreak was caused by a whirlpool at a flower show, and 188 patients were reported. This outbreak was detected 14 days after the first patient was admitted to hospital, and two days later the source was traced. Since 1999, the awareness of legionellosis among physicians, the availability of a urinary antigen tests and more efficient early warning and communication systems improved the efficiency of legionellosis outbreak management. For prevention, extensive legislation with clear responsibilities has been put in place. For wet cooling towers, however, legislation regarding responsibility and supervision of maintenance needs to be improved. PMID:18801319

  10. Outbreaks of Enteric Disease Associated with Animal Contact: Not Just a Foodborne Problem Anymore

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederick J. Angulo; Nicole Steinmuller; Linda Demma; Jeff B. Bender; Millicent Eidson

    2006-01-01

    In the past 10 years, an increasing number of outbreaks of enteric disease associated with animals in public settings, such as fairs and petting zoos, have been reported. Fifty-five of these outbreaks that occurred in the United States during 1991- 2005 are reviewed in this article. Lessons learned from these outbreaks and recommendations for prevention are also discussed. Physicians should

  11. The 2014 Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Gatherer, Derek

    2014-08-01

    On 23 March 2014, the World Health Organization issued its first communiqué on a new outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD), which began in December 2013 in Guinée Forestière (Forested Guinea), the eastern sector of the Republic of Guinea. Located on the Atlantic coast of West Africa, Guinea is the first country in this geographical region in which an outbreak of EVD has occurred, leaving aside the single case reported in Ivory Coast in 1994. Cases have now also been confirmed across Guinea as well as in the neighbouring Republic of Liberia. The appearance of cases in the Guinean capital, Conakry, and the transit of another case through the Liberian capital, Monrovia, presents the first large urban setting for EVD transmission. By 20 April 2014, 242 suspected cases had resulted in a total of 147 deaths in Guinea and Liberia. The causative agent has now been identified as an outlier strain of Zaire Ebola virus. The full geographical extent and degree of severity of the outbreak, its zoonotic origins and its possible spread to other continents are sure to be subjects of intensive discussion over the next months. PMID:24795448

  12. Origin Detection During Food-borne Disease Outbreaks - A Case Study of the 2011 EHEC/HUS Outbreak in Germany.

    PubMed

    Manitz, Juliane; Kneib, Thomas; Schlather, Martin; Helbing, Dirk; Brockmann, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    The key challenge during food-borne disease outbreaks, e.g. the 2011 EHEC/HUS outbreak in Germany, is the design of efficient mitigation strategies based on a timely identification of the outbreak's spatial origin. Standard public health procedures typically use case-control studies and tracings along food shipping chains. These methods are time-consuming and suffer from biased data collected slowly in patient interviews. Here we apply a recently developed, network-theoretical method to identify the spatial origin of food-borne disease outbreaks. Thereby, the network captures the transportation routes of contaminated foods. The technique only requires spatial information on case reports regularly collected by public health institutions and a model for the underlying food distribution network. The approach is based on the idea of replacing the conventional geographic distance with an effective distance that is derived from the topological structure of the underlying food distribution network. We show that this approach can efficiently identify most probable epicenters of food-borne disease outbreaks. We assess and discuss the method in the context of the 2011 EHEC epidemic. Based on plausible assumptions on the structure of the national food distribution network, the approach can correctly localize the origin of the 2011 German EHEC/HUS outbreak. PMID:24818065

  13. Nucleic acid probes in diagnosis of viral diseases of man

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. K. Kulski; Mary Norval

    1985-01-01

    Summary With the recent, rapid advances in recombinant DNA technology, it has become possible to consider the use of nucleic acid probes in diagnosis of human viral diseases. Several examples are discussed which employ techniques of dot blot hybridization, sandwich hybridization andin situ hybridization. Typing of viral strains using restriction endonuclease digestion as an epidemiological tool is considered. Finally, the

  14. Ménière’s Disease Is a Viral Neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard R. Gacek

    2009-01-01

    Morphological and clinical evidence supports a viral neuropathy in Ménière’s disease (MD). Quantitative examination of 11 sectioned temporal bones (TBs) from 8 patients with a history of MD revealed a significant loss of vestibular ganglion cells in both the endolymph hydropic (EH) and non-EH ears. Transmission electron microscopy of vestibular ganglion cells excised from a patient with MD revealed viral

  15. The contribution of molecular epidemiology to the understanding and control of viral diseases of salmonid aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Molecular epidemiology is a science which utilizes molecular biology to define the distribution of disease in a population (descriptive epidemiology) and relies heavily on integration of traditional (or analytical) epidemiological approaches to identify the etiological determinants of this distribution. The study of viral pathogens of aquaculture has provided many exciting opportunities to apply such tools. This review considers the extent to which molecular epidemiological studies have contributed to better understanding and control of disease in aquaculture, drawing on examples of viral diseases of salmonid fish of commercial significance including viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), salmonid alphavirus (SAV) and infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV). Significant outcomes of molecular epidemiological studies include: Improved taxonomic classification of viruses A better understanding of the natural distribution of viruses An improved understanding of the origins of viral pathogens in aquaculture An improved understanding of the risks of translocation of pathogens outwith their natural host range An increased ability to trace the source of new disease outbreaks Development of a basis for ensuring development of appropriate diagnostic tools An ability to classify isolates and thus target future research aimed at better understanding biological function While molecular epidemiological studies have no doubt already made a significant contribution in these areas, the advent of new technologies such as pyrosequencing heralds a quantum leap in the ability to generate descriptive molecular sequence data. The ability of molecular epidemiology to fulfil its potential to translate complex disease pathways into relevant fish health policy is thus unlikely to be limited by the generation of descriptive molecular markers. More likely, full realisation of the potential to better explain viral transmission pathways will be dependent on the ability to assimilate and analyse knowledge from a range of more traditional information sources. The development of methods to systematically record and share such epidemiologically important information thus represents a major challenge for fish health professionals in making the best future use of molecular data in supporting fish health policy and disease control. PMID:21466673

  16. Multiple circulating infections can mimic the early stages of viral hemorrhagic fevers and possible human exposure to filoviruses in Sierra Leone prior to the 2014 outbreak.

    PubMed

    Boisen, Matthew L; Schieffelin, John S; Goba, Augustine; Oottamasathien, Darin; Jones, Abigail B; Shaffer, Jeffrey G; Hastie, Kathryn M; Hartnett, Jessica N; Momoh, Mambu; Fullah, Mohammed; Gabiki, Michael; Safa, Sidiki; Zandonatti, Michelle; Fusco, Marnie; Bornholdt, Zach; Abelson, Dafna; Gire, Stephen K; Andersen, Kristian G; Tariyal, Ridhi; Stremlau, Mathew; Cross, Robert W; Geisbert, Joan B; Pitts, Kelly R; Geisbert, Thomas W; Kulakoski, Peter; Wilson, Russell B; Henderson, Lee; Sabeti, Pardis C; Grant, Donald S; Garry, Robert F; Saphire, Erica O; Branco, Luis M; Khan, Sheik Humarr

    2015-02-01

    Lassa fever (LF) is a severe viral hemorrhagic fever caused by Lassa virus (LASV). The LF program at the Kenema Government Hospital (KGH) in Eastern Sierra Leone currently provides diagnostic services and clinical care for more than 500 suspected LF cases per year. Nearly two-thirds of suspected LF patients presenting to the LF Ward test negative for either LASV antigen or anti-LASV immunoglobulin M (IgM), and therefore are considered to have a non-Lassa febrile illness (NLFI). The NLFI patients in this study were generally severely ill, which accounts for their high case fatality rate of 36%. The current studies were aimed at determining possible causes of severe febrile illnesses in non-LF cases presenting to the KGH, including possible involvement of filoviruses. A seroprevalence survey employing commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests revealed significant IgM and IgG reactivity against dengue virus, chikungunya virus, West Nile virus (WNV), Leptospira, and typhus. A polymerase chain reaction-based survey using sera from subjects with acute LF, evidence of prior LASV exposure, or NLFI revealed widespread infection with Plasmodium falciparum malaria in febrile patients. WNV RNA was detected in a subset of patients, and a 419 nt amplicon specific to filoviral L segment RNA was detected at low levels in a single patient. However, 22% of the patients presenting at the KGH between 2011 and 2014 who were included in this survey registered anti-Ebola virus (EBOV) IgG or IgM, suggesting prior exposure to this agent. The 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is already the deadliest and most widely dispersed outbreak of its kind on record. Serological evidence reported here for possible human exposure to filoviruses in Sierra Leone prior to the current EVD outbreak supports genetic analysis that EBOV may have been present in West Africa for some time prior to the 2014 outbreak. PMID:25531344

  17. Occurrence and phylogenetic analysis of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in outbreaks of respiratory disease in Norway

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is one of the major pathogens involved in the bovine respiratory disease (BRD) complex. The seroprevalence to BRSV in Norwegian cattle herds is high, but its role in epidemics of respiratory disease is unclear. The aims of the study were to investigate the etiological role of BRSV and other respiratory viruses in epidemics of BRD and to perform phylogenetic analysis of Norwegian BRSV strains. Results BRSV infection was detected either serologically and/or virologically in 18 (86%) of 21 outbreaks and in most cases as a single viral agent. When serology indicated that bovine coronavirus and/or bovine parainfluenza virus 3 were present, the number of BRSV positive animals in the herd was always higher, supporting the view of BRSV as the main pathogen. Sequencing of the G gene of BRSV positive samples showed that the current circulating Norwegian BRSVs belong to genetic subgroup II, along with other North European isolates. One isolate from an outbreak in Norway in 1976 was also investigated. This strain formed a separate branch in subgroup II, clearly different from the current Scandinavian sequences. The currently circulating BRSV could be divided into two different strains that were present in the same geographical area at the same time. The sequence variations between the two strains were in an antigenic important part of the G protein. Conclusion The results demonstrated that BRSV is the most important etiological agent of epidemics of BRD in Norway and that it often acts as the only viral agent. The phylogenetic analysis of the Norwegian strains of BRSV and several previously published isolates supported the theory of geographical and temporal clustering of BRSV. PMID:24423030

  18. A review of outbreaks of foodborne disease associated with passenger ships: evidence for risk management.

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, Roisin M.; Cramer, Elaine H.; Mantha, Stacey; Nichols, Gordon; Bartram, Jamie K.; Farber, Jeffrey M.; Benembarek, Peter K.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Foodborne disease outbreaks on ships are of concern because of their potentially serious health consequences for passengers and crew and high costs to the industry. The authors conducted a review of outbreaks of foodborne diseases associated with passenger ships in the framework of a World Health Organization project on setting guidelines for ship sanitation. METHODS: The authors reviewed data on 50 outbreaks of foodborne disease associated with passenger ships. For each outbreak, data on pathogens/toxins, type of ship, factors contributing to outbreaks, mortality and morbidity, and food vehicles were collected. RESULTS: The findings of this review show that the majority of reported outbreaks were associated with cruise ships and that almost 10,000 people were affected. Salmonella spp were most frequently associated with outbreaks. Foodborne outbreaks due to enterotoxigenic E. coli spp, Shigella spp, noroviruses (formally called Norwalk-like viruses), Vibrio spp, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Cyclospora sp, and Trichinella sp also occurred on ships. Factors associated with the outbreaks reviewed include inadequate temperature control, infected food handlers, contaminated raw ingredients, cross-contamination, inadequate heat treatment, and onshore excursions. Seafood was the most common food vehicle implicated in outbreaks. CONCLUSIONS: Many ship-associated outbreaks could have been prevented if measures had been taken to ensure adequate temperature control, avoidance of cross-contamination, reliable food sources, adequate heat treatment, and exclusion of infected food handlers from work. PMID:15219800

  19. Sliding mode control of outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yanni; Xu, Xiaxia; Tang, Sanyi

    2012-10-01

    This paper proposes and analyzes a mathematical model of an infectious disease system with a piecewise control function concerning threshold policy for disease management strategy. The proposed models extend the classic models by including a piecewise incidence rate to represent control or precautionary measures being triggered once the number of infected individuals exceeds a threshold level. The long-term behaviour of the proposed non-smooth system under this strategy consists of the so-called sliding motion-a very rapid switching between application and interruption of the control action. Model solutions ultimately approach either one of two endemic states for two structures or the sliding equilibrium on the switching surface, depending on the threshold level. Our findings suggest that proper combinations of threshold densities and control intensities based on threshold policy can either preclude outbreaks or lead the number of infected to a previously chosen level. PMID:22836868

  20. Outbreak of Legionnaires' disease associated with a supermarket mist machine.

    PubMed

    Barrabeig, I; Rovira, A; Garcia, M; Oliva, J M; Vilamala, A; Ferrer, M D; Sabrià, M; Domínguez, A

    2010-12-01

    An outbreak of Legionnaires' disease affected 12 customers of a supermarket in a town in Catalonia, Spain, between August and November 2006. An epidemiological and environmental investigation was undertaken. Preliminary investigation showed that all patients had visited the same supermarket in this town where a mist machine was found in the fish section. Water samples were collected from the machine and from the supermarket's water distribution system when high-risk samples were excluded. Environmental samples from the mist machine and clinical samples from two patients tested positive for L. pneumophila serogroup 1 and had the same molecular pattern. The PFGE pattern detected in the clinical and mist-machine isolates had never previously been identified in Catalonia prior to the outbreak and has not been identified since. Four days after turning off the machine, new cases ceased appearing. Molecular study supports the hypothesis that the mist machine from the fish section of the supermarket was the source of infection. We believe it is essential to include exposure to mist machines in any legionellosis epidemiological survey. PMID:20392306

  1. Modelling disease outbreaks in realistic urban social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eubank, Stephen; Guclu, Hasan; Anil Kumar, V. S.; Marathe, Madhav V.; Srinivasan, Aravind; Toroczkai, Zoltán; Wang, Nan

    2004-05-01

    Most mathematical models for the spread of disease use differential equations based on uniform mixing assumptions or ad hoc models for the contact process. Here we explore the use of dynamic bipartite graphs to model the physical contact patterns that result from movements of individuals between specific locations. The graphs are generated by large-scale individual-based urban traffic simulations built on actual census, land-use and population-mobility data. We find that the contact network among people is a strongly connected small-world-like graph with a well-defined scale for the degree distribution. However, the locations graph is scale-free, which allows highly efficient outbreak detection by placing sensors in the hubs of the locations network. Within this large-scale simulation framework, we then analyse the relative merits of several proposed mitigation strategies for smallpox spread. Our results suggest that outbreaks can be contained by a strategy of targeted vaccination combined with early detection without resorting to mass vaccination of a population.

  2. Climate teleconnections and recent patterns of human and animal disease outbreaks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent clusters of outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases (Rift Valley fever and chikungunya) in Africa and parts of the Indian Ocean islands illustrate how interannual climate variability influences the changing risk patterns of disease outbreaks. Extremes in rainfall (drought and flood) during the p...

  3. Vulnerability of a killer whale social network to disease outbreaks Paulo R. Guimares, Jr.,1,

    E-print Network

    Baird, Robin W.

    Vulnerability of a killer whale social network to disease outbreaks Paulo R. Guimarães, Jr.,1 population of mammal-eating killer whales is vulnerable to disease outbreaks. This feature was found organization of the endangered mammal- eating killer whales 12 and infer their vulnerability to dis- ease

  4. Detecting Disease Outbreaks in Mass Gatherings Using Internet Data

    PubMed Central

    Yom-Tov, Elad; Cox, Ingemar J; McKendry, Rachel A

    2014-01-01

    Background Mass gatherings, such as music festivals and religious events, pose a health care challenge because of the risk of transmission of communicable diseases. This is exacerbated by the fact that participants disperse soon after the gathering, potentially spreading disease within their communities. The dispersion of participants also poses a challenge for traditional surveillance methods. The ubiquitous use of the Internet may enable the detection of disease outbreaks through analysis of data generated by users during events and shortly thereafter. Objective The intent of the study was to develop algorithms that can alert to possible outbreaks of communicable diseases from Internet data, specifically Twitter and search engine queries. Methods We extracted all Twitter postings and queries made to the Bing search engine by users who repeatedly mentioned one of nine major music festivals held in the United Kingdom and one religious event (the Hajj in Mecca) during 2012, for a period of 30 days and after each festival. We analyzed these data using three methods, two of which compared words associated with disease symptoms before and after the time of the festival, and one that compared the frequency of these words with those of other users in the United Kingdom in the days following the festivals. Results The data comprised, on average, 7.5 million tweets made by 12,163 users, and 32,143 queries made by 1756 users from each festival. Our methods indicated the statistically significant appearance of a disease symptom in two of the nine festivals. For example, cough was detected at higher than expected levels following the Wakestock festival. Statistically significant agreement (chi-square test, P<.01) between methods and across data sources was found where a statistically significant symptom was detected. Anecdotal evidence suggests that symptoms detected are indeed indicative of a disease that some users attributed to being at the festival. Conclusions Our work shows the feasibility of creating a public health surveillance system for mass gatherings based on Internet data. The use of multiple data sources and analysis methods was found to be advantageous for rejecting false positives. Further studies are required in order to validate our findings with data from public health authorities. PMID:24943128

  5. Warmer temperatures increase disease transmission and outbreak intensity in a host-pathogen system.

    PubMed

    Elderd, Bret D; Reilly, James R

    2014-07-01

    While rising global temperatures are increasingly affecting both species and their biotic interactions, the debate about whether global warming will increase or decrease disease transmission between individuals remains far from resolved. This may stem from the lack of empirical data. Using a tractable and easily manipulated insect host-pathogen system, we conducted a series of field and laboratory experiments to examine how increased temperatures affect disease transmission using the crop-defoliating pest, the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and its species-specific baculovirus, which causes a fatal infection. To examine the effects of temperature on disease transmission in the field, we manipulated baculovirus density and temperature. As infection occurs when a host consumes leaf tissue on which the pathogen resides, baculovirus density was controlled by placing varying numbers of infected neonate larvae on experimental plants. Temperature was manipulated by using open-top chambers (OTCs). The laboratory experiments examined how increased temperatures affect fall armyworm feeding and development rates, which provide insight into how host feeding behaviour and physiology may affect transmission. Disease transmission and outbreak intensity, measured as the cumulative fraction infected during an epizootic, increased at higher temperatures. However, there was no appreciable change in the mean transmission rate of the disease, which is often the focus of empirical and theoretical research. Instead, the coefficient of variation (CV) associated with the transmission rate shrunk. As the CV decreased, heterogeneity in disease risk across individuals declined, which resulted in an increase in outbreak intensity. In the laboratory, increased temperatures increased feeding rates and decreased developmental times. As the host consumes the virus along with the leaf tissue on which it resides, increased feeding rate is likely to increase the probability of an individual consuming virus-infected leaf tissue. On the other hand, decreased developmental time increases the sloughing of midgut cells, which is predicted to hinder viral infection. Increases in outbreak intensity or epizootic severity, as the climate warms, may lead to changes in the long-term dynamics of pests whose populations are strongly affected by host-pathogen interactions. Overall, this work demonstrates that the usual assumptions governing these effects, via changes in the mean transmission rate alone, may not be correct. PMID:24219180

  6. Emerging viral diseases of livestock in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Bayry, Jagadeesh

    2013-12-01

    Emerging and reemerging viral diseases of livestock and human beings are in sharp rise in recent years. Importantly, many of these viruses, including influenza, Hendra, Nipah and corona are of zoonotic importance. Several viral diseases of livestock such as bluetongue, peste des petits ruminants, camel pox, equine infectious anaemia, chicken anaemia and sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever are crossing their traditional boundaries. Emergence of new serotypes and variant forms of viruses as in the case of blue tongue virus, avian infectious bronchitis virus, Newcastle disease virus adds additional level of complexity. The increased incidence of emerging and reemerging viral diseases could be attributed to several factors including deforestation and surge in direct contact of livestock and humans with wild animals and birds. This special issue of "Indian Journal of Virology" is focused on diverse aspects of above diseases: isolation and characterization of viruses, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, prevention measures and vaccine development. PMID:24426290

  7. Association between temperature, humidity and ebolavirus disease outbreaks in Africa, 1976 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Ng, S; Cowling, B J

    2014-01-01

    Ebolavirus disease (EVD) outbreaks have been occurring sporadically in Central Africa since 1976. In 2014, the first outbreak in West Africa was reported in Guinea. Subsequent outbreaks then appeared in Liberia, Sierra Leone and Nigeria. The study of environmental factors underlying EVD epidemiology may provide useful insights into when and where EVD outbreaks are more likely to occur. In this paper, we aimed to investigate the association between climatic factors and onset of EVD outbreaks in humans. Our results suggest lower temperature and higher absolute humidity are associated with EVD outbreak onset in the previous EVD outbreaks in Africa during 1976 to 2014. Potential mechanisms through which climate may have an influence on ebolavirus infection in the natural host, intermediate hosts and humans are discussed. Current and future surveillance efforts should be supported to further understand ebolavirus transmission events between and within species. PMID:25210981

  8. [Emerging infectious diseases: the example of the Indian Ocean chikungunya outbreak (2005-2006)].

    PubMed

    Flahault, Antoine

    2007-01-01

    Factors known to trigger the emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases include globalisation, population growth, migration, international trade, urbanisation, forest destruction, climate change, loss of biodiversity, poverty, famine and war. Epidemics not only lead to disastrous loss of human life but may also have catastrophic economic, political and social consequences. Outbreaks may rapidly jeopardize industry, trade or tourism in countries that are unprepared. Dengue is currently spreading throughout the tropics, while another arbovirus, chikungunya, infected 30 to 75% of the population in some parts of the Indian Ocean region between 2005 and 2006. Chikungunya is now spreading through India, where more than a million people have so far been infected. This viral disease can cause lasting disability, and the first deaths were recently reported in La Réunion and Mayotte. All countries are at risk from emerging or re-emerging diseases, but the consequences are far worse in poor countries. Microbial pathogens and wild mammals, birds and arthropods do not respect man-made borders. There is still time to act against this threat of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, through prevention, anticipation, monitoring and research. PMID:17645111

  9. Surveillance for Waterborne Disease Outbreaks Associated with Drinking Water United States, 2007-2008

    EPA Science Inventory

    Problem/Condition: Since 1971, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have maintained a collaborative Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOS...

  10. Estimating costs associated with a community outbreak of meningococcal disease in a colombian Caribbean city.

    PubMed

    Pinzón-Redondo, Hernando; Coronell-Rodriguez, Wilfrido; Díaz-Martinez, Inés; Guzmán-Corena, Angel; Constenla, Dagna; Alvis-Guzmán, Nelson

    2014-09-01

    Meningococcal disease is a serious and potentially life-threatening infection that is caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis), and it can cause meningitis, meningococcaemia outbreaks and epidemics. The disease is fatal in 9-12% of cases and with a death rate of up to 40% among patients with meningococcaemia. The objective of this study was to estimate the costs of a meningococcal outbreak that occurred in a Caribbean city of Colombia. We contacted experts involved in the outbreak and asked them specific questions about the diagnosis and treatment for meningococcal cases during the outbreak. Estimates of costs of the outbreak were also based on extensive review of medical records available during the outbreak. The costs associated with the outbreak were divided into the cost of the disease response phase and the cost of the disease surveillance phase. The costs associated with the outbreak control and surveillance were expressed in US$ (2011) as cost per 1,000 inhabitants. The average age of patients was 4.6 years (SD 3.5); 50% of the cases died; 50% of the cases were reported to have meningitis (3/6); 33% were diagnosed with meningococcaemia and myocarditis (2/6); 50% of the cases had bacteraemia (3/6); 66% of the cases had a culture specimen positive for Neisseria meningitidis; 5 of the 6 cases had RT-PCR positive for N. meningitidis. All N. meningitidis were serogroup B; 50 doses of ceftriaxone were administered as prophylaxis. Vaccine was not available at the time. The costs associated with control of the outbreak were estimated at US$ 0.8 per 1,000 inhabitants, disease surveillance at US$ 4.1 per 1,000 inhabitants, and healthcare costs at US$ 5.1 per 1,000 inhabitants. The costs associated with meningococcal outbreaks are substantial, and the outbreaks should be prevented. The mass chemoprophylaxis implemented helped control the outbreak. PMID:25395916

  11. Estimating Costs Associated with a Community Outbreak of Meningococcal Disease in a Colombian Caribbean City

    PubMed Central

    Pinzón-Redondo, Hernando; Coronell-Rodriguez, Wilfrido; Díaz-Martinez, Inés; Guzmán-Corena, Ángel; Constenla, Dagna

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Meningococcal disease is a serious and potentially life-threatening infection that is caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis), and it can cause meningitis, meningococcaemia outbreaks and epidemics. The disease is fatal in 9-12% of cases and with a death rate of up to 40% among patients with meningococcaemia. The objective of this study was to estimate the costs of a meningococcal outbreak that occurred in a Caribbean city of Colombia. We contacted experts involved in the outbreak and asked them specific questions about the diagnosis and treatment for meningococcal cases during the outbreak. Estimates of costs of the outbreak were also based on extensive review of medical records available during the outbreak. The costs associated with the outbreak were divided into the cost of the disease response phase and the cost of the disease surveillance phase. The costs associated with the outbreak control and surveillance were expressed in US$ (2011) as cost per 1,000 inhabitants. The average age of patients was 4.6 years (SD 3.5); 50% of the cases died; 50% of the cases were reported to have meningitis (3/6); 33% were diagnosed with meningococcaemia and myocarditis (2/6); 50% of the cases had bacteraemia (3/6); 66% of the cases had a culture specimen positive for Neisseria meningitidis; 5 of the 6 cases had RT-PCR positive for N. meningitidis. All N. meningitidis were serogroup B; 50 doses of ceftriaxone were administered as prophylaxis. Vaccine was not available at the time. The costs associated with control of the outbreak were estimated at US$ 0.8 per 1,000 inhabitants, disease surveillance at US$ 4.1 per 1,000 inhabitants, and healthcare costs at US$ 5.1 per 1,000 inhabitants. The costs associated with meningococcal outbreaks are substantial, and the outbreaks should be prevented. The mass chemoprophylaxis implemented helped control the outbreak. PMID:25395916

  12. Ebola Virus Disease The current outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in West Africa has involved the

    E-print Network

    MacAdam, Keith

    Ebola Virus Disease The current outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in West Africa has involved the countries of Sierra Leone, Liberia, Guinea, and Nigeria. This has become the largest outbreak of Ebola want to make sure you have the most accurate information about this illness. What is Ebola Virus

  13. Bovine viral diarrhea virus outbreak in a beef cow herd in South Dakota.

    PubMed

    Kane, Susan E; Holler, Larry D; Braun, Lyle J; Neill, John D; Young, Douglas B; Ridpath, Julia F; Chase, Christopher C L

    2015-06-15

    Case Description-136 pregnant beef cows were purchased in the fall of 2003. The following spring, 128 cows calved as expected; 8 cows were believed to have aborted with the fetuses unavailable for evaluation. Of the 128 calves born, 8 died within 2 weeks after birth and 9 were born with congenital abnormalities. Clinical Findings-Cows and their calves were evaluated for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection. Forty-four of 120 calves, but 0 cows, tested positive for BVDV antigen by immunohistochemical staining of ear notch specimens. Treatment and Outcome-Five BVDV test-positive calves died shortly after weaning, and the remaining 39 BVDV test-positive calves were moved to an isolated feedlot and retested for BVDV at 5 to 6 months of age; 36 had positive results, which indicated that they were persistently infected (PI) with BVDV, whereas 3 had negative results, which indicated that they were transiently infected with BVDV at the time of the first test. All PI calves were infected with the same BVDV type 2a strain. As yearlings, 17 of the 36 PI calves died peracutely with lesions consistent with mucosal disease, 6 died without gross lesions, and 2 were euthanized because of chronic ill thrift. The remaining 11 PI calves appeared healthy and were sold for slaughter. Screening of the following year's calf crop for BVDV by use of immunohistochemical staining of ear-notch specimens yielded negative results for all calves. Clinical Relevance-Introduction of BVDV into a naïve cow herd resulted in a loss of 44% of the calf crop subsequent to reproductive loss, poor thrift, and mucosal disease. PMID:26043135

  14. Planning for smallpox outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Neil M.; Keeling, Matt J.; John Edmunds, W.; Gani, Raymond; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Anderson, Roy M.; Leach, Steve

    2003-10-01

    Mathematical models of viral transmission and control are important tools for assessing the threat posed by deliberate release of the smallpox virus and the best means of containing an outbreak. Models must balance biological realism against limitations of knowledge, and uncertainties need to be accurately communicated to policy-makers. Smallpox poses the particular challenge that key biological, social and spatial factors affecting disease spread in contemporary populations must be elucidated largely from historical studies undertaken before disease eradication in 1979. We review the use of models in smallpox planning within the broader epidemiological context set by recent outbreaks of both novel and re-emerging pathogens.

  15. RNA interference-based therapeutics for shrimp viral diseases.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, P; Gireesh-Babu, P; Rajendran, K V; Chaudhari, Aparna

    2009-11-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a powerful tool to manipulate gene expression in the laboratory. The presence of a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in eukaryotic cells triggers this post-transcriptional gene-silencing mechanism, leading to a sequence-specific degradation of the target mRNA. Among its many potential biomedical applications, silencing of viral genes stands out as a promising therapeutic strategy. Marine shrimp viral diseases, especially white spot disease (WSD), represents one of the most attractive targets for the development of therapeutic RNAi owing to its widespread economic impact. This review summarizes the current knowledge in the therapeutic application of RNAi for combating viral diseases in shrimp. The basic principles of RNAi are described, focusing on features important for its therapeutic manipulation. Subsequently, a stepwise strategy for the development of therapeutic RNAi is presented. PMID:20066961

  16. Milkborne general outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease, England and Wales, 1992-2000.

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, I. A.; Adak, G. K.; O'Brien, S. J.; Bolton, F. J.

    2003-01-01

    From 1 January 1992 to 31 December 2000, 27 milkborne general outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease (IID) were reported to the Public Health Laboratory Service (PHLS) Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre (CDSC). These outbreaks represented a fraction (2%) of all outbreaks of foodborne origin (N = 1774) reported to CDSC, but were characterized by significant morbidity. Unpasteurized milk (52%) was the most commonly reported vehicle of infection in milkborne outbreaks, with milk sold as pasteurized accounting for the majority of the rest (37%). Salmonellas (37%), Vero cytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) O157 (33%) and campylobacters (26%) were the most commonly detected pathogens, and most outbreaks were linked to farms (67%). This report highlights the importance of VTEC O157 as a milkborne pathogen and the continued role of unpasteurized milk in human disease. PMID:12825730

  17. Two outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease in Bolton Health District

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, E.; O'Mahony, M.; Watson, J. M.; Lynch, D.; Joseph, C.; Quigley, C.; Aston, R.; Constable, G. N.; Farrand, R. J.; Maxwell, S.; Hutchinson, D. N.; Craske, J.; Lee, J. V.

    1990-01-01

    In 1988, there were two outbreaks of legionellosis in Bolton Health District. Altogether 37 cases of Legionnaires' disease and 23 cases of non-pneumonic legionellosis were identified. Twenty-five patients with Legionnaires' disease were associated with an engineering plant, 4 with Bolton town centre, and 8 with both the plant and town centre. Twenty-two people with non-pneumonic legionellosis were linked with the engineering plant and one with the plant and the town centre. A case-control study carried out among 37 employees with legionellosis and 109 control subjects at the plant showed that infection was associated with one of the 15 cooling towers on the site. Legionella pneumophila indistinguishable by serological and genetic typing methods was isolated from this cooling tower and from sputum samples from two patients. In the town centre, no one tower was linked with infection and L. pneumophila was not cultured from any of the nine towers identified. Control measures were implemented and to date there have been no further cases of legionellosis associated with Bolton Health District. PMID:2323354

  18. Impact of the 2001 Foot-and-Mouth Disease Outbreak in Britain: Implications for Rural Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Alister; Christie, Michael; Midmore, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of the 2001 foot-and-mouth disease outbreak in terms of its implications for the discipline of rural studies. In particular, it focuses on the position of agriculture in rural economy and society, the standing of the government after its management of the outbreak, and the performance of the new devolved regional…

  19. Etiological and Epizootological Factors Associated with Outbreaks of Proliferative Gill Disease in Channel Catfish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. L. Bellerud; L. M. Pote; T. L. Lin; M. J. Johnson; C. R. Boyle

    1995-01-01

    Water, sediment, and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus were sampled from seven farms experiencing proliferative gill disease (PGD) outbreaks in spring 1992. At each farm, samples were collected from the pond that experienced the outbreak (PGD-positive pond) and from another pond where no PGD was observed (control pond). Seven species of Actinosporea were detected in the oligochaete populations of the ponds

  20. A method for detecting and characterizing outbreaks of infectious disease from clinical reports.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Gregory F; Villamarin, Ricardo; Rich Tsui, Fu-Chiang; Millett, Nicholas; Espino, Jeremy U; Wagner, Michael M

    2015-02-01

    Outbreaks of infectious disease can pose a significant threat to human health. Thus, detecting and characterizing outbreaks quickly and accurately remains an important problem. This paper describes a Bayesian framework that links clinical diagnosis of individuals in a population to epidemiological modeling of disease outbreaks in the population. Computer-based diagnosis of individuals who seek healthcare is used to guide the search for epidemiological models of population disease that explain the pattern of diagnoses well. We applied this framework to develop a system that detects influenza outbreaks from emergency department (ED) reports. The system diagnoses influenza in individuals probabilistically from evidence in ED reports that are extracted using natural language processing. These diagnoses guide the search for epidemiological models of influenza that explain the pattern of diagnoses well. Those epidemiological models with a high posterior probability determine the most likely outbreaks of specific diseases; the models are also used to characterize properties of an outbreak, such as its expected peak day and estimated size. We evaluated the method using both simulated data and data from a real influenza outbreak. The results provide support that the approach can detect and characterize outbreaks early and well enough to be valuable. We describe several extensions to the approach that appear promising. PMID:25181466

  1. Rapid quantitative detection of Aeromonas hydrophila strains associated with disease outbreaks in catfish aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the summer of 2009, a new strain of Aeromonas hydrophila was implicated in severe disease outbreaks in farm-raised catfish in Alabama, Arkansas and Mississippi. These outbreaks mostly afflicted large fish and resulted in considerable losses in short periods. Given the rapid onset and biosecurity ...

  2. Gene expression associated with compatible viral diseases in grapevine cultivars.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, C; Vega, A; Medina, C; Schlauch, K; Cramer, G; Arce-Johnson, P

    2007-04-01

    Viral diseases affect grapevine cultures without inducing any resistance response. Thus, these plants develop systemic diseases and are chronically infected. Molecular events associated with viral compatible infections responsible for disease establishment and symptoms development are poorly understood. In this study, we surveyed viral infection in grapevines at a transcriptional level. Gene expression in the Vitis vinifera red wine cultivars Carménère and Cabernet-Sauvignon naturally infected with GLRaV-3 were evaluated using a genome-wide expression profiling with the Vitis vinifera GeneChip from Affymetrix. We describe numerous genes that are induced or repressed in viral infected grapevines leaves. Changes in gene expression involved a wide spectrum of biological functions, including processes of translation and protein targeting, metabolism, transport, and cell defense. Considering cellular localization, the membrane and endomembrane systems appeared with the highest number of induced genes, while chloroplastic genes were mostly repressed. As most induced genes associated with the membranous system are involved in transport, the possible effect of virus in this process is discussed. Responses of both cultivars are analyzed and the results are compared with published data from other species. This is the first study of global gene profiling in grapevine in response to viral infections using DNA microarray. PMID:16775684

  3. A review of outbreaks of waterborne disease associated with ships: evidence for risk management.

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, Roisin M.; Bartram, Jamie K.; Cramer, Elaine H.; Mantha, Stacey; Nichols, Gordon; Suraj, Rohini; Todd, Ewen C. D.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The organization of water supply to and on ships differs considerably from that of water supply on land. Risks of contamination can arise from source water at the port or during loading, storage, or distribution on the ship. The purpose of this article is to review documented outbreaks of waterborne diseases associated with passenger, cargo, fishing, and naval ships to identify contributing factors so that similar outbreaks can be prevented in the future. METHODS: The authors reviewed 21 reported outbreaks of waterborne diseases associated with ships. For each outbreak, data on pathogens/toxins, type of ship, factors contributing to outbreaks, mortality and morbidity, and remedial action are presented. RESULTS: The findings of this review show that the majority of reported outbreaks were associated with passenger ships and that more than 6,400 people were affected. Waterborne outbreaks due to Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, noroviruses, Salmonella spp, Shigella sp, Cryptosporidium sp, and Giardia lamblia occurred on ships. Enterotoxigenic E. coli was the pathogen most frequently associated with outbreaks. One outbreak of chemical water poisoning also occurred on a ship. Risk factors included contaminated port water, inadequate treatment, improper loading techniques, poor design and maintenance of storage tanks, ingress of contamination during repair and maintenance, cross-connections, back siphonage, and insufficient residual disinfectant. CONCLUSIONS: Waterborne disease outbreaks on ships can be prevented. The factors contributing to outbreaks emphasize the need for hygienic handling of water along the supply chain from source to consumption. A comprehensive approach to water safety on ships is essential. This may be achieved by the adoption of Water Safety Plans that cover design, construction, operation, and routine inspection and maintenance. PMID:15219801

  4. 2013 Dengue Outbreaks in Singapore and Malaysia Caused by Different Viral Strains

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Lee-Ching; Chem, Yu-kie; Koo, Carmen; Mudin, Rose Nani Binti; Amin, Faridah Mohd; Lee, Kim-Sung; Kheong, Chong Chee

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of 14,079 circulating dengue viruses in a cross-border surveillance program, UNITEDengue, revealed that the 2013 outbreaks in Singapore and Malaysia were associated with replacement of predominant serotype. While the predominant virus in Singapore switched from DENV2 to DENV1, DENV2 became predominant in neighboring Malaysia. Dominance of DENV2 was most evident on the southern states where higher fatality rates were observed. PMID:25846296

  5. 2013 dengue outbreaks in singapore and malaysia caused by different viral strains.

    PubMed

    Ng, Lee-Ching; Chem, Yu-Kie; Koo, Carmen; Mudin, Rose Nani Binti; Amin, Faridah Mohd; Lee, Kim-Sung; Kheong, Chong Chee

    2015-06-01

    Characterization of 14,079 circulating dengue viruses in a cross-border surveillance program, UNITEDengue, revealed that the 2013 outbreaks in Singapore and Malaysia were associated with replacement of predominant serotype. While the predominant virus in Singapore switched from DENV2 to DENV1, DENV2 became predominant in neighboring Malaysia. Dominance of DENV2 was most evident on the southern states where higher fatality rates were observed. PMID:25846296

  6. Viral Diseases in Zebrafish: What Is Known and Unknown

    PubMed Central

    Crim, Marcus J.; Riley, Lela K.

    2013-01-01

    Naturally occurring viral infections have the potential to introduce confounding variability that leads to invalid and misinterpreted data. Whereas the viral diseases of research rodents are well characterized and closely monitored, no naturally occurring viral infections have been characterized for the laboratory zebrafish (Danio rerio), an increasingly important biomedical research model. Despite the ignorance about naturally occurring zebrafish viruses, zebrafish models are rapidly expanding in areas of biomedical research where the confounding effects of unknown infectious agents present a serious concern. In addition, many zebrafish research colonies remain linked to the ornamental (pet) zebrafish trade, which can contribute to the introduction of new pathogens into research colonies, whereas mice used for research are purpose bred, with no introduction of new mice from the pet industry. Identification, characterization, and monitoring of naturally occurring viruses in zebrafish are crucial to the improvement of zebrafish health, the reduction of unwanted variability, and the continued development of the zebrafish as a model organism. This article addresses the importance of identifying and characterizing the viral diseases of zebrafish as the scope of zebrafish models expands into new research areas and also briefly addresses zebrafish susceptibility to experimental viral infection and the utility of the zebrafish as an infection and immunology model. PMID:23382345

  7. Asthma: the interplay between viral infections and allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Regina K; Gill, Michelle A

    2015-02-01

    Respiratory viruses and allergens synergistically contribute to disease pathogenesis in asthma. Potential mechanisms underlying this clinically relevant association are the subject of intense investigation. This review summarizes current knowledge and recent advances in this area, with an emphasis on potential mechanisms involving immunoglobulin E, type I interferon antiviral responses, epithelial factors, and the role of dendritic cells and other antigen-presenting cells in linking viral and allergic inflammatory responses relevant to asthmatic disease. PMID:25459580

  8. History and prospects for viral disease eradication.

    PubMed

    de Quadros, Ciro A

    2002-10-01

    Edward Jenner first articulated the concept of eradication when he first inoculated the vaccinia. Before considering a disease for eradication some factors should be considered, such as the biological characteristics of the infectious agent: does the infectious agent infects only humans? Does it have a non-human reservoir and induce long-life immunity after infection? Is there a tool or intervention that effectively interrupts the chain of transmission from one individual to another? The first disease to be eradicated was smallpox. This extraordinary initiative set the example for any future disease eradication program. The eradication of polio from the Americas was launched in May 1985 and the Region of the Americas was certified polio-free in September 1994. At this same year, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) launched an initiative to eradicate measles from the Americas. Only 1,500 cases have been reported during the year 2000, and transmission was interrupted in most countries of the Region. Tremendous progress has been achieved in disease eradication efforts, which resulted in the global eradication of smallpox, the eradication of poliomyelitis from the Americas and its nearly global eradication, and the nearly complete eradication of measles from the Americas. The biotechnology revolution is providing us with many new vaccines and we have to continue the search for those diseases that could eventually be eradicated. Eradication of a disease brings the greatest health benefit, which is the absence of the health threat. It is also the quintessential example of health equity, as all mankind reaps the benefits, bringing eternal cost savings. As Louis Pasteur pointed out, "it is within the power of man to eradicate infection from the earth". PMID:12410345

  9. Disease course and viral shedding in experimental Norwalk virus and Snow Mountain virus infection.

    PubMed

    Kirby, A E; Shi, J; Montes, J; Lichtenstein, M; Moe, C L

    2014-12-01

    Norovirus is the most common cause of acute infectious gastroenteritis, causing approximately 21 million cases annually in the USA. The virus is highly contagious and resistant to decontamination, making outbreaks difficult to control. To facilitate the development of better control methods, this study characterized the viral shedding patterns in stools from subjects experimentally infected with genogroup I or II norovirus. Viral stool titers were determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR for all stools produced in the first 7 days post-challenge and representative stools through day 35 post-challenge. The shedding titers and disease course were analyzed with respect to virus type, illness, and subject demographics. Infection with GII.2 Snow Mountain (SMV) resulted in more symptoms and a higher frequency of painful symptoms compared to GI.1 Norwalk (NV) infection. However, NV infection produced stool viral titers approximately 2 logs higher than those seen in SMV infections. Both NV and SMV were shed in stools for up to 3 weeks after the resolution of symptoms, but long shedding durations were more common in NV infections. For each challenge virus, shedding titers and patterns were not correlated with subject demographics or clinical course. This is the first study to report shedding dynamics in experimental GII norovirus infection. PMID:24531909

  10. Antiviral therapies against Ebola and other emerging viral diseases using existing medicines that block virus entry

    PubMed Central

    Long, Jason; Wright, Edward; Molesti, Eleonora; Temperton, Nigel; Barclay, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Emerging viral diseases pose a threat to the global population as intervention strategies are mainly limited to basic containment due to the lack of efficacious and approved vaccines and antiviral drugs. The former was the only available intervention when the current unprecedented Ebolavirus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa began. Prior to this, the development of EBOV vaccines and anti-viral therapies required time and resources that were not available. Therefore, focus has turned to re-purposing of existing, licenced medicines that may limit the morbidity and mortality rates of EBOV and could be used immediately. Here we test three such medicines and measure their ability to inhibit pseudotype viruses (PVs) of two EBOV species, Marburg virus (MARV) and avian influenza H5 (FLU-H5). We confirm the ability of chloroquine (CQ) to inhibit viral entry in a pH specific manner. The commonly used proton pump inhibitors, Omeprazole and Esomeprazole were also able to inhibit entry of all PVs tested but at higher drug concentrations than may be achieved in vivo. We propose CQ as a priority candidate to consider for treatment of EBOV.

  11. [Control, elimination and eradication of viral immuno preventable diseases in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Valero, Nereida; Maldonado, Mery

    2005-09-01

    Vaccination has demonstrated the capacity for the drastic decrease of the prevalence and incidence of several diseases of viral etiology and it has allowed their eradication. Among these human immuno preventable diseases are included poliomyelitis, measles, mumps, chicken pox, rubella, hepatitis A and B, influenza A and yellow fever. In residents, travelers to endemic areas and personal at risk, the vaccines to Japanese and equine encephalitis, rabies and adenovirus can be applied. Venezuela has not escaped from the positive impact in the epidemiology of these illnesses as a consequence of the organization and implementation of big national vaccination campaigns; however, and in spite of these efforts, important outbreaks of measles, yellow fever, chicken pox and hepatitis have occurred in the last few years. The tools to eliminate the majority of these viral diseases exist in Venezuela as well as in other countries, and are readily available, effective and relatively not expensive, but require on the whole of an effort of authorities and communities. The implementation of these strategies should have the support of the World Health Organization and the Panamerican Health Organization. This is a priority for the next few years if our aim is the eradication of these illnesses from Venezuela, the continent and the world. PMID:16152776

  12. The Role of Mathematical Models in Explaining Recurrent Outbreaks of Infectious Childhood Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris T. Bauch

    Infectious childhood diseases such as measles are characterized by recurrent outbreaks. Mathematicians have long used models\\u000a in an effort to better understand and predict these recurrent outbreak patterns. This paper summarizes and comments upon those\\u000a efforts, providing a historical outline of childhood disease models that have been developed since the start of the twentieth\\u000a century. This paper also discusses the

  13. Predicting outbreaks of a climate-driven coral disease in the Great Barrier Reef

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Maynard; K. R. N. Anthony; C. D. Harvell; M. A. Burgman; R. Beeden; H. Sweatman; S. F. Heron; J. B. Lamb; B. L. Willis

    2011-01-01

    Links between anomalously high sea temperatures and outbreaks of coral diseases known as White Syndromes (WS) represent a\\u000a threat to Indo-Pacific reefs that is expected to escalate in a changing climate. Further advances in understanding disease\\u000a aetiologies, determining the relative importance of potential risk factors for outbreaks and in trialing management actions\\u000a are hampered by not knowing where or when

  14. Viral Perturbations of Host Networks Reflect Disease Natali Gulbahce1,2".a

    E-print Network

    Bulyk, Martha L.

    of viral proteins and disease genes was exploited to uncover a novel pathway linking HPV to Fanconi anemia (HPV), we find that host targets of viral proteins reside in network proximity to products of disease

  15. VIRAL ANTIBODIES IN AGRICULTURAL POPULATIONS EXPOSED TO AEROSOLS FROM WASTEWATER IRRIGATION DURING A VIRAL DISEASE OUTBREAK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presence of antibodies to eight enteroviruses (ecovirus types 4, 7, and 9, coxsackievirus types A9, B1, B3, B4 and hepatitis A virus (HAY)) and Varicella-zoster virus was determined during a two-year period, 1980/1981 in paired blood samples of 777 persons in selected agricul...

  16. Large outbreak of Legionnaires' disease and Pontiac fever at a military base.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, J; Hampton, L M; Fleming-Dutra, K E; Marten, C; McClusky, C; Perry, C; Clemmons, N A; McCormic, Z; Peik, S; Mancuso, J; Brown, E; Kozak, N; Travis, T; Lucas, C; Fields, B; Hicks, L; Cersovsky, S B

    2014-11-01

    We investigated a mixed outbreak of Legionnaires' disease (LD) and Pontiac fever (PF) at a military base to identify the outbreak's environmental source as well as known legionellosis risk factors. Base workers with possible legionellosis were interviewed and, if consenting, underwent testing for legionellosis. A retrospective cohort study collected information on occupants of the buildings closest to the outbreak source. We identified 29 confirmed and probable LD and 38 PF cases. All cases were exposed to airborne pathogens from a cooling tower. Occupants of the building closest to the cooling tower were 6·9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2·2-22·0] and 5·5 (95% CI 2·1-14·5) times more likely to develop LD and PF, respectively, than occupants of the next closest building. Thorough preventive measures and aggressive responses to outbreaks, including searching for PF cases in mixed legionellosis outbreaks, are essential for legionellosis control. PMID:25267405

  17. The role of phenoloxidase suppression in QX disease outbreaks among Sydney rock oysters ( Saccostrea glomerata)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodney Peters; David A. Raftos

    2003-01-01

    The paramyxean protozoan, Marteilia sydneyi, is the etiological agent of QX disease in Sydney rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata). QX disease affects the farming of oysters in Queensland and on five rivers in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Disease outbreaks occur during summer months (January to April) and are associated with high mortality rates (up to 98%), which limit the growing

  18. ESCHERICHIA COLI O147: AN EMERGING SEROGROUP OF EDEMA DISEASE OUTBREAKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edema disease is a systemic disease of weanling pigs caused by E. coli strains that produce a variant of Shiga toxin, Stx2e. These strains usually produce F18ab fimbriae and heat stable enterotoxin b (STb). Historically, edema disease strains from U.S. outbreaks have not produced heat stable enter...

  19. Comparative molecular and antibody typing during the investigation of an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Nuñez, Marian; Quero, Sara; Catini, Stella; Pedro-Botet, Maria Lluisa; Mateu, Lourdes; Sopena, Nieves; Sabria, Miguel

    2013-10-01

    An outbreak of Legionnaires' disease with 113 confirmed cases was reported in the town of Mataró, Spain, in August 2002. In this study, we compared three different typing methods and characterized the clinical isolates by comparing them with other clinical isolates with the same ST from our own database to further characterize the outbreak. In the outbreak, a total of 16 clinical (nine patients) and 32 environmental (from four environmental sources) Legionella pneumophila isolates were analyzed by pulsed-field electrophoresis (PFGE), sequence-based typing (SBT), and monoclonal antibody typing (MAb). We compared the MAb and SBT profiles of the outbreak clinical isolates and other unrelated clinical isolates showing the same ST profile. We obtained seven different PFGE and SBT profiles and six MAb patterns from the outbreak isolates. PFGE and SBT showed 100% concordance during the outbreak. SBT proved to be highly discriminatory, particularly with the addition of the new neuA gene. One PFGE, SBT (ST-37), and Philadelphia profile was observed among the clinical isolates. Using PFGE, this ST37 Philadelphia profile was closely related to other unrelated clinical isolates. These findings suggest that the ST37 Philadelphia profile could be a virulence marker in our area. The combination of the three methodologies was useful to further characterize and obtain additional information on a very explosive outbreak. Despite the minor discrimination of PFGE versus SBT, the two genetic methods are recommended in outbreak investigations. Further studies are currently underway in this area to obtain more definitive conclusions. PMID:23572275

  20. Infectious diseases and their outbreaks in Asia-Pacific: biodiversity and its regulation loss matter.

    PubMed

    Morand, Serge; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Abdullah, Mohd Tajuddin; Huan, Tan Boon

    2014-01-01

    Despite increasing control measures, numerous parasitic and infectious diseases are emerging, re-emerging or causing recurrent outbreaks particularly in Asia and the Pacific region, a hot spot of both infectious disease emergence and biodiversity at risk. We investigate how biodiversity affects the distribution of infectious diseases and their outbreaks in this region, taking into account socio-economics (population size, GDP, public health expenditure), geography (latitude and nation size), climate (precipitation, temperature) and biodiversity (bird and mammal species richness, forest cover, mammal and bird species at threat). We show, among countries, that the overall richness of infectious diseases is positively correlated with the richness of birds and mammals, but the number of zoonotic disease outbreaks is positively correlated with the number of threatened mammal and bird species and the number of vector-borne disease outbreaks is negatively correlated with forest cover. These results suggest that, among countries, biodiversity is a source of pathogens, but also that the loss of biodiversity or its regulation, as measured by forest cover or threatened species, seems to be associated with an increase in zoonotic and vector-borne disease outbreaks. PMID:24587201

  1. Infectious Diseases and Their Outbreaks in Asia-Pacific: Biodiversity and Its Regulation Loss Matter

    PubMed Central

    Morand, Serge; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Abdullah, Mohd Tajuddin; Huan, Tan Boon

    2014-01-01

    Despite increasing control measures, numerous parasitic and infectious diseases are emerging, re-emerging or causing recurrent outbreaks particularly in Asia and the Pacific region, a hot spot of both infectious disease emergence and biodiversity at risk. We investigate how biodiversity affects the distribution of infectious diseases and their outbreaks in this region, taking into account socio-economics (population size, GDP, public health expenditure), geography (latitude and nation size), climate (precipitation, temperature) and biodiversity (bird and mammal species richness, forest cover, mammal and bird species at threat). We show, among countries, that the overall richness of infectious diseases is positively correlated with the richness of birds and mammals, but the number of zoonotic disease outbreaks is positively correlated with the number of threatened mammal and bird species and the number of vector-borne disease outbreaks is negatively correlated with forest cover. These results suggest that, among countries, biodiversity is a source of pathogens, but also that the loss of biodiversity or its regulation, as measured by forest cover or threatened species, seems to be associated with an increase in zoonotic and vector-borne disease outbreaks. PMID:24587201

  2. Operational practices associated with foodborne disease outbreaks in the catering industry in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sarah L; Parry, Sharon M; O'Brien, Sarah J; Palmer, Stephen R

    2008-08-01

    Catering businesses continue to be the most common setting for foodborne disease outbreaks. In a study of catering businesses in England and Wales, operational practices relating to the supply, preparation, and service of food in 88 businesses associated with outbreaks were compared with those practices at 88 control businesses. Operational practices did not differ significantly between case and control businesses but larger small medium-size enterprise (SME) businesses were more likely to be associated with foodborne disease outbreaks than were micro-SME businesses. Businesses associated with outbreaks of Salmonella infection were less likely to use local or national suppliers but instead used regional suppliers, especially for eggs. This practice was the only significantly independent operational practice associated with outbreaks of Salmonella infection. Regional egg suppliers also were more likely to be used by businesses associated with outbreaks attributed to food vehicles containing eggs. Businesses associated with egg-associated outbreaks were less likely to use eggs produced under an approved quality assurance scheme, suggesting that the underlying risk associated with using regional suppliers may relate to the use of contaminated eggs. PMID:18724761

  3. Genome Sequence of Coxsackievirus A6, Isolated during a Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease Outbreak in Finland in 2008

    PubMed Central

    Koskinen, Satu; Merilahti, Pirjo; Pursiheimo, Juha-Pekka; Blomqvist, Soile; Roivainen, Merja; Laiho, Asta; Susi, Petri; Waris, Matti

    2014-01-01

    Reports of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) outbreaks caused by coxsackievirus A6 have increased worldwide after the report of the first outbreak in Finland in 2008. The complete genome of the first outbreak strain from a vesicle fluid specimen was determined. PMID:25323709

  4. Seroepidemiological Study after a Long-Distance Industrial Outbreak of Legionnaires' Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Wedege; T. Bergdal; K. Bolstad; D. A. Caugant; J. Efskind; H. E. Heier; A. Kanestrom; B. H. Strand; I. S. Aaberge

    2009-01-01

    Following a long-distance outbreak of Legionnaires' disease from an industrial air scrubber in Norway in 2005, a seroepidemiological study measuring levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies to Legio- nella pneumophila was performed with a polyvalent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. One year after the outbreak, IgG levels in employees (n 213) at the industrial plant harboring the scrubber and in

  5. Surveillance for Waterborne-Disease Outbreaks Associated with Recreational Water --- United States, 2001--2002

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan S. Yoder; Brian G. Blackburn; Gunther F. Craun; Vincent Hill; Deborah A. Levy; Nora Chen; Sherline H. Lee; Rebecca L. Calderon; Michael J. Beach

    Problem\\/Condition: Since 1971, CDC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have maintained a collaborative surveillance system for collecting and periodically reporting data related to occurrences and causes of waterborne-disease outbreaks (WBDOs) related to drinking water; tabulation of recreational water-associated outbreaks was added to the survillance system in 1978. This surveillance system is the

  6. Climate Teleconnections and Recent Patterns of Human and Animal Disease Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Anyamba, Assaf; Linthicum, Kenneth J.; Small, Jennifer L.; Collins, Kathrine M.; Tucker, Compton J.; Pak, Edwin W.; Britch, Seth C.; Eastman, James Ronald; Pinzon, Jorge E.; Russell, Kevin L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent clusters of outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases (Rift Valley fever and chikungunya) in Africa and parts of the Indian Ocean islands illustrate how interannual climate variability influences the changing risk patterns of disease outbreaks. Although Rift Valley fever outbreaks have been known to follow periods of above-normal rainfall, the timing of the outbreak events has largely been unknown. Similarly, there is inadequate knowledge on climate drivers of chikungunya outbreaks. We analyze a variety of climate and satellite-derived vegetation measurements to explain the coupling between patterns of climate variability and disease outbreaks of Rift Valley fever and chikungunya. Methods and Findings We derived a teleconnections map by correlating long-term monthly global precipitation data with the NINO3.4 sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly index. This map identifies regional hot-spots where rainfall variability may have an influence on the ecology of vector borne disease. Among the regions are Eastern and Southern Africa where outbreaks of chikungunya and Rift Valley fever occurred 2004–2009. Chikungunya and Rift Valley fever case locations were mapped to corresponding climate data anomalies to understand associations between specific anomaly patterns in ecological and climate variables and disease outbreak patterns through space and time. From these maps we explored associations among Rift Valley fever disease occurrence locations and cumulative rainfall and vegetation index anomalies. We illustrated the time lag between the driving climate conditions and the timing of the first case of Rift Valley fever. Results showed that reported outbreaks of Rift Valley fever occurred after ?3–4 months of sustained above-normal rainfall and associated green-up in vegetation, conditions ideal for Rift Valley fever mosquito vectors. For chikungunya we explored associations among surface air temperature, precipitation anomalies, and chikungunya outbreak locations. We found that chikungunya outbreaks occurred under conditions of anomalously high temperatures and drought over Eastern Africa. However, in Southeast Asia, chikungunya outbreaks were negatively correlated (p<0.05) with drought conditions, but positively correlated with warmer-than-normal temperatures and rainfall. Conclusions/Significance Extremes in climate conditions forced by the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) lead to severe droughts or floods, ideal ecological conditions for disease vectors to emerge, and may result in epizootics and epidemics of Rift Valley fever and chikungunya. However, the immune status of livestock (Rift Valley fever) and human (chikungunya) populations is a factor that is largely unknown but very likely plays a role in the spatial-temporal patterns of these disease outbreaks. As the frequency and severity of extremes in climate increase, the potential for globalization of vectors and disease is likely to accelerate. Understanding the underlying patterns of global and regional climate variability and their impacts on ecological drivers of vector-borne diseases is critical in long-range planning of appropriate disease and disease-vector response, control, and mitigation strategies. PMID:22292093

  7. DNA vaccines against viral diseases of farmed fish.

    PubMed

    Evensen, Øystein; Leong, Jo-Ann C

    2013-12-01

    Immunization by an antigen-encoding DNA was approved for commercial sale in Canada against a Novirhabdovirus infection in fish. DNA vaccines have been particularly successful against the Novirhabdoviruses while there are reports on the efficacy against viral pathogens like infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, infectious salmon anemia virus, and lymphocystis disease virus and these are inferior to what has been attained for the novirhabdoviruses. Most recently, DNA vaccination of Penaeus monodon against white spot syndrome virus was reported. Research efforts are now focused on the development of more effective vectors for DNA vaccines, improvement of vaccine efficacy against various viral diseases of fish for which there is currently no vaccines available and provision of co-expression of viral antigen and immunomodulatory compounds. Scientists are also in the process of developing new delivery methods. While a DNA vaccine has been approved for commercial use in farmed salmon in Canada, it is foreseen that it is still a long way to go before a DNA vaccine is approved for use in farmed fish in Europe. PMID:24184267

  8. Thermal Stress and Coral Cover as Drivers of Coral Disease Outbreaks

    E-print Network

    Harvell, Catherine Drew

    Thermal Stress and Coral Cover as Drivers of Coral Disease Outbreaks John F. Bruno1* , Elizabeth R Spring, Maryland, United States of America, 4 Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Coral the frequency of warm temperature anomalies is positively related to the frequency of coral disease across 1

  9. Modeling Economic Resilience and Animal Disease Outbreaks in the Texas High Plains 

    E-print Network

    Lin, Hen-I

    2012-02-14

    Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) could have a significant impact on the U.S. agriculture industry and the welfare of U.S. producers and U.S. consumers. In order to address the potential impact from animal disease outbreaks, ...

  10. Historical Compilation and Georeferencing of Dengue and Chikungunya outbreak data for Disease Modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The risk of vector-borne disease spread is increasing due to significant changes and variability in the global climate and increasing global travel and trade. Understanding the relationships between climate variability and disease outbreak patterns are critical to the design and construction of pred...

  11. Clinical presentation resembling mucosal disease associated with 'HoBi'-like pestivirus in a field outbreak

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae consists of four recognized species: Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2), Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) And Border disease virus (BDV). Recently, atypical pestiviruses (‘HoBi’-like pestiviruses) were iden...

  12. The AFHSC-Division of GEIS Operations Predictive Surveillance Program: a multidisciplinary approach for the early detection and response to disease outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System Operations (AFHSC-GEIS) initiated a coordinated, multidisciplinary program to link data sets and information derived from eco-climatic remote sensing activities, ecologic niche modeling, arthropod vector, animal disease-host/reservoir, and human disease surveillance for febrile illnesses, into a predictive surveillance program that generates advisories and alerts on emerging infectious disease outbreaks. The program’s ultimate goal is pro-active public health practice through pre-event preparedness, prevention and control, and response decision-making and prioritization. This multidisciplinary program is rooted in over 10 years experience in predictive surveillance for Rift Valley fever outbreaks in Eastern Africa. The AFHSC-GEIS Rift Valley fever project is based on the identification and use of disease-emergence critical detection points as reliable signals for increased outbreak risk. The AFHSC-GEIS predictive surveillance program has formalized the Rift Valley fever project into a structured template for extending predictive surveillance capability to other Department of Defense (DoD)-priority vector- and water-borne, and zoonotic diseases and geographic areas. These include leishmaniasis, malaria, and Crimea-Congo and other viral hemorrhagic fevers in Central Asia and Africa, dengue fever in Asia and the Americas, Japanese encephalitis (JE) and chikungunya fever in Asia, and rickettsial and other tick-borne infections in the U.S., Africa and Asia. PMID:21388561

  13. Update on oral Chagas disease outbreaks in Venezuela: epidemiological, clinical and diagnostic approaches

    PubMed Central

    de Noya, Belkisyolé Alarcón; Díaz-Bello, Zoraida; Colmenares, Cecilia; Ruiz-Guevara, Raiza; Mauriello, Luciano; Muñoz-Calderón, Arturo; Noya, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Orally transmitted Chagas disease has become a matter of concern due to outbreaks reported in four Latin American countries. Although several mechanisms for orally transmitted Chagas disease transmission have been proposed, food and beverages contaminated with whole infected triatomines or their faeces, which contain metacyclic trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, seems to be the primary vehicle. In 2007, the first recognised outbreak of orally transmitted Chagas disease occurred in Venezuela and largest recorded outbreak at that time. Since then, 10 outbreaks (four in Caracas) with 249 cases (73.5% children) and 4% mortality have occurred. The absence of contact with the vector and of traditional cutaneous and Romana’s signs, together with a florid spectrum of clinical manifestations during the acute phase, confuse the diagnosis of orally transmitted Chagas disease with other infectious diseases. The simultaneous detection of IgG and IgM by ELISA and the search for parasites in all individuals at risk have been valuable diagnostic tools for detecting acute cases. Follow-up studies regarding the microepidemics primarily affecting children has resulted in 70% infection persistence six years after anti-parasitic treatment. Panstrongylus geniculatus has been the incriminating vector in most cases. As a food-borne disease, this entity requires epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches that differ from those approaches used for traditional direct or cutaneous vector transmission. PMID:25946155

  14. Using multitype branching processes to quantify statistics of disease outbreaks in zoonotic epidemics.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sarabjeet; Schneider, David J; Myers, Christopher R

    2014-03-01

    Branching processes have served as a model for chemical reactions, biological growth processes, and contagion (of disease, information, or fads). Through this connection, these seemingly different physical processes share some common universalities that can be elucidated by analyzing the underlying branching process. In this work we focus on coupled branching processes as a model of infectious diseases spreading from one population to another. An exceedingly important example of such coupled outbreaks are zoonotic infections that spill over from animal populations to humans. We derive several statistical quantities characterizing the first spillover event from animals to humans, including the probability of spillover, the first passage time distribution for human infection, and disease prevalence in the animal population at spillover. Large stochastic fluctuations in those quantities can make inference of the state of the system at the time of spillover difficult. Focusing on outbreaks in the human population, we then characterize the critical threshold for a large outbreak, the distribution of outbreak sizes, and associated scaling laws. These all show a strong dependence on the basic reproduction number in the animal population and indicate the existence of a novel multicritical point with altered scaling behavior. The coupling of animal and human infection dynamics has crucial implications, most importantly allowing for the possibility of large human outbreaks even when human-to-human transmission is subcritical. PMID:24730870

  15. Viral vector-based models of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Van der Perren, Anke; Van den Haute, Chris; Baekelandt, Veerle

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the molecular pathways of Parkinson's disease (PD) and to develop novel therapeutic strategies, scientific investigators rely on animal models. The identification of PD-associated genes has led to the development of genetic PD models as an alternative to toxin-based models. Viral vector-mediated loco-regional gene delivery provides an attractive way to express transgenes in the central nervous system. Several vector systems based on various viruses have been developed. In this chapter, we give an overview of the different viral vector systems used for targeting the CNS. Further, we describe the different viral vector-based PD models currently available based on overexpression strategies for autosomal dominant genes such as ?-synuclein and LRRK2, and knockout or knockdown strategies for autosomal recessive genes, such as parkin, DJ-1, and PINK1. Models based on overexpression of ?-synuclein are the most prevalent and extensively studied, and therefore the main focus of this chapter. Many efforts have been made to increase the expression levels of ?-synuclein in the dopaminergic neurons. The best ?-synuclein models currently available have been developed from a combined approach using newer AAV serotypes and optimized vector constructs, production, and purification methods. These third-generation ?-synuclein models show improved face and predictive validity, and therefore offer the possibility to reliably test novel therapeutics. PMID:24839101

  16. Nosocomial outbreak of Legionnaires' disease: molecular epidemiology and disease control measures.

    PubMed

    Johnston, J M; Latham, R H; Meier, F A; Green, J A; Boshard, R; Mooney, B R; Edelstein, P H

    1987-02-01

    Molecular laboratory techniques were used to study the epidemiology of an outbreak of nosocomial Legionnaires' disease. All patient isolates were Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 and showed identical plasmid profiles and reactions with serogroup-specific monoclonal antibodies. L pneumophila was also cultured from four of five cooling tower water samples; however, the isolate from only one tower was serogroup 1 of the same subtype as patient isolates. Since the cases were temporally clustered and epidemiologically associated with exposure to cooling tower aerosols, the single cooling tower implicated by molecular analysis was the most likely source of the outbreak. Chlorination of cooling tower ponds has eradicated the epidemic strain. Since potable water also harbored the infecting organism and was the probable source for cooling tower contamination, decontamination of the hospital water system was also undertaken. Superchlorination of hot water holding tanks to 17 ppm on a weekly basis has effectively eradicated L pneumophila from the potable water system and appears to be a reasonable, simple, and relatively inexpensive alternative to previously described methods of control. PMID:3030951

  17. Detection of Clostridium perfringens type C in pig herds following disease outbreak and subsequent vaccination.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, K; Wyder, M; Gobeli, S; Candi, A; Doherr, M G; Zehnder, B; Zimmermann, W; Posthaus, H

    2012-11-17

    Immunisation of sows using Clostridium perfringens type C toxoid vaccines is recommended to prevent necrotising enteritis (NE) on pig breeding farms. Absence of disease, however, oftentimes leads to the false assumption of pathogens being eradicated. The prevalence of C perfringens type C was determined by PCR in faecal samples of piglets and sows in three Swiss pig breeding farms two to four years after implementation of a vaccination programme following disease outbreaks. C perfringens type C could still be detected several years after an outbreak despite absence of NE. In-herd prevalence of the pathogens varied significantly between the farms and was also lower compared with a farm which experienced a recent outbreak. In conclusion, C perfringens type C can be detected on once-affected farms, even in the absence of NE for several years. PMID:23100304

  18. Variation in virulence among clades of Escherichia coli O157:H7 associated with disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Manning, Shannon D; Motiwala, Alifiya S; Springman, A Cody; Qi, Weihong; Lacher, David W; Ouellette, Lindsey M; Mladonicky, Janice M; Somsel, Patricia; Rudrik, James T; Dietrich, Stephen E; Zhang, Wei; Swaminathan, Bala; Alland, David; Whittam, Thomas S

    2008-03-25

    Escherichia coli O157:H7, a toxin-producing food and waterborne bacterial pathogen, has been linked to large outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness for more than two decades. E. coli O157 causes a wide range of clinical illness that varies by outbreak, although factors that contribute to variation in disease severity are poorly understood. Several recent outbreaks involving O157 contamination of fresh produce (e.g., spinach) were associated with more severe disease, as defined by higher hemolytic uremic syndrome and hospitalization frequencies, suggesting that increased virulence has evolved. To test this hypothesis, we developed a system that detects SNPs in 96 loci and applied it to >500 E. coli O157 clinical strains. Phylogenetic analyses identified 39 SNP genotypes that differ at 20% of SNP loci and are separated into nine distinct clades. Differences were observed between clades in the frequency and distribution of Shiga toxin genes and in the type of clinical disease reported. Patients with hemolytic uremic syndrome were significantly more likely to be infected with clade 8 strains, which have increased in frequency over the past 5 years. Genome sequencing of a spinach outbreak strain, a member of clade 8, also revealed substantial genomic differences. These findings suggest that an emergent subpopulation of the clade 8 lineage has acquired critical factors that contribute to more severe disease. The ability to detect and rapidly genotype O157 strains belonging to such lineages is important and will have a significant impact on both disease diagnosis and treatment guidelines. PMID:18332430

  19. Variation in virulence among clades of Escherichia coli O157:H7 associated with disease outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Shannon D.; Motiwala, Alifiya S.; Springman, A. Cody; Qi, Weihong; Lacher, David W.; Ouellette, Lindsey M.; Mladonicky, Janice M.; Somsel, Patricia; Rudrik, James T.; Dietrich, Stephen E.; Zhang, Wei; Swaminathan, Bala; Alland, David; Whittam, Thomas S.

    2008-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7, a toxin-producing food and waterborne bacterial pathogen, has been linked to large outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness for more than two decades. E. coli O157 causes a wide range of clinical illness that varies by outbreak, although factors that contribute to variation in disease severity are poorly understood. Several recent outbreaks involving O157 contamination of fresh produce (e.g., spinach) were associated with more severe disease, as defined by higher hemolytic uremic syndrome and hospitalization frequencies, suggesting that increased virulence has evolved. To test this hypothesis, we developed a system that detects SNPs in 96 loci and applied it to >500 E. coli O157 clinical strains. Phylogenetic analyses identified 39 SNP genotypes that differ at 20% of SNP loci and are separated into nine distinct clades. Differences were observed between clades in the frequency and distribution of Shiga toxin genes and in the type of clinical disease reported. Patients with hemolytic uremic syndrome were significantly more likely to be infected with clade 8 strains, which have increased in frequency over the past 5 years. Genome sequencing of a spinach outbreak strain, a member of clade 8, also revealed substantial genomic differences. These findings suggest that an emergent subpopulation of the clade 8 lineage has acquired critical factors that contribute to more severe disease. The ability to detect and rapidly genotype O157 strains belonging to such lineages is important and will have a significant impact on both disease diagnosis and treatment guidelines. PMID:18332430

  20. Altered Oral Viral Ecology in Association with Periodontal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Melissa; Abeles, Shira R.; Boehm, Tobias K.; Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Naidu, Mayuri; Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The human oral cavity is home to a large and diverse community of viruses that have yet to be characterized in patients with periodontal disease. We recruited and sampled saliva and oral biofilm from a cohort of humans either periodontally healthy or with mild or significant periodontal disease to discern whether there are differences in viral communities that reflect their oral health status. We found communities of viruses inhabiting saliva and the subgingival and supragingival biofilms of each subject that were composed largely of bacteriophage. While there were homologous viruses common to different subjects and biogeographic sites, for most of the subjects, virome compositions were significantly associated with the oral sites from which they were derived. The largest distinctions between virome compositions were found when comparing the subgingival and supragingival biofilms to those of planktonic saliva. Differences in virome composition were significantly associated with oral health status for both subgingival and supragingival biofilm viruses but not for salivary viruses. Among the differences identified in virome compositions was a significant expansion of myoviruses in subgingival biofilm, suggesting that periodontal disease favors lytic phage. We also characterized the bacterial communities in each subject at each biogeographic site by using the V3 hypervariable segment of the 16S rRNA and did not identify distinctions between oral health and disease similar to those found in viral communities. The significantly altered ecology of viruses of oral biofilm in subjects with periodontal disease compared to that of relatively periodontally healthy ones suggests that viruses may serve as useful indicators of oral health status. PMID:24846382

  1. The population biology of coccidioides: epidemiologic implications for disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Barker, B M; Jewell, K A; Kroken, S; Orbach, M J

    2007-09-01

    Studies of field- and patient-derived isolates conducted over the past 75 years have provided a general picture of the population structure of Coccidioides, the cause of coccidioidomycosis. Premolecular studies provided a general outline of the geographical range, epidemiology and distribution of the fungus. Recent studies based on molecular markers have demonstrated that the genus is comprised of two genetically diverse, and genetically isolated, species: Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii. Both species are composed of biogeographically distinct populations. Structure for two of these populations (C. immitis from central California, and C. posadasii from southern Arizona) indicates that frequent genetic recombination occurs within the entire geographic range of each population, even though sex has never been observed in the genus. Outbreaks of coccidioidomycosis are not the result of the spread of a single clonal isolate, but are caused by a diversity of genotypes. Although it is now possible to match patient isolates to populations, the lack of apparent structure within each population and the current paucity of environmental isolates limit map-based epidemiological approaches to understanding outbreaks. Therefore, a comprehensive database comprised of soil-derived isolates from across the biogeographic range of Coccidioides will improve the utility of this approach. Appropriate collection of environmental isolates will assist the investigation of remaining questions regarding the population biology of Coccidioides. The comparative genomics of representative genotypes from both species and all populations of Coccidioides will provide a thorough set of genetic markers in order to resolve the population genetics of this pathogenic fungus. PMID:17344537

  2. Human repercussions of foot and mouth disease and other similar viral diseases.

    PubMed

    López-Sánchez, Antonio; Guijarro Guijarro, Begoña; Hernández Vallejo, Gonzalo

    2003-01-01

    Foot and mouth disease is a frequent viral zoonosis in livestock that may occasionally also affect humans. Transmission to man usually occurs as a result of the consumption of unprocessed milk. The clinical manifestations include fever, headache, weakness, muscle pain, and the development of vesicles and ulcers throughout the oral mucosa. Vesicular stomatitis is another zoonosis similar to foot and mouth disease that can likewise affect humans with similar clinical manifestations, in which the presence of aphthae is highly suggestive. In turn, hand, foot and mouth disease and herpangina are two exclusively human diseases caused by different enteroviruses, with a special predilection for children under five years of age, and characterized by the presence of vesicles and ulcerations in the oral cavity. The present study provides a brief review of the salient characteristics of foot and mouth disease and of other similar viral diseases with which the differential diagnosis should be established. PMID:12556720

  3. SymposiumClinical Research Priority Program University of Zurich "Viral Infectious Diseases"

    E-print Network

    Zürich, Universität

    SymposiumClinical Research Priority Program ­ University of Zurich "Viral Infectious Diseases ­ Chair: Huldrych Günthard, MD. Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University: Nicolas Müller, MD. Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, UniversityHospital Zurich

  4. Severe Pediatric Adenovirus 7 Disease in Singapore Linked to Recent Outbreaks across Asia

    PubMed Central

    Thoon, Koh Cheng; Chua, Hui Ying; Chong, Chia Yin; Tee, Nancy Wen Sim; Lin, Raymond Tzer Pin; Cui, Lin; Venkatachalam, Indumathi; Tambyah, Paul Anantharajah; Chew, Jonathan; Fong, Raymond Kok Choon; Oh, Helen May Lin; Krishnan, Prabha Unny; Lee, Vernon Jian Ming; Ting, Pei Jun; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Gunalan, Vithiagaran; Khong, Wei Xin

    2015-01-01

    During November 2012–July 2013, a marked increase of adenovirus type 7 (Ad7) infections associated with severe disease was documented among pediatric patients in Singapore. Phylogenetic analysis revealed close genetic links with severe Ad7 outbreaks in China, Taiwan, and other parts of Asia. PMID:26079293

  5. SURVEILLANCE FOR WATERBORNE-DISEASE OUTBREAKS-UNITED STATES, 1997-1998

    EPA Science Inventory

    PROBLEM/CONDITION: Since 1971, CDC and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have maintained a collaborative surveillance system for collecting and periodically reporting data relating to occurrences and causes of waterborne-disease outbreaks (WBDOs). REPORTING PERIOD CO...

  6. Modeling Clinician Detection Time of a Disease Outbreak Due to Inhalational Anthrax

    E-print Network

    Wong, Weng-Keen

    Modeling Clinician Detection Time of a Disease Outbreak Due to Inhalational Anthrax Christina of anthrax spores, when the clinicians only have access to traditional clinical information (e diagnose a patient as having inhala- tion anthrax (IA). One way involves obtaining a chest radiograph

  7. YELLOW-BLOTCH DISEASE OUTBREAK ON REEFS OF THE SAN BLAS ISLANDS, PANAMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the post-8th International Coral Reef Symposium field trip to the eastern Caribbean region of Panama, 3-5 July 1996, we observed an extensive outbreak of a new and significant disease of the scleractinian corals Montastraea faveolata and M. annularis. The first reported si...

  8. Succesive outbreaks of Marek's Disease in brown commercial layer chickens on the same farm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease was diagnosed based on clinical signs, gross and histopathology in 15 to 17 week-old in February of 2012 and in 10 to 13-week-old Brown laying-type chickens in December of 2012 on the same farm. The outbreak involved all the 16 houses on the farm with each house containing 20,000 chi...

  9. SURVEILLANCE FOR WATERBORNE-DISEASE OUTBREAKS - UNITED STATES, 1999-2000

    EPA Science Inventory

    PROBLEM/CONDITION: Since 1971, CDC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) have maintained a collaborative surveillance system for the occurrences and causes of waterborne-disease outbreaks (WBDOs).This surv...

  10. Modeling Economic Resilience and Animal Disease Outbreaks in the Texas High Plains

    E-print Network

    Lin, Hen-I

    2012-02-14

    to utilize a combined epidemic and economic modeling framework to evaluate animal disease management strategies which can be used to reduce the potential losses in an unusual event such as FMD outbreaks. In this study, we compare the welfare changes among...

  11. Using multitype branching processes to quantify statistics of disease outbreaks in zoonotic epidemics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the enormous relevance of zoonotic infections to world-wide public health, and despite much effort in modeling individual zoonoses, a fundamental understanding of the disease dynamics and the nature of outbreaks emanating from such a complex system is still lacking. We introduce a simple sto...

  12. SAT2 foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreak in a mixed farm in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Byom, Ahmed M

    2015-01-01

    A dairy farm keeping Holstein cattle and buffaloes in the Menoufia Governorate was investigated during and after the last Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) outbreak in Egypt (starting February 2012) to determine the impact of the outbreak on animals as well as to assess some factors that might have helped to spread the disease in the investigated farm. All animals were vaccinated against FMD with the locally produced bivalent vaccine containing O1 and A/Egy/2006 strains two months before the onset of the outbreak. Laboratory examination of the samples collected from diseased and dead animals' revealed detection of a newly emerged serotype of FMD (SAT2). Although, all buffaloes (8/8) in the herd were infected (100%), none of them died, while lactating Holstein cattle showed varying morbidity rates along the period of the outbreak with peak rates in March followed by April, May and June. Crud mortality and case fatality rates among cattle peaked during April 2012 to reach 9.3 and 21.7%, respectively. Calves were the most affected animals with the highest morbidities and mortalities. The high prevalence of the disease among all animal categories in the investigated farm is attributed to the lack of previous immunity through vaccination against the new serotype of the virus. In addition, the hygienic and biosecurity measures in the farm were unsatisfactory with respect to prevention of introduction and spread of the disease between the farm units. The prevalent weather conditions during the outbreak might have played a role in spread of the FMDv, especially ambient temperature, humidity and wind movement. PMID:26054223

  13. Characterization of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli isolated from outbreaks of diarrhoeal disease in England.

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, J.; Smith, H. R.; Chart, H.

    1999-01-01

    Twenty-two strains of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAggEC), isolated from four outbreaks of diarrhoeal disease in England, were examined for a range of phenotypic attributes including the ability to produce fimbriae, haemolysins and siderophores, and cell-surface properties such as surface charge and hydrophobicity. Strains of EAggEC isolated from two of these outbreaks belonged to a diverse range of serotypes and were heterogeneous in phenotype. Strains of EAggEC isolated from the other two outbreaks belonged predominantly to serotypes 086:H34 and 098:H-, respectively. Only two strains expressed fimbriae and two strains produced an 18 kDa membrane associated protein (MAP), suggesting that EAggEC express a range of adhesion mechanisms to produce the cell arrangement recognized as the 'stacked brick' formation. The possible explanation for the diversity of EAggEC serotypes is discussed. PMID:10694151

  14. A Framework for Categorization of the Economic Impacts of Outbreaks of Highly Contagious Livestock Diseases.

    PubMed

    Saatkamp, H W; Mourits, M C M; Howe, K S

    2014-11-01

    A framework for categorization of economic impacts of outbreaks of highly contagious livestock diseases (HCLD) is presented. This framework interprets veterinary measures to control HCLD outbreaks with reference to economic definitions of costs and benefits, and the implications for value losses both for different stakeholders affected and society as a whole. Four cost categories are identified, that is virus control-related direct costs (DC), spread prevention and zoning-related direct consequential costs (DCC), market and price disruption-related costs during (indirect consequential costs, ICC) and after the outbreak (aftermath costs, AC). The framework is used to review existing literature on cost estimation for different stakeholders. This review shows considerable differences between studies, making comparison of results difficult and susceptible to misunderstanding. It is concluded that the framework provides a logical basis for all future analyses of the economic impacts of HCLD. PMID:25382248

  15. Proximity of the home to a cooling tower and risk of non-outbreak Legionnaires' disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R S Bhopal; R J Fallon; E C Buist; R J Black; J D Urquhart

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study the source of non-outbreak legionnaires' disease, particularly the role of cooling towers, by comparing the locations of patients' homes in relation to the location of cooling towers. DESIGN--Retrospective, descriptive study of a case series of patients with legionnaires' disease ill between 1978 and 1986 and, for comparison, a case series of patients with lung cancer. A prospectively developed

  16. Estimating the probability of an extinction or major outbreak for an environmentally transmitted infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Lahodny, G E; Gautam, R; Ivanek, R

    2015-07-01

    Indirect transmission through the environment, pathogen shedding by infectious hosts, replication of free-living pathogens within the environment, and environmental decontamination are suspected to play important roles in the spread and control of environmentally transmitted infectious diseases. To account for these factors, the classic Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered-Susceptible epidemic model is modified to include a compartment representing the amount of free-living pathogen within the environment. The model accounts for host demography, direct and indirect transmission, replication of free-living pathogens in the environment, and removal of free-living pathogens by natural death or environmental decontamination. Based on the assumptions of the deterministic model, a continuous-time Markov chain model is developed. An estimate for the probability of disease extinction or a major outbreak is obtained by approximating the Markov chain with a multitype branching process. Numerical simulations illustrate important differences between the deterministic and stochastic counterparts, relevant for outbreak prevention, that depend on indirect transmission, pathogen shedding by infectious hosts, replication of free-living pathogens, and environmental decontamination. The probability of a major outbreak is computed for salmonellosis in a herd of dairy cattle as well as cholera in a human population. An explicit expression for the probability of disease extinction or a major outbreak in terms of the model parameters is obtained for systems with no direct transmission or replication of free-living pathogens. PMID:25198247

  17. VIRAL EVOLUTION Genomic surveillance elucidates

    E-print Network

    Napp, Nils

    VIRAL EVOLUTION Genomic surveillance elucidates Ebola virus origin and transmission during the 2014,12,13 § Robert F. Garry,8 § S. Humarr Khan,3 § Pardis C. Sabeti1,2 § In its largest outbreak, Ebola virus disease is spreading through Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Nigeria. We sequenced 99 Ebola virus genomes from 78

  18. Prevalence of Salmonella typhimurium infection in Norwegian hedgehog populations associated with two human disease outbreaks.

    PubMed Central

    Handeland, K.; Refsum, T.; Johansen, B. S.; Holstad, G.; Knutsen, G.; Solberg, I.; Schulze, J.; Kapperud, G.

    2002-01-01

    Faecal carriage of salmonella was investigated in 320 hedgehogs from Moss municipality in south-eastern Norway, Askøy, Bergen and Os municipalities in central-western Norway, and five municipalities in south-western and central Norway. The sampling in Moss was carried out 1 year after a human outbreak of salmonellosis, whereas the sampling in Askøy, Bergen and Os was carried out during a human outbreak. Both outbreaks were caused by Salmonella Typhimurium 4,5,12:i:1,2. No salmonella were detected in the hedgehogs from south-western (0/115) and central (0/24) Norway. Thirty-nine percent (39/99) of the animals sampled on Jeløy, and 41% (34/82) of those from Askøy, Bergen and Os, carried S. Typhimurium 4,5,12:i:1,2. The PFGE profile of isolates from hedgehogs and human beings were identical within each of the two outbreak areas. A significantly higher carrier rate of S. Typhimurium occurred among hedgehogs sampled at feeding places, compared to those caught elsewhere. The salmonella-infected hedgehog populations most likely constituted the primary source of infection during both of the human disease outbreaks, and the Norwegian hedgehog is suggested as a reservoir host of S. Typhimurium 4,5,12:i:1,2. PMID:12113498

  19. Serogroup B Meningococcal Disease Outbreak and Carriage Evaluation at a College - Rhode Island, 2015.

    PubMed

    Soeters, Heidi M; McNamara, Lucy A; Whaley, Melissa; Wang, Xin; Alexander-Scott, Nicole; Kanadanian, Koren V; Kelleher, Catherine M; MacNeil, Jessica; Martin, Stacey W; Raines, Nathan; Sears, Steven; Vanner, Cynthia; Vuong, Jeni; Bandy, Utpala; Sicard, Kenneth; Patel, Manisha

    2015-06-12

    On February 2, 2015, the Rhode Island Department of Health was notified of a case of meningococcal disease in a male undergraduate student at Providence College. Three days later, a second case was reported in a male undergraduate with no contact with the first student, indicating an attack rate of 44 cases per 100,000 students, nearly 500 times higher than the national incidence of 0.15 cases per 100,000 among persons aged 17-22 years (Division of Bacterial Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, CDC, unpublished data, 2013). Both cases were caused by a rare outbreak strain of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (ST-9069); neither case was fatal. In response to the outbreak, potential contacts received antibiotic chemoprophylaxis, and a mass vaccination campaign with a recently licensed serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) vaccine was implemented. In collaboration with CDC, the first phase of a meningococcal carriage evaluation was undertaken. PMID:26068563

  20. The mathematics of diseases On Modeling Hong Kong's SARS Outbreak

    E-print Network

    Ng, Tuen Wai "Patrick"

    of different disease control strategies . The WHO's eradication project reduced smallpox (variola) deaths from two million in 1967 to zero in 1977­80. Smallpox was officially declared eradicated in 1979. smallpox

  1. Foreign animal disease outbreaks, the animal welfare implications for Canada: Risks apparent from international experience

    PubMed Central

    Whiting, Terry L.

    2003-01-01

    Any outbreak of an Office International des Épizooties List A disease, such as classical swine fever or foot and mouth disease, has severe consequences for animal welfare, livestock production, exports of animals and animal products, and the environment. The public concern with the animal welfare effects of methods of disease eradication that result in the destruction of large numbers of uninfected animals has initiated a reconsideration of disease eradication policy in Europe. In many recent List A disease epizootics, the financial cost of addressing animal welfare concerns in healthy animals has greatly exceeded the cost of stamping out disease in infected herds. In the event of a similar incursion in Canada, the number of animals subject to welfare slaughter will be far greater than the number of infected animals killed. Current national disease eradication plans in Canada do not address the animal welfare component of disease control methods. PMID:14601676

  2. Seroepidemiological study after a long-distance industrial outbreak of legionnaires' disease.

    PubMed

    Wedege, E; Bergdal, T; Bolstad, K; Caugant, D A; Efskind, J; Heier, H E; Kanestrøm, A; Strand, B H; Aaberge, I S

    2009-04-01

    Following a long-distance outbreak of Legionnaires' disease from an industrial air scrubber in Norway in 2005, a seroepidemiological study measuring levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies to Legionella pneumophila was performed with a polyvalent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. One year after the outbreak, IgG levels in employees (n = 213) at the industrial plant harboring the scrubber and in blood donors (n = 398) from the outbreak county were low but significantly higher (P < or = 0.002) than those in blood donors (n = 406) from a nonexposed county. No differences in IgM levels among the three groups were found after adjustment for gender and age. Home addresses of the seroresponders in the exposed county clustered to the city of the outbreak, in contrast to the scattering of addresses of the seroresponding donors in the nonexposed county. Factory employees who operated at an open biological treatment plant had significantly higher IgG and IgM levels (P < or = 0.034) than those working >200 m away. Most of the healthy seroresponders among the factory employees worked near this exposure source. Immunoblotting showed that IgG and IgM antibodies in 82.1% of all seroresponders were directed to the lipopolysaccharide of the L. pneumophila serogroup 1 outbreak strain. In conclusion, 1 year after the long-distance industrial outbreak a small increase in IgG levels of the exposed population was observed. The open biological treatment plant within the industrial premises, however, constituted a short-distance exposure source of L. pneumophila for factory employees working nearby. PMID:19225076

  3. Identification of viral and phytoplasmal agents responsible for diseases affecting plants of Gaillardia Foug. in Lithuania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gaillardia plants exhibiting symptoms characteristic of viral and phytoplasmal diseases were collected at botanical gardens and floriculture farms in Lithuania. Cucumber mosaic virus was isolated from diseased plants exhibiting symptoms characterized stunting, color breaking and malformation of flo...

  4. Viral Load Drives Disease in Humans Experimentally Infected with Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    PubMed Central

    DeVincenzo, John P.; Wilkinson, Tom; Vaishnaw, Akshay; Cehelsky, Jeff; Meyers, Rachel; Nochur, Saraswathy; Harrison, Lisa; Meeking, Patricia; Mann, Alex; Moane, Elizabeth; Oxford, John; Pareek, Rajat; Moore, Ryves; Walsh, Ed; Studholme, Robert; Dorsett, Preston; Alvarez, Rene; Lambkin-Williams, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Rationale: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of childhood lower respiratory infection, yet viable therapies are lacking. Two major challenges have stalled antiviral development: ethical difficulties in performing pediatric proof-of-concept studies and the prevailing concept that the disease is immune-mediated rather than being driven by viral load. Objectives: The development of a human experimental wild-type RSV infection model to address these challenges. Methods: Healthy volunteers (n = 35), in five cohorts, received increasing quantities (3.0–5.4 log plaque-forming units/person) of wild-type RSV-A intranasally. Measurements and Main Results: Overall, 77% of volunteers consistently shed virus. Infection rate, viral loads, disease severity, and safety were similar between cohorts and were unrelated to quantity of RSV received. Symptoms began near the time of initial viral detection, peaked in severity near when viral load peaked, and subsided as viral loads (measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction) slowly declined. Viral loads correlated significantly with intranasal proinflammatory cytokine concentrations (IL-6 and IL-8). Increased viral load correlated consistently with increases in multiple different disease measurements (symptoms, physical examination, and amount of nasal mucus). Conclusions: Viral load appears to drive disease manifestations in humans with RSV infection. The observed parallel viral and disease kinetics support a potential clinical benefit of RSV antivirals. This reproducible model facilitates the development of future RSV therapeutics. PMID:20622030

  5. Viral infection and human disease - insights from minimotifs

    PubMed Central

    Kadaveru, Krishna; Vyas, Jay; Schiller, Martin R.

    2008-01-01

    Short functional peptide motifs cooperate in many molecular functions including protein interactions, protein trafficking, and posttranslational modifications. Viruses exploit these motifs as a principal mechanism for hijacking cells and many motifs are necessary for the viral life-cycle. A virus can accommodate many short motifs in its small genome size providing a plethora of ways for the virus to acquire host molecular machinery. Host enzymes that act on motifs such as kinases, proteases, and lipidation enzymes, as well as protein interaction domains, are commonly mutated in human disease, suggesting that the short peptide motif targets of these enzymes may also be mutated in disease; however, this is not observed. How can we explain why viruses have evolved to be so dependent on motifs, yet these motifs, in general do not seem to be as necessary for human viability? We propose that short motifs are used at the system level. This system architecture allows viruses to exploit a motif, whereas the viability of the host is not affected by mutation of a single motif. PMID:18508672

  6. 2011 Arctic Seal Disease Outbreak Update on Investigation and Findings

    E-print Network

    , and Arctic and Bering Strait communities. As a dynamic disease investigation, events continue to be reported-October (NSB 2011). In the Bering Strait Region, a total of 67 live/dead carcasses have been reported between been reported from the North Slope Borough, Bering Strait, and Chukotka region of Russia. The extent

  7. Disrupting seasonality to control disease outbreaks: the case of koi herpes virus.

    PubMed

    Omori, Ryosuke; Adams, Ben

    2011-02-21

    Common carp accounts for a substantial proportion of global freshwater aquaculture production. Koi herpes virus (KHV), a highly virulent disease affecting carp that emerged in the late 1990s, is a serious threat to this industry. After a fish is infected with KHV, there is a temperature dependent delay before it becomes infectious, and a further delay before mortality. Consequently, KHV epidemiology is driven by seasonal changes in water temperature. Also, it has been proposed that outbreaks could be controlled by responsive management of water temperature in aquaculture setups. We use a mathematical model to analyse the effect of seasonal temperature cycles on KHV epidemiology, and the impact of attempting to control outbreaks by disrupting this cycle. We show that, although disease progression is fast in summer and slow in winter, total mortality over a 2-year period is similar for outbreaks that start in either season. However, for outbreaks that start in late autumn, mortality may be low and immunity high. A single bout of water temperature management can be an effective outbreak control strategy if it is started as soon as dead fish are detected and maintained for a long time. It can also be effective if the frequency of infectious fish is used as an indicator for the beginning of treatment. In this case, however, there is a risk that starting the treatment too soon will increase mortality relative to the case when no treatment is used. This counterproductive effect can be avoided if multiple bouts of temperature management are used. We conclude that disrupting normal seasonal patterns in water temperature can be an effective strategy for controlling koi herpes virus. Exploiting the seasonal patterns, possibly in combination with temperature management, can also induce widespread immunity to KHV in a cohort of fish. However, employing these methods successfully requires careful assessment to ensure that the treatment is started, and finished, at the correct time. PMID:21145328

  8. Predictability and epidemic pathways in global outbreaks of infectious diseases: the SARS case study

    PubMed Central

    Colizza, Vittoria; Barrat, Alain; Barthélemy, Marc; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    Background The global spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic has clearly shown the importance of considering the long-range transportation networks in the understanding of emerging diseases outbreaks. The introduction of extensive transportation data sets is therefore an important step in order to develop epidemic models endowed with realism. Methods We develop a general stochastic meta-population model that incorporates actual travel and census data among 3 100 urban areas in 220 countries. The model allows probabilistic predictions on the likelihood of country outbreaks and their magnitude. The level of predictability offered by the model can be quantitatively analyzed and related to the appearance of robust epidemic pathways that represent the most probable routes for the spread of the disease. Results In order to assess the predictive power of the model, the case study of the global spread of SARS is considered. The disease parameter values and initial conditions used in the model are evaluated from empirical data for Hong Kong. The outbreak likelihood for specific countries is evaluated along with the emerging epidemic pathways. Simulation results are in agreement with the empirical data of the SARS worldwide epidemic. Conclusion The presented computational approach shows that the integration of long-range mobility and demographic data provides epidemic models with a predictive power that can be consistently tested and theoretically motivated. This computational strategy can be therefore considered as a general tool in the analysis and forecast of the global spreading of emerging diseases and in the definition of containment policies aimed at reducing the effects of potentially catastrophic outbreaks. PMID:18031574

  9. Lessons from SARS: A retrospective study of outpatient care during an infectious disease outbreak

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nehad Nasef; Karel O'Brien; Lesley Wylie; Sharon Unger

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in Toronto, outpatient clinics at SickKids Hospital were closed to prevent further disease transmission. In response, a decision was made by the neonatal neuro-developmental follow up (NNFU) clinic staff to select patients with scheduled appointments to have a mail\\/telephone assessment using Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) or to postpone\\/skip their visit. The

  10. Ebola virus disease outbreak in Nigeria: Transmission dynamics and rapid control.

    PubMed

    Althaus, C L; Low, N; Musa, E O; Shuaib, F; Gsteiger, S

    2015-06-01

    International air travel has already spread Ebola virus disease (EVD) to major cities as part of the unprecedented epidemic that started in Guinea in December 2013. An infected airline passenger arrived in Nigeria on July 20, 2014 and caused an outbreak in Lagos and then Port Harcourt. After a total of 20 reported cases, including 8 deaths, Nigeria was declared EVD free on October 20, 2014. We quantified the impact of early control measures in preventing further spread of EVD in Nigeria and calculated the risk that a single undetected case will cause a new outbreak. We fitted an EVD transmission model to data from the outbreak in Nigeria and estimated the reproduction number of the index case at 9.0 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.2-15.6). We also found that the net reproduction number fell below unity 15 days (95% CI: 11-21 days) after the arrival of the index case. Hence, our study illustrates the time window for successful containment of EVD outbreaks caused by infected air travelers. PMID:25979285

  11. An outbreak of coxsackievirus A6 hand, foot, and mouth disease associated with onychomadesis in Taiwan, 2010

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2010, an outbreak of coxsackievirus A6 (CA6) hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) occurred in Taiwan and some patients presented with onychomadesis and desquamation following HFMD. Therefore, we performed an epidemiological and molecular investigation to elucidate the characteristics of this outbreak. Methods Patients who had HFMD with positive enterovirus isolation results were enrolled. We performed a telephone interview with enrolled patients or their caregivers to collect information concerning symptoms, treatments, the presence of desquamation, and the presence of nail abnormalities. The serotypes of the enterovirus isolates were determined using indirect immunofluorescence assays. The VP1 gene was sequenced and the phylogenetic tree for the current CA6 strains in 2010, 52 previous CA6 strains isolated in Taiwan from 1998 through 2009, along with 8 reference sequences from other countries was constructed using the neighbor-joining command in MEGA software. Results Of the 130 patients with laboratory-confirmed CA6 infection, some patients with CA6 infection also had eruptions around the perioral area (28, 22%), the trunk and/or the neck (39, 30%) and generalized skin eruptions (6, 5%) in addition to the typical presentation of skin eruptions on the hands, feet, and mouths. Sixty-six (51%) CA6 patients experienced desquamation of palms and soles after the infection episode and 48 (37%) CA6 patients developed onychomadesis, which only occurred in 7 (5%) of 145 cases with non-CA6 enterovirus infection (p < 0.001). The sequences of viral protein 1 of CA6 in 2010 differ from those found in Taiwan before 2010, but are similar to those found in patients in Finland in 2008. Conclusions HFMD patients with CA6 infection experienced symptoms targeting a broader spectrum of skin sites and more profound tissue destruction, i.e., desquamation and nail abnormalities. PMID:22168544

  12. Risk factors for foot and mouth disease outbreaks in grazing beef cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Elnekave, E; Zamir, L; Hamd, F; Even Tov, B; Klement, E

    2015-06-15

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is considered one of the most important diseases of cattle. Recurrence of FMD outbreaks in Israel is common, even though routine vaccination of livestock is mandatory and control measures are applied during the outbreaks. Grazing beef herds are occasionally involved in these outbreaks and play an important role in disseminating the disease, due to the large efflux of animals from these herds to feedlots. Nevertheless, the risk factors for the occurrence of FMD among these herds have never been investigated. In 2011, Israel faced a large scale outbreak of serotype O FMD virus, which strongly affected beef cattle. We conducted a case-control study of 44 beef cattle herds grazing in the Golan Heights in order to determine the risk factors for FMDV infection. Data were analyzed using a generalized estimation equation (GEE) with a logit link function. Multivariable analysis was conducted for factors with p-value lower than 0.1 in the univariable analysis. The presence of calves under 6 months of age was found as a significant risk factor for FMDV infection in the univariable analysis (odds ratio (OR)=5.95, confidence intervals of 95% (CI95%)=1.59-22.29, p=0.008). This was also the only variable that remained statistically significant in the multivariable analysis. Herds in which more than 6 months between vaccination of adults and exposure had elapsed were in higher risk, albeit not statistically significant, for the occurrence of FMDV infection (OR=3.29, CI95%=0.83-12.99, p=0.089). The higher probability of infection in herds, which included young calves may be a result of their higher susceptibility due to administration of only one or no vaccine prior to the outbreak. The results of the study thus support increasing the frequency of vaccination of both cows and calves in grazing beef herds. Intensifying surveillance where young calves are abundant may also prove efficient for early detection of infected herds and for mitigating outbreaks of FMDV. PMID:25841998

  13. Legionnaires' disease outbreak in an automobile engine manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Fry, Alicia M; Rutman, Miai; Allan, Terry; Scaife, Heidi; Salehi, Ellen; Benson, Robert; Fields, Barry; Nowicki, Scott; Parrish, Mary Kay; Carpenter, Joseph; Brown, Ellen; Lucas, Claressa; Horgan, Timothy; Koch, Elizabeth; Besser, Richard E

    2003-03-15

    We investigated 4 cases of legionnaires' disease (LD) reported among workers at an Ohio automotive plant in March 2001. A "confirmed" case of LD was defined as x-ray-confirmed pneumonia and a confirmatory laboratory test. A "possible" case of LD was defined as elevated titers of antibody and respiratory symptoms. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (LP1) was isolated from 1 case patient. Legionella was isolated from 18 (9%) of 197 environmental samples; 3 isolates were LP1 but did not match the case isolate. We conducted a case-control study; 17 case patients with confirmed or possible LD and 86 control subjects (workers with low antibody titers and without symptoms) were enrolled. Visiting a specific cleaning line (odds ratio, [OR], 7.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.31-23.00) and working in the cleaning region of the plant (OR, 3.22; 95% CI, 1.11-9.38) were associated with LD. LD can be transmitted in industrial settings in which aerosols are produced. Clinicians should consider LD when treating persons from these settings for pneumonia. PMID:12660949

  14. An unusually long-lasting outbreak of community-acquired Legionnaires' disease, 2005-2008, Italy.

    PubMed

    Scaturro, M; Fontana, S; Crippa, S; Caporali, M G; Seyler, T; Veschetti, E; Villa, G; Rota, M C; Ricci, M L

    2015-08-01

    An unusually long-lasting community-acquired outbreak of Legionnaires' disease (LD) occurred in the inhabitants of a town in northern Italy from 2005 to 2008. Overall, 43 cases were diagnosed including five deaths. Hundreds of water samples were collected for Legionella isolation but only two clinical samples were obtained. Clinical strains were ST23 as were environmental isolates detected in most Legionella-positive patients' homes and those from a public fountain. Although no Legionella was found in the municipal water mains, a continuous chlorination was applied in 2008. This action resulted in a halving of cases, although incidence remained tenfold higher than the Italian average incidence until the end of 2013, when it dropped to the expected rate. Retrospective analyses of prevalent wind direction suggested that a hidden cooling tower could have been the main cause of this uncommon outbreak, highlighting the importance of implementation of cooling tower registers in supporting LD investigations. PMID:25427871

  15. FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE VIRUS UTILIZES AN AUTOPHAGIC PATHWAY DURING VIRAL REPLICATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the type species of the Aphthovirus genus, of the family Picornaviridae. Infection with postive-strand RNA viruses results in the rearrangement of intracellular membranes into viral replication complexes which are the sites of viral RNA replication. Cellular ...

  16. Economic impact of foot and mouth disease outbreaks on smallholder farmers in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Jemberu, W T; Mourits, M C M; Woldehanna, T; Hogeveen, H

    2014-09-01

    Foot and mouth disease is endemic in Ethiopia with occurrences of several outbreaks every year. Quantitative information about the impact of the disease on smallholder farming systems in the country is, however, scarce. This study presents a quantitative assessment of the clinical and direct economic impacts of foot and mouth disease outbreaks on household level in smallholder livestock farming systems. Impacts were assessed based on data obtained from case outbreaks in cattle in crop-livestock mixed and pastoral smallholder farming systems that occurred in 2012 and 2013. Data were collected by using questionnaires administered to 512 smallholder farmers in six districts within two administrate zones that represent the two smallholder farming systems. Foot and mouth disease morbidity rates of 85.2% and 94.9% at herd level; and 74.3% and 60.8% at animal level in the affected herds were determined for crop-livestock mixed system and pastoral system, respectively. The overall and calf specific mortality rates were 2.4% and 9.7% for the crop-livestock mixed system, and 0.7% and 2.6% for the pastoral system, respectively. Herd level morbidity rate was statistically significantly higher in the pastoral system than in the crop-livestock mixed system (P<0.001). The economic losses of foot and mouth disease outbreak due to milk loss, draft power loss and mortality were on average USD 76 per affected herd and USD 9.8 per head of cattle in the affected herds in crop-livestock mixed system; and USD 174 per affected herd and USD 5.3 per head of cattle in the affected herds in the pastoral system. The herd level economic losses were statistically significantly higher for the pastoral system than for the crop-livestock mixed system (P<0.001). The major loss due to the disease occurred as a result of milk losses and draft power losses whereas mortality losses were relatively low. Although the presented estimates on the economic losses accounted only for the visible direct impacts of the disease on herd level, these conservative estimates signify a potential socioeconomic gain from a control intervention. PMID:24985154

  17. Molecular epidemiology of Neisseria meningitidis isolates from an outbreak of meningococcal disease among men who have sex with men, Chicago, Illinois, 2003.

    PubMed

    Schmink, Susanna; Watson, John T; Coulson, Garry B; Jones, Roderick C; Diaz, Pamela S; Mayer, Leonard W; Wilkins, Patricia P; Messonnier, Nancy; Gerber, Susan I; Fischer, Marc

    2007-11-01

    We characterized five Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C isolates from a Chicago outbreak of meningococcal disease that occurred in 2003 among a community of men who have sex with men. Isolates from this outbreak were identical to each other but distinct from the clone that caused a similar outbreak in Canada in 2001. PMID:17728467

  18. Using satellite images of environmental changes to predict infectious disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Ford, Timothy E; Colwell, Rita R; Rose, Joan B; Morse, Stephen S; Rogers, David J; Yates, Terry L

    2009-09-01

    Recent events clearly illustrate a continued vulnerability of large populations to infectious diseases, which is related to our changing human-constructed and natural environments. A single person with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in 2007 provided a wake-up call to the United States and global public health infrastructure, as the health professionals and the public realized that today's ease of airline travel can potentially expose hundreds of persons to an untreatable disease associated with an infectious agent. Ease of travel, population increase, population displacement, pollution, agricultural activity, changing socioeconomic structures, and international conflicts worldwide have each contributed to infectious disease events. Today, however, nothing is larger in scale, has more potential for long-term effects, and is more uncertain than the effects of climate change on infectious disease outbreaks, epidemics, and pandemics. We discuss advances in our ability to predict these events and, in particular, the critical role that satellite imaging could play in mounting an effective response. PMID:19788799

  19. Computer simulation of Gumboro disease outbreak. III. Construction model G-4.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, T; Ito, T; Tanaka, T; Mizumura, Y

    1980-01-01

    Following the simulation mode., G-3, of Gumboro disease outbreak, Model G-4 was constructed. The algorithm for computer simulation is shown in a flow chart. The postulates added to those for Models G-1 and G-2 are as follows: (1) The source of contamination is the virus remaining in the house and declining gradually in value with the lapse of time. (2) Any diseased bird excretes the virus during a certain period, so that the virus may be added to the source of contamination. (3) The morbid status of the diseased bird becomes worse in process of time, but the infection remains subclinical until a threshold value is reached. Beyond this value the bird becomes clinically diseased. In this model, more than 20 parameters are involved, and random numbers used for expressing the individual differences in the four variables, viz., the level of innate resistance, parentally conferred immunity, virus-intake, and threshold of clinical manifestation. PMID:6255346

  20. The Impact of Viral Genotype on Pathogenesis and Disease Severity: Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Rhinoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Martin L.; Stokes, Kate L.; Hartert, Tina V.

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infection (LRI) and viral death in infants. RSV disease in infants is characterized by epithelial desquamation, neutrophilic bronchiolitis and pneumonia, and obstructive pulmonary mucus. Human rhinoviruses (HRV) are by far the most common cause of symptomatic upper respiratory tract infection (URI) in people and are more recently appreciated as a significant cause of LRI. RSV and HRV are also implicated in asthma pathogenesis. Within both RSV and HRV, viral genetic differences play a role in disease severity and/or prevalence in patient populations, and viral genetic differences affect pathogenesis. Here, we review data on how viral genetic differences impact disease using RSV and HRV as examples, including effects on the host immune response. Virus genotype-phenotype relationships can be exploited in the laboratory to gain insight into mechanisms by which respiratory viruses modulate host immune responses and cause disease. PMID:24455766

  1. Intrafamilial Transmission of Vaccinia virus during a Bovine Vaccinia Outbreak in Brazil: A New Insight in Viral Transmission Chain

    PubMed Central

    Pereira Oliveira, Graziele; Tavares Silva Fernandes, André; Lopes de Assis, Felipe; Augusto Alves, Pedro; Moreira Franco Luiz, Ana Paula; Barcelos Figueiredo, Leandra; Costa de Almeida, Cláudia Maria; Pires Ferreira Travassos, Carlos Eurico; de Souza Trindade, Giliane; Santos Abrahão, Jônatas; Geessien Kroon, Erna

    2014-01-01

    Bovine vaccinia (BV) is an emerging zoonosis caused by the Vaccinia virus (VACV), genus Orthopoxvirus (OPV), Poxviridae family. In general, human cases are related to direct contact with sick cattle but there is a lack of information about human-to-human transmission of VACV during BV outbreaks. In this study, we epidemiologically and molecularly show a case of VACV transmission between humans in São Francisco de Itabapoana County, Rio de Janeiro state. Our group collected samples from the patients, a 49-year-old patient and his son. Our results showed that patients had developed anti-OPV IgG or IgM antibodies and presented neutralizing antibodies against OPV. The VACV isolates displayed high identity (99.9%) and were grouped in the same phylogenetic tree branch. Our data indicate that human-to-human VACV transmission occurred during a BV outbreak, raising new questions about the risk factors of the VACV transmission chain. PMID:24615135

  2. Intrafamilial transmission of Vaccinia virus during a bovine Vaccinia outbreak in Brazil: a new insight in viral transmission chain.

    PubMed

    Pereira Oliveira, Graziele; Tavares Silva Fernandes, André; Lopes de Assis, Felipe; Augusto Alves, Pedro; Moreira Franco Luiz, Ana Paula; Barcelos Figueiredo, Leandra; Costa de Almeida, Cláudia Maria; Pires Ferreira Travassos, Carlos Eurico; de Souza Trindade, Giliane; Santos Abrahão, Jônatas; Geessien Kroon, Erna

    2014-06-01

    Bovine vaccinia (BV) is an emerging zoonosis caused by the Vaccinia virus (VACV), genus Orthopoxvirus (OPV), Poxviridae family. In general, human cases are related to direct contact with sick cattle but there is a lack of information about human-to-human transmission of VACV during BV outbreaks. In this study, we epidemiologically and molecularly show a case of VACV transmission between humans in São Francisco de Itabapoana County, Rio de Janeiro state. Our group collected samples from the patients, a 49-year-old patient and his son. Our results showed that patients had developed anti-OPV IgG or IgM antibodies and presented neutralizing antibodies against OPV. The VACV isolates displayed high identity (99.9%) and were grouped in the same phylogenetic tree branch. Our data indicate that human-to-human VACV transmission occurred during a BV outbreak, raising new questions about the risk factors of the VACV transmission chain. PMID:24615135

  3. A large Legionnaires' disease outbreak in Pamplona, Spain: early detection, rapid control and no case fatality

    PubMed Central

    CASTILLA, J.; BARRICARTE, A.; ALDAZ, J.; GARCÍA CENOZ, M.; FERRER, T.; PELAZ, C.; PINEDA, S.; BALADRÓN, B.; MARTÍN, I.; GOÑI, B.; ARATAJO, P.; CHAMORRO, J.; LAMEIRO, F.; TORROBA, L.; DORRONSORO, I.; MARTÍNEZ-ARTOLA, V.; ESPARZA, M. J.; GASTAMINZA, M. A.; FRAILE, P.; ALDAZ, P.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY An outbreak of Legionnaire's disease was detected in Pamplona, Spain, on 1 June 2006. Patients with pneumonia were tested to detect Legionella pneumophila antigen in urine (Binax Now; Binax Inc., Scarborough, ME, USA), and all 146 confirmed cases were interviewed. The outbreak was related to district 2 (22 012 inhabitants), where 45% of the cases lived and 50% had visited; 5% lived in neighbouring districts. The highest incidence was found in the resident population of district 2 (3/1000 inhabitants), section 2 (14/1000). All 31 cooling towers of district 2 were analysed. L. pneumophila antigen (Binax Now) was detected in four towers, which were closed on 2 June. Only the strain isolated in a tower situated in section 2 of district 2 matched all five clinical isolates, as assessed by mAb and two genotyping methods, AFLP and PFGE. Eight days after closing the towers, new cases ceased appearing. Early detection and rapid coordinated medical and environmental actions permitted immediate control of the outbreak and probably contributed to the null case fatality. PMID:17662166

  4. Modeling alternative mitigation strategies for a hypothetical outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark A Schoenbaum; W Terry Disney

    2003-01-01

    Alternative mitigation strategies were compared during hypothetical outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the USA using a computer-simulation model. The epidemiologic and economic consequences were compared during these simulated outbreaks. Three vaccination and four slaughter strategies were studied along with two speeds of FMD virus spread among three susceptible populations of animals. The populations represented typical animal demographics in the

  5. Role of dendritic cells in differential susceptibility to viral demyelinating disease.

    PubMed

    Hou, Wanqiu; So, Eui Young; Kim, Byung S

    2007-08-24

    Although persistent viral diseases are a global health concern, the mechanisms of differential susceptibility to such infections among individuals are unknown. Here, we report that differential interactions between dendritic cells (DCs) and virus are critical in determining resistance versus susceptibility in the Theiler murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced demyelinating disease model of multiple sclerosis. This virus induces a chronic demyelinating disease in susceptible mice, whereas the virus is completely cleared in resistant strains of mice. DCs from susceptible mice are more permissive to viral infection, resulting in severe deficiencies in development, expansion, and function, in contrast to DCs from resistant mice. Although protective prior to viral infection, higher levels of type I interferons (IFNs) and IFN-gamma produced by virus-infected DCs from susceptible mice further contribute to the differential inhibition of DC development and function. An increased DC number and/or acquired resistance of DCs to viral infection render susceptible mice resistant to viral persistence and disease progression. Thus, the differential permissiveness of DCs to infectious agents and its subsequent functional and developmental deficiencies determine the outcome of infection- associated diseases. Therefore, arming DCs against viral infection-induced functional decline may provide a useful intervention for chronic infection-associated diseases. PMID:17722981

  6. Maximum linkage space-time permutation scan statistics for disease outbreak detection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In disease surveillance, the prospective space-time permutation scan statistic is commonly used for the early detection of disease outbreaks. The scanning window that defines potential clusters of diseases is cylindrical in shape, which does not allow incorporating into the cluster shape potential factors that can contribute to the spread of the disease, such as information about roads, landscape, among others. Furthermore, the cylinder scanning window assumes that the spatial extent of the cluster does not change in time. Alternatively, a dynamic space-time cluster may indicate the potential spread of the disease through time. For instance, the cluster may decrease over time indicating that the spread of the disease is vanishing. Methods This paper proposes two irregularly shaped space-time permutation scan statistics. The cluster geometry is dynamically created using a graph structure. The graph can be created to include nearest-neighbor structures, geographical adjacency information or any relevant prior information regarding the contagious behavior of the event under surveillance. Results The new methods are illustrated using influenza cases in three New England states, and compared with the cylindrical version. A simulation study is provided to investigate some properties of the proposed arbitrary cluster detection techniques. Conclusion We have successfully developed two new space-time permutation scan statistics methods with irregular shapes and improved computational performance. The results demonstrate the potential of these methods to quickly detect disease outbreaks with irregular geometries. Future work aims at performing intensive simulation studies to evaluate the proposed methods using different scenarios, number of cases, and graph structures. PMID:24916839

  7. An outbreak of blackhead disease (Histomonas meleagridis) in farm-reared bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus).

    PubMed

    McDougald, L R; Abraham, M; Beckstead, R B

    2012-12-01

    An outbreak of blackhead disease (Histomonas meleagridis) in farm-reared flock of 13,500 bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) resulted in mortality totaling approximately 1500 in 4 wk. Necropsy of 56 dead birds at midoutbreak (from a total that day of 131) revealed that 55 had severe cecal lesions typical of blackhead, and only 3 had visible lesions in the liver. Necropsy of apparently healthy birds failed to detect any signs of infection. Presence of H. meleagridis in affected ceca was proved by culture in vitro and PCR tests. PMID:23397851

  8. Recent weather extremes and impacts on agricultural production and vector-borne disease outbreak patterns.

    PubMed

    Anyamba, Assaf; Small, Jennifer L; Britch, Seth C; Tucker, Compton J; Pak, Edwin W; Reynolds, Curt A; Crutchfield, James; Linthicum, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    We document significant worldwide weather anomalies that affected agriculture and vector-borne disease outbreaks during the 2010-2012 period. We utilized 2000-2012 vegetation index and land surface temperature data from NASA's satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to map the magnitude and extent of these anomalies for diverse regions including the continental United States, Russia, East Africa, Southern Africa, and Australia. We demonstrate that shifts in temperature and/or precipitation have significant impacts on vegetation patterns with attendant consequences for agriculture and public health. Weather extremes resulted in excessive rainfall and flooding as well as severe drought, which caused ?10 to 80% variation in major agricultural commodity production (including wheat, corn, cotton, sorghum) and created exceptional conditions for extensive mosquito-borne disease outbreaks of dengue, Rift Valley fever, Murray Valley encephalitis, and West Nile virus disease. Analysis of MODIS data provided a standardized method for quantifying the extreme weather anomalies observed during this period. Assessments of land surface conditions from satellite-based systems such as MODIS can be a valuable tool in national, regional, and global weather impact determinations. PMID:24658301

  9. Recent Weather Extremes and Impacts on Agricultural Production and Vector-Borne Disease Outbreak Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anyamba, Assaf; Small, Jennifer L.; Britch, Seth C.; Tucker, Compton J.; Pak, Edwin W.; Reynolds, Curt A.; Crutchfield, James; Linthicum, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    We document significant worldwide weather anomalies that affected agriculture and vector-borne disease outbreaks during the 2010-2012 period. We utilized 2000-2012 vegetation index and land surface temperature data from NASA's satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to map the magnitude and extent of these anomalies for diverse regions including the continental United States, Russia, East Africa, Southern Africa, and Australia. We demonstrate that shifts in temperature and/or precipitation have significant impacts on vegetation patterns with attendant consequences for agriculture and public health. Weather extremes resulted in excessive rainfall and flooding as well as severe drought, which caused,10 to 80% variation in major agricultural commodity production (including wheat, corn, cotton, sorghum) and created exceptional conditions for extensive mosquito-borne disease outbreaks of dengue, Rift Valley fever, Murray Valley encephalitis, and West Nile virus disease. Analysis of MODIS data provided a standardized method for quantifying the extreme weather anomalies observed during this period. Assessments of land surface conditions from satellite-based systems such as MODIS can be a valuable tool in national, regional, and global weather impact determinations.

  10. Identification, virulence, and mass spectrometry of toxic ECP fractions of West Alabama isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila obtained from a 2010 disease outbreak

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In West Alabama, disease outbreaks in 2009 caused by Aeromonas hydrophila have led to an estimated loss of more than $3 million. In 2010, disease outbreak occurred again in West Alabama, causing losses of hundreds of thousands of pounds of market size channel catfish. During the 2010 disease outbrea...

  11. Marble Spleen Disease (MSD) : an outbreak in game pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) anatomo -pathological and histo-pathological findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Gavaudan; S. Fiorelli; C. Bartolini; P. Mancini; E. Manuali; F. Savelli; F. Barchiesi; M. Delogu

    INTRODUCTION Marble Speen Disease (MSD) is one of the foremost virosis (aviadenovirus II) of pheasants. Actually are not known outbreaks in wild animals, while it is a typical disease in 3-6 months old farmed pheasants. Anatomo-pathologic and Histo- pathological findings are described in order to make easy the laboratory diagnosis and the control in the farmed flock. In march 2004,

  12. Common childhood viral infections.

    PubMed

    Alter, Sherman J; Bennett, Jeffrey S; Koranyi, Katylin; Kreppel, Andrew; Simon, Ryan

    2015-02-01

    Infections caused by viruses are universal during childhood and adolescence. Clinicians will regularly care for children and adolescents who present with infections caused by a wide number of viral pathogens. These infections have varied presentations. Many infections may have clinical presentations that are specific to the infecting virus but present differently, based on the age and immunocompetence of the patient. Some children are directly impacted early in their lives when maternal disease results in an in utero infection (cytomegalovirus, rubella virus, or parvovirus B19). Other viruses may infect children in a predictable pattern as they grow older (rhinovirus or influenza virus). Fortunately, many viral infections frequently encountered in the past are no longer extant due to widespread immunization efforts. Recognition of these vaccine-preventable infections is important because outbreaks of some of these diseases (mumps or measles) continue to occur in the United States. Vigilance in vaccine programs against these viral agents can prevent their re-emergence. In addition, an increasing number of viral infections (herpes simplex virus, influenza virus, varicella zoster virus, or cytomegalovirus) can now be successfully treated with antiviral medications. Most viral infections in children result in self-limited illness and are treated symptomatically and infected children experience full recovery. This review will address the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of viral infections commonly encountered by the clinician. PMID:25703483

  13. Fusigenic Viral Liposome for Gene Therapy in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor J. Dzau; Michael J. Mann; Ryuichi Morishita; Yasufumi Kaneda

    1996-01-01

    To improve the efficiency of liposome-mediated DNA transfer as a tool for gene therapy, we have developed a fusigenic liposome vector based on principles of viral cell fusion. The fusion proteins of hemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ; also Sendai virus) are complexed with liposomes that encapsulate oligodeoxynucleotide or plasmid DNA. Subsequent fusion of HVJ-liposomes with plasma membranes introduces the DNA

  14. Effects of chloroquine on viral infections: an old drug against today's diseases?

    PubMed

    Savarino, Andrea; Boelaert, Johan R; Cassone, Antonio; Majori, Giancarlo; Cauda, Roberto

    2003-11-01

    Chloroquine is a 9-aminoquinoline known since 1934. Apart from its well-known antimalarial effects, the drug has interesting biochemical properties that might be applied against some viral infections. Chloroquine exerts direct antiviral effects, inhibiting pH-dependent steps of the replication of several viruses including members of the flaviviruses, retroviruses, and coronaviruses. Its best-studied effects are those against HIV replication, which are being tested in clinical trials. Moreover, chloroquine has immunomodulatory effects, suppressing the production/release of tumour necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 6, which mediate the inflammatory complications of several viral diseases. We review the available information on the effects of chloroquine on viral infections, raising the question of whether this old drug may experience a revival in the clinical management of viral diseases such as AIDS and severe acute respiratory syndrome, which afflict mankind in the era of globalisation. PMID:14592603

  15. Role of Pentraxin 3 in Shaping Arthritogenic Alphaviral Disease: From Enhanced Viral Replication to Immunomodulation

    PubMed Central

    Foo, Suan-Sin; Chen, Weiqiang; Taylor, Adam; Sheng, Kuo-Ching; Yu, Xing; Teng, Terk-Shin; Reading, Patrick C.; Blanchard, Helen; Garlanda, Cecilia; Mantovani, Alberto; Ng, Lisa F. P.; Herrero, Lara J.; Mahalingam, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    The rising prevalence of arthritogenic alphavirus infections, including chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Ross River virus (RRV), and the lack of antiviral treatments highlight the potential threat of a global alphavirus pandemic. The immune responses underlying alphavirus virulence remain enigmatic. We found that pentraxin 3 (PTX3) was highly expressed in CHIKV and RRV patients during acute disease. Overt expression of PTX3 in CHIKV patients was associated with increased viral load and disease severity. PTX3-deficient (PTX3-/-) mice acutely infected with RRV exhibited delayed disease progression and rapid recovery through diminished inflammatory responses and viral replication. Furthermore, binding of the N-terminal domain of PTX3 to RRV facilitated viral entry and replication. Thus, our study demonstrates the pivotal role of PTX3 in shaping alphavirus-triggered immunity and disease and provides new insights into alphavirus pathogenesis. PMID:25695775

  16. The use of hospital-based nurses for the surveillance of potential disease outbreaks.

    PubMed Central

    Durrheim, D. N.; Harris, B. N.; Speare, R.; Billinghurst, K.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study a novel surveillance system introduced in Mpumalanga Province, a rural area in the north-east of South Africa, in an attempt to address deficiencies in the system of notification for infectious conditions that have the potential for causing outbreaks. METHODS: Hospital-based infection control nurses in all of Mpumalanga's 32 public and private hospitals were trained to recognize, report, and respond to nine clinical syndromes that require immediate action. Sustainability of the system was assured through a schedule of regular training and networking, and by providing feedback to the nurses. The system was evaluated by formal review of hospital records, evidence of the effective containment of a cholera outbreak, and assessment of the speed and appropriateness of responses to other syndromes. FINDINGS: Rapid detection, reporting and response to six imported cholera cases resulted in effective containment, with only 19 proven secondary cholera cases, during the two-year review period. No secondary cases followed detection and prompt response to 14 patients with meningococcal disease. By the end of the first year of implementation, all facilities were providing weekly zero-reports on the nine syndromes before the designated time. Formal hospital record review for cases of acute flaccid paralysis endorsed the value of the system. CONCLUSION: The primary goal of an outbreak surveillance system is to ensure timely recognition of syndromes requiring an immediate response. Infection control nurses in Mpumalanga hospitals have excelled in timely weekly zero-reporting, participation at monthly training and feedback sessions, detection of priority clinical syndromes, and prompt appropriate response. This review provides support for the role of hospital-based nurses as valuable sentinel surveillance agents providing timely data for action. PMID:11217663

  17. MINIREVIEW Acute and Persistent Viral Life Strategies and Their Relationship to Emerging Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis P. Villarreal; Victor R. Defilippis; Keith A. Gottlieb

    stinct life strategies.However, since various acute viruses can be both avirgin soil epidemic (r-selected) and a childhood infectionat equilibrium in the population (K-selected), theselife strategies cannot be applied to individual viral species(Villarreal, 1999). Yet viruses do appear to havedistinct patterns of acute and persistent host infection.Viral persistence has been considered with respect tosources of epidemic disease (Mahy, 1985; Domingo etal.,

  18. The Contribution of Infections with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses to Bovine Respiratory Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The contribution of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) to the development of bovine respiratory disease is the sum of a number of different factors. These factors include the contribution of acute uncomplicated BVDV infections, the high incidence of respiratory disease in animals persistently inf...

  19. Bovine viral diarrhoea virus antigenic diversity: impact on disease and vaccination programmes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert W. Fulton; Julia F. Ridpath; Anthony W. Confer; Jeremiah T. Saliki; Lurinda J. Burge; Mark E. Payton

    2003-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infections in cattle are associated with a variety or “diverse” clinical forms. These include digestive tract, respiratory, foetal (varied, dependent on foetal age), haemorrhagic and systemic diseases such as mucosal disease, and immunosuppression and inapparent infections. The BVDV isolates themselves are “diverse” with genotype differences based on nucleotide sequences, antigenic variability and biotypes (presence or

  20. WATERBORNE GIARDIASIS: A COMMUNITYWIDE OUTBREAK OF DISEASE AND A HIGH RATE OF ASYMPTOMATIC INFECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A communitywide outbreak of gastrointestinal illness due to Giardia lamblia infection occurred in the city of Berlin, New Hampshire, during April and May 1977. The clinical, epidemiologic, and laboratory aspects of this outbreak are described here. In 213 predominantly symptomati...

  1. A Legionnaires' disease outbreak: a water blaster and roof-collected rainwater systems.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Greg; Jury, Sheryl; Thornley, Craig; Harte, David; Mohiuddin, Jasmine; Taylor, Michael

    2008-03-01

    In February 2006, an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease (LD) was identified in Beachlands, a small, isolated east Auckland suburb. It was investigated through case finding, a case-control study, sampling potential sources of infection and by molecular typing (using sequence-based typing (SBT) of all Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (Lp1) isolates). Lp1 was isolated from the respiratory tract of one case, the roof-collected rainwater systems of five households (three associated with cases) and from a water blaster at a nearby marina. All isolates were indistinguishable, exhibiting the same SBT allele pattern. Three LD cases lived within 500m of the water blaster (the fourth case within 1250m) and downwind in prevailing conditions. Another domestic roof-collected rainwater supply contaminated by Lp1 (identical SBT pattern) was incidentally identified in another suburb 4km east of Beachlands. This is the first outbreak of LD linked to roof-collected rainwater supplies and the first isolation of Legionella from these systems in New Zealand. Aerosols containing Legionella discharged to air by the marina water blaster may have infected some cases directly or may have seeded roof-collected rainwater systems. Some cases may have been exposed by contaminated bathroom showers. Roof-collected rainwater systems need appropriate design, careful cleaning and the maintenance of hot water temperatures at a minimum of 60 degrees C to reduce the chances of Legionella multiplying. Further research into the ecology of Legionella in roof-collected rain water systems is indicated. PMID:17991506

  2. [Application of molecular genetic methods during Legionnaires' disease outbreak in town Verkhnyaya Pyshma].

    PubMed

    Iatsyshina, S B; Astakhova, T S; Romanenko, V V; Platonov, A E; Zhukova, Iu V; Braslavskaia, S I; Tartakovski?, I S; Shipulin, G A

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to perform molecular genetic analysis based on multi-locus sequence typing in order to identify source of Legionnaires' disease outbreak in town Verkhnyaya Pyshma in July 2007 and genetic profile of the causative agent. Sequence-based typing protocol recommended by European Working Group on Legionella infection (EWGLI) was used. It was not possible to obtain satisfactory results of Fla gene sequencing for all samples. Obtained allelic profiles of other genes were typical for L. pneumophila. Allelic profiles of L. pneumophila isolated from patients were identical and matched with L. pneumophila DNA detected in water from hot water supply of domestic building, but differed from cooling tower's isolates and isolates from showerhead in apartment of one patient. Identity of 5 genes of L. pneumophila isolated from autopsy samples and from hot water of central hot water supply of domestic building confirms aspiration route of infection through hot water contaminated by the microorganism. L. pneumophila detected in water from cooling tower, showerhead in apartment of one patient, and from drainage canal of hot water supply station belonged to other allelic variants and, therefore, are not related with the outbreak. PMID:18464536

  3. Rapid quantitative detection of Aeromonas hydrophila strains associated with disease outbreaks in catfish aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Matt J; Goodwin, Andrew E; Merry, Gwenn E; Liles, Mark R; Williams, Malachi A; Ware, Cynthia; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C

    2013-07-01

    A new strain of Aeromonas hydrophila has been implicated in significant losses in farm-raised catfish. Outbreaks attributable to this new strain began in Alabama in the summer of 2009 and have spread to Arkansas and Mississippi in subsequent years. These outbreaks mostly afflicted market-sized fish and resulted in considerable losses in short periods of time. The present research was designed to develop an expeditious diagnostic procedure to detect the new strains of A. hydrophila due to the rapid onset and biosecurity concerns associated with this new disease. A discriminatory quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay was developed using gene sequences unique to the virulent strains identified in a related comparative genomic study. Using this assay, suspect colonies on a culture plate can be positively identified as the new strain within 2 hr. The assay is repeatable and reproducible with a linear dynamic range covering 8 orders of magnitude and a sensitivity of approximately 7 copies of target DNA in a 15-µl reaction. In addition, the assay is able to detect and quantify the virulent strain from catfish tissues (0.025 g), pond water (40 ml), and sediments (0.25 g) with a sensitivity limit of approximately 100 bacteria in a sample. This assay provides rapid discrimination between the new virulent strain and more common A. hydrophila and is useful for epidemiological studies involving the detection and quantification of the virulent strain in environmental samples and fish tissues. PMID:23847227

  4. MedMyst Disease Defenders. Students learn how experts work as a team to solve infectious disease outbreaks while using the scientific method.

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Center for Technology in Teaching and Learning

    2011-09-28

    This is a problem-based learning adventure game in which players investigate infectious disease outbreaks. By interacting with professionals in the field and in the laboratory, players learn about the science of infectious disease and real medical science careers. Players can choose to train with an epidemiologist, microbiologist, or veterinarian to learn how these experts work as a team to solve infectious disease outbreaks while using the scientific method. Each expert path has its own learning objectives and stresses different parts of the scientific method. Key topics covered in this game: Scientific method, science process skills, rabies, necropsy, case-control study. Also available in Spanish.

  5. MANAGEMENT OF VIRAL DISEASES IN FLORAL AND NURSERY CROPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of plant diseases caused by viruses, viroids and fastidious prokaryotes involves exclusion, eradication, protection and the use of resistant varieties. Development of serological and molecular techniques allows rapid diagnosis of diseases and reliable detection of causal agents. Accurate ide...

  6. Severe viral oesophagitis, pharyngitis, and stomatitis as antecedents of ileocecal Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Waluga, Marek; Budzy?ska, Agnieszka; Kajor, Maciej; Hartleb, Marek

    2015-01-01

    We present a 22-year-old male who developed a severe erosive oesophagitis extending to the pharynx and oral cavity without obvious risk factors. Endoscopic image suggested viral aetiology that could not be confirmed by routine serological diagnostics of infections with cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and Herpes simplex virus. The histopathological evaluation also gave no definite clues to the aetiology of the inflammation. Treatment with acyclovir was ineffective, but gancyclovir therapy caused spectacular clinical improvement and healing of erosions. Two months later the patient presented febrile diarrhoea that was a symptom of ileocecal Crohn's disease proven by endoscopy, enterography, and histopathology. It is the first report of severe viral oesophagitis preceding clinical manifestation of Crohn's disease. This observation warrants further study towards the viral aetiology of oral, pharyngeal, and oesophageal erosions, frequently associated with Crohn's disease. PMID:25960815

  7. Selective Impact of Disease on Coral Communities: Outbreak of White Syndrome Causes Significant Total Mortality of Acropora Plate Corals

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; Frisch, Ashley J.; Newman, Stephen J.; Wakefield, Corey B.

    2015-01-01

    Coral diseases represent a significant and increasing threat to coral reefs. Among the most destructive diseases is White Syndrome (WS), which is increasing in distribution and prevalence throughout the Indo-Pacific. The aim of this study was to determine taxonomic and spatial patterns in mortality rates of corals following the 2008 outbreak of WS at Christmas Island in the eastern Indian Ocean. WS mainly affected Acropora plate corals and caused total mortality of 36% of colonies across all surveyed sites and depths. Total mortality varied between sites but was generally much greater in the shallows (0–96% of colonies at 5 m depth) compared to deeper waters (0–30% of colonies at 20 m depth). Site-specific mortality rates were a reflection of the proportion of corals affected by WS at each site during the initial outbreak and were predicted by the initial cover of live Acropora plate cover. The WS outbreak had a selective impact on the coral community. Following the outbreak, live Acropora plate coral cover at 5 m depth decreased significantly from 7.0 to 0.8%, while the cover of other coral taxa remained unchanged. Observations five years after the initial outbreak revealed that total Acropora plate cover remained low and confirmed that corals that lost all their tissue due to WS did not recover. These results demonstrate that WS represents a significant and selective form of coral mortality and highlights the serious threat WS poses to coral reefs in the Indo-Pacific. PMID:26147291

  8. A model for autumn outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease associated with cooling towers, linked to system operation and size.

    PubMed Central

    Bentham, R. H.; Broadbent, C. R.

    1993-01-01

    Cooling towers have been demonstrated to be amplifiers and disseminators of legionella, the causative organism of Legionnaires' disease. Community outbreaks associated with cooling towers have been reported with several common factors. Small towers (< 300 kW) have predominantly been implicated in outbreaks. Cooling tower-associated outbreaks are most frequent in autumn, and frequently implicated systems have been operated after a period of shutdown. This paper reports field study data relating system operation to legionella colonization of systems. Operating systems have been shown to be more frequently colonized by legionella than shutdown systems. In some cases operation of systems after periods of shutdown raised legionella concentrations from below detection limits to between 50 and 950 c.f.u./ml within 10 min. These data and previously reported data relating to biofilm and sediment colonization of the systems, and community outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease, have been used to develop a model explaining the seasonal nature of outbreaks associated with irregularly operated, small cooling tower systems. PMID:8405155

  9. Selective Impact of Disease on Coral Communities: Outbreak of White Syndrome Causes Significant Total Mortality of Acropora Plate Corals.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; Frisch, Ashley J; Newman, Stephen J; Wakefield, Corey B

    2015-01-01

    Coral diseases represent a significant and increasing threat to coral reefs. Among the most destructive diseases is White Syndrome (WS), which is increasing in distribution and prevalence throughout the Indo-Pacific. The aim of this study was to determine taxonomic and spatial patterns in mortality rates of corals following the 2008 outbreak of WS at Christmas Island in the eastern Indian Ocean. WS mainly affected Acropora plate corals and caused total mortality of 36% of colonies across all surveyed sites and depths. Total mortality varied between sites but was generally much greater in the shallows (0-96% of colonies at 5 m depth) compared to deeper waters (0-30% of colonies at 20 m depth). Site-specific mortality rates were a reflection of the proportion of corals affected by WS at each site during the initial outbreak and were predicted by the initial cover of live Acropora plate cover. The WS outbreak had a selective impact on the coral community. Following the outbreak, live Acropora plate coral cover at 5 m depth decreased significantly from 7.0 to 0.8%, while the cover of other coral taxa remained unchanged. Observations five years after the initial outbreak revealed that total Acropora plate cover remained low and confirmed that corals that lost all their tissue due to WS did not recover. These results demonstrate that WS represents a significant and selective form of coral mortality and highlights the serious threat WS poses to coral reefs in the Indo-Pacific. PMID:26147291

  10. Using Satellite Images of Environmental Changes to Predict Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Colwell, Rita R.; Rose, Joan B.; Morse, Stephen S.; Rogers, David J.; Yates, Terry L.

    2009-01-01

    Recent events clearly illustrate a continued vulnerability of large populations to infectious diseases, which is related to our changing human-constructed and natural environments. A single person with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in 2007 provided a wake-up call to the United States and global public health infrastructure, as the health professionals and the public realized that today’s ease of airline travel can potentially expose hundreds of persons to an untreatable disease associated with an infectious agent. Ease of travel, population increase, population displacement, pollution, agricultural activity, changing socioeconomic structures, and international conflicts worldwide have each contributed to infectious disease events. Today, however, nothing is larger in scale, has more potential for long-term effects, and is more uncertain than the effects of climate change on infectious disease outbreaks, epidemics, and pandemics. We discuss advances in our ability to predict these events and, in particular, the critical role that satellite imaging could play in mounting an effective response. PMID:19788799

  11. Evaluation of methods for the euthanasia of cattle in a foreign animal disease outbreak.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, H J; Scrimgeour, H J

    1995-01-01

    In anticipation of the need to euthanize large numbers of cattle in the event of a foreign animal disease outbreak, two models of captive bolt gun and various firearms and ammunition loads were tested in order to assess their suitability. In the first phase of the project, two models of captive bolt stunner were used in an abattoir, and assessed for effectiveness. In the second phase, several firearms and ammunition were used on isolated bovine heads and assessed for effectiveness. Little difference was found between the two captive bolt stunners. Of the firearms and ammunition evaluated, the Ruger Mini-14 and the Core-Shot round, a prefragmented projectile, were determined to be most suitable. In situations where large herds of livestock are to be depopulated, and where the restraint required for the use of captive bolt stunners is not practical, there are commercially available firearms and ammunition that are suitable for this purpose. PMID:7757921

  12. Epidemiologic characteristics of an outbreak of serogroup C meningococcal disease and the public health response.

    PubMed Central

    Houck, P; Patnode, M; Atwood, R; Powell, K

    1995-01-01

    An outbreak of serogroup C meningococcal disease occurred in six counties in the State of Washington from January 1989 through mid-1991. This report describes epidemiologic data collected from hospitals and health departments, the results of multilocus enzyme electrophoresis of isolates, and the vaccination of high-risk populations in one county. A total of 45 confirmed or probable cases (10 per 100,000 population) occurred. Infants younger than age 1, Hispanics and American Indians, and low-income populations had high attack rates. Nine (20 percent) patients died. The predominant enzyme type, ET-22, had not been detected previously in Washington. More than 22,000 persons were vaccinated in one of the counties. Major challenges to health care personnel included deciding when and where to employ vaccination, obtaining sufficient vaccine, and responding to public anxiety. PMID:7610228

  13. 1st International Symposium on Stress-Associated RNA Granules in Human Disease and Viral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Banfield, Bruce W.; Mouland, Andrew J.; McCormick, Craig

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, important linkages have been made between RNA granules and human disease processes. On June 8-10 of this year, we hosted a new symposium, dubbed the 1st International Symposium on Stress-Associated RNA Granules in Human Disease and Viral Infection. This symposium brought together experts from diverse research disciplines ranging from cancer and neuroscience to infectious disease. This report summarizes speaker presentations and highlights current challenges in the field. PMID:25256393

  14. 1st International Symposium on Stress-associated RNA Granules in Human Disease and Viral Infection.

    PubMed

    Banfield, Bruce W; Mouland, Andrew J; McCormick, Craig

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, important linkages have been made between RNA granules and human disease processes. On June 8-10 of this year, we hosted a new symposium, dubbed the 1st International Symposium on Stress-Associated RNA Granules in Human Disease and Viral Infection. This symposium brought together experts from diverse research disciplines ranging from cancer and neuroscience to infectious disease. This report summarizes speaker presentations and highlights current challenges in the field. PMID:25256393

  15. What is Pandemic Influenza? A pandemic is a global disease outbreak. A flu pandemic occurs when a new

    E-print Network

    What is Pandemic Influenza? A pandemic is a global disease outbreak. A flu pandemic occurs when a new influenza virus emerges for which people have little or no immunity, and for which the country and around the world in very short time. It is difficult to predict when the next influenza

  16. An evaluation of Foot-and-Mouth Disease outbreak reporting in mainland South-East Asia from 2000 to 2010

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben Madin

    Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is considered to be endemic throughout mainland South-East Asia (SEA). The South-East Asia and China FMD (SEACFMD) campaign is a regional control programme which has been ongoing since 1997. The programme encourages countries to submit reports of outbreaks regularly. This paper evolved from a collaboration with SEACFMD to evaluate 10 years worth of reporting. All

  17. Surveillance for Waterborne Disease Outbreaks and Other Health Events Associated with Recreational Water -United States, 2007-2008*

    EPA Science Inventory

    Problem/Condition: Since 1978, CDC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have collaborated on the Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) for collecting and reporting data on occurrences and causes...

  18. Modeling cholera outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Longini, Ira M.; Morris, J. Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical modeling can be a valuable tool for studying infectious disease outbreak dynamics and simulating the effects of possible interventions. Here, we describe approaches to modeling cholera outbreaks and how models have been applied to explore intervention strategies, particularly in Haiti. Mathematical models can play an important role in formulating and evaluating complex cholera outbreak response options. Major challenges to cholera modeling are insufficient data for calibrating models and the need to tailor models for different outbreak scenarios. PMID:23412687

  19. Disease outbreaks, bleaching and a cyclone drive changes in coral assemblages on an inshore reef of the Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haapkylä, J.; Melbourne-Thomas, J.; Flavell, M.; Willis, B. L.

    2013-09-01

    Coral disease is a major threat to the resilience of coral reefs; thus, understanding linkages between disease outbreaks and disturbances predicted to increase with climate change is becoming increasingly important. Coral disease surveys conducted twice yearly between 2008 and 2011 at a turbid inshore reef in the central Great Barrier Reef spanned two disturbance events, a coral bleaching event in 2009 and a severe cyclone (cyclone `Yasi') in 2011. Surveys of coral cover, community structure and disease prevalence throughout this 4-yr study provide a unique opportunity to explore cumulative impacts of disturbance events and disease for inshore coral assemblages. The principal coral disease at the study site was atramentous necrosis (AtN), and it primarily affected the key inshore, reef-building coral Montipora aequituberculata. Other diseases detected were growth anomalies, white syndrome and brown band syndrome. Diseases affected eight coral genera, although Montipora was, by far, the genus mostly affected. The prevalence of AtN followed a clear seasonal pattern, with disease outbreaks occurring only in wet seasons. Mean prevalence of AtN on Montipora spp. (63.8 % ± 3.03) was three- to tenfold greater in the wet season of 2009, which coincided with the 2009 bleaching event, than in other years. Persistent wet season outbreaks of AtN combined with the impacts of bleaching and cyclone events resulted in a 50-80 % proportional decline in total coral cover. The greatest losses of branching and tabular acroporids occurred following the low-salinity-induced bleaching event of 2009, and the greatest losses of laminar montiporids occurred following AtN outbreaks in 2009 and in 2011 following cyclone Yasi. The shift to a less diverse coral assemblage and the concomitant loss of structural complexity are likely to have long-term consequences for associated vertebrate and invertebrate communities on Magnetic Island reefs.

  20. The evolution and expansion of regional disease surveillance networks and their role in mitigating the threat of infectious disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Bond, Katherine C; Macfarlane, Sarah B; Burke, Charlanne; Ungchusak, Kumnuan; Wibulpolprasert, Suwit

    2013-01-01

    We examine the emergence, development, and value of regional infectious disease surveillance networks that neighboring countries worldwide are organizing to control cross-border outbreaks at their source. The regional perspective represented in the paper is intended to serve as an instructive framework for others who decide to launch such networks as new technologies and emerging threats bring countries even closer together. Distinct from more formal networks in geographic regions designated by the World Health Organization (WHO), these networks usually involve groupings of fewer countries chosen by national governments to optimize surveillance efforts. Sometimes referred to as sub-regional, these "self-organizing" networks complement national and local government recognition with informal relationships across borders among epidemiologists, scientists, ministry officials, health workers, border officers, and community members. Their development over time reflects both incremental learning and growing connections among network actors; and changing disease patterns, with infectious disease threats shifting over time from local to regional to global levels. Not only has this regional disease surveillance network model expanded across the globe, it has also expanded from a mostly practitioner-based network model to one that covers training, capacity-building, and multidisciplinary research. Today, several of these networks are linked through Connecting Organizations for Regional Disease Surveillance (CORDS). We explore how regional disease surveillance networks add value to global disease detection and response by complementing other systems and efforts, by harnessing their power to achieve other goals such as health and human security, and by helping countries adapt to complex challenges via multi-sectoral solutions. We note that governmental commitment and trust among participating individuals are critical to the success of regional infectious disease surveillance networks. PMID:23362414

  1. 62 FR 8867 - Change in Disease Status of the Netherlands Because of Hog Cholera

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1997-02-27

    ...Netherlands. Hog cholera is a contagious viral disease of swine. The impact...of a Potential Hog Cholera Outbreak...forth, from infection of herds in a...DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, HOG CHOLERA, AND...

  2. EFFECTS OF POLLUTANTS ON HUMAN VIRAL RESPIRATORY DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many epidemiologic studies have shown excessive respiratory disease morbidity in areas of high atmospheric pollution. This study was designed to develop and characterize an animal model and investigate the possible interactive effects of infection and particulate air pollutants u...

  3. Meningococcal Disease: Surveillance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Meningococcal Vaccination Surveillance Meningococcal Outbreaks About Meningococcal Outbreaks Serogroup B Meningococcal Vaccine & Outbreaks Clinical Information Laboratory Information Meningococcal Disease in ...

  4. Meningococcal Disease: Risk Factors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Meningococcal Vaccination Surveillance Meningococcal Outbreaks About Meningococcal Outbreaks Serogroup B Meningococcal Vaccine & Outbreaks Clinical Information Laboratory Information Meningococcal Disease in ...

  5. John K. Rose, PhD Chronic viral disease often leads to cancer.

    E-print Network

    Lee, Daeyeol

    John K. Rose, PhD Chronic viral disease often leads to cancer. People with chronic hepatitis B on the idea seven years ago. The results look very promising. The current vaccine for hepatitis B prevents chronic HBV, noted Dr. Robek,"they don't cure the infection, and if you stop using them, the virus comes

  6. Interferons as Therapy for Viral and Neoplastic Diseases: From Panacea to Pariah to Paragon

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Robert M.; Contente, Sara

    2009-01-01

    For more than 20 years after the excitement engendered by their discovery in 1957 as antiviral agents, there were no significant clinical uses of interferons; however, following their cloning they have been employed as effective treatment for several viral, autoimmune, and neoplastic diseases.

  7. BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUS (BVDV) 1B: PREDOMINANT BVDV SUBTYPE IN CALVES WITH RESPIRATORY DISEASE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections was determined in 2 groups of stocker calves with acute respiratory disease. Both studies used calves assembled after purchase from auction markets by an order buyer and transported to feedyards, where they were held for approximately ...

  8. Contribution of Viral Mimics of Cellular Genes to KSHV Infection and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sakakibara, Shuhei; Tosato, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, also named Human herpesvirus 8 HHV-8) is the cause of Kaposi sarcoma (KS), the most common malignancy in HIV-infected individuals worldwide, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and multicentric Castleman disease (MCD). KSHV is a double-stranded DNA virus that encodes several homologues of cellular proteins. The structural similarity between viral and host proteins explains why some viral homologues function as their host counterparts, but sometimes at unusual anatomical sites and inappropriate times. In other cases, structural modification in the viral proteins can suppress or override the function of the host homologue, contributing to KSHV-related diseases. For example, viral IL-6 (vIL-6) is sufficiently different from human IL-6 to activate gp130 signaling independent of the ? subunit. As a consequence, vIL-6 can activate many cell types that are unresponsive to cellular IL-6, contributing to MCD disease manifestations. Here, we discuss the molecular biology of KSHV homologues of cellular products as conduits of virus/host interaction with a focus on identifying new strategies for therapy of KS and other KSHV-related diseases. PMID:25243371

  9. PCR Analysis of the Viral Complex Associated with La France Disease ofAgaricus bisporus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. PETER ROMAINE; ANDBETH SCHLAGNHAUFER

    1995-01-01

    Reverse transcription PCR analysis was used to investigate the involvement of two RNA-genome viruses, La France isometric virus (LIV) and mushroom bacilliform virus (MBV), in the etiology of La France disease of the cultivated mushroomAgaricus bisporus. Reverse transcription PCR amplification of sequences targeted to the genomes of LIV and MBV, with a sensitivity of detection of <10 fg of viral

  10. Viral Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... much smaller than bacteria. Viruses cause familiar infectious diseases such as the common cold, flu and warts. ... can help prevent you from getting many viral diseases. NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

  11. A human-like H1N2 influenza virus detected during an outbreak of acute respiratory disease in swine in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Rejane; Rech, Raquel Rubia; Gava, Danielle; Cantão, Mauricio Egídio; da Silva, Marcia Cristina; Silveira, Simone; Zanella, Janice Reis Ciacci

    2015-01-01

    Passive monitoring for detection of influenza A viruses (IAVs) in pigs has been carried out in Brazil since 2009, detecting mostly the A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus. Since then, outbreaks of acute respiratory disease suggestive of influenza A virus infection have been observed frequently in Brazilian pig herds. During a 2010-2011 influenza monitoring, a novel H1N2 influenza virus was detected in nursery pigs showing respiratory signs. The pathologic changes were cranioventral acute necrotizing bronchiolitis to subacute proliferative and purulent bronchointerstitial pneumonia. Lung tissue samples were positive for both influenza A virus and A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus based on RT-qPCR of the matrix gene. Two IAVs were isolated in SPF chicken eggs. HI analysis of both swine H1N2 influenza viruses showed reactivity to the H1? cluster. DNA sequencing was performed for all eight viral gene segments of two virus isolates. According to the phylogenetic analysis, the HA and NA genes clustered with influenza viruses of the human lineage (H1-? cluster, N2), whereas the six internal gene segments clustered with the A(H1N1)pdm09 group. This is the first report of a reassortant human-like H1N2 influenza virus derived from pandemic H1N1 virus causing an outbreak of respiratory disease in pigs in Brazil. The emergence of a reassortant IAV demands the close monitoring of pigs through the full-genome sequencing of virus isolates in order to enhance genetic information about IAVs circulating in pigs. PMID:25209152

  12. Viral respiratory diseases (ILT, aMPV infections, IB): are they ever under control?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard C. Jones

    2010-01-01

    Abstract1.?The use of vaccines is the main approach to control of the economically important poultry viral respiratory diseases infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) infections and infectious bronchitis (IB). This paper appraises the current methods of vaccine control in the light of the nature of each virus and epidemiological factors associated with each disease.2.?Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) exists as a

  13. Leptospirosis Outbreak in Sri Lanka in 2008: Lessons for Assessing the Global Burden of Disease

    PubMed Central

    Agampodi, Suneth B.; Peacock, Sharon J.; Thevanesam, Vasanthi; Nugegoda, Danaseela B.; Smythe, Lee; Thaipadungpanit, Janjira; Craig, Scott B.; Burns, Mary Ann; Dohnt, Michael; Boonsilp, Siriphan; Senaratne, Thamarasi; Kumara, Athula; Palihawadana, Paba; Perera, Sahan; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    Global leptospirosis disease burden estimates are hampered by the lack of scientifically sound data from countries with probable high endemicity and limited diagnostic capacities. We describe the seroepidemiologic and clinical characteristics of the leptospirosis outbreak in 2008 in Sri Lanka. Definitive/presumptive case definitions proposed by the World Health Organization Leptospirosis Epidemiology Reference Group were used for case confirmation. Of the 404 possible cases, 155 were confirmed to have leptospirosis. Highest titers of patient seum samples reacted with serovars Pyrogenes (28.7%), Hardjo (18.8%), Javanica (11.5%), and Hebdomadis (11.5%). Sequencing of the 16S ribosomal DNA gene identified six infections: five with Leptospira interrogans and one with L. weilli. In this patient population, acute renal failure was the main complication (14.8%), followed by myocarditis (7.1%) and heart failure (3.9%). The case-fatality rate was 1.3%. This report strengthens the urgent need for increasing laboratory diagnostic capabilities to determine the causes of epidemic and endemic infectious diseases in Sri Lanka, a finding relevant to other tropical regions. PMID:21896807

  14. Leptospirosis outbreak in Sri Lanka in 2008: lessons for assessing the global burden of disease.

    PubMed

    Agampodi, Suneth B; Peacock, Sharon J; Thevanesam, Vasanthi; Nugegoda, Danaseela B; Smythe, Lee; Thaipadungpanit, Janjira; Craig, Scott B; Burns, Mary Ann; Dohnt, Michael; Boonsilp, Siriphan; Senaratne, Thamarasi; Kumara, Athula; Palihawadana, Paba; Perera, Sahan; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2011-09-01

    Global leptospirosis disease burden estimates are hampered by the lack of scientifically sound data from countries with probable high endemicity and limited diagnostic capacities. We describe the seroepidemiologic and clinical characteristics of the leptospirosis outbreak in 2008 in Sri Lanka. Definitive/presumptive case definitions proposed by the World Health Organization Leptospirosis Epidemiology Reference Group were used for case confirmation. Of the 404 possible cases, 155 were confirmed to have leptospirosis. Highest titers of patient seum samples reacted with serovars Pyrogenes (28.7%), Hardjo (18.8%), Javanica (11.5%), and Hebdomadis (11.5%). Sequencing of the 16S ribosomal DNA gene identified six infections: five with Leptospira interrogans and one with L. weilli. In this patient population, acute renal failure was the main complication (14.8%), followed by myocarditis (7.1%) and heart failure (3.9%). The case-fatality rate was 1.3%. This report strengthens the urgent need for increasing laboratory diagnostic capabilities to determine the causes of epidemic and endemic infectious diseases in Sri Lanka, a finding relevant to other tropical regions. PMID:21896807

  15. Implementation of a data fusion algorithm for RODS, a real-time outbreak and disease surveillance system.

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Douglas (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Gray, Genetha Anne (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2005-10-01

    Due to the nature of many infectious agents, such as anthrax, symptoms may either take several days to manifest or resemble those of less serious illnesses leading to misdiagnosis. Thus, bioterrorism attacks that include the release of such agents are particularly dangerous and potentially deadly. For this reason, a system is needed for the quick and correct identification of disease outbreaks. The Real-time Outbreak Disease Surveillance System (RODS), initially developed by Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh, was created to meet this need. The RODS software implements different classifiers for pertinent health surveillance data in order to determine whether or not an outbreak has occurred. In an effort to improve the capability of RODS at detecting outbreaks, we incorporate a data fusion method. Data fusion is used to improve the results of a single classification by combining the output of multiple classifiers. This paper documents the first stages of the development of a data fusion system that can combine the output of the classifiers included in RODS.

  16. Virus and viral diseases of the Honey Bee, Apis mellifera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Viruses pose serious threat to the health and well-being of honey bees, Apis mellifera, the most economically valuable pollinators of agricultural and horticultural crops worldwide. Lately, honey bee viruses have gotten a lot of international attention due to the significant disease status that vir...

  17. Evolutionary analysis of the dynamics of viral infectious disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver G. Pybus; Andrew Rambaut

    2009-01-01

    Many organisms that cause infectious diseases, particularly RNA viruses, mutate so rapidly that their evolutionary and ecological behaviours are inextricably linked. Consequently, aspects of the transmission and epidemiology of these pathogens are imprinted on the genetic diversity of their genomes. Large-scale empirical analyses of the evolutionary dynamics of important pathogens are now feasible owing to the increasing availability of pathogen

  18. Review: Micronutrient Selenium Deficiency Influences Evolution of Some Viral Infectious Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michalann Harthill

    Recently emerged viral infectious diseases (VIDs) include HIV\\/AIDS, influenzas H5N1 and 2009 H1N1, SARS, and Ebola hemorrhagic\\u000a fevers. Earlier research determined metabolic oxidative stress in hosts deficient in antioxidant selenium (Se) (<1 ?Mol Se\\/L\\u000a of blood) induces both impaired human host immunocompetence and rapidly mutated benign variants of RNA viruses to virulence.\\u000a These viral mutations are consistent, rather than stochastic, and long-lived.

  19. Use of viral vectors to create animal models for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Löw, Karin; Aebischer, Patrick

    2012-11-01

    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. While sporadic in the majority of cases, PD-linked dominant mutations in the ?-synuclein and LRRK-2 genes, and recessive mutations in the parkin, DJ-1 and PINK-1 genes have been identified in PD families in recent years. In this review we describe viral animal models for PD, i.e. models that are based on PD-associated mutations, and have been generated by viral delivery of the respective disease genes to the substantia nigra of rodents and non-human primates. To date, viral PD models comprise ?-synuclein and LRRK-2-based overexpression models, as well as models that mimic parkin loss of function by overexpression of the parkin substrates Pael-R, CDCrel-1, p38/JTV or synphilin-1. These viral models provide valuable insights into Parkinson disease mechanisms, help to identify therapeutic targets and may contribute to the development of therapeutic approaches. PMID:22227451

  20. Learning from outbreaks of bovine tuberculosis near Riding Mountain National Park: Applications to a foreign animal disease outbreak

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Riding Mountain National Park, Manitoba, is home to a population of free-roaming elk (Cervus elaphus manitobensis) that have been found to be infected with Mycobacterium bovis, the agent of bovine tuberculosis (TB). The disease has also been found in a number of cattle herds near the Park and, as a result, Manitoba has been assigned a split status for bovine TB. A number of government agencies, with input from representatives from the wildlife and agricultural sectors, have responded by devising a program to detect, investigate, control, eradicate, and prevent TB in both wild and domestic animals. Experience from these efforts can be applied to the control of other diseases, such a foreign animal disease, elsewhere in Canada. PMID:14992251

  1. The structure of viral coat protein and its in disease.

    PubMed

    Chapman, S; Lindbeck, A G; Dawson, W O

    1993-10-01

    Because the structure of the tobacco mosaic virus capsid protein is known, mutations that alter the phenotype of the virus-plant interaction can be correlated with structural changes in this protein. These mutations affect the disease symptoms caused by the virus and recognition of the virus by a plant resistance gene product. Recognition-host interaction is analogous to the gene-for-gene interactions of bacteria and fungi. PMID:8162410

  2. Rota Viral Infection: A Significant Disease Burden to Libya

    PubMed Central

    ALKOSHI, Salem; ERNST, Kacey; MAIMAITI, Namaitijiang; DAHLUI, Maznah

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Rotavirus is a common infection causing 450,000 deaths annually primarily in children 5 years and below. Despite the high burden of disease, little is known about the epidemiology of rotavirus in Libya. The aim of this study was to estimate the rotavirus disease burden among Libyan children. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out prospectively among children 5 years old and below between August 2012 and April 2013. Stool samples of children with diarrhea attending the outpatient department or admitted to the pediatric wards, at three public hospitals within the northwestern region of Libya were tested for rotavirus. The seasonality, symptomology demographics and outcomes of rotavirus cases were determined and compared to other diarrhea illnesses. An estimated incidence rate per 100,000 children aged 5 years and below was determined. Results A total of 545 children with diarrhea were identified for participation. Results of rotavirus immunoassays determined 57% of cases were caused by rotavirus. Inpatients were more likely to be rotavirus positive than outpatients (58% vs. 53%, P<0.05), Most rotavirus positive cases (86%) were found among children below 2 years of age. Rotaviral cases peaked in the winter, constituting 76% of diarrheal illness in February and very few rotavirus cases in the summer months. The incidence rate of rotavirus diarrhea was estimated at 640/100,000 children aged 5 years and below. Conclusion Rotavirus infection poses a significant disease burden in Libya. Preventive measures such as proper hygiene should be emphasized. Introduction of vaccination against rotavirus into the national immunization program should be examined, as it would likely be a cost-effective investment.

  3. Genomic comparative analysis and gene function prediction in infectious diseases: application to the investigation of a meningitis outbreak

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Next generation sequencing (NGS) is being increasingly used for the detection and characterization of pathogens during outbreaks. This technology allows rapid sequencing of pathogen full genomes, useful not only for accurate genotyping and molecular epidemiology, but also for identification of drug resistance and virulence traits. Methods In this study, an approach based on whole genome sequencing by NGS, comparative genomics, and gene function prediction was set up and retrospectively applied for the investigation of two N. meningitidis serogroup C isolates collected from a cluster of meningococcal disease, characterized by a high fatality rate. Results According to conventional molecular typing methods, all the isolates had the same typing results and were classified as outbreak isolates within the same N. meningitidis sequence type ST-11, while full genome sequencing demonstrated subtle genetic differences between the isolates. Looking for these specific regions by means of 9 PCR and cycle sequencing assays in other 7 isolates allowed distinguishing outbreak cases from unrelated cases. Comparative genomics and gene function prediction analyses between outbreak isolates and a set of reference N. meningitidis genomes led to the identification of differences in gene content that could be relevant for pathogenesis. Most genetic changes occurred in the capsule locus and were consistent with recombination and horizontal acquisition of a set of genes involved in capsule biosynthesis. Conclusions This study showed the added value given by whole genome sequencing by NGS over conventional sequence-based typing methods in the investigation of an outbreak. Routine application of this technology in clinical microbiology will significantly improve methods for molecular epidemiology and surveillance of infectious disease and provide a bulk of data useful to improve our understanding of pathogens biology. PMID:24252229

  4. Innovative Technological Approach to Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak Response in Nigeria Using the Open Data Kit and Form Hub Technology

    PubMed Central

    Nguku, Patrick; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya; Adewuyi, Peter; Adeoye, Olawunmi; Adeseye, Aderonke; Oguntimehin, Olukayode; Shuaib, Faisal

    2015-01-01

    The recent outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in West Africa has ravaged many lives. Effective containment of this outbreak relies on prompt and effective coordination and communication across various interventions; early detection and response being critical to successful control. The use of information and communications technology (ICT) in active surveillance has proved to be effective but its use in Ebola outbreak response has been limited. Due to the need for timeliness in reporting and communication for early discovery of new EVD cases and promptness in response; it became imperative to empower the response team members with technologies and solutions which would enable smooth and rapid data flow. The Open Data Kit and Form Hub technology were used in combination with the Dashboard technology and ArcGIS mapping for follow up of contacts, identification of cases, case investigation and management and also for strategic planning during the response. A remarkable improvement was recorded in the reporting of daily follow-up of contacts after the deployment of the integrated real time technology. The turnaround time between identification of symptomatic contacts and evacuation to the isolation facility and also for receipt of laboratory results was reduced and informed decisions could be taken by all concerned. Accountability in contact tracing was ensured by the use of a GPS enabled device. The use of innovative technologies in the response of the EVD outbreak in Nigeria contributed significantly to the prompt control of the outbreak and containment of the disease by providing a valuable platform for early warning and guiding early actions. PMID:26115402

  5. First Finding of Southeast Asia Topotype of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Kinmen, Taiwan, in the 2012 Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    LIN, Yeou-Liang; CHANG, Chia-Yi; PAN, Chu-Hsiang; DENG, Ming-Chung; TSAI, Hsiang-Jung; LEE, Fan

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Foot-and-mouth disease virus, a member of genus Aphthovirus within the family Picornaviridae, affects cloven-hoofed animals, causing foot-and-mouth disease characterized by vesicle development. The Southeast Asia topotype, one of the topotypes within serotype O of the virus, is prevalent in some Asian countries, but had not previously been found in Taiwan. The topotype was first found in pigs in Kinmen Island, Taiwan, in 2012 and identified by nucleotide sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis. Outbreaks were reported at 4 farms, resulting in the culling of 628 pigs and 1 cattle. Pigs were the only species infected during the outbreak. The incursion of Southeast Asia topotype into Taiwan implies the expansion of the topotype in East Asia. PMID:25056674

  6. Outbreak of legionnaires' disease from a cooling water system in a power station.

    PubMed Central

    Morton, S; Bartlett, C L; Bibby, L F; Hutchinson, D N; Dyer, J V; Dennis, P J

    1986-01-01

    In September and October 1981 six cases of pneumonia occurred among men working in a power station under construction. Three were identified as cases of legionella pneumonia and two others had serology suggestive of legionella infection. In a sample of 92 men from the site 10 had low levels of antibodies to legionella; a similar sample of men working on an adjacent site showed none with positive serology. In a case control study it was found that cases of pneumonia were more likely than controls to have worked on a part of the site where four small capacity cooling towers were located. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from the water systems of these four towers but was not found in samples from any other cooling towers or hot or cold water outlets on the site. It would appear that there was airborne spread of the organism from these cooling water systems which had not received conventional treatment to inhibit corrosion and organic growth. This is the first outbreak of legionnaires' disease to be recorded in an industrial setting in the United Kingdom. No cases of legionella infection have occurred on the site since the introduction of control measures. PMID:3756116

  7. Epidemics and Frequent Recombination within Species in Outbreaks of Human Enterovirus B-Associated Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in Shandong China in 2010 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting; Du, Jiang; Xue, Ying; Su, Haoxiang; Yang, Fan; Jin, Qi

    2013-01-01

    The epidemiology and molecular characteristics of human enterovirus B (HEV-B) associated with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) outbreaks in China are not well known. In the present study, we tested 201 HEV isolates from 233 clinical specimens from patients with severe HFMD during 2010-2011 in Linyi, Shandong, China. Of the 201 isolates, 189 were fully typed and 18 corresponded to HEV-B species (six serotypes CVA9, CVB1, CVB4, Echo 6, Echo 25 and Echo 30) using sensitive semi-nested polymerase chain reaction analysis of VP1 gene sequences. Phylogenetic analysis based on the VP1 region showed that eight E30SD belonged to a novel sub-genogroup D2; E25SD belonged to a novel sub-genogroup D6; E6SD belonged to sub-lineage C6 and five CVB1SD belonged to subgroup 4C; and B4SD belonged sub-lineage D2. The full viral genomes of the CVB1SD, E6SD, E25SD and E30SD isolates were sequenced. Analysis of phylogenetic and similarity plots indicated that E25SD recombined with E25-HN-2, E30FDJS03 and E4AUS250 at noncontiguous P2A-P3D regions, while E30SD, E30FDJ03, E25-HN-2 and E9 DM had shared sequences in discrete regions of P2 and P3. Both E6SD and B1SD shared sequences with E1-HN, B4/GX/10, B5-HN, and A9-Alberta in contiguous regions of most of P2 and P3. Genetic algorithm recombination detection analysis further confirmed the existence of multiple potential recombination points. In conclusion, analysis of the complete genomes of E25SD, E30SD, CVB1SD and E6SD isolated from HFMD patients revealed that they formed novel subgenogroup. Given the prevalence and recombination of these viruses in outbreaks of HFMD, persistent surveillance of HFMD-associated HEV-B pathogens is required to predict potential emerging viruses and related disease outbreaks. PMID:23840610

  8. Meningococcal carriage in relation to an outbreak of invasive disease due to Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C in the Netherlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. E. Conyn-van Spaendonck; R. Reintjes; L. Spanjaard; E. van Kregten; A. G. Kraaijeveld; P. H. A. Jacobs

    1999-01-01

    Background: a cross-sectional study on meningococcal carriage was performed in Putten, a small rural town in the Netherlands where an unusual high incidence of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) due to Neisseria meningitidis C:2a:P1.5 occurred. The outbreak was controlled by mass vaccination of all inhabitants aged 2 to 20 years.Methods: meningococcal carriage was studied in three groups: (1) a systematic age-specific

  9. Newcastle disease outbreaks in recent years in Western Europe were caused by an old (VI) and a novel genotype (VII)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Lomniczi; E. Wehmann; J. Herczeg; A. Ballagi-Pordány; E. F. Kaleta; O. Werner; G. Meulemans; P. H. Jorgensen; A. P. Manté; A. L. J. Gielkens; I. Capua; J. Damoser

    1998-01-01

    Summary.  ?Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains, isolated from outbreaks during epizootics between 1992 and 1996 in Western European\\u000a countries, were compared by restriction enzyme cleavage site mapping of the fusion (F) protein gene between nucleotides 334\\u000a and 1682 and by sequence analysis between nucleotides 47 and 435. Both methods revealed that NDV strains responsible for these\\u000a epizootics belong to two distinct

  10. Molecular epidemiology of an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease associated with a cooling tower in Genova-Sestri Ponente, Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Castellani Pastoris; L. Ciceroni; R. Lo Monaco; P. Goldoni; B. Mentore; G. Flego; L. Cattani; S. Ciarrocchi; A. Pinto; P. Visca

    1997-01-01

    Fatty acid profile analysis, monoclonal antibody (MAb) subtyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR), and ribotyping were used to compare clinical and environmentalLegionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates from an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease presumptively associated with cooling towers. According to the Oxford subtyping scheme, the MAb subtype of patients' isolates and of two strains originating from

  11. Two concurrent enteric disease outbreaks among men who have sex with men, minneapolis-st paul area.

    PubMed

    Danila, Richard N; Eikmeier, Dana L; Robinson, Trisha J; La Pointe, Allison; DeVries, Aaron S

    2014-10-01

    Between 1 November 2013 and 31 March 2014, concurrent shigellosis and cryptosporidiosis outbreaks occurred among men who have sex with men in the Minneapolis-St. Paul area, 75% of whom were HIV-infected. Current HIV/AIDS strategy emphasizing treatment as prevention may effectively decrease HIV transmission, but raises concerns about other diseases if safer sex messages are de-emphasized. PMID:24944234

  12. A community outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease associated with a cooling tower in Vic and Gurb, Catalonia (Spain) in 2005

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Sala Ferré; C. Arias; J. M. Oliva; A. Pedrol; M. García; T. Pellicer; P. Roura; A. Domínguez

    2009-01-01

    We report the investigation of a community-acquired outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease. An epidemiological, environmental,\\u000a and meteorological investigation was undertaken. Fifty-five cases were reported in October and November 2005. The exposure\\u000a occurred in a large area, with 12 cases (21.8%) located between 1,800 and 3,400 metres from the source. Water sample cultures\\u000a showed that Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (Lp-1) was present

  13. Seven Strains of Enterovirus D68 Detected in the United States during the 2014 Severe Respiratory Disease Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Brown, B. A.; Nix, W. A.; Sheth, M.; Frace, M.

    2014-01-01

    Clusters of severe respiratory disease in the United States were reported to the CDC beginning in August 2014. Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) was identified from 83% (30/36) of initial severe cases. Investigations in August and September found severe EV-D68 cases to be widespread across the United States. We report seven EV-D68 genomes from the outbreak. PMID:25414503

  14. Fire fighting truck-based emergency mosquito biolarviciding to prevent outbreaks of malaria and arboviral disease in Kabul, Afghanistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. Faulde; J. J. Scharninghausen; M. Tisch

    2008-01-01

    Emergency control of disease vectors requires high efficacy, rapid reaction and safe use of biocides in order interrupt transmission\\u000a cycles without harming humans, non-target animals and the environment. In countries with complex emergencies, air-borne large-scale\\u000a vector control is often limited, or impossible, due to questionable security as well as military, safety, equipment, or logistical\\u000a constraints. While facing a potential outbreak

  15. Host and Viral Genetic Correlates of Clinical Definitions of HIV-1 Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Rauch, Andri; Martínez, Raquel; Günthard, Huldrych F.; Garcia, Soledad; Rodríguez, Carmen; del Romero, Jorge; Telenti, Amalio; López-Galíndez, Cecilio

    2010-01-01

    Background Various patterns of HIV-1 disease progression are described in clinical practice and in research. There is a need to assess the specificity of commonly used definitions of long term non-progressor (LTNP) elite controllers (LTNP-EC), viremic controllers (LTNP-VC), and viremic non controllers (LTNP-NC), as well as of chronic progressors (P) and rapid progressors (RP). Methodology and Principal Findings We re-evaluated the HIV-1 clinical definitions, summarized in Table 1, using the information provided by a selected number of host genetic markers and viral factors. There is a continuous decrease of protective factors and an accumulation of risk factors from LTNP-EC to RP. Statistical differences in frequency of protective HLA-B alleles (p-0.01), HLA-C rs9264942 (p-0.06), and protective CCR5/CCR2 haplotypes (p-0.02) across groups, and the presence of viruses with an ancestral genotype in the “viral dating” (i.e., nucleotide sequences with low viral divergence from the most recent common ancestor) support the differences among principal clinical groups of HIV-1 infected individuals. Conclusions A combination of host genetic and viral factors supports current clinical definitions that discriminate among patterns of HIV-1 progression. The study also emphasizes the need to apply a standardized and accepted set of clinical definitions for the purpose of disease stratification and research. PMID:20552027

  16. Adventures in Infectious Diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher-Hoch, Susan [University of Texas School of Public Health

    2011-11-01

    Dr. Susan Fisher-Hoch, Virologist and Epidemiologist, will discuss her research and travels associated with viral hemorrhagic fevers. From the Ebola outbreak in Reston, Virginia to outbreaks of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in South Africa, Senegal, and Saudi Arabia, Dr. Fisher-Hoch has studied and tracked the pathophysiology of these viral diseases. These studies have led her from the Center for Disease Control in the United States, to Lyon, France where she was instrumental in designing, constructing, and rendering operational a laboratory capable of containing some of the world's most dangerous diseases.

  17. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains are highly prevalent in Ugandan piggeries but disease outbreaks are masked by antibiotic prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Okello, Emmanuel; Moonens, Kristof; Erume, Joseph; De Greve, Henri

    2015-01-01

    Post-weaning diarrhea (PWD) caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important disease of newly weaned piglets. ETEC strains commonly express F4 and/or F18 fimbriae that attach to carbohydrate receptors present on the intestinal epithelium during colonization. The disease status in the Ugandan piggeries had previously not been studied. In this cross-sectional sero-survey and clinical outbreak monitoring, we found very high sero-prevalence levels of both anti-F4 (70.5%) and anti-F18 (73.7%) antibodies, despite limited cases of clinical outbreaks. Strains isolated from these cases were typically F18(+) ETEC. High antibiotic resistance and multi-drug resistance were characteristics of the isolates, with highest resistance level of over 95% to commonly used antibiotics such as penicillin and tetracycline. We conclude that ETEC infections are widely spread on farms in Central Uganda but clinical disease outbreaks were masked by the management practices on these farms, like the use of extensive antibiotic prophylaxis. PMID:25311441

  18. First record of black band disease in the Hawaiian archipelago: response, outbreak, status, virulence, and a method of treatment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aeby, Greta S.; Work, Thierry M.; Runyon, Christina M.; Shore-Maggio, Amanda; Ushijima, Blake; Videau, Patrick; Beurmann, Silvia; Callahan, Sean M.

    2015-01-01

    A high number of coral colonies, Montipora spp., with progressive tissue loss were reported from the north shore of Kaua‘i by a member of the Eyes of the Reef volunteer reporting network. The disease has a distinct lesion (semi-circular pattern of tissue loss with an adjacent dark band) that was first observed in Hanalei Bay, Kaua‘i in 2004. The disease, initially termedMontipora banded tissue loss, appeared grossly similar to black band disease (BBD), which affects corals worldwide. Following the initial report, a rapid response was initiated as outlined in Hawai‘i’s rapid response contingency plan to determine outbreak status and investigate the disease. Our study identified the three dominant bacterial constituents indicative of BBD (filamentous cyanobacteria, sulfate-reducing bacteria, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria) in coral disease lesions from Kaua‘i, which provided the first evidence of BBD in the Hawaiian archipelago. A rapid survey at the alleged outbreak site found disease to affect 6-7% of the montiporids, which is higher than a prior prevalence of less than 1% measured on Kaua‘i in 2004, indicative of an epizootic. Tagged colonies with BBD had an average rate of tissue loss of 5.7 cm2/day over a two-month period. Treatment of diseased colonies with a double band of marine epoxy, mixed with chlorine powder, effectively reduced colony mortality. Within two months, treated colonies lost an average of 30% less tissue compared to untreated controls.

  19. First record of black band disease in the Hawaiian archipelago: response, outbreak status, virulence, and a method of treatment.

    PubMed

    Aeby, Greta S; Work, Thierry M; Runyon, Christina M; Shore-Maggio, Amanda; Ushijima, Blake; Videau, Patrick; Beurmann, Silvia; Callahan, Sean M

    2015-01-01

    A high number of coral colonies, Montipora spp., with progressive tissue loss were reported from the north shore of Kaua'i by a member of the Eyes of the Reef volunteer reporting network. The disease has a distinct lesion (semi-circular pattern of tissue loss with an adjacent dark band) that was first observed in Hanalei Bay, Kaua'i in 2004. The disease, initially termed Montipora banded tissue loss, appeared grossly similar to black band disease (BBD), which affects corals worldwide. Following the initial report, a rapid response was initiated as outlined in Hawai'i's rapid response contingency plan to determine outbreak status and investigate the disease. Our study identified the three dominant bacterial constituents indicative of BBD (filamentous cyanobacteria, sulfate-reducing bacteria, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria) in coral disease lesions from Kaua'i, which provided the first evidence of BBD in the Hawaiian archipelago. A rapid survey at the alleged outbreak site found disease to affect 6-7% of the montiporids, which is higher than a prior prevalence of less than 1% measured on Kaua'i in 2004, indicative of an epizootic. Tagged colonies with BBD had an average rate of tissue loss of 5.7 cm2/day over a two-month period. Treatment of diseased colonies with a double band of marine epoxy, mixed with chlorine powder, effectively reduced colony mortality. Within two months, treated colonies lost an average of 30% less tissue compared to untreated controls. PMID:25774800

  20. First Record of Black Band Disease in the Hawaiian Archipelago: Response, Outbreak Status, Virulence, and a Method of Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Aeby, Greta S.; Work, Thierry M.; Runyon, Christina M.; Shore-Maggio, Amanda; Ushijima, Blake; Videau, Patrick; Beurmann, Silvia; Callahan, Sean M.

    2015-01-01

    A high number of coral colonies, Montipora spp., with progressive tissue loss were reported from the north shore of Kaua‘i by a member of the Eyes of the Reef volunteer reporting network. The disease has a distinct lesion (semi-circular pattern of tissue loss with an adjacent dark band) that was first observed in Hanalei Bay, Kaua‘i in 2004. The disease, initially termed Montipora banded tissue loss, appeared grossly similar to black band disease (BBD), which affects corals worldwide. Following the initial report, a rapid response was initiated as outlined in Hawai‘i’s rapid response contingency plan to determine outbreak status and investigate the disease. Our study identified the three dominant bacterial constituents indicative of BBD (filamentous cyanobacteria, sulfate-reducing bacteria, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria) in coral disease lesions from Kaua‘i, which provided the first evidence of BBD in the Hawaiian archipelago. A rapid survey at the alleged outbreak site found disease to affect 6-7% of the montiporids, which is higher than a prior prevalence of less than 1% measured on Kaua‘i in 2004, indicative of an epizootic. Tagged colonies with BBD had an average rate of tissue loss of 5.7 cm2/day over a two-month period. Treatment of diseased colonies with a double band of marine epoxy, mixed with chlorine powder, effectively reduced colony mortality. Within two months, treated colonies lost an average of 30% less tissue compared to untreated controls. PMID:25774800

  1. BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUS ANTIGENIC DIVERSITY: IMPACT ON DISEASE AND VACCINATION PROGRAMS (DETECTING AND CONTROLLING BVDV INFECTIONS, 4/4-5/02, AMES, IA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections in cattle are associated with a variety or "diverse" clinical forms. These include digestive tract disease, respiratory disease, fetal diseases (varied, dependent on fetal age), systemic disease such as mucosal disease, immunosuppression, hemorrhagic di...

  2. Rapid Diagnosis of Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever by Reverse Transcription-PCR in an Outbreak Setting and Assessment of Patient Viral Load as a Predictor of Outcome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan S. Towner; Pierre E. Rollin; Daniel G. Bausch; Anthony Sanchez; Sharon M. Crary; Martin Vincent; William F. Lee; Christina F. Spiropoulou; Thomas G. Ksiazek; Mathew Lukwiya; Felix Kaducu; Robert Downing; Stuart T. Nichol

    2004-01-01

    The largest outbreak on record of Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) occurred in Uganda from August 2000 to January 2001. The outbreak was centered in the Gulu district of northern Uganda, with secondary transmis- sion to other districts. After the initial diagnosis of Sudan ebolavirus by the National Institute for Virology in Johannesburg, South Africa, a temporary diagnostic laboratory was established

  3. Disease progression and hepatocellular carcinogenesis in patients with chronic viral hepatitis: a prospective observation of 2215 patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenji Ikeda; Satoshi Saitoh; Yoshiyuki Suzuki; Masahiro Kobayashi; Akihito Tsubota; Isao Koida; Yausji Arase; Mizuho Fukuda; Kazuaki Chayama; Naoya Murashima; Hiromitsu Kumada

    1998-01-01

    Background\\/Aims\\/Methods: The aim of this study was to elucidate the rate of development to cirrhosis and the rate of development to cirrhosis and the rate of appearance of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic viral hepatitis and to assess the risk factors for the development of disease in 2215 consecutive patients with viral hepatitis who were prospectively studied for a median observation

  4. Viral respiratory disease at Lowry Air Force Base in Denver, 1952-1982.

    PubMed

    Meiklejohn, G

    1983-11-01

    Surveillance of febrile respiratory diseases at Lowry Air Force Base, Denver, has been maintained from 1952 to 1982 with laboratory confirmation of diagnosis. Unvaccinated recruit populations were extremely vulnerable to explosive outbreaks of influenza A. Ten controlled trials demonstrated the protective efficacy of inactivated vaccines. Recent military vaccines have raised the hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody levels of most persons into the "protective" range. Despite repeated introduction of influenza viruses onto the base, when all personnel were vaccinated the impact of influenza was reduced to an insignificant level except in one year of antigenic shift (1968) and one of major antigenic drift (1972). Adenovirus disease has been virtually eliminated since live oral types 4 and 7 vaccines have been given to incoming recruits. Rubella and rubeola have disappeared since seronegative recruits have received vaccine. Overall rates of febrile respiratory diseases have been greatly reduced. PMID:6313818

  5. Localization of foot-and-mouth disease viral antigens in mammary gland of infected cows.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, J H; Yilma, T

    1981-05-01

    Virolactias as a result of foot-and-mouth disease infection in dairy cattle would indicate active virus replication in the bovine mammary gland. In the present study, virus was readily detected throughout the mammary gland by infectivity assay after cows were exposed to the virus either by aerosol or by a combination of intramammary-IV inoculation. Furthermore, immunofluorescent and hematoxylin and eosin staining of alternate frozen sections showed viral antigens in rounded alveolar cells with pyknotic nuclei. PMID:6266292

  6. SEROSURVEY FOR SELECTED VIRAL DISEASES AND DEMOGRAPHY OF AFRICAN WILD DOGS IN TANZANIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott Creel; Nancy Marusha Creel; Linda Munson; Dane Sanderlin; Max J. G. AppeI

    1997-01-01

    African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are endangered, with only 3,000-5,000 remaining in the wild. It is believed that wild dogs are unusually vulnerable to viral diseases, particularly rabies and canine distemper (CDV). However, canine distemper has been confirmed by laboratory diagnosis in only one free-living wild dog. The 43,000 km2 Selous Game Reserve (SGR; Tanzania) holds approximately 900 adult wild

  7. Need of surveillance response systems to combat Ebola outbreaks and other emerging infectious diseases in African countries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    There is growing concern in Sub-Saharan Africa about the spread of the Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever, and the public health burden that it ensues. Since 1976, there have been 885,343 suspected and laboratory confirmed cases of EVD and the disease has claimed 2,512 cases and 932 fatality in West Africa. There are certain requirements that must be met when responding to EVD outbreaks and this process could incur certain challenges. For the purposes of this paper, five have been identified: (i) the deficiency in the development and implementation of surveillance response systems against Ebola and others infectious disease outbreaks in Africa; (ii) the lack of education and knowledge resulting in an EVD outbreak triggering panic, anxiety, psychosocial trauma, isolation and dignity impounding, stigmatisation, community ostracism and resistance to associated socio-ecological and public health consequences; (iii) limited financial resources, human technical capacity and weak community and national health system operational plans for prevention and control responses, practices and management; (iv) inadequate leadership and coordination; and (v) the lack of development of new strategies, tools and approaches, such as improved diagnostics and novel therapies including vaccines which can assist in preventing, controlling and containing Ebola outbreaks as well as the spread of the disease. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop and implement an active early warning alert and surveillance response system for outbreak response and control of emerging infectious diseases. Understanding the unending risks of transmission dynamics and resurgence is essential in implementing rapid effective response interventions tailored to specific local settings and contexts. Therefore, the following actions are recommended: (i) national and regional inter-sectorial and trans-disciplinary surveillance response systems that include early warnings, as well as critical human resources development, must be quickly adopted by allied ministries and organisations in African countries in epidemic and pandemic responses; (ii) harnessing all stakeholders commitment and advocacy in sustained funding, collaboration, communication and networking including community participation to enhance a coordinated responses, as well as tracking and prompt case management to combat challenges; (iii) more research and development in new drug discovery and vaccines; and (iv) understanding the involvement of global health to promote the establishment of public health surveillance response systems with functions of early warning, as well as monitoring and evaluation in upholding research-action programmes and innovative interventions. PMID:25120913

  8. Meningococcal Disease: Causes and Transmission

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Meningococcal Vaccination Surveillance Meningococcal Outbreaks About Meningococcal Outbreaks Serogroup B Meningococcal Vaccine & Outbreaks Clinical Information Laboratory Information Meningococcal Disease in ...

  9. Meningococcal Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Meningococcal Vaccination Surveillance Meningococcal Outbreaks About Meningococcal Outbreaks Serogroup B Meningococcal Vaccine & Outbreaks Clinical Information Laboratory Information Meningococcal Disease in ...

  10. Meningococcal Disease: Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Meningococcal Vaccination Surveillance Meningococcal Outbreaks About Meningococcal Outbreaks Serogroup B Meningococcal Vaccine & Outbreaks Clinical Information Laboratory Information Meningococcal Disease in ...

  11. Exploring relationships between whole carcass condemnation abattoir data, non-disease factors and disease outbreaks in swine herds in Ontario (2001–2007)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Improving upon traditional animal disease surveillance systems may allow more rapid detection of disease outbreaks in animal populations. In Ontario, between the years 2001 – 2007, widespread outbreaks of several diseases caused major impacts to the swine industry. This study was undertaken to investigate whether whole carcass condemnation data of market pigs from provincial abattoirs from 2001 – 2007 could have provided useful information for disease surveillance of Ontario swine. The objective was to examine the suitability of these data for detection of disease outbreaks using multi-level models and spatial scan statistics. We investigated the ability of these data to provide spatially-relevant surveillance information by determining the approximate distance pigs are shipped from farm to provincial abattoirs in the province, and explored potentially biasing non-disease factors within these data. Results Provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario were found to be located in close proximity to the hog farms of origin. The fall season and increasing abattoir capacity were associated with a decrease in condemnation rates. Condemnation rates varied across agricultural regions by year, and some regions showed yearly trends consistent with the timing of emergence of new disease strains that affected the Ontario swine population. Scan statistics identified stable clusters of condemnations in space that may have represented stable underlying factors influencing condemnations. The temporal scans detected the most likely cluster of high condemnations during the timeframe in which widespread disease events were documented. One space-time cluster took place during the beginning of the historical disease outbreaks and may have provided an early warning signal within a syndromic surveillance system. Conclusions Spatial disease surveillance methods may be applicable to whole carcass condemnation data collected at provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario for disease detection on a local scale. These data could provide useful information within a syndromic disease surveillance system for protecting swine herd health within the province. However, non-disease factors including region, season and abattoir size need to be considered when applying quantitative methods to abattoir data for disease surveillance. PMID:24674622

  12. Planning for smallpox outbreaks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matt J. Keeling; W. John Edmunds; Raymond Gani; Bryan T. Grenfell; Roy M. Anderson; Steve Leach; Neil M. Ferguson

    2003-01-01

    Mathematical models of viral transmission and control are important tools for assessing the threat posed by deliberate release of the smallpox virus and the best means of containing an outbreak. Models must balance biological realism against limitations of knowledge, and uncertainties need to be accurately communicated to policy-makers. Smallpox poses the particular challenge that key biological, social and spatial factors

  13. Aptamer-Based Therapeutics: New Approaches to Combat Human Viral Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Shum, Ka-To; Zhou, Jiehua; Rossi, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Viruses replicate inside the cells of an organism and continuously evolve to contend with an ever-changing environment. Many life-threatening diseases, such as AIDS, SARS, hepatitis and some cancers, are caused by viruses. Because viruses have small genome sizes and high mutability, there is currently a lack of and an urgent need for effective treatment for many viral pathogens. One approach that has recently received much attention is aptamer-based therapeutics. Aptamer technology has high target specificity and versatility, i.e., any viral proteins could potentially be targeted. Consequently, new aptamer-based therapeutics have the potential to lead a revolution in the development of anti-infective drugs. Additionally, aptamers can potentially bind any targets and any pathogen that is theoretically amenable to rapid targeting, making aptamers invaluable tools for treating a wide range of diseases. This review will provide a broad, comprehensive overview of viral therapies that use aptamers. The aptamer selection process will be described, followed by an explanation of the potential for treating virus infection by aptamers. Recent progress and prospective use of aptamers against a large variety of human viruses, such as HIV-1, HCV, HBV, SCoV, Rabies virus, HPV, HSV and influenza virus, with particular focus on clinical development of aptamers will also be described. Finally, we will discuss the challenges of advancing antiviral aptamer therapeutics and prospects for future success. PMID:24287493

  14. Hazard analysis of critical control points assessment as a tool to respond to emerging infectious disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Edmunds, Kelly L; Hunter, Paul R; Few, Roger; Bell, Diana J

    2013-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI) strain H5N1 has had direct and indirect economic impacts arising from direct mortality and control programmes in over 50 countries reporting poultry outbreaks. HPAI H5N1 is now reported as the most widespread and expensive zoonotic disease recorded and continues to pose a global health threat. The aim of this research was to assess the potential of utilising Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points (HACCP) assessments in providing a framework for a rapid response to emerging infectious disease outbreaks. This novel approach applies a scientific process, widely used in food production systems, to assess risks related to a specific emerging health threat within a known zoonotic disease hotspot. We conducted a HACCP assessment for HPAI viruses within Vietnam's domestic poultry trade and relate our findings to the existing literature. Our HACCP assessment identified poultry flock isolation, transportation, slaughter, preparation and consumption as critical control points for Vietnam's domestic poultry trade. Introduction of the preventative measures highlighted through this HACCP evaluation would reduce the risks posed by HPAI viruses and pressure on the national economy. We conclude that this HACCP assessment provides compelling evidence for the future potential that HACCP analyses could play in initiating a rapid response to emerging infectious diseases. PMID:23967294

  15. Antibodies to selected viral disease agents in wild boars from the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Sedlak, Kamil; Bartova, Eva; Machova, Jirina

    2008-07-01

    Blood samples were collected from wild boar (Sus scrofa) shot during the hunting season from 1999 to 2005 in the Czech Republic. Sera were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the presence of antibodies against classical swine fever virus (CSFV), swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Indirect fluorescence antibody test was used for detection of antibodies against porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV). Antibodies against ADV, BVDV, PCV-2, and TGEV were detected in 30% (101 of 338), 1% (2 of 352), 43% (57 of 134), and 1% (1 of 134) of wild boars, respectively. Sera of 6,471 and 362 tested wild boars were negative for the presence of antibodies against CSFV and SVDV, respectively. This is the first survey of TGEV antibodies in wild boars and the first serologic survey of viral diseases in wild boars in the Czech Republic. Wild boars in the Czech Republic may act as a potential reservoir of ADV and thus have a role in the epidemiology of this disease. PMID:18689671

  16. Sensitivity of three urinary antigen tests associated with clinical severity in a large outbreak of Legionnaires' disease in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Yzerman, Ed P F; den Boer, Jeroen W; Lettinga, Kamilla D; Schellekens, Joop; Dankert, Jacob; Peeters, Marcel

    2002-09-01

    In 1999 an outbreak involving 188 patients with Legionnaires' disease (LD) occurred among visitors to a flower show in the Netherlands. Two enzyme immunoassays (Binax and Biotest) and one immunochromatographic assay (Binax NOW) were tested, using urine samples from LD patients from the 1999 outbreak. Sensitivity was calculated using positive culture and/or seroconversion as the "gold standard" in outbreak-related patients with radiographically confirmed pneumonia who fulfilled the epidemiological critera. The Binax EIA, Biotest EIA, and Binax NOW assay showed overall sensitivities of 69, 71, and 72%, respectively. When the tests were performed with concentrated urine samples, the overall sensitivities increased to 79, 74, and 81%, respectively. Using multiple logistic regression analysis with backward elimination, a statistically significant association was found between clinical severity and test sensitivity for all tests. For patients with mild LD, the test sensitivities ranged from 40 to 53%, whereas for patients with severe LD who needed immediate special medical care, the sensitivities reached 88 to 100%. These findings have major implications for the diagnostic process in patients with mild pneumonia and suggest that patients with mild pneumonia may go underdiagnosed if urine antigen tests alone are used. PMID:12202558

  17. Genetic and antigenic analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O responsible for outbreaks in India during 2013.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Saravanan; Mohapatra, Jajati K; Das, Biswajit; Sanyal, Aniket; Pattnaik, Bramhadev

    2015-03-01

    In recent times, majority of the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks in India are caused by serotype O Ind2001 lineage. The lineage has diverged into four sub-lineages (Ind2001a, b, c and d). We report here the genetic and antigenic analyses of nine Ind2001d isolates that caused outbreaks during April 2013-March 2014 in India. The length of the genomes of outbreak viruses varied between 8153 and 8181 nucleotides without any insertion or deletion in the coding region. Of the nine isolates analyzed antigenically against the currently used Indian vaccine strain INDR2/1975, eight showed good cross serological match (>0.3) indicating optimal antigenic coverage by the vaccine strain. An unprecedented deletion of 22 nucleotides between position 57 and 78 was observed in the 3' untranslated region of one of the isolates without compromising the virus viability, which imply that partial distortion in SL2 of 3'UTR may not have influence on virus viability at least under in-vitro conditions. Recently the Ind2001 lineage has been reported from several countries including Libya and spread of this lineage across a wide geographical area needs to be monitored carefully to avoid any future pandemic. PMID:25511252

  18. Epidemiological and Surveillance Response to Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak in Lofa County, Liberia (March-September, 2014); Lessons Learned.

    PubMed

    Kouadio, Koffi Isidore; Clement, Peter; Bolongei, Josephus; Tamba, Alpha; Gasasira, Alex Ntale; Warsame, Abdihamid; Okeibunor, Joseph Chukwudi; Ota, Martin Okechukwu; Tamba, Boima; Gumede, Nicksy; Shaba, Keith; Poy, Alain; Salla, Mbaye; Mihigo, Richard; Nshimirimana, Deo

    2015-01-01

    Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak was confirmed in Liberia on March 31st 2014. A response comprising of diverse expertise was mobilized and deployed to the country to contain transmission of Ebola and give relief to a people already impoverished from protracted civil war. This paper describes the epidemiological and surveillance response to the EVD outbreak in Lofa County in Liberia from March to September 2014. Five of the 6 districts of Lofa were affected. The most affected districts were Voinjama/Guardu Gbondi and Foya. By 26th September, 2014, a total of 619 cases, including 19.4% probable cases, 20.3% suspected cases and 44.2% confirmed cases were recorded by the Ebola Emergency Response Team (EERT) of Lofa County. Adults (20-50 years) were the most affected. Overall fatality rate was 53.3%.  Twenty two (22) cases were reported among the Health Care Workers with a fatality rate of 81.8%. Seventy eight percent (78%) of the contacts successfully completed 21 days follow-up while 134 (6.15%) that developed signs and symptoms of EVD were referred to the ETU in Foya. The contributions of the weak health systems as well as socio-cultural factors in fueling the epidemic are highlighted. Importantly, the lessons learnt including the positive impact of multi-sectorial and multidisciplinary and coordinated response led by the government and community.  Again, given that the spread of infectious disease can be considered a security threat every effort has to put in place to strengthen the health systems in developing countries including the International Health Regulation (IHR)'s core capacities. Key words:  Ebola virus disease, outbreak, epidemiology and surveillance, socio-cultural factors, health system, West Africa. PMID:26064783

  19. Epidemiological and Surveillance Response to Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak in Lofa County, Liberia (March-September, 2014); Lessons Learned

    PubMed Central

    Kouadio, Koffi Isidore; Clement, Peter; Bolongei, Josephus; Tamba, Alpha; Gasasira, Alex Ntale; Warsame, Abdihamid; Okeibunor, Joseph Chukwudi; Ota, Martin Okechukwu; Tamba, Boima; Gumede, Nicksy; Shaba, Keith; Poy, Alain; Salla, Mbaye; Mihigo, Richard; Nshimirimana, Deo

    2015-01-01

    Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak was confirmed in Liberia on March 31st 2014. A response comprising of diverse expertise was mobilized and deployed to the country to contain transmission of Ebola and give relief to a people already impoverished from protracted civil war. This paper describes the epidemiological and surveillance response to the EVD outbreak in Lofa County in Liberia from March to September 2014. Five of the 6 districts of Lofa were affected. The most affected districts were Voinjama/Guardu Gbondi and Foya. By 26th September, 2014, a total of 619 cases, including 19.4% probable cases, 20.3% suspected cases and 44.2% confirmed cases were recorded by the Ebola Emergency Response Team (EERT) of Lofa County. Adults (20-50 years) were the most affected. Overall fatality rate was 53.3%.  Twenty two (22) cases were reported among the Health Care Workers with a fatality rate of 81.8%. Seventy eight percent (78%) of the contacts successfully completed 21 days follow-up while 134 (6.15%) that developed signs and symptoms of EVD were referred to the ETU in Foya. The contributions of the weak health systems as well as socio-cultural factors in fueling the epidemic are highlighted. Importantly, the lessons learnt including the positive impact of multi-sectorial and multidisciplinary and coordinated response led by the government and community.  Again, given that the spread of infectious disease can be considered a security threat every effort has to put in place to strengthen the health systems in developing countries including the International Health Regulation (IHR)’s core capacities. Key words:  Ebola virus disease, outbreak, epidemiology and surveillance, socio-cultural factors, health system, West Africa. 

  20. Innovative Surveillance Methods for Rapid Detection of Disease Outbreaks and Bioterrorism: Results of an Interagency Workshop on Health Indicator Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Pavlin, Julie A.; Mostashari, Farzad; Kortepeter, Mark G.; Hynes, Noreen A.; Chotani, Rashid A.; Mikol, Yves B.; Ryan, Margaret A. K.; Neville, James S.; Gantz, Donald T.; Writer, James V.; Florance, Jared E.; Culpepper, Randall C.; Henretig, Fred M.; Kelley, Patrick W.

    2003-01-01

    A system designed to rapidly identify an infectious disease outbreak or bioterrorism attack and provide important demographic and geographic information is lacking in most health departments nationwide. The Department of Defense Global Emerging Infections System sponsored a meeting and workshop in May 2000 in which participants discussed prototype systems and developed recommendations for new surveillance systems. The authors provide a summary of the group’s findings, including expectations and recommendations for new surveillance systems. The consensus of the group was that a nationally led effort in developing health indicator surveillance methods is needed to promote effective, innovative systems. PMID:12893601

  1. A RT-PCR assay for the differential diagnosis of vesicular viral diseases of swine.

    PubMed

    Núñez, J I; Blanco, E; Hernández, T; Gómez-Tejedor, C; Martín, M J; Dopazo, J; Sobrino, F

    1998-06-01

    A RT-PCR assay based on specific amplification of RNA sequences from each of the etiological agents of three important vesicular diseases that affect swine, foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), was developed. Genotype-specific primers that amplified DNA fragments of differential size from SVDV 3D gene or VSV L gene were selected with the aid of a computer program. Experimental testing of the primers predicted as SVDV-specific identified a primer pair, SA2/SS4, that rendered a specific product from SVDV RNAs, but did not amplify RNA from either FMDV or coxsackie B5 virus (CV-B5), a highly related picornavirus. Primers SA2/SS4 were used in combination with primers 3D2/3D1, which amplify a product of different size on FMDV 3D gene (Rodriguez et al., 1992). This combined RT-PCR reaction allowed a sensitive and specific differential detection of FMDV and SVDV RNAs in a single tube, by means of the analysis of the amplified products in agarose gels. The results obtained were similar when RNA extracted from viral stocks or plastic wells coated with either viral supernatants or extracts from lesions of infected animals, were used as starting material in the reactions. Using a similar approach, VSV serotype-specific primers IA/IS and NA/NS were selected for the specific amplification of VSV-Indiana and VSV-New Jersey RNAs, respectively. The combined use of SVDV, FMDV and VSV specific primers in a single reaction resulted in a genotype-specific amplification of each of the viral RNAs. Thus, differential diagnosis of FMDV from SVDV and/or VSV can be carried out in a single RT-PCR reaction, using a rapid and simplified methodology. PMID:9694330

  2. Lumpy skin disease: Attempted propagation in tick cell lines and presence of viral DNA in field ticks collected from naturally-infected cattle

    PubMed Central

    Tuppurainen, E.S.M.; Venter, E.H.; Coetzer, J.A.W.; Bell-Sakyi, L.

    2015-01-01

    Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is of substantial economic importance for the cattle industry in Africa and the Near and Middle East. Several insect species are thought to transmit the disease mechanically. Recent transmission studies have demonstrated the first evidence for a role of hard (ixodid) ticks as vectors of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). The aim of this study was to attempt in vitro growth of the virus in Rhipicephalus spp. tick cell lines and investigate in vivo the presence of the virus in ticks collected from cattle during LSD outbreaks in Egypt and South Africa. No evidence was obtained for replication of LSDV in tick cell lines although the virus was remarkably stable, remaining viable for 35 days at 28 °C in tick cell cultures, in growth medium used for tick cells and in phosphate buffered saline. Viral DNA was detected in two-thirds of the 56 field ticks, making this the first report of the presence of potentially virulent LSDV in ticks collected from naturally infected animals. PMID:25468765

  3. Lumpy skin disease: attempted propagation in tick cell lines and presence of viral DNA in field ticks collected from naturally-infected cattle.

    PubMed

    Tuppurainen, E S M; Venter, E H; Coetzer, J A W; Bell-Sakyi, L

    2015-03-01

    Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is of substantial economic importance for the cattle industry in Africa and the Near and Middle East. Several insect species are thought to transmit the disease mechanically. Recent transmission studies have demonstrated the first evidence for a role of hard (ixodid) ticks as vectors of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). The aim of this study was to attempt in vitro growth of the virus in Rhipicephalus spp. tick cell lines and investigate in vivo the presence of the virus in ticks collected from cattle during LSD outbreaks in Egypt and South Africa. No evidence was obtained for replication of LSDV in tick cell lines although the virus was remarkably stable, remaining viable for 35 days at 28°C in tick cell cultures, in growth medium used for tick cells and in phosphate buffered saline. Viral DNA was detected in two-thirds of the 56 field ticks, making this the first report of the presence of potentially virulent LSDV in ticks collected from naturally infected animals. PMID:25468765

  4. Computational prediction of MHC class I epitopes for most common viral diseases in cattle (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Sahu, Tanmaya Kumar; Rao, A R; Meher, Prabina Kumar; Sahoo, Bishnu Charan; Gupta, Satakshi; Rai, Anil

    2015-02-01

    Viral diseases like foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), calf scour (CS), bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) etc. affect the growth and milk production of cattle (Bos taurus) causing severe economic loss. Epitope-based vaccine designing have been evolved to provide a new strategy for therapeutic application of pathogen-specific immunity in animals. Therefore, identification of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) binding peptides as potential T-cell epitopes is widely applied in peptide vaccine designing and immunotherapy. In this study, MetaMHCI tool was used with seven different algorithms to predict the potential T-cell epitopes for FMD, BVD, IBR and CS in cattle. A total of 54 protein sequences were filtered out from a total set of 6351 sequences of the pathogens causing the said diseases using bioinformatics approaches. These selected protein sequences were used as the key inputs for MetaMHCI tool to predict the epitopes for the BoLA-All MHC class I allele of B. taurus. Further, the epitopes were ranked based on a proposed principal component analysis based epitope score (PbES). The best epitope for each disease based on its predictability through maximum number of predictors and low PbES was modeled in PEP-FOLD server and docked with the BoLA-A11 protein for understanding the MHC-epitope interaction. Finally, a total of 78 epitopes were predicted, out of which 27 were for FMD, 25 for BVD, 12 for CS and 14 for IBR. These epitopes could be artificially synthesized and recommended to vaccinate the cattle for the considered diseases. Besides, the methodology adapted here could also be used to predict and analyze the epitopes for other microbial diseases of important animal species. PMID:26040110

  5. Surveillance of acute infectious gastroenteritis (1992-2009) and food-borne disease outbreaks (1996-2009) in Italy, with a focus on the Piedmont and Lombardy regions.

    PubMed

    Mughini-Gras, L; Graziani, C; Biorci, F; Pavan, A; Magliola, R; Ricci, A; Gilli, G; Carraro, E; Busani, L

    2012-01-01

    We describe trends in the occurrence of acute infectious gastroenteritis (1992 to 2009) and food-borne disease outbreaks (1996 to 2009) in Italy. In 2002, the Piedmont region implemented a surveillance system for early detection and control of food-borne disease outbreaks; in 2004, the Lombardy region implemented a system for surveillance of all notifiable human infectious diseases. Both systems are internet based. We compared the regional figures with the national mean using official notification data provided by the National Infectious Diseases Notification System (SIMI) and the National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT), in order to provide additional information about the epidemiology of these diseases in Italy. When compared with the national mean, data from the two regional systems showed a significant increase in notification rates of non-typhoid salmonellosis and infectious diarrhea other than non-typhoid salmonellosis, but for foodborne disease outbreaks, the increase was not statistically significant. Although the two regional systems have different objectives and structures, they showed improved sensitivity regarding notification of cases of acute infectious gastroenteritis and, to a lesser extent, food-borne disease outbreaks, and thus provide a more complete picture of the epidemiology of these diseases in Italy. PMID:22401508

  6. Kinetics of viral shedding provide insights into the epidemiology of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in Pacific herring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, P.; Gregg, J.; Grady, C.; Collins, R.; Winton, J.

    2010-01-01

    Losses from infectious diseases are an important component of natural mortality among marine fish species, but factors controlling the ecology of these diseases and their potential responses to anthropogenic changes are poorly understood. We used viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) and a laboratory stock of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii to investigate the kinetics of viral shedding and its effect on disease transmission and host mortality. Outbreaks of acute disease, accompanied by mortality and viral shedding, were initiated after waterborne exposure of herring to concentrations of VHSV as low as 10 1 plaque-forming units (pfu) ml-1. Shed virus in flow-through tanks was first detected 4 to 5 d post-exposure, peaked after 6 to 10 d, and was no longer detected after 16 d. Shedding rates, calculated from density, flow and waterborne virus titer reached 1.8 to 5.0 ?? ?10 8 pfu fish-1 d-1. Onset of viral shedding was dose-dependent and preceded initial mortality by 2 d. At 21 d, cumulative mortality in treatment groups ranged from 81 to 100% and was dependent not on challenge dose, but on the kinetics and level of viral shedding by infected fish in the tank. Possible consequences of the viral shedding and disease kinetics are discussed in the context of epizootic initiation and perpetuation among populations of wild Pacific herring. ?? Inter-Research 2010.

  7. Kinetics of viral shedding provide insights into the epidemiology of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in Pacific herring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, Paul K.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Winton, James R.; Grady, Courtney; Collins, Rachael

    2010-01-01

    Losses from infectious diseases are an important component of natural mortality among marine fish species, but factors controlling the ecology of these diseases and their potential responses to anthropogenic changes are poorly understood. We used viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) and a laboratory stock of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii to investigate the kinetics of viral shedding and its effect on disease transmission and host mortality. Outbreaks of acute disease, accompanied by mortality and viral shedding, were initiated after waterborne exposure of herring to concentrations of VHSV as low as 101 plaque-forming units (pfu) ml–1. Shed virus in flow-through tanks was first detected 4 to 5 d post-exposure, peaked after 6 to 10 d, and was no longer detected after 16 d. Shedding rates, calculated from density, flow and waterborne virus titer reached 1.8 to 5.0 × 108 pfu fish–1 d–1. Onset of viral shedding was dose-dependent and preceded initial mortality by 2 d. At 21 d, cumulative mortality in treatment groups ranged from 81 to 100% and was dependent not on challenge dose, but on the kinetics and level of viral shedding by infected fish in the tank. Possible consequences of the viral shedding and disease kinetics are discussed in the context of epizootic initiation and perpetuation among populations of wild Pacific herring.

  8. An outbreak of angiostrongyliasis in Guanging, People's Republic of China: migrants vulnerable to an emerging disease.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhuo-Hui; Lv, Shan; Lin, Jin-Yan; Lin, Rong-Xing; Pei, Fu-Quan

    2011-09-01

    Angiostrongyliasis has been frequently reported from the People's Republic of China during the last decade. An outbreak of angiostrongyliasis among migrant laborers in Guangning, Guangdong Province is described here. A questionnaire was developed to collect epidemiological and clinical information about 17 migrant laborers from the Bai ethnic group in Dali, Yunnan Province. Serum samples were collected and tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Rats and mollusks from the same area where patients had collected Pomacea canaliculata were examined for presence of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. All 17 Bai migrant laborers consumed P. canaliculata and six had meningitis 3-19 days after consumption of P. canaliculata. Headache, myalgia and fatigue were the most common symptoms. Blood samples from 5 patients were positive for antibodies to A. cantonensis. The places where the migrant laborers collected P. canaliculata were identified as endemic areas for A. cantonensis. This outbreak highlights the vulnerability of migrants to angiostrongyliasis. PMID:22299428

  9. Respiratory disease outbreak in a veterinary hospital associated with canine parainfluenza virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Weese, J. Scott; Stull, Jason

    2013-01-01

    A cluster of canine parainfluenza virus infections was identified in a veterinary referral hospital. While hospital-associated outbreaks of canine parainfluenza virus infection have not been previously reported, veterinary hospitals possess some of the same risk factors that may be present in traditional high-risk sites such as kennels. Hospital-associated transmission of canine respiratory pathogens, therefore, must be considered. PMID:23814307

  10. Outbreak of Newcastle disease due to pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 in grey partridges (Perdix perdix) in Scotland in October 2006.

    PubMed

    Irvine, R M; Aldous, E W; Manvell, R J; Cox, W J; Ceeraz, V; Fuller, C M; Wood, A M; Milne, J C; Wilson, M; Hepple, R G; Hurst, A; Sharpe, C E; Alexander, D J; Brown, I H

    2009-10-31

    In October 2006, following an initially non-statutory disease investigation affecting 12-week-old grey partridges (Perdix perdix), an outbreak of Newcastle disease due to infection with the avian paramyxovirus type 1 virus responsible for the current panzootic in pigeons (PPMV-1) was confirmed in Scotland. Two pens of partridges were affected by signs including loss of condition, diarrhoea, progressive neurological signs and mortality totalling approximately 24 per cent, and laboratory evidence of the infection was obtained only in these groups. The premises had approximately 17,000 poultry including a collection of 375 birds of rare breeds, containing endangered breeds of significant conservation value, which were not culled but subjected to a health monitoring and testing programme. Investigations suggested that a population of feral pigeons living above the affected pens of partridges was the likely source of the outbreak. Laboratory and genetic analyses confirmed that the isolate recovered from the clinically affected partridges was PPMV-1, belonging to genetic lineage 4b. However, the virus could not be isolated from or detected in dead pigeons collected from the affected buildings. PMID:19880861

  11. IFN?-Induced Recurrence of Graves' Disease Ten Years after Thyroidectomy in Chronic Viral Hepatitis C. Case Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ileana Duncea; Carmen E. Pepene

    In contrast to chronic or subacute thyroiditis, Graves' disease rarely complicates IFN-? therapy for chronic viral C hepatitis. We report the case of a 51-year-old man in whom IFN-? treatment was followed by recurrence of Graves' disease 10 years after thyroidectomy was performed and the patient was declared cured. Despite severe thyrotoxicosis, combined IFN-? and ribavirin therapy was continued and

  12. Absence of measles viral genomic sequence in intestinal tissues from Crohn's disease by nested polymerase chain reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y Haga; O Funakoshi; K Kuroe; K Kanazawa; H Nakajima; H Saito; Y Murata; A Munakata; Y Yoshida

    1996-01-01

    The aetiology of Crohn's disease remains unknown, although evidence for a viral cause has long been sought. Recent studies have shown inflammation of the submucosal microvascular endothelium and granulomata, and endothelial cell cytoplasmic inclusions, consistent with paramyxovirus, were identified by electron microscopy suggesting a persistent measles virus infection in Crohn's disease. Measles, mumps, and rubella viruses were tested for Crohn's

  13. Multistate foodborne disease outbreaks associated with raw tomatoes, United States, 1990-2010: a recurring public health problem.

    PubMed

    Bennett, S D; Littrell, K W; Hill, T A; Mahovic, M; Behravesh, C Barton

    2015-05-01

    We examined multistate outbreaks attributed to raw tomatoes in the United States from 1990 to 2010. We summarized the demographic and epidemiological characteristics of 15 outbreaks resulting in 1959 illnesses, 384 hospitalizations, and three deaths. Most (80%) outbreaks were reported during 2000-2010; 73% occurred May-September. Outbreaks commonly affected adult (median age 34 years) women (median 58% of outbreak cases). All outbreaks were caused by Salmonella [serotypes Newport (n = 6 outbreaks), Braenderup (n = 2), Baildon, Enteritidis, Javiana, Montevideo, Thompson, Typhimurium (n = 1 each); multiple serotypes (n = 1)]. Red, round (69% of outbreaks), Roma (23%), and grape (8%) tomatoes were implicated. Most (93%) outbreaks were associated with tomatoes served predominantly in restaurants. However, traceback investigations suggested that contamination occurred on farms, at packinghouses, or at fresh-cut processing facilities. Government agencies, academia, trade associations, and the fresh tomato industry should consider further efforts to identify interventions to reduce contamination of tomatoes during production and processing. PMID:25167220

  14. Impairment of Myocardial Mitochondria in Viral Myocardial Disease and Its Reflective Window in Peripheral Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jin; Gao, Deng-Feng; Wang, Hao; Yan, Rui; Liu, Zhi-Quan; Yuan, Zu-Yi; Liu, Jian; Chen, Ming-Xia

    2014-01-01

    Background Viral myocardial disease (VMD) is a common disease inducing heart failure. It has not been clear the roles of mitochondrial damage in the pathological changes of cardiomyocytes in VMD. Methods Myocardial tissues and lymphocytes were collected from 83 VMD patients. Control groups included 12 cases of healthy accidental death with myocardial autopsy and 23 healthy blood donors. The mouse model of viral myocarditis (VMC) was established by Coxsackie virus B3 infection and myocardial tissues and skeletal muscle were collected. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion rate was quantitatively determined using polymerase chain reaction. Results There was significantly difference of myocardial mitochondrial DNA deletion rate between VMD or VMC group and control group (P<0.05). Moreover, the loss of mitochondrial membrane phospholipids was significantly different between VMD or VMC group and control group. In VMC mice, there were negative correlations between myocardial mtDNA3867 deletion rate and left ventricular peak systolic pressure (LVPSP) (r?=??0.66, P<0.05), and between myocardial mtDNA3867 deletion rate and +dp/dtmax (r?=??0.79, P<0.05), while there was positive correlation between myocardial mtDNA3867 deletion rate and ?dp/dtmax (r?=?0.80, P<0.05). Conclusion Mitochondrial damage is an important pathophysiological mechanism leading to myocardial injury and cardiac dysfunction. The mitochondrial damage in the skeletal muscle and lymphocytes reflect a “window” of myocardial mitochondrial damage. PMID:25551390

  15. How Ambient Humidity May Affect the Transmission of Viral Infectious Diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wan; Marr, Linsey; Elankumaran, Subbiah

    2013-04-01

    Viral infectious diseases such as influenza have been a great burden to public health. The airborne transmission route is an important venue for the spread of many respiratory viral diseases. Many airborne viruses have been shown to be sensitive to ambient humidity, yet the mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon remain elusive. A thorough understanding of this phenomenon may provide insight into the temporal and spatial distribution of diseases. For instance, studies have repeatedly suggested ambient humidity as an important environmental determinant in the transmission of influenza in temperate regions. Further, knowing how to optimize humidity so as to minimize virus survival may have practical implications for disease prevention. In this talk, we will discuss multiple mechanisms that may account for the association between humidity and viability of viruses in aerosols, including water activity, surface inactivation, salt toxicity, and conformational changes to the virus in response to varying pH. As a case study, we will discuss our work on the effect of relative humidity (RH) on survival of influenza A virus (IAV) and how it may contribute to the transmission patterns of seasonal flu around the world. We measured the change in viability of IAV in droplets at various RHs. Results suggest three potential regimes defined by humidity: physiological (~100% RH) with high viability, concentrated (~50% to near 100% RH) with lower viability, and dry (<~50% RH) with high viability. Based on these results, we propose a mechanistic basis for the dependence of IAV's transmission on humidity. In temperate regions, the increase in influenza activity in winter may be due to enhanced transmission via the aerosol route thanks to IAV's higher viability in droplets at low RH. In tropical regions, transmission could be enhanced due to high viability of IAV at extremely high RH (rainy season), as observed in our study, possibly through both the aerosol route and the contact route.

  16. Viral gastroenteritis: the USS THEODORE ROOSEVELT experience.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, David R; Campbell, Jerome T; McCarten, Michael D

    2004-09-01

    Although the spread of disease on board Navy ships is not a novel concept, the medical department of the USS THEODORE ROOSEVELT recently experienced a significant outbreak of viral gastroenteritis while at sea. The impact on the crew and medical department is reviewed in this case report. The use of the Navy Disease Non-Battle Injury tracking system was validated. Furthermore, we proposed the placement of waterless, isopropyl alcohol-based, hand-cleaning systems in strategic locations throughout the ship, to help prevent and minimize the spread of future disease. Finally, more stringent recommendations regarding sick in quarters status and careful utilization of consumable resources are necessary components of an effective outbreak management strategy. PMID:15495733

  17. Serological Evidence of Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis in Rainbow Trout from a French Outbreak of Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A.-M. Hattenberger-Baudouy; M. Danton; G. Merle; C. Torchy; P. De Kinkelin

    1989-01-01

    Following the detection of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in France in April 1987, a serological survey was conducted of the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (formerly Salmo gairdneri) from an infected cultured stock previously known to be contaminated with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) for 3 years. The work lasted from April to December 1987, at which time all the

  18. A model for a chikungunya outbreak in a rural Cambodian setting: implications for disease control in uninfected areas.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Marguerite; Conan, Anne; Duong, Veasna; Ly, Sowath; Ngan, Chantha; Buchy, Philippe; Tarantola, Arnaud; Rodó, Xavier

    2014-09-01

    Following almost 30 years of relative silence, chikungunya fever reemerged in Kenya in 2004. It subsequently spread to the islands of the Indian Ocean, reaching Southeast Asia in 2006. The virus was first detected in Cambodia in 2011 and a large outbreak occurred in the village of Trapeang Roka Kampong Speu Province in March 2012, in which 44% of the villagers had a recent infection biologically confirmed. The epidemic curve was constructed from the number of biologically-confirmed CHIKV cases per day determined from the date of fever onset, which was self-reported during a data collection campaign conducted in the village after the outbreak. All individuals participating in the campaign had infections confirmed by laboratory analysis, allowing for the identification of asymptomatic cases and those with an unreported date of fever onset. We develop a stochastic model explicitly including such cases, all of whom do not appear on the epidemic curve. We estimate the basic reproduction number of the outbreak to be 6.46 (95% C.I. [6.24, 6.78]). We show that this estimate is particularly sensitive to changes in the biting rate and mosquito longevity. Our model also indicates that the infection was more widespread within the population on the reported epidemic start date. We show that the exclusion of asymptomatic cases and cases with undocumented onset dates can lead to an underestimation of the reproduction number which, in turn, could negatively impact control strategies implemented by public health authorities. We highlight the need for properly documenting newly emerging pathogens in immunologically naive populations and the importance of identifying the route of disease introduction. PMID:25210729

  19. Molecular epidemiology of coxsackievirus A6 associated with outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Tianjin, China, in 2013.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiaojuan; Li, Li; Zhang, Baomin; Jorba, Jaume; Su, Xu; Ji, Tianjiao; Yang, Dongjing; Lv, Likun; Li, Jiameng; Xu, Wenbo

    2015-04-01

    Since 2008, Mainland China has undergone widespread outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). In order to determine the characteristics of epidemics and enteroviruses (EV) associated with HFMD in Tianjin, in northern China, epidemiological and virological data from routine surveillance were collected and analyzed. In Tianjin, a persistent epidemic of HFMD was demonstrated during 2008-2013, involving 102,705 mild, 179 severe, and 16 fatal cases. Overall, 8234 specimens were collected from 7829 HFMD patients for EV detection during 2008-2013. Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) were the dominant serotypes during 2008-2012, and they were replaced by CV-A6 as the major causative agent in 2013. Phylogenetic analysis based on complete VP1 nucleotide sequences revealed that multiple CV-A6 lineages co-circulated in Tianjin, which grouped together with strains from China and other countries and split into two distinct clusters (clusters 1 and 2). Most Tianjin strains grouped in cluster 1 and were closely related to strains from several eastern and southern provinces of China during 2012 and 2013. Estimates from Bayesian MCMC analysis suggested that multiple lineages had been transmitted silently before the outbreaks at an estimated evolutionary rate of 4.10 × 10(-3) substitutions per site per year without a specific distribution of rate variances among lineages. The sudden outbreak of CV-A6 in Tianjin during 2013 is attributed to indigenous CV-A6 lineages, which were linked to the wide spread of endemic strains around eastern and southern China. PMID:25680566

  20. A Model for a Chikungunya Outbreak in a Rural Cambodian Setting: Implications for Disease Control in Uninfected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Duong, Veasna; Ly, Sowath; Ngan, Chantha; Buchy, Philippe; Tarantola, Arnaud; Rodó, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Following almost 30 years of relative silence, chikungunya fever reemerged in Kenya in 2004. It subsequently spread to the islands of the Indian Ocean, reaching Southeast Asia in 2006. The virus was first detected in Cambodia in 2011 and a large outbreak occurred in the village of Trapeang Roka Kampong Speu Province in March 2012, in which 44% of the villagers had a recent infection biologically confirmed. The epidemic curve was constructed from the number of biologically-confirmed CHIKV cases per day determined from the date of fever onset, which was self-reported during a data collection campaign conducted in the village after the outbreak. All individuals participating in the campaign had infections confirmed by laboratory analysis, allowing for the identification of asymptomatic cases and those with an unreported date of fever onset. We develop a stochastic model explicitly including such cases, all of whom do not appear on the epidemic curve. We estimate the basic reproduction number of the outbreak to be 6.46 (95% C.I. [6.24, 6.78]). We show that this estimate is particularly sensitive to changes in the biting rate and mosquito longevity. Our model also indicates that the infection was more widespread within the population on the reported epidemic start date. We show that the exclusion of asymptomatic cases and cases with undocumented onset dates can lead to an underestimation of the reproduction number which, in turn, could negatively impact control strategies implemented by public health authorities. We highlight the need for properly documenting newly emerging pathogens in immunologically naive populations and the importance of identifying the route of disease introduction. PMID:25210729

  1. Restaurant outbreak of Legionnaires' disease associated with a decorative fountain: an environmental and case-control study

    PubMed Central

    O'Loughlin, Rosalyn E; Kightlinger, Lon; Werpy, Matthew C; Brown, Ellen; Stevens, Valerie; Hepper, Clark; Keane, Tim; Benson, Robert F; Fields, Barry S; Moore, Matthew R

    2007-01-01

    Background From June to November 2005, 18 cases of community-acquired Legionnaires' disease (LD) were reported in Rapid City South Dakota. We conducted epidemiologic and environmental investigations to identify the source of the outbreak. Methods We conducted a case-control study that included the first 13 cases and 52 controls randomly selected from emergency department records and matched on underlying illness. We collected information about activities of case-patients and controls during the 14 days before symptom onset. Environmental samples (n = 291) were cultured for Legionella. Clinical and environmental isolates were compared using monoclonal antibody subtyping and sequence based typing (SBT). Results Case-patients were significantly more likely than controls to have passed through several city areas that contained or were adjacent to areas with cooling towers positive for Legionella. Six of 11 case-patients (matched odds ratio (mOR) 32.7, 95% CI 4.7-?) reported eating in Restaurant A versus 0 controls. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from four clinical specimens: 3 were Benidorm type strains and 1 was a Denver type strain. Legionella were identified from several environmental sites including 24 (56%) of 43 cooling towers tested, but only one site, a small decorative fountain in Restaurant A, contained Benidorm, the outbreak strain. Clinical and environmental Benidorm isolates had identical SBT patterns. Conclusion This is the first time that small fountain without obvious aerosol-generating capability has been implicated as the source of a LD outbreak. Removal of the fountain halted transmission. PMID:17688692

  2. Genomic variation between Campylobacter jejuni isolates associated with milk-borne-disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Revez, Joana; Zhang, Ji; Schott, Thomas; Kivistö, Rauni; Rossi, Mirko; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa

    2014-08-01

    Bacterial genome sequencing has led to the development of new approaches for the analysis of food-borne epidemics and the exploration of the relatedness of outbreak-associated isolates and their separation from nonassociated isolates. Using Illumina technology, we sequenced a total of six isolates (two from patients, two from raw bulk milk, and two from dairy cattle) associated with a milk-borne Campylobacter jejuni outbreak in a farming family and compared their genomes. These isolates had identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) types, and their multilocus sequence typing (MLST) type was ST-50. We used the Ma_1 isolate (milk) as the reference, and its genome was assembled and tentatively ordered using the C. jejuni NCTC 11168 genome as the scaffold. Using whole-genome MLST (wgMLST), we identified a total of three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and differences in poly(G or C) or poly(A or T) tracts in 12 loci among the isolates. Several new alleles not present in the database were detected. In contrast, the sequences of the unassociated C. jejuni strains P14 and 1-12S (both ST-50) differed by 420 to 454 alleles from the epidemic-associated isolates. We found that the fecal contamination of bulk tank milk occurred by highly related sequence variants of C. jejuni, which are reflected as SNPs and differences in the length of the poly(A or T) tracts. Poly(G or C) tracts are reversibly variable and are thus unstable markers for comparison. Further, unrelated strains of ST-50 were clearly separated from the outbreak-associated isolates, indicating that wgMLST is an excellent tool for analysis. In addition, other useful data related to the genes and genetic systems of the isolates were obtained. PMID:24850348

  3. Genomic Variation between Campylobacter jejuni Isolates Associated with Milk-Borne-Disease Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Revez, Joana; Zhang, Ji; Schott, Thomas; Kivistö, Rauni; Rossi, Mirko

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial genome sequencing has led to the development of new approaches for the analysis of food-borne epidemics and the exploration of the relatedness of outbreak-associated isolates and their separation from nonassociated isolates. Using Illumina technology, we sequenced a total of six isolates (two from patients, two from raw bulk milk, and two from dairy cattle) associated with a milk-borne Campylobacter jejuni outbreak in a farming family and compared their genomes. These isolates had identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) types, and their multilocus sequence typing (MLST) type was ST-50. We used the Ma_1 isolate (milk) as the reference, and its genome was assembled and tentatively ordered using the C. jejuni NCTC 11168 genome as the scaffold. Using whole-genome MLST (wgMLST), we identified a total of three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and differences in poly(G or C) or poly(A or T) tracts in 12 loci among the isolates. Several new alleles not present in the database were detected. In contrast, the sequences of the unassociated C. jejuni strains P14 and 1–12S (both ST-50) differed by 420 to 454 alleles from the epidemic-associated isolates. We found that the fecal contamination of bulk tank milk occurred by highly related sequence variants of C. jejuni, which are reflected as SNPs and differences in the length of the poly(A or T) tracts. Poly(G or C) tracts are reversibly variable and are thus unstable markers for comparison. Further, unrelated strains of ST-50 were clearly separated from the outbreak-associated isolates, indicating that wgMLST is an excellent tool for analysis. In addition, other useful data related to the genes and genetic systems of the isolates were obtained. PMID:24850348

  4. Cholesterol-conjugated peptide antivirals: a path to a rapid response to emerging viral diseases.

    PubMed

    Pessi, Antonello

    2015-05-01

    While it is now possible to identify and genetically fingerprint the causative agents of emerging viral diseases, often with extraordinary speed, suitable therapies cannot be developed with equivalent speed, because drug discovery requires information that goes beyond knowledge of the viral genome. Peptides, however, may represent a special opportunity. For all enveloped viruses, fusion between the viral and the target cell membrane is an obligatory step of the life cycle. Class I fusion proteins harbor regions with a repeating pattern of amino acids, the heptad repeats (HRs), that play a key role in fusion, and HR-derived peptides such as enfuvirtide, in clinical use for HIV, can block the process. Because of their characteristic sequence pattern, HRs are easily identified in the genome by means of computer programs, providing the sequence of candidate peptide inhibitors directly from genomic information. Moreover, a simple chemical modification, the attachment of a cholesterol group, can dramatically increase the antiviral potency of HR-derived inhibitors and simultaneously improve their pharmacokinetics. Further enhancement can be provided by dimerization of the cholesterol-conjugated peptide. The examples reported so far include inhibitors of retroviruses, paramyxoviruses, orthomyxoviruses, henipaviruses, coronaviruses, and filoviruses. For some of these viruses, in vivo efficacy has been demonstrated in suitable animal models. The combination of bioinformatic lead identification and potency/pharmacokinetics improvement provided by cholesterol conjugation may form the basis for a rapid response strategy, where development of an emergency cholesterol-conjugated therapeutic would immediately follow the availability of the genetic information of a new enveloped virus. PMID:25331523

  5. The Ebola virus disease outbreak and the mineral sectors of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bermúdez-Lugo, Omayra; Menzie, William D.

    2015-01-01

    In response to the uncertainty surrounding the status of mineral projects in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, the National Minerals Information Center compiled information on the distribution of mines, mineral facilities, and mineral projects under development in the three countries. This fact sheet provides information on the role that the mineral sector plays in their respective economies, on the operating status of mining projects through yearend 2014, and on the coordinated actions by mining companies to support governments and international relief organizations in their efforts to contain the EVD outbreak.

  6. Viral load and clinical disease enhancement associated with a lentivirus cytotoxic T lymphocyte vaccine regimen

    PubMed Central

    Mealey, Robert H.; Leib, Steven R.; Littke, Matt H.; Wagner, Bettina; Horohov, David W.; McGuire, Travis C.

    2009-01-01

    Effective DNA-based vaccines against lentiviruses will likely induce CTL against conserved viral proteins. Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) infects horses worldwide, and serves as a useful model for lentiviral immune control. Although attenuated live EIAV vaccines have induced protective immune responses, DNA-based vaccines have not. In particular, DNA-based vaccines have had limited success in inducing CTL responses against intracellular pathogens in the horse. We hypothesized that priming with a codon-optimized plasmid encoding EIAV Gag p15/p26 with co-administration of a plasmid encoding an equine IL-2/IgG fusion protein as a molecular adjuvant, followed by boosting with a vaccinia vector expressing Gag p15/p26, would induce protective Gag-specific CTL responses. Although the regimen induced Gag-specific CTL in four of seven vaccinated horses, CTL were not detected until after the vaccinia boost, and protective effects were not observed in EIAV challenged vaccinates. Unexpectedly, vaccinates had significantly higher viral loads and more severe clinical disease, associated with the presence of vaccine-induced CTL. It was concluded that 1.) further optimization of the timing and route of DNA immunization was needed for efficient CTL priming in vivo, 2.) co-administration of the IL-2/IgG plasmid did not enhance CTL priming by the Gag p15/p26 plasmid, 3.) vaccinia vectors are useful for lentivirus-specific CTL induction in the horse, 4.) Gag-specific CTL alone are either insufficient or a more robust Gag-specific CTL response is needed to limit EIAV viremia and clinical disease, and 5.) CTL-inducing vaccines lacking envelope immunogens can result in lentiviral disease enhancement. Although the mechanisms for enhancement associated with this vaccine regimen remain to be elucidated, these results have important implications for development of lentivirus T cell vaccines. PMID:19368787

  7. A novel and inexpensive application of RNAi technology to protect shrimp from viral disease.

    PubMed

    Saksmerprome, Vanvimon; Charoonnart, Patai; Gangnonngiw, Warachin; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm

    2009-12-01

    Large-scale production of long dsRNA is needed if antiviral applications of RNAi are to succeed in shrimp farm operations. A novel hairpin-RNA expression vector was developed based on the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene of yellow head virus (YHV), the cause of a lethal shrimp disease. Using transformed RNase-deficient Escherichia coli, large amounts (approximately 5 mg dsRNA from 130 ml bacterial culture) of long dsRNA (>300 nt) were produced. Large-scale in vivo dsRNA production was approximately one-fourth the cost of production of a commercial in vitro transcription kit. The hairpin-RNA consisted of the target RdRp sequence ("forward") and a 100-base shortened version of its inverted repeat ("reverse") to introduce a loop and bypass the difficulty of including a small "loop" connector into the "carrier" vector. A test group of whiteleg shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei (approximately 10-15 g) was injected with 25 microg of this dsRNA 1-day prior to YHV challenge while control groups were injected with NaCl solution or similarly prepared dsGFP-RNA. The group injected with YHV-specific dsRNA did not develop yellow head disease during 14-day of observation after YHV challenge, whereas the control groups injected with NaCl and dsGFP-RNA developed gross signs of yellow head disease and died within 7-10 days after challenge. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry revealed that both viral mRNA and viral proteins were suppressed in the protected shrimp. PMID:19712700

  8. Association of PNPLA3 I148M Variant With Chronic Viral Hepatitis, Autoimmune Liver Diseases and Outcomes of Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Ning; Xin, Yong-Ning; Xia, Harry Hua-Xiang; Jiang, Man; Wang, Jian; Liu, Yang; Chen, Li-Zhen; Xuan, Shi-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Context: The PNPLA3 I148M variant has been recognized as a genetic determinant of liver fat content and a genetic risk factor of liver damage progression associated with steatohepatitis. The I148M variant is associated with many chronic liver diseases. However, its potential association with inflammatory and autoimmune liver diseases has not been established. Evidence Acquisition: We systemically reviewed the potential associations of I148M variant with chronic viral hepatitis, autoimmune liver diseases and the outcome of liver transplantation, explored the underlying molecular mechanisms and tried to translate them into more individualized decision-making and personalized medicine. Results: There were associations between I148M variant and chronic viral hepatitis and autoimmune liver diseases and differential associations of I148M variant in donors and recipients with post-liver transplant outcomes. I148M variant may activate the development of steatosis caused by host metabolic disorders in chronic viral hepatitis, but few researches were found to illustrate the mechanisms in autoimmune liver diseases. The peripherally mediated mechanism (via extrahepatic adipose tissue) may play a principal role in triglyceride accumulation regardless of adiponutrin activity in the graft liver. Conclusions: Evidences have shown the associations between I148M variant and mentioned diseases. I148M variant induced steatosis may be involved in the mechanism of chronic viral hepatitis and genetic considered personalized therapies, especially for PSC male patients. It is also crucial to pay attention to this parameter in donor selection and prognosis estimation in liver transplantation.

  9. Virulent Newcastle disease in Australia: Molecular epidemiological analysis of viruses isolated prior to and during the outbreaks of 1998–2000

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allan R. Gould; Jaqueline A. Kattenbelt; Paul Selleck; Eric Hansson; Antony Della-Porta; Harvey A. Westbury

    2001-01-01

    Gene sequence analysis of fusion (F) gene cleavage motifs and haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) carboxyl-terminal extension sequences was used to analyse Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) associated with virulent outbreaks of the disease which occurred in New South Wales, Australia in 1998–2000. PCR fragments were amplified directly from diseased tissue or allantoic fluids and sequence analyses used for phylogenetic comparisons between these viruses

  10. A community outbreak of Legionnaires' disease associated with a cooling tower in Vic and Gurb, Catalonia (Spain) in 2005.

    PubMed

    Ferré, M R Sala; Arias, C; Oliva, J M; Pedrol, A; García, M; Pellicer, T; Roura, P; Domínguez, A

    2009-02-01

    We report the investigation of a community-acquired outbreak of Legionnaires' disease. An epidemiological, environmental, and meteorological investigation was undertaken. Fifty-five cases were reported in October and November 2005. The exposure occurred in a large area, with 12 cases (21.8%) located between 1,800 and 3,400 metres from the source. Water sample cultures showed that Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (Lp-1) was present in five cooling towers in two industrial locations in Gurb (plants A and B). Two Lp-1 strains were recovered from plants A and B, but only Lp-1 strains from plant A showed a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profile identical to those obtained from three of the cases. Inspection of the cooling towers in plant A revealed inadequate maintenance. Weather conditions in October 2005, with mostly high temperatures and high humidity, together with the flat terrain could have been favouring factors. This study showed a community outbreak from a cooling tower as a common source in a large area. Climate and terrain could explain the dissemination of contaminated aerosols. PMID:18752009

  11. Characterization of the recent outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT2 in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kandeil, Ahmed; El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Kayali, Ghazi; Moatasim, Yassmin; Bagato, Ola; Darwish, Mohamed; Gaffar, Alkhateib; Younes, Abdelgayed; Farag, Tarek; Kutkat, Mohamed A; Ali, Mohamed A

    2013-03-01

    An outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Egypt affected approximately 40,000 cattle and water buffaloes and killed more than 4,600 animals during February-March 2012. To investigate the etiology of the 2012 outbreak, specimens were collected from six governorates and analyzed using universal primers to amplify the 5' untranslated region (UTR) by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Only FMDV-SAT2 was detected, with an overall detection rate of 80.3 %. Complete VP1- and leader-proteinase-coding sequences, obtained from three isolates from three different governorates, were compared with previously reported sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences indicated that the circulating viruses were homogeneous and were closely related to topotype VII. Importantly, the newly emerged viruses were genetically closely related to strains isolated from Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Eritrea and Cameroon between 2000 and 2010, suggesting the dominant nature of this virus and underscoring the need for worldwide intensive surveillance to minimize its devastating consequences. PMID:23132412

  12. Outbreaks and diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease serotype O in the Republic of Korea, April-June 2010.

    PubMed

    Park, J-H; Lee, K-N; Ko, Y-J; Kim, S-M; Lee, H-S; Park, J-Y; Yeh, J-Y; Kim, M-J; Lee, Y-H; Sohn, H-J; Moon, J-S; Cho, I-S; Kim, B

    2014-06-01

    Thirteen outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) were reported in pigs and cattle in Korea between 8 April and 4 June 2010. The FMD virus (FMDV) isolates were of serotype O, indicating that they were related to the virus strains of the Southeast Asia topotype that are circulating in East Asian countries. Animals carrying the viruses were identified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) during a 29-day period between 8 April and 6 May, 2010. Prior to this outbreak, these FMDVs had not been detected in Korea and may therefore have been introduced from neighbouring countries into Ganghwa Island and subsequently spread inland to other areas, including Gimpo, Chungju and Cheongyang. Tests conducted to lift restrictions on animal movements lead to detection of two additional FMD-positive farms. Through appropriate responses, including swift diagnoses and culling policies, Korea was able to quickly regain its recognition as being free of FMD, without vaccination, by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) on 27 September 2010. PMID:23164336

  13. Transgenic Models of Alzheimer’s Disease: Better Utilization of Existing Models through Viral Transgenesis

    PubMed Central

    Platt, Thomas L.; Reeves, Valerie L.; Murphy, M. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have been used for decades in the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) research field and have been crucial for the advancement of our understanding of the disease. Most models are based on familial AD mutations of genes involved in the amyloidogenic process, such as the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PS1). Some models also incorporate mutations in tau (MAPT) known to cause frontotemporal dementia, a neurodegenerative disease that shares some elements of neuropathology with AD. While these models are complex, they fail to display pathology that perfectly recapitulates that of the human disease. Unfortunately, this level of pre-existing complexity creates a barrier to the further modification and improvement of these models. However, as the efficacy and safety of viral vectors improves, their use as an alternative to germline genetic modification is becoming a widely used research tool. In this review we discuss how this approach can be used to better utilize common mouse models in AD research. PMID:23619198

  14. Impact of risk aversion and disease outbreak characteristics on the incentives of producers as a group to participate in animal disease insurance-A simulation.

    PubMed

    Niemi, Jarkko K; Heikkilä, Jaakko

    2011-06-01

    The participation of agricultural producers in financing losses caused by livestock epidemics has been debated in many countries. One of the issues raised is how reluctant producers are to participate voluntarily in the financing of disease losses before an outbreak occurs. This study contributes to the literature by examining whether disease losses should be financed through pre- or post-outbreak premiums or their combination. A Monte Carlo simulation was employed to illustrate the costs of financing two diseases of different profiles. The profiles differed in the probability in which the damage occurs and in the average damage per event. Three hypothetical financing schemes were compared based on their ability to reduce utility losses in the case of risk-neutral and risk-averse producer groups. The schemes were examined in a dynamic setting where premiums depended on the compensation history of the sector. If producers choose the preferred financing scheme based on utility losses, results suggest that the timing of the premiums, the transaction costs of the scheme, the degree of risk aversion of the producer, and the level and the volatility of premiums affect the choice of the financing scheme. PMID:21497923

  15. Viral RNA extraction for in-the-field analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Jiang F.; Weiner, Leslie P.; Burke, Kathy; Taylor, Clive R.

    2012-01-01

    Retroviruses encode their genetic information with RNA molecules, and have a high genomic recombination rate which allows them to mutate more rapidly, thereby posting a higher risk to humans. One important way to help combat a pandemic of viral infectious diseases is early detection before large scale outbreaks occur. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) have been used to identify precisely different strains of some very closely related pathogens. However, isolation and detection of viral RNA in the field are difficult due to the unstable nature of viral RNA molecules. Consequently, performing in-the-field nucleic acid analysis to monitor the spread of viruses is financially and technologically challenging in remote and underdeveloped regions that are high-risk areas for outbreaks. A simplified rapid viral RNA extraction method is reported to meet the requirements for in-the-field viral RNA extraction and detection. The ability of this device to perform viral RNA extraction with subsequent RT-PCR detection of retrovirus is demonstrated. This inexpensive device has the potential to be distributed on a large scale to underdeveloped regions for early detection of retrovirus, with the possibility of reducing viral pandemic events. PMID:17548117

  16. IL-17–Induced Pulmonary Pathogenesis during Respiratory Viral Infection and Exacerbation of Allergic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Sumanta; Lindell, Dennis M.; Berlin, Aaron A.; Morris, Susan B.; Shanley, Thomas P.; Hershenson, Marc B.; Lukacs, Nicholas W.

    2011-01-01

    Severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections are characterized by airway epithelial cell damage, mucus hypersecretion, and Th2 cytokine production. Less is known about the role of IL-17. We observed increased IL-6 and IL-17 levels in tracheal aspirate samples from severely ill infants with RSV infection. In a mouse model of RSV infection, time-dependent increases in pulmonary IL-6, IL-23, and IL-17 expression were observed. Neutralization of IL-17 during infection and observations from IL-17?/? knockout mice resulted in significant inhibition of mucus production during RSV infection. RSV-infected animals treated with anti-IL-17 had reduced inflammation and decreased viral load, compared with control antibody-treated mice. Blocking IL-17 during infection resulted in significantly increased RSV-specific CD8 T cells. Factors associated with CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes, T-bet, IFN-?, eomesodermin, and granzyme B were significantly up-regulated after IL-17 blockade. Additionally, in vitro analyses suggest that IL-17 directly inhibits T-bet, eomesodermin, and IFN-? in CD8 T cells. The role of IL-17 was also investigated in RSV-induced exacerbation of allergic airway responses, in which neutralization of IL-17 led to a significant decrease in the exacerbated disease, including reduced mucus production and Th2 cytokines, with decreased viral proteins. Taken together, our data demonstrate that IL-17 plays a pathogenic role during RSV infections. PMID:21703407

  17. Cyclophilin A Interacts with Viral VP4 and Inhibits the Replication of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Nian; Zhang, Lizhou; Chen, Yuming; Lu, Zhen; Gao, Li; Wang, Yongqiang; Gao, Yulong; Gao, Honglei; Cui, Hongyu; Li, Kai; Liu, Changjun; Zhang, Yanping; Wang, Xiaomei

    2015-01-01

    Nonstructural protein VP4, a serine protease of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) that catalyzes the hydrolysis of polyprotein pVP2-VP4-VP3 to form the viral proteins VP2, VP4, and VP3, is essential to the replication of IBDV. However, the interacting partners of VP4 in host cells and the effects of the interaction on the IBDV lifecycle remain incompletely elucidated. In this study, using the yeast two-hybrid system, the putative VP4-interacting partner cyclophilin A (CypA) was obtained from a chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) expression library. CypA was further confirmed to interact with VP4 of IBDV using co-immunoprecipitation (CO-IP), GST pull-down, and confocal microscopy assays. Moreover, we found that the overexpression of CypA suppressed IBDV replication, whereas the knock-down of CypA by small interfering RNAs promoted the replication of IBDV. Taken together, our findings indicate that the host cell protein CypA interacts with viral VP4 and inhibits the replication of IBDV.

  18. Torque teno virus: an improved indicator for viral pathogens in drinking waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer S Griffin; Jeanine D Plummer; Sharon C Long

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Currently applied indicator organism systems, such as coliforms, are not fully protective of public health from enteric viruses in water sources. Waterborne disease outbreaks have occurred in systems that tested negative for coliforms, and positive coliform results do not necessarily correlate with viral risk. It is widely recognized that bacterial indicators do not co-occur exclusively with infectious viruses, nor

  19. [Chikungunya, an emerging viral disease. Proposal of an algorithm for its clinical management].

    PubMed

    Palacios-Martínez, D; Díaz-Alonso, R A; Arce-Segura, L J; Díaz-Vera, E

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya fever (CHIK) is an emerging viral disease. It is caused by the Chikungunya virus, an alphavirus from the Togaviridae family. It is transmitted to humans by the bite of infected mosquitoes, mainly Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. They are also involved in the transmission of dengue, malaria, etc. CHIK is now endemic in any region of Africa and Southeast-Asia. Cases of CHIK have been reported in America, the Caribbean, and Europe (France, Italy and Spain). There are reservoirs of these mosquitoes in some regions of Spain (Catalonia, Alicante, Murcia and Balearic islands). CHIK is characterized by a sudden high and debilitating fever, and severe or disabling symmetrical arthralgia. It tends to improve in days or weeks. There are severe and chronic forms of CHIK. There is no specific treatment or prophylaxis for CHIK. An algorithm is proposed for the clinical management of CHIK based in the latest guidelines. PMID:25440971

  20. Beak and feather disease virus: correlation between viral load and clinical signs in wild Cape parrots (Poicepahlus robustus) in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Regnard, Guy L; Boyes, Rutledge S; Martin, Rowan O; Hitzeroth, Inga I; Rybicki, Edward P

    2015-01-01

    Psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD), the most prevalent viral disease affecting psittacines, is caused by beak and feather disease virus (BFDV). This study assessed viral load using qPCR in a wild Cape parrot population affected by PBFD and compared it to overall physical condition based on clinical signs attributable to PBFD. A significant inverse correlation between viral load and overall physical condition was found, which confirmed that clinical signs may confidently be used to diagnose the relative severity of BFDV infections in wild populations. This is the first assessment of BFDV viral load in a wild psittacine population. PMID:25193072

  1. Viral Vectors for In Vivo Gene Transfer in Parkinson’s disease: Properties and Clinical Grade Production

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Corinna; Snyder, Richard O.

    2009-01-01

    Because Parkinson’s disease is a progressive degenerative disorder that is mainly confined to the basal ganglia, gene transfer to deliver therapeutic molecules is an attractive treatment avenue. The present review focuses on direct in vivo gene transfer vectors that have been developed to a degree that they have been successfully used in animal model of Parkinson’s disease. Accordingly, the properties of recombinant adenovirus, recombinant adeno-associated virus, herpes simplex virus, and lentivirus are described and contrasted. In order for viral vectors to be developed into clinical grade reagents, they must be manufactured and tested to precise regulatory standards. Indeed, clinical lots of viral vectors can be produced in compliance with current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs) regulations using industry accepted manufacturing methodologies, manufacturing controls, and quality systems. The viral vector properties themselves combined with physiological product formulations facilitate long-term storage and direct in vivo administration. PMID:17916354

  2. Surveillance for waterborne disease and outbreaks associated with drinking water and water not intended for drinking-United States, 2005-2006

    EPA Science Inventory

    PROBLEM/CONDITION: Since 1971, CDC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have maintained a collaborative Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) for collecting and reporting data related to o...

  3. Surveillance for waterborne disease and outbreaks associated with recreational water use and other aquatic facility-associated health events-United States, 2005-2006

    EPA Science Inventory

    PROBLEM/CONDITION: Since 1971, CDC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have collaboratively maintained the Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System for collecting and reporting data related to waterborne-d...

  4. Communications: Motile Stage of Aurantiactinomyxon sp. (Actinosporea: Triactinomyxidae) Isolated from Dero digitata Found in Channel Catfish Ponds during Outbreaks of Proliferative Gill Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Pote; P. Waterstrat

    1993-01-01

    Dero digitata infected with Aurantiactinomyxon sp. were obtained from a pond with channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus during an outbreak of proliferative gill disease. These worms were maintained until actinosporeans were released. Aurantiactinomyxon sp. was exposed to channel catfish gills then observed microscopically. After exposure to gills, the sporoplasm of the actinosporean began to change and a motile stage was observed.

  5. Plant Disease Note 2005 | Outbreak of Iris yellow spot virus in Onion Seed Crops in Central Oregon Overview Current Issue Past Issues Search PD Search APS Journals

    E-print Network

    Pappu, Hanu R.

    Plant Disease Note 2005 | Outbreak of Iris yellow spot virus in Onion Seed Crops in Central Oregon of Iris yellow spot virus in Onion Seed Crops in Central Oregon. F. J. Crowe, Department of Botany is considered an emerging or reemerging pathogen affecting onions in the United States. The virus has been

  6. Non-random biodiversity loss underlies predictable increases in viral disease prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Lacroix, Christelle; Jolles, Anna; Seabloom, Eric W.; Power, Alison G.; Mitchell, Charles E.; Borer, Elizabeth T.

    2014-01-01

    Disease dilution (reduced disease prevalence with increasing biodiversity) has been described for many different pathogens. Although the mechanisms causing this phenomenon remain unclear, the disassembly of communities to predictable subsets of species, which can be caused by changing climate, land use or invasive species, underlies one important hypothesis. In this case, infection prevalence could reflect the competence of the remaining hosts. To test this hypothesis, we measured local host species abundance and prevalence of four generalist aphid-vectored pathogens (barley and cereal yellow dwarf viruses) in a ubiquitous annual grass host at 10 sites spanning 2000 km along the North American West Coast. In laboratory and field trials, we measured viral infection as well as aphid fecundity and feeding preference on several host species. Virus prevalence increased as local host richness declined. Community disassembly was non-random: ubiquitous hosts dominating species-poor assemblages were among the most competent for vector production and virus transmission. This suggests that non-random biodiversity loss led to increased virus prevalence. Because diversity loss is occurring globally in response to anthropogenic changes, such work can inform medical, agricultural and veterinary disease research by providing insights into the dynamics of pathogens nested within a complex web of environmental forces. PMID:24352672

  7. Non-random biodiversity loss underlies predictable increases in viral disease prevalence.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, Christelle; Jolles, Anna; Seabloom, Eric W; Power, Alison G; Mitchell, Charles E; Borer, Elizabeth T

    2014-03-01

    Disease dilution (reduced disease prevalence with increasing biodiversity) has been described for many different pathogens. Although the mechanisms causing this phenomenon remain unclear, the disassembly of communities to predictable subsets of species, which can be caused by changing climate, land use or invasive species, underlies one important hypothesis. In this case, infection prevalence could reflect the competence of the remaining hosts. To test this hypothesis, we measured local host species abundance and prevalence of four generalist aphid-vectored pathogens (barley and cereal yellow dwarf viruses) in a ubiquitous annual grass host at 10 sites spanning 2000 km along the North American West Coast. In laboratory and field trials, we measured viral infection as well as aphid fecundity and feeding preference on several host species. Virus prevalence increased as local host richness declined. Community disassembly was non-random: ubiquitous hosts dominating species-poor assemblages were among the most competent for vector production and virus transmission. This suggests that non-random biodiversity loss led to increased virus prevalence. Because diversity loss is occurring globally in response to anthropogenic changes, such work can inform medical, agricultural and veterinary disease research by providing insights into the dynamics of pathogens nested within a complex web of environmental forces. PMID:24352672

  8. Diagnosis of viral haemorrhagic disease of rabbits and the European brown hare syndrome.

    PubMed

    Capucci, L; Scicluna, M T; Lavazza, A

    1991-06-01

    Development of methods for the diagnosis of viral haemorrhagic disease and the European brown hare syndrome has proceeded at a steady pace over the last few years. The studies conducted by the authors demonstrate that, like VHDV, EBHSV is a calicivirus. The degree of correlation between the two viruses is a key question both for understanding their biology and interpreting the diagnostic results. A discussion of the similarities and differences between VHD and EBHS is followed by the presentation of the latest antigenic correlation results of the two viruses. Considering the absence of culture procedures to isolate either virus, the diagnostic methods discussed in this review are the haemagglutination (HA) test, immune electron microscopy (IEM) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for virus detection, and the haemagglutination inhibition test (HI) and ELISA for antibody detection. The major obstacles, especially for the diagnosis of EBHS, are described; these are represented by morphological, structural and antigenic modifications due to proteolytic degradation. A differential diagnostic method for the two diseases, based on MAb ELISA, is presented. A final conclusion, drawn from the epidemiological analysis of the virological and serological data, is that EBHS and VHD should be considered as two distinct diseases, each caused by its own aetiological agent. PMID:1662098

  9. Targeting the detection of chronic wasting disease using the hunter harvest during early phases of an outbreak in Saskatchewan, Canada.

    PubMed

    Rees, Erin E; Merrill, Evelyn H; Bollinger, Trent K; Hwang, Yeen Ten; Pybus, Margo J; Coltman, Dave W

    2012-04-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal disease of North American cervids that was first detected in a wild, hunter-shot deer in Saskatchewan along the border with Alberta in Canada in 2000. Spatially explicit models for assessing factors affecting disease detection are needed to guide surveillance and control programs. Spatio-temporal patterns in CWD prevalence can be complicated by variation in individual infection probability and sampling biases. We assessed hunter harvest data of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during the early phases of an outbreak in Saskatchewan (i.e., 2002-2007) for targeting the detection of CWD by defining (1) where to look, and (2) how much effort to use. First, we accounted for known demographic heterogeneities in infection to model the probability, P(E), that a harvested deer was infected with CWD given characteristics of the harvest location. Second, in areas where infected deer were harvested we modelled the probability, P(D), of the hunter harvest re-detecting CWD within sample units of varying size (9-54 km(2)) given the demographics of harvested deer and time since first detection in the study area. Heterogeneities in host infection were consistent with those reported elsewhere: mule deer 3.7 times >white-tailed deer, males 1.8 times>females, and quadratically related to age in both sexes. P(E) increased with number of years since the first detection in our study area (2002) and proximity to known disease sources, and also varied with distance to the South Saskatchewan River and small creek drainages, terrain ruggedness, and extent of agriculture lands within a 3 km radius of the harvest. The majority (75%) of new CWD-positive deer from our sample were found within 20 km of infected deer harvested in the previous year, while approximately 10% were greater than 40 km. P(D) modelled at 18 km(2) was best supported, but for all scales, P(D) depended on the number of harvested deer and time since the first infected deer was harvested. Within an 18 km(2) sampling unit, there was an 80% probability of detecting a CWD-positive deer with 16 harvested deer five years after the initial infected harvest. Identifying where and how much to sample to detect CWD can improve targeted surveillance programs early in the outbreak of the disease when based on hunter harvest. PMID:22137503

  10. Cost-Effective Control of Chronic Viral Diseases: Finding the Optimal Level of Screening and Contact Tracing

    E-print Network

    Hazen, Gordon

    (2010) 35­42 Abstract Chronic viral diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B problem. We apply our methods to an example of hepatitis B virus. Keywords: contact tracing ­ chronic such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infect millions

  11. Proceedings : Workshop on Viral Diseases of Salmonid Fishes in the Columbia River Basin, Portland, Oregon, Oct. 7-8, 1982

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JoAnn Ching Leong; Theresa Y. Barila

    1983-01-01

    The objective of the Workshop on Viral Diseases of Salmonid Fishes in the Columbia River Basin was to summarize the status of current research activity, and to discuss and define research needs concerning fish viruses affecting salmonids within Columbia River Basin. Separate analytics were done for each paper.

  12. Dynamics of viral hemorrhagic septicemia, viral erythrocytic necrosis and ichthyophoniasis in confined juvenile Pacific herring Clupea pallasii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, P.; Hart, A.; Gregg, J.; Elder, N.; Winton, J.

    2006-01-01

    Capture of wild, juvenile herring Clupea pallasii from Puget Sound (Washington, USA) and confinement in laboratory tanks resulted in outbreaks of viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS), viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) and ichthyophoniasis; however, the timing and progression of the 3 diseases differed. The VHS epidemic occurred first, characterized by an initially low infection prevalence that increased quickly with confinement time, peaking at 93 to 98% after confinement for 6 d, then decreasing to negligible levels after 20 d. The VHS outbreak was followed by a VEN epidemic that, within 12 d of confinement, progressed from undetectable levels to 100% infection prevalence with >90% of erythrocytes demonstrating inclusions. The VEN epidemic persisted for 54 d, after which the study was terminated, and was characterized by severe blood dyscrasias including reduction of mean hematocrit from 42 to 6% and replacement of mature erythrocytes with circulating erythroblasts and ghost cells. All fish with ichthyophoniasis at capture died within the first 3 wk of confinement, probably as a result of the multiple stressors associated with capture, transport, confinement, and progression of concomitant viral diseases. The results illustrate the differences in disease ecology and possible synergistic effects of pathogens affecting marine fish and highlight the difficulty in ascribing a single causation to outbreaks of disease among populations of wild fishes. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

  13. Molecular epidemiology of recent outbreaks of swine vesicular disease: two genetically and antigenically distinct variants in Europe, 1987-94.

    PubMed Central

    Brocchi, E.; Zhang, G.; Knowles, N. J.; Wilsden, G.; McCauley, J. W.; Marquardt, O.; Ohlinger, V. F.; De Simone, F.

    1997-01-01

    Viruses from the recent epidemic of swine vesicular disease (SVD) in Europe have been isolated and characterized by antigenic and genetic methods to examine the likely epidemiological origins of the disease. Antigenic analysis was performed on 77 SVD viruses (SVDV) isolated in Europe between 1966 and 1994 using two panels of monoclonal antibodies (MAb) in a trapping ELISA. Genetic analysis of 33 of the SVD viruses by reverse transcription-polymerase chain-reaction (RT-PCR) amplification and nucleotide sequencing of the ID (VP1) coding region was also performed. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences with each other and with three other previously published SVDV sequences revealed four distinct groups which correlated exactly with the results of the pattern of reactivity with MAbs. The first group consisted solely of the earliest SVD virus isolated (ITL/1/66) while the second group comprised viruses present in Europe and Japan between 1972 and 1981. The third group consisted of viruses isolated from outbreaks of SVD in Italy between December 1988 and June 1992. Viruses isolated between 1987 and 1994 from Romania, the Netherlands, Italy and Spain formed a fourth group. The genetic and antigenic similarity of the most recent virus isolates from Western Europe to a virus isolated in Romania 5 years previously suggests that the possible origin of the recent epidemic of swine vesicular disease in Western Europe was in Eastern Europe. PMID:9042035

  14. Molecular epidemiology of recent outbreaks of swine vesicular disease: two genetically and antigenically distinct variants in Europe, 1987-94.

    PubMed

    Brocchi, E; Zhang, G; Knowles, N J; Wilsden, G; McCauley, J W; Marquardt, O; Ohlinger, V F; De Simone, F

    1997-02-01

    Viruses from the recent epidemic of swine vesicular disease (SVD) in Europe have been isolated and characterized by antigenic and genetic methods to examine the likely epidemiological origins of the disease. Antigenic analysis was performed on 77 SVD viruses (SVDV) isolated in Europe between 1966 and 1994 using two panels of monoclonal antibodies (MAb) in a trapping ELISA. Genetic analysis of 33 of the SVD viruses by reverse transcription-polymerase chain-reaction (RT-PCR) amplification and nucleotide sequencing of the ID (VP1) coding region was also performed. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences with each other and with three other previously published SVDV sequences revealed four distinct groups which correlated exactly with the results of the pattern of reactivity with MAbs. The first group consisted solely of the earliest SVD virus isolated (ITL/1/66) while the second group comprised viruses present in Europe and Japan between 1972 and 1981. The third group consisted of viruses isolated from outbreaks of SVD in Italy between December 1988 and June 1992. Viruses isolated between 1987 and 1994 from Romania, the Netherlands, Italy and Spain formed a fourth group. The genetic and antigenic similarity of the most recent virus isolates from Western Europe to a virus isolated in Romania 5 years previously suggests that the possible origin of the recent epidemic of swine vesicular disease in Western Europe was in Eastern Europe. PMID:9042035

  15. Tactics and strategies for managing Ebola outbreaks and the salience of immunization.

    PubMed

    Getz, Wayne M; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Salter, Richard; Bangura, James; Carlson, Colin; Coomber, Moinya; Dougherty, Eric; Kargbo, David; Wolfe, Nathan D; Wauquier, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    We present a stochastic transmission chain simulation model for Ebola viral disease (EVD) in West Africa, with the salutary result that the virus may be more controllable than previously suspected. The ongoing tactics to detect cases as rapidly as possible and isolate individuals as safely as practicable is essential to saving lives in the current outbreaks in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. Equally important are educational campaigns that reduce contact rates between susceptible and infectious individuals in the community once an outbreak occurs. However, due to the relatively low R 0 of Ebola (around 1.5 to 2.5 next generation cases are produced per current generation case in naïve populations), rapid isolation of infectious individuals proves to be highly efficacious in containing outbreaks in new areas, while vaccination programs, even with low efficacy vaccines, can be decisive in curbing future outbreaks in areas where the Ebola virus is maintained in reservoir populations. PMID:25755674

  16. [Estimation of the financial reserves required by livestock disease compensation funds for rebates in the course of disease outbreaks using the example of Saxony-Anhalt (Germany)].

    PubMed

    Denzin, Nicolai; Ewert, Benno; Salchert, Falk; Kramer, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    With certain restrictions, the federal states of Germany are obligated to financially compensate livestock owners for animal losses due to livestock diseases. If livestock disease compensation funds demand contributions from livestock owners for certain species in order to pay compensations, the federal states have to pay only one half of the rebate. The remaining 50% has to be financed through reserves of the respective compensation fund built up with the contributions. But there is no reference on how to calculate such financial reserves. Therefore, for the livestock disease compensation fund of Saxony-Anhalt (Germany), an attempt was made to estimate the required reserves.To this end, expert opinions concerning the expected number of affected holdings in potential outbreaks of different diseases were collected. In a conservative approach, assuming these diseases occur in parallel within a single year, overall costs as well as individual costs for altogether 25 categories and subcategories of livestock species were stochastically modeled.The 99.9th percentile of the resulting frequency distribution of the overall costs referred to a financial volume of about 23 million euro. Thus, financial reserves of 11,5 million euro were recommended to the livestock disease compensation fund. PMID:24490340

  17. Biosurveillance in outbreak investigations.

    PubMed

    Kaydos-Daniels, S Cornelia; Rojas Smith, Lucia; Farris, Tonya R

    2013-03-01

    Following the terrorist attacks of September 11 and the anthrax attacks in 2001, public health entities implemented automated surveillance systems based on disease syndromes for early detection of bioterror events and to increase timeliness of responses. Despite widespread adoption, syndromic surveillance systems' ability to provide early notification of outbreaks is unproven, and there is little documentation on their role in outbreak response. We hypothesized that biosurveillance is used in practice to augment classical outbreak investigations, and we used case studies conducted in 2007-08 to determine (1) which steps in outbreak investigations were best served by biosurveillance, and (2) which steps presented the greatest opportunities for improvement. The systems used in the case studies varied in how they functioned, and there were examples in which syndromic systems had identified outbreaks before other methods. Biosurveillance was used successfully for all steps of outbreak investigations. Key advantages of syndromic systems were sensitivity, timeliness, and flexibility and as a source of data for situational awareness. Limitations of biosurveillance were a lack of specificity, reliance on chief complaint data, and a lack of formal training for users. Linking syndromic data to triage notes and medical chart data would substantially increase the value of biosurveillance in the conduct of outbreak investigations and reduce the burden on health department staff. PMID:23448272

  18. A remote sensing tool to monitor and predict epidemiologic outbreaks of Hanta virus infections and Lyme disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrios, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    Lyme disease and Hanta virus infection are the result of the conjunction of several climatic and ecological conditions. Although both affections have different causal agents, they share an important characteristic which is the fact that rodents play an important role in the contagium. One of the most important agents in the dispersion of these diseases is the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareoulus). The bank vole is a common host for both, the Borrelia bacteria which via the ticks (Ixodes ricinus) reaches the human body and causes the Lyme disease, and the Nephropatia epidemica which is caused by Puumala Hantavirus and affects kidneys in humans. The prefered habitat of bank voles is broad-leaf forests with an important presence of beeches (Fagus sylvatica) and oaks (Quercus sp.) and a relatively dense low vegetation layer. These vegetation systems are common in West-Europe and their dynamics have a great influence in the bank voles population and, therefore, in the spreading of the infections this study is concerned about. The fact that the annual seed production is not stable in time has an important effect in bank voles population and, as it has been described in other studies, in the number of reported cases of Hanta virus infections and Lyme disease. The years in which an abundant production of seeds is observed are referred to as mast years which are believed to obey to cyclic patterns and to certain climatological characteristics of the preceding years. Statistical analysis have confirmed the correlation in the behaviour of the number of infected cases and the presence of mast years. This project aims at the design of a remote sensing based system (INFOPRESS - INFectious disease Outbreak Prediction REmote Sensing based System) that should enable local and national health care instances to predict and locate the occurrence of infection outbreaks and design policies to counteract undesired effects. The predictive capabilities of the system are based on the understanding and modelling of the interactions between relevant climatic parameters (temperature, humidity, precipitation) and the main features of vegetation systems which host the vectors and determine the survival and infectious potential of the causal agents. Among the most important study subjects in this research initiative one can mention the time series analysis of vegetation parameters derived from satellite remote sensing and its relatation to climatic time series and historical records of infected cases; with special attention to the assessment of remotely sensed evidences of the mast phenomenon. These analysis will constitute important buildind bricks in the construction of the INFOPRESS system in what concerns the assessment of the potentials of satellite remote sensing as information source for the prediction of infection outbreaks. The bank voles habitat description will also be supported by on-gound remote sensing techniques, specially Lidar technology and soil humidity modelling. These measurements are to be coupled to bank voles and ticks epidemiologic features obtained from field capturing and lab analysis.

  19. A remote sensing tool to monitor and predict epidemiologic outbreaks of Hanta virus infections and Lyme disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrios, M.; Verstraeten, W. W.; Amipour, S.; Wambacq, J.; Aerts, J.-M.; Maes, P.; Berckmans, D.; Lagrou, K.; van Ranst, M.; Coppin, P.

    2009-04-01

    Lyme disease and Hanta virus infection are the result of the conjunction of several climatic and ecological conditions. Although both affections have different causal agents, they share an important characteristic which is the fact that rodents play an important role in the contagion. One of the most important agents in the dispersion of these diseases is the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareoulus). The bank vole is a common host for both, the Borrelia bacteria which via the ticks (Ixodes ricinus) reaches the human body and causes the Lyme disease, and the Nephropatia epidemica which is caused by Puumala Hantavirus and affects kidneys in humans. The prefered habitat of bank voles is broad-leaf forests with an important presence of beeches (Fagus sylvatica) and oaks (Quercus sp.) and a relatively dense low vegetation layer. These vegetation systems are common in West-Europe and their dynamics have a great influence in the bank voles population and, therefore, in the spreading of the infections this study is concerned about. The fact that the annual seed production is not stable in time has an important effect in bank voles population and, as it has been described in other studies, in the number of reported cases of Hanta virus infections and Lyme disease. The years in which an abundant production of seeds is observed are referred to as mast years which are believed to obey to cyclic patterns and to certain climatologically characteristics of the preceding years. Statistical analysis have confirmed the correlation in the behaviour of the number of infected cases and the presence of mast years. This project aims at the design of a remote sensing based system (INFOPRESS - INFectious disease Outbreak Prediction REmote Sensing based System) that should enable local and national health care instances to predict and locate the occurrence of infection outbreaks and design policies to counteract undesired effects. The predictive capabilities of the system are based on the understanding and modelling of the interactions between relevant climatic parameters (temperature, humidity, precipitation) and the main features of vegetation systems which host the vectors and determine the survival and infectious potential of the causal agents. Among the most important study subjects in this research initiative one can mention the time series analysis of vegetation parameters derived from satellite remote sensing and its relation to climatic time series and historical records of infected cases; with special attention to the assessment of remotely sensed evidences of the mast phenomenon. This analysis will constitute important buildind bricks in the construction of the INFOPRESS system in what concerns the assessment of the potentials of satellite remote sensing as information source for the prediction of infection outbreaks. The bank voles habitat description will also be supported by on-ground remote sensing techniques, specially LiDAR technology and soil humidity modelling. These measurements are to be coupled to bank voles epidemiologic features obtained from field capturing and lab analysis in which the presence of Hanta virus will be assessed.

  20. Population genetics of two key mosquito vectors of rift valley Fever virus reveals new insights into the changing disease outbreak patterns in kenya.

    PubMed

    Tchouassi, David P; Bastos, Armanda D S; Sole, Catherine L; Diallo, Mawlouth; Lutomiah, Joel; Mutisya, James; Mulwa, Francis; Borgemeister, Christian; Sang, Rosemary; Torto, Baldwyn

    2014-12-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks in Kenya have increased in frequency and range to include northeastern Kenya where viruses are increasingly being isolated from known (Aedes mcintoshi) and newly-associated (Ae. ochraceus) vectors. The factors contributing to these changing outbreak patterns are unclear and the population genetic structure of key vectors and/or specific virus-vector associations, in particular, are under-studied. By conducting mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses on >220 Kenyan specimens of Ae. mcintoshi and Ae. ochraceus, we uncovered high levels of vector complexity which may partly explain the disease outbreak pattern. Results indicate that Ae. mcintoshi consists of a species complex with one of the member species being unique to the newly-established RVF outbreak-prone northeastern region of Kenya, whereas Ae. ochraceus is a homogeneous population that appears to be undergoing expansion. Characterization of specimens from a RVF-prone site in Senegal, where Ae. ochraceus is a primary vector, revealed direct genetic links between the two Ae. ochraceus populations from both countries. Our data strongly suggest that unlike Ae. mcintoshi, Ae. ochraceus appears to be a relatively recent, single 'introduction' into Kenya. These results, together with increasing isolations from this vector, indicate that Ae. ochraceus will likely be of greater epidemiological importance in future RVF outbreaks in Kenya. Furthermore, the overall vector complexity calls into question the feasibility of mosquito population control approaches reliant on genetic modification. PMID:25474018

  1. vLIP, a Viral Lipase Homologue, Is a Virulence Factor of Marek's Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Kamil, Jeremy P.; Tischer, B. Karsten; Trapp, Sascha; Nair, Venugopal K.; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Kung, Hsing-Jien

    2005-01-01

    The genome of Marek's disease virus (MDV) has been predicted to encode a secreted glycoprotein, vLIP, which bears significant homology to the ?/? hydrolase fold of pancreatic lipases. Here it is demonstrated that MDV vLIP mRNA is produced via splicing and that vLIP is a late gene, due to its sensitivity to inhibition of DNA replication. While vLIP was found to conserve several residues essential to hydrolase activity, an unfavorable asparagine substitution is present at the lipase catalytic triad acid position. Consistent with structural predictions, purified recombinant vLIP did not show detectable activity on traditional phospholipid or triacylglyceride substrates. Two different vLIP mutant viruses, one bearing a 173-amino-acid deletion in the lipase homologous domain, the other having an alanine point mutant at the serine nucleophile position, caused a significantly lower incidence of Marek's disease in chickens and resulted in enhanced survival relative to two independently produced vLIP revertants or parental virus. These data provide the first evidence that vLIP enhances the replication and pathogenic potential of MDV. Furthermore, while vLIP may not serve as a traditional lipase enzyme, the data indicate that the serine nucleophile position is nonetheless essential in vivo for the viral functions of vLIP. Therefore, it is suggested that this particular example of lipase homology may represent the repurposing of an ?/? hydrolase fold toward a nonenzymatic role, possibly in lipid bonding. PMID:15890938

  2. Reconstruction of the Transmission History of RNA Virus Outbreaks Using Full Genome Sequences: Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Bulgaria in 2011

    PubMed Central

    Valdazo-González, Begoña; Polihronova, Lilyana; Alexandrov, Tsviatko; Normann, Preben; Knowles, Nick J.; Hammond, Jef M.; Georgiev, Georgi K.; Özyörük, Fuat; Sumption, Keith J.; Belsham, Graham J.; King, Donald P.

    2012-01-01

    Improvements to sequencing protocols and the development of computational phylogenetics have opened up opportunities to study the rapid evolution of RNA viruses in real time. In practical terms, these results can be combined with field data in order to reconstruct spatiotemporal scenarios that describe the origin and transmission pathways of viruses during an epidemic. In the case of notifiable diseases, such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), these analyses provide important insights into the epidemiology of field outbreaks that can support disease control programmes. This study reconstructs the origin and transmission history of the FMD outbreaks which occurred during 2011 in Burgas Province, Bulgaria, a country that had been previously FMD-free-without-vaccination since 1996. Nineteen full genome sequences (FGS) of FMD virus (FMDV) were generated and analysed, including eight representative viruses from all of the virus-positive outbreaks of the disease in the country and 11 closely-related contemporary viruses from countries in the region where FMD is endemic (Turkey and Israel). All Bulgarian sequences shared a single putative common ancestor which was closely related to the index case identified in wild boar. The closest relative from outside of Bulgaria was a FMDV collected during 2010 in Bursa (Anatolia, Turkey). Within Bulgaria, two discrete genetic clusters were detected that corresponded to two episodes of outbreaks that occurred during January and March-April 2011. The number of nucleotide substitutions that were present between, and within, these separate clusters provided evidence that undetected FMDV infection had occurred. These conclusions are supported by laboratory data that subsequently identified three additional FMDV-infected livestock premises by serosurveillance, as well as a number of antibody positive wild boar on both sides of the border with Turkish Thrace. This study highlights how FGS analysis can be used as an effective on-the-spot tool to support and help direct epidemiological investigations of field outbreaks. PMID:23226216

  3. CURRENT STATUS OF RECOMBINANT MAREK'S DISEASE VACCINES FOR CONTROL OF FUTURE OUTBREAKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than 4 decades of vaccination has resulted in good control of Marek’s disease (MD). Although vaccination has dramatically reduced the incidence of the disease, more virulent viruses are emerging and the development of new control strategies is needed. Recently, the student of MD virus (MDV) g...

  4. Clinicopathological characterization in poultry of three strains of Newcastle disease viruses isolated from recent outbreaks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newcastle disease is a severe threat to the poultry industry and is caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV), a member of the genus Avulavirus, Family Paramyxoviridae. The NDV is rapidly evolving, with several new genotypes having been discovered in the last few years. Characterization of these str...

  5. Genetic Characterization of Infectious Bursal Disease Viruses Associated with Gumboro Outbreaks in Commercial Broilers from Asyut Province, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Moemen A.; Elzanaty, Kamal E. S.; Bakhit, Bakhit M.; Safwat, Marwa M.

    2014-01-01

    Ten infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) field strains were isolated from 15 broiler flocks located in various parts of Asyut, Egypt. Seven strains were subjected to comparative sequencing and phylogenetic analyses to help provide optimal control program for protection against IBDV infection. Sequence analysis of a 530?bp hypervariable region in the VP2 gene revealed that the rate of identity and homology was around 95.6~99.1%. Sequence characterization revealed the 7 strains identified as vvIBDV with the four amino acids residues typical of vvIBDV (242I, 256I, 294I, 299S). The BURSA-VAC vaccine was the nearest vaccine in sequence similarity to the local examined IBDV strains followed by CEVACIBDL then Bursine plus and Nobilis Gumboro indicating its probable success in the face of incoming outbreaks when using these vaccines. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the presence of three clusters for the examined strains and are grouped with reference very virulent IBDVs of European and Asian origin (Japanese and Hong Kong) strains suggesting the different ancestors of our isolates. The antigenic index showed a number of changes on the major and minor hydrophilic antigenic peaks of the virus surface structures indicating a new genetic evolution of the surface structure epitopes that may lead to vaccination failure and reemergence of the disease. PMID:24977049

  6. Computer simulation of Gumboro disease outbreak. IV. Epizootics obtained by mode G-4 with flock size, age and immunity changed.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, T; Ito, T; Tanaka, T; Mizumura, Y

    1980-01-01

    For the computer simulation of Gumboro disease outbreak by Model G-4 a program was written in FORTRAN. Of over twenty parameters involved in the model, the following three were used as input variables: (1) age of chickens at housing a1 (= 1 and 21); (2) size of flock at housing, N(a1) (= 100 and 1,000); and (3) geometric mean of the level of parentally conferred immunity at hatching, G(1) (= 0, 2, 8, and 32). The outputs were the graphic images demonstrating the chronological changes in a flock of innate resistance, parentally conferred immunity, and their sum, and the epizootic patterns composed of numbers of chickens at subclinical stage, clinically diseased, recovered, condemned, etc. at each age. As a result, stronger epizootics were produced at a lower level of parentally conferred immunity, and a higher age and a larger size of flocks. It was suggested that the subclinical stage might not be understood as an inapparent infection, and that a further postulate on the infection might be necessary to be introduced into this model to increase the practical utility, as well as the theoretical soundness, of this series of studies. PMID:6255347

  7. Genetic characterization of infectious bursal disease viruses associated with gumboro outbreaks in commercial broilers from asyut province, egypt.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Moemen A; Elzanaty, Kamal E S; Bakhit, Bakhit M; Safwat, Marwa M

    2014-01-01

    Ten infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) field strains were isolated from 15 broiler flocks located in various parts of Asyut, Egypt. Seven strains were subjected to comparative sequencing and phylogenetic analyses to help provide optimal control program for protection against IBDV infection. Sequence analysis of a 530?bp hypervariable region in the VP2 gene revealed that the rate of identity and homology was around 95.6~99.1%. Sequence characterization revealed the 7 strains identified as vvIBDV with the four amino acids residues typical of vvIBDV (242I, 256I, 294I, 299S). The BURSA-VAC vaccine was the nearest vaccine in sequence similarity to the local examined IBDV strains followed by CEVACIBDL then Bursine plus and Nobilis Gumboro indicating its probable success in the face of incoming outbreaks when using these vaccines. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the presence of three clusters for the examined strains and are grouped with reference very virulent IBDVs of European and Asian origin (Japanese and Hong Kong) strains suggesting the different ancestors of our isolates. The antigenic index showed a number of changes on the major and minor hydrophilic antigenic peaks of the virus surface structures indicating a new genetic evolution of the surface structure epitopes that may lead to vaccination failure and reemergence of the disease. PMID:24977049

  8. Cyanotoxins are not implicated in the etiology of coral black band disease outbreaks on Pelorus Island, Great Barrier Reef.

    PubMed

    Glas, Martin S; Motti, Cherie A; Negri, Andrew P; Sato, Yui; Froscio, Suzanne; Humpage, Andrew R; Krock, Bernd; Cembella, Allan; Bourne, David G

    2010-07-01

    Cyanobacterial toxins (i.e. microcystins) produced within the microbial mat of coral black band disease (BBD) have been implicated in disease pathogenicity. This study investigated the presence of toxins within BBD lesions and other cyanobacterial patch (CP) lesions, which, in some instances ( approximately 19%), facilitated the onset of BBD, from an outbreak site at Pelorus Island on the inshore, central Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Cyanobacterial species that dominated the biomass of CP and BBD lesions were cultivated and identified, based on morphology and 16S rRNA gene sequences, as Blennothrix- and Oscillatoria-affiliated species, respectively, and identical to cyanobacterial sequences retrieved from previous molecular studies from this site. The presence of the cyanotoxins microcystin, cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, nodularin and anatoxin and their respective gene operons in field samples of CP and BBD lesions and their respective culture isolations was tested using genetic (PCR-based screenings), chemical (HPLC-UV, FTICR-MS and LC/MS(n)) and biochemical (PP2A) methods. Cyanotoxins and cyanotoxin synthetase genes were not detected in any of the samples. Cyanobacterial species dominant within CP and BBD lesions were phylogenetically distinct from species previously shown to produce cyanotoxins and isolated from BBD lesions. The results from this study demonstrate that cyanobacterial toxins appear to play no role in the pathogenicity of CP and BBD at this site on the GBR. PMID:20455937

  9. Haemophilus influenzae type b disease in an Amish population: studies of the effects of genetic factors, immunization, and rifampin prophylaxis on the course of an outbreak.

    PubMed

    Granoff, D M; McKinney, T; Boies, E G; Steele, N P; Oldfather, J; Pandey, J P; Suarez, B K

    1986-03-01

    In 1982, an outbreak of Haemophilus influenzae type b disease occurred in a 379-member Amish community. In an attempt to control the outbreak after the occurrence of the second case of disease, we investigated the combination of (1) rifampin chemoprophylaxis of all carriers of H influenzae type b and their household contacts from 1 month to 5 years of age and (2) H influenzae type b polysaccharide vaccine immunoprophylaxis of all community members 12 months of age and older. Despite our intervention, two additional cases of bacteremic H influenzae type b disease occurred in the ensuing 5 months, one in a 22-month-old infant who had been immunized at 19 months of age and the other in a child who had not been immunized because she was younger than 12 months of age. The outbreak ended following rifampin prophylaxis of all community members younger than 15 years of age. All of the children with disease were genetically related to one another, and three of the four were inbred. However, analysis of their coancestry revealed that neither the average level of kinship nor the average inbreeding level of the affected children differed significantly from those of the other children in the community. Furthermore, none of the four children with disease shared a human leukocyte antigen haplotype. Our observations suggest that inbreeding was not a risk factor in this community.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3485275

  10. SURVEILLANCE FOR WATERBORNE DISEASE AND OUTBREAK ASSOCIATED WITH RECREATIONAL WATER - UNITED STATES 2003-2004

    EPA Science Inventory

    Problem/Condition: Since 1971, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have maintained a collaborative surveillance system for collecting and periodically reporting da...

  11. Participatory epidemiology : harnessing the HealthMap platform for community-based disease outbreak monitoring

    E-print Network

    Freifeld, Clark

    2010-01-01

    Due to increasing global trade and travel along with a range of environmental factors, emerging infectious diseases such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), drug-resistant tuberculosis, and 2009 HiNi continue to ...

  12. Human Papillomavirus 16, 18, 31 and 45 viral load, integration and methylation status stratified by cervical disease stage

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Persistent infection with oncogenic Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with the development of cervical cancer with each genotype differing in their relative contribution to the prevalence of cervical disease. HPV DNA testing offers improved sensitivity over cytology testing alone but is accompanied by a generally low specificity. Potential molecular markers of cervical disease include type-specific viral load (VL), integration of HPV DNA into the host genome and methylation of the HPV genome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between HPV type-specific viral load, integration and methylation status and cervical disease stage in samples harboring HPV16, HPV18, HPV31 or HPV45. Methods Samples singly infected with HPV16 (n?=?226), HPV18 (n?=?32), HPV31 (n?=?75) or HPV45 (n?=?29) were selected from a cohort of 4,719 women attending cervical screening in England. Viral load and integration status were determined by real-time PCR while 3’L1-URR methylation status was determined by pyrosequencing or sequencing of multiple clones derived from each sample. Results Viral load could differentiate between normal and abnormal cytology with a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 80% (odds ratio [OR] 12.4, 95% CI 6.2–26.1; p?Viral integration was poorly associated with cervical disease. Few samples had fully integrated genomes and these could be found throughout the course of disease. Overall, integration status could distinguish between normal and abnormal cytology with a sensitivity of 72% and a specificity of 50% (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.0–6.8; p?=?0.054). Methylation levels were able to differentiate normal and low grade cytology from high grade cytology with a sensitivity of 64% and a specificity of 82% (OR 8.2, 95% CI 3.8–18.0; p?viral load and CpG methylation status, but not integration status, to be considered as potential biomarkers of cervical disease. PMID:24885011

  13. Acute bovine viral diarrhea associated with extensive mucosal lesions, high morbidity, and mortality in a commercial feedlot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2008, a northwest Texas feedlot underwent an outbreak of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) disease causing high morbidity and mortality involving two lots of calves (Lots A and B). Severe mucosal surface lesions were observed grossly in the oral cavity, larynx and esophagus. Mucosal lesions vari...

  14. The olfactory nerve: a shortcut for influenza and other viral diseases into the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    van Riel, Debby; Verdijk, Rob; Kuiken, Thijs

    2015-01-01

    The olfactory nerve consists mainly of olfactory receptor neurons and directly connects the nasal cavity with the central nervous system (CNS). Each olfactory receptor neuron projects a dendrite into the nasal cavity on the apical side, and on the basal side extends its axon through the cribriform plate into the olfactory bulb of the brain. Viruses that can use the olfactory nerve as a shortcut into the CNS include influenza A virus, herpesviruses, poliovirus, paramyxoviruses, vesicular stomatitis virus, rabies virus, parainfluenza virus, adenoviruses, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, chikungunya virus, La Crosse virus, mouse hepatitis virus, and bunyaviruses. However, mechanisms of transport via the olfactory nerve and subsequent spread through the CNS are poorly understood. Proposed mechanisms are either infection of olfactory receptor neurons themselves or diffusion through channels formed by olfactory ensheathing cells. Subsequent virus spread through the CNS could occur by multiple mechanisms, including trans-synaptic transport and microfusion. Viral infection of the CNS can lead to damage from infection of nerve cells per se, from the immune response, or from a combination of both. Clinical consequences range from nervous dysfunction in the absence of histopathological changes to severe meningoencephalitis and neurodegenerative disease. PMID:25294743

  15. Investigations into an outbreak of corvid respiratory disease associated with Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed

    Strugnell, B W; Dagleish, M P; Bayne, C W; Brown, M; Ainsworth, H L; Nicholas, R A J; Wood, A; Hodgson, J C

    2011-06-01

    The possible cause of disease and mortality in corvids on an outdoor pig unit in the north of England between August 2007 and March 2008 was investigated. Nine carrion crows (Corvus corone corone) and nine rooks (Corvus frugilegus), comprising five live-caught birds with clinical signs of respiratory disease, one live-caught bird without respiratory disease, and 12 birds submitted dead were examined. Clinical signs, gross and histopathological examination, microbiology and toxicology indicated that Pasteurella multocida infection was the cause of disease. Molecular and serotyping analyses showed that P. multocida isolates (obtained from live-caught birds with clinical respiratory disease) were all capsular type F with a mix of somatic serotypes 3, 4 and 7. Immunohistochemistry increased the diagnostic sensitivity of the analysis and detected P. multocida within the pulmonary lesions of all affected live-caught birds and 10 of 12 birds found dead. These findings suggest that wild corvids in the UK can suffer from lung pathology associated with P. multocida and, as potential vectors of P. multocida, may pose a risk to domestic poultry. PMID:21711193

  16. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Utilizes an Autophagic Pathway During Viral Replication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection with positive-strand RNA viruses results in the rearrangement of intracellular membranes into viral replication complexes (VRC) which are the sites of viral RNA replication. Cellular autophagy has been proposed to be a mechanism of VRC formation for a number of positive-stranded RNA viruse...

  17. Detection of Viral and Bacterial Protein in Endomyocardial Biopsies of Patients with Inflammatory Heart Muscle Disease?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janna Davydova; Sabine Pankuweit; Marlies Crombach; Heike Eckhardt; Daniela Strache; Petra Faulhammer; Bernhard Maisch

    2000-01-01

    The development of highly sensitive molecular biological methods such as in-situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) made it possible to detect viral\\/bacterial nucleic acid in human endomyocardial biopsies. However, only a few investigations addressed the problem of latent persistence of viral and bacterial genome and the detection of the corresponding proteins, which could have important consequences for the clinical

  18. MULTIPLE OUTBREAKS OF SEVERE ACUTE BVDV IN NORTH AMERICA OCCURRING BETWEEN 1993 AND 1995 LINKED TO THE SAME BVDV2 STRAIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first reported outbreak of bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) in 1946 described a transmissible acute disease characterized by severe leukopenia, high fever, gastrointestinal erosions and hemorrhages. However, in the ensuing years the most commonly observed acute form of BVD was clinically mild. Ther...

  19. Efficacy of bovine viral diarrhea virus vaccination to prevent reproductive disease: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Newcomer, Benjamin W; Walz, Paul H; Givens, M Daniel; Wilson, Alan E

    2015-02-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an important reproductive pathogen of cattle worldwide. The reproductive outcome of BVDV infection is largely dependent on the immune status of the dam and the stage of gestation at the time of infection. Potential sequelae include failure of conception, abortion, a variety of congenital malformations, and fetal infection. Vaccination is a possible tool in the control of BVDV, and there has been a recently renewed focus on providing fetal protection through vaccination. Consequently, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of BVDV vaccination to prevent reproductive disease by performing a quantitative synthesis of previously published studies. Pertinent articles to be included in the analysis were identified by performing a search in four relevant scientific databases (PubMed, CAB abstracts, National Agricultural Library catalog, and Web of Science) and examining the reference lists of 10 germane review articles. Inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis mandated that the studies were controlled, primary studies that included necessary data for use in the meta-analysis (e.g., group size, number of abortions). Forty-six studies in 41 separate articles matched the inclusion criteria. Risk ratio effect sizes were used in random effects, weighted meta-analyses to assess the impact of BVDV vaccination on three outcomes: risk of fetal infection, abortion risk, and pregnancy risk. Within each outcome, subanalyses were performed to evaluate the effect of a variety of interventions, including modified live, inactivated, polyvalent and monovalent vaccination, homologous, heterologous, or field challenge, and studies with only bovine subjects. The analysis revealed a decrease in abortions of nearly 45% and a nearly 85% decrease in fetal infection rate in cattle vaccinated for BVDV compared with unvaccinated cohorts. Additionally, pregnancy risk was increased by approximately 5% in field trials of BVDV vaccinates. This meta-analysis provides quantitative support for the benefit of vaccination in the prevention of BVDV-associated reproductive disease. PMID:25447148

  20. Strong seasonality produces spatial asynchrony in the outbreak of infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Duke-Sylvester, Scott M.; Bolzoni, Luca; Real, Leslie A.

    2011-01-01

    Models for infectious diseases usually assume a fixed demographic structure. Yet, a disease can spread over a region encountering different local demographic variations that may significantly alter local dynamics. Spatial heterogeneity in the resulting dynamics can lead to important differences in the design of surveillance and control strategies. We illustrate this by exploring the north–south gradient in the seasonal demography of raccoon rabies over the eastern USA. We find that the greater variance in the timing of spring births characteristic of southern populations can lead to the spatial synchronization of southern epidemics, while the narrow birth-pulse associated with northern populations can lead to an irregular patchwork of epidemics. These results indicate that surveillance in the southern states can be reduced relative to northern locations without loss of detection ability. This approach could yield significant savings in vaccination programmes. The importance of seasonality in many widely distributed diseases indicates that our findings will find applications beyond raccoon rabies. PMID:20961894

  1. Evaluation of the Contributions of Individual Viral Genes to Newcastle Disease Virus Virulence and Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Paldurai, Anandan; Kim, Shin-Hee; Nayak, Baibaswata; Xiao, Sa; Shive, Heather; Collins, Peter L.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Naturally occurring Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains vary greatly in virulence. The presence of multibasic residues at the proteolytic cleavage site of the fusion (F) protein has been shown to be a primary determinant differentiating virulent versus avirulent strains. However, there is wide variation in virulence among virulent strains. There also are examples of incongruity between cleavage site sequence and virulence. These observations suggest that additional viral factors contribute to virulence. In this study, we evaluated the contribution of each viral gene to virulence individually and in different combinations by exchanging genes between velogenic (highly virulent) strain GB Texas (GBT) and mesogenic (moderately virulent) strain Beaudette C (BC). These two strains are phylogenetically closely related, and their F proteins contain identical cleavage site sequences, 112RRQKR?F117. A total of 20 chimeric viruses were constructed and evaluated in vitro, in 1-day-old chicks, and in 2-week-old chickens. The results showed that both the envelope-associated and polymerase-associated proteins contribute to the difference in virulence between rBC and rGBT, with the envelope-associated proteins playing the greater role. The F protein was the major individual contributor and was sometimes augmented by the homologous M and HN proteins. The dramatic effect of F was independent of its cleavage site sequence since that was identical in the two strains. The polymerase L protein was the next major individual contributor and was sometimes augmented by the homologous N and P proteins. The leader and trailer regions did not appear to contribute to the difference in virulence between BC and GBT. IMPORTANCE This study is the first comprehensive and systematic study of NDV virulence and pathogenesis. Genetic exchanges between a mesogenic and a velogenic strain revealed that the fusion glycoprotein is the major virulence determinant regardless of the identical virulence protease cleavage site sequence present in both strains. The contribution of the large polymerase protein to NDV virulence is second only to that of the fusion glycoprotein. The identification of virulence determinants is of considerable importance, because of the potential to generate better live attenuated NDV vaccines. It may also be possible to apply these findings to other paramyxoviruses. PMID:24850737

  2. MedMyst: Animal Alert! Students learn how epidemiologists, microbiologists, and veterinarians work as a team to solve infectious disease outbreaks.

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Center for Technology in Teaching and Learning

    2011-09-28

    In MedMyst: Animal Alert!, players learn about a mysterious disease that is affecting people in a distant tropical region. Players can choose to work as an epidemiologist, microbiologist, or veterinarian to determine what is making people sick. Animal Alert! can be played after Disease Defenders or independently of that mission. While role-playing as an expert, players will learn how epidemiologists, microbiologists, and veterinarians work as a team to solve infectious disease outbreaks. Each expert path has its own learning objectives.

  3. Description of the pathology of a gazelle that died during a major outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in Israel.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, A; Waner, T; King, R; Yadin, H; Perle, S

    2010-03-01

    Naturally occurring foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in wildlife is a relatively mild condition but occasionally it can be devastating as has been documented in impala in South Africa and in mountain gazelles in Israel. This report describes pathological changes in an adult male gazelle with FMD from an outbreak in the Nature Reserve of Ramot-Issachar region and the lower Galilee in Israel. The outbreak was characterised by the malignant form of the disease, which is uncommon among domestic animals. Lesions observed included, ulceration in the oral cavity, oesophagus and ruminal pillars, coronitis, multifocal cardiac necrosis and pancreatic necrosis and inflammation. Pneumonia, caused by Muellerius capillaries was an incidental finding. PMID:20649158

  4. Clinical features and rapid viral diagnosis of human disease associated with avian influenza A H5N1 virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KY Yuen; PKS Chan; M Peiris; DNC Tsang; TL Que; KF Shortridge; PT Cheung; ETF Ho; R Sung; AFB Cheng

    1998-01-01

    Summary Background Human infection with an avian influenza A virus (subtype H5N1) was reported recently in Hong Kong. We describe the clinical presentation of the first 12 patients and options for rapid viral diagnosis. Methods Case notes of 12 patients with virus-culture- confirmed influenza A H5N1 infection were analysed. The clinical presentation and risk factors associated with severe disease were

  5. Impact of liver biopsy size on histological evaluation of chronic viral hepatitis: the smaller the sample, the milder the disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guido Colloredo; Maria Guido; Aurelio Sonzogni; Gioacchino Leandro

    2003-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: In chronic viral hepatitis, liver biopsy is performed for assessing disease activity and fibrosis. In this study, we evaluated the impact of the size of liver biopsy on the grading and staging.Methods: We selected 161 liver biopsies from patients with chronic types B and C hepatitis on the basis of their length (?3 cm) and width (1.4 mm). Ishak

  6. Computer simulation of Gumboro disease outbreak. II. Results obtained with models G-1 and G-2.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, T; Ito, T; Kosuge, M; Tanaka, T; Mizumura, Y

    1978-01-01

    The authors conducted a computer simulation with their Models G-1 and G-2 for Gumboro disease ten times in each of the following initial conditions: (1) size of population, 50, 100, and 1,000 chickens; (2) age of housing, 1, 7, 14, and 21 days; (3) nine levels of parentally conferred immunity in one-day-old chicks; (4) four levels of virus contamination; and (5) three steps of coefficient for aggravating morbid status. Every simulation was operated up to the age when all the birds of a flock turned to be insusceptible so as to yield the daily numbers of chickens (1) susceptible, (2) diseased, (3) immunized, and (4) removed, and (5) the accumulation of diseased chickens. The innate resistance, parentally conferred immunity, virus contamination, and morbid status were expressed in such values that they could be compared with one another. As a result, Model G-2 produced a more realistic epizootic pattern than Model G-1, but both models concealed the effect of differences in size of population and in age of housing. Notwithstanding the incompleteness of the models, the computer simulation gave valuable information for a further advancement in this series of studies. PMID:216929

  7. Ebola virus outbreak, updates on current therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Elshabrawy, Hatem A; Erickson, Timothy B; Prabhakar, Bellur S

    2015-07-01

    Filoviruses are enveloped negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses, which include Ebola and Marburg viruses, known to cause hemorrhagic fever in humans with a case fatality of up to 90%. There have been several Ebola virus outbreaks since the first outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo in 1976 of which, the recent 2013-2015 epidemic in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone is the largest in recorded history. Within a few months of the start of the outbreak in December 2013, thousands of infected cases were reported with a significant number of deaths. As of March 2015, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, there have been nearly 25?000 suspected cases, with 15?000 confirmed by laboratory testing, and over 10?000 deaths. The large number of cases and the high mortality rate, combined with the lack of effective Food and Drug Administration-approved treatments, necessitate the development of potent and safe therapeutic measures to combat the current and future outbreaks. Since the beginning of the outbreak, there have been considerable efforts to develop and characterize protective measures including vaccines and antiviral small molecules, and some have proven effective in vitro and in animal models. Most recently, a cocktail of monoclonal antibodies has been shown to be highly effective in protecting non-human primates from Ebola virus infection. In this review, we will discuss what is known about the nature of the virus, phylogenetic classification, genomic organization and replication, disease transmission, and viral entry and highlight the current approaches and efforts, in the development of therapeutics, to control the outbreak. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25962887

  8. Informing the front line about common respiratory viral epidemics.

    PubMed

    Gesteland, Per H; Samore, Matthew H; Pavia, Andrew T; Srivastava, Rajendu; Korgenski, Kent; Gerber, Kristine; Daly, Judy A; Mundorff, Michael B; Rolfs, Robert T; James, Brent C; Byington, Carrie L

    2007-01-01

    The nature of clinical medicine is to focus on individuals rather than the populations from which they originate. This orientation can be problematic in the context of acute healthcare delivery during routine winter outbreaks of viral respiratory disease where an individuals likelihood of viral infection depends on knowledge of local disease incidence. The level of interest in and perceived utility of community and regional infection data for front line clinicians providing acute care is unclear. Based on input from clinicians, we developed an automated analysis and reporting system that delivers pathogen-specific epidemic curves derived from a viral panel that tests for influenza, RSV, adenovirus, parainfluenza and human metapneumovirus. Surveillance summaries were actively e-mailed to clinicians practicing in emergency, urgent and primary care settings and posted on a web site for passive consumption. We demonstrated the feasibility and sustainability of a system that provides both timely and clinically useful surveillance information. PMID:18693841

  9. Molecular Epidemiology of Outbreak-Associated and Wild-Waterfowl-Derived Newcastle Disease Virus Strains in Finland, Including a Novel Class I Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Ek-Kommonen, Christine; Väänänen, Veli-Matti; Alasaari, Jukka; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli

    2012-01-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious, severe disease of poultry caused by pathogenic strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV; or avian paramyxovirus-1). NDV is endemic in wild birds worldwide and one of the economically most important poultry pathogens. Most of the published strains are outbreak-associated strains, while the apathogenic NDV strains that occur in wild birds, posing a constant threat to poultry with their capability to convert into more virulent forms, have remained less studied. We screened for NDV RNA in cloacal and oropharyngeal samples from wild waterfowl in Finland during the years 2006 to 2010: 39 of 715 birds were positive (prevalence, 5.5%). The partial or full-length F genes of 37 strains were sequenced for phylogenetic purposes. We also characterized viruses derived from three NDV outbreaks in Finland and discuss the relationships between these outbreak-associated and the wild-bird-associated strains. We found that all waterfowl NDV isolates were lentogenic strains of class I or class II genotype I. We also isolated a genetically distinct class I strain (teal/Finland/13111/2008) grouping phylogenetically together with only strain HIECK87191, isolated in Northern Ireland in 1987. Together they seem to form a novel class I genotype genetically differing from other known NDVs by at least 12%. PMID:22972821

  10. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells: sensing nucleic acids in viral infection and autoimmune diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michel Gilliet; Wei Cao; Yong-Jun Liu

    2008-01-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are important mediators of antiviral immunity through their ability to produce large amounts of type I interferons (IFNs) on viral infection. This function of pDCs is linked to their expression of Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) and TLR9, which sense viral nucleic acids within the early endosomes. Exclusion of self nucleic acids from TLR-containing early endosomes normally

  11. Viral carcinogenesis: revelation of molecular mechanisms and etiology of human disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butel, J. S.

    2000-01-01

    The RNA and DNA tumor viruses have made fundamental contributions to two major areas of cancer research. Viruses were vital, first, to the discovery and analysis of cellular growth control pathways and the synthesis of current concepts of cancer biology and, second, to the recognition of the etiology of some human cancers. Transforming retroviruses carry oncogenes derived from cellular genes that are involved in mitogenic signalling and growth control. DNA tumor viruses encode oncogenes of viral origin that are essential for viral replication and cell transformation; viral oncoproteins complex with cellular proteins to stimulate cell cycle progression and led to the discovery of tumor suppressors. Viral systems support the concept that cancer development occurs by the accumulation of multiple cooperating events. Viruses are now accepted as bona fide etiologic factors of human cancer; these include hepatitis B virus, Epstein-Barr virus, human papillomaviruses, human T-cell leukemia virus type I and hepatitis C virus, plus several candidate human cancer viruses. It is estimated that 15% of all human tumors worldwide are caused by viruses. The infectious nature of viruses distinguishes them from all other cancer-causing factors; tumor viruses establish long-term persistent infections in humans, with cancer an accidental side effect of viral replication strategies. Viruses are usually not complete carcinogens, and the known human cancer viruses display different roles in transformation. Many years may pass between initial infection and tumor appearance and most infected individuals do not develop cancer, although immunocompromised individuals are at elevated risk of viral-associated cancers. Variable factors that influence viral carcinogenesis are reviewed, including possible synergy between viruses and environmental cofactors. The difficulties in establishing an etiologic role for a virus in human cancer are discussed, as well as the different approaches that proved viral links to cancer. Future directions for tumor virus studies are considered.

  12. Epitope specificity is critical for high and moderate avidity cytotoxic T lymphocytes associated with control of viral load and clinical disease in horses with equine infectious anemia virus

    PubMed Central

    Mealey, Robert H.; Zhang, Baoshan; Leib, Steven R.; Littke, Matt H.; McGuire, Travis C.

    2012-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is a lentivirus that causes persistent infections in horses. We hypothesized that high-avidity CTL specific for nonvariable epitopes might be associated with low viral load and minimal disease in EIAV-infected horses. To test this hypothesis, memory CTL (CTLm) responses were analyzed in two infected horses with high plasma viral loads and recurrent disease (progressors), and in two infected horses with low-to-undetectable viral loads and mild disease (nonprogressors). High-avidity CTLm in one progressor recognized an envelope gp90 epitope, and the data documented for the first time in EIAV that viral variation led to CTL escape. Each of the nonprogressors had high-to-moderate avidity CTLm directed against epitopes within Rev, including the nuclear export and nuclear localization domains. These results suggested that the epitope specificity of high- and moderate-avidity CTLm was an important determinant for disease outcome in the EIAV-infected horses examined. PMID:12954220

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL STRATEGIES TO CONTROL FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE: MARKER VACCINES AND ANTIVIRALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is economically the most important viral-induced livestock disease worldwide. The disease is highly contagious and FMD virus (FMDV) replicates and spreads extremely rapidly. Outbreaks in previously FMD-free countries, including Taiwan, the United Kingdom, and Uruguay, ...

  14. Correlation between breakdown of the blood-brain barrier and disease outcome of viral encephalitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Aaron L; Morrey, John D; Smee, Donald F; Sidwell, Robert W

    2007-08-01

    Changes in the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) were evaluated in two mouse models of viral encephalitis. The ability of sodium fluorescein (NaFl) to cross the BBB from the serum into the central nervous system was assayed in animals inoculated with virulent strains of either Banzi or Semliki Forest viruses. To test the hypothesis that increases in BBB permeability were associated with poor disease outcome subsequent experiments measured BBB permeability in conjunction with treatment with the interferon inducer Ampligen (poly I:poly C(12)U). A single intraperitoneal injection of Ampligen (1 mg/kg) administered either 24 h or 4-6 h before, but not 24 h after, virus inoculation with Banzi virus provided significant improvements in survival, viral brain titers, weight change and BBB permeability. In comparison, a similar treatment with Ampligen administered either 24 h or 4-6 h before inoculation with Semliki Forest virus was able to significantly improve weight change, and BBB permeability, but only animals receiving Ampligen 4-6 h pre-virus showed a significantly improved mortality. In general, it was found that evaluation of BBB permeability was a more sensitive indicator of disease outcome and the antiviral efficacy Ampligen than either weight change or brain viral titers. PMID:17223204

  15. Foodborne viral illness--status in Australia.

    PubMed

    Fleet, G H; Heiskanen, P; Reid, I; Buckle, K A

    2000-07-25

    Norwalk-like virus contamination of oysters and orange juice, and hepatitis A virus contamination of oysters have been responsible for large outbreaks of foodborne viral disease in Australia. Rotavirus, adenovirus, astrovirus, parvovirus and other enteroviruses also contribute to the incidence of gastroenteritis in this country but the role of foods and waters in transmitting these viruses is unclear. Protocols for the investigation, surveillance and reporting of foodborne viral illness require further development to enable a more accurate description of the problem. Few laboratories have the capability to analyse foods for viruses and specific training in this technology is needed. Management of food safety in Australia largely relies on the implementation of HACCP principles, but these need to be adapted to address the specific risks from viruses. PMID:10946844

  16. An Outbreak of Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease in Western Afghanistan Associated with Exposure to Wheat Flour Contaminated with Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Kakar, Faizullah; Akbarian, Zarif; Leslie, Toby; Mustafa, Mir Lais; Watson, John; van Egmond, Hans P.; Omar, Mohammad Fahim; Mofleh, Jawad

    2010-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alakloids (PAs) are known to cause hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD). Outbreaks have occurred in Western Afghanistan since 1974, the latest in February 2008. We conducted an outbreak investigation using a case-control design. Sixty-seven cases of VOD were compared with 199 community controls. Consumption of bread was strongly associated with disease (adjusted odds ratio: 35.8 [95%CI: 7.6–168.2]). Toxic doses of PA were found in plant extracts and in samples of wheat flour taken from the study area. Compared to wheat flour there was 1000 times less PA in milk and whey and in water samples the PA content was zero. Although direct analysis was not possible, contaminated wheat flour used to make bread was the likely source of PA causing the outbreak. Eating a more varied diet including meat and fruit may be protective. Prevention and control measures will rely on community awareness and agricultural interventions to ensure safety of the food supply. PMID:20652038

  17. Quantitative evaluation of viral fitness due to a single nucleotide polymorphism in the Marek's disease virus UL 41 gene via an in vitro competition assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD), a T cell lymphoma, is an economically important disease of poultry caused by the Marek’s disease virus (MDV), a highly cell-associated alpha-herpesvirus. A greater understanding of viral gene function and the contribution of sequence variation to virulence should facilitate eff...

  18. THE KEY VIRAL PLAYERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of different types of human enteric viruses cause waterborne outbreaks when individuals are exposed to contaminated drinking and recreational waters. Members of the enterovirus group cause numerous diseases, including gastroenteritis, encephalitis, meningitis, myocard...

  19. Influence of clinorotation on the resistance to the viral disease of wheat plants of different geographical origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, L. T.; Chetirkin, P. V.; Mishchenko, I. A.

    In the development of controlled ecological systems of life supply for spacecrafts of great importance are the living plants particularly wheat. There exits a high probability of the appearance of viral disease during the space flight, whereas the virus may remain latent under terrestrial conditions. We investigated the varieties of wheat of different ecologo-geographic origin: Chaika and Sarativska-29 (steppe zone of Ukraine), Colectivna-3 (forest - steppe zone of Ukraine) and Apogee (bred in the USA for the needs of space research activities). The growth reactions of different varieties of plants were connected with variety specificities, presence and concentration of viral infection and clinostating. Spring wheat Sarativska-29 stored by 32 % more above - ground biomass and by 45% more of the roots in virus infected horizontally clinostated plants compared with stationary ones, both infected and healthy. In clinostated WSMV-infected wheat plants of Chaika variety there were increases in the concentrations of chlorophylls a and b and carotenoids compared with stationary plants. The clinostated Apogee variety plants proved the most responsive to viral infection. Indirect IFA detected the reduction of viral reproduction of the WSMV with prolonged clinostating. The reduction of viral reproduction in various varieties causes variety - specific physiologo-biochemical processes in ontogenesis. Photosynthetic pigment content in clinostated Apogee wheat increased on the 15th day after inoculation by 50 % and the content of carotenoids nearly twice compared with non infected clinostated plants. Clinostating of healthy plants decreased their concentrations of carotenoids and the sum of chlorophylls. The interaction of two factors: viral infection and clinostating alleviates the negative impact of each of them on the photosynthetic apparatus of wheat. WSMV - infected Apogee wheat plants displayed a specific response a reaction opposite to that of noninfected ones towards the stress caused by the interaction of two factors: viral infection and clinostating. We also detected a reduction of electric conductivity in young leaves of virus-infected plants compared with noninfected by 42%, while in clinostated plants compared with stationary ones this reduction was within 12 - 33%. The reduction of electric conductivity in leaves with clinostating is evidently connected with the changes in cell walls, which become thinner losing calcium. Electric conductivity of infected Apogee wheat leaves decreased with clinostating compared with noninfected stationary plants but increased compared with noninfected clinostated ones. Thus our research data give an evidence of the improvement of infected plants' condition with clinostating.

  20. Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak in Isiro, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2012: Signs and Symptoms, Management and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kratz, Thomas; Roddy, Paul; Tshomba Oloma, Antoine; Jeffs, Benjamin; Pou Ciruelo, Diana; de la Rosa, Olimpia; Borchert, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Data collected during the 2012 Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic in the Democratic Republic of the Congo were analysed for clinical signs, symptoms and case fatality of EVD caused by Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), establishment of differential diagnoses, description of medical treatment and evaluation of the quality of clinical documentation. In a quantitative observational prospective study, global epidemiological data from 52 patients (34 patients within the community, 18 patients treated in the Ebola Treatment Centre) were entered anonymously into a database, subsequently matched and analysed. Relevant findings include an over-representation of females among community EVD cases (85.3%) and of community EVD cases in the age group of 15-54 years (82.4%). All ETC patients had fever (55.6% of all 18 ETC patients during their hospital stay) or self-reported fever (88.2% upon admission) at some point of time during their illness. Major symptoms of ETC patients during hospital stay included asthenia (82.4%), anorexia (82.4%), myalgia (70.6%), sore throat/difficulty swallowing (70.6%), arthralgia (76.5%) and nausea (70.6%). Gastrointestinal signs and symptoms (nausea, diarrhoea, vomiting) (76.4%) as well as general pain (94.1%) were frequent in ETC patients. The median duration of EVD was 18 days, while the mean incubation period was 11.3 days. Differential diagnosis of EVD included malaria (28.3%), intestinal parasitosis (10.9%), and infectious syndrome (10.9%). There was also an important variation in clinical evolvement. Quality of documentation was adversely affected by the way patient file contents were transferred from inside to outside the high-risk zone, entailing a mean mismatch value of 27.3% between patient file contents inside vs. outside the high-risk zone. This study adds further description of EVD (frequently non-specific signs and symptoms, non frequent bleeding, a long incubation period, long duration of disease) and emphasizes the need for improving clinical monitoring and documentation in EVD outbreak settings. PMID:26107529

  1. Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak in Isiro, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2012: Signs and Symptoms, Management and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kratz, Thomas; Roddy, Paul; Tshomba Oloma, Antoine; Jeffs, Benjamin; Pou Ciruelo, Diana; de la Rosa, Olimpia; Borchert, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Data collected during the 2012 Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic in the Democratic Republic of the Congo were analysed for clinical signs, symptoms and case fatality of EVD caused by Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), establishment of differential diagnoses, description of medical treatment and evaluation of the quality of clinical documentation. In a quantitative observational prospective study, global epidemiological data from 52 patients (34 patients within the community, 18 patients treated in the Ebola Treatment Centre) were entered anonymously into a database, subsequently matched and analysed. Relevant findings include an over-representation of females among community EVD cases (85.3%) and of community EVD cases in the age group of 15-54 years (82.4%). All ETC patients had fever (55.6% of all 18 ETC patients during their hospital stay) or self-reported fever (88.2% upon admission) at some point of time during their illness. Major symptoms of ETC patients during hospital stay included asthenia (82.4%), anorexia (82.4%), myalgia (70.6%), sore throat/difficulty swallowing (70.6%), arthralgia (76.5%) and nausea (70.6%). Gastrointestinal signs and symptoms (nausea, diarrhoea, vomiting) (76.4%) as well as general pain (94.1%) were frequent in ETC patients. The median duration of EVD was 18 days, while the mean incubation period was 11.3 days. Differential diagnosis of EVD included malaria (28.3%), intestinal parasitosis (10.9%), and infectious syndrome (10.9%). There was also an important variation in clinical evolvement. Quality of documentation was adversely affected by the way patient file contents were transferred from inside to outside the high-risk zone, entailing a mean mismatch value of 27.3% between patient file contents inside vs. outside the high-risk zone. This study adds further description of EVD (frequently non-specific signs and symptoms, non frequent bleeding, a long incubation period, long duration of disease) and emphasizes the need for improving clinical monitoring and documentation in EVD outbreak settings. PMID:26107529

  2. Simian hemorrhagic fever virus infection of rhesus macaques as a model of viral hemorrhagic fever: Clinical characterization and risk factors for severe disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reed F. Johnson; Lori E. Dodd; Srikanth Yellayi; Wenjuan Gu; Jennifer A. Cann; Catherine Jett; John G. Bernbaum; Dan R. Ragland; Marisa St. Claire; Russell Byrum; Jason Paragas; Joseph E. Blaney; Peter B. Jahrling

    2011-01-01

    Simian Hemorrhagic Fever Virus (SHFV) has caused sporadic outbreaks of hemorrhagic fevers in macaques at primate research facilities. SHFV is a BSL-2 pathogen that has not been linked to human disease; as such, investigation of SHFV pathogenesis in non-human primates (NHPs) could serve as a model for hemorrhagic fever viruses such as Ebola, Marburg, and Lassa viruses. Here we describe

  3. Identification, virulence, and mass spectrometry of toxic ECP fractions of West Alabama isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila obtained from a 2010 disease outbreak.

    PubMed

    Pridgeon, Julia W; Klesius, Phillip H; Song, Lin; Zhang, Dunhua; Kojima, Kyoko; Mobley, James A

    2013-06-28

    In West Alabama, disease outbreaks in 2009 caused by Aeromonas hydrophila have led to an estimated loss of more than $3 million. In 2010, disease outbreak occurred again in West Alabama, causing losses of hundreds of thousands of pounds of market size channel catfish. During the 2010 disease outbreak in West Alabama, four isolates of A. hydrophila were cultured from the kidney tissues of diseased channel catfish. Both analytical profile index (API) 20 E biochemical tests and 16S-23S rRNA sequencing results confirmed the four isolates as A. hydrophila. Virulence studies revealed that the four isolates were highly virulent to channel catfish by intraperitoneal injection, with LD50 value of ? 1.3 × 10(5)CFU/fish. Extracellular proteins (ECPs) of A. hydrophila are well known to be toxic to fish. Therefore, ECPs of the four 2010 West Alabama isolates of A. hydrophila were characterized in this study. The ECPs of the four 2010 isolates were found to be toxic to channel catfish fingerlings, with LD50 value of 16 ?g/fish. Thirty ECP fractions were obtained from the ECPs of the 2010 isolates of A. hydrophila by cation-exchange chromatography, of which nine fractions were found to be toxic to catfish gill cells and channel catfish fingerlings. Mass spectrometry identified 228 proteins from the nine toxic fractions, of which 23 were shared by toxic fractions, including well known virulence factors such as hemolysin, aerolysin, elastase (metalloprotease), nuclease, and 5'-nucleotidase. Hemolytic activity, protease activity, and nuclease activity of the four isolates were found to be significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of a reference A. hydrophila strain AL98-C1B. Our results might shed light on the possible virulence factors of the highly virulent West Alabama isolates of A. hydrophila. PMID:23523171

  4. Influence of Dendritic Cells on Viral Pathogenicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giulia Freer; Donatella Matteucci

    2009-01-01

    Although most viral infections cause minor, if any, symptoms, a certain number result in serious illness. Viral disease symptoms result both from direct viral replication within host cells and from indirect immunopathological consequences. Dendritic cells (DCs) are key determinants of viral disease outcome; they activate immune responses during viral infection and direct T cells toward distinct T helper type responses.

  5. Human adenovirus type 8 epidemic keratoconjunctivitis with large corneal epithelial full-layer detachment: an endemic outbreak with uncommon manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yueh-Chang; Chen, Nancy; Huang, I-Tsong; Yang, Hui-Hua; Huang, Chin-Te; Chen, Li-Kuang; Sheu, Min-Muh

    2015-01-01

    Epidemic viral conjunctivitis is a highly contagious disease that is encountered year-round. The causative agents are mainly adenoviruses and enteroviruses. It occurs most commonly upon infection with subgroup D adenoviruses of types 8, 19, or 37. For common corneal involvement of human adenovirus type 8 epidemic keratoconjunctivitis, full-layer epithelial detachment is rarely seen. Herein, we report three cases of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis during an outbreak which manifested as large corneal epithelial full-layer detachment within a few days. The lesions healed without severe sequelae under proper treatment. The unique manifestation of this outbreak may indicate the evolution of human adenovirus type 8.

  6. Intrahepatic accumulation of nitrotyrosine in chronic viral hepatitis is associated with histological severity of liver disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmelo García-Monzón; Pedro L Majano; Itxaso Zubia; Paloma Sanz; Arantxa Apolinario; Ricardo Moreno-Otero

    2000-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: The toxicity of nitric oxide is thought to be engendered, at least in part, by its reaction with superoxide yielding peroxynitrite, a potent oxidant that promotes the formation of nitrotyrosine within cells and tissue lesions. In this study we assessed the intrahepatic localization and distribution of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitrotyrosine (NTY) in patients with viral

  7. The effects of bovine viral diarrhoea virus on cattle reproduction in relation to disease control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D Fray; D. J Paton; S Alenius

    2000-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is a major reproductive pathogen in cattle. Infection of the bull can lead to a fall in semen quality and the isolation of infectious virus in the ejaculate, while infection in the cow leads to poor conception rates, abortions and congenital defects. BVDV also reduces the animal's resistance to other respiratory and enteric pathogens. The

  8. Viral infections during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Silasi, Michelle; Cardenas, Ingrid; Kwon, Ja-Young; Racicot, Karen; Aldo, Paula; Mor, Gil

    2015-03-01

    Viral infections during pregnancy have long been considered benign conditions with a few notable exceptions, such as herpes virus. The recent Ebola outbreak and other viral epidemics and pandemics show how pregnant women suffer worse outcomes (such as preterm labor and adverse fetal outcomes) than the general population and non-pregnant women. New knowledge about the ways the maternal-fetal interface and placenta interact with the maternal immune system may explain these findings. Once thought to be 'immunosuppressed', the pregnant woman actually undergoes an immunological transformation, where the immune system is necessary to promote and support the pregnancy and growing fetus. When this protection is breached, as in a viral infection, this security is weakened and infection with other microorganisms can then propagate and lead to outcomes, such as preterm labor. In this manuscript, we review the major viral infections relevant to pregnancy and offer potential mechanisms for the associated adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:25582523

  9. Structured literature review of responses of cattle to viral and bacterial pathogens causing bovine respiratory disease complex.

    PubMed

    Grissett, G P; White, B J; Larson, R L

    2015-05-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is an economically important disease of cattle and continues to be an intensely studied topic. However, literature summarizing the time between pathogen exposure and clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion is minimal. A structured literature review of the published literature was performed to determine cattle responses (time from pathogen exposure to clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion) in challenge models using common BRD viral and bacterial pathogens. After review a descriptive analysis of published studies using common BRD pathogen challenge studies was performed. Inclusion criteria were single pathogen challenge studies with no treatment or vaccination evaluating outcomes of interest: clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion. Pathogens of interest included: bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1), parainfluenza-3 virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, Pastuerella multocida, and Histophilus somni. Thirty-five studies and 64 trials were included for analysis. The median days to the resolution of clinical signs after BVDV challenge was 15 and shedding was not detected on day 12 postchallenge. Resolution of BHV-1 shedding resolved on day 12 and clinical signs on day 12 postchallenge. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus ceased shedding on day 9 and median time to resolution of clinical signs was on day 12 postchallenge. M. haemolytica resolved clinical signs 8 days postchallenge. This literature review and descriptive analysis can serve as a resource to assist in designing challenge model studies and potentially aid in estimation of duration of clinical disease and shedding after natural pathogen exposure. PMID:25929158

  10. Characterization of Foot-And-Mouth Disease Viruses (FMDVs) from Ugandan Cattle Outbreaks during 2012-2013: Evidence for Circulation of Multiple Serotypes

    PubMed Central

    Namatovu, Alice; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Belsham, Graham J.; Dhikusooka, Moses T.; Wekesa, Sabenzia N.; Muwanika, Vincent B.; Siegismund, Hans R.; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotypes circulating in Uganda’s cattle population, both serological and virological analyses of samples from outbreaks that occurred during 2012–2013 were performed. Altogether, 79 sera and 60 oropharyngeal fluid (OP)/tissue/oral swab samples were collected from herds with reported FMD outbreaks in seven different Ugandan districts. Overall, 61/79 (77%) of the cattle sera were positive for antibodies against FMDV by PrioCHECK FMDV NS ELISA and solid phase blocking ELISA detected titres ? 80 for serotypes O, SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3 in 41, 45, 30 and 45 of these 61 seropositive samples, respectively. Virus neutralisation tests detected the highest levels of neutralising antibodies (titres ? 45) against serotype O in the herds from Kween and Rakai districts, against SAT 1 in the herd from Nwoya district and against SAT 2 in the herds from Kiruhura, Isingiro and Ntungamo districts. The isolation of a SAT 2 FMDV from Isingiro was consistent with the detection of high levels of neutralising antibodies against SAT 2; sequencing (for the VP1 coding region) indicated that this virus belonged to lineage I within this serotype, like the currently used vaccine strain. From the Wakiso district 11 tissue/swab samples were collected; serotype A FMDV, genotype Africa (G-I), was isolated from the epithelial samples. This study shows that within a period of less than one year, FMD outbreaks in Uganda were caused by four different serotypes namely O, A, SAT 1 and SAT 2. Therefore, to enhance the control of FMD in Uganda, there is need for efficient and timely determination of outbreak virus strains/serotypes and vaccine matching. The value of incorporating serotype A antigen into the imported vaccines along with the current serotype O, SAT 1 and SAT 2 strains should be considered. PMID:25664876

  11. Distribution of cow-calf producers' beliefs about reporting cattle with clinical signs of foot-and-mouth disease to a veterinarian before or during a hypothetical outbreak.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Amy H; Norby, Bo; Scott, H Morgan; Dean, Wesley; McIntosh, W Alex; Bush, Eric

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the prevalence of cattle producers' beliefs regarding disease reporting can help officials improve surveillance programs with passive data collection. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Texas in 2008 and 2009 to determine beliefs about reporting cattle with clinical signs consistent with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) either prior to (scenario 1) or during an on-going outbreak of FMD (scenario 2). Two questionnaires were developed and distributed to Texas cow-calf producers in order to evaluate their behavioral, control, and normative beliefs related to disease reporting. The context for each behavior was provided through the use of scenarios, and belief strength was measured using a 7-point Likert-like scale. Beliefs were compared across scenarios and demographic categories, and the effect of scenario on belief examined using ordinal logistic regression. Respondents agreed that reporting clinically suspect cases would have positive economic and emotional consequences; however, when an outbreak was known to be present, producers were less likely to agree with many of the positive outcomes of reporting. Important barriers to disease reporting indicated by producers included a lack of knowledge related to clinical signs of highly contagious cattle diseases and which cattle are at risk of contracting FMD. In general, beliefs about barriers to reporting did not differ based on scenario. Veterinarians and regulatory authorities were the groups perceived to most strongly expect disease reporting, regardless of the scenario. Risk education for producers related to clinical signs of reportable livestock diseases, post-reporting procedures, and an understanding of FMD introduction and spread may improve the reporting of cattle with clinical signs consistent with FMD. PMID:25449736

  12. Ebola virus disease 2013-2014 outbreak in west Africa: an analysis of the epidemic spread and response.

    PubMed

    Cenciarelli, Orlando; Pietropaoli, Stefano; Malizia, Andrea; Carestia, Mariachiara; D'Amico, Fabrizio; Sassolini, Alessandro; Di Giovanni, Daniele; Rea, Silvia; Gabbarini, Valentina; Tamburrini, Annalaura; Palombi, Leonardo; Bellecci, Carlo; Gaudio, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    The Ebola virus epidemic burst in West Africa in late 2013, started in Guinea, reached in a few months an alarming diffusion, actually involving several countries (Liberia, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Senegal, and Mali). Guinea and Liberia, the first nations affected by the outbreak, have put in place measures to contain the spread, supported by international organizations; then they were followed by the other nations affected. In the present EVD outbreak, the geographical spread of the virus has followed a new route: the achievement of large urban areas at an early stage of the epidemic has led to an unprecedented diffusion, featuring the largest outbreak of EVD of all time. This has caused significant concerns all over the world: the potential reaching of far countries from endemic areas, mainly through fast transports, induced several countries to issue information documents and health supervision for individuals going to or coming from the areas at risk. In this paper the geographical spread of the epidemic was analyzed, assessing the sequential appearance of cases by geographic area, considering the increase in cases and mortality according to affected nations. The measures implemented by each government and international organizations to contain the outbreak, and their effectiveness, were also evaluated. PMID:25852754

  13. Vaccines 85: Molecular and chemical basis of resistance to parasitic, bacterial, and viral diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, R.A.; Chanock, R.M.; Brown, F.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 70 selections. Some of the selection titles are: Structure of the Gene Encoding of Immunodominant Surface Antigen on the Sprozoite of the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum; Cloning and Expression in Bacteria of the Genes for Merozite-specific Antigens from the Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum; A Major Surface Antigen of Plasmodium falciparum in Merozoites: Studies on the Protein and its Gene; Genetic Construction of Cholera Vaccine Prototypes; and Viral Genes, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes and Immunity.

  14. Rapid Detection of the Marek's Disease Viral Genome in Chicken Feathers by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Baskaran, Subasty; Gopal, Dhinakar Raj; Devarajan, Jeyanthi; Kathaperumal, Kumanan

    2012-01-01

    A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for the rapid detection of serotype 1 Marek's disease virus (MDV) was developed. The method used a set of three pairs of primers to amplify the MEQ gene for detecting serotype 1 MDV. The MDV LAMP method did not cross-react with serotype 2 and serotype 3, nor did the LAMP primers have binding sites for the common avian DNA viruses (reticuloendotheliosis virus, chicken anemia virus, subgroup J of the avian leukosis virus). Additionally, the assay could detect up to 10 copies of the MEQ gene in the MD viral genome, and it had 10 times higher sensitivity than the traditional PCR methods. The LAMP master mix was stable for 90 days at ?20°C. Furthermore, the efficiency of LAMP for detection of serotype 1 MDV in clinical samples was comparable to those of PCR and viral isolation. The LAMP procedure is simple and does not rely on any special equipment. The detection of serotype 1 MDV by LAMP will be useful for detecting and controlling oncogenic Marek's disease. PMID:22170920

  15. Research Note A Summary of National Reports of Foodborne Outbreaks of Salmonella Heidelberg Infections in the United States: Clues for Disease Prevention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PAUL CHITTICK; ALANA SULKA; ROBERT V. TAUXE; ALICIA M. FRY

    We analyzed national foodborne outbreak data from 1973 through 2001 to determine the proportion of Salmonella Hei- delberg outbreaks caused by specific foods. Among 6,633 outbreaks with known etiology, 184 (3%) were caused bySalmonella Heidelberg. A vehicle was identified in 101 outbreaks; at least 53 were poultry or egg-related. Three outbreaks were attributed to egg consumption, 17 to consumption of

  16. Emergence and re-emergence of viral diseases of the central nervous system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane E. Griffin

    2010-01-01

    Neurologic disease is a major cause of disability in resource-poor countries and a substantial portion of this disease is due to infections of the CNS. A wide variety of emerging and re-emerging viruses contribute to this disease burden. New emerging infections are commonly due to RNA viruses that have expanded their geographic range, spread from animal reservoirs or acquired new

  17. FastStats: Viral Hepatitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... States, 2014, table 37 [PDF - 9.8 MB] Mortality Number of deaths: 8,157 Deaths per 100, ... in Health Data Interactive Viral Hepatitis Related Links Mortality data Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Viral ...

  18. Disease Detection or Public Opinion Reflection? Content Analysis of Tweets, Other Social Media, and Online Newspapers During the Measles Outbreak in the Netherlands in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Harmsen, Irene Anhai; Broekhuizen, Emma; Clijnk, Rutger; De Melker, Hester; Paulussen, Theo; Kok, Gerjo; Ruiter, Robert; Das, Enny

    2015-01-01

    Background In May 2013, a measles outbreak began in the Netherlands among Orthodox Protestants who often refuse vaccination for religious reasons. Objective Our aim was to compare the number of messages expressed on Twitter and other social media during the measles outbreak with the number of online news articles and the number of reported measles cases to answer the question if and when social media reflect public opinion patterns versus disease patterns. Methods We analyzed measles-related tweets, other social media messages, and online newspaper articles over a 7-month period (April 15 to November 11, 2013) with regard to topic and sentiment. Thematic analysis was used to structure and analyze the topics. Results There was a stronger correlation between the weekly number of social media messages and the weekly number of online news articles (P<.001 for both tweets and other social media messages) than between the weekly number of social media messages and the weekly number of reported measles cases (P=.003 and P=.048 for tweets and other social media messages, respectively), especially after the summer break. All data sources showed 3 large peaks, possibly triggered by announcements about the measles outbreak by the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment and statements made by well-known politicians. Most messages informed the public about the measles outbreak (ie, about the number of measles cases) (93/165, 56.4%) followed by messages about preventive measures taken to control the measles spread (47/132, 35.6%). The leading opinion expressed was frustration regarding people who do not vaccinate because of religious reasons (42/88, 48%). Conclusions The monitoring of online (social) media might be useful for improving communication policies aiming to preserve vaccination acceptability among the general public. Data extracted from online (social) media provide insight into the opinions that are at a certain moment salient among the public, which enables public health institutes to respond immediately and appropriately to those public concerns. More research is required to develop an automatic coding system that captures content and user’s characteristics that are most relevant to the diseases within the National Immunization Program and related public health events and can inform official responses. PMID:26013683

  19. The Role of HLA-G Molecule and HLA-G Gene Polymorphisms in Tumors, Viral Hepatitis, and Parasitic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Dias, Fabrício C; Castelli, Erick C; Collares, Cristhianna V A; Moreau, Philippe; Donadi, Eduardo A

    2015-01-01

    Considering that the non-classical HLA-G molecule has well-recognized tolerogenic properties, HLA-G expression is expected to be deleterious when present in tumor cells and in cells chronically infected by viruses, whereas HLA-G expression is expected to be advantageous in autoimmune disorders. The expression of HLA-G on tissue or peripheral blood cells, the levels of soluble HLA-G and polymorphic sites along the gene have been studied in several disorders. In this study, we revised the role of the molecule and polymorphic sites along the HLA-G gene in tumors, viral hepatitis, and parasitic disorders. Overall, several lines of evidence clearly show that the induction of HLA-G expression in tumors has been associated with worse disease outcome and disease spread. In addition, the few studies conducted on hepatitis and parasitic disorders indicate that HLA-G may contribute to disease pathogenesis. Few isolated polymorphic sites, primarily located at the coding or 3' untranslated HLA-G region, have been evaluated in these disorders, and a complete HLA-G typing together with the study of gene regulatory elements may further help on the understanding of the influence of the genetic background on disease susceptibility. PMID:25699038

  20. Emerging viral threats in Gabon: health capacities and response to the risk of emerging zoonotic diseases in Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bourgarel, M; Wauquier, N; Gonzalez, J-P

    2010-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EID) are currently the major threat to public health worldwide and most EID events have involved zoonotic infectious agents. Central Africa in general and Gabon in particular are privileged areas for the emergence of zoonotic EIDs. Indeed, human incursions in Gabonese forests for exploitation purposes lead to intensified contacts between humans and wildlife thus generating an increased risk of emergence of zoonotic diseases. In Gabon, 51 endemic or potential endemic viral infectious diseases have been reported. Among them, 22 are of zoonotic origin and involve 12 families of viruses. The most notorious are dengue, yellow fever, ebola, marburg, Rift Valley fever and chikungunya viruses. Potential EID due to wildlife in Gabon are thereby plentiful and need to be inventoried. The Gabonese Public Health system covers geographically most of the country allowing a good access to sanitary information and efficient monitoring of emerging diseases. However, access to treatment and prevention is better in urban areas where medical structures are more developed and financial means are concentrated even though the population is equally distributed between urban and rural areas. In spite of this, Gabon could be a good field for investigating the emergence or re-emergence of zoonotic EID. Indeed Gabonese health research structures such as CIRMF, advantageously located, offer high quality researchers and facilities that study pathogens and wildlife ecology, aiming toward a better understanding of the contact and transmission mechanisms of new pathogens from wildlife to human, the emergence of zoonotic EID and the breaking of species barriers by pathogens. PMID:22460397

  1. Human cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus infection in inflammatory bowel disease: Need for mucosal viral load measurement

    PubMed Central

    Ciccocioppo, Rachele; Racca, Francesca; Paolucci, Stefania; Campanini, Giulia; Pozzi, Lodovica; Betti, Elena; Riboni, Roberta; Vanoli, Alessandro; Baldanti, Fausto; Corazza, Gino Roberto

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the best diagnostic technique and risk factors of the human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: A cohort of 40 IBD patients (17 refractory) and 40 controls underwent peripheral blood and endoscopic colonic mucosal sample harvest. Viral infection was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, and correlations with clinical and endoscopic indexes of activity, and risk factors were investigated. RESULTS: All refractory patients carried detectable levels of HCMV and/or EBV mucosal load as compared to 13/23 (56.5%) non-refractory and 13/40 (32.5%) controls. The median DNA value was significantly higher in refractory (HCMV 286 and EBV 5.440 copies/105 cells) than in non-refractory (HCMV 0 and EBV 6 copies/105 cells; P < 0.05 and < 0.001) IBD patients and controls (HCMV and EBV 0 copies/105 cells; P < 0.001 for both). Refractory patients showed DNA peak values ? 103 copies/105 cells in diseased mucosa in comparison to non-diseased mucosa (P < 0.0121 for HCMV and < 0.0004 for EBV), while non-refractory patients and controls invariably displayed levels below this threshold, thus allowing us to differentiate viral colitis from mucosal infection. Moreover, the mucosal load positively correlated with the values found in the peripheral blood, whilst no correlation with the number of positive cells at immunohistochemistry was found. Steroid use was identified as a significant risk factor for both HCMV (P = 0.018) and EBV (P = 0.002) colitis. Finally, a course of specific antiviral therapy with ganciclovir was successful in all refractory patients with HCMV colitis, whilst refractory patients with EBV colitis did not show any improvement despite steroid tapering and discontinuation of the other medications. CONCLUSION: Viral colitis appeared to contribute to mucosal lesions in refractory IBD, and its correct diagnosis and management require quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay of mucosal specimens. PMID:25684960

  2. Foodborne outbreaks of shigellosis in the USA, 1998-2008.

    PubMed

    Nygren, B L; Schilling, K A; Blanton, E M; Silk, B J; Cole, D J; Mintz, E D

    2013-02-01

    We examined reported outbreaks of foodborne shigellosis in the USA from 1998 to 2008 and summarized demographic and epidemiological characteristics of 120 confirmed outbreaks resulting in 6208 illnesses. Most reported foodborne shigellosis outbreaks (n = 70, 58%) and outbreak-associated illnesses (n = 3383, 54%) were restaurant-associated. The largest outbreaks were associated with commercially prepared foods distributed in multiple states and foods prepared in institutional settings. Foods commonly consumed raw were implicated in 29 (24%) outbreaks and infected food handlers in 28 (23%) outbreaks. Most outbreaks (n = 86, 72%) were caused by Shigella sonnei. Targeted efforts to reduce contamination during food handling at multiple points in the food processing and distribution system, including food preparation in restaurants and institutional settings, could prevent many foodborne disease outbreaks and outbreak-related illnesses including those due to Shigella. PMID:22361246

  3. Application of Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Typing To Discriminate Ralstonia solanacearum Strains Associated with English Watercourses and Disease Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Ruth; Bew, Janice; Conyers, Christine; Stones, Robert; Alcock, Michael; Elphinstone, John

    2013-01-01

    Variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis was used for high-resolution discrimination among Ralstonia solanacearum phylotype IIB sequevar 1 (PIIB-1) isolates and further evaluated for use in source tracing. Five tandem-repeat-containing loci (comprising six tandem repeats) discriminated 17 different VNTR profiles among 75 isolates from potato, geranium, bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara), tomato, and the environment. R. solanacearum isolates from crops at three unrelated outbreak sites where river water had been used for irrigation had distinct VNTR profiles that were shared with PIIB-1 isolates from infected bittersweet growing upriver of each site. The VNTR profiling results supported the implication that the source of R. solanacearum at each outbreak was contaminated river water. Analysis of 51 isolates from bittersweet growing in river water at different locations provided a means to evaluate the technique for studying the epidemiology of the pathogen in the environment. Ten different VNTR profiles were identified among bittersweet PIIB-1 isolates from the River Thames. Repeated findings of contiguous river stretches that produced isolates that shared single VNTR profiles supported the hypothesis that the pathogen had disseminated from infected bittersweet plants located upriver. VNTR profiles shared between bittersweet isolates from two widely separated Thames tributaries (River Ray and River Colne) suggested they were independently contaminated with the same clonal type. Some bittersweet isolates had VNTR profiles that were shared with potato isolates collected outside the United Kingdom. It was concluded that VNTR profiling could contribute to further understanding of R. solanacearum epidemiology and assist in control of future disease outbreaks. PMID:23892739

  4. Application of variable-number tandem-repeat typing to discriminate Ralstonia solanacearum strains associated with English watercourses and disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Neil; Bryant, Ruth; Bew, Janice; Conyers, Christine; Stones, Robert; Alcock, Michael; Elphinstone, John

    2013-10-01

    Variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis was used for high-resolution discrimination among Ralstonia solanacearum phylotype IIB sequevar 1 (PIIB-1) isolates and further evaluated for use in source tracing. Five tandem-repeat-containing loci (comprising six tandem repeats) discriminated 17 different VNTR profiles among 75 isolates from potato, geranium, bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara), tomato, and the environment. R. solanacearum isolates from crops at three unrelated outbreak sites where river water had been used for irrigation had distinct VNTR profiles that were shared with PIIB-1 isolates from infected bittersweet growing upriver of each site. The VNTR profiling results supported the implication that the source of R. solanacearum at each outbreak was contaminated river water. Analysis of 51 isolates from bittersweet growing in river water at different locations provided a means to evaluate the technique for studying the epidemiology of the pathogen in the environment. Ten different VNTR profiles were identified among bittersweet PIIB-1 isolates from the River Thames. Repeated findings of contiguous river stretches that produced isolates that shared single VNTR profiles supported the hypothesis that the pathogen had disseminated from infected bittersweet plants located upriver. VNTR profiles shared between bittersweet isolates from two widely separated Thames tributaries (River Ray and River Colne) suggested they were independently contaminated with the same clonal type. Some bittersweet isolates had VNTR profiles that were shared with potato isolates collected outside the United Kingdom. It was concluded that VNTR profiling could contribute to further understanding of R. solanacearum epidemiology and assist in control of future disease outbreaks. PMID:23892739

  5. A RT-PCR assay for the differential diagnosis of vesicular viral diseases of swine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Ignacio Núñez; Esther Blanco; Teresa Hernández; Concepción Gómez-Tejedor; Mar??a Jesus Mart??n; Joaqu??n Dopazo; Francisco Sobrino

    1998-01-01

    A RT-PCR assay based on specific amplification of RNA sequences from each of the etiological agents of three important vesicular diseases that affect swine, foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), was developed. Genotype-specific primers that amplified DNA fragments of differential size from SVDV 3D gene or VSV L gene were selected with

  6. Behçet's disease diagnosed after acute HIV infection: viral replication activating underlying autoimmunity?

    PubMed

    Roscoe, Clay; Kinney, Rebecca; Gilles, Ryan; Blue, Sky

    2015-05-01

    Behçet's disease is an autoimmune systemic vasculitis that can occur after exposure to infectious agents. Behçet's disease also has been associated with HIV infection, including de novo development of this condition during chronic HIV infection and resolution of Behçet's disease symptoms following initiation of antiretroviral therapy. We describe a patient who presented with systemic vasculitis with skin and mucous membrane ulcerations in the setting of acute HIV infection, who was eventually diagnosed with Behçet's disease, demonstrating a possible link between acute HIV infection, immune activation and development of autoimmunity. PMID:24912539

  7. Discordant Impact of HLA on Viral Replicative Capacity and Disease Progression in Pediatric and Adult HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Adland, Emily; Paioni, Paolo; Thobakgale, Christina; Laker, Leana; Mori, Luisa; Muenchhoff, Maximilian; Csala, Anna; Clapson, Margaret; Flynn, Jacquie; Novelli, Vas; Hurst, Jacob; Naidoo, Vanessa; Shapiro, Roger; Huang, Kuan-Hsiang Gary; Frater, John; Prendergast, Andrew; Prado, Julia G; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Walker, Bruce D; Carrington, Mary; Jooste, Pieter; Goulder, Philip J R

    2015-06-01

    HLA class I polymorphism has a major influence on adult HIV disease progression. An important mechanism mediating this effect is the impact on viral replicative capacity (VRC) of the escape mutations selected in response to HLA-restricted CD8+ T-cell responses. Factors that contribute to slow progression in pediatric HIV infection are less well understood. We here investigate the relationship between VRC and disease progression in pediatric infection, and the effect of HLA on VRC and on disease outcome in adult and pediatric infection. Studying a South African cohort of >350 ART-naïve, HIV-infected children and their mothers, we first observed that pediatric disease progression is significantly correlated with VRC. As expected, VRCs in mother-child pairs were strongly correlated (p = 0.004). The impact of the protective HLA alleles, HLA-B*57, HLA-B*58:01 and HLA-B*81:01, resulted in significantly lower VRCs in adults (p<0.0001), but not in children. Similarly, in adults, but not in children, VRCs were significantly higher in subjects expressing the disease-susceptible alleles HLA-B*18:01/45:01/58:02 (p = 0.007). Irrespective of the subject, VRCs were strongly correlated with the number of Gag CD8+ T-cell escape mutants driven by HLA-B*57/58:01/81:01 present in each virus (p = 0.0002). In contrast to the impact of VRC common to progression in adults and children, the HLA effects on disease outcome, that are substantial in adults, are small and statistically insignificant in infected children. These data further highlight the important role that VRC plays both in adult and pediatric progression, and demonstrate that HLA-independent factors, yet to be fully defined, are predominantly responsible for pediatric non-progression. PMID:26076345

  8. Discordant Impact of HLA on Viral Replicative Capacity and Disease Progression in Pediatric and Adult HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Adland, Emily; Paioni, Paolo; Thobakgale, Christina; Laker, Leana; Mori, Luisa; Muenchhoff, Maximilian; Csala, Anna; Clapson, Margaret; Flynn, Jacquie; Novelli, Vas; Hurst, Jacob; Naidoo, Vanessa; Shapiro, Roger; Huang, Kuan-Hsiang Gary; Frater, John; Prendergast, Andrew; Prado, Julia G.; Ndung’u, Thumbi; Walker, Bruce D.; Carrington, Mary; Jooste, Pieter; Goulder, Philip J. R.

    2015-01-01

    HLA class I polymorphism has a major influence on adult HIV disease progression. An important mechanism mediating this effect is the impact on viral replicative capacity (VRC) of the escape mutations selected in response to HLA-restricted CD8+ T-cell responses. Factors that contribute to slow progression in pediatric HIV infection are less well understood. We here investigate the relationship between VRC and disease progression in pediatric infection, and the effect of HLA on VRC and on disease outcome in adult and pediatric infection. Studying a South African cohort of >350 ART-naïve, HIV-infected children and their mothers, we first observed that pediatric disease progression is significantly correlated with VRC. As expected, VRCs in mother-child pairs were strongly correlated (p = 0.004). The impact of the protective HLA alleles, HLA-B*57, HLA-B*58:01 and HLA-B*81:01, resulted in significantly lower VRCs in adults (p<0.0001), but not in children. Similarly, in adults, but not in children, VRCs were significantly higher in subjects expressing the disease-susceptible alleles HLA-B*18:01/45:01/58:02 (p = 0.007). Irrespective of the subject, VRCs were strongly correlated with the number of Gag CD8+ T-cell escape mutants driven by HLA-B*57/58:01/81:01 present in each virus (p = 0.0002). In contrast to the impact of VRC common to progression in adults and children, the HLA effects on disease outcome, that are substantial in adults, are small and statistically insignificant in infected children. These data further highlight the important role that VRC plays both in adult and pediatric progression, and demonstrate that HLA-independent factors, yet to be fully defined, are predominantly responsible for pediatric non-progression. PMID:26076345

  9. Selection Tool for Foodborne Norovirus Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Kroneman, Annelies; van Duynhoven, Yvonne; Boshuizen, Hendriek; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Koopmans, Marion

    2009-01-01

    Detection of pathogens in the food chain is limited mainly to bacteria, and the globalization of the food industry enables international viral foodborne outbreaks to occur. Outbreaks from 2002 through 2006 recorded in a European norovirus surveillance database were investigated for virologic and epidemiologic indicators of food relatedness. The resulting validated multivariate logistic regression model comparing foodborne (n = 224) and person-to-person (n = 654) outbreaks was used to create a practical web-based tool that can be limited to epidemiologic parameters for nongenotyping countries. Non–genogroup-II.4 outbreaks, higher numbers of cases, and outbreaks in restaurants or households characterized (sensitivity = 0.80, specificity = 0.86) foodborne outbreaks and reduced the percentage of outbreaks requiring source-tracing to 31%. The selection tool enabled prospectively focused follow-up. Use of this tool is likely to improve data quality and strain typing in current surveillance systems, which is necessary for identification of potential international foodborne outbreaks. PMID:19116046

  10. Gastroenteritis Outbreaks Caused by Norovirus GII.17, Guangdong Province, China, 2014–2015

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jing; Sun, Limei; Fang, Lin; Yang, Feng; Mo, Yanling; Lao, Jiaqian; Zheng, Huanying; Tan, Xiaohua; Lin, Hualiang; Rutherford, Shannon; Guo, Lili; Ke, Changwen

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, the most prevalent norovirus genotype causing viral gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide, including China, has been GII.4. In winter 2014–15, norovirus outbreaks in Guangdong, China, increased. Sequence analysis indicated that 82% of the outbreaks were caused by a norovirus GII.17 variant. PMID:26080037

  11. Applying standard epidemiological methods for investigating foodborne disease outbreak in resource-poor settings: lessons from Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Vo, Thuan Huu; Nguyen, Dat Van; Le, Loan Thi Kim; Phan, Lan Trong; Nuorti, J Pekka; Tran Minh, Nguyen Nhu

    2014-07-01

    An outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred among workers of company X after eating lunch prepared by a catering service. Of 430 workers attending the meal, 56 were hospitalized with abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and nausea, according to the initial report. We conducted an investigation to identify the extent, vehicle, and source of the outbreak. In our case-control study, a case was a worker who attended the meal and who was hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis; controls were randomly selected from non-ill workers. Cases and controls were interviewed using a standard questionnaire. We used logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds ratios for the consumption of food items. Catering service facilities and food handlers working for the service were inspected. Food samples from the catering service were tested at reference laboratories. Of hospitalized cases, 54 fulfilled the case definition, but no stool specimens were collected for laboratory testing. Of four food items served during lunch, only "squash and pork soup" was significantly associated with gastroenteritis, with an adjusted odds ratio of 9.5 (95 % CI 3.2, 27.7). The caterer did not separate cooked from raw foods but used the same counter for both. Cooked foods were kept at room temperature for about 4 h before serving. Four of 14 food handlers were not trained on basic food safety principles and did not have health certificates. Although no microbiological confirmation was obtained, our epidemiological investigation suggested that squash and pork soup caused the outbreak. Hospitals should be instructed to obtain stool specimens from patients with gastroenteritis. Food catering services should be educated in basic food safety measures. PMID:24988035

  12. Viral capsid assembly as a model for protein aggregation diseases: Active processes catalyzed by cellular assembly machines comprising novel drug targets.

    PubMed

    Marreiros, Rita; Müller-Schiffmann, Andreas; Bader, Verian; Selvarajah, Suganya; Dey, Debendranath; Lingappa, Vishwanath R; Korth, Carsten

    2014-10-25

    Viruses can be conceptualized as self-replicating multiprotein assemblies, containing coding nucleic acids. Viruses have evolved to exploit host cellular components including enzymes to ensure their replicative life cycle. New findings indicate that also viral capsid proteins recruit host factors to accelerate their assembly. These assembly machines are RNA-containing multiprotein complexes whose composition is governed by allosteric sites. In the event of viral infection, the assembly machines are recruited to support the virus over the host and are modified to achieve that goal. Stress granules and processing bodies may represent collections of such assembly machines, readily visible by microscopy but biochemically labile and difficult to isolate by fractionation. We hypothesize that the assembly of protein multimers such as encountered in neurodegenerative or other protein conformational diseases, is also catalyzed by assembly machines. In the case of viral infection, the assembly machines have been modified by the virus to meet the virus' need for rapid capsid assembly rather than host homeostasis. In the case of the neurodegenerative diseases, it is the monomers and/or low n oligomers of the so-called aggregated proteins that are substrates of assembly machines. Examples for substrates are amyloid ? peptide (A?) and tau in Alzheimer's disease, ?-synuclein in Parkinson's disease, prions in the prion diseases, Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) in subsets of chronic mental illnesses, and others. A likely continuum between virus capsid assembly and cell-to-cell transmissibility of aggregated proteins is remarkable. Protein aggregation diseases may represent dysfunction and dysregulation of these assembly machines analogous to the aberrations induced by viral infection in which cellular homeostasis is pathologically reprogrammed. In this view, as for viral infection, reset of assembly machines to normal homeostasis should be the goal of protein aggregation therapeutics. A key basis for the commonality between viral and neurodegenerative disease aggregation is a broader definition of assembly as more than just simple aggregation, particularly suited for the crowded cytoplasm. The assembly machines are collections of proteins that catalytically accelerate an assembly reaction that would occur spontaneously but too slowly to be relevant in vivo. Being an enzyme complex with a functional allosteric site, appropriated for a non-physiological purpose (e.g. viral infection or conformational disease), these assembly machines present a superior pharmacological target because inhibition of their active site will amplify an effect on their substrate reaction. Here, we present this hypothesis based on recent proof-of-principle studies against A? assembly relevant in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25451064

  13. Viral infections of the newborn.

    PubMed

    Strodtbeck, F

    1995-09-01

    Viral infections of the newborn result in significant morbidity and mortality each year. The fetus and newborn are particularly vulnerable to viral infection. The range of expression may vary from no clinical disease to devastating illness and infection occurring before, during, or after birth. Nursing management is determined by the specific viral infection, the severity of the illness, and the unique conditions of the newborn and his/her family. Promising new therapies are on the horizon that may lessen the severity of viral disease. Until such time, the major thrusts of management of neonatal viral disease are prevention of infection and supportive care for the acutely ill newborn. PMID:7500196

  14. Re-emergent human adenovirus genome type 7d caused an acute respiratory disease outbreak in Southern China after a twenty-one year absence.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Suhui; Wan, Chengsong; Ke, Changwen; Seto, Jason; Dehghan, Shoaleh; Zou, Lirong; Zhou, Jie; Cheng, Zetao; Jing, Shuping; Zeng, Zhiwei; Zhang, Jing; Wan, Xuan; Wu, Xianbo; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Li; Seto, Donald; Zhang, Qiwei

    2014-01-01

    Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are highly contagious pathogens causing acute respiratory disease (ARD), among other illnesses. Of the ARD genotypes, HAdV-7 presents with more severe morbidity and higher mortality than the others. We report the isolation and identification of a genome type HAdV-7d (DG01_2011) from a recent outbreak in Southern China. Genome sequencing, phylogenetic analysis, and restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) comparisons with past pathogens indicate HAdV-7d has re-emerged in Southern China after an absence of twenty-one years. Recombination analysis reveals this genome differs from the 1950s-era prototype and vaccine strains by a lateral gene transfer, substituting the coding region for the L1 52/55?kDa DNA packaging protein from HAdV-16. DG01_2011 descends from both a strain circulating in Southwestern China (2010) and a strain from Shaanxi causing a fatality and outbreak (Northwestern China; 2009). Due to the higher morbidity and mortality rates associated with HAdV-7, the surveillance, identification, and characterization of these strains in population-dense China by REA and/or whole genome sequencing are strongly indicated. With these accurate identifications of specific HAdV types and an epidemiological database of regional HAdV pathogens, along with the HAdV genome stability noted across time and space, the development, availability, and deployment of appropriate vaccines are needed. PMID:25482188

  15. Emerging viral disease risk to pollinating insects: ecological, evolutionary and anthropogenic factors

    PubMed Central

    Manley, Robyn; Boots, Mike; Wilfert, Lena

    2015-01-01

    The potential for infectious pathogens to spillover and emerge from managed populations to wildlife communities is poorly understood, but ecological, evolutionary and anthropogenic factors are all likely to influence the initial exposure and subsequent infection, spread and impact of disease. Fast-evolving RNA viruses, known to cause severe colony losses in managed honeybee populations, deserve particular attention for their propensity to jump between host species and thus threaten ecologically and economically important wild pollinator communities. We review the literature on pollinator viruses to identify biological and anthropogenic drivers of disease emergence, highlight gaps in the literature, and discuss potential management strategies. We provide evidence that many wild pollinator species are exposed to viruses from commercial species, resulting in multiple spillover events. However, it is not clear whether species become infected as a result of spillover or whether transmission is occurring within these wild populations. Ecological traits of pollinating insects, such as overlapping ranges, niches and behaviours, clearly promote cross-species transmission of RNA viruses. Moreover, we conclude that the social behaviour and phylogenetic relatedness of social pollinators further facilitate within- and between-host transmission, leaving these species particularly vulnerable to emerging diseases. We argue that the commercial use of pollinators is a key driver of disease emergence in these beneficial insects and that this must be addressed by management and policy. Synthesis and applications. There are important knowledge gaps, ranging from disease distribution and prevalence, to pathogen life history and virulence, to the impacts of disease emergence, which need to be addressed as research priorities. It is clear that avoiding anthropogenic pathogen spillover is crucial to preventing and managing disease emergence in pollinators, with far-reaching effects on our food security, ecosystem services and biodiversity. We argue that it is crucial to prevent the introduction of diseased pollinators into natural environments, which can be achieved through improved monitoring and management practices. PMID:25954053

  16. Virulent Marek's Disease Virus Generated from Infectious Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Clones with Complete DNA Sequence and Implication of Viral Genetic Homogeniety in Pathogenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic homogeneity of a test population is essential to precisely associate a viral genome sequence and its phenotype at the nucleotide level. However, homogeneity is not easy to achieve for Marek’s disease virus (MDV) due to its strictly cell-associated replication. To address this problem, two vi...

  17. Identifying the pattern of molecular evolution for Zaire ebolavirus in the 2014 outbreak in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Liu, Si-Qing; Deng, Cheng-Lin; Yuan, Zhi-Ming; Rayner, Simon; Zhang, Bo

    2015-06-01

    The current Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic has killed more than all previous Ebola outbreaks combined and, even as efforts appear to be bringing the outbreak under control, the threat of reemergence remains. The availability of new whole-genome sequences from West Africa in 2014 outbreak, together with those from the earlier outbreaks, provide an opportunity to investigate the genetic characteristics, the epidemiological dynamics and the evolutionary history for Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV). To investigate the evolutionary properties of ZEBOV in this outbreak, we examined amino acid mutations, positive selection, and evolutionary rates on the basis of 123 ZEBOV genome sequences. The estimated phylogenetic relationships within ZEBOV revealed that viral sequences from the same period or location formed a distinct cluster. The West Africa viruses probably derived from Middle Africa, consistent with results from previous studies. Analysis of the seven protein regions of ZEBOV revealed evidence of positive selection acting on the GP and L genes. Interestingly, all putatively positive-selected sites identified in the GP are located within the mucin-like domain of the solved structure of the protein, suggesting a possible role in the immune evasion properties of ZEBOV. Compared with earlier outbreaks, the evolutionary rate of GP gene was estimated to significantly accelerate in the 2014 outbreak, suggesting that more ZEBOV variants are generated for human to human transmission during this sweeping epidemic. However, a more balanced sample set and next generation sequencing datasets would help achieve a clearer understanding at the genetic level of how the virus is evolving and adapting to new conditions. PMID:25745889

  18. Distribution of cow-calf producers' beliefs regarding gathering and holding their cattle and observing animal movement restrictions during an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Amy H; Norby, Bo; Scott, H Morgan; Dean, Wesley; McIntosh, W Alex; Bush, Eric

    2014-12-01

    The voluntary cooperation of producers with disease control measures such as movement restrictions and gathering cattle for testing, vaccination, or depopulation is critical to the success of many disease control programs. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Texas in order to determine the distribution of key beliefs about obeying movement restrictions and gathering and holding cattle for disease control purposes. Two questionnaires were developed and distributed to separate representative samples of Texas cow-calf producers, respectively. The context for each behavior was provided through the use of scenarios in the questionnaire. Belief strength was measured using a 7-point Likert-like scale. Producers surveyed were unsure about the possible negative consequences of gathering and holding their cattle when requested by authorities, suggesting a key need for communication in this area during an outbreak. Respondents identified a lack of manpower and/or financial resources to gather and hold cattle as barriers to their cooperation with orders to gather and hold cattle. Producers also expressed uncertainty about the efficacy of movement restrictions to prevent the spread of foot-and-mouth disease and concern about possible feed shortages or animal suffering. However, there are emotional benefits to complying with movement restrictions and strong social expectations of cooperation with any movement bans put in place. PMID:25315760

  19. Diversity and distribution of white-tailed deer mtdna lineages in chronic wasting disease (cwd) outbreak areas in southern wisconsin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, K.G.; Robinson, S.J.; Samuel, M.D.; Grear, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting North American cervids. Because it is uniformly fatal, the disease is a major concern in the management of white-tailed deer populations. Management programs to control CWD require improved knowledge of deer interaction, movement, and population connectivity that could influence disease transmission and spread. Genetic methods were employed to evaluate connectivity among populations in the CWD management zone of southern Wisconsin. A 576-base-pair region of the mitochondrial DNA of 359 white-tailed deer from 12 sample populations was analyzed. Fifty-eight variable sites were detected within the sequence, defining 43 haplotypes. While most sample populations displayed similar levels of haplotype diversity, individual haplotypes were clustered on the landscape. Spatial clusters of different haplotypes were apparent in distinct ecoregions surrounding CWD outbreak areas. The spatial distribution of mtDNA haplotypes suggests that clustering of the deer matrilineal groups and population connectivity are associated with broad-scale geographic landscape features. These landscape characteristics may also influence the contact rates between groups and therefore the potential spread of CWD; this may be especially true of local disease spread between female social groups. Our results suggest that optimal CWD management needs to be tailored to fit gender-specific dispersal behaviors and regional differences in deer population connectivity. This information will help wildlife managers design surveillance and monitoring efforts based on population interactions and potential deer movement among CWD-affected and unaffected areas. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  20. Cloned Viral Protein Vaccine for Foot-and-Mouth Disease: Responses in Cattle and Swine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleid, Dennis G.; Yansura, Daniel; Small, Barbara; Dowbenko, Donald; Moore, Douglas M.; Grubman, Marvin J.; McKercher, Peter D.; Morgan, Donald O.; Robertson, Betty H.; Bachrach, Howard L.

    1981-12-01

    A DNA sequence coding for the immunogenic capsid protein VP3 of foot-and-mouth disease virus A12, prepared from the virion RNA, was ligated to a plasmid designed to express a chimeric protein from the Escherichia coli tryptophan promoter-operator system. When Escherichia coli transformed with this plasmid was grown in tryptophan-depleted media, approximately 17 percent of the total cellular protein was found to be an insoluble and stable chimeric protein. The purified chimeric protein competed equally on a molar basis with VP3 for specific antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus. When inoculated into six cattle and two swine, this protein elicited high levels of neutralizing antibody and protection against challenge with foot-and-mouth disease virus.

  1. Emergence and re-emergence of viral diseases of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Diane E

    2010-06-01

    Neurologic disease is a major cause of disability in resource-poor countries and a substantial portion of this disease is due to infections of the CNS. A wide variety of emerging and re-emerging viruses contribute to this disease burden. New emerging infections are commonly due to RNA viruses that have expanded their geographic range, spread from animal reservoirs or acquired new neurovirulence properties. Mosquito-borne viruses with expanding ranges include West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus and Chikungunya virus. Zoonotic viruses that have recently crossed into humans to cause neurologic disease include the bat henipaviruses Nipah and Hendra, as well as the primate-derived human immunodeficiency virus. Viruses adapt to new hosts, or to cause more severe disease, by changing their genomes through reassortment (e.g. influenza virus), mutation (essentially all RNA viruses) and recombination (e.g. vaccine strains of poliovirus). Viruses that appear to have recently become more neurovirulent include West Nile virus, enterovirus 71 and possibly Chikungunya virus. In addition to these newer challenges, rabies, polio and measles all remain important causes of neurologic disease despite good vaccines and global efforts toward control. Control of human rabies depends on elimination of rabies in domestic dogs through regular vaccination. Poliovirus eradication is challenged by the ability of the live attenuated vaccine strains to revert to virulence during the prolonged period of gastrointestinal replication. Measles elimination depends on delivery of two doses of live virus vaccine to a high enough proportion of the population to maintain herd immunity for this highly infectious virus. PMID:20004230

  2. Multiplex diagnosis of viral infectious diseases (AIDS, hepatitis C, and hepatitis A) based on point of care lateral flow assay using engineered proteinticles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Hwan; Seo, Hyuk Seong; Kwon, Jung-Hyuk; Kim, Hee-Tae; Kwon, Koo Chul; Sim, Sang Jun; Cha, Young Joo; Lee, Jeewon

    2015-07-15

    Lateral flow assay (LFA) is an attractive method for rapid, simple, and cost-effective point of care diagnosis. For LFA-based multiplex diagnosis of three viral intractable diseases (acquired immune deficiency syndrome and hepatitis C and A), here we developed proteinticle-based 7 different 3D probes that display different viral antigens on their surface, which were synthesized in Escherichia coli by self-assembly of human ferritin heavy chain that was already engineered by genetically linking viral antigens to its C-terminus. Each of the three test lines on LFA strip contains the proteinticle probes to detect disease-specific anti-viral antibodies. Compared to peptide probes, the proteinticle probes were evidently more sensitive, and the proteinticle probe-based LFA successfully diagnosed all the 20 patient sera per each disease without a false negative signal, whereas the diagnostic sensitivities in the peptide probe-based LFAs were 65-90%. Duplex and triplex assays performed with randomly mixed patient sera gave only true positive signals for all the 20 serum mixtures without any false positive signals, indicating 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. It seems that on the proteinticle surface the antigenic peptides have homogeneous orientation and conformation without inter-peptide clustering and hence lead to the enhanced diagnostic performance with solving the problems of traditional diagnostic probes. Although the multiplex diagnosis of three viral diseases above was demonstrated as proof-of-concept here, the proposed LFA system can be applied to multiplex point of care diagnosis of other intractable diseases. PMID:25747506

  3. A Recombinant Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup J for Directly Monitoring Viral Infection and the Selection of Neutralizing Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; Li, Xiaofei; Ji, Xiaolin; Wang, Jingfei; Shen, Nan; Gao, Yulong; Qi, Xiaole; Wang, Yongqiang; Gao, Honglei; Zhang, Shide; Wang, Xiaomei

    2014-01-01

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) has induced serious clinical outbreaks and has become a serious infectious disease of chickens in China. We describe here the creation of a recombinant ALV-J tagged with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (named rHPRS-103EGFP). We successfully utilize the rHPRS-103EGFP to visualize viral infection and for development of a simplified serum-neutralization test. PMID:25522008

  4. ENGINEERED VIRAL VACCINE CONSTRUCTS WITH DUAL SPECIFICITY: AVIAN INFLUENZA AND NEWCASTLE DISEASE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza viruses of the H5 and H7 hemagglutinin subtypes and Newcastle disease virus are important pathogens in poultry worldwide. Specifically, the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus is a particular threat as it has now occurred in more than 40 countries on several continents. Sinc...

  5. Viral-based modelling and correction of neurodegenerative diseases by RNA interference

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Raoul; S D Barker; P Aebischer

    2006-01-01

    Experimental recapitulation of recessive human genetic neurodegenerative disease in rodents can be classically addressed through genetic disruption of the related gene. Although very informative, this specific gene targeting is restricted to mice and precludes a species scale-up towards non-human primates. Concomitantly, this requirement to silence a specific gene in a broad range of animal models is important in the design

  6. Immune Response and Viral Persistence in Indian Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) Infected with Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype Asia 1 ?

    PubMed Central

    Maddur, Mohan S.; Kishore, Subodh; Gopalakrishna, S.; Singh, Nem; Suryanarayana, V. V.; Gajendragad, Mukund R.

    2009-01-01

    Despite their potential role in the spread of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), the immune response and viral persistence in FMD virus (FMDV)-infected Indian buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) have been unexplored. We found similar kinetics of neutralizing antibody responses in the sera and secretory fluids of buffaloes following experimental FMDV Asia 1 infection, but the lymphocyte-proliferative response in infected buffaloes was of low magnitude. Despite inducing a significant systemic and secretory immune response, viral persistence seems to be a common outcome in buffaloes following FMDV Asia 1 infection, which is associated with a weak cellular immune response. PMID:19828770

  7. Immune response and viral persistence in Indian buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype Asia 1.

    PubMed

    Maddur, Mohan S; Kishore, Subodh; Gopalakrishna, S; Singh, Nem; Suryanarayana, V V; Gajendragad, Mukund R

    2009-12-01

    Despite their potential role in the spread of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), the immune response and viral persistence in FMD virus (FMDV)-infected Indian buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) have been unexplored. We found similar kinetics of neutralizing antibody responses in the sera and secretory fluids of buffaloes following experimental FMDV Asia 1 infection, but the lymphocyte-proliferative response in infected buffaloes was of low magnitude. Despite inducing a significant systemic and secretory immune response, viral persistence seems to be a common outcome in buffaloes following FMDV Asia 1 infection, which is associated with a weak cellular immune response. PMID:19828770

  8. TARGETING THE DETECTION OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE USING THE HUNTER HARVEST DURING EARLY PHASES OF AN OUTBREAK IN SASKATCHEWAN, CANADA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erin E. Rees; Evelyn H. Merrill; Trent K. Bollingertrent K. Bollinger; Yeen Ten Hwang; Margo J. Pybus; Dave W. Coltman

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal disease of North American cervids that was first detected in a wild, hunter-shot deer in Saskatchewan along the border with Alberta in Canada in 2000. Spatially explicit models for assessing factors affecting disease detection are needed to guide surveillance and control programs. Spatio-temporal patterns in CWD prevalence can be complicated by variation in

  9. A NOVEL STRATEGY TO CONTROL INFECTIOUS VIRAL DISEASES: ADENOVIRUS CONTAINING INTERFERON ALPHA PROTECTS SWINE FROM FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have previously shown that replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is highly sensitive to alpha/beta interferon (IFN- / ). In the present study, we constructed recombinant, replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 vectors containing either porcine IFN- or IFN- (Ad5-pIFN or...

  10. Cytopathogenicity of Border Disease Virus Is Correlated with Integration of Cellular Sequences into the Viral Genome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PAUL BECHER; GREGOR MEYERS; ANTHONY D. SHANNON; ANDHEINZ-JURGEN THIEL

    1996-01-01

    Two border disease virus (BDV) pairs each consisting of cytopathogenic (cp) and non-cp viruses have been analyzed at the molecular level. Within the NS2-3 (p125) encoding region of both cp viruses, insertions of cellular sequences were identified which were absent in the corresponding non-cp isolates. A comparative sequence analysis revealed that within each pair the cp and non-cp viruses are

  11. Role of virus-encoded microRNAs in Avian viral diseases.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yongxiu; Nair, Venugopal

    2014-01-01

    With total dependence on the host cell, several viruses have adopted strategies to modulate the host cellular environment, including the modulation of microRNA (miRNA) pathway through virus-encoded miRNAs. Several avian viruses, mostly herpesviruses, have been shown to encode a number of novel miRNAs. These include the highly oncogenic Marek's disease virus-1 (26 miRNAs), avirulent Marek's disease virus-2 (36 miRNAs), herpesvirus of turkeys (28 miRNAs), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (10 miRNAs), duck enteritis virus (33 miRNAs) and avian leukosis virus (2 miRNAs). Despite the closer antigenic and phylogenetic relationship among some of the herpesviruses, miRNAs encoded by different viruses showed no sequence conservation, although locations of some of the miRNAs were conserved within the repeat regions of the genomes. However, some of the virus-encoded miRNAs showed significant sequence homology with host miRNAs demonstrating their ability to serve as functional orthologs. For example, mdv1-miR-M4-5p, a functional ortholog of gga-miR-155, is critical for the oncogenicity of Marek's disease virus. Additionally, we also describe the potential association of the recently described avian leukosis virus subgroup J encoded E (XSR) miRNA in the induction of myeloid tumors in certain genetically-distinct chicken lines. In this review, we describe the advances in our understanding on the role of virus-encoded miRNAs in avian diseases. PMID:24662606

  12. Host and Viral Genetic Correlates of Clinical Definitions of HIV1 Disease Progression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Concepción Casado; Sara Colombo; Andri Rauch; Raquel Martínez; Huldrych F. Günthard; Soledad Garcia; Carmen Rodríguez; Jorge Del Romero; Amalio Telenti; Cecilio López-Galíndez; Jean-Pierre Vartanian

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundVarious patterns of HIV-1 disease progression are described in clinical practice and in research. There is a need to assess the specificity of commonly used definitions of long term non-progressor (LTNP) elite controllers (LTNP-EC), viremic controllers (LTNP-VC), and viremic non controllers (LTNP-NC), as well as of chronic progressors (P) and rapid progressors (RP).Methodology and Principal FindingsWe re-evaluated the HIV-1 clinical

  13. A host-restricted viral vector for antigen-specific immunization against Lyme disease pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Sa; Kumar, Manish; Yang, Xiuli; Akkoyunlu, Mustafa; Collins, Peter L.; Samal, Siba K.; Pal, Utpal

    2011-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an avian virus that is attenuated in primates and is a potential vaccine vector for human use. We evaluated NDV as a vector for expressing selected antigens of the Lyme disease pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi. A series of recombinant NDVs were generated that expressed intracellular or extracellular forms of two Borrelia burgdorferi antigens: namely, the basic membrane protein A (BmpA) and the outer surface protein C (OspC). Expression of the intracellular and extracellular forms of these antigens was confirmed in cultured chicken cells. C3H or Balb/C mice that were immunized intranasally with the NDV vectors mounted vigorous serum antibody responses against the NDV vector, but failed to mount a robust response against either the intracellular or extracellular forms of BmpA or OspC. In contrast, a single immunization of hamsters with the NDV vectors via the intranasal, intramuscular, or intraperitoneal route resulted in rapid and rigorous antibody responses against the intracellular or extracellular forms of BmpA and OspC. When groups of hamsters were separately inoculated with various NDV vectors and challenged with B. burgdorferi (108 cells/animal), immunization with vector expressing either intracellular or extracellular BmpA was associated with a significant reduction of the pathogen load in the joints. Taken together, our studies highlighted the importance of NDV as vaccine vector that can be used for simple yet effective immunization of hosts against bacterial infections including Lyme disease. PMID:21600949

  14. Efficacy of a viral load-based, risk-adapted, preemptive treatment strategy for prevention of Cytomegalovirus disease after hematopoietic cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Green, Margaret L.; Leisenring, Wendy; Stachel, Daniel; Pergam, Steven A; Sandmaier, Brenda M; Wald, Anna; Corey, Lawrence; Boeckh, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) surveillance and preemptive therapy is the most commonly used strategy for CMV disease prevention in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. In 2007, we introduced a CMV prevention strategy for those patients at risk for CMV disease using quantitative PCR surveillance, with treatment thresholds determined by patient risk factors. Patients (N=367) received preemptive therapy either at a plasma viral load of ?500 copies/ml, at ?100 copies/ml if receiving ? 1 mg/kg of prednisone or anti-T cell therapies, or if a ? 5-fold viral load increase from baseline was detected. Compared to patients prior to 2007 undergoing antigenemia-based surveillance (n=690) with preemptive therapy initiated for any positive level, the risk-adapted PCR based strategy resulted in similar use of antiviral agents, and similar risks of CMV disease, toxicity and non-relapse mortality (NRM) in multivariable models. The cumulative incidence of CMV disease by day 100 was 5.2% in the PCR group compared to 5.8% in the antigenemia group (1 year: 9.1% PCR vs 9.6% antigenemia). Breakthrough CMV disease in the PCR group was predominantly in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract (15/19 cases, 79%). However, unlike CMV pneumonia, CMV GI disease was not associated with increased NRM (adjusted hazard ratio 1.19, P=0.7 [GI disease] vs. 8.18, P<0.001 [pneumonia]). Thus, the transition to a preemptive therapy strategy based on CMV viral load and host risk factors successfully prevented CMV disease without increasing the proportion of patients receiving preemptive therapy and attributable toxicity. Breakthrough disease in PCR-based preemptive therapy occurs at a low incidence and presents primarily as GI disease which is more likely to be responsive to antiviral therapy. PMID:22683614

  15. Dengue virus type 1 clade replacement in recurring homotypic outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recurring dengue outbreaks occur in cyclical pattern in most endemic countries. The recurrences of dengue virus (DENV) infection predispose the population to increased risk of contracting the severe forms of dengue. Understanding the DENV evolutionary mechanism underlying the recurring dengue outbreaks has important implications for epidemic prediction and disease control. Results We used a set of viral envelope (E) gene to reconstruct the phylogeny of DENV-1 isolated between the periods of 1987–2011 in Malaysia. Phylogenetic analysis of DENV-1 E gene revealed that genotype I virus clade replacements were associated with the cyclical pattern of major DENV-1 outbreaks in Malaysia. A total of 9 non-conservative amino acid substitutions in the DENV-1 E gene consensus were identified; 4 in domain I, 3 in domain II and 2 in domain III. Selection pressure analyses did not reveal any positively selected codon site within the full length E gene sequences (1485 nt, 495 codons). A total of 183 (mean dN/dS = 0.0413) negatively selected sites were found within the Malaysian isolates; neither positive nor negative selection was noted for the remaining 312 codons. All the viruses were cross-neutralized by the respective patient sera suggesting no strong support for immunological advantage of any of the amino acid substitutions. Conclusion DENV-1 clade replacement is associated with recurrences of major DENV-1 outbreaks in Malaysia. Our findings are consistent with those of other studies that the DENV-1 clade replacement is a stochastic event independent of positive selection. PMID:24073945

  16. Co-Circulation and Genomic Recombination of Coxsackievirus A16 and Enterovirus 71 during a Large Outbreak of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Central China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weiyong; Wu, Shimin; Xiong, Ying; Li, Tongya; Wen, Zhou; Yan, Mingzhe; Qin, Kai; Liu, Yingle; Wu, Jianguo

    2014-01-01

    A total of 1844 patients with hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), most of them were children of age 1–3-year-old, in Central China were hospitalized from 2011 to 2012. Among them, 422 were infected with coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16), 334 were infected with enterovirus 71 (EV71), 38 were co-infected with EV71 and CVA16, and 35 were infected with other enteroviruses. Molecular epidemiology analysis revealed that EV71 and CVA16 were detected year-round, but EV71 circulated mainly in July and CVA16 circulated predominantly in November, and incidence of HFMD was reduced in January and February and increased in March. Clinical data showed that hyperglycemia and neurologic complications were significantly higher in EV71-infected patients, while upper respiratory tract infection and C-reactive protein were significantly higher in CVA16-associated patients. 124 EV71 and 80 CVA16 strains were isolated, among them 56 and 68 EV71 strains were C4a and C4b, while 25 and 55 CVA16 strains were B1a and B1b, respectively. Similarity plots and bootscan analyses based on entire genomic sequences revealed that the three C4a sub-genotype EV71 strains were recombinant with C4b sub-genotype EV71 in 2B–2C region, and the three CVA16 strains were recombinant with EV71 in 2A–2B region. Thus, CVA16 and EV71 were the major causative agents in a large HFMD outbreak in Central China. HFMD incidence was high for children among household contact and was detected year-round, but outbreak was seasonal dependent. CVA16 B1b and EV71 C4b reemerged and caused a large epidemic in China after a quiet period of many years. Moreover, EV71 and CVA16 were co-circulated during the outbreak, which may have contributed to the genomic recombination between the pathogens. It should gain more attention as there may be an upward trend in co-circulation of the two pathogens globally and the new role recombination plays in the emergence of new enterovirus variants. PMID:24776922

  17. Metagenomic approaches to disclose disease-associated pathogens: detection of viral pathogens in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Granberg, Fredrik; Karlsson, Oskar E; Belák, Sándor

    2015-01-01

    Metagenomic approaches have become invaluable for culture-independent and sequence-independent detection and characterization of disease-associated pathogens. Here, the sequential steps from sampling to verification of results are described for a metagenomic-based approach to detect potential pathogens in honeybees. The pre-sequencing steps are given in detail, but due to the rapid development of sequencing technologies, all platform-specific procedures, as well as subsequent bioinformatics analysis, are more generally described. It should also be noted that this approach could, with minor modifications, be adapted for other organisms and sample matrices. PMID:25399116

  18. Cell mediated immune response in chronic liver diseases: schistosomal, viral and neoplastic.

    PubMed

    Wahib, A A; Masoud, A A; Halem, A A; Haseeb, A N; Hassan, A R; Darwish, M A; Hegazi, M; Abdallah, K F

    1998-12-01

    Cell mediated immune response (CMIR) was studies in 120 patients having chronic liver diseases. Patients were divided into 6 groups, (20 each). (1) Early hepatosplenic Schistosomiasis. (EHSS), (2) Late hepatosplenic Schistosomiasis. (LHSS), (3) Hepatosplenic Schistosomiasis with hepatitis B and/or C infections, (4) Hepatitis B virus cases. (HBV), (5) Hepatitis C virus cases (HCV), (6) Hepatocellular carcinoma cases. (HCC). Twenty within normal subjects taken as controls. Laboratory investigations revealed significant esinophilia in patients of group (1), haemoglobin level was significantly reduced in patients of group (1, 2, 3, & 6), serum albumin was significantly reduced in group (2). The percentage of positivity of skin testing using purified protein derivative, ranged between 10% of patients with LHSS, HBV, HCC and HSS with HBV and/or HCV, 20% of patients with HCV and 25% of patients with EHSS. Percentage of positivity in control group was 100%. The mean diameter of delayed intradermal reaction (2.2 +/- 0.5-6.1 +/- 2.1 mms.) was significantly lower in patients than controls. The response of lymphocyte transformation test to phytohaemmagglutinin was significantly lower in patients when compared to controls. The association of HBV and/or HCV with hepatosplenomegaly was accompanied with a marked depression in cell mediated immune response. Anaemia, hypoalbuminemia and nutritional status of the patients with chronic liver diseases play a major role in the suppression of cell mediated immune response. PMID:9914713

  19. CROI 2014: viral hepatitis and complications of HIV disease and antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Luetkemeyer, Anne F; Havlir, Diane V; Currier, Judith S

    2014-05-01

    The remarkable advances in interferon-sparing, all-oral hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment were a highlight of the 2014 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI). The backbone of the nucleotide inhibitor sofosbuvir and the nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) inhibitor ledipasvir with an additional third agent (HCV protease inhibitor or HCV nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor) led to a sustained virologic response (SVR) rate 12 weeks after cessation of treatment of 95% to 100% after only 6 weeks of treatment. These results demonstrate the potential of combination directacting antiviral (DAA) therapy for abbreviated, well-tolerated, and highly effective HCV treatment. Two triple-drug regimens that comprised 12 weeks of an NS5A inhibitor, an HCV protease inhibitor, and a nonnucleoside inhibitor also resulted in SVRs of more than 90% in patients with HCV genotype 1. HIV coinfection does not appear to negatively impact response to DAA-based HCV therapy, as evidenced by similar response rates in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients compared with HCV-monoinfected patients receiving interferonsparing or -containing regimens. There was continued emphasis at CROI 2014 on non-AIDS complications of HIV infection, specifically cardiovascular disease, renal insufficiency, and bone and endocrine disorders that persist among patients with treated HIV disease and contribute to morbidity and mortality. Finally, new data on novel drugs and combinations for treatment of tuberculosis (TB), patient outcomes using new rapid TB diagnostics, and a short-course TB prevention strategy were presented. PMID:24901886

  20. Risks of suffering tick-borne diseases in sheep translocated to a tick infested area: a laboratory approach for the investigation of an outbreak.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Ana; Barandika, Jesús F; Oporto, Beatriz; Minguijón, Esmeralda; Povedano, Inés; García-Pérez, Ana L

    2015-02-01

    This study was designed to investigate an outbreak of high mortality that occurred in naïve Assaf sheep introduced into a Latxa sheep flock in the Basque Country, a region where piroplasmosis is endemic. To identify the causes of this outbreak, a panel of different methods, including traditional pathological, biopathological and parasitological analyses combined with recently developed molecular methods, was used. These novel molecular methods included a multiplex real-time PCR assay to screen for the presence of the most important tick-borne pathogens (piroplasms and anaplasmas), followed by a second species-specific multiplex real-time PCR assay for the identification of Anaplasma-positive samples. The identification of piroplasm-positive samples was carried out by a multiplexed microsphere-based suspension array using a Luminex(®) xMAP technology-based procedure. Anaplasmas and/or piroplasms were detected in 7/10 lambs and 11/13 ewes, with Babesia ovis being detected in 12 of the 23 animals, Theileria ovis in 6 and Anaplasma ovis in 4, both as single and mixed infections. Most of the animals infected with B. ovis had a marked decrease in the values of the red blood cell parameters. Ticks collected from the animals were identified as Riphicephalus bursa, recognised vector of B. ovis. Other haemolytic pathologies (clostridial disease, copper poisoning and leptospirosis) were ruled out and, considering all clinical, laboratory and epidemiological data, babesiosis by B. ovis was diagnosed. A detailed description of the clinical outcome, with ca. 60% of mortality, laboratory results and epidemiological findings are provided. The implications of the introduction of naïve animals into a piroplasmosis endemic area are discussed. PMID:25257849

  1. p53 Activation following Rift Valley Fever Virus Infection Contributes to Cell Death and Viral Production

    PubMed Central

    Lundberg, Lindsay; Shafagati, Nazly; Schoonmaker, Annalise; Narayanan, Aarthi; Popova, Taissia; Panthier, Jean Jacques; Kashanchi, Fatah; Bailey, Charles; Kehn-Hall, Kylene

    2012-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an emerging viral zoonosis that is responsible for devastating outbreaks among livestock and is capable of causing potentially fatal disease in humans. Studies have shown that upon infection, certain viruses have the capability of utilizing particular cellular signaling pathways to propagate viral infection. Activation of p53 is important for the DNA damage signaling cascade, initiation of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and transcriptional regulation of multiple genes. The current study focuses on the role of p53 signaling in RVFV infection and viral replication. These results show an up-regulation of p53 phosphorylation at several serine sites after RVFV MP-12 infection that is highly dependent on the viral protein NSs. qRT-PCR data showed a transcriptional up-regulation of several p53 targeted genes involved in cell cycle and apoptosis regulation following RVFV infection. Cell viability assays demonstrate that loss of p53 results in less RVFV induced cell death. Furthermore, decreased viral titers in p53 null cells indicate that RVFV utilizes p53 to enhance viral production. Collectively, these experiments indicate that the p53 signaling pathway is utilized during RVFV infection to induce cell death and increase viral production. PMID:22574148

  2. Outbreak of Nosocomial Listeriosis — Texas, 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Invasive listeriosis is a potentially fatal foodborne disease caused by Listeria monocytogenes. In February 2010, a listeriosis cluster was identified in Texas. We investigated to confirm the outbreak, identify the source, and prevent additional infections. Methods: All clinical isol...

  3. Cuticular and internal chemical composition of biting midges Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), potential vectors of viral diseases.

    PubMed

    González, Mikel; López, Sergio; Rosell, Gloria; Goldarazen, Arturo; Guerrero, Angel

    2014-08-01

    The chemical profile of the cuticle and internal tissues of four species of Culicoides have been studied for the first time by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The chemical composition of females of C. obsoletus s.l. and C. lupicaris, vectors of diverse viral diseases, have been compared with that of other biting midges, such as C. kibunensis and C. fascipennis, and the non-biting midge Forcipomyia bipunctata. A total of 61 compounds belonging to 8 major chemical classes were identified in cuticular and internal tissues in n-hexane extracts. The compounds include carboxylic acids (CAs) (C6-C20), with C16:0, C16:1 and C18:1 being dominant, branched hydrocarbons (C29 to C38 mono/di/trimethylalkanes), linear hydrocarbons (C15 to C33, mainly odd chain carbons), terpenes (geranylacetone, geranylgeraniol acetate, squalene, terpenic alcohol), steroids (cholesterol), aldehydes (C9-C10 and even chain C20 to C30), and esters. The chemical profile depends on the species and whether the extracts are external (cuticle) or internal. The contents of linear and branched hydrocarbons and aldehydes was high in cuticular extracts but practically absent in internal tissues, which were, in contrast, rich in CAs, terpenes and steroids. The results are discussed and compared with other Culicoides midges and mosquito-related species. PMID:25233583

  4. Gene therapy delivery systems for enhancing viral and nonviral vectors for cardiac diseases: current concepts and future applications.

    PubMed

    Katz, Michael G; Fargnoli, Anthony S; Williams, Richard D; Bridges, Charles R

    2013-11-01

    Gene therapy is one of the most promising fields for developing new treatments for the advanced stages of ischemic and monogenetic, particularly autosomal or X-linked recessive, cardiomyopathies. The remarkable ongoing efforts in advancing various targets have largely been inspired by the results that have been achieved in several notable gene therapy trials, such as the hemophilia B and Leber's congenital amaurosis. Rate-limiting problems preventing successful clinical application in the cardiac disease area, however, are primarily attributable to inefficient gene transfer, host responses, and the lack of sustainable therapeutic transgene expression. It is arguable that these problems are directly correlated with the choice of vector, dose level, and associated cardiac delivery approach as a whole treatment system. Essentially, a delicate balance exists in maximizing gene transfer required for efficacy while remaining within safety limits. Therefore, the development of safe, effective, and clinically applicable gene delivery techniques for selected nonviral and viral vectors will certainly be invaluable in obtaining future regulatory approvals. The choice of gene transfer vector, dose level, and the delivery system are likely to be critical determinants of therapeutic efficacy. It is here that the interactions between vector uptake and trafficking, delivery route means, and the host's physical limits must be considered synergistically for a successful treatment course. PMID:24164239

  5. Applying cusum-based methods for the detection of outbreaks of Ross River virus disease in Western Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rochelle E Watkins; Serryn Eagleson; Bert Veenendaal; Graeme Wright; Aileen J Plant

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The automated monitoring of routinely collected disease surveillance data has the potential to ensure that important changes in disease incidence are promptly recognised. However, few studies have established whether the signals produced by automated monitoring methods correspond with events considered by epidemiologists to be of public health importance. This study investigates the correspondence between retrospective epidemiological evaluation of notifications

  6. Pharyngitis - viral

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pharyngitis. Pharyngitis may occur as part of a viral infection that also involves other organs, such as the ... when a sore throat is due to a viral infection. The antibiotics will not help. Using them to ...

  7. Outbreaks of Hantavirus induced by seasonality.

    PubMed

    Buceta, J; Escudero, C; de la Rubia, F J; Lindenberg, Katja

    2004-02-01

    Using a model for rodent population dynamics, we study outbreaks of Hantavirus infection induced by the alternation of seasons. Neither season by itself satisfies the environmental requirements for propagation of the disease. This result can be explained in terms of the seasonal interruption of the relaxation process of the mouse population toward equilibrium, and may shed light on the reported connection between climate variations and outbreaks of the disease. PMID:14995490

  8. Causes of Outbreaks Associated with Drinking Water in the United States, 1971-2006

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since 1971, the CDC, EPA, and Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) have maintained the collaborative national Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) to document waterborne disease outbreaks (WBDOs) reported by local, state, and territorial...

  9. ISG12a mediates cell response to Newcastle disease viral infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nianli; Long, Ying; Liu, Bin; Yang, Darong; Li, Chen; Chen, Tianran; Wang, Xiaohong; Liu, Chen; Zhu, Haizhen

    2014-08-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) oncolysis is believed to be facilitated by a defective Type I interferon (IFN) response. We compared hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-derived cell lines and found that TRAIL-resistant cells were more susceptible to NDV oncolysis than were TRAIL-sensitive cells. In examining the IFN response, we found that basal expression of the IFN-stimulated gene (ISG)-12a was low in TRAIL-resistant but high in TRAIL-sensitive cells, and ISG12a over-expression or silencing enhanced or reduced their TRAIL sensitivities, respectively. Moreover, ISG12a over-expression in TRAIL-resistant cells decreased NDV replication but surprisingly increased oncolysis while ISG12a silencing had the opposite effect on TRAIL-sensitive cells. Finally, RIG-I and Noxa appear to also contribute to NDV oncolysis. Together, these results suggest that high basal ISG12a may inhibit NDV replication and oncolysis, while low basal ISG12a may allow sufficient NDV replication for induction of ISG12a, and other factors required for NDV oncolysis, with implications for future therapeutics. PMID:24999841

  10. Isolation and full genome characterization of avian influenza subtype H9N2 from poultry respiratory disease outbreak in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Awad A; Parvin, Rokshana; Sultan, Hesham; Halami, Mohamed Y; Talaat, Shaimaa; Abd Elrazek, Alaa; Ibrahim, Mahmoud; Heenemann, Kristin; Vahlenkamp, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Low pathogenic avian influenza virus of subtype H9N2 is panzootic in multiple avian species causing respiratory manifestations and severe economic losses. H9N2 co-circulate simultaneously with high pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 in Egyptian chicken farms suggesting the possibility of reassortment. The aim of the present study was to isolate and characterize H9N2 from the recent outbreaks in chicken farms. Also the diversity of amantadine-resistant mutants among these isolates was tested by in situ ELISA and sequence analysis. Three influenza H9N2 viruses, designated A/chicken/Egypt/SCU8/2014, A/chicken/Egypt/SCU9/2014 and A/chicken/Egypt/SCU20/2014 were isolated from commercial broiler and broiler breeder chickens in specific pathogen free embryonated chicken eggs. The eight gene segments were amplified by RT-PCR, cloned, and subjected to full length sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of these viruses revealed a close relationship between Egyptian, Middle Eastern and Israel isolates with an average of 96-99 % nucleotide homology and identified an ancestor relationship to low pathogenic H9N2 Quail/HK/G1/1997 prototype. The internal segments of the currently isolated viruses were derived from the same sub-lineage with no new evidence of reassortment. The three isolates were sensitive to amantadine as suggested by absence of mutations of M2 and confirmed by a phenotypic assay. In conclusion, avian influenza H9N2 virus is circulating in Egyptian chicken farms causing respiratory manifestations. Continuous monitoring of the molecular epidemiology and its impact on the virulence as well as emergence of new strains are necessary. PMID:25782728

  11. Need for protective measures to combat potential outbreaks of Homalodisca coagulata and Pierce's Disease in European viticulture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Mårtensson

    2007-01-01

    Pierce's Disease (PD) is a lethal disease of grapevines (Vitis vinifera) caused by a strain of the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. At the end of the 1990s, PD spread rapidly in California after accidental introduction of the non-native vector glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca coagulata). The new vector, which prefers citrus as a host for reproduction and overwintering, transmits the bacteria very efficiently

  12. Newcastle disease outbreaks in the Sudan from 2003 to 2006 were caused by viruses of genotype 5d

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wegdan Hassan; Sobhi Ahmed Mohamed Khair; Bontsi Mochotlhoane; Celia Abolnik

    2010-01-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a serious neurological and respiratory disease of poultry that affects all types of birds but has\\u000a traditionally not caused symptoms in wild aquatic birds, the natural hosts. In the late 1990s, a new genotype, viz. 5d that\\u000a is pathogenic to all types of birds, including waterfowl, arose in China and has since spread from East Asia

  13. The pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease II: viral pathways in swine, small ruminants, and wildlife; myotropism, chronic syndromes, and molecular virus-host interactions.

    PubMed

    Arzt, J; Baxt, B; Grubman, M J; Jackson, T; Juleff, N; Rhyan, J; Rieder, E; Waters, R; Rodriguez, L L

    2011-08-01

    Investigation into the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has focused on the study of the disease in cattle with less emphasis on pigs, small ruminants and wildlife. 'Atypical' FMD-associated syndromes such as myocarditis, reproductive losses and chronic heat intolerance have also received little attention. Yet, all of these manifestations of FMD are reflections of distinct pathogenesis events. For example, naturally occurring porcinophilic strains and unique virus-host combinations that result in high-mortality outbreaks surely have their basis in molecular-, cellular- and tissue-level interactions between host and virus (i.e. pathogenesis). The goal of this review is to emphasize how the less commonly studied FMD syndromes and host species contribute to the overall understanding of pathogenesis and how extensive in vitro studies have contributed to our understanding of disease processes in live animals. PMID:21672184

  14. Effects of mutations in the VP2\\/VP4 cleavage site of Swine vesicular disease virus on RNA encapsidation and viral infectivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. J. Rebel; C. H. Leendertse; A. Dekker; R. J. M. Moormann

    2003-01-01

    Summary. We studied VP0 cleavage of Swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), a member of the Picornaviridae using a full-length cDNA copy of the Dutch SVDV isolate. The influences of mutations, introduced at the cleavage site of SVDV, on VP0 cleavage, RNA encapsidation and viral infection were studied. Double mutations at asparagine (VP0 aa 69) and serine (VP0 aa 70) resulted

  15. Viral Hepatitis Transmission in Ambulatory Health Care Settings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. T. Williams; J. F. Perz; B. P. Bell

    2004-01-01

    In the United States, transmission of viral hepatitis from health care-related exposures is uncommon and primarily recognized in the context of outbreaks. Transmission is typically associated with unsafe injection practices, as exemplified by several recent outbreaks that occurred in ambulatory health care settings. To prevent transmission of bloodborne pathogens, health care workers must adhere to standard precautions and follow fundamental

  16. Controlling disease outbreaks in wildlife using limited culling: modelling classical swine fever incursions in wild pigs in Australia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Disease modelling is one approach for providing new insights into wildlife disease epidemiology. This paper describes a spatio-temporal, stochastic, susceptible- exposed-infected-recovered process model that simulates the potential spread of classical swine fever through a documented, large and free living wild pig population following a simulated incursion. The study area (300 000 km2) was in northern Australia. Published data on wild pig ecology from Australia, and international Classical Swine Fever data was used to parameterise the model. Sensitivity analyses revealed that herd density (best estimate 1-3 pigs km-2), daily herd movement distances (best estimate approximately 1 km), probability of infection transmission between herds (best estimate 0.75) and disease related herd mortality (best estimate 42%) were highly influential on epidemic size but that extraordinary movements of pigs and the yearly home range size of a pig herd were not. CSF generally established (98% of simulations) following a single point introduction. CSF spread at approximately 9 km2 per day with low incidence rates (< 2 herds per day) in an epidemic wave along contiguous habitat for several years, before dying out (when the epidemic arrived at the end of a contiguous sub-population or at a low density wild pig area). The low incidence rate indicates that surveillance for wildlife disease epidemics caused by short lived infections will be most efficient when surveillance is based on detection and investigation of clinical events, although this may not always be practical. Epidemics could be contained and eradicated with culling (aerial shooting) or vaccination when these were adequately implemented. It was apparent that the spatial structure, ecology and behaviour of wild populations must be accounted for during disease management in wildlife. An important finding was that it may only be necessary to cull or vaccinate relatively small proportions of a population to successfully contain and eradicate some wildlife disease epidemics. PMID:22243996

  17. Immigration and viral hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Suraj; Carballo, Manuel; Feld, Jordan J; Janssen, Harry L A

    2015-08-01

    WHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and iatrogenic transmission of HBV and HCV, as well as poor access to healthcare. In 2013, 3.2% of the global population (231million individuals) migrated into a new host nation. Migrants predominantly originate from the developing countries of the south, into the developed economies of North America and Western Europe. This mass migration of individuals from areas of high-prevalence of viral hepatitis poses a unique challenge to the healthcare systems of the host nations. Due to a lack of universal standards for screening, vaccination and treatment of viral hepatitis, the burden of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma continues to increase among migrant populations globally. Efforts to increase case identification and treatment among migrants have largely been limited to small outreach programs in urban centers, such that the majority of migrants with viral hepatitis continue to remain unaware of their infection. This review summarizes the data on prevalence of viral hepatitis and burden of chronic liver disease among migrants, current standards for screening and treatment of immigrants and refugees, and efforts to improve the identification and treatment of viral hepatitis among migrants. PMID:25962882

  18. Meningococcal Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Prestigious 2015 Awards Addressing the Challenges of Serogroup B Meningococcal Disease Outbreaks on Campuses The History of Vaccines: Vaccines for Teenagers 14 Adult Vaccine-Preventable Diseases ...

  19. Mumps Cases and Outbreaks

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Resources MMWR Articles Outbreak Articles Related Links World Health Organization Medline Plus Mumps Cases and Outbreaks Language: English ... occurred during 2006 and 2009-2010. Related Links World Health Organization Medline Plus Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats ...

  20. Poetic Justice? Rural Policy Clashes with Rural Poetry in the 2001 Outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nerlich, Brigitte; Doring, Martin

    2005-01-01

    In 2001, the foot and mouth disease epidemic in the UK gave rise to widespread individual and community trauma and has had negative health, economic and social impacts on the people who live in affected rural areas. Many found strength by sharing their experiences with friends and relatives; others expressed their feelings in poems and art. Using…

  1. Stress and Stereotypes: Children's Reactions to the Outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease in the UK in 2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nerlich, Brigitte; Hillyard, Sam; Wright, Nick

    2005-01-01

    In 2001 foot and mouth disease broke out in the UK and millions of farm animals were slaughtered in order to eradicate it. This affected farmers, town dwellers, adults and children. Based on a small sample of 56 e-mails to a children's BBC (CBBC) message board and using an ethnomethodological approach, this article explores the way in which…

  2. Responding to global infectious disease outbreaks: Lessons from SARS on the role of risk perception, communication and management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard D. Smith

    2006-01-01

    With increased globalisation comes the likelihood that infectious disease appearing in one country will spread rapidly to another, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) being a recent example. However, although SARS infected some 10,000 individuals, killing around 1000, it did not lead to the devastating health impact that many feared, but a rather disproportionate economic impact. The disproportionate scale and nature

  3. Managing an Infectious Disease Outbreak in a School. Lessons Learned from School Crises and Emergencies. Volume 2, Issue 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Lessons Learned" is a series of publications that are a brief recounting of actual school emergencies and crises. This "Lessons Learned" issue focuses on an infectious disease incident, which resulted in the death of a student, closure of area schools and the operation of an on-site school vaccine clinic. The report highlights the critical need…

  4. Coral diversity and the severity of disease outbreaks: a cross-regional comparison of Acropora white syndrome in a species-rich region (American Samoa) with a species-poor region (Northwestern Hawaiian Islands).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aeby, G.S.; Bourne, D.G.; Wilson, B.; Work, Thierry M.

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of the coral disease, Acropora white syndrome (AWS), was directly compared on reefs in the species-poor region of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) and the species-rich region of American Samoa (AS) with results suggesting that biodiversity, which can affect the abundance of susceptible hosts, is important in influencing the impacts of coral disease outbreaks. The diversity-disease hypothesis predicts that decreased host species diversity should result in increased disease severity of specialist pathogens. We found that AWS was more prevalent and had a higher incidence within the NWHI as compared to AS. Individual Acropora colonies affected by AWS showed high mortality in both regions, but case fatality rate and disease severity was higher in the NWHI. The site within the NWHI had a monospecific stand of A. cytherea; a species that is highly susceptible to AWS. Once AWS entered the site, it spread easily amongst the abundant susceptible hosts. The site within AS contained numerous Acropora species, which differed in their apparent susceptibility to infection and disease severity, which in turn reduced disease spread. Manipulative studies showed AWS was transmissible through direct contact in three Acropora species. These results will help managers predict and respond to disease outbreaks.

  5. A novel recombinant lineage’s contribution to the outbreak of coxsackievirus A6-associated hand, foot and mouth disease in Shanghai, China, 2012-2013

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xiaobo; Guan, Wencai; Guo, Yifeng; Yu, Huiju; Zhang, Xiaoling; Cheng, Ruhong; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Jia; Li, Huaguo; Zhuang, Yin; Zhang, Hui; Lu, Zhiyong; Li, Ming; Yu, Hong; Bao, Yixiao; Hu, Yunwen; Yao, Zhirong

    2015-01-01

    Since late 2012, coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6) has gradually become the predominant pathogen responsible for hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) in several provinces of China. A total of 626 patients diagnosed with HFMD in Shanghai, China from January 2012 to September 2013 were enrolled in this study. Of these, 292 CVA6 infected cases were subjected to clinical analyses. Whole-genome sequencing, recombination and phylogenetic analyses were also performed. A recombinant CVA6 monophyletic lineage was found during an outbreak of CVA6-associated HFMDs in Shanghai, China in November 2012, and accounted for 21.9% (64/292) of the CVA6 strains during the study period. Recombination analyses showed that the 2C gene of the novel CVA6 virus was probably derived from a coxsackievirus A4 (CVA4) strain circulating in the population. Clinical observation showed that this recombinant CVA6 virus led to a more generalized rash than did the non-recombinant CVA6 virus. This newly emerged CVA6 lineage was associated with a considerable proportion of HFMD cases from 2012 to 2013 in Shanghai, and poses a potential threat to public health. PMID:26121916

  6. A novel recombinant lineage's contribution to the outbreak of coxsackievirus A6-associated hand, foot and mouth disease in Shanghai, China, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaobo; Guan, Wencai; Guo, Yifeng; Yu, Huiju; Zhang, Xiaoling; Cheng, Ruhong; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Jia; Li, Huaguo; Zhuang, Yin; Zhang, Hui; Lu, Zhiyong; Li, Ming; Yu, Hong; Bao, Yixiao; Hu, Yunwen; Yao, Zhirong

    2015-01-01

    Since late 2012, coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6) has gradually become the predominant pathogen responsible for hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) in several provinces of China. A total of 626 patients diagnosed with HFMD in Shanghai, China from January 2012 to September 2013 were enrolled in this study. Of these, 292 CVA6 infected cases were subjected to clinical analyses. Whole-genome sequencing, recombination and phylogenetic analyses were also performed. A recombinant CVA6 monophyletic lineage was found during an outbreak of CVA6-associated HFMDs in Shanghai, China in November 2012, and accounted for 21.9% (64/292) of the CVA6 strains during the study period. Recombination analyses showed that the 2C gene of the novel CVA6 virus was probably derived from a coxsackievirus A4 (CVA4) strain circulating in the population. Clinical observation showed that this recombinant CVA6 virus led to a more generalized rash than did the non-recombinant CVA6 virus. This newly emerged CVA6 lineage was associated with a considerable proportion of HFMD cases from 2012 to 2013 in Shanghai, and poses a potential threat to public health. PMID:26121916

  7. Expansion of an exotic species and concomitant disease outbreaks: pigeon paramyxovirus in free-ranging Eurasian collared doves.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Krysten L; Green, David E; Justice-Allen, Anne E; Jaffe, Rosemary; Cunningham, Mark; Thomas, Nancy J; Spalding, Marilyn G; Ip, Hon S

    2012-06-01

    Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) have expanded their range across the United States since their introduction several decades ago. Recent mortality events in Eurasian collared doves in Arizona and Montana, USA, during the winter of 2009-2010 were the result of pigeon paramyxovirus (PPMV), a novel disease agent. The first instance of mortality by this emerging infectious disease in this species occurred in Florida in 2001 with subsequent disease events in 2006 and 2008. Full diagnostic necropsies were performed on carcasses from the three states. PPMV was identified by RT-PCR and virus isolation and was sequenced to the VIb genotype of avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV). Other APMVs are common in a variety of free-ranging birds, but concern is warranted because of the potential for commingling of this species with native birds, virus evolution, and threats to domestic poultry. Improved surveillance for wildlife mortality events and efforts to prevent introduction of non-native animals could reduce the threat of introducing new pathogens. PMID:22476688

  8. Viral infection

    PubMed Central

    Puigdomènech, Isabel; de Armas-Rillo, Laura; Machado, José-David

    2011-01-01

    Viruses have developed different survival strategies in host cells by crossing cell-membrane compartments, during different steps of their viral life cycle. In fact, the non-regenerative viral membrane of enveloped viruses needs to encounter the dynamic cell-host membrane, during early steps of the infection process, in which both membranes fuse, either at cell-surface or in an endocytic compartment, to promote viral entry and infection. Once inside the cell, many viruses accomplish their replication process through exploiting or modulating membrane traffic, and generating specialized compartments to assure viral replication, viral budding and spreading, which also serve to evade the immune responses against the pathogen. In this review, we have attempted to present some data that highlight the importance of membrane dynamics during viral entry and replicative processes, in order to understand how viruses use and move through different complex and dynamic cell-membrane structures and how they use them to persist. PMID:21966556

  9. Viral disease update

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen K. Tyring

    1999-01-01

    Eight human herpesviruses have been identified and 10 antiviral drugs are Food and Drug Administration approved for their therapy. The herpesviruses are unique in that they all may cause primary infection, establish latency, and then reactivate if conditions of altered immunity develop. Herpes simplex virus type 1 is usually the cause of herpes labialis or cold sores. More than 85%

  10. The relationship between cellular immune response to foot-and-mouth disease virus Asia 1 and viral persistence in Indian cattle (Bosindicus).

    PubMed

    Maddur, Mohan S; Kishore, Subodh; Chockalingam, Ashok Kumar; Gopalakrishna, Susarla; Singh, Nem; Suryanarayana, Veluvarthy V S; Gajendragad, Mukund R

    2010-08-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), the most contagious animal disease, is associated with persistent viral infection in ruminants, despite the induction of systemic immune response. The present study was performed to decipher the relation between the persistent FMD virus (FMDV) infection and cellular immune response in Indian cattle (Bosindicus) following experimental inoculation of FMDV Asia 1. Persistent viral infection (carriers) was detected by antigen capture RT-PCR on the oesophageal-pharyngeal fluid. Viral excretion was found to be intermittent and strongly variable among the persistently infected Indian cattle. Lymphocyte proliferative (LP) response, assessed as reactivity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to FMDV Asia 1 antigen (Ag) was of low magnitude indicating a weak primary cellular immune response following infection. LP response to FMDV Ag was higher among the non-carriers than carriers of FMDV Asia 1. An enhanced LP response was associated with the lack of virus shedding in the OPF. The findings of this study are suggestive of relationship between cellular immune response and virus excretion during persistence of FMDV Asia 1 in infected cattle. PMID:20189208

  11. Persistence of viral RNA in fish infected with VHSV-IVb at 15°C and then moved to warmer temperatures after the onset of disease.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, A E; Merry, G E; Noyes, A D

    2012-07-01

    Smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu Lacepède, bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque (coppernose strain), koi carp, Cyprinus carpio L., and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), were infected by intraperitoneal injection with viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus genotype IVb (VHSV-IVb) at 15?°C. When clinical signs of disease developed, one-third of the fish was moved to 20°C and one-third to 25°C. Mortality in challenged fish at all three temperatures ranged from 25 to 45% in smallmouth bass and from 70 to 90% in bluegill. No koi carp or channel catfish died during the study. Viral copy numbers detected by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (qrt-RTPCR) in fish dying at 20 and 25°C decreased over time. In survivors of the challenge, viral copy numbers were higher in the more susceptible species (smallmouth bass and bluegill) than in the more VHSV-IVb disease-resistant species (koi carp and channel catfish). In fish surviving 28days post-infection, prevalence of infection was 66-100% depending on species and temperature, and VHSV-IVb was detected at 10(3) -10(5) copies ?g(-1) host RNA. Our results show that qrt-RTPCR is a useful tool to investigate fish kills even 28days after temperatures are elevated above those known to be permissive for VHSV replication. PMID:22582793

  12. Lessons learned from previous dengue outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is an important tropical infection caused by an arbovirus dengue. As a mosquito borne infection, this disease is widely spread in several tropical endemic countries. Millions of world populations are at risk for this arboviral infection. Each year, thousands of dengue infections are reported and there are several death cases. Each year, the outbreaks of dengue emerge in several countries and this implies the global importance of this infection. Fighting with dengue outbreak is important in public health. In this specific chapter, the author discussed lessons learned from previous dengue outbreaks.

  13. Pathogen persistence in the environment and insect-baculovirus interactions: disease-density thresholds, epidemic burnout, and insect outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Emma; Elderd, Bret D; Dwyer, Greg

    2012-03-01

    Classical epidemic theory focuses on directly transmitted pathogens, but many pathogens are instead transmitted when hosts encounter infectious particles. Theory has shown that for such diseases pathogen persistence time in the environment can strongly affect disease dynamics, but estimates of persistence time, and consequently tests of the theory, are extremely rare. We consider the consequences of persistence time for the dynamics of the gypsy moth baculovirus, a pathogen transmitted when larvae consume foliage contaminated with particles released from infectious cadavers. Using field-transmission experiments, we are able to estimate persistence time under natural conditions, and inserting our estimates into a standard epidemic model suggests that epidemics are often terminated by a combination of pupation and burnout rather than by burnout alone, as predicted by theory. Extending our models to allow for multiple generations, and including environmental transmission over the winter, suggests that the virus may survive over the long term even in the absence of complex persistence mechanisms, such as environmental reservoirs or covert infections. Our work suggests that estimates of persistence times can lead to a deeper understanding of environmentally transmitted pathogens and illustrates the usefulness of experiments that are closely tied to mathematical models. PMID:22322229

  14. Pathogen Persistence in the Environment and Insect-Baculovirus Interactions: Disease-Density Thresholds, Epidemic Burnout and Insect Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Emma; Elderd, Bret D.

    2013-01-01

    Classical epidemic theory focuses on directly transmitted pathogens, but many pathogens are instead transmitted when hosts encounter infectious particles. Theory has shown that for such diseases pathogen persistence time in the environment can strongly affect disease dynamics, but estimates of persistence time, and consequently tests of the theory, are extremely rare. We consider the consequences of persistence time for the dynamics of the gypsy moth baculovirus, a pathogen transmitted when larvae consume foliage contaminated with particles released from infectious cadavers. Using field-transmission experiments, we are able to estimate persistence time under natural conditions, and inserting our estimates into a standard epidemic model suggests that epidemics are often terminated by a combination of pupation and burnout, rather than by burnout alone as predicted by theory. Extending our models to allow for multiple generations, and including environmental transmission over the winter, suggests that the virus may survive over the long term even in the absence of complex persistence mechanisms, such as environmental reservoirs or covert infections. Our work suggests that estimates of persistence times can lead to a deeper understanding of environmentally transmitted pathogens, and illustrates the usefulness of experiments that are closely tied to mathematical models. PMID:22322229

  15. Pathologic studies on suspect animal and human cases of Rift Valley fever from an outbreak in Eastern Africa, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Shieh, Wun-Ju; Paddock, Chris D; Lederman, Edith; Rao, Carol Y; Gould, L Hannah; Mohamed, Mohamed; Mosha, Fausta; Mghamba, Janeth; Bloland, Peter; Njenga, M Kariuki; Mutonga, David; Samuel, Amwayi A; Guarner, Jeannette; Breiman, Robert F; Zaki, Sherif R

    2010-08-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an important viral zoonotic disease in Africa with periodic outbreaks associated with severe disease, death, and economic hardship. During the 2006-2007 outbreaks in Eastern Africa, postmortem and necropsy tissue samples from 14 animals and 20 humans clinically suspected of RVF were studied with histopathologic evaluation and immunohistochemical (IHC) assays. Six animal and 11 human samples had IHC evidence of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) antigens. We found that extensive hepatocellular necrosis without prominent inflammatory cell infiltrates is the most distinctive histopathologic change in liver tissues infected with RVFV. Pathologic studies on postmortem tissue samples can help establish the diagnosis of RVF, differentiating from endemic diseases with clinical manifestations similar to RVF, such as malaria, leptospirosis, or yellow fever. PMID:20682904

  16. Pathologic Studies on Suspect Animal and Human Cases of Rift Valley Fever from an Outbreak in Eastern Africa, 2006–2007

    PubMed Central

    Shieh, Wun-Ju; Paddock, Chris D.; Lederman, Edith; Rao, Carol Y.; Gould, L. Hannah; Mohamed, Mohamed; Mosha, Fausta; Mghamba, Janeth; Bloland, Peter; Njenga, M. Kariuki; Mutonga, David; Samuel, Amwayi A.; Guarner, Jeannette; Breiman, Robert F.; Zaki, Sherif R.

    2010-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an important viral zoonotic disease in Africa with periodic outbreaks associated with severe disease, death, and economic hardship. During the 2006–2007 outbreaks in Eastern Africa, postmortem and necropsy tissue samples from 14 animals and 20 humans clinically suspected of RVF were studied with histopathologic evaluation and immunohistochemical (IHC) assays. Six animal and 11 human samples had IHC evidence of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) antigens. We found that extensive hepatocellular necrosis without prominent inflammatory cell infiltrates is the most distinctive histopathologic change in liver tissues infected with RVFV. Pathologic studies on postmortem tissue samples can help establish the diagnosis of RVF, differentiating from endemic diseases with clinical manifestations similar to RVF, such as malaria, leptospirosis, or yellow fever. PMID:20682904

  17. Epstein-Barr virus viral load and serology in childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and chronic inflammatory conditions in Uganda: implications for disease risk and characteristics.

    PubMed

    Orem, Jackson; Sandin, Sven; Mbidde, Edward; Mangen, Fred Wabwire; Middeldorp, Jaap; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2014-10-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been linked to malignancies and chronic inflammatory conditions. In this study, EBV detection was compared in children with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and children with chronic inflammatory conditions, using samples and data from a case-control study carried out at the Mulago National Referral Hospital between 2004 and 2008. EBV viral load was measured in saliva, whole blood and white blood cells by real-time PCR. Serological values for IgG-VCA, EBNA1, and EAd-IgG were compared in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and chronic inflammatory conditions; and in Burkitt's lymphoma and other subtypes of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Of the 127 children included (87 males and 40 females; median age 7 years, range 2-17), 96 had non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (46 Burkitt's lymphoma and 50 other non-Hodgkin's lymphoma), 31 had chronic inflammatory conditions, and only 10% were HIV-positive. The most common clinical presentations for all disease categories considered were fever, night sweats, and weight loss. EBV viral load in whole blood was elevated in Burkitt's lymphoma compared to other non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (OR 6.67, 95% CI 1.32, 33.69; P-value?=?0.04), but EBV viral loads in saliva and white blood cells were not different in any of the disease categories considered. A significant difference in EAd-IgG was observed when non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was compared with chronic inflammatory conditions (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.07, 0.51; P-value?=?0.001). When compared to chronic inflammatory conditions, EBV viral load was elevated in Burkitt's lymphoma, and EA IgG was higher in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. This study supports an association between virological and serological markers of EBV and childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, irrespective of subtype, in Uganda. PMID:24889739

  18. Three simultaneous, food-borne, multi-country outbreaks of hepatitis A virus infection reported in EPIS-FWD in 2013: what does it mean for the European Union?

    PubMed

    Gossner, C M; Severi, E

    2014-01-01

    Between March and May 2013, three multi-country outbreaks of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection were reported through the Epidemic Intelligence Information System for Food- and Water-borne diseases (EPIS-FWD) of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). The aim of this work is to put these outbreaks into a European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) perspective and highlight opportunities for improving detection and investigation of such outbreaks. Although HAV outbreaks are not unusual in the EU/EEA, having three large food-borne multi-country outbreaks declared within three months is an unexpected event, particularly when at least two of these outbreaks are associated with frozen berries. Factors influencing the occurrence of these events include the increased number of susceptible Europeans, the limited coverage of HAV vaccination, the global trade of potentially contaminated products introduced in the EU/EEA, and the 'awareness chain effect' leading to a wave of notifications. Further studies should be conducted to understand the risk posed by frozen berries. Laboratory capacity and surveillance of viral infections in the EU/EEA, as well as HAV vaccination recommendations to travellers to endemic countries should be strengthened. Finally, timely reporting food-borne events through EPIS-FWD, to ensure timely response. PMID:25375903

  19. Investigation into an outbreak of encephalomyelitis caused by a neuroinvasive porcine sapelovirus in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Schock, Alex; Gurrala, Rajesh; Fuller, Harriet; Foyle, Leo; Dauber, Malte; Martelli, Francesca; Scholes, Sandra; Roberts, Lisa; Steinbach, Falko; Dastjerdi, Akbar

    2014-08-27

    An outbreak of neurological disease in grower pigs characterised by ataxia and paraparesis was investigated in this study. The outbreak occurred 3-4 weeks post weaning in grower pigs which displayed signs of spinal cord damage progressing to recumbency. Pathology in the affected spinal cords and to a lesser extent in the brainstem was characterised by pronounced inflammation and neuronophagia in the grey matter. Molecular investigation using a pan-virus microarray identified a virus related to porcine sapelovirus (PSV) in the spinal cord of the two affected pigs examined. Analysis of 802 nucleotides of the virus polymerase gene showed the highest homology with those of viruses in the genus Sapelovirus of Picornaviridae. This PSV, strain G5, shared 91-93%, 67-69% and 63% nucleotide homology with porcine, simian and avian sapeloviruses, respectively. The nucleotide homology to other members of the Picornaviridae ranged from 41% to 62%. Furthermore, viral antigen was detected and co-localised in the spinal cord lesions of affected animals by an antibody known to react with PSV. In conclusion, clinical and laboratory observations of the diseased pigs in this outbreak are consistent with PSV-G5 being the causative agent. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first unequivocal report of polioencephalomyelitis in pigs by a neuroinvasive PSV in the United Kingdom. PMID:24984944

  20. An outbreak of type C botulism in Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus) in Southeastern Sweden

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neimanis, A.; Gavier-Widen, D.; Leighton, F.; Bollinger, T.; Rocke, T.; Morner, T.

    2007-01-01

    From 2000 to 2004, over 10,000 seabirds, primarily Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus), died from an undetermined cause in the Blekinge archipelago in southeastern Sweden. In June 2004, 24 affected Herring Gulls were examined clinically, killed humanely, and 23 were examined by necropsy. Seven and 10 unaffected Herring Gulls collected from a local landfill site and from Iceland, respectively, served as controls. All affected birds showed similar neurologic signs, ranging from mild incoordination and weakness to severe flaccid paralysis of legs and wings, but generally were alert and responsive. All affected gulls were in normal nutritional condition, but were dehydrated and had empty stomachs. No gross or microscopic lesions, and no bacterial or viral pathogens were identified. Type C botulinum toxin was detected in the sera of 11 of 16 (69%) affected gulls by mouse inoculation. Type C botulism was the proximate cause of disease in 2004. Sera from 31% of birds tested from outbreaks in 2000 to 2003 also had detectable type C botulinum toxin by mouse inoculation. No large-scale botulism outbreak has been documented previously in this area. The source of toxin, initiating conditions, and thus, the ultimate cause of this outbreak are not known. This epidemic might signal environmental change in the Baltic Sea. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2007.

  1. Nosocomial outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in AIDS patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Ravn; J D Lundgren; P Kjaeldgaard; W Holten-Anderson; N Højlyng; J O Nielsen; J Gaub

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To describe a nosocomial outbreak of cryptosporidiosis during four months after June 1989. SETTING--A department of infectious diseases in Copenhagen, seeing about half the patients with AIDS in Denmark. SUBJECTS--73 HIV antibody negative subjects and 60 antibody positive subjects admitted as inpatients during the transmission period of the outbreak (20 June-14 August), of whom 18 (17 with AIDS, one with

  2. Ribavirin-Resistant Variants of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus: the Effect of Restricted Quasispecies Diversity on Viral Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jianxiong; Wang, Haiwei; Xie, Xiaochun; Li, Chen; Zhou, Guohui; Yang, Decheng

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mutagenic nucleoside analogues can be used to isolate RNA virus high-fidelity RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) variants, the majority of which are attenuated in vivo. However, attenuated foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) high-fidelity RdRp variants have not been isolated, and the correlations between RdRp fidelity and virulence remain unclear. Here, the mutagen ribavirin was used to select a ribavirin-resistant population of FMDV, and 4 amino acid substitutions (D5N, A38V, M194I, and M296V) were identified in the RdRp-coding region of the population. Through single or combined mutagenesis using a reverse genetics system, we generated direct experimental evidence that the rescued D5N, A38V, and DAMM mutants but not the M194I and M296V mutants are high-fidelity RdRp variants. Mutagen resistance assays revealed that the higher replication fidelity was associated with higher-level resistance to ribavirin. In addition, significantly attenuated fitness and virulence phenotypes were observed for the D5N, A38V, and DAMM mutants. Based on a systematic quantitative analysis of fidelity and virulence, we concluded that higher replication fidelity is associated with a more attenuated virus. These data suggest that the resulting restricted quasispecies diversity compromises the adaptability and virulence of an RNA virus population. The modulation of replication fidelity to attenuate virulence may represent a general strategy for the rational design of new types of live, attenuated vaccine strains. IMPORTANCE The ribavirin-isolated poliovirus (PV) RdRp G64S variant, the polymerases of which were of high replication fidelity, was attenuated in vivo. It has been proposed (M. Vignuzzi, E. Wendt, and R. Andino, Nat. Med. 14:154–161, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nm1726) that modulation of replication fidelity is a promising approach for engineering attenuated virus vaccines. The subsequently mutagen-isolated RdRp variants also expressed the high-fidelity polymerase, but not all of them were attenuated. Few studies have shown the exact correlation between fidelity and virulence. The present study investigates the effect of restricted quasispecies diversity on viral virulence via several attenuated FMDV high-fidelity RdRp variants. Our findings may aid in the rational design of a new type of vaccine strain. PMID:24453363

  3. STUDIES OF WATERBORNE AGENTS OF VIRAL GASTROENTERITIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The etiologic agent of a large outbreak of waterborne viral gastroenteritis was detected employing immune electron microscopy (IEM) and a newly developed solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA). This agent, referred to as the Snow Mountain Agent (SMA), is 27-32 nm. in diameter, has cu...

  4. Enhanced surveillance on food-borne disease outbreaks: dynamics of cross-contamination in biocidal wash procedure.

    PubMed

    Munther, Daniel; Wu, Jianhong

    2013-03-21

    Understanding the geographic and temporal spread of food-borne diseases associated with fresh produce is crucial for informing adequate surveillance and control. As a first step towards this goal, we develop and analyze a novel three stage model at the processing/sanitization juncture in the fresh produce supply chain. The key feature of our model is its ability to describe the dynamics of cross-contamination during commercial wash procedures. In general, we quantify the degree of cross-contamination in terms of model parameters. Applying these results in the case of Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of fresh-cut romaine lettuce, we identify the mean wash time and free chlorine concentration as critical parameters. In addition to showing how these parameters affect contamination levels, we recommend that in order to prevent potential source misidentification, at least 2.2 mg/L of free chlorine should be used during a wash lasting at least 30s. PMID:23298732

  5. Legionnaires’ disease case-finding algorithm, attack rates, and risk factors during a residential outbreak among older adults: an environmental and cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During a Legionnaires’ disease (LD) outbreak, combined epidemiological and environmental investigations were conducted to identify prevention recommendations for facilities where elderly residents live independently but have an increased risk of legionellosis. Methods Survey responses (n?=?143) were used to calculate attack rates and describe transmission routes by estimating relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Potable water collected from five apartments of LD patients and three randomly-selected apartments of residents without LD (n?=?103 samples) was cultured for Legionella. Results Eight confirmed LD cases occurred among 171 residents (attack rate?=?4.7%); two visitors also developed LD. One case was fatal. The average age of patients was 70 years (range: 62–77). LD risk was lower among residents who reported tub bathing instead of showering (RR?=?0.13, 95% CI: 0.02–1.09, P?=?0.03). Two respiratory cultures were characterized as L. pneumophila serogroup 1, monoclonal antibody type Knoxville (1,2,3), sequence type 222. An indistinguishable strain was detected in 31 (74%) of 42 potable water samples. Conclusions Managers of elderly-housing facilities and local public health officials should consider developing a Legionella prevention plan. When Legionella colonization of potable water is detected in these facilities, remediation is indicated to protect residents at higher risk. If LD occurs among residents, exposure reduction, heightened awareness, and clinical surveillance activities should be coordinated among stakeholders. For prompt diagnosis and effective treatment, clinicians should recognize the increased risk and atypical presentation of LD in older adults. PMID:23806063

  6. The effect of IL-2 expression by recombinant Newcastle disease virus on host immune response, viral replication and pathogenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interleukin 2 (IL-2) is a soluble cytokine that stimulates the cell-mediated immune response. Virus constructs, such as recombinant vaccinia virus, expressing chicken IL-2 have been shown to improve viral clearance by natural killer cells in mice. We have inserted the open-reading frame of the chi...

  7. Viral Etiology of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exacerbations during the A/H1N1pdm09 Pandemic and Postpandemic Period

    PubMed Central

    Sanz, Ivan; Tamames, Sonia; Rojo, Silvia; Justel, Mar; Lozano, José Eugenio; Disdier, Carlos; Vega, Tomás; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    Viral infections are one of the main causes of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AE-COPD). Emergence of A/H1N1pdm influenza virus in the 2009 pandemic changed the viral etiology of exacerbations that were reported before the pandemic. The aim of this study was to describe the etiology of respiratory viruses in 195 Spanish patients affected by AE-COPD from the pandemic until the 2011-12 influenza epidemic. During the study period (2009–2012), respiratory viruses were identified in 48.7% of samples, and the proportion of viral detections in AE-COPD was higher in patients aged 30–64 years than ?65 years. Influenza A viruses were the pathogens most often detected during the pandemic and the following two influenza epidemics in contradistinction to human rhino/enteroviruses that were the main viruses causing AE-COPD before the pandemic. The probability of influenza virus detection was 2.78-fold higher in patients who are 30–64 years old than those ?65. Most respiratory samples were obtained during the pandemic, but the influenza detection rate was higher during the 2011-12 epidemic. There is a need for more accurate AE-COPD diagnosis, emphasizing the role of respiratory viruses. Furthermore, diagnosis requires increased attention to patient age and the characteristics of each influenza epidemic.

  8. Intra- and interseasonal autoregressive prediction of dengue outbreaks using local weather and regional climate for a tropical environment in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Eastin, Matthew D; Delmelle, Eric; Casas, Irene; Wexler, Joshua; Self, Cameron

    2014-09-01

    Dengue fever transmission results from complex interactions between the virus, human hosts, and mosquito vectors-all of which are influenced by environmental factors. Predictive models of dengue incidence rate, based on local weather and regional climate parameters, could benefit disease mitigation efforts. Time series of epidemiological and meteorological data for the urban environment of Cali, Colombia are analyzed from January of 2000 to December of 2011. Significant dengue outbreaks generally occur during warm-dry periods with extreme daily temperatures confined between 18°C and 32°C--the optimal range for mosquito survival and viral transmission. Two environment-based, multivariate, autoregressive forecast models are developed that allow dengue outbreaks to be anticipated from 2 weeks to 6 months in advance. These models have the potential to enhance existing dengue early warning systems, ultimately supporting public health decisions on the timing and scale of vector control efforts. PMID:24957546

  9. Molecular typing of PPRV strains detected during an outbreak in sheep and goats in south-eastern Gabon in 2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Peste des petits ruminanats (PPR) is an economically important viral disease affecting goats and sheep. Four genetically distinct lineages of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) have been identified. In Gabon, the virus has not so far been detected. Findings Epidemiological investigations of Aboumi PPR outbreak revealed a high case fatality rate in sheep (98.9%). We detected and characterized peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), in October 2011, during the suspected outbreak in sheep and goats in Aboumi village located in the south-eastern. PPRV RNA was detected in 10 of 14 samples from three sick animals. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the PPRV strain belonged to lineage IV and was closely related to strain circulating in neighboring Cameroon. Conclusions This is the first molecular detection and typing of the PPRV strain associated with fatal PPR infection in these small ruminants and concrete evidence that PPRV is present and circulating in Gabon. PMID:23497402

  10. Intra- and Interseasonal Autoregressive Prediction of Dengue Outbreaks Using Local Weather and Regional Climate for a Tropical Environment in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Eastin, Matthew D.; Delmelle, Eric; Casas, Irene; Wexler, Joshua; Self, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    Dengue fever transmission results from complex interactions between the virus, human hosts, and mosquito vectors—all of which are influenced by environmental factors. Predictive models of dengue incidence rate, based on local weather and regional climate parameters, could benefit disease mitigation efforts. Time series of epidemiological and meteorological data for the urban environment of Cali, Colombia are analyzed from January of 2000 to December of 2011. Significant dengue outbreaks generally occur during warm-dry periods with extreme daily temperatures confined between 18°C and 32°C—the optimal range for mosquito survival and viral transmission. Two environment-based, multivariate, autoregressive forecast models are developed that allow dengue outbreaks to be anticipated from 2 weeks to 6 months in advance. These models have the potential to enhance existing dengue early warning systems, ultimately supporting public health decisions on the timing and scale of vector control efforts. PMID:24957546

  11. A survey of wild marine fish identifies a potential origin of an outbreak of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia in wrasse, Labridae, used as cleaner fish on marine Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., farms.

    PubMed

    Wallace, I S; Donald, K; Munro, L A; Murray, W; Pert, C C; Stagg, H; Hall, M; Bain, N

    2015-06-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) was isolated from five species of wrasse (Labridae) used as biological controls for parasitic sea lice predominantly, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837), on marine Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., farms in Shetland. As part of the epidemiological investigation, 1400 wild marine fish were caught and screened in pools of 10 for VHSV using virus isolation. Eleven pools (8%) were confirmed VHSV positive from: grey gurnard, Eutrigla gurnardus L.; Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus L.; Norway pout, Trisopterus esmarkii (Nilsson); plaice, Pleuronectes platessa L.; sprat, Sprattus sprattus L. and whiting, Merlangius merlangus L. The isolation of VHSV from grey gurnard is the first documented report in this species. Nucleic acid sequencing of the partial nucleocapsid (N) and glycoprotein (G) genes was carried out for viral characterization. Sequence analysis confirmed that all wild isolates were genotype III the same as the wrasse and there was a close genetic similarity between the isolates from wild fish and wrasse on the farms. Infection from these local wild marine fish is the most likely source of VHSV isolated from wrasse on the fish farms. PMID:25102953

  12. BIOMARKERS OF VIRAL EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Viral and protozoan pathogens associated with raw sludge can cause encephalitis, gastroenteritis, hepatitis, myocarditis, and a number of other diseases. Raw sludge that has been treated to reduce these pathogens can be used for land application according to the regulations spec...

  13. Leafhopper viral pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four newly discovered viral pathogens in leafhopper vectors of Pierce’s disease of grapes, have been shown to replicate in sharpshooter leafhoppers; the glassy-winged sharpshooter, GWSS, Homalodisca vitripennis, and Oncometopia nigricans (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). The viruses were classified as memb...

  14. Four-month outbreak of invasive meningococcal disease caused by a rare serogroup B strain, identified through the use of molecular PorA subtyping, England, 2013.

    PubMed

    Chatt, C; Gajraj, R; Hawker, J; Neal, K; Tahir, M; Lawrence, M; Gray, S J; Lucidarme, J; Carr, A D; Clark, S A; Fowler, T

    2014-01-01

    Molecular PorA subtyping provides information that increasingly requires the adaptation of standard public health approaches to outbreak management. We report an outbreak of a rare subtype of meningococcal infection not previously identified in the United Kingdom (UK). The outbreak occurred in the Warwickshire area in England between February and June 2013. Molecular subtyping allowed the identification of additional cases, prompting an enhanced public health response that included efforts to identify potential social networks that might benefit from chemoprophylaxis. It also prompted swabbing to define nasopharyngeal carriage in the focal nursery and helped explain the unusual epidemiological pattern. Without subtyping to identify a link, the additional cases would have been managed as sporadic cases in accordance with current UK guidance. PMID:25394258

  15. Molecular characterization of African swine fever virus from domestic pigs in northern Tanzania during an outbreak in 2013.

    PubMed

    Misinzo, Gerald; Kwavi, David E; Sikombe, Christopher D; Makange, Mariam; Peter, Emma; Muhairwa, Amandus P; Madege, Michael J

    2014-10-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is an acute, highly contagious and deadly viral hemorrhagic fever of domestic pigs caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), a double-stranded DNA virus of the family Asfarviridae. In this study, molecular diagnosis and characterization of outbreak ASFV in northern Tanzania, was performed on spleen, lymph node, kidney, and heart samples collected in June and July 2013 from domestic pigs that died during a hemorrhagic disease outbreak. Confirmatory diagnosis of ASF was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by partial amplification of B646L gene of ASFV encoding the major capsid protein p72 using PPA1/PPA2 primers. PCR using PPA1/PPA2 primers produced an expected PCR product size, confirming ASF outbreak in northern Tanzania. In addition, nucleotide amplification and sequencing, and phylogenetic reconstruction of the variable 3'-end of the B646L gene and complete E183L gene encoding the inner envelope transmembrane protein p54 showed that the 2013 outbreak ASFV from northern Tanzania were 100 % identical and clustered into ASFV B646L (p72) and E183L (p54) genotype X. Furthermore, the tetrameric amino acid repeats within the central variable region (CVR) of the B602L gene coding for the J9L protein had the signature BNBA(BN)5NA with a single novel tetramer NVDI (repeat code N). The results of the present study confirm an ASF outbreak in northern Tanzania in the year 2013 and show that the present outbreak ASFV is closely related to other ASFV from ticks, warthogs, and domestic pigs previously reported from Tanzania. PMID:24996815

  16. Molecular characterization of an Australian serotype 1 Streptococcus pneumoniae outbreak.

    PubMed

    Staples, M; Graham, R M A; Jennison, A V; Ariotti, L; Hicks, V; Cook, H; Krause, V; Giele, C; Smith, H V

    2015-01-01

    Serotype 1 Streptococcus pneumoniae is a cause of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) worldwide and has been associated with IPD outbreaks, while carriage is rarely detected in healthy adults or children. This study details an Australian multi-state and territory outbreak of serotype 1 S. pneumoniae IPD between 2010 and 2012. Molecular characterization demonstrated the outbreak was largely due to the clonal expansion of sequence type 306, MLVA type 261 S. pneumoniae serotype 1. PMID:24666470

  17. Treatment of ebola virus disease.

    PubMed

    Kilgore, Paul E; Grabenstein, John D; Salim, Abdulbaset M; Rybak, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In March 2014, the largest Ebola outbreak in history exploded across West Africa. As of November 14, 2014, the World Health Organization has reported a total of 21,296 Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases, including 13,427 laboratory-confirmed EVD cases reported from the three most affected countries (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone). As the outbreak of EVD has spread, clinical disease severity and national EVD case-fatality rates have remained high (21.2-60.8%). Prior to 2013, several EVD outbreaks were controlled by using routine public health interventions; however, the widespread nature of the current EVD outbreak as well as cultural practices in the affected countries have challenged even the most active case identification efforts. In addition, although treatment centers provide supportive care, no effective therapeutic agents are available for EVD-endemic countries. The ongoing EVD outbreak has stimulated investigation of several different therapeutic strategies that target specific viral structures and mechanisms of Ebola viruses. Six to eight putative pharmacotherapies or immunologically based treatments have demonstrated promising results in animal studies. In addition, agents composed of small interfering RNAs targeting specific proteins of Ebola viruses, traditional hyperimmune globulin isolated from Ebola animal models, monoclonal antibodies, and morpholino oligomers (small molecules used to block viral gene expression). A number of EVD therapeutic agents are now entering accelerated human trials in EVD-endemic countries. The goal of therapeutic agent development includes postexposure prevention and EVD cure. As knowledge of Ebola virus virology and pathogenesis grows, it is likely that new therapeutic tools will be developed. Deployment of novel Ebola therapies will require unprecedented cooperation as well as investment to ensure that therapeutic tools become available to populations at greatest risk for EVD and its complications. In this article, we review several agents and strategies that are now under active development. PMID:25630412

  18. Detection and phylogenetic analysis of peste des petits ruminants virus isolated from outbreaks in Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Munir, M; Zohari, S; Saeed, A; Khan, Q M; Abubakar, M; LeBlanc, N; Berg, M

    2012-02-01

    Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is an important viral disease of small ruminants and is endemic in Pakistan. In the following study, samples from two outbreaks of PPR in goats have been subjected to laboratory investigations. The Peste des Petits Ruminants virus (PPRV) genome was detected using both conventional and real-time PCR. Genetic characterization of the local PPRV field isolates was conducted by sequencing 322?bp of the fusion (F) gene and 255 bp of the nucleoprotein (N) gene. The phylogenetic tree based on the F gene clustered samples from both outbreaks into lineage 4 along with other Asian isolates, specifically into subcluster 1 along with isolates from Middle East. Analysis of N gene revealed a different pattern. In this case, the Pakistani samples clustered with Chinese, Tajikistani and Iranian isolates, which probably represents the true geographical pattern of virus circulation. This is the first report presenting the phylogenetic tree based on N gene as well as performing a parallel comparison of the trees of F and N gene together from Pakistani isolates. The results of this study shed light on the PPRV population in Pakistan and emphasize the importance of using molecular methods to understand the epidemiology. Such understanding is essential in any efforts to control the number and impact of outbreaks that are occurring in endemic countries such as Pakistan, especially in the current scenario where OIE and FAO are eager to control and subsequently eradicate PPR from the globe, as has been achieved for Rinderpest. PMID:21777402

  19. The 2012 Madeira Dengue Outbreak: Epidemiological Determinants and Future Epidemic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Lourenço, José; Recker, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Dengue, a vector-borne viral disease of increasing global importance, is classically associated with tropical and sub-tropical regions around the world. Urbanisation, globalisation and climate trends, however, are facilitating the geographic spread of its mosquito vectors, thereby increasing the risk of the virus establishing itself in previously unaffected areas and causing large-scale epidemics. On 3 October 2012, two autochthonous dengue infections were reported within the Autonomous Region of Madeira, Portugal. During the following seven months, this first ‘European’ dengue outbreak caused more than 2000 local cases and 81 exported cases to mainland Europe. Here, using an ento-epidemiological mathematical framework, we estimate that the introduction of dengue to Madeira occurred around a month before the first official cases, during the period of maximum influx of airline travel, and that the naturally declining temperatures of autumn were the determining factor for the outbreak's demise in early December 2012. Using key estimates, together with local climate data, we further propose that there is little support for dengue endemicity on this island, but a high potential for future epidemic outbreaks when seeded between May and August—a period when detection of imported cases is crucial for Madeira's public health planning. PMID:25144749

  20. The EMPRES-i genetic module: a novel tool linking epidemiological outbreak information and genetic characteristics of influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Claes, Filip; Kuznetsov, Dmitry; Liechti, Robin; Von Dobschuetz, Sophie; Truong, Bao Dinh; Gleizes, Anne; Conversa, Daniele; Colonna, Alessandro; Demaio, Ettore; Ramazzotto, Sabina; Larfaoui, Fairouz; Pinto, Julio; Le Mercier, Philippe; Xenarios, Ioannis; Dauphin, Gwenaelle

    2014-01-01

    Combining epidemiological information, genetic characterization and geomapping in the analysis of influenza can contribute to a better understanding and description of influenza epidemiology and ecology, including possible virus reassortment events. Furthermore, integration of information such as agroecological farming system characteristics can provide new knowledge on risk factors of influenza emergence and spread. Integrating viral characteristics into an animal disease information system is therefore expected to provide a unique tool to trace-and-track particular virus strains; generate clade distributions and spatiotemporal clusters; screen for distribution of viruses with specific molecular markers; identify potential risk factors; and analyze or map viral characteristics related to vaccines used for control and/or prevention. For this purpose, a genetic module was developed within EMPRES-i (FAO's global animal disease information system) linking epidemiological information from influenza events with virus characteristics and enabling combined analysis. An algorithm was developed to act as the interface between EMPRES-i disease event data and publicly available influenza virus sequences in OpenfluDB. This algorithm automatically computes potential links between outbreak event and sequences, which are subsequently manually validated by experts. Subsequently, other virus characteristics such as antiviral resistance can then be associated to outbreak data. To visualize such characteristics on a geographic map, shape files with virus characteristics to overlay on other EMPRES-i map layers (e.g. animal densities) can be generated. The genetic module allows export of associated epidemiological and sequence data for further analysis. FAO has made this tool available for scientists and policy makers. Contributions are expected from users to improve and validate the number of linked influenza events and isolate information as well as the quality of information. Possibilities to interconnect with other influenza sequence databases or to expand the genetic module to other viral diseases (e.g. foot and mouth disease) are being explored. Database OpenfluDB URL: http://openflu.vital-it.ch Database EMPRES-i URL: http://EMPRES-i.fao.org/. PMID:24608033