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1

Tracking Viral Evolution during a Disease Outbreak: the Rapid and Complete Selective Sweep of a Circovirus in the Endangered Echo Parakeet  

PubMed Central

Circoviruses are among the smallest and simplest of all viruses, but they are relatively poorly characterized. Here, we intensively sampled two sympatric parrot populations from Mauritius over a period of 11 years and screened for the circovirus Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV). During the sampling period, a severe outbreak of psittacine beak and feather disease, which is caused by BFDV, occurred in Echo parakeets. Consequently, this data set presents an ideal system for studying the evolution of a pathogen in a natural population and to understand the adaptive changes that cause outbreaks. Unexpectedly, we discovered that the outbreak was most likely caused by changes in functionally important regions of the normally conserved replication-associated protein gene and not the immunogenic capsid. Moreover, these mutations were completely fixed in the Echo parakeet host population very shortly after the outbreak. Several capsid alleles were linked to the replication-associated protein outbreak allele, suggesting that whereas the key changes occurred in the latter, the scope of the outbreak and the selective sweep may have been influenced by positive selection in the capsid. We found evidence for viral transmission between the two host populations though evidence for the invasive species as the source of the outbreak was equivocal. Finally, the high evolutionary rate that we estimated shows how rapidly new variation can arise in BFDV and is consistent with recent results from other small single-stranded DNA viruses. PMID:22345474

Faulkes, Christopher G.; Greenwood, Andrew G.; Jones, Carl G.; Kaiser, Pete; Lyne, Owen D.; Black, Simon A.; Chowrimootoo, Aurelie; Groombridge, Jim J.

2012-01-01

2

Lessons from nosocomial viral haemorrhagic fever outbreaks.  

PubMed

The outbreak of Marburg haemorrhagic fever in Angola in 2004-2005 shows once again the devastating and rapid spread of viral haemorrhagic fevers in medical settings where hygiene practices are poorly applied or ignored. The legacy of years of war and poverty in Angola has resulted in very poor medical education and services. The initial high rate of infection among infants in Angola may have been related to poor hospital practices, possibly administration of vaccines. Though the outbreak in Angola was in a part of Africa not previously known to have filovirus infection, prior ecological modelling had predicted this location and many others. Prevention of future outbreaks will not be easy. The urgent need is dissemination of knowledge and the training, discipline and resources for good clinical practice. Educating the public to demand higher standards could be a powerful tool. Good practices are difficult to establish and maintain on the scale needed. PMID:16373655

Fisher-Hoch, Susan P

2005-01-01

3

INVESTIGATIONS OF WATERBORNE DISEASE OUTBREAKS  

EPA Science Inventory

From 1971-2000, there were about 751 waterborne disease outbreaks recognized and reported, with over 500,000 associated cases of illness. From 1989-1994, of 90 total outbreaks, 2% were associated with untreated surface water, 30% with untreated ground water, 42% with treatment de...

4

Incentives for Reporting Disease Outbreaks  

PubMed Central

Background Countries face conflicting incentives to report infectious disease outbreaks. Reports of outbreaks can prompt other countries to impose trade and travel restrictions, which has the potential to discourage reporting. However, reports can also bring medical assistance to contain the outbreak, including access to vaccines. Methods We compiled data on reports of meningococcal meningitis to the World Health Organization (WHO) from 54 African countries between 1966 and 2002, a period is marked by two events: first, a large outbreak reported from many countries in 1987 associated with the Hajj that resulted in more stringent requirements for meningitis vaccination among pilgrims; and second, another large outbreak in Sub-Saharan Africa in 1996 that led to a new international mechanism to supply vaccines to countries reporting a meningitis outbreak. We used fixed-effects regression modeling to statistically estimate the effect of external forcing events on the number of countries reporting cases of meningitis to WHO. Findings We find that the Hajj vaccination requirements started in 1988 were associated with reduced reporting, especially among countries with relatively fewer cases reported between 1966 and 1979. After the vaccine provision mechanism was in place in 1996, reporting among countries that had previously not reported meningitis outbreaks increased. Interpretation These results indicate that countries may respond to changing incentives to report outbreaks when they can do so. In the long term, these incentives are likely to be more important than surveillance assistance in prompt reporting of outbreaks. PMID:24603414

Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Reif, Julian; Malani, Anup

2014-01-01

5

Fungal Diseases Outbreaks  

MedlinePLUS

... 1 page] Blastomycosis in Wisconsin Outbreak of blastomycosis, Marathon County, Wisconsin, 2010-2011 Number of cases: 55 ... Blastomyces dermatitidis Type of infection: Mostly pulmonary Setting: Marathon County, Wisconsin Source: Likely multiple foci in the ...

6

Nosocomial Spread of Viral Disease  

PubMed Central

Viruses are important causes of nosocomial infection, but the fact that hospital outbreaks often result from introduction(s) from community-based epidemics, together with the need to initiate specific laboratory testing, means that there are usually insufficient data to allow the monitoring of trends in incidences. The most important defenses against nosocomial transmission of viruses are detailed and continuing education of staff and strict adherence to infection control policies. Protocols must be available to assist in the management of patients with suspected or confirmed viral infection in the health care setting. In this review, we present details on general measures to prevent the spread of viral infection in hospitals and other health care environments. These include principles of accommodation of infected patients and approaches to good hygiene and patient management. They provide detail on individual viral diseases accompanied in each case with specific information on control of the infection and, where appropriate, details of preventive and therapeutic measures. The important areas of nosocomial infection due to blood-borne viruses have been extensively reviewed previously and are summarized here briefly, with citation of selected review articles. Human prion diseases, which present management problems very different from those of viral infection, are not included. PMID:11432812

Aitken, Celia; Jeffries, Donald J.

2001-01-01

7

Nosocomial spread of viral disease.  

PubMed

Viruses are important causes of nosocomial infection, but the fact that hospital outbreaks often result from introduction(s) from community-based epidemics, together with the need to initiate specific laboratory testing, means that there are usually insufficient data to allow the monitoring of trends in incidences. The most important defenses against nosocomial transmission of viruses are detailed and continuing education of staff and strict adherence to infection control policies. Protocols must be available to assist in the management of patients with suspected or confirmed viral infection in the health care setting. In this review, we present details on general measures to prevent the spread of viral infection in hospitals and other health care environments. These include principles of accommodation of infected patients and approaches to good hygiene and patient management. They provide detail on individual viral diseases accompanied in each case with specific information on control of the infection and, where appropriate, details of preventive and therapeutic measures. The important areas of nosocomial infection due to blood-borne viruses have been extensively reviewed previously and are summarized here briefly, with citation of selected review articles. Human prion diseases, which present management problems very different from those of viral infection, are not included. PMID:11432812

Aitken, C; Jeffries, D J

2001-07-01

8

Outbreaks of food-borne and waterborne viral gastroenteritis.  

PubMed Central

Norwalk virus infection is the epidemiologic prototype for outbreaks of food-borne and waterborne gastroenteritis. Around the world, Norwalk virus and Norwalk-like viruses appear to be major causes of food-borne and waterborne illness. Assessment of the overall significance of viral agents to the epidemiology of food-borne and waterborne illness is hampered by the lack of surveillance throughout much of the world. In areas where food-borne and waterborne illness surveillance is conducted, outbreaks of viral gastroenteritis are underreported because of the lack of availability of routine laboratory services to confirm the viral etiology. Routine use of epidemiologic criteria as an alternative to laboratory confirmation will allow better assessments of the importance of viral gastroenteritis until effective laboratory methods can be widely implemented. Outbreaks of viral gastroenteritis have been propagated by contamination of water supplies, raw foods, and ill food handlers. Controlling an outbreak depends on identifying and removing the source of contamination. The demonstrated occurrence of person-to-person transmission and the likely occurrence of transmission of Norwalk-like viruses by aerosol make it necessary to evaluate the potential for transmission by food handlers and servers in every outbreak, regardless of primary source. PMID:8395330

Hedberg, C W; Osterholm, M T

1993-01-01

9

Bluetongue is a common viral disease seen primarily in sheep and occasionally in cattle. Bluetongue outbreaks in California usually occur from late July to the end of  

E-print Network

regions. Bluetongue is a viral (Orbivirus), insect born disease that infects animals through the bite. Depending on the susceptibility of the flock to this agent, up to 100% of the animals can be affected the midges. These insects breed and lay eggs along stream banks, irrigation ditches, and settling ponds

California at Davis, University of

10

[Waterborne diseases outbreaks in the Czech Republic, 1995-2005].  

PubMed

Despite considerable advances in drinking water safety assurance and adherence to the public health standards, waterborne diaseases outbreaks have still been observed even in industrialized countries. The study objective was to map such outbreaks in the Czech Republic in 1995-2005. In this study, an outbreak is the occurrence of more cases of disease than normally expected within a specific place over a given period of time and a waterborne disease is a disease where water is the vehicle or source of infection. The data on waterborne outbreaks was obtained from the EPIDAT database (national infectious diseases reporting system) information provided by epidemiologists of all regional public health authorities and the National Reference Laboratory for Legionella. In 1995 - 2005, 33 outbreaks with water indicated as the route of transmission were recorded in the Czech Republic. The leading cause was unsafe drinking water (27 outbreaks), mainly from wells (19 outbreaks); nevertheless, the most serious consequences were observed in two outbreaks caused by microbiologically contaminated hot water. Other sources of waterborne infection were mineral water springs, a swimming pool and a brook. The total of reported cases of waterborne diseases was 1655, 356 hospitalisations and ten deaths due to legionellosis were recorded. The highest number of outbreaks (7) as well as the highest number of cases (841) were reported in 1997. Comparison of two five-year periods, i.e. 1996-2000 and 2001-2005, showed a nearly one third decrease in the total of outbreaks and a half reduction in the total of cases in the latter. In view of the limited length of monitoring, it is not possible to say with certainty whether it is a random distribution or an actual trend. Almost two thirds of cases were diagnosed as acute gastroenteritis of probable infectious origin and other frequent waterborne diseases were viral hepatitis A and bacillary dysentery. When analyzing the described outbreaks, it should be taken into account that only the diagnosed and reported outbreak cases are covered, while the actual number of cases is likely to be underreported. Although no evidence is available that any vast and serious waterborne diseases outbreaks escaped reporting, some small and less serious outbreaks may have occurred unnoticed. In the future, the diagnosis, investigation and evaluation of waterborne diseases outbreaks should be improved, among others by implementing an evidence-based classification system and issuing regular surveys of outbreaks and their causes which would be helpful in preventing failures in other similar water sources. PMID:19750823

Kozísek, F; Jeligová, H; Dvoráková, A

2009-08-01

11

DISEASE OUTBREAKS CAUSED BY DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Thirty-two waterborne disease outbreaks were reported to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the Environmental Protection Agency in 1981. The outbreaks occurred in 17 states and involved 4430 cases. This was only 64% of the number of outbreaks that were reported in 1980 and...

12

Incentives for Reporting Infectious Disease Outbreaks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The global spread of diseases such as swine flu and SARS highlights the difficult decision governments face when presented with evidence of a local outbreak. Reporting the outbreak may bring medical assistance but is also likely to trigger trade sanctions by countries hoping to contain the disease. Suppressing the information may avoid trade…

Malani, Anup; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

2011-01-01

13

Clinical progression and viral load in a community outbreak of coronavirus-associated SARS pneumonia: a prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background We investigated the temporal progression of the clinical, radiological, and virological changes in a community outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Methods We followed up 75 patients for 3 weeks managed with a standard treatment protocol of ribavirin and corticosteroids, and assessed the pattern of clinical disease, viral load, risk factors for poor clinical outcome, and the

JSM Peiris; CM Chu; VCC Cheng; KS Chan; IFN Hung; LLM Poon; KI Law; BSF Tang; TYW Hon; CS Chan; KH Chan; JSC Ng; BJ Zheng; WL Ng; RWM Lai; Y Guan; KY Yuen

2003-01-01

14

Management and investigation of viral gastroenteritis nosocomial outbreaks: lessons learned from a recent outbreak, Greece, 2012  

PubMed Central

Background: A nosocomial outbreak in a 740-bed hospital in Athens, Greece, was investigated in January-February 2012. Methods: Recommendations on infection control measures were given and two case-control studies were conducted among patients (study A) and health care workers (HCWs) (study B). Compliance to control measures was evaluated. Results: The absence of a routine recording system of nosocomial-acquired gastroenteritis cases led to a 10 days delay in outbreak identification. In total, 63 gastroenteritis cases were identified; 30 HCWs and 33 patients. In the multivariable analysis of study A the disease incidence among patients was statistical significantly associated with a prior incident of vomitus in their room (OR=7.96, 95% CI=1.29-49.2). In study B, the incidence was associated with the history of direct contact with a symptomatic patient (OR=3.03, 95%CI 1.01-9.12). Twenty one (75%) of the symptomatic HCWs reported absence from work for a median of 2 days (range: 1-4). Seven (25.0%) continued to work despite being symptomatic. Only, 11.1% of patients were isolated or cohorted after developing symptoms. In-hospital virological testing was not feasible and one specimen sent to a university laboratory was positive for norovirus. Conclusions: An appropriately designed protocol regarding the detection, the management and the laboratory investigation of nosocomial gastroenteritis outbreaks should be followed in order effective containment to be reassured. Hippokratia 2014; 18 (3): 204-208.

Sideroglou, T; Kontopidou, F; Mellou, K; Maragos, A; Potamiti-Komi, M; Gerakis, T; Vogiatzakis, E; Pefanis, A; Georgakopoulou, T; Maltezou, HC

2014-01-01

15

Newcastle disease outbreaks in Italy during 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the consequences of the epidemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza which affected Italy between 1999 and 2000 was an epidemic of Newcastle disease in northern and central Italy. It affected industrially reared poultry, dealer flocks and backyard flocks, with a total of 254 outbreaks notified up to December 31, 2000. Virological investigations yielded virulent isolates of Newcastle disease virus,

I. Capua; C. Terregino; M. Dalla Pozza; S. Marangon; F. Mutinelli

2002-01-01

16

Viral diseases in pigs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genomic approaches have expanded our understanding of genes and gene pathways, and quantitative trait loci (QTL), controlling traits of economic importance in pig production, recently including health traits and disease resistance. Efforts are underway to use novel tools including pig gene arrays, s...

17

Ecopathology in aquaculture: risk factors in infectious disease outbreak.  

PubMed

This paper describes a study of the risk factors associated with disease outbreaks in fish species of fish farms and rivers of north-east Spain. We focused our work on the isolation of fish pathogens (bacteria, virus), the water quality (physicochemical and microbiological quality) and management characteristics. We have observed 2 important viral diseases, infectious pancreatic necrosis and spring viraemia of carp, and 2 important bacterial ones, furunculosis (Aeromonas salmonicida) and bacterial kidney disease (BKD) (Renibacterium salmoninarum). Our preliminary results show that there are some potential risk factors associated with the main diseases of fish, such as fish age, fish species, production system, season and water temperature, but their role depends on the disease. PMID:7711777

Ortega, C; Múzquiz, J L; Docando, J; Planas, E; Alonso, J L; Simón, M C

1995-01-01

18

Viral diseases of marine invertebrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Approximately 40 viruses are known from marine sponges; turbellarian and monogenetic flatworms; cephalopod, bivalve, and gastropod mollusks; nereid polychaetes; and isopod and decapod crustaceans. Most of the viruses can be tentatively assigned to the Herpesviridae, Baculoviridae, Iridoviridae, Adenoviridae, Papovaviridae, Reoviridae, “Birnaviridae”, Bunyaviridae, Rhabdoviridae, and Picornaviridae. Viruslike particles found in oysters might be representatives of the Togaviridae and Retroviridae. Enveloped single-stranded RNA viruses from crustaceans have developmental and morphological characteristics intermediate between families, and some show evidence of relationships to the Paramyxoviridae as well as the Bunyaviridae or Rhabdoviridae. Certain small viruses of shrimp cannot be assigned, even tentatively, to a particular family. Some viruses cause disease in wild and captive hosts, others are associated with disease states but may not be primary instigators, and many occur in apparently normal animals. The frequency of viral disease in natural populations of marine invertebrates is unknown. Several viruses that cause disease in captive animals, with or without experimental intervention, have also been found in diseased wild hosts, including herpeslike viruses of crabs and oysters, iridovirus of octopus, and reolike and bunyalike viruses of crabs. Iridolike viruses have been implicated in massive mortalities of cultured oysters. Baculoviruses, and IHHN virus, which is of uncertain affinities, cause economically damaging diseases in cultured penaeid shrimp. Double or multiple viral infection is common in crabs. For example, a reolike virus and associated rhabdolike virus act synergistically to cause paralytic and fatal disease in Callinectes sapidus. Information on host range, most susceptible stage, and viral latency is available only for viruses of shrimp. One baculovirus attacks five species of New World penaeid shrimp. IHHN virus infects three species of Penaeus and causes catastrophic mortalities in P. stylirostris, but usually exhibits only inapparent infection in P. vannamei. Some shrimp viruses apparently are latent in larvae, causing disease only when shrimp have reached the postlarval or juvenile stages. Others are equally or more pathogenic in larvae. Studies of shrimp viruses and iridovirus-associated disease in cultured oysters point up the need for rapid and accurate diagnostic methods. Until appropriate cell cultures from marine invertebrates are devised, the viral identifications necessary for understanding of epizootiology, rapid containment of epizootics in cultured animals, and decisions regarding introductions of exotic species will be difficult or impossible.

Johnson, P. T.

1984-03-01

19

Real-Time Event Extraction Infectious Disease Outbreaks  

E-print Network

Real-Time Event Extraction for Infectious Disease Outbreaks Ralph Grishman grishman of information on infectious disease outbreaks. A web crawler is used to retrieve current news stories of information on infectious disease outbreaks, linked back to the reports from which they are derived

20

Surveillance of viral gastroenteritis in Japan: pediatric cases and outbreak incidents.  

PubMed

Surveillance results from pediatric cases and outbreaks of viral gastroenteritis in Japan are presented. In winter, both small round structured virus (SRSV, or Norwalk-like viruses) and rotavirus were detected from infants with gastroenteritis; however, in recent years, the prevailing time of SRSV infection has preceded that of rotavirus infection. Most nonbacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks were related to SRSV infection, and >60% of the outbreaks were caused by contaminated food. In small-sized outbreaks, raw oysters were the primary source of transmission. In large-sized outbreaks, school lunches and catered meals that were served at schools, banquet halls, and hospitals were most often implicated in the transmission of foodborne gastroenteritis. PMID:10804136

Inouye, S; Yamashita, K; Yamadera, S; Yoshikawa, M; Kato, N; Okabe, N

2000-05-01

21

Outbreak of acute bovine viral diarrhea in Brazilian beef cattle: Clinicopathological findings and molecular characterization of a wild-type BVDV strain subtype 1b  

Microsoft Academic Search

When first described in 1946, bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) was characterized as an acute transmissible disease associated with severe leucopenia, high fever, depression, diarrhea, gastrointestinal erosions, and hemorrhages. Recently the severe acute form has been related only to some hypervirulent BVDV-2 strains. This article reports the detection of BVDV-1b associated with an acute and fatal outbreak of BVD in a

M. Lunardi; S. A. Headley; J. A. N. Lisbôa; A. M. Amude; A. A. Alfieri

2008-01-01

22

Safety of community drinking-water and outbreaks of waterborne enteric disease: Israel, 1976-97.  

PubMed Central

Waterborne disease remains a major public health problem in many countries. We report findings on nearly three decades of waterborne disease in Israel and the part these diseases play in the total national burden of enteric disease. During the 1970s and 1980s, Israel's community water supplies were frequently of poor quality according to the microbiological standards at that time, and the country experienced many outbreaks of waterborne enteric disease. New regulations raised water quality standards and made chlorination of community water supplies mandatory, as well as imposing more stringent guidelines on maintaining water sources and distribution systems for both surface water and groundwater. This was followed by improved compliance and water quality, and a marked decline in the number of outbreaks of waterborne disease; no outbreaks were detected between 1992 and 1997. The incidence of waterborne salmonellosis, shigellosis, and typhoid declined markedly as proportions of the total burden of these diseases, but peaked during the time in which there were frequent outbreaks of waterborne disease (1980-85). Long-term trends in the total incidence of reported infectious enteric diseases from all sources, including typhoid, shigellosis, and viral hepatitis (all types) declined, while the total incidence of salmonellosis increased. Mandatory chlorination has had an important impact on improving water quality, in reducing outbreaks of waterborne disease in Israel, and reducing the total burden of enteric disease in the country. PMID:11196499

Tulchinsky, T. H.; Burla, E.; Clayman, M.; Sadik, C.; Brown, A.; Goldberger, S.

2000-01-01

23

Viral diseases of livestock in Zambia.  

PubMed

This review is to provide information on viral diseases of livestock in Zambia. The distribution of the diseases as well as the control measures and limited research that has been done, are described. Foot and mouth disease (FMD) causes serious economic losses in the cattle industry. So far five serotypes (SAT1, SAT2, SAT3, O and At of FMD virus have been isolated in Zambia. Other notifiable viral diseases are rabies, Rift Valley fever, Lumpy skin disease, African horse sickness, bluetongue, African swine fever, Newcastle disease, Marek's disease, fowlpox and infectious bursal disease. Based on the reports of clinical and/or serological diagnoses, these are widespread in the country, although their precise incidence rates are not known. With the establishment of a veterinary school equipped with modern diagnostic facilities and the increasing number of qualified veterinary personnel, this review would stimulate surveillance study on the viral diseases for the ultimate goal of achieving effective disease control measures. PMID:8870389

Mweene, A S; Pandey, G S; Sinyangwe, P; Nambota, A; Samui, K; Kida, H

1996-08-01

24

How outbreaks of infectious disease are detected: a review of surveillance systems and outbreaks.  

PubMed Central

To learn how outbreaks of infectious disease are detected and to describe the entities and information systems that together function to identify outbreaks in the U.S., the authors drew on multiple sources of information to create a description of existing surveillance systems and how they interact to detect outbreaks. The results of this analysis were summarized in a system diagram. The authors reviewed a sample of recent outbreaks to determine how they were detected, with reference to the system diagram. The de facto U.S. system for detection of outbreaks consists of five components: the clinical health care system, local/state health agencies, federal agencies, academic/professional organizations, and collaborating governmental organizations. Primary data collection occurs at the level of clinical health care systems and local health agencies. The review of a convenience sample of outbreaks showed that all five components of the system participated in aggregating, analyzing, and sharing data. The authors conclude that the current U.S. approach to detection of disease outbreaks is complex and involves many organizations interacting in a loosely coupled manner. State and local health departments and the health care system are major components in the detection of outbreaks. PMID:15313109

Dato, Virginia; Wagner, Michael M.; Fapohunda, Abi

2004-01-01

25

Teachers' Risk Perception and Needs in Addressing Infectious Disease Outbreak  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The outbreak of the Influenza A (H1N1) virus has led to numerous precautionary school closures in several countries. No research is available on the school teachers' perceptions as a health protective resource in controlling communicable disease outbreaks. The purposes of this study were to examine the risk perception, the perceived understanding…

Wong, Emmy M. Y.; Cheng, May M. H.; Lo, S.K.

2010-01-01

26

Sociodemographic inequalities and outbreaks of foodborne diseases: An ecologic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reducing disparities in health is a significant health policy goal and so improving knowledge on differences in the distribution of health problems is needed. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between the incidence of foodborne disease outbreaks (FBDO) and demographic-socioeconomic characteristics. Association between outbreak incidence rate (IR) and demographic and socioeconomic features such as age >65

Sonia Broner; Nuria Torner; Angela Dominguez; Ana Martínez; Pere Godoy

2010-01-01

27

Sequence Analyses of 2012 West Nile Virus Isolates from Texas Fail to Associate Viral Genetic Factors with Outbreak Magnitude  

PubMed Central

In 2012, Texas experienced the largest outbreak of human West Nile encephalitis (WNE) since the introduction of West Nile virus (WNV) in 2002. Despite the large number of WNV infections, data indicated the rate of reported WNE among human cases was no higher than in previous years. To determine whether the increase in WNV human cases could have been caused by viral genetic changes, the complete genomes of 17 isolates made from mosquito pools in Dallas and Montgomery Counties in 2012 were sequenced. The 2012 Texas isolates were found to be composed of two distinct clades, both circulating in Dallas and Montgomery Counties despite a 5-fold higher disease incidence in the former. Although minor genetic differences existed between Dallas and Montgomery WNV populations, there was weak support for population subdivision or adaptive changes. On the basis of these data, alternative explanations for increased WNV disease incidence in 2012 are proposed. PMID:23817333

Duggal, Nisha K.; D'Anton, Mary; Xiang, Jeannie; Seiferth, Robyn; Day, Joanne; Nasci, Roger; Brault, Aaron C.

2013-01-01

28

Emerging viral diseases of tomato crops.  

PubMed

Viral diseases are an important limiting factor in many crop production systems. Because antiviral products are not available, control strategies rely on genetic resistance or hygienic measures to prevent viral diseases, or on eradication of diseased crops to control such diseases. Increasing international travel and trade of plant materials enhances the risk of introducing new viruses and their vectors into production systems. In addition, changing climate conditions can contribute to a successful spread of newly introduced viruses or their vectors and establishment of these organisms in areas that were previously unfavorable. Tomato is economically the most important vegetable crop worldwide and many viruses infecting tomato have been described, while new viral diseases keep emerging. Pepino mosaic virus is a rapidly emerging virus which has established itself as one of the most important viral diseases in tomato production worldwide over recent years. Begomovirus species and other whitefly-transmitted viruses are invading into new areas, and several recently described new viruses such as Tomato torrado virus and new Tospovirus species are rapidly spreading over large geographic areas. In this article, emerging viruses of tomato crops are discussed. PMID:20367462

Hanssen, Inge M; Lapidot, Moshe; Thomma, Bart P H J

2010-05-01

29

Investigation of an outbreak of mucosal disease in a beef cattle herd in southwestern Saskatchewan.  

PubMed Central

This study describes the epidemiological investigation of an outbreak of mucosal disease that occurred on a ranch in southwestern Saskatchewan. Over a six-month period during the fall and winter of 1991-1992, in a herd of 515 beef cattle and 96 bison, 20 yearling cattle from a group of 105 housed in one feedlot pen died from mucosal disease. A further eight yearlings were slaughtered for salvage because they were at risk of dying from mucosal disease. Mucosal disease mortalities were the first observed evidence of fetal infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus in this herd. Animals that died from mucosal disease exhibited signs of ill thrift prior to death. Deaths from mucosal disease were confined to the progeny of one herd of beef cows. Following an outbreak of fetal infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus during 1989-1990, at least 28 (22%) of the 128 calves born from this herd of cows in the spring of 1990 were persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus. However, only one calf born from this herd in 1991, and five calves born from all herds in 1992 were persistently infected. Of the five persistently infected calves born in 1992, three were born to persistently infected replacement heifers born in 1990. These heifers calved without assistance in 1992, but only one of their calves survived past three days of age, and it was persistently infected. In January 1992, 82% of the total herd had reciprocal antibody titers to bovine viral diarrhea virus of > or = 1024 which suggested a high level of herd immunity to bovine viral diarrhea virus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8076288

Taylor, L F; Van Donkersgoed, J; Radostits, O M; Booker, C W; Dubovi, E J; van den Hurk, J V; Janzen, E D

1994-01-01

30

APPROACHES TO ESTIMATING THE WATERBORNE DISEASE OUTBREAK BURDEN IN THE U.S.: USES AND LIMITATIONS OF THE WATERBORNE DISEASE OUTBREAK SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Approaches to Estimating the Waterborne Disease Outbreak Burden in the United States: Uses and Limitations of the Waterborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System (External Review Draft) document presents approaches for estimating the epidemiologic and economic burden o...

31

Outbreak of herpesviral conjunctivitis and respiratory disease in gouldian finches.  

PubMed

An outbreak of tracheitis, sinusitis, and conjunctivitis, originating in recently imported birds, caused high morbidity and mortality in a flock of finches in Central Illinois. Although several species were present, Gouldian finches (Erythrura [Chloebia] gouldiae) were most commonly and severely affected. Birds submitted for necropsy displayed microscopic lesions characteristic of herpesviral infection, including epithelial cytomegaly and karyomegaly with basophilic, intranuclear inclusion bodies in the nasopharynx, sinuses, trachea, parabronchi, conjunctiva, and occasionally the lacrimal gland or proximal proventricular glands. Viral particles consistent with herpesvirus were visualized within affected epithelial cells with electron microscopy. Based on a partial sequence of the viral DNA polymerase gene, this virus was found to be identical to a herpesvirus previously implicated in a similar outbreak in Canada and is most likely an alphaherpesvirus. PMID:17099153

Paulman, A; Lichtensteiger, C A; Kohrt, L J

2006-11-01

32

Contributing factors to disease outbreaks associated with untreated groundwater.  

PubMed

Disease outbreaks associated with drinking water drawn from untreated groundwater sources represent a substantial proportion (30.3%) of the 818 drinking water outbreaks reported to CDC's Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) during 1971 to 2008. The objectives of this study were to identify underlying contributing factors, suggest improvements for data collection during outbreaks, and inform outbreak prevention efforts. Two researchers independently reviewed all qualifying outbreak reports (1971 to 2008), assigned contributing factors and abstracted additional information (e.g., cases, etiology, and water system attributes). The 248 outbreaks resulted in at least 23,478 cases of illness, 390 hospitalizations, and 13 deaths. The majority of outbreaks had an unidentified etiology (n?=?135, 54.4%). When identified, the primary etiologies were hepatitis A virus (n?=?21, 8.5%), Shigella spp. (n?=?20, 8.1%), and Giardia intestinalis (n?=?14, 5.7%). Among the 172 (69.4%) outbreaks with contributing factor data available, the leading contamination sources included human sewage (n?=?57, 33.1%), animal contamination (n?=?16, 9.3%), and contamination entering via the distribution system (n?=?12, 7.0%). Groundwater contamination was most often facilitated by improper design, maintenance or location of the water source or nearby waste water disposal system (i.e., septic tank; n?=?116, 67.4%). Other contributing factors included rapid pathogen transport through hydrogeologic formations (e.g., karst limestone; n?=?45, 26.2%) and preceding heavy rainfall or flooding (n?=?36, 20.9%). This analysis underscores the importance of identifying untreated groundwater system vulnerabilities through frequent inspection and routine maintenance, as recommended by protective regulations such as Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Groundwater Rule, and the need for special consideration of the local hydrogeology. PMID:24116713

Wallender, Erika K; Ailes, Elizabeth C; Yoder, Jonathan S; Roberts, Virginia A; Brunkard, Joan M

2014-01-01

33

Anxiety and Depression: Linkages with Viral Diseases  

PubMed Central

Anxiety and mood disorders are common in the general population in countries around the world. This article provides a review of the recent literature on anxiety and depressive disorders with a focus on linkages with several important viral diseases. Although the majority of studies have been conducted in developed countries such as the United States and Great Britain, some studies have been carried out in less developed nations where only a small percentage of persons with mental illness receive treatment for their condition. The studies summarized in this review indicate that there are important linkages between anxiety and depression and viral diseases such as influenza A (H1N1) and other influenza viruses, varicella-zoster virus, herpes simplex virus, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and hepatitis C. Additional studies are needed to further clarify the mechanisms for interactions between mental health and communicable diseases, in order to assist patients and further prevention and control efforts. PMID:25264396

Coughlin, Steven S.

2012-01-01

34

Viral Perturbations of Host Networks Reflect Disease Etiology  

PubMed Central

Many human diseases, arising from mutations of disease susceptibility genes (genetic diseases), are also associated with viral infections (virally implicated diseases), either in a directly causal manner or by indirect associations. Here we examine whether viral perturbations of host interactome may underlie such virally implicated disease relationships. Using as models two different human viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human papillomavirus (HPV), we find that host targets of viral proteins reside in network proximity to products of disease susceptibility genes. Expression changes in virally implicated disease tissues and comorbidity patterns cluster significantly in the network vicinity of viral targets. The topological proximity found between cellular targets of viral proteins and disease genes was exploited to uncover a novel pathway linking HPV to Fanconi anemia. PMID:22761553

Dricot, Amélie; Padi, Megha; Byrdsong, Danielle; Franchi, Rachel; Lee, Deok-Sun; Rozenblatt-Rosen, Orit; Mar, Jessica C.; Calderwood, Michael A.; Baldwin, Amy; Zhao, Bo; Santhanam, Balaji; Braun, Pascal; Simonis, Nicolas; Huh, Kyung-Won; Hellner, Karin; Grace, Miranda; Chen, Alyce; Rubio, Renee; Marto, Jarrod A.; Christakis, Nicholas A.; Kieff, Elliott; Roth, Frederick P.; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer; DeCaprio, James A.; Cusick, Michael E.; Quackenbush, John; Hill, David E.; Münger, Karl; Vidal, Marc; Barabási, Albert-László

2012-01-01

35

Approved and experimental countermeasures against pestiviral diseases: Bovine viral diarrhea, classical swine fever and border disease.  

PubMed

The pestiviruses, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), classical swine fever (CSFV) and border disease virus, are important livestock pathogens in many countries, but current vaccines do not completely prevent the spread of infection. Control of pestiviral diseases is especially difficult due to the constant viremia and viral shedding of persistently infected (PI) animals, which must be identified and eliminated to prevent disease transmission. Existing vaccines are limited by the delay between vaccination and the onset of protection, the difficulty of differentiating serologically between vaccinated and naturally infected animals and the need for broad vaccine cross-protection against diverse virus strains. Antiviral therapy could potentially supplement vaccination by providing immediate protection in the case of an outbreak. Numerous compounds with in vitro antiviral activity against BVDV have been identified through its role as a surrogate for hepatitis C virus. Fewer drugs active against CSFV have been identified, but many compounds that are effective against BVDV will likely inhibit CSFV, given their similar genomic sequences. While in vitro research has been promising, the paucity of efficacy studies in animals has hindered the commercial development of effective antiviral drugs against the pestiviruses. In this article, we summarize the clinical syndromes and routes of transmission of BVD, CSF and border disease, discuss currently approved vaccines, review efforts to develop antiviral therapies for use in outbreak control and suggest promising directions for future research. PMID:23928259

Newcomer, Benjamin W; Givens, M Daniel

2013-10-01

36

Inter- and Intra-Host Viral Diversity in a Large Seasonal DENV2 Outbreak  

PubMed Central

Background High genetic diversity at both inter- and intra-host level are hallmarks of RNA viruses due to the error-prone nature of their genome replication. Several groups have evaluated the extent of viral variability using different RNA virus deep sequencing methods. Although much of this effort has been dedicated to pathogens that cause chronic infections in humans, few studies investigated arthropod-borne, acute viral infections. Methods and Principal Findings We deep sequenced the complete genome of ten DENV2 isolates from representative classical and severe cases sampled in a large outbreak in Brazil using two different approaches. Analysis of the consensus genomes confirmed the larger extent of the 2010 epidemic in comparison to a previous epidemic caused by the same viruses in another city two years before (genetic distance?=?0.002 and 0.0008 respectively). Analysis of viral populations within the host revealed a high level of conservation. After excluding homopolymer regions of 454/Roche generated sequences, we found 10 to 44 variable sites per genome population at a frequency of >1%, resulting in very low intra-host genetic diversity. While up to 60% of all variable sites at intra-host level were non-synonymous changes, only 10% of inter-host variability resulted from non-synonymous mutations, indicative of purifying selection at the population level. Conclusions and Significance Despite the error-prone nature of RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase, dengue viruses maintain low levels of intra-host variability. PMID:23936406

Romano, Camila Malta; Lauck, Michael; Salvador, Felipe S.; Lima, Célia Rodrigues; Villas-Boas, Lucy S.; Araújo, Evaldo Stanislau A.; Levi, José Eduardo; Pannuti, Claudio Sergio; O’Connor, David; Kallas, Esper Georges

2013-01-01

37

Outbreaks of budgerigar fledgling disease in three aviaries in Ontario  

PubMed Central

Outbreaks of budgerigar fledgling disease (BFD) occurred in three budgerigar aviaries in Ontario. Acute death in seven to ten-day-old nestlings and feather abnormalities in birds over three weeks of age were common findings. Ascites, hepatomegaly and hydropericardium were prominent gross lesions. Histologically, basophilic intranuclear inclusions were seen in many tissues. A severe drop in hatchability occurred in one aviary—a finding not previously reported with BFD. Interruption of breeding controlled the disease in aviary 1, but failed in two consecutive attempts in aviary 2. A third outbreak occurred in aviary 2 after depopulation and restocking. In aviary 3, the spread of disease was very rapid; 90% of the nestlings died within a few weeks. A papovavirus similar to a previously described isolate was recovered in this outbreak. PMID:17423398

Gough, Joan F.

1989-01-01

38

Clinical Presentation Resembling Mucosal Disease Associated with 'HoBi'-like Pestivirus in a Field Outbreak.  

PubMed

The genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae consists of four recognized species: Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 2 (BVDV-2), Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and Border disease virus (BDV). Recently, atypical pestiviruses ('HoBi'-like pestiviruses) were identified in batches of contaminated foetal calf serum and in naturally infected cattle with and without clinical symptoms. Here, we describe the first report of a mucosal disease-like clinical presentation (MD) associated with a 'HoBi'-like pestivirus occurring in a cattle herd. The outbreak was investigated using immunohistochemistry, antibody detection, viral isolation and RT-PCR. The sequence and phylogenetic analysis of 5'NCR, N(pro) and E2 regions of the RT-PCR positive samples showed that four different 'HoBi'-like strains were circulating in the herd. The main clinical signs and lesions were observed in the respiratory and digestive systems, but skin lesions and corneal opacity were also observed. MD characteristic lesions and a pestivirus with cytopathic biotype were detected in one calf. The present study is the first report of a MD like presentation associated with natural infection with 'HoBi'-like pestivirus. This report describes the clinical signs and provides a pathologic framework of an outbreak associated with at least two different 'HoBi'-like strains. Based on these observations, it appears that these atypical pestiviruses are most likely underdiagnosed in Brazilian cattle. PMID:24735072

Weber, M N; Mósena, A C S; Simões, S V D; Almeida, L L; Pessoa, C R M; Budaszewski, R F; Silva, T R; Ridpath, J F; Riet-Correa, F; Driemeier, D; Canal, C W

2014-04-16

39

Complex social contagion makes networks more vulnerable to disease outbreaks  

PubMed Central

Social network analysis is now widely used to investigate the dynamics of infectious disease spread. Vaccination dramatically disrupts disease transmission on a contact network, and indeed, high vaccination rates can potentially halt disease transmission altogether. Here, we build on mounting evidence that health behaviors - such as vaccination, and refusal thereof - can spread across social networks through a process of complex contagion that requires social reinforcement. Using network simulations that model health behavior and infectious disease spread, we find that under otherwise identical conditions, the process by which the health behavior spreads has a very strong effect on disease outbreak dynamics. This dynamic variability results from differences in the topology within susceptible communities that arise during the health behavior spreading process, which in turn depends on the topology of the overall social network. Our findings point to the importance of health behavior spread in predicting and controlling disease outbreaks. PMID:23712758

Campbell, Ellsworth; Salathé, Marcel

2013-01-01

40

Viral respiratory diseases: vaccines and antivirals*  

PubMed Central

Acute respiratory diseases, most of which are generally attributed to viruses, account for about 6% of all deaths and for about 60% of the deaths associated with all respiratory disease. The huge cost attributable to viral respiratory infections as a result of absenteeism and the disruption of business and the burden of medical care makes control of these diseases an important objective. The viruses that infect the respiratory tract fall taxonomically into five viral families. Although immunoprophylaxis would appear to be the logical approach, the development of suitable vaccines has been confronted with numerous obstacles, including antigenic drift and shift in the influenzaviruses, the large number of antigenically distinct immunotypes among rhinoviruses, the occurrence after immunization of rare cases of a severe form of the disease following subsequent natural infection with respiratory syncytial virus, and the risk of oncogenicity of adenoviruses for man. Considerable expenditure on the development of new antiviral drugs has so far resulted in only three compounds that are at present officially approved and licensed for use in the USA. Efforts to improve the tools available for control should continue and imaginative and inventive approaches are called for. However, creativity and ingenuity must operate within the constraints imposed by economic, political, ethical, and legal considerations. PMID:6976841

Lennette, Edwin H.

1981-01-01

41

Rule-Based Anomaly Pattern Detection for Detecting Disease Outbreaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an algorithm for performing early detection of disease outbreaks by searching a database of emergency department cases for anomalous patterns. Traditional techniques for anomaly detection are unsat- isfactory for this problem because they identify individ- ual data points that are rare due to particular combina- tions of features. When applied to our scenario, these traditional algorithms discover

Weng-keen Wong; Andrew W. Moore; Gregory F. Cooper; Michael Wagner

2002-01-01

42

Factors that make an infectious disease outbreak controllable  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to identify general properties of emerging infectious agents that determine the likely success of two simple public health measures in controlling outbreaks, namely (i) isolating symptomatic individuals and (ii) tracing and quarantining their con- tacts. Because these measures depend on the recognition of specific disease symptoms, we investigate the relative timing of infectious- ness

Christophe Fraser; Steven Riley; Roy M. Anderson; Neil M. Ferguson

2004-01-01

43

Media impact switching surface during an infectious disease outbreak  

PubMed Central

There are many challenges to quantifying and evaluating the media impact on the control of emerging infectious diseases. We modeled such media impacts using a piecewise smooth function depending on both the case number and its rate of change. The proposed model was then converted into a switching system, with the switching surface determined by a functional relationship between susceptible populations and different subgroups of infectives. By parameterizing the proposed model with the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza outbreak data in the Shaanxi province of China, we observed that media impact switched off almost as the epidemic peaked. Our analysis implies that media coverage significantly delayed the epidemic's peak and decreased the severity of the outbreak. Moreover, media impacts are not always effective in lowering the disease transmission during the entire outbreak, but switch on and off in a highly nonlinear fashion with the greatest effect during the early stage of the outbreak. The finding draws the attention to the important role of informing the public about ‘the rate of change of case numbers' rather than ‘the absolute number of cases' to alter behavioral changes, through a self-adaptive media impact switching on and off, for better control of disease transmission. PMID:25592757

Xiao, Yanni; Tang, Sanyi; Wu, Jianhong

2015-01-01

44

Media impact switching surface during an infectious disease outbreak  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many challenges to quantifying and evaluating the media impact on the control of emerging infectious diseases. We modeled such media impacts using a piecewise smooth function depending on both the case number and its rate of change. The proposed model was then converted into a switching system, with the switching surface determined by a functional relationship between susceptible populations and different subgroups of infectives. By parameterizing the proposed model with the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza outbreak data in the Shaanxi province of China, we observed that media impact switched off almost as the epidemic peaked. Our analysis implies that media coverage significantly delayed the epidemic's peak and decreased the severity of the outbreak. Moreover, media impacts are not always effective in lowering the disease transmission during the entire outbreak, but switch on and off in a highly nonlinear fashion with the greatest effect during the early stage of the outbreak. The finding draws the attention to the important role of informing the public about `the rate of change of case numbers' rather than `the absolute number of cases' to alter behavioral changes, through a self-adaptive media impact switching on and off, for better control of disease transmission.

Xiao, Yanni; Tang, Sanyi; Wu, Jianhong

2015-01-01

45

Media impact switching surface during an infectious disease outbreak.  

PubMed

There are many challenges to quantifying and evaluating the media impact on the control of emerging infectious diseases. We modeled such media impacts using a piecewise smooth function depending on both the case number and its rate of change. The proposed model was then converted into a switching system, with the switching surface determined by a functional relationship between susceptible populations and different subgroups of infectives. By parameterizing the proposed model with the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza outbreak data in the Shaanxi province of China, we observed that media impact switched off almost as the epidemic peaked. Our analysis implies that media coverage significantly delayed the epidemic's peak and decreased the severity of the outbreak. Moreover, media impacts are not always effective in lowering the disease transmission during the entire outbreak, but switch on and off in a highly nonlinear fashion with the greatest effect during the early stage of the outbreak. The finding draws the attention to the important role of informing the public about 'the rate of change of case numbers' rather than 'the absolute number of cases' to alter behavioral changes, through a self-adaptive media impact switching on and off, for better control of disease transmission. PMID:25592757

Xiao, Yanni; Tang, Sanyi; Wu, Jianhong

2015-01-01

46

Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy outbreak in freshwater fish farmed in Italy.  

PubMed

Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), otherwise known as viral nervous necrosis (VNN), is a neuropathological condition affecting > 40 species of fish. Although VER affects mainly marine fish, the disease has also been detected in certain species reared in freshwater environments. There are relatively few reports concerning the disease in freshwater species, and there is not much information on clinical signs. Nevertheless, the most common clinical findings reported from affected freshwater species are consistent with the typical signs observed in marine species. In this paper we describe the main clinical signs and the laboratory results associated with the detection of a betanodavirus in hybrid striped bass x white bass (Morone saxatilis x Morone chrysops) and largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, reared in a freshwater environment. We also detected the virus by real-time PCR and isolated it in cell culture from a batch of pike-perch Sander lucioperca farmed in the same system. PMID:21991664

Bovo, G; Gustinelli, A; Quaglio, F; Gobbo, F; Panzarin, V; Fusaro, A; Mutinelli, F; Caffara, M; Fioravanti, M L

2011-08-29

47

Host behavior alters spiny lobster-viral disease dynamics: a simulation study.  

PubMed

Social behavior confers numerous benefits to animals but also risks, among them an increase in the spread of pathogenic diseases. We examined the trade-off between risk of predation and disease transmission under different scenarios of host spatial structure and disease avoidance behavior using a spatially explicit, individual-based model of the host pathogen interaction between juvenile Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) and Panulirus argus Virus 1 (PaV1). Spiny lobsters are normally social but modify their behavior to avoid diseased conspecifics, a potentially effective means of reducing transmission but one rarely observed in the wild. We found that without lobster avoidance of diseased conspecifics, viral outbreaks grew in intensity and duration in simulations until the virus was maintained continuously at unrealistically high levels. However, when we invoked disease avoidance at empirically observed levels, the intensity and duration of outbreaks was reduced and the disease extirpated within five years. Increased lobster (host) spatial aggregation mimicking that which occurs when sponge shelters for lobsters are diminished by harmful algal blooms, did not significantly increase PaV1 transmission or persistence in lobster populations. On the contrary, behavioral aversion of diseased conspecifics effectively reduced viral prevalence, even when shelters were limited, which reduced shelter availability for all lobsters but increased predation, especially of infected lobsters. Therefore, avoidance of diseased conspecifics selects against transmission by contact, promotes alternative modes of transmission, and results in a more resilient host-pathogen system. PMID:25230484

Dolan, Thomas W; Butler, Mark J; Shields, Jeffrey D

2014-08-01

48

Gene expression associated with compatible viral diseases in grapevine cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral diseases affect grapevine cultures without inducing any resistance response. Thus, these plants develop systemic diseases\\u000a and are chronically infected. Molecular events associated with viral compatible infections responsible for disease establishment\\u000a and symptoms development are poorly understood. In this study, we surveyed viral infection in grapevines at a transcriptional\\u000a level. Gene expression in the Vitis vinifera red wine cultivars Carmnre

C. Espinoza; A. Vega; C. Medina; K. Schlauch; G. Cramer; P. Arce-Johnson

2007-01-01

49

Outbreak of viral hemorrhagic fever caused by dengue virus type 3 in Al-Mukalla, Yemen  

PubMed Central

Background Investigations were conducted by the authors to explore an outbreak of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) reported in 2010 from Al-Mukalla city, the capital of Hadramout in Yemen. Methods From 15–17 June 2010, the outbreak investigation period, specimens were obtained within 7?days after onset of illness of 18 acutely ill patients hospitalized with VHF and 15 household asymptomatic contacts of 6 acute cases. Additionally, 189 stored sera taken from acutely ill patients with suspected VHF hospitalized in the preceding 12?months were obtained from the Ministry of Health of Yemen. Thus, a total of 222 human specimens were collected; 207 specimens from acute cases and 15 specimens from contacts. All samples were tested with RT-PCR for dengue (DENV), Alkhumra (ALKV), Rift Valley Fever (RVFV), Yellow Fever (YFV), and Chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses. Samples were also tested for DENV IgM, IgG, and NS1-antigen. Medical records of patients were reviewed and demographic, clinical, and laboratory data was collected. Results Of 207 patients tested, 181 (87.4%) patients were confirmed to have acute dengue with positive dengue NS1-antigen (97 patients, 46.9%) and/or IgM (163 patients, 78.7%). Of the 181 patients with confirmed dengue, 100 (55.2%) patients were IgG-positive. DENV RNA was detected in 2 (1%) patients with acute symptoms; both samples were molecularly typed as DENV type 3. No other VHF viruses were detected. For the 15 contacts tested, RT-PCR tests for the five viruses were negative, one contact was dengue IgM positive, and another one was dengue IgG positive. Of the 181 confirmed dengue patients, 120 (66.3%) patients were males and the median age was 24?years. The most common manifestations included fever (100%), headache (94.5%), backache (93.4%), malaise (88.4%), arthralgia (85.1%), myalgia (82.3%), bone pain (77.9%), and leukopenia (76.2%). Two (1.1%) patients died. Conclusions DENV-3 was confirmed to be the cause of an outbreak of VHF in Al-Mukalla. It is important to use both IgM and NS1-antigen tests to confirm acute dengue particularly under the adverse field conditions, where proper storage and transportation of specimens are missing, which substantially reduce the sensitivity of the RT-PCR for detecting DENV RNA. PMID:23497142

2013-01-01

50

ENGINEERING ASPECTS OF WATERBORNE DISEASE OUTBREAK INVESTIGATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Two recent headline causing events have reinforced the concern about the spread f diseases through waterborne routes. hese events include the current cholera epidemic in the Western Hemisphere that has caused more than 750,000 reported case of cholera through April, 1993, and the...

51

Clinicopathological characterization in poultry of three strains of Newcastle disease virus isolated from recent outbreaks.  

PubMed

Newcastle disease is a severe threat to the poultry industry and is caused by Newcastle disease virus, a member of the genus Avulavirus, family Paramyxoviridae. The virus is rapidly evolving, and several new genotypes have been discovered in the past few years. Characterization of these strains is important to evaluate field changes, anticipate new outbreaks, and develop adequate control measures. Three Newcastle disease isolates (APMV-1/duck/Vietnam, Long Bien/78/2002, APMV-1/chicken/Australia/9809-19-1107/1998, and APMV-1/double-crested cormorant/USA, Nevada/19529-04/2005) from recent outbreaks were investigated via clinicopathological assessment, immunohistochemistry (IHC), in situ hybridization, virus isolation, and serology in experimentally infected 4-week-old chickens. Phylogenetic studies showed that Australia isolate belongs to class II genotype I, Long Bien to class II genotype VIId, and Nevada cormorant to class II genotype V. Even though all 3 viruses had a virulent fusion protein cleavage site and ICPI values greater than 1.5, they all differed in their ability to cause clinical signs, in their lesions, and in their viral distribution in body tissues. The Long Bien isolate showed the most severe clinicopathological picture and the most widespread viral distribution. The Australia and Nevada cormorant isolates had a milder pathological phenotype, with viral replication restricted to only a few organs. The variability in clinicopathological characteristics despite the similarity in ICPI suggests that full clinicopathological assessment is necessary to fully characterize new isolates and that there are differences in pathogenesis among viruses of different genotypes. PMID:20685918

Susta, L; Miller, P J; Afonso, C L; Brown, C C

2011-03-01

52

California Measles Outbreak Shows How Quickly Disease Can Resurface in U.S.  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. California Measles Outbreak Shows How Quickly Disease Can Resurface ... recent outbreak traced to two Disney parks in California illustrates how quickly a resurgence can occur. As ...

53

An outbreak of viral meningitis associated with a public swimming pond.  

PubMed Central

From July to October 2001, 215 cases of aseptic meningitis occurred among the inhabitants of the German city of Kassel and neighbouring counties. A matched case-control study identified bathing in a public, nature-like pond during the beginning of the outbreak as a risk factor for disease [matched odds ratio (mOR) 44.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.9-515.6]. Among bathers, patients with meningitis spent more time in the water (mOR 18.8, 95% CI 2.0-174.1) and swallowed water more frequently (mOR = 7.3, 95% CI 0.7-81.8). Of 30 cerebrospinal fluid samples tested, echovirus 30 was cultured from 16, and echovirus 13 from seven. An echovirus 30 sequence obtained from one pond water sample showed a 99% nucleotide and 100% amino-acid homology with patient isolates. This outbreak demonstrates the potential of nature-like swimming ponds to cause widespread community infection with substantial public health impact. PMID:15816154

Hauri, A. M.; Schimmelpfennig, M.; Walter-Domes, M.; Letz, A.; Diedrich, S.; Lopez-Pila, J.; Schreier, E.

2005-01-01

54

Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change.

Winton, James R.; Walker, Peter J.

2010-01-01

55

Extensive HLA-driven viral diversity following a narrow-source HIV-1 outbreak in rural China  

PubMed Central

Obstacles to developing an HIV-1 vaccine include extensive viral diversity and lack of correlates of protective immunity. High mutation rates allow HIV-1 to adapt rapidly to selective forces such as antiretroviral therapy and immune pressure, including HIV-1–specific CTLs that select viral variants which escape T-cell recognition. Multiple factors contribute to HIV-1 diversity, making it difficult to disentangle the contribution of CTL selection without using complex analytical approaches. We describe an HIV-1 outbreak in 231 former plasma donors in China, where a narrow-source virus that had contaminated the donation system was apparently transmitted to many persons contemporaneously. The genetic divergence now evident in these subjects should uniquely reveal how much viral diversity at the population level is solely attributable to host factors. We found significant correlations between pair-wise divergence of viral sequences and HLA class I genotypes across epitope-length windows in HIV-1 Gag, reverse transcriptase, integrase, and Nef, corresponding to sites of 140 HLA class I allele-associated viral polymorphisms. Of all polymorphic sites across these 4 proteins, 24%-56% were sites of HLA-associated selection. These data confirm that CTL pressure has a major effect on inter-host HIV-1 viral diversity and probably represents a key element of viral control. PMID:21562042

Zhang, Yonghong; Xu, Ke Yi; Yan, Huiping; James, Ian; Peng, Yanchun; Blais, Marie-Eve; Gaudieri, Silvana; Chen, Xinyue; Lun, Wenhui; Wu, Hao; Qu, Wen Yan; Rostron, Tim; Li, Ning; Mao, Yu; Mallal, Simon; Xu, Xiaoning; McMichael, Andrew; John, Mina

2011-01-01

56

Two Different Epidemiological Scenarios of Border Disease in the Populations of Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra p. pyrenaica) after the First Disease Outbreaks  

PubMed Central

Since 2001 several outbreaks of a new disease associated with Border disease virus (BDV) infection have caused important declines in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) populations in the Pyrenees. The goal of this study was to analyze the post-outbreak BDV epidemiology in the first two areas affected by disease with the aim to establish if the infection has become endemic. We also investigated if BDV infected wild and domestic ruminants sharing habitat with chamois. Unexpectedly, we found different epidemiological scenarios in each population. Since the disease outbreaks, some chamois populations recuperated quickly, while others did not recover as expected. In chamois from the first areas, prevalence was high (73.47%) and constant throughout the whole study period and did not differ between chamois born before and after the BDV outbreak; in all, BDV was detected by RT-PCR in six chamois. In the other areas, prevalence was lower (52.79%) and decreased during the study period; as well, prevalence was significantly lower in chamois born after the disease outbreak. No BDV were detected in this population. A comparative virus neutralisation test performed with four BDV strains and one Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) strain showed that all the chamois had BDV-specific antibodies. Pestivirus antibodies were detected in all the rest of analyzed species, with low prevalence values in wild ruminants and moderate values in domestic ruminants. No viruses were detected in these species. These results confirm the hypothesis that outbreaks of BDV infection only affect the Pyrenean chamois, although other wild ruminants can occasionally be infected. In conclusion, two different scenarios have appeared since the first border disease outbreaks in Pyrenean chamois: on the one hand frequent BDV circulation with possible negative impact on population dynamics in some areas and on the other, lack of virus circulation and quick recovery of the chamois population. PMID:23251417

Fernández-Sirera, Laura; Cabezón, Oscar; Allepuz, Alberto; Rosell, Rosa; Riquelme, Cristina; Serrano, Emmanuel; Lavín, Santiago; Marco, Ignasi

2012-01-01

57

Molecular Epidemiology of Human Oral Chagas Disease Outbreaks in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Background Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, displays significant genetic variability revealed by six Discrete Typing Units (TcI-TcVI). In this pathology, oral transmission represents an emerging epidemiological scenario where different outbreaks associated to food/beverages consumption have been reported in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador and Venezuela. In Colombia, six human oral outbreaks have been reported corroborating the importance of this transmission route. Molecular epidemiology of oral outbreaks is barely known observing the incrimination of TcI, TcII, TcIV and TcV genotypes. Methodology and Principal Findings High-throughput molecular characterization was conducted performing MLMT (Multilocus Microsatellite Typing) and mtMLST (mitochondrial Multilocus Sequence Typing) strategies on 50 clones from ten isolates. Results allowed observing the occurrence of TcI, TcIV and mixed infection of distinct TcI genotypes. Thus, a majority of specific mitochondrial haplotypes and allelic multilocus genotypes associated to the sylvatic cycle of transmission were detected in the dataset with the foreseen presence of mitochondrial haplotypes and allelic multilocus genotypes associated to the domestic cycle of transmission. Conclusions These findings suggest the incrimination of sylvatic genotypes in the oral outbreaks occurred in Colombia. We observed patterns of super-infection and/or co-infection with a tailored association with the severe forms of myocarditis in the acute phase of the disease. The transmission dynamics of this infection route based on molecular epidemiology evidence was unraveled and the clinical and biological implications are discussed. PMID:23437405

Ramírez, Juan David; Montilla, Marleny; Cucunubá, Zulma M.; Floréz, Astrid Carolina; Zambrano, Pilar; Guhl, Felipe

2013-01-01

58

Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp.  

PubMed

The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change. PMID:20409453

Walker, Peter J; Winton, James R

2010-01-01

59

Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp  

PubMed Central

The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change. PMID:20409453

Walker, Peter J.; Winton, James R.

2010-01-01

60

Ebola virus disease outbreak - Nigeria, July-September 2014.  

PubMed

On July 20, 2014, an acutely ill traveler from Liberia arrived at the international airport in Lagos, Nigeria, and was confirmed to have Ebola virus disease (Ebola) after being admitted to a private hospital. This index patient potentially exposed 72 persons at the airport and the hospital. The Federal Ministry of Health, with guidance from the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC), declared an Ebola emergency. Lagos, (pop. 21 million) is a regional hub for economic, industrial, and travel activities and a setting where communicable diseases can be easily spread and transmission sustained. Therefore, implementing a rapid response using all available public health assets was the highest priority. On July 23, the Federal Ministry of Health, with the Lagos State government and international partners, activated an Ebola Incident Management Center as a precursor to the current Emergency Operations Center (EOC) to rapidly respond to this outbreak. The index patient died on July 25; as of September 24, there were 19 laboratory-confirmed Ebola cases and one probable case in two states, with 894 contacts identified and followed during the response. Eleven patients with laboratory-confirmed Ebola had been discharged, an additional patient was diagnosed at convalescent stage, and eight patients had died (seven with confirmed Ebola; one probable). The isolation wards were empty, and 891 (all but three) contacts had exited follow-up, with the remainder due to exit on October 2. No new cases had occurred since August 31, suggesting that the Ebola outbreak in Nigeria might be contained. The EOC, established quickly and using an Incident Management System (IMS) to coordinate the response and consolidate decision making, is largely credited with helping contain the Nigeria outbreak early. National public health emergency preparedness agencies in the region, including those involved in Ebola responses, should consider including the development of an EOC to improve the ability to rapidly respond to urgent public health threats. PMID:25275332

Shuaib, Faisal; Gunnala, Rajni; Musa, Emmanuel O; Mahoney, Frank J; Oguntimehin, Olukayode; Nguku, Patrick M; Nyanti, Sara Beysolow; Knight, Nancy; Gwarzo, Nasir Sani; Idigbe, Oni; Nasidi, Abdulsalam; Vertefeuille, John F

2014-10-01

61

Ebola virus disease outbreak - West Africa, September 2014.  

PubMed

CDC is assisting ministries of health and working with other organizations to control and end the ongoing outbreak of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in West Africa. The updated data in this report were compiled from ministry of health situation reports and World Health Organization (WHO) sources. Total case counts include all suspected, probable, and confirmed cases as defined by each country. These data reflect reported cases, which make up an unknown proportion of all actual cases. The data also reflect reporting delays that might vary from country to country. PMID:25275331

2014-10-01

62

Update: Ebola virus disease outbreak--West Africa, October 2014.  

PubMed

CDC is assisting ministries of health and working with other organizations to control and end the ongoing outbreak of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in West Africa. The updated data in this report were compiled from situation reports from the Guinea Interministerial Committee for Response Against the Ebola Virus and the World Health Organization, the Liberia Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, and the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation. Total case counts include all suspected, probable, and confirmed cases as defined by each country. These data reflect reported cases, which make up an unknown proportion of all actual cases and reporting delays that vary from country to country. PMID:25356606

2014-10-31

63

Emerging diseases. Malaysian researchers trace Nipah virus outbreak to bats.  

PubMed

Scientists are a step closer to unraveling a medical mystery that killed 105 people in Malaysia last year and destroyed the country's pig industry. The Nipah virus, which caused the disease, most likely originated in a native fruit bat species, Malaysian researchers reported here at a meeting last week. They say the findings will help Malaysian health authorities prevent future outbreaks of the Nipah virus. Others see the case as an argument for expanding research into infections that can leap the boundary between animals and humans. PMID:10939954

Enserink, M

2000-07-28

64

Outbreak of Kyasanur Forest disease in Thirthahalli, Karnataka, India, 2014.  

PubMed

Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV) was first identified in 1957, when it was isolated from a sick monkey from the Kyasanur Forest in Karnataka State, India. Since then it has been reported to be enzootic in five districts of Karnataka State, India. Recent reports of human infections have reached an alarming level, in spite of the availability of a vaccine. This disease has also been reported from new areas, such as Tamil Nadu and Kerala State. During January-March 2014, KFDV-positive cases were detected in Thirthahalli taluk, Shimoga District, Karnataka State, India. Here, we report an outbreak of Kyasanur Forest disease occurring in the Kannangi and Konandur area, Thirthahalli taluk in Karnataka State, India, with sporadic cases from eight other areas. PMID:25063021

Yadav, Pragya D; Shete, Anita M; Patil, Deepak Y; Sandhya, V K; Prakash, K S; Surgihalli, Rajesh; Mourya, Devendra T

2014-09-01

65

Multiple circulating infections can mimic the early stages of viral hemorrhagic fevers and possible human exposure to filoviruses in sierra leone prior to the 2014 outbreak.  

PubMed

Abstract Lassa fever (LF) is a severe viral hemorrhagic fever caused by Lassa virus (LASV). The LF program at the Kenema Government Hospital (KGH) in Eastern Sierra Leone currently provides diagnostic services and clinical care for more than 500 suspected LF cases per year. Nearly two-thirds of suspected LF patients presenting to the LF Ward test negative for either LASV antigen or anti-LASV immunoglobulin M (IgM), and therefore are considered to have a non-Lassa febrile illness (NLFI). The NLFI patients in this study were generally severely ill, which accounts for their high case fatality rate of 36%. The current studies were aimed at determining possible causes of severe febrile illnesses in non-LF cases presenting to the KGH, including possible involvement of filoviruses. A seroprevalence survey employing commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests revealed significant IgM and IgG reactivity against dengue virus, chikungunya virus, West Nile virus (WNV), Leptospira, and typhus. A polymerase chain reaction-based survey using sera from subjects with acute LF, evidence of prior LASV exposure, or NLFI revealed widespread infection with Plasmodium falciparum malaria in febrile patients. WNV RNA was detected in a subset of patients, and a 419 nt amplicon specific to filoviral L segment RNA was detected at low levels in a single patient. However, 22% of the patients presenting at the KGH between 2011 and 2014 who were included in this survey registered anti-Ebola virus (EBOV) IgG or IgM, suggesting prior exposure to this agent. The 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is already the deadliest and most widely dispersed outbreak of its kind on record. Serological evidence reported here for possible human exposure to filoviruses in Sierra Leone prior to the current EVD outbreak supports genetic analysis that EBOV may have been present in West Africa for some time prior to the 2014 outbreak. PMID:25531344

Boisen, Matthew L; Schieffelin, John S; Goba, Augustine; Oottamasathien, Darin; Jones, Abigail B; Shaffer, Jeffrey G; Hastie, Kathryn M; Hartnett, Jessica N; Momoh, Mambu; Fullah, Mohammed; Gabiki, Michael; Safa, Sidiki; Zandonatti, Michelle; Fusco, Marnie; Bornholdt, Zach; Abelson, Dafna; Gire, Stephen K; Andersen, Kristian G; Tariyal, Ridhi; Stremlau, Mathew; Cross, Robert W; Geisbert, Joan B; Pitts, Kelly R; Geisbert, Thomas W; Kulakoski, Peter; Wilson, Russell B; Henderson, Lee; Sabeti, Pardis C; Grant, Donald S; Garry, Robert F; Saphire, Erica O; Branco, Luis M; Khan, Sheik Humarr

2015-02-01

66

Emerging viral diseases: confronting threats with new technologies.  

PubMed

Emerging viral diseases pose ongoing health threats, particularly in an era of globalization; however, new biomedical research technologies such as genome sequencing and structure-based vaccine and drug design have improved our ability to respond to viral threats. PMID:25210060

Marston, Hilary D; Folkers, Gregory K; Morens, David M; Fauci, Anthony S

2014-09-10

67

Health Care–Acquired Viral Respiratory Diseases  

PubMed Central

Health care–associated viral respiratory infections, common among hospitalized children, also occur among adults and institutionalized persons and result in increased patient morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. Approximately 20% of patients with health care–associated pneumonia have viral respiratory infections, with 70% of these infections caused by adenovirus, influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).1 These infections typically reflect the level of viral activity within the community.1,2 This article focuses on the epidemiology, transmission, and control of health care–associated RSV and influenza virus. PMID:21316002

Goins, William P.; Talbot, H. Keipp; Talbot, Thomas R.

2014-01-01

68

A past Haff disease outbreak associated with eating freshwater pomfret in South China  

PubMed Central

Background Haff disease is unexplained rhabdomyolysis caused by consumption of fishery products in the previous 24 h. It was first identified in Europe in 1924 but the condition is extremely rare in China. Here we describe a past outbreak of acute food borne muscle poisoning that occurred in Guangdong Province (South China) in 2009. Methods The first full outbreak of Haff disease reported in Jiangsu Province (East China) in 2010, indicated that the incidence of the disease may be increasing in China. We, therefore first retrospectively reviewed epidemiologic, trace-back, environmental studies, and laboratory analyses, including oral toxicity testing to ascertain risk and chemical analysis to identify toxin(s), from the 2009 Guangdong outbreak. Then we compared data from the 2009 outbreak with data from all other Haff disease outbreaks that were available. Results Clinical symptoms and laboratory findings indicated that the 2009 Guangdong outbreak disease was consistent with rhabdomyolysis. Epidemiologic, trace-back, environmental studies and laboratory analyses implied that the disease was caused by freshwater Pomfrets consumed prior to the onset of symptoms. We also identified common factors between the 2009 Guangdong outbreak and previous Haff disease outbreaks reported around the world, while as with other similar outbreaks, the exact etiological factor(s) of the disease remains unknown. Conclusions The 2009 Guangdong outbreak of ‘muscle poisoning’ was retrospectively identified as an outbreak of Haff disease. This comprised the highest number of cases reported in China thus far. Food borne diseases emerging in this unusual form and the irregular pattern of outbreaks present an ongoing public health risk, highlighting the need for improved surveillance and diagnostic methodology. PMID:23642345

2013-01-01

69

Overcoming barriers in evaluating outbreaks of diarrheal disease in resource poor settings: assessment of recurrent outbreaks in Chobe District, Botswana  

PubMed Central

Background Diarrheal illness remains a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality, with the majority of deaths occurring in children <5 years of age. Lack of resources often prohibits the evaluation of outbreak characteristics and limits progress in managing this important disease syndrome, particularly in Africa. Relying only on existing medical staff and hospital resources, we assess the use of a questionnaire survey tool to identify baseline outbreak characteristics during recurrent diarrheal outbreaks in Chobe, Botswana. Methods Using historical surveillance data (2006–2009), the temporal pattern of recurrent diarrheal outbreaks was evaluated among patients <5 years of age presenting to health facilities in Chobe District. Using a questionnaire survey tool, medical staff from selected health facilities assessed patients (all ages) presenting with diarrheal disease during two diarrheal outbreaks (2011–2012). Cluster analysis and classification and regression trees (CART) were used to evaluate patient attributes by outbreak. Results We identified a bimodal, annual pattern of acute diarrhea in children <5 years of age across years (Wilcox test, W?=?456.5, p?=?0.052). Historical outbreak periods appeared to coincide with major hydrological phenomena (rainfall/flood recession). Across health facilities, a significant percent of patients in the prospective study were in the ?5 age class (44%, n?=?515 and 35%, n?=?333 in the dry and wet season outbreaks, respectively). Cluster analysis of questionnaire data identified two main branches associated with patient age (<5 and ?5 years of age). Patients did not cluster by outbreak or village. CART examination identified sex and hospitalization as being most predictive of patients <5 years and household diarrhea in patients ?5 years. Water shortages and water quality deficiencies were identified in both outbreaks. Conclusions Diarrhea is a persistent, seasonally occurring disease in Chobe District, Botswana. Lack of variation in outbreak variables suggests the possibility of environmental drivers influencing outbreak dynamics and the potential importance of human-environmental linkages in this region. Public health strategy should be directed at securing improved water service and correcting water quality deficiencies. Public health education should include increased emphasis on sanitation practices when providing care to household members with diarrhea. While global diarrheal disease surveillance is directed at the under-5 age group, this may not be appropriate in areas of high HIV prevalence such as that found in our study area where a large immune-compromised population may warrant increased surveillance across age groups. The approach used in this study provided the first detailed characterization of diarrheal disease outbreaks in the area, an important starting point for immediate intervention and development of working hypotheses for future disease investigations. While data derived from this approach are necessarily limited, they identify critical information on outbreak characteristics in resource poor settings where data gaps continue and disease incidence is high. PMID:23971427

2013-01-01

70

Occurrence and phylogenetic analysis of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in outbreaks of respiratory disease in Norway  

PubMed Central

Background Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is one of the major pathogens involved in the bovine respiratory disease (BRD) complex. The seroprevalence to BRSV in Norwegian cattle herds is high, but its role in epidemics of respiratory disease is unclear. The aims of the study were to investigate the etiological role of BRSV and other respiratory viruses in epidemics of BRD and to perform phylogenetic analysis of Norwegian BRSV strains. Results BRSV infection was detected either serologically and/or virologically in 18 (86%) of 21 outbreaks and in most cases as a single viral agent. When serology indicated that bovine coronavirus and/or bovine parainfluenza virus 3 were present, the number of BRSV positive animals in the herd was always higher, supporting the view of BRSV as the main pathogen. Sequencing of the G gene of BRSV positive samples showed that the current circulating Norwegian BRSVs belong to genetic subgroup II, along with other North European isolates. One isolate from an outbreak in Norway in 1976 was also investigated. This strain formed a separate branch in subgroup II, clearly different from the current Scandinavian sequences. The currently circulating BRSV could be divided into two different strains that were present in the same geographical area at the same time. The sequence variations between the two strains were in an antigenic important part of the G protein. Conclusion The results demonstrated that BRSV is the most important etiological agent of epidemics of BRD in Norway and that it often acts as the only viral agent. The phylogenetic analysis of the Norwegian strains of BRSV and several previously published isolates supported the theory of geographical and temporal clustering of BRSV. PMID:24423030

2014-01-01

71

Asymmetry in the presence of migration stabilizes multistrain disease outbreaks  

PubMed Central

We study the effect of migration between coupled populations, or patches, on the stability properties of multistrain disease dynamics. The epidemic model used in this work displays a Hopf bifurcation to oscillations in a single well mixed population. It is shown numerically that migration between two non-identical patches stabilizes the endemic steady state, delaying the onset of large amplitude outbreaks and reducing the total number of infections. This result is motivated by analyzing generic Hopf bifurcations with different frequencies and with diffusive coupling between them. Stabilization of the steady state is again seen, indicating that our observation in the full multistrain model is based on qualitative characteristics of the dynamics rather than on details of the disease model. PMID:20464521

Bianco, Simone; Shaw, Leah B.

2010-01-01

72

Challenges to Global Surveillance and Response to Infectious Disease Outbreaks of International Importance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a notional scheme of global surveillance and response to infectious disease outbreaks and reviews 14 in- ternational surveillance and response programs. In combination, the scheme and the programs illustrate how, in an ideal world and in the real world, infectious disease outbreaks of public health significance could be detected and contained. No- table practices and achievements of

Penny Hitchcock; Allison Chamberlain; Megan Van Wagoner; Thomas V. Inglesby; Tara O'Toole

2007-01-01

73

Thermal Stress and Coral Cover as Drivers of Coral Disease Outbreaks  

E-print Network

Thermal Stress and Coral Cover as Drivers of Coral Disease Outbreaks John F. Bruno1* , Elizabeth R of America, 3 National Oceanographic Data Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver. (2007) Thermal stress and coral cover as drivers of coral disease outbreaks. PLoS Biol 5(6): e124. doi

Harvell, Catherine Drew

74

Detecting Disease Outbreaks in Mass Gatherings Using Internet Data  

PubMed Central

Background Mass gatherings, such as music festivals and religious events, pose a health care challenge because of the risk of transmission of communicable diseases. This is exacerbated by the fact that participants disperse soon after the gathering, potentially spreading disease within their communities. The dispersion of participants also poses a challenge for traditional surveillance methods. The ubiquitous use of the Internet may enable the detection of disease outbreaks through analysis of data generated by users during events and shortly thereafter. Objective The intent of the study was to develop algorithms that can alert to possible outbreaks of communicable diseases from Internet data, specifically Twitter and search engine queries. Methods We extracted all Twitter postings and queries made to the Bing search engine by users who repeatedly mentioned one of nine major music festivals held in the United Kingdom and one religious event (the Hajj in Mecca) during 2012, for a period of 30 days and after each festival. We analyzed these data using three methods, two of which compared words associated with disease symptoms before and after the time of the festival, and one that compared the frequency of these words with those of other users in the United Kingdom in the days following the festivals. Results The data comprised, on average, 7.5 million tweets made by 12,163 users, and 32,143 queries made by 1756 users from each festival. Our methods indicated the statistically significant appearance of a disease symptom in two of the nine festivals. For example, cough was detected at higher than expected levels following the Wakestock festival. Statistically significant agreement (chi-square test, P<.01) between methods and across data sources was found where a statistically significant symptom was detected. Anecdotal evidence suggests that symptoms detected are indeed indicative of a disease that some users attributed to being at the festival. Conclusions Our work shows the feasibility of creating a public health surveillance system for mass gatherings based on Internet data. The use of multiple data sources and analysis methods was found to be advantageous for rejecting false positives. Further studies are required in order to validate our findings with data from public health authorities. PMID:24943128

Yom-Tov, Elad; Cox, Ingemar J; McKendry, Rachel A

2014-01-01

75

Association between temperature, humidity and ebolavirus disease outbreaks in Africa, 1976 to 2014.  

PubMed

Ebolavirus disease (EVD) outbreaks have been occurring sporadically in Central Africa since 1976. In 2014, the first outbreak in West Africa was reported in Guinea. Subsequent outbreaks then appeared in Liberia, Sierra Leone and Nigeria. The study of environmental factors underlying EVD epidemiology may provide useful insights into when and where EVD outbreaks are more likely to occur. In this paper, we aimed to investigate the association between climatic factors and onset of EVD outbreaks in humans. Our results suggest lower temperature and higher absolute humidity are associated with EVD outbreak onset in the previous EVD outbreaks in Africa during 1976 to 2014. Potential mechanisms through which climate may have an influence on ebolavirus infection in the natural host, intermediate hosts and humans are discussed. Current and future surveillance efforts should be supported to further understand ebolavirus transmission events between and within species. PMID:25210981

Ng, S; Cowling, B J

2014-01-01

76

[An outbreak of Legionnaire's disease associated with a Japanese spa].  

PubMed

From June 24 to July 5, 1996, 3 patients were admitted to the same hospital with atypical pneumonia. One of the patients, a 52-year-old man, demonstrated progressive pulmonary infiltrates and severe hypoxemia, and finally required mechanical ventilation. All 3 patients had elevated antibody titers for Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, and had visited the same spa prior to the onset of their symptoms. On September 25, 1996 the district health department inspected the spa, and isolated Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 from the facility's hot water tanks and outlets. Although it has been reported that many spas in Japan are contaminated with Legionellaceae, the outbreak we encountered suggests that Japanese spas, like whirlpool spas in Europe and North America, can be a source of Legionnaire's disease. PMID:10496097

Nakadate, T; Yamauchi, K; Inoue, H

1999-08-01

77

Surveillance for Waterborne Disease Outbreaks Associated with Drinking Water United States, 2007-2008  

EPA Science Inventory

Problem/Condition: Since 1971, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have maintained a collaborative Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOS...

78

Rapid diagnosis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever by reverse transcription-PCR in an outbreak setting and assessment of patient viral load as a predictor of outcome.  

PubMed

The largest outbreak on record of Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) occurred in Uganda from August 2000 to January 2001. The outbreak was centered in the Gulu district of northern Uganda, with secondary transmission to other districts. After the initial diagnosis of Sudan ebolavirus by the National Institute for Virology in Johannesburg, South Africa, a temporary diagnostic laboratory was established within the Gulu district at St. Mary's Lacor Hospital. The laboratory used antigen capture and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) to diagnose Sudan ebolavirus infection in suspect patients. The RT-PCR and antigen-capture diagnostic assays proved very effective for detecting ebolavirus in patient serum, plasma, and whole blood. In samples collected very early in the course of infection, the RT-PCR assay could detect ebolavirus 24 to 48 h prior to detection by antigen capture. More than 1,000 blood samples were collected, with multiple samples obtained from many patients throughout the course of infection. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR was used to determine the viral load in multiple samples from patients with fatal and nonfatal cases, and these data were correlated with the disease outcome. RNA copy levels in patients who died averaged 2 log(10) higher than those in patients who survived. Using clinical material from multiple EHF patients, we sequenced the variable region of the glycoprotein. This Sudan ebolavirus strain was not derived from either the earlier Boniface (1976) or Maleo (1979) strain, but it shares a common ancestor with both. Furthermore, both sequence and epidemiologic data are consistent with the outbreak having originated from a single introduction into the human population. PMID:15047846

Towner, Jonathan S; Rollin, Pierre E; Bausch, Daniel G; Sanchez, Anthony; Crary, Sharon M; Vincent, Martin; Lee, William F; Spiropoulou, Christina F; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Lukwiya, Mathew; Kaducu, Felix; Downing, Robert; Nichol, Stuart T

2004-04-01

79

Planning for smallpox outbreaks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mathematical models of viral transmission and control are important tools for assessing the threat posed by deliberate release of the smallpox virus and the best means of containing an outbreak. Models must balance biological realism against limitations of knowledge, and uncertainties need to be accurately communicated to policy-makers. Smallpox poses the particular challenge that key biological, social and spatial factors affecting disease spread in contemporary populations must be elucidated largely from historical studies undertaken before disease eradication in 1979. We review the use of models in smallpox planning within the broader epidemiological context set by recent outbreaks of both novel and re-emerging pathogens.

Ferguson, Neil M.; Keeling, Matt J.; John Edmunds, W.; Gani, Raymond; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Anderson, Roy M.; Leach, Steve

2003-10-01

80

Viral Surveillance during the 2006 Vesicular Stomatitis Outbreak in Natrona County, Wyoming  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 2006, we collected 12203 biting flies from a vesicular stomatitis outbreak in Natrona County, Wyoming. Flies were identified to the species level and viruses were isolated and identified by RT-PCR. We detected vesicular stomatitis virus-New Jersey serotype in two pools of Simulium bivittatum, W...

81

Case report: epithelial intracytoplasmic herpes viral inclusions associated with an outbreak of duck virus enteritis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Several muscovy ducks from a free-roaming flock of 65 muscovy and mallard ducks died over a 3-week period. Three muscovy ducks were necropsied. Gross and microscopic changes were compatible with duck virus enteritis, and the virus was isolated. In addition to intranuclear viral inclusion bodies in several tissues, intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were present in esophageal and cloacal epithelium, By electron microscopy, the membrane-bound intracytoplasmic inclusions were found to contain enveloped herpesvirus, and nuclei contained herpes viral nucleocapsids.

Barr, B.C.; Jessup, David A.; Docherty, Douglas E.; Lownestine, L.J.

1992-01-01

82

Phylogenetic analysis of strains of Orf virus isolated from two outbreaks of the disease in sheep in Greece  

PubMed Central

Background Although orf is endemic around the world, there are few descriptions of Orf virus strains and comparisons of these strains. We report the sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the partial B2L gene of Orf virus from two outbreaks of the disease in Greece. The first was an outbreak of genital form of the disease in a flock imported from France, whilst the second was an outbreak of the disease in the udder skin of ewes and around the mouth of lambs in an indigenous flock. Results Phylogenetic analysis was performed on a part (498 bp) of the B2L gene of 35 Parapoxvirus isolates, including the two Orf virus isolates recovered from each of the two outbreaks in the present study. This analysis revealed that the maximum nucleotide and amino-acid variation amongst Orf virus strains worldwide (n = 33) was 8.1% and 9.6%, respectively. The homology of the nucleotide and amino-acid sequences between the two Greek isolates was 99.0% and 98.8%, respectively. The two Greek isolates clustered only with Orf virus strains. Conclusions We suggest that there can be differences between strains based on their geographical origin. However, differences in the origin of strains or in the clinical presentation of the disease may not be associated with their pathogenicity. More work is required to determine if differing clinical presentations are linked to viral strain differences or if other factors, e.g., flock immunity, method of exposure or genetic susceptibility, are more important to determine the clinical presentation of the infection. PMID:22260526

2012-01-01

83

The response of the Eagle Owl ( Bubo bubo ) to an outbreak of the rabbit haemorrhagic disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) is a generalist predator that in Mediterranean areas feeds mainly on Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) At the end of 1997, a local outbreak of the rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) decimated Rabbit populations in the area of Alicante (eastern Spain) so that Rabbit numbers in 1998 crashed to almost nil. Prior to the outbreak we had

Jose Antonio Martínez; Ifiigo Zuberogoitia

2001-01-01

84

Impact of the 2001 Foot-and-Mouth Disease Outbreak in Britain: Implications for Rural Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper assesses the impact of the 2001 foot-and-mouth disease outbreak in terms of its implications for the discipline of rural studies. In particular, it focuses on the position of agriculture in rural economy and society, the standing of the government after its management of the outbreak, and the performance of the new devolved regional…

Scott, Alister; Christie, Michael; Midmore, Peter

2004-01-01

85

Outbreak of Legionnaires' disease among cruise ship passengers exposed to a contaminated whirlpool spa  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryBackground Outbreaks of travel-related Legionnaires' disease present a public-health challenge since rapid, sensitive, and specific diagnostic tests are not widely used and because detection of clusters of disease among travellers is difficult. We report an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease among cruise ship passengers that occurred in April, 1994, but that went unrecognised until July, 1994.Methods After rapid diagnosis of Legionnaires'

D. B Jernigan; J Hofmann; M. S Cetron; J. P Nuorti; B. S Fields; R. F Benson; R. F Breiman; H. B Lipman; R. J Carter; C. A Genese; S. M Paul; P. H Edelstein; I. C Guerrero

1996-01-01

86

Factors to consider when using vaccine to control an exotic disease outbreak.  

PubMed

Recent global events have dramatically increased the attention given to veterinary medical regulatory authorities' responsibility of protecting their country's agricultural interests from the threat of exotic disease outbreaks. A vaccine can be a valuable tool to help curb the spread of an exotic disease epidemic and/or lessen its economic impact. However, the decision on whether or not to use a vaccine during an outbreak may be complex and have far-reaching impacts. The decision must be approached in a logical and orderly fashion, taking into account the scientific, economic, political, and practical considerations that are unique to each individual disease outbreak. A decision-making process for the use of a vaccine developed for foot-and-mouth disease and its potential application to help decide on the use of vaccines in other exotic disease outbreaks is discussed. PMID:14677698

DeHaven, W R

2003-01-01

87

Fungi associated with drug recalls and rare disease outbreaks.  

PubMed

Fungi rarely cause disease outbreaks associated with use of microbe-contaminated drugs. These rare episodes typically involve a restricted spectrum of common environmental species with relatively low virulence, rather than classical pathogens. Review of data involving over-the-counter contact lens solutions and prescription drug-related recalls revealed six episodes during the past decade with significant adverse health and financial impact (including loss of vision and death). Contaminations involved fungi mostly identified with the genera Aspergillus, Exserohilum, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, and Rhizopus. These organisms are noted for their capacity to produce resistant morphotypes (chlamydoconidia, ascospores) under various adverse conditions, generally with temperature survival/tolerances markedly in excess of maximal growth temperatures. High constituent levels of melanin, trehalose and heat-shock proteins facilitate differential survival of morphotypes following exposures to toxic chemicals and temperatures above 80 °C. Adverse environmental factors that induce resistant morphotypes are suggested to occur more readily in situ than during in vitro testing. Rare unexplained, sporadic drug contamination episodes with select thermotolerant fungi may relate, in part, to resistant dormant stages. PMID:25173741

Ahearn, Donald G; Doyle Stulting, R

2014-11-01

88

Viral Diseases in Zebrafish: What Is Known and Unknown  

PubMed Central

Naturally occurring viral infections have the potential to introduce confounding variability that leads to invalid and misinterpreted data. Whereas the viral diseases of research rodents are well characterized and closely monitored, no naturally occurring viral infections have been characterized for the laboratory zebrafish (Danio rerio), an increasingly important biomedical research model. Despite the ignorance about naturally occurring zebrafish viruses, zebrafish models are rapidly expanding in areas of biomedical research where the confounding effects of unknown infectious agents present a serious concern. In addition, many zebrafish research colonies remain linked to the ornamental (pet) zebrafish trade, which can contribute to the introduction of new pathogens into research colonies, whereas mice used for research are purpose bred, with no introduction of new mice from the pet industry. Identification, characterization, and monitoring of naturally occurring viruses in zebrafish are crucial to the improvement of zebrafish health, the reduction of unwanted variability, and the continued development of the zebrafish as a model organism. This article addresses the importance of identifying and characterizing the viral diseases of zebrafish as the scope of zebrafish models expands into new research areas and also briefly addresses zebrafish susceptibility to experimental viral infection and the utility of the zebrafish as an infection and immunology model. PMID:23382345

Crim, Marcus J.; Riley, Lela K.

2013-01-01

89

Are staff management practices and inspection risk ratings associated with foodborne disease outbreaks in the catering industry in England and Wales?  

PubMed

Despite structured enforcement of food hygiene requirements known to prevent foodborne disease outbreaks, catering businesses continue to be the most common setting for outbreaks in the United Kingdom. In a matched case control study of catering businesses, 148 businesses associated with outbreaks were compared with 148 control businesses. Hazard analysis critical control point systems and/or formal food hygiene training qualifications were not protective. Food hygiene inspection scores were not useful in predicting which catering businesses were associated with outbreaks. Businesses associated with outbreaks were more likely to be larger small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) or to serve Chinese cuisine and less likely to have the owner or manager working in the kitchen, but when size of the SME was taken into account these two differences were no longer significant. In larger businesses, case businesses were more likely to be hotels and were more commonly associated with viral foodborne outbreaks, but there was no explanation within the data for this association. PMID:18389699

Jones, Sarah L; Parry, Sharon M; O'Brien, Sarah J; Palmer, Stephen R

2008-03-01

90

History and prospects for viral disease eradication.  

PubMed

Edward Jenner first articulated the concept of eradication when he first inoculated the vaccinia. Before considering a disease for eradication some factors should be considered, such as the biological characteristics of the infectious agent: does the infectious agent infects only humans? Does it have a non-human reservoir and induce long-life immunity after infection? Is there a tool or intervention that effectively interrupts the chain of transmission from one individual to another? The first disease to be eradicated was smallpox. This extraordinary initiative set the example for any future disease eradication program. The eradication of polio from the Americas was launched in May 1985 and the Region of the Americas was certified polio-free in September 1994. At this same year, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) launched an initiative to eradicate measles from the Americas. Only 1,500 cases have been reported during the year 2000, and transmission was interrupted in most countries of the Region. Tremendous progress has been achieved in disease eradication efforts, which resulted in the global eradication of smallpox, the eradication of poliomyelitis from the Americas and its nearly global eradication, and the nearly complete eradication of measles from the Americas. The biotechnology revolution is providing us with many new vaccines and we have to continue the search for those diseases that could eventually be eradicated. Eradication of a disease brings the greatest health benefit, which is the absence of the health threat. It is also the quintessential example of health equity, as all mankind reaps the benefits, bringing eternal cost savings. As Louis Pasteur pointed out, "it is within the power of man to eradicate infection from the earth". PMID:12410345

de Quadros, Ciro A

2002-10-01

91

War diseases revealed by the social media: massive leishmaniasis outbreak in the Syrian Spring.  

PubMed

Social media introduce pivotal changes to communication between individuals, organizations and communities. A clear example of the power of social media is the spread of the revolutionary outbreaks in the Arabic countries during 2011, where people used Facebook, YouTube and Skype to communicate, organise meetings and protest actions. Here I report how Doctor-Activists use these social media as an alarm system for 'war disease' outbreaks in the Syrian Spring. Social media are used as an alarm system to attract the attention of international organizations, which should assume their responsibilities and play their part in controlling the outbreak of such war diseases. PMID:23587258

Alasaad, Samer

2013-01-01

92

Asthma: The Interplay Between Viral Infections and Allergic Diseases.  

PubMed

Respiratory viruses and allergens synergistically contribute to disease pathogenesis in asthma. Potential mechanisms underlying this clinically relevant association are the subject of intense investigation. This review summarizes current knowledge and recent advances in this area, with an emphasis on potential mechanisms involving immunoglobulin E, type I interferon antiviral responses, epithelial factors, and the role of dendritic cells and other antigen-presenting cells in linking viral and allergic inflammatory responses relevant to asthmatic disease. PMID:25459580

Rowe, Regina K; Gill, Michelle A

2015-02-01

93

VIRAL DISEASES OF INVERTEBRATES OTHER THAN INSECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Thirteen examples of virus or viruslike related pathoses in non-insect invertebrates are described. From consideration of these examples, it becomes obvious that detailed descriptions of pathogenesis of virus diseases in non-insect invertebrates has not kept pace with the frequen...

94

The Association Between Extreme Precipitation and Waterborne Disease Outbreaks in the United States, 1948–1994  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Rainfall and runoff have been implicated in site-specific waterborne disease outbreaks. Because upward trends in heavy precipitation in the United States are projected to increase with climate change, this study sought to quantify the relationship between precipitation and disease outbreaks. Methods. The US Environmental Protection Agency waterborne disease database, totaling 548 reported outbreaks from 1948 through 1994, and precipitation data of the National Climatic Data Center were used to analyze the relationship between precipitation and waterborne diseases. Analyses were at the watershed level, stratified by groundwater and surface water contamination and controlled for effects due to season and hydrologic region. A Monte Carlo version of the Fisher exact test was used to test for statistical significance. Results. Fifty-one percent of waterborne disease outbreaks were preceded by precipitation events above the 90th percentile (P = .002), and 68% by events above the 80th percentile (P = .001). Outbreaks due to surface water contamination showed the strongest association with extreme precipitation during the month of the outbreak; a 2-month lag applied to groundwater contamination events. Conclusions. The statistically significant association found between rainfall and disease in the United States is important for water managers, public health officials, and risk assessors of future climate change. PMID:11499103

Curriero, Frank C.; Patz, Jonathan A.; Rose, Joan B.; Lele, Subhash

2001-01-01

95

VIRAL ANTIBODIES IN AGRICULTURAL POPULATIONS EXPOSED TO AEROSOLS FROM WASTEWATER IRRIGATION DURING A VIRAL DISEASE OUTBREAK  

EPA Science Inventory

The presence of antibodies to eight enteroviruses (ecovirus types 4, 7, and 9, coxsackievirus types A9, B1, B3, B4 and hepatitis A virus (HAY)) and Varicella-zoster virus was determined during a two-year period, 1980/1981 in paired blood samples of 777 persons in selected agricul...

96

Large outbreak of Legionnaires' disease and Pontiac fever at a military base.  

PubMed

We investigated a mixed outbreak of Legionnaires' disease (LD) and Pontiac fever (PF) at a military base to identify the outbreak's environmental source as well as known legionellosis risk factors. Base workers with possible legionellosis were interviewed and, if consenting, underwent testing for legionellosis. A retrospective cohort study collected information on occupants of the buildings closest to the outbreak source. We identified 29 confirmed and probable LD and 38 PF cases. All cases were exposed to airborne pathogens from a cooling tower. Occupants of the building closest to the cooling tower were 6·9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2·2-22·0] and 5·5 (95% CI 2·1-14·5) times more likely to develop LD and PF, respectively, than occupants of the next closest building. Thorough preventive measures and aggressive responses to outbreaks, including searching for PF cases in mixed legionellosis outbreaks, are essential for legionellosis control. PMID:25267405

Ambrose, J; Hampton, L M; Fleming-Dutra, K E; Marten, C; McClusky, C; Perry, C; Clemmons, N A; McCormic, Z; Peik, S; Mancuso, J; Brown, E; Kozak, N; Travis, T; Lucas, C; Fields, B; Hicks, L; Cersovsky, S B

2014-11-01

97

Utility of clinical-epidemiological profiles in outbreaks of foodborne disease, Catalonia, 2002 through 2006.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of clinical-epidemiological profiles for classifying non-laboratory-confirmed outbreaks of foodborne disease (FBD) in Catalonia between 2002 and 2006 and for elucidating associations among factors contributing to these outbreaks. A total of 275 nonfamily outbreaks were studied, of which 190 (69.1%) were laboratory confirmed and 85 (30.9%) were not. In 176 (92.6%) of laboratory-confirmed outbreaks and 69 (81.2%) of non-laboratory-confirmed outbreaks, information was obtained on contributing factors (P = 0.009). In 72% of non-laboratory-confirmed outbreaks, the etiology was assigned by using clinical-epidemiological profiles; thus, 93% of outbreaks eventually were associated with an etiology. In laboratory-confirmed outbreaks, poor personal hygiene was positively associated with norovirus (odds ratio [OR], 2.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.47 to 4.89; P = 0.0007) and negatively associated with Salmonella and Campylobacter (OR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.33 to 0.89; P = 0.01), and an unsafe source was positively associated with Salmonella and Campylobacter (OR, 4.07; 95% CI, 1.72 to 10.09; P = 0.001) and negatively associated with norovirus (OR, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.04 to 0.58; P = 0.001). No differences were found among contributing factors associated with outbreaks with a laboratory-confirmed etiology and those associated with outbreaks with an etiology assigned according to the clinical-epidemiological profiles. Clinical-epidemiological profiles are useful for determining what prevention and control strategies are appropriate to the agents involved in each community and for designing outbreak investigations. PMID:20051215

Domínguez, A; Broner, S; Torner, N; Martínez, A; Jansà, J M; Alvarez, J; Barrabeig, I; Caylà, J; Godoy, P; Minguell, S; Camps, N; Sala, M R

2010-01-01

98

Biochemical laboratory tests in viral hepatitis and other hepatic diseases  

PubMed Central

The differential diagnosis between viral hepatitis and other liver diseases (particularly obstructive jaundice) is often difficult on purely clinical grounds. Damage to the liver causes changes in the pattern of the serum enzymes and this has led to the development in recent years of a number of enzyme tests. The authors have amassed evidence to show that the most useful of these is determination of the levels of serum glutamic oxalacetic and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGOT and SGPT), coupled with calculation of the SGOT/SGPT ratio. It is characteristic of viral hepatitis that both levels are greatly increased, but the SGOT/SGPT ratio, normally greater than one, falls considerably below his figure. In a few cases of obstructive jaundice, the serum transaminase picture may initially resemble that in viral hepatitis, but the differential diagnosis can be established by repeating the determinations at intervals. Other enzyme tests, such as determination of alkaline phosphatase and leucylaminopeptidase, may be used to confirm the biliary obstruction. Flocculation tests and electrophoretic determination of the plasma protein picture, while of limited value in the diagnosis of acute viral hepatitis, are useful in conjunction with the serum transaminase test for assessing the activity of the disease and any tendency to progress towards “active” chronic hepatitis or post-hepatic cirrhosis. PMID:14292063

De Ritis, Fernando; Giusti, Giuseppe; Piccinino, Felice; Cacciatore, Luigi

1965-01-01

99

Kyasanur Forest Disease Outbreak and Vaccination Strategy, Shimoga District, India, 2013–2014  

PubMed Central

We investigated a Kyasanur Forest disease outbreak in Karnataka, India during December 2013–April 2014. Surveillance and retrospective study indicated low vaccine coverage, low vaccine effectiveness, and spread of disease to areas beyond those selected for vaccination and to age groups not targeted for vaccination. To control disease, vaccination strategies need to be reviewed. PMID:25531141

Kiran, S.K.; Pasi, Achhelal; Kumar, Satish; Kasabi, Gudadappa S.; Gujjarappa, Prabhakara; Shrivastava, Aakash; Mehendale, Sanjay; Chauhan, L.S.; Laserson, Kayla F.

2015-01-01

100

Factors influencing psychological distress during a disease epidemic: Data from Australia's first outbreak of equine influenza  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In 2007 Australia experienced its first outbreak of highly infectious equine influenza. Government disease control measures were put in place to control, contain, and eradicate the disease; these measures included movement restrictions and quarantining of properties. This study was conducted to assess the psycho-social impacts of this disease, and this paper reports the prevalence of, and factors influencing, psychological

Melanie R Taylor; Kingsley E Agho; Garry J Stevens; Beverley Raphael

2008-01-01

101

Genome Sequence of Coxsackievirus A6, Isolated during a Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease Outbreak in Finland in 2008  

PubMed Central

Reports of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) outbreaks caused by coxsackievirus A6 have increased worldwide after the report of the first outbreak in Finland in 2008. The complete genome of the first outbreak strain from a vesicle fluid specimen was determined. PMID:25323709

Koskinen, Satu; Merilahti, Pirjo; Pursiheimo, Juha-Pekka; Blomqvist, Soile; Roivainen, Merja; Laiho, Asta; Susi, Petri; Waris, Matti

2014-01-01

102

Outbreaks of Disease Suspected of Being Due to Human Monkeypox Virus Infection in the Democratic Republic of Congo in 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven outbreaks of disease characterized by a pustular rash and suspected to have been caused by human monkeypox virus were investigated. The outbreaks occurred between February and August 2001 in the province of Equateur in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The outbreaks involved a total of 31 persons and caused five deaths. Specimens from 14 patients were available and were

Hermann Meyer; Mathilde Perrichot; Markus Stemmler; Petra Emmerich; Herbert Schmitz; Francis Varaine; Robert Shungu; Florimond Tshioko; Pierre Formenty

2002-01-01

103

Infectious Diseases and Their Outbreaks in Asia-Pacific: Biodiversity and Its Regulation Loss Matter  

PubMed Central

Despite increasing control measures, numerous parasitic and infectious diseases are emerging, re-emerging or causing recurrent outbreaks particularly in Asia and the Pacific region, a hot spot of both infectious disease emergence and biodiversity at risk. We investigate how biodiversity affects the distribution of infectious diseases and their outbreaks in this region, taking into account socio-economics (population size, GDP, public health expenditure), geography (latitude and nation size), climate (precipitation, temperature) and biodiversity (bird and mammal species richness, forest cover, mammal and bird species at threat). We show, among countries, that the overall richness of infectious diseases is positively correlated with the richness of birds and mammals, but the number of zoonotic disease outbreaks is positively correlated with the number of threatened mammal and bird species and the number of vector-borne disease outbreaks is negatively correlated with forest cover. These results suggest that, among countries, biodiversity is a source of pathogens, but also that the loss of biodiversity or its regulation, as measured by forest cover or threatened species, seems to be associated with an increase in zoonotic and vector-borne disease outbreaks. PMID:24587201

Morand, Serge; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Abdullah, Mohd Tajuddin; Huan, Tan Boon

2014-01-01

104

Infectious diseases and their outbreaks in Asia-Pacific: biodiversity and its regulation loss matter.  

PubMed

Despite increasing control measures, numerous parasitic and infectious diseases are emerging, re-emerging or causing recurrent outbreaks particularly in Asia and the Pacific region, a hot spot of both infectious disease emergence and biodiversity at risk. We investigate how biodiversity affects the distribution of infectious diseases and their outbreaks in this region, taking into account socio-economics (population size, GDP, public health expenditure), geography (latitude and nation size), climate (precipitation, temperature) and biodiversity (bird and mammal species richness, forest cover, mammal and bird species at threat). We show, among countries, that the overall richness of infectious diseases is positively correlated with the richness of birds and mammals, but the number of zoonotic disease outbreaks is positively correlated with the number of threatened mammal and bird species and the number of vector-borne disease outbreaks is negatively correlated with forest cover. These results suggest that, among countries, biodiversity is a source of pathogens, but also that the loss of biodiversity or its regulation, as measured by forest cover or threatened species, seems to be associated with an increase in zoonotic and vector-borne disease outbreaks. PMID:24587201

Morand, Serge; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Abdullah, Mohd Tajuddin; Huan, Tan Boon

2014-01-01

105

A Simulation Model of Waterborne Gastro-Intestinal Disease Outbreaks: Description and Initial Evaluation  

PubMed Central

We present an agent-based simulation model for generating realistic multivariable outbreak signals. The model defines a synthetic population and simulates the dissemination of pathogenic organisms through a municipal water distribution system, the mobility of individuals between geographic locations, their exposure to pathogens through water consumption, and disease progression in infected individuals. We present the results of an initial evaluation of the model – a simulation study replicating the historical outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Milwaukee in 1993. PMID:21347040

Okhmatovskaia, Anya; Verma, Aman D.; Barbeau, Benoit; Carriere, Annie; Pasquet, Romain; Buckeridge, David L.

2010-01-01

106

Gastrointestinal Disease Outbreak Detection Using Multiple Data Streams from Electronic Medical Records  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background: Passive reporting and laboratory testing delays may limit gastrointestinal (GI) disease outbreak detection. Healthcare systems routinely collect clinical data in electronic medical records (EMRs) that could be used for surveillance. This study's primary objective was to identify data streams from EMRs that may perform well for GI outbreak detection. Methods: Zip code-specific daily episode counts in 2009 were generated for 22 syndromic and laboratory-based data streams from Kaiser Permanente Northern California EMRs, covering 3.3 million members. Data streams included outpatient and inpatient diagnosis codes, antidiarrheal medication dispensings, stool culture orders, and positive microbiology tests for six GI pathogens. Prospective daily surveillance was mimicked using the space-time permutation scan statistic in single and multi-stream analyses, and space-time clusters were identified. Serotype relatedness was assessed for isolates in two Salmonella clusters. Results: Potential outbreaks included a cluster of 18 stool cultures ordered over 5 days in one zip code and a Salmonella cluster in three zip codes over 9 days, in which at least five of six cases had the same rare serotype. In all, 28 potential outbreaks were identified using single stream analyses, with signals in outpatient diagnosis codes most common. Multi-stream analyses identified additional potential outbreaks and in one example, improved the timeliness of detection. Conclusions: GI disease-related data streams can be used to identify potential outbreaks when generated from EMRs with extensive regional coverage. This process can supplement traditional GI outbreak reports to health departments, which frequently consist of outbreaks in well-defined settings (e.g., day care centers and restaurants) with no laboratory-confirmed pathogen. Data streams most promising for surveillance included microbiology test results, stool culture orders, and outpatient diagnoses. In particular, clusters of microbiology tests positive for specific pathogens could be identified in EMRs and used to prioritize further testing at state health departments, potentially improving outbreak detection. PMID:22429155

Huang, Jie; Abrams, Allyson M.; Gilliss, Debra; Reed, Mary; Platt, Richard; Huang, Susan S.; Kulldorff, Martin

2012-01-01

107

Detection of Severe Respiratory Disease Epidemic Outbreaks by CUSUM-Based Overcrowd-Severe-Respiratory-Disease-Index Model  

PubMed Central

A severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreak correlates with a high demand of specific supplies and specialized personnel to hold it back in a wide region or set of regions; these supplies would be beds, storage areas, hemodynamic monitors, and mechanical ventilators, as well as physicians, respiratory technicians, and specialized nurses. We describe an online cumulative sum based model named Overcrowd-Severe-Respiratory-Disease-Index based on the Modified Overcrowd Index that simultaneously monitors and informs the demand of those supplies and personnel in a healthcare network generating early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks through the interpretation of such variables. A post hoc historical archive is generated, helping physicians in charge to improve the transit and future allocation of supplies in the entire hospital network during the outbreak. The model was thoroughly verified in a virtual scenario, generating multiple epidemic outbreaks in a 6-year span for a 13-hospital network. When it was superimposed over the H1N1 influenza outbreak census (2008–2010) taken by the National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubiran in Mexico City, it showed that it is an effective algorithm to notify early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks with a minimal rate of false alerts. PMID:24069063

Castañón-González, Jorge Alberto; Macías, Alejandro E.; Samaniego, José Lino; Buhse, Thomas; Villanueva-Martínez, Sebastián

2013-01-01

108

Effects of plant species richness on invasion dynamics, disease outbreaks, insect abundances and  

E-print Network

Effects of plant species richness on invasion dynamics, disease outbreaks, insect abundances vulnerability to invasions by plant species, enhance the spread of plant fungal diseases, and alter the richness studies have shown that biodiversity loss of basal species, such as autotrophs or plants, affects

Crews, Stephen

109

Historical Compilation and Georeferencing of Dengue and Chikungunya outbreak data for Disease Modeling  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The risk of vector-borne disease spread is increasing due to significant changes and variability in the global climate and increasing global travel and trade. Understanding the relationships between climate variability and disease outbreak patterns are critical to the design and construction of pred...

110

Estimating challenge load due to disease outbreaks and other challenges using reproduction records of sows.  

PubMed

A method was developed and tested to estimate challenge load due to disease outbreaks and other challenges in sows using reproduction records. The method was based on reproduction records from a farm with known disease outbreaks. It was assumed that the reduction in weekly reproductive output within a farm is proportional to the magnitude of the challenge. As the challenge increases beyond certain threshold, it is manifested as an outbreak. The reproduction records were divided into 3 datasets. The first dataset called the Training dataset consisted of 57,135 reproduction records from 10,901 sows from 1 farm in Canada with several outbreaks of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). The known disease status of sows was regressed on the traits number born alive, number of losses as a combination of still birth and mummified piglets, and number of weaned piglets. The regression coefficients from this analysis were then used as weighting factors for derivation of an index measure called challenge load indicator. These weighting factors were derived with i) a two-step approach using residuals or year-week solutions estimated from a previous step, and ii) a single-step approach using the trait values directly. Two types of models were used for each approach: a logistic regression model and a general additive model. The estimates of challenge load indicator were then compared based on their ability to detect PRRS outbreaks in a Test dataset consisting of records from 65,826 sows from 15 farms in the Netherlands. These farms differed from the Canadian farm with respect to PRRS virus strains, severity and frequency of outbreaks. The single-step approach using a general additive model was best and detected 14 out of the 15 outbreaks. This approach was then further validated using the third dataset consisting of reproduction records of 831,855 sows in 431 farms located in different countries in Europe and America. A total of 41 out of 48 outbreaks detected using data analysis were confirmed based on diagnostic information received from the farms. Among these, 30 outbreaks were due to PRRS while 11 were due to other diseases and challenging conditions. The results suggest that proposed method could be useful for estimation of challenge load and detection of challenge phases such as disease outbreaks. PMID:25367523

Mathur, P K; Herrero-Medrano, J M; Alexandri, P; Knol, E F; ten Napel, J; Rashidi, H; Mulder, H A

2014-12-01

111

Clinical presentation resembling mucosal disease associated with 'HoBi'-like Pestivirus in a field outbreak  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae consists of four recognized species: Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2), Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) And Border disease virus (BDV). Recently, atypical pestiviruses (‘HoBi’-like pestiviruses) were iden...

112

The AFHSC-Division of GEIS Operations Predictive Surveillance Program: a multidisciplinary approach for the early detection and response to disease outbreaks.  

PubMed

The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System Operations (AFHSC-GEIS) initiated a coordinated, multidisciplinary program to link data sets and information derived from eco-climatic remote sensing activities, ecologic niche modeling, arthropod vector, animal disease-host/reservoir, and human disease surveillance for febrile illnesses, into a predictive surveillance program that generates advisories and alerts on emerging infectious disease outbreaks. The program's ultimate goal is pro-active public health practice through pre-event preparedness, prevention and control, and response decision-making and prioritization. This multidisciplinary program is rooted in over 10 years experience in predictive surveillance for Rift Valley fever outbreaks in Eastern Africa. The AFHSC-GEIS Rift Valley fever project is based on the identification and use of disease-emergence critical detection points as reliable signals for increased outbreak risk. The AFHSC-GEIS predictive surveillance program has formalized the Rift Valley fever project into a structured template for extending predictive surveillance capability to other Department of Defense (DoD)-priority vector- and water-borne, and zoonotic diseases and geographic areas. These include leishmaniasis, malaria, and Crimea-Congo and other viral hemorrhagic fevers in Central Asia and Africa, dengue fever in Asia and the Americas, Japanese encephalitis (JE) and chikungunya fever in Asia, and rickettsial and other tick-borne infections in the U.S., Africa and Asia. PMID:21388561

Witt, Clara J; Richards, Allen L; Masuoka, Penny M; Foley, Desmond H; Buczak, Anna L; Musila, Lillian A; Richardson, Jason H; Colacicco-Mayhugh, Michelle G; Rueda, Leopoldo M; Klein, Terry A; Anyamba, Assaf; Small, Jennifer; Pavlin, Julie A; Fukuda, Mark M; Gaydos, Joel; Russell, Kevin L; Wilkerson, Richard C; Gibbons, Robert V; Jarman, Richard G; Myint, Khin S; Pendergast, Brian; Lewis, Sheri; Pinzon, Jorge E; Collins, Kathrine; Smith, Matthew; Pak, Edwin; Tucker, Compton; Linthicum, Kenneth; Myers, Todd; Mansour, Moustafa; Earhart, Ken; Kim, Heung Chul; Jiang, Ju; Schnabel, Dave; Clark, Jeffrey W; Sang, Rosemary C; Kioko, Elizabeth; Abuom, David C; Grieco, John P; Richards, Erin E; Tobias, Steven; Kasper, Matthew R; Montgomery, Joel M; Florin, Dave; Chretien, Jean-Paul; Philip, Trudy L

2011-01-01

113

Simulation study of the mechanisms underlying outbreaks of clinical disease caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in finishing pigs.  

PubMed

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a major cause of respiratory disease in pigs. Many farms are endemically infected without apparent disease, but occasionally severe outbreaks of pleuropneumonia occur. To prevent and control these outbreaks without antibiotics, the underlying mechanisms of these outbreaks need to be understood. Outbreaks are probably initiated by a trigger (common risk factor) changing the host-pathogen interaction, but it is unclear whether this trigger causes all cases directly (trigger mechanism), or whether the first case starts a transmission chain inducing disease in the infected contacts (transmission mechanism). The aim of this study was to identify conditions under which these mechanisms could cause A.?pleuropneumoniae outbreaks, and to assess means for prevention and control. Outbreaks were first characterised by data from a literature review, defining an average outbreak at 12?weeks of age, affecting 50% of animals within 4?days. Simple mathematical models describing the two mechanisms can reproduce average outbreaks, with two observations supporting the trigger mechanism: (1) disease should be transmitted 50 times faster than supported by literature if there is a transmission chain; and (2) the trigger mechanism is consistent with the absence of reported outbreaks in young pigs as they have not yet been colonised by the bacterium. In conclusion, outbreaks of A.?pleuropneumoniae on endemic farms are most likely caused by a trigger inducing pneumonia in already infected pigs, but more evidence is needed to identify optimum preventive interventions. PMID:25155305

Klinkenberg, D; Tobias, T J; Bouma, A; van Leengoed, L A M G; Stegeman, J A

2014-10-01

114

Using multitype branching processes to quantify statistics of disease outbreaks in zoonotic epidemics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Branching processes have served as a model for chemical reactions, biological growth processes, and contagion (of disease, information, or fads). Through this connection, these seemingly different physical processes share some common universalities that can be elucidated by analyzing the underlying branching process. In this work we focus on coupled branching processes as a model of infectious diseases spreading from one population to another. An exceedingly important example of such coupled outbreaks are zoonotic infections that spill over from animal populations to humans. We derive several statistical quantities characterizing the first spillover event from animals to humans, including the probability of spillover, the first passage time distribution for human infection, and disease prevalence in the animal population at spillover. Large stochastic fluctuations in those quantities can make inference of the state of the system at the time of spillover difficult. Focusing on outbreaks in the human population, we then characterize the critical threshold for a large outbreak, the distribution of outbreak sizes, and associated scaling laws. These all show a strong dependence on the basic reproduction number in the animal population and indicate the existence of a novel multicritical point with altered scaling behavior. The coupling of animal and human infection dynamics has crucial implications, most importantly allowing for the possibility of large human outbreaks even when human-to-human transmission is subcritical.

Singh, Sarabjeet; Schneider, David J.; Myers, Christopher R.

2014-03-01

115

Experimental pathogenesis for chickens, turkeys, and pigeons of exotic Newcastle disease virus from an outbreak in California during 2002-2003.  

PubMed

Exotic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from chickens during the 2002-2003 California outbreak (CA exotic Newcastle disease [END] virus) was inoculated into 4-week-old specific-pathogen-free (SPF) White Leghorn chickens, 3-week-old SPF Beltsville White turkeys, 6-week-old commercial Broad Breasted White turkeys, and 10- to 20-week-old racing pigeons, and the clinicopathologic features of disease were compared. Birds were monitored clinically and euthanized sequentially with collection of tissues. Tissues were examined by histopathology, by immunohistochemistry to detect viral nucleoprotein, and by in situ hybridization to detect viral mRNA. Clinically, infected chickens and SPF turkeys showed severe depression, and all died or were euthanized because of severe clinical signs by day 5 postinoculation. In these birds, histologic lesions were widespread and virus was detected in multiple organs. All infected commercial turkeys showed mild depression, and incoordination was observed in some birds. Histologic lesions were mild, and viral distribution was limited. In pigeons, only 1 bird showed overt clinical disease, and histologic lesions and viral distribution were present in limited organs. Consequently, susceptibility to highly virulent NDV was shown to vary among chickens, SPF turkeys, commercial turkeys, and pigeons. Additionally, we have evidence of CA END virus subclinical infections that suggest pigeons could be subclinical carriers of other virulent NDV. PMID:17099149

Wakamatsu, N; King, D J; Kapczynski, D R; Seal, B S; Brown, C C

2006-11-01

116

Viral Perturbations of Host Networks Reflect Disease Natali Gulbahce1,2".a  

E-print Network

mutations of disease susceptibility genes (genetic diseases), are also associated with viral infections Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America Abstract Many human diseases, arising from (virally implicated diseases), either in a directly causal manner or by indirect associations. Here we

Bulyk, Martha L.

117

Stochastical modeling for Viral Disease: Statistical Mechanics and Network Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical methods of statistical mechanics are developed and applied to study the immunological response against viral disease, such as dengue. We use this theory to show how the immune response to four different dengue serotypes may be sculpted. It is the ability of avian influenza, to change and to mix, that has given rise to the fear of a new human flu pandemic. Here we propose to utilize a scale free network based stochastic model to investigate the mitigation strategies and analyze the risk.

Zhou, Hao; Deem, Michael

2007-04-01

118

Preventing diseases and outbreaks at child care centers using an education, evaluation, and inspection method.  

PubMed

From 2005 to 2008, Washoe County, Nevada, child care centers experienced an increase in illnesses from communicable disease outbreaks. The number of ill children and caregivers from these outbreaks went from 26 in 2005 to 266 in 2008, an increase of 923%. A clear need to reverse this trend existed. Therefore, in 2009 Washoe County strengthened its regulations for child care facilities by adding numerous communicable disease prevention standards. In addition, in 2009 a two-year education, evaluation, and inspection program was implemented at Washoe County child care centers. Following the implementation of this program, a decline occurred in the number of illnesses. The number of ill children and caregivers from outbreaks went from 266 in 2008 to 13 in 2011, a decrease of 95%. PMID:24683935

Wagner, Jordan; Clodfelter, Sharon

2014-03-01

119

Water-Borne Infectious Disease Outbreaks Associated with Water Scarcity and Rainfall Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a An important number of major infectious diseases are related to water. The greatest consequences for the human population\\u000a are the faecal-oral water-borne infectious diseases, which are transmitted by ingestion of the causal agents that are released\\u000a into water through faeces. The occurrence of outbreaks of water-borne infectious diseases could be affected by water scarcity\\u000a at different degrees depending on the

Juan Jofre; Anicet R. Blanch; Francisco Lucena

120

Clinical Disease Severity of Respiratory Viral Co-Infection versus Single Viral Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Results from cohort studies evaluating the severity of respiratory viral co-infections are conflicting. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the clinical severity of viral co-infections as compared to single viral respiratory infections. Methods We searched electronic databases and other sources for studies published up to January 28, 2013. We included observational studies on inpatients with respiratory illnesses comparing the clinical severity of viral co-infections to single viral infections as detected by molecular assays. The primary outcome reflecting clinical disease severity was length of hospital stay (LOS). A random-effects model was used to conduct the meta-analyses. Results Twenty-one studies involving 4,280 patients were included. The overall quality of evidence applying the GRADE approach ranged from moderate for oxygen requirements to low for all other outcomes. No significant differences in length of hospital stay (LOS) (mean difference (MD) ?0.20 days, 95% CI ?0.94, 0.53, p?=?0.59), or mortality (RR 2.44, 95% CI 0.86, 6.91, p?=?0.09) were documented in subjects with viral co-infections compared to those with a single viral infection. There was no evidence for differences in effects across age subgroups in post hoc analyses with the exception of the higher mortality in preschool children (RR 9.82, 95% CI 3.09, 31.20, p<0.001) with viral co-infection as compared to other age groups (I2 for subgroup analysis 64%, p?=?0.04). Conclusions No differences in clinical disease severity between viral co-infections and single respiratory infections were documented. The suggested increased risk of mortality observed amongst children with viral co-infections requires further investigation. PMID:24932493

Asner, Sandra A.; Science, Michelle E.; Tran, Dat; Smieja, Marek; Merglen, Arnaud; Mertz, Dominik

2014-01-01

121

Managing the koi herpesvirus disease outbreak in Indonesia and the lessons learned.  

PubMed

In 2002, the suspected koi herpesvirus (KHV) outbreak in Indonesia was investigated by an International Emergency Disease Control Task Force organized by NACA immediately following a request for assistance by the Government of Indonesia. The Task Force gained immediate support from ACIAR, AAHRI, FAO, CENTEX-Thailand, INTERVET, Stirling University, and the University of California. The Task Force findings revealed the involvement of an infectious agent, an analogy with KHV outbreaks, its introduction through fish importation and its spread into other areas through fish movement. A number of actions taken by the Government of Indonesia included temporary restrictions, through a Ministry Circular, on the movement of koi and common carps, intensive information dissemination, emergency notification to the OIE, and early warning to neighbouring countries. FAO immediately responded by providing an emergency technical assistance project to improve Indonesia's national capacity to respond to the carp disease epizootic. Recognizing the significance of and necessity for: (a) enhancing regional and international cooperation;(b) improving awareness of emerging disease epizootics and improving diagnostic capabilities at both national and regional levels;(c) proactive reporting of serious disease outbreaks as a mechanism for early warning;(d) detailed documentation of outbreak scenarios;(e) emergency preparedness;(f) empowering farmers to manage disease and other risks; and (g) strong national commitment from concerned authorities are some of the important lessons learned. Despite the intense efforts, the spread of KHV did not stop and continued to affect other countries such as Japan, China, the Taiwan Province of the Republic of China, and most recently Thailand. All relevant stakeholders cannot afford to be complacent and we need innovative responses to current and future disease challenges. The lessons learned in managing the Indonesian KHV outbreak as well as lessons from past disease epizootics will hopefully assist us in improving preparedness and responses to similar events when they occur in the future. PMID:18306515

Bondad-Reantaso, M G; Sunarto, A; Subasinghe, R P

2007-01-01

122

Outbreaks of Disease Suspected of Being Due to Human Monkeypox Virus Infection in the Democratic Republic of Congo in 2001  

PubMed Central

Seven outbreaks of disease characterized by a pustular rash and suspected to have been caused by human monkeypox virus were investigated. The outbreaks occurred between February and August 2001 in the province of Equateur in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The outbreaks involved a total of 31 persons and caused five deaths. Specimens from 14 patients were available and were analyzed by electron microscopy, virus isolation, and PCR assays specific for monkeypox virus and varicella-zoster virus. We provide evidence that two outbreaks were indeed caused by monkeypox virus (16 cases, with four deaths), that in two outbreaks both monkeypox and varicella-zoster virus were involved (seven cases, with one death), and that two outbreaks were cases of chickenpox caused by infection with varicella-zoster virus (six cases, with no deaths). In one outbreak, no evidence for either monkeypox or chickenpox was found (two cases, with no deaths). PMID:12149352

Meyer, Hermann; Perrichot, Mathilde; Stemmler, Markus; Emmerich, Petra; Schmitz, Herbert; Varaine, Francis; Shungu, Robert; Tshioko, Florimond; Formenty, Pierre

2002-01-01

123

Outbreaks of disease suspected of being due to human monkeypox virus infection in the Democratic Republic of Congo in 2001.  

PubMed

Seven outbreaks of disease characterized by a pustular rash and suspected to have been caused by human monkeypox virus were investigated. The outbreaks occurred between February and August 2001 in the province of Equateur in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The outbreaks involved a total of 31 persons and caused five deaths. Specimens from 14 patients were available and were analyzed by electron microscopy, virus isolation, and PCR assays specific for monkeypox virus and varicella-zoster virus. We provide evidence that two outbreaks were indeed caused by monkeypox virus (16 cases, with four deaths), that in two outbreaks both monkeypox and varicella-zoster virus were involved (seven cases, with one death), and that two outbreaks were cases of chickenpox caused by infection with varicella-zoster virus (six cases, with no deaths). In one outbreak, no evidence for either monkeypox or chickenpox was found (two cases, with no deaths). PMID:12149352

Meyer, Hermann; Perrichot, Mathilde; Stemmler, Markus; Emmerich, Petra; Schmitz, Herbert; Varaine, Francis; Shungu, Robert; Tshioko, Florimond; Formenty, Pierre

2002-08-01

124

Field and laboratory analysis of an outbreak of foot and mouth disease in Bulgaria in 1991.  

PubMed

In July 1991, an outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD) occurred near Stefan Karadjovo village in Boliarovo (south-east Bulgaria, close to the Turkish border). The virus isolated was identified in Bulgaria as serotype O and this was subsequently confirmed by the World Reference Laboratory for Foot and Mouth Disease in Pirbright (United Kingdom). Serological studies using bovine sera and monoclonal antibody analysis were made. In addition, the sequence of approximately 170 nucleotides at the 3' end of the 1D gene was determined for the field isolate and for vaccine strains used in Bulgaria. These were compared with other sequences of type O FMD viruses from outbreaks in the Middle East. Serum samples were taken from domestic animals in the region close to the outbreak and examined for anti-FMD virus antibodies to assess the extent (if any) of spread of the virus before or after the outbreak. No evidence of infection was found in these animals. The virus involved in the Bulgarian outbreak was antigenically similar to the O1 vaccine strains but probably did not originate from these strains. The virus was closely related genetically to a group of viruses isolated in the Middle East since 1987, suggesting that it may have been introduced into Bulgaria from an area in the Middle East by unidentified means. PMID:8219333

Samuel, A R; Ansell, D M; Rendle, R T; Armstrong, R M; Davidson, F L; Knowles, N J; Kitching, R P

1993-09-01

125

Detecting and Tracking Disease Outbreaks by Mining Social Media Data Yusheng Xie1,2  

E-print Network

for the research community. 1 Introduction "Social Media" is producing massive amounts of data, so called "BIG DATADetecting and Tracking Disease Outbreaks by Mining Social Media Data Yusheng Xie1,2 Zhengzhang Chen. "Social Media" data here is characterized by publicly available data from multi-way communications

126

Analyses of infectious disease data from household outbreaks by Markov chain Monte Carlo methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper exploresthe use of Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods for the analysis ofinfectious disease data, with the hope that they will permit analyses to be madeunder more realistic assumptions. Two important kinds of data sets are considered,containing temporal and non-temporal information respectively, from outbreaks ofmeasles and influenza. Stochastic epidemic models are used to describe the processesthat generate the

Philip D. ONeill; David J. Balding; Niels G. Becker; Mervi Eerola; Denis Mollison

2000-01-01

127

Using multitype branching processes to quantify statistics of disease outbreaks in zoonotic epidemics  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Despite the enormous relevance of zoonotic infections to world-wide public health, and despite much effort in modeling individual zoonoses, a fundamental understanding of the disease dynamics and the nature of outbreaks emanating from such a complex system is still lacking. We introduce a simple sto...

128

Complete genome sequence of a newcastle disease virus isolate from an outbreak in central India.  

PubMed

The complete genome sequence of a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain NDV/Chicken/Nagpur/01/12 was isolated from vaccinated chicken farms in India during outbreaks in 2012. The genome is 15,192 nucleotides in length and is classified as genotype VII in class II. PMID:25593257

Gogoi, Polakshee; Morla, Sudhir; Kaore, Megha; Kurkure, Nitin Vasantrao; Kumar, Sachin

2015-01-01

129

SURVEILLANCE AND INVESTIGATION OF WATERBORNE DISEASE OUTBREAKS - VOLUME II: SELECTED REPRINTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This work consists of two volumes. olume I is a series of articles based on selected presentations made at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Association of State Drinking Water Administrators Workshop on Methods for Investigation of Water borne Disease Outbreaks ...

130

What is the best control strategy for multiple infectious disease outbreaks?  

E-print Network

, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98109, USA 2 Department of Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 disease outbreaks still pose a significant threat to the health and economics of our society. Two examples--caused either by naturally emerging or deliberately introduced patho- gens--are virtually certain to occur

Handel, Andreas

131

YELLOW-BLOTCH DISEASE OUTBREAK ON REEFS OF THE SAN BLAS ISLANDS, PANAMA  

EPA Science Inventory

During the post-8th International Coral Reef Symposium field trip to the eastern Caribbean region of Panama, 3-5 July 1996, we observed an extensive outbreak of a new and significant disease of the scleractinian corals Montastraea faveolata and M. annularis. The first reported si...

132

Complete Genome Sequence of a Newcastle Disease Virus Isolate from an Outbreak in Central India  

PubMed Central

The complete genome sequence of a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain NDV/Chicken/Nagpur/01/12 was isolated from vaccinated chicken farms in India during outbreaks in 2012. The genome is 15,192 nucleotides in length and is classified as genotype VII in class II. PMID:25593257

Gogoi, Polakshee; Morla, Sudhir; Kaore, Megha; Kurkure, Nitin Vasantrao

2015-01-01

133

Publications: Temporospatial clustering of foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks in Israel and Palestine, 2006-2007. Alkhamis MA,  

E-print Network

Publications: Temporospatial clustering of foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks in Israel and Palestine(3):99-107. Parameterization of the duration of infection stages of serotype O foot-and-mouth disease virus: an analytical

Leistikow, Bruce N.

134

Global Distribution of Outbreaks of Water-Associated Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundWater plays an important role in the transmission of many infectious diseases, which pose a great burden on global public health. However, the global distribution of these water-associated infectious diseases and underlying factors remain largely unexplored.Methods and FindingsBased on the Global Infectious Disease and Epidemiology Network (GIDEON), a global database including water-associated pathogens and diseases was developed. In this study,

Kun Yang; Jeffrey LeJeune; Doug Alsdorf; Bo Lu; C. K. Shum; Song Liang

2012-01-01

135

CD94 Is Essential for NK Cell-Mediated Resistance to a Lethal Viral Disease  

E-print Network

of the human pathogens variola virus (VARV, the agent of smallpox) and monkeypox virus (MPXV), which causes monkeypox, a grave endemic disease in central Africa that has recently caused an outbreak in the USA (Gross

136

Serogroup C meningococcal disease outbreak associated with discotheque attendance during carnival.  

PubMed Central

In the week following a carnival during 19-24 February 1998, an outbreak of meningococcal disease occurred in a rural German county. The available isolates belonged to phenotype C:2a:P1.2,5 and were clonally related by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. A case-control study was done to identify risk factors for the outbreak and to define possible vaccination target groups. Five persons aged 13-16 years who fell ill during 24-27 February were included in the study. Four of 5 cases and 10 of 32 controls visited local discotheques (OR = 8.8; P = 0.06). Cases also visited discotheques more frequently than controls (chi2 for trend, P = 0.0002). Multiple discotheques during the carnival may have been predominant locations of transmission in this outbreak. Because this risk factor was limited in time, a mass community vaccination campaign was not initiated. PMID:10722132

Hauri, A. M.; Ehrhard, I.; Frank, U.; Ammer, J.; Fell, G.; Hamouda, O.; Petersen, L.

2000-01-01

137

VIRAL EVOLUTION Genomic surveillance elucidates  

E-print Network

VIRAL EVOLUTION Genomic surveillance elucidates Ebola virus origin and transmission during the 2014,12,13 § Robert F. Garry,8 § S. Humarr Khan,3 § Pardis C. Sabeti1,2 § In its largest outbreak, Ebola virus disease is spreading through Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Nigeria. We sequenced 99 Ebola virus genomes from 78

Napp, Nils

138

Thermal Stress and Coral Cover as Drivers of Coral Disease Outbreaks  

PubMed Central

Very little is known about how environmental changes such as increasing temperature affect disease dynamics in the ocean, especially at large spatial scales. We asked whether the frequency of warm temperature anomalies is positively related to the frequency of coral disease across 1,500 km of Australia's Great Barrier Reef. We used a new high-resolution satellite dataset of ocean temperature and 6 y of coral disease and coral cover data from annual surveys of 48 reefs to answer this question. We found a highly significant relationship between the frequencies of warm temperature anomalies and of white syndrome, an emergent disease, or potentially, a group of diseases, of Pacific reef-building corals. The effect of temperature was highly dependent on coral cover because white syndrome outbreaks followed warm years, but only on high (>50%) cover reefs, suggesting an important role of host density as a threshold for outbreaks. Our results indicate that the frequency of temperature anomalies, which is predicted to increase in most tropical oceans, can increase the susceptibility of corals to disease, leading to outbreaks where corals are abundant. PMID:17488183

Bruno, John F; Selig, Elizabeth R; Casey, Kenneth S; Page, Cathie A; Willis, Bette L; Harvell, C. Drew; Sweatman, Hugh; Melendy, Amy M

2007-01-01

139

Outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease by enterovirus 71. High incidence of complication disorders of central nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Japan we have had two outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease associated with disorders of the central nervous system, one in 1973 and the other in 1978. The isolated virus in both outbreaks was enterovirus 71. Central nervous system disorders were present in 24% of patients in 1973 and in 8% of patients in 1978. These disorders were

Y Ishimaru; S Nakano; K Yamaoka; S Takami

1980-01-01

140

Get the news out loudly and quickly: the influence of the media on limiting emerging infectious disease outbreaks.  

PubMed

During outbreaks of infectious diseases with high morbidity and mortality, individuals closely follow media reports of the outbreak. Many will attempt to minimize contacts with other individuals in order to protect themselves from infection and possibly death. This process is called social distancing. Social distancing strategies include restricting socializing and travel, and using barrier protections. We use modeling to show that for short-term outbreaks, social distancing can have a large influence on reducing outbreak morbidity and mortality. In particular, public health agencies working together with the media can significantly reduce the severity of an outbreak by providing timely accounts of new infections and deaths. Our models show that the most effective strategy to reduce infections is to provide this information as early as possible, though providing it well into the course of the outbreak can still have a significant effect. However, our models for long-term outbreaks indicate that reporting historic infection data can result in more infections than with no reporting at all. We examine three types of media influence and we illustrate the media influence with a simulated outbreak of a generic emerging infectious disease in a small city. Social distancing can never be complete; however, for a spectrum of outbreaks, we show that leaving isolation (stopping applying social distancing measures) for up to 4 hours each day has modest effect on the overall morbidity and mortality. PMID:23990974

Mummert, Anna; Weiss, Howard

2013-01-01

141

The role of computer networking in investigating unusual disease outbreaks and allegations of biological and toxin weapons use.  

PubMed

Computer networking can aid in the epidemiological investigation of unusual disease outbreaks and possible uses of biological weapons. Exchange of computerized data over the Internet has many advantages in facilitating the investigation of the source of a disease outbreak. It is especially useful in the investigation of suspected or alleged releases of biological weapons. Computer networking through the Internet a fosters a truly global disease outbreak early warning system in which both government and non-government sources are contributing. Such information exchange is of great potential benefit to the Biological Weapons Convention and the attempts to develop a verification protocol. PMID:9800103

Woodall, J

1998-01-01

142

Recognition and management of rodent-borne infectious disease outbreaks after heavy rainfall and flooding.  

PubMed

Climatic events, especially heavy rains and flooding following periods of relative drought, have precipitated both arthropod-borne and rodent-borne infectious disease outbreaks. Heavy rainfall encourages excessive wild grass seed production that supports increased outdoor rodent populations, and flooding forces rodents from their burrows near water sources into the built environment and closer to humans. The objectives of this review are to alert clinicians to the climatic conditions common to hurricane-prone regions, such as Louisiana, that can precipitate outbreaks of the two rodent-borne diseases most often associated with periods of heavy rainfall and flooding, leptospirosis (LS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). It will also describe the epidemiology, presenting clinical manifestations and outcomes of these rodent-borne infectious diseases, and recommend both prophylactic therapies and effective control and prevention strategies for rodent-borne infectious disease outbreaks. Healthcare providers should maintain high levels of suspicion for LS in patients developing febrile illnesses after contaminated freshwater exposures during flooding or recreational events, and for HPS in patients with febrile illnesses that progress rapidly to respiratory failure following rodent exposures in enclosed spaces. Public health educational strategies should encourage limiting human contact with all wild and peridomestic rats and mice, avoiding all contact with rodent excreta, safely disposing of all rodent excreta, and modifying the built environment to deter rodents from colonizing households and workplaces. PMID:25369218

Diaz, James H

2014-01-01

143

Disrupting seasonality to control disease outbreaks: the case of koi herpes virus.  

PubMed

Common carp accounts for a substantial proportion of global freshwater aquaculture production. Koi herpes virus (KHV), a highly virulent disease affecting carp that emerged in the late 1990s, is a serious threat to this industry. After a fish is infected with KHV, there is a temperature dependent delay before it becomes infectious, and a further delay before mortality. Consequently, KHV epidemiology is driven by seasonal changes in water temperature. Also, it has been proposed that outbreaks could be controlled by responsive management of water temperature in aquaculture setups. We use a mathematical model to analyse the effect of seasonal temperature cycles on KHV epidemiology, and the impact of attempting to control outbreaks by disrupting this cycle. We show that, although disease progression is fast in summer and slow in winter, total mortality over a 2-year period is similar for outbreaks that start in either season. However, for outbreaks that start in late autumn, mortality may be low and immunity high. A single bout of water temperature management can be an effective outbreak control strategy if it is started as soon as dead fish are detected and maintained for a long time. It can also be effective if the frequency of infectious fish is used as an indicator for the beginning of treatment. In this case, however, there is a risk that starting the treatment too soon will increase mortality relative to the case when no treatment is used. This counterproductive effect can be avoided if multiple bouts of temperature management are used. We conclude that disrupting normal seasonal patterns in water temperature can be an effective strategy for controlling koi herpes virus. Exploiting the seasonal patterns, possibly in combination with temperature management, can also induce widespread immunity to KHV in a cohort of fish. However, employing these methods successfully requires careful assessment to ensure that the treatment is started, and finished, at the correct time. PMID:21145328

Omori, Ryosuke; Adams, Ben

2011-02-21

144

Viral infection and human disease - insights from minimotifs  

PubMed Central

Short functional peptide motifs cooperate in many molecular functions including protein interactions, protein trafficking, and posttranslational modifications. Viruses exploit these motifs as a principal mechanism for hijacking cells and many motifs are necessary for the viral life-cycle. A virus can accommodate many short motifs in its small genome size providing a plethora of ways for the virus to acquire host molecular machinery. Host enzymes that act on motifs such as kinases, proteases, and lipidation enzymes, as well as protein interaction domains, are commonly mutated in human disease, suggesting that the short peptide motif targets of these enzymes may also be mutated in disease; however, this is not observed. How can we explain why viruses have evolved to be so dependent on motifs, yet these motifs, in general do not seem to be as necessary for human viability? We propose that short motifs are used at the system level. This system architecture allows viruses to exploit a motif, whereas the viability of the host is not affected by mutation of a single motif. PMID:18508672

Kadaveru, Krishna; Vyas, Jay; Schiller, Martin R.

2008-01-01

145

Complete genome sequence of acute viral necrosis virus associated with massive mortality outbreaks in the Chinese scallop, Chlamys farreri  

PubMed Central

Background Acute viral necrosis virus (AVNV) is the causative agent of a serious disease resulting in high mortality in cultured Chinese scallops, Chlamys farreri. We have sequenced and analyzed the complete genome of AVNV. Results The AVNV genome is a linear, double-stranded DNA molecule of 210,993 bp with a nucleotide composition of 38.5% G + C. A total of 123 open reading frames were predicted to encode functional proteins, ranging from 41 to 1,878 amino acid residues. The DNA sequence of AVNV is 97% identical to that of ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1), and the amino acid sequences of the encoded proteins of these two viruses are 94-100% identical. The genomic organization of AVNV is similar to that of OsHV-1, and consists of two unique regions (170.4 kb and 3.4 kb, respectively), each flanked by two inverted repeats (7.6 kb and 10.2 kb, respectively), with a third unique region (1.5 kb) situated between the two internal repeats. Conclusions Our results indicate that AVNV is a variant of OsHV-1. The AVNV genome sequence provides information useful for understanding the evolution and divergence of OsHV-1 in marine molluscs. PMID:23566284

2013-01-01

146

Planning for rapid response to outbreaks of animal diseases transmissible to humans via food.  

PubMed

Planning for rapid response to outbreaks of foodborne zoonoses requires coordination and intersectoral collaboration, making the process inherently complex. Guidance documents have been published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) on the topics of foodborne outbreak investigation, establishing food safety emergency response plans, applying risk analysis principles during food safety emergencies, and developing national food recall systems. These guides should be used as resources by national authorities to develop national plans which should each reference the other in order to maintain consistency at the country level. FAO and WHO, together with the World Organisation for Animal Health (O1E), are the international organisations responsible at the global level for the health of people and animals and for food safety and security. As such, these organisations need to continue to work together to develop an intersectoral mechanism to conduct robust and timely joint risk assessments in the face of foodborne outbreaks and other food safety emergencies. Three international instruments have the potential to aid countries in their preparedness to face outbreaks of foodborne zoonoses and organise subsequent response efforts: the International Food Safety Authorities Network (INFOSAN), the newly enhanced Global Early Warning System for Major Animal Diseases, including Zoonoses (GLEWS+), and the FAO Emergency Prevention System for Food Safety (EMPRES Food Safety). PMID:24547650

Savelli, C J; Abela-Ridder, B; Miyagishima, K

2013-08-01

147

The role of arbitrarily primed PCR in identifying the source of an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease.  

PubMed Central

An outbreak of community-acquired Legionnaires' disease (LD) occurred in Providence, R.I., in fall 1993. To find the outbreak source, exposures of 17 case patients were compared to those of 33 matched controls. Case patients were more likely than controls to have visited a section of downtown (area A) during the 2 weeks before illness (11 [65%] versus 9 [27%]; matched odds ratio, 6.5; P = 0.01). Water samples were cultured from 27 aerosol-producing devices within area A. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates underwent monoclonal antibody (MAb) subtyping and arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR). All four L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates available from case patients who visited area A had identical MAb and AP-PCR patterns. Among 14 environmental isolates, 5 had MAb patterns that matched the case patient isolates, but only 1 had a matching AP-PCR pattern. This investigation implicates a cooling tower in area A as the outbreak source and illustrates the usefulness of AP-PCR for identifying sources of LD outbreaks. PMID:9196197

Whitney, C G; Hofmann, J; Pruckler, J M; Benson, R F; Fields, B S; Bandyopadhyay, U; Donnally, E F; Giorgio-Almonte, C; Mermel, L A; Boland, S; Matyas, B T; Breiman, R F

1997-01-01

148

Critical response to post-outbreak vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease  

E-print Network

Critical response to post-outbreak vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease G. Chowell, A. L was assumed to be influenced by the inter-county (Euclidean) distance. We used geo-temporal data on Foot-and-Mouth Mathematics Subject Classification. Primary 92D25, 92D30; Secondary 92B05, 92B15. Key words and phrases. Foot-and-mouth

Chowell, Gerardo

149

Complete Genome Sequence of a Newcastle Disease Virus Isolate from an Outbreak in Northern India  

PubMed Central

The complete genome sequence was determined for a Newcastle disease virus strain from vaccinated chicken farms in India during outbreaks in 2010. The genome is 15,192 nucleotides (nt) in length and is classified as genotype VII in class II. Compared to the available vaccine strains, the Indian strain contains a previously described 6-nt insertion in the untranslated region of the nucleoprotein gene. PMID:24762939

Morla, Sudhir; Kumar Tiwari, Ashok; Joshi, Vinay

2014-01-01

150

Decision support system for mass dispensing of medications for infectious disease outbreaks and bioterrorist attacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simulation and decision support system, RealOpt©, for planning large-scale emergency dispensing clinics to respond to biological threats and infectious disease outbreaks\\u000a is described. The system allows public health administrators to investigate clinic design and staffing scenarios quickly.\\u000a \\u000a RealOpt© incorporates efficient optimization technology seamlessly interfaced with a simulation module. The system's correctness and\\u000a computational advantage are validated via comparisons against

Eva K. Lee; Siddhartha Maheshwary; Jacquelyn Mason; William Glisson

2006-01-01

151

An Empirical Study of Sections in Classifying Disease Outbreak Reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Identifying articles that relate to infectious diseases is a necessary step for any automatic bio-surveillance system that\\u000a monitors news articles from the Internet. Unlike scientific articles that are available in a strongly structured form, news\\u000a articles are usually loosely structured. In this chapter, we investigate the importance of each section and the effect of\\u000a section weighting on the performance of

Son Doan; Mike Conway; Nigel Collier

152

Characterisation of a SAT1 outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in captive African buffalo ( Syncerus caffer): Clinical symptoms, genetic characterisation and phylogenetic comparison of outbreak isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) play an important role in the maintenance of the SAT types of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in southern Africa. These long-term carriers mostly become sub-clinically infected, maintaining the disease and posing a threat to other susceptible wildlife and domestic species. During an unrelated bovine tuberculosis experiment using captive buffalo in the Kruger National Park (KNP), an outbreak

W. Vosloo; L.-M. de Klerk; C. I. Boshoff; B. Botha; R. M. Dwarka; D. Keet; D. T. Haydon

2007-01-01

153

Recovery and Sequence Analysis of Hepatitis A Virus from Springwater Implicated in an Outbreak of Acute Viral Hepatitis?  

PubMed Central

An outbreak of acute hepatitis A virus in North Carolina was linked to drinking water from a contaminated shallow spring by phylogenetic analysis of hepatitis A virus (HAV) genomic sequences. Detection of HAV and fecal indicators in the water provided useful and timely information to assist with public health prevention and control measures. PMID:18708522

Tallon, Lindsay A.; Love, David C.; Moore, Zack S.; Sobsey, Mark D.

2008-01-01

154

Foot & Mouth Disease & Ulcerative/Vesicular Rule-outs: Challenges Encountered in Recent Outbreaks  

SciTech Connect

Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly infectious and contagious viral disease affecting bovidae (cattle, zebus, domestic buffaloes, yaks), sheep, goats, swine, all wild ruminants and suidae. Camelidae (camels, dromedaries, llamas, vicunas) have low susceptibility. Foot and mouth disease is caused by a RNS virus of the family Picornaviridae, genus Aphthovirus. There are seven immunologically distinct serotypes: A, O, C, SAT1, SAT2, SAT3, Asia 1. Foot and mouth disease causes significant economic loss both to countries who manage it as an endemic disease (with or without vaccination), as well as those FMD free countries which may become infected. The mortality rate is low in adult animals, but often higher in young due to myocarditis. Foot and mouth disease is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, the Middle East and South America (sporadic outbreaks in free areas). The Office of International Epizootics (OIE), also referred to the World Organization for Animal Health maintains an official list of free countries and zones.1 The OIE Terrestrial Code (Chapter 2.2.10) provides detailed information on the categories of freedom that can be allocated to a country as well as guidelines for the surveillance for foot and mouth disease (Appendix 3.8.7). In short, countries may be completely free of FMD, free with vaccination or infected with foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV). Source of FMDV include incubating and clinically affected animals with virus present in breath, saliva, faeces, urine, milk and semen. In experimental settings virus has been detected in milk several days before the onset of clinical signs2. Additional sources of virus are meat and by-products in which pH has remained above 6.0 as well as persistently infected carrier animals. Carrier animals may include cattle and water buffalo; convalescent animals and exposed vaccinates (virus persists in the oropharynx for up to 30 months in cattle or longer in buffalo, 9 months in sheep). Pigs do not become carriers. It has been shown that the African Cape buffalo are the major maintenance host of SAT serotypes. FMDV transmission can occur by either direct or indirect contact. Indirect transmission can occur via contaminated animate vectors (humans, etc.), inanimate vectors (vehicles, implements) or airborne transmission. Indirect disease transmission via animate or inanimate vectors can play a major role in disease transmission. Good biosecurity can significantly reduce this type of transmission. Airborne transmission is often debated and is known to be serotype and species specific as well as require specific environmental conditions to occur. Airborne transmission is favored in temperate zones and has been postulated to occur over distances of up to 60 km overland and 300 km by sea. Foot and mouth disease virus is an unenveloped virus which is preserved by refrigeration and freezing and progressively inactivated by temperatures above 50 C. FMDV is highly sensitive to pH change and is inactivated by pH < 6.0 or > 9.0. There are many disinfectants which are effective against FMDV including sodium hydroxide (2%), sodium carbonate (4%), and citric acid (0.2%). FMDV is resistant to iodophores, quaternary ammonium compounds, hypochlorite and phenol, especially in the presence of organic matter. The virus can survive in lymph nodes and bone marrow at neutral pH, but is destroyed in muscle when is pH < 6.0 i.e. after rigor mortis. FMDV can persist in contaminated feed/commodities and the environment for over to 1 month, depending on the temperature and pH conditions. The incubation period for FMD is 2-14 days. Animals transition through latent (infected but not infectious), subclinically infected (infectious but lacking clinical signs) clinically infected and recovered disease states. In cattle clinical signs include pyrexia, reluctance to eat, bruxism, drooling, lameness, treading or stamping of the feet and decreased milk production. Most clinical signs are related to the development and subsequent rupturing of vesicles at the coronary band and in the oral cavity. V

Hullinger, P

2008-01-28

155

Subclinical Legionella infection in workers near the source of a large outbreak of Legionnaires disease.  

PubMed

A survey was conducted of exhibitors at a 1999 floral trade show, where a whirlpool spa on display caused a large outbreak of legionnaires disease (LD). In total, 742 exhibitors without LD returned a questionnaire on their whereabouts during the fair and their health afterward and supplied blood samples for the detection of IgM and IgG antibodies against Legionella pneumophila. The exhibitors had higher average antibody levels than did the general population. The closer to the whirlpool that the exhibitors worked, the higher their antibody levels. Both high-normal and high titer levels were found more frequently among workers with more exposure, suggesting that serosurveys among potentially exposed subjects are a valuable tool for outbreak investigation. Some differences in health complaints were observed between the more and less exposed groups, as estimated by the workplace location, but few differences were found between groups with different antibody levels. PMID:11471112

Boshuizen, H C; Neppelenbroek, S E; van Vliet, H; Schellekens, J F; den Boer, J W; Peeters, M F; Conyn-van Spaendonck, M A

2001-08-15

156

Equine Viral Arteritis.  

PubMed

Equine arteritis virus (EAV), the causative agent of equine viral arteritis (EVA), is a respiratory and reproductive disease that occurs throughout the world. EAV infection is highly species-specific and exclusively limited to members of the family Equidae, which includes horses, donkeys, mules, and zebras. EVA is an economically important disease and outbreaks could cause significant losses to the equine industry. The primary objective of this article is to summarize current understanding of EVA, specifically the disease, pathogenesis, epidemiology, host immune response, vaccination and treatment strategies, prevention and control measures, and future directions. PMID:25441113

Balasuriya, Udeni B R

2014-12-01

157

Disturbance Driven Colony Fragmentation as a Driver of a Coral Disease Outbreak  

PubMed Central

In September of 2010, Brewer's Bay reef, located in St. Thomas (U.S. Virgin Islands), was simultaneously affected by abnormally high temperatures and the passage of a hurricane that resulted in the mass bleaching and fragmentation of its coral community. An outbreak of a rapid tissue loss disease among coral colonies was associated with these two disturbances. Gross lesion signs and lesion progression rates indicated that the disease was most similar to the Caribbean coral disease white plague type 1. Experiments indicated that the disease was transmissible through direct contact between colonies, and five-meter radial transects showed a clustered spatial distribution of disease, with diseased colonies being concentrated within the first meter of other diseased colonies. Disease prevalence and the extent to which colonies were bleached were both significantly higher on unattached colony fragments than on attached colonies, and disease occurred primarily on fragments found in direct contact with sediment. In contrast to other recent studies, disease presence was not related to the extent of bleaching on colonies. The results of this study suggest that colony fragmentation and contact with sediment played primary roles in the initial appearance of disease, but that the disease was capable of spreading among colonies, which suggests secondary transmission is possible through some other, unidentified mechanism. PMID:23437335

Brandt, Marilyn E.; Smith, Tyler B.; Correa, Adrienne M. S.; Vega-Thurber, Rebecca

2013-01-01

158

The Impact of Viral Genotype on Pathogenesis and Disease Severity: Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Rhinoviruses  

PubMed Central

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infection (LRI) and viral death in infants. RSV disease in infants is characterized by epithelial desquamation, neutrophilic bronchiolitis and pneumonia, and obstructive pulmonary mucus. Human rhinoviruses (HRV) are by far the most common cause of symptomatic upper respiratory tract infection (URI) in people and are more recently appreciated as a significant cause of LRI. RSV and HRV are also implicated in asthma pathogenesis. Within both RSV and HRV, viral genetic differences play a role in disease severity and/or prevalence in patient populations, and viral genetic differences affect pathogenesis. Here, we review data on how viral genetic differences impact disease using RSV and HRV as examples, including effects on the host immune response. Virus genotype-phenotype relationships can be exploited in the laboratory to gain insight into mechanisms by which respiratory viruses modulate host immune responses and cause disease. PMID:24455766

Moore, Martin L.; Stokes, Kate L.; Hartert, Tina V.

2013-01-01

159

Modeling alternative mitigation strategies for a hypothetical outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative mitigation strategies were compared during hypothetical outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the USA using a computer-simulation model. The epidemiologic and economic consequences were compared during these simulated outbreaks. Three vaccination and four slaughter strategies were studied along with two speeds of FMD virus spread among three susceptible populations of animals. The populations represented typical animal demographics in the

Mark A Schoenbaum; W Terry Disney

2003-01-01

160

Shellfish-associated enteric virus illness: virus localization, disease outbreaks and prevention  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Numerous outbreaks of shellfish-borne enteric virus illness have been reported worldwide. Most notable among the outbreaks are those involving norovirus illness and hepatitis A. Lessons learned from outbreak investigations indicate that most outbreaks are preventable. Anthropogenic sources of con...

161

Maximum linkage space-time permutation scan statistics for disease outbreak detection  

PubMed Central

Background In disease surveillance, the prospective space-time permutation scan statistic is commonly used for the early detection of disease outbreaks. The scanning window that defines potential clusters of diseases is cylindrical in shape, which does not allow incorporating into the cluster shape potential factors that can contribute to the spread of the disease, such as information about roads, landscape, among others. Furthermore, the cylinder scanning window assumes that the spatial extent of the cluster does not change in time. Alternatively, a dynamic space-time cluster may indicate the potential spread of the disease through time. For instance, the cluster may decrease over time indicating that the spread of the disease is vanishing. Methods This paper proposes two irregularly shaped space-time permutation scan statistics. The cluster geometry is dynamically created using a graph structure. The graph can be created to include nearest-neighbor structures, geographical adjacency information or any relevant prior information regarding the contagious behavior of the event under surveillance. Results The new methods are illustrated using influenza cases in three New England states, and compared with the cylindrical version. A simulation study is provided to investigate some properties of the proposed arbitrary cluster detection techniques. Conclusion We have successfully developed two new space-time permutation scan statistics methods with irregular shapes and improved computational performance. The results demonstrate the potential of these methods to quickly detect disease outbreaks with irregular geometries. Future work aims at performing intensive simulation studies to evaluate the proposed methods using different scenarios, number of cases, and graph structures. PMID:24916839

2014-01-01

162

Recent Weather Extremes and Impacts on Agricultural Production and Vector-Borne Disease Outbreak Patterns  

PubMed Central

We document significant worldwide weather anomalies that affected agriculture and vector-borne disease outbreaks during the 2010–2012 period. We utilized 2000–2012 vegetation index and land surface temperature data from NASA's satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to map the magnitude and extent of these anomalies for diverse regions including the continental United States, Russia, East Africa, Southern Africa, and Australia. We demonstrate that shifts in temperature and/or precipitation have significant impacts on vegetation patterns with attendant consequences for agriculture and public health. Weather extremes resulted in excessive rainfall and flooding as well as severe drought, which caused ?10 to 80% variation in major agricultural commodity production (including wheat, corn, cotton, sorghum) and created exceptional conditions for extensive mosquito-borne disease outbreaks of dengue, Rift Valley fever, Murray Valley encephalitis, and West Nile virus disease. Analysis of MODIS data provided a standardized method for quantifying the extreme weather anomalies observed during this period. Assessments of land surface conditions from satellite-based systems such as MODIS can be a valuable tool in national, regional, and global weather impact determinations. PMID:24658301

Anyamba, Assaf; Small, Jennifer L.; Britch, Seth C.; Tucker, Compton J.; Pak, Edwin W.; Reynolds, Curt A.; Crutchfield, James; Linthicum, Kenneth J.

2014-01-01

163

SymposiumClinical Research Priority Program University of Zurich "Viral Infectious Diseases"  

E-print Network

SymposiumClinical Research Priority Program ­ University of Zurich "Viral Infectious Diseases ­ Chair: Huldrych Günthard, MD. Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University: Nicolas Müller, MD. Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, UniversityHospital Zurich

Zürich, Universität

164

What is Pandemic Influenza? A pandemic is a global disease outbreak. A flu pandemic occurs when a new  

E-print Network

What is Pandemic Influenza? A pandemic is a global disease outbreak. A flu pandemic occurs when as many as 40 million deaths worldwide. What is swine flu? H1N1 Influenza is a respiratory disease of pigs swine flu, but human infections can and do happen. Swine flu viruses have been reported to spread from

165

The effect of an outbreak of respiratory disease on herd-level milk production of Norwegian dairy farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was done to evaluate the effect of an outbreak of acute respiratory disease associated with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) on the daily milk yield per cow in Norwegian dairy-cattle farms. Retrospective data from 184 dairy herds located in two neighbouring veterinary districts during the study period (December 1994–May 1995, during which an epidemic of acute respiratory disease

Madelaine Norström; Victoria L Edge; Jorun Jarp

2001-01-01

166

Marble Spleen Disease (MSD) : an outbreak in game pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) anatomo -pathological and histo-pathological findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION Marble Speen Disease (MSD) is one of the foremost virosis (aviadenovirus II) of pheasants. Actually are not known outbreaks in wild animals, while it is a typical disease in 3-6 months old farmed pheasants. Anatomo-pathologic and Histo- pathological findings are described in order to make easy the laboratory diagnosis and the control in the farmed flock. In march 2004,

S. Gavaudan; S. Fiorelli; C. Bartolini; P. Mancini; E. Manuali; F. Savelli; F. Barchiesi; M. Delogu

167

Detection of infectious disease outbreaks in twenty-two fragile states, 2000-2010: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Fragile states are home to a sixth of the world's population, and their populations are particularly vulnerable to infectious disease outbreaks. Timely surveillance and control are essential to minimise the impact of these outbreaks, but little evidence is published about the effectiveness of existing surveillance systems. We did a systematic review of the circumstances (mode) of detection of outbreaks occurring in 22 fragile states in the decade 2000-2010 (i.e. all states consistently meeting fragility criteria during the timeframe of the review), as well as time lags from onset to detection of these outbreaks, and from detection to further events in their timeline. The aim of this review was to enhance the evidence base for implementing infectious disease surveillance in these complex, resource-constrained settings, and to assess the relative importance of different routes whereby outbreak detection occurs. We identified 61 reports concerning 38 outbreaks. Twenty of these were detected by existing surveillance systems, but 10 detections occurred following formal notifications by participating health facilities rather than data analysis. A further 15 outbreaks were detected by informal notifications, including rumours. There were long delays from onset to detection (median 29 days) and from detection to further events (investigation, confirmation, declaration, control). Existing surveillance systems yielded the shortest detection delays when linked to reduced barriers to health care and frequent analysis and reporting of incidence data. Epidemic surveillance and control appear to be insufficiently timely in fragile states, and need to be strengthened. Greater reliance on formal and informal notifications is warranted. Outbreak reports should be more standardised and enable monitoring of surveillance systems' effectiveness. PMID:21861869

2011-01-01

168

Long-term RNA persistence of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV-LPMV) after an outbreak of a natural infection: the detection of viral mRNA in sentinel pigs suggests viral transmission.  

PubMed

The persistence of porcine rubulavirus (PorPV-LPMV) in five pigs that had survived an outbreak of a natural infection was determined. After the resolution of the outbreak, each animal was housed in an isolation pen together with one sentinel pig. Approximately every 2 months thereafter one group of animals was euthanized and tissue samples taken for virological and serological analysis. Infectious virus was not isolated from any samples; antibodies to PorPV-LPMV were detected in convalescent pigs by virus neutralisation test and blocking ELISA but not in sentinel pigs. PorPV-LPMV mRNA of the nucleoprotein (NP) and phosphoprotein (P) genes was detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) in samples of trigeminal and optic nerves, cervical spinal cord, tonsils, salivary gland, lung and pancreas from convalescent pigs. mRNA was also detected in the midbrain, corpus callosum, or olfactory bulb in four out of five pigs by nRT-PCR, this result was confirmed by the sequencing of a 260bp PCR product of P gene region. The highest average viral copies/?g of total RNA occurred in the olfactory bulb and pancreas tissues of convalescent pigs and midbrain, tonsil and pancreas of sentinel pigs housed with the convalescent pigs. Satellitosis and gliosis of the midbrain, olfactory bulb, corpus callosum, medulla oblongata or choroid plexus were microscopically observed in four convalescent pigs. The control pig remained negative in all tests. The results indicate that PorPV-LPMV mRNA persists and induces a durable humoral immune response in pigs that have recovered from a natural infection. After a possible reactivation of the virus, it was transmitted to sentinel pigs in contact with the convalescent pigs. PMID:24768705

Cuevas-Romero, S; Hernández-Baumgarten, E; Kennedy, S; Hernández-Jáuregui, P; Berg, M; Moreno-López, J

2014-08-01

169

REMOTE SENSING IN UNRAVELLING COMPLEX ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT AND SPATIAL CLASSES OF EMERGING VIRAL DISEASE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging viral diseases constitute one of the major threats to human being that are arising in the modern world. Besides bio-chemical and medical researches, new orientations are developed to understand the environmental dimensions of such emergence. Questions concerning the inter-plays between the environmental and disease dynamics are building up new investigations, both in remote sensing and GIS, for the elaboration

Haja Andrianasolo; Suthee Yoksan; Jean-Paul Gonzalez; Kanchana Nakhapakorn

170

Molecular characterization of Newcastle disease viruses isolated from recent outbreaks in Taiwan.  

PubMed

A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was described which amplified a portion of the F and HN genes of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from recent outbreaks in Taiwan. The F protein plays an important role in determining the virulence of NDV strains. Sequencing of a region specifying the F protein cleavage site was therefore undertaken and this verified the correlation between deduced amino sequences and pathogenicity. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of the F protein cleavage site showed that all recent Taiwanese isolates in 1999 were velogenic viruses. All the virulent viruses have the amino acid sequence 112RRQKR116 for the C-terminus of the F2 protein and phenylanine (F) at the N-terminus of the F1 protein, residue 117. A phylogenetic tree based on the nucleotide sequences of the F gene revealed that recent Taiwanese NDV isolates responsible for recent outbreaks were classified into two distant genotypes (VI and VII). Genotype VI virus is the first finding in Taiwan and has a highly genetic similarity to European isolates, suggesting that they might have originated from a common ancestor. PMID:11483212

Ke, G M; Liu, H J; Lin, M Y; Chen, J H; Tsai, S S; Chang, P C

2001-09-01

171

[Application of molecular genetic methods during Legionnaires' disease outbreak in town Verkhnyaya Pyshma].  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to perform molecular genetic analysis based on multi-locus sequence typing in order to identify source of Legionnaires' disease outbreak in town Verkhnyaya Pyshma in July 2007 and genetic profile of the causative agent. Sequence-based typing protocol recommended by European Working Group on Legionella infection (EWGLI) was used. It was not possible to obtain satisfactory results of Fla gene sequencing for all samples. Obtained allelic profiles of other genes were typical for L. pneumophila. Allelic profiles of L. pneumophila isolated from patients were identical and matched with L. pneumophila DNA detected in water from hot water supply of domestic building, but differed from cooling tower's isolates and isolates from showerhead in apartment of one patient. Identity of 5 genes of L. pneumophila isolated from autopsy samples and from hot water of central hot water supply of domestic building confirms aspiration route of infection through hot water contaminated by the microorganism. L. pneumophila detected in water from cooling tower, showerhead in apartment of one patient, and from drainage canal of hot water supply station belonged to other allelic variants and, therefore, are not related with the outbreak. PMID:18464536

Iatsyshina, S B; Astakhova, T S; Romanenko, V V; Platonov, A E; Zhukova, Iu V; Braslavskaia, S I; Tartakovski?, I S; Shipulin, G A

2008-01-01

172

Study of potential risk of dengue disease outbreak in Sri Lanka using GIS and statistical modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing incidence of dengue fever has become a priority health issue for Sri Lanka. Recent dengue outbreaks in Sri Lanka show two trends: yearly increase of total number of dengue incidence and increasing dengue outbreaks outside the endemic urbanised areas in the south and the west. Identification of factors responsible for dengue outbreaks and the mapping of potential risk

Sumith Pathirana; Masato Kawabata; Rohitha Goonatilake

2009-01-01

173

Viral vectors for neurotrophic factor delivery: A gene therapy approach for neurodegenerative diseases of the CNS  

PubMed Central

The clinical manifestation of most diseases of the central nervous system results from neuronal dysfunction or loss. Diseases such a stroke, epilepsy and neurodegeneration (e.g. Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease) share common cellular and molecular mechanisms (e.g. oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction) that contribute to the loss of neuronal function. Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) are secreted proteins that regulate multiple aspects of neuronal development including neuronal maintenance, survival, axonal growth and synaptic plasticity. These properties of NTFs make them likely candidates for preventing neurodegeneration and promoting neuroregeneration. One approach to delivering NTFs to diseased neurons is through viral vector-mediated gene delivery. Viral vectors are now routinely used as tools for studying gene function as well as developing gene-based therapies for a variety of diseases. Currently, many clinical trials using viral vectors in the nervous system are underway or completed, and seven of these trials involve NTFs for neurodegeneration. In this review, we discuss viral vector-mediated gene transfer of NTFs to treat neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system. PMID:19840853

Lim, Seung; Airavaara, Mikko; Harvey, Brandon K.

2009-01-01

174

MANAGEMENT OF VIRAL DISEASES IN FLORAL AND NURSERY CROPS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Control of plant diseases caused by viruses, viroids and fastidious prokaryotes involves exclusion, eradication, protection and the use of resistant varieties. Development of serological and molecular techniques allows rapid diagnosis of diseases and reliable detection of causal agents. Accurate ide...

175

Viral nucleoprotein localization and lesions of Newcastle disease in tissues of indigenous ducks.  

PubMed

Localization of Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein and pathological lesions was evaluated in tissues of 55 indigenous ducks (45 experimentally infected and 10 sentinel ones). In addition, ten Newcastle disease infected chickens were used to ensure that the virus inoculum administered to the ducks produced the disease in chickens, the susceptible hosts. Ducks were killed on day 1, 4, 8 and 14 post-infection. Post-mortem examination was done with six tissues (liver, spleen, lung, caecal tonsils, kidneys and brain) being collected from each bird. The tissues were preserved in 10% neutral formalin for 24 h. They were then transferred to 70% ethanol for histology and immunohistochemical staining. Airsacculitis, necrotic splenic foci, congested intestines, lymphoid depleted caecal tonsils and focal infiltrations by mononuclear cells were the main pathological lesions in infected ducks. Over 28.9% of the infected ducks had Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein in macrophage-like large mononuclear cells in the caecal tonsils and kidney tubular epithelium. The viral antigens were located in the cytoplasm and nucleolus of the cells. The other organs had no detectable viral antigens. This study shows that the kidneys and caecal tonsils are the likely predilection sites for the virus in ducks. They thus need to be considered as diagnostic indicators for the viral carriage in ducks. PMID:21858730

Njagi, Lucy Wanjiru; Mbuthia, Paul Gichohi; Nyaga, Phillip Njeru; Bebora, Lilly Caroline; Minga, Uswege M

2012-04-01

176

An outbreak of chancroid in Orange County, California: descriptive epidemiology and disease-control measures.  

PubMed

From May 1981 through February 1983, greater than 1,700 patients were examined for genital ulcers at the Orange County Special Diseases Clinic in Santa Ana, California. Of these patients, 923 had either confirmed chancroid or genital ulcers of unknown etiology. Haemophilus ducreyi was recovered from lesions or inguinal buboes of 271 patients. In the previous year, no cases of chancroid were reported in this community. Men accounted for 266 (98%) of the confirmed cases; 95% of the men were Hispanic, and at least 53% had had sexual contact with a prostitute. All five culture-positive women were prostitutes. Antimicrobial sensitivity testing showed resistance to both sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline but susceptibility to erythromycin and to the combination trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Treatment of patients with chancroid, their sex partners, and temporarily incarcerated prostitutes contributed to the successful control of this outbreak. PMID:2985711

Blackmore, C A; Limpakarnjanarat, K; Rigau-Pérez, J G; Albritton, W L; Greenwood, J R

1985-05-01

177

Evaluation of methods for the euthanasia of cattle in a foreign animal disease outbreak.  

PubMed

In anticipation of the need to euthanize large numbers of cattle in the event of a foreign animal disease outbreak, two models of captive bolt gun and various firearms and ammunition loads were tested in order to assess their suitability. In the first phase of the project, two models of captive bolt stunner were used in an abattoir, and assessed for effectiveness. In the second phase, several firearms and ammunition were used on isolated bovine heads and assessed for effectiveness. Little difference was found between the two captive bolt stunners. Of the firearms and ammunition evaluated, the Ruger Mini-14 and the Core-Shot round, a prefragmented projectile, were determined to be most suitable. In situations where large herds of livestock are to be depopulated, and where the restraint required for the use of captive bolt stunners is not practical, there are commercially available firearms and ammunition that are suitable for this purpose. PMID:7757921

Baker, H J; Scrimgeour, H J

1995-03-01

178

Evaluation of methods for the euthanasia of cattle in a foreign animal disease outbreak.  

PubMed Central

In anticipation of the need to euthanize large numbers of cattle in the event of a foreign animal disease outbreak, two models of captive bolt gun and various firearms and ammunition loads were tested in order to assess their suitability. In the first phase of the project, two models of captive bolt stunner were used in an abattoir, and assessed for effectiveness. In the second phase, several firearms and ammunition were used on isolated bovine heads and assessed for effectiveness. Little difference was found between the two captive bolt stunners. Of the firearms and ammunition evaluated, the Ruger Mini-14 and the Core-Shot round, a prefragmented projectile, were determined to be most suitable. In situations where large herds of livestock are to be depopulated, and where the restraint required for the use of captive bolt stunners is not practical, there are commercially available firearms and ammunition that are suitable for this purpose. PMID:7757921

Baker, H J; Scrimgeour, H J

1995-01-01

179

Using Satellite Images of Environmental Changes to Predict Infectious Disease Outbreaks  

PubMed Central

Recent events clearly illustrate a continued vulnerability of large populations to infectious diseases, which is related to our changing human-constructed and natural environments. A single person with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in 2007 provided a wake-up call to the United States and global public health infrastructure, as the health professionals and the public realized that today’s ease of airline travel can potentially expose hundreds of persons to an untreatable disease associated with an infectious agent. Ease of travel, population increase, population displacement, pollution, agricultural activity, changing socioeconomic structures, and international conflicts worldwide have each contributed to infectious disease events. Today, however, nothing is larger in scale, has more potential for long-term effects, and is more uncertain than the effects of climate change on infectious disease outbreaks, epidemics, and pandemics. We discuss advances in our ability to predict these events and, in particular, the critical role that satellite imaging could play in mounting an effective response. PMID:19788799

Colwell, Rita R.; Rose, Joan B.; Morse, Stephen S.; Rogers, David J.; Yates, Terry L.

2009-01-01

180

An outbreak of pyrimethamine toxicity in patients with ischaemic heart disease in Pakistan.  

PubMed

We investigated an outbreak of darkening of skin, bleeding from multiple sites, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia in ischaemic heart disease patients. Case patients were defined as patients who had received medicines from the pharmacy of Punjab Institute of Cardiology between 1 December 2011 and 12 January 2012 and who developed any one of the following: darkening of skin, bleeding from any site, thrombocytopenia and leucopenia. Clinical and drug-related data were abstracted. All 664 case patients had received iso-sorbide-mono-nitrate contaminated with about 50 mg of pyrimethamine, and 151 (23%) died. The median age of 117 patients admitted at Jinnah Hospital Lahore was 57 years (range, 37-100) and 92 (79%) were male. The median time from intake of medicine to presentation was 37 days (range 13-72). Symptoms and signs included bleeding (in 95% of the patients), skin hyperpigmentation (in 61%), diarrhoea (in 53%) and abdominal pain (in 48%). At presentation, the median white cell count was 2.3 × 10(9) /L (range, 0.1 × 10(9) -16.0 × 10(9) ), the median hemoglobin concentration was 109 g/L (range 58-169) and the median platelet count was 18 × 10(9) /L (range, 0 × 10(9) -318 × 10(9) ). Bone marrow examination revealed trileneage dysplasia and severe megaloblastosis. The predictors of mortality included presentation prior to 15 January 2012, age more than 57 years, hypotension and leukocyte count less than 1.5 × 10(9) /L. None of the patients who died received Calcium folinate because all deaths occurred prior to contaminant identification. We describe an outbreak of pyrimethamine toxicity in ischaemic heart disease patients receiving medicines from a single pharmacy due to accidental contamination of iso-sorbide mono-nitrate tablets at industrial level. Late recognition of illness resulted in high mortality. PMID:24490639

Khan Assir, Muhammad Zaman; Ahmad, Hafiz Ijaz; Akram, Javed; Yusuf, Noshin Wasim; Kamran, Umair

2014-09-01

181

Surveillance for Waterborne Disease Outbreaks and Other Health Events Associated with Recreational Water -United States, 2007-2008*  

EPA Science Inventory

Problem/Condition: Since 1978, CDC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have collaborated on the Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) for collecting and reporting data on occurrences and causes...

182

Application of combined SMRT and long-read pyrosequencing to produce reference genome sequences of bacteria associated with respiratory disease outbreaks in beef cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effectiveness of comparing complete genomes for elucidating mechanisms of virulence in pathogenic organisms has been demonstrated recently in foodborne and waterborne human disease outbreaks. We built upon this concept to investigate virulence mechanisms in bovine respiratory disease complex (B...

183

Bluetongue, Schmallenberg - what is next? Culicoides-borne viral diseases in the 21st Century.  

PubMed

In the past decade, two pathogens transmitted by Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus, have caused serious economic losses to the European livestock industry, most notably affecting sheep and cattle. These outbreaks of arboviral disease have highlighted large knowledge gaps on the biology and ecology of indigenous Culicoides species. With these research gaps in mind, and as a means of assessing what potential disease outbreaks to expect in the future, an international workshop was held in May 2013 at Wageningen University, The Netherlands. It brought together research groups from Belgium, France, Germany, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom and The Netherlands, with diverse backgrounds in vector ecology, epidemiology, entomology, virology, animal health, modelling, and genetics. Here, we report on the key findings of this workshop. PMID:24685104

Koenraadt, Constantianus Jm; Balenghien, Thomas; Carpenter, Simon; Ducheyne, Els; Elbers, Armin Rw; Fife, Mark; Garros, Claire; Ibáñez-Justicia, Adolfo; Kampen, Helge; Kormelink, Richard Jm; Losson, Bertrand; van der Poel, Wim Hm; De Regge, Nick; van Rijn, Piet A; Sanders, Christopher; Schaffner, Francis; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, Marianne M; Takken, Willem; Werner, Doreen; Seelig, Frederik

2014-01-01

184

Outbreak of variant hand-foot-and-mouth disease caused by coxsackievirus A6 in Auckland, New Zealand.  

PubMed

Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is a common, usually mild childhood illness caused by enteroviruses. Over the last five years, coxsackievirus A6 has been identified as a causative agent in outbreaks in Europe, South-East Asia and America. It has an atypical presentation compared with other enteroviruses, with more widespread rash, larger blisters and subsequent skin peeling and/or nail shedding. We give the first description of an outbreak of coxsackievirus A6 in New Zealand and how health-care communication networks enabled detection of and dissemination of information about this emergent strain. PMID:25123330

Hayman, Rebecca; Shepherd, Michael; Tarring, Claire; Best, Emma

2014-10-01

185

Disease outbreaks, bleaching and a cyclone drive changes in coral assemblages on an inshore reef of the Great Barrier Reef  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coral disease is a major threat to the resilience of coral reefs; thus, understanding linkages between disease outbreaks and disturbances predicted to increase with climate change is becoming increasingly important. Coral disease surveys conducted twice yearly between 2008 and 2011 at a turbid inshore reef in the central Great Barrier Reef spanned two disturbance events, a coral bleaching event in 2009 and a severe cyclone (cyclone `Yasi') in 2011. Surveys of coral cover, community structure and disease prevalence throughout this 4-yr study provide a unique opportunity to explore cumulative impacts of disturbance events and disease for inshore coral assemblages. The principal coral disease at the study site was atramentous necrosis (AtN), and it primarily affected the key inshore, reef-building coral Montipora aequituberculata. Other diseases detected were growth anomalies, white syndrome and brown band syndrome. Diseases affected eight coral genera, although Montipora was, by far, the genus mostly affected. The prevalence of AtN followed a clear seasonal pattern, with disease outbreaks occurring only in wet seasons. Mean prevalence of AtN on Montipora spp. (63.8 % ± 3.03) was three- to tenfold greater in the wet season of 2009, which coincided with the 2009 bleaching event, than in other years. Persistent wet season outbreaks of AtN combined with the impacts of bleaching and cyclone events resulted in a 50-80 % proportional decline in total coral cover. The greatest losses of branching and tabular acroporids occurred following the low-salinity-induced bleaching event of 2009, and the greatest losses of laminar montiporids occurred following AtN outbreaks in 2009 and in 2011 following cyclone Yasi. The shift to a less diverse coral assemblage and the concomitant loss of structural complexity are likely to have long-term consequences for associated vertebrate and invertebrate communities on Magnetic Island reefs.

Haapkylä, J.; Melbourne-Thomas, J.; Flavell, M.; Willis, B. L.

2013-09-01

186

The Impact of Movements and Animal Density on Continental Scale Cattle Disease Outbreaks in the United States  

PubMed Central

Globalization has increased the potential for the introduction and spread of novel pathogens over large spatial scales necessitating continental-scale disease models to guide emergency preparedness. Livestock disease spread models, such as those for the 2001 foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemic in the United Kingdom, represent some of the best case studies of large-scale disease spread. However, generalization of these models to explore disease outcomes in other systems, such as the United States’s cattle industry, has been hampered by differences in system size and complexity and the absence of suitable livestock movement data. Here, a unique database of US cattle shipments allows estimation of synthetic movement networks that inform a near-continental scale disease model of a potential FMD-like (i.e., rapidly spreading) epidemic in US cattle. The largest epidemics may affect over one-third of the US and 120,000 cattle premises, but cattle movement restrictions from infected counties, as opposed to national movement moratoriums, are found to effectively contain outbreaks. Slow detection or weak compliance may necessitate more severe state-level bans for similar control. Such results highlight the role of large-scale disease models in emergency preparedness, particularly for systems lacking comprehensive movement and outbreak data, and the need to rapidly implement multi-scale contingency plans during a potential US outbreak. PMID:24670977

Buhnerkempe, Michael G.; Tildesley, Michael J.; Lindström, Tom; Grear, Daniel A.; Portacci, Katie; Miller, Ryan S.; Lombard, Jason E.; Werkman, Marleen; Keeling, Matt J.; Wennergren, Uno; Webb, Colleen T.

2014-01-01

187

Molecular analysis of spring viraemia of carp virus in China: a fatal aquatic viral disease that might spread in East Asian.  

PubMed

Spring viraemia of carp (SVC) is a fatal viral disease for cyprinid fish, which is caused by spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV). To date, no SVC outbreak has been reported in China. Between 1998 and 2002, outbreaks of SVC were reported in ornamental and wild fish in Europe and America, imported from multiple sources including China. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the viral strain isolated from America was shown to be originated from Asia. These outbreaks not only resulted in huge economic losses, but also raise an interesting question as to whether SVCV really exists in China and if so, is it responsible for SVC outbreaks? From 2002 to 2006, we screened 6700 samples from ornamental fish farms using the cell culture method of the Office International des Epizooties (OIE), and further verified the presence of SVCV by ELISA and real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Two infected samples were found and the complete genome of SVCV was sequenced from one of the isolates, termed SVCV-C1. Several unique hallmarks of SVCV-C1 were identified, including six amino acid (KSLANA) insertion in the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L) protein and ten nucleotide insertion in the region between glycoprotein (G) and L genes in European SVCV strains. Phylogenetic tree analysis of the full-length G protein of selected SVCV isolates from the United Kingdom and United States revealed that G proteins could be classified into Ia and Id sub genogroups. The Ia sub genogroup can be further divided into newly defined sub genogroups Ia-A and Ia-B. The isolates derived from the United States and China including the SVCV-C1 belongs to in the Ia-A sub genogroup. The SVCV-C1 G protein shares more than 99% homology with the G proteins of the SVCV strains from England and the United States, making it difficult to compare their pathogenicity. Comparison of the predicted three-dimensional structure based on the published G protein sequences from five SVCV strains revealed that the main differences were in the loops of the pleckstrin homology domains. Since SVCV is highly pathogenic, we speculate that SVC may therefore pose a serious threat to farmed cyprinid fish in China. PMID:19623265

Zhang, Nian Zhi; Zhang, Li Feng; Jiang, Yi Nan; Zhang, Ting; Xia, Chun

2009-01-01

188

Impact of global warming on viral diseases: what is the evidence?  

PubMed

Global warming is believed to induce a gradual climate change. Hence, it was predicted that tropical insects might expand their habitats thereby transmitting pathogens to humans. Although this concept is a conclusive presumption, clear evidence is still lacking--at least for viral diseases. Epidemiological data indicate that seasonality of many diseases is further influenced by strong single weather events, interannual climate phenomena, and anthropogenic factors. So far, emergence of new diseases was unlinked to global warming. Re-emergence and dispersion of diseases was correlated with translocation of pathogen-infected vectors or hosts. Coupled ocean/atmosphere circulations and 'global change' that also includes shifting of demographic, social, and economical conditions are important drivers of viral disease variability whereas global warming at best contributes. PMID:18983917

Zell, Roland; Krumbholz, Andi; Wutzler, Peter

2008-12-01

189

The pioneering use of a questionnaire to investigate a food borne disease outbreak in early 20th century Britain.  

PubMed

This paper describes the investigation by a British local government board inspector in 1902, H Timbrell Bulstrode, into the cause of an outbreak of enteric fever after a mayoral banquet given at Winchester. This investigation helped to confirm the role of oysters as an agent of transmission of typhoid fever. The data are also reanalysed using a modern approach, which confirmed the role of oysters (odds ratio = 11.2, 95% CI 2.5 to 50.1). This episode is illustrative of the role of British public health inspectors at the turn of the 20th century as well as of the conditions in which the technique of investigating outbreaks of food borne diseases using a standardised menu was developed. Current methods of outbreak investigations that differ from Bulstrode's pioneering work are also discussed. PMID:15650138

Morabia, Alfredo; Hardy, Anne

2005-02-01

190

The evolution and expansion of regional disease surveillance networks and their role in mitigating the threat of infectious disease outbreaks.  

PubMed

We examine the emergence, development, and value of regional infectious disease surveillance networks that neighboring countries worldwide are organizing to control cross-border outbreaks at their source. The regional perspective represented in the paper is intended to serve as an instructive framework for others who decide to launch such networks as new technologies and emerging threats bring countries even closer together. Distinct from more formal networks in geographic regions designated by the World Health Organization (WHO), these networks usually involve groupings of fewer countries chosen by national governments to optimize surveillance efforts. Sometimes referred to as sub-regional, these "self-organizing" networks complement national and local government recognition with informal relationships across borders among epidemiologists, scientists, ministry officials, health workers, border officers, and community members. Their development over time reflects both incremental learning and growing connections among network actors; and changing disease patterns, with infectious disease threats shifting over time from local to regional to global levels. Not only has this regional disease surveillance network model expanded across the globe, it has also expanded from a mostly practitioner-based network model to one that covers training, capacity-building, and multidisciplinary research. Today, several of these networks are linked through Connecting Organizations for Regional Disease Surveillance (CORDS). We explore how regional disease surveillance networks add value to global disease detection and response by complementing other systems and efforts, by harnessing their power to achieve other goals such as health and human security, and by helping countries adapt to complex challenges via multi-sectoral solutions. We note that governmental commitment and trust among participating individuals are critical to the success of regional infectious disease surveillance networks. PMID:23362414

Bond, Katherine C; Macfarlane, Sarah B; Burke, Charlanne; Ungchusak, Kumnuan; Wibulpolprasert, Suwit

2013-01-01

191

The History of Dengue Outbreaks in the Americas  

PubMed Central

Dengue is a viral disease usually transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Dengue outbreaks in the Americas reported in medical literature and to the Pan American Health Organization are described. The outbreak history from 1600 to 2010 was categorized into four phases: Introduction of dengue in the Americas (1600–1946); Continental plan for the eradication of the Ae. aegypti (1947–1970) marked by a successful eradication of the mosquito in 18 continental countries by 1962; Ae. aegypti reinfestation (1971–1999) caused by the failure of the mosquito eradication program; Increased dispersion of Ae. aegypti and dengue virus circulation (2000–2010) characterized by a marked increase in the number of outbreaks. During 2010 > 1.7 million dengue cases were reported, with 50,235 severe cases and 1,185 deaths. A dramatic increase in the number of outbreaks has been reported in recent years. Urgent global action is needed to avoid further disease spread. PMID:23042846

Brathwaite Dick, Olivia; San Martín, José L.; Montoya, Romeo H.; del Diego, Jorge; Zambrano, Betzana; Dayan, Gustavo H.

2012-01-01

192

Potential vectors of West Nile virus following an equine disease outbreak in Italy.  

PubMed

In the late summer of 1998, an outbreak of equine encephalomyelitis due to West Nile virus (WNV) occurred in the Tuscany region of central Italy. The disease was detected in 14 race horses from nine localities in four Provinces: Firenze, Lucca, Pisa and Pistoia. The outbreak area included Fucecchio wetlands (1800 ha), the largest inland marsh in Italy, and the adjacent hilly Cerbaie woodlands with farms breeding horses. To detect potential vectors of WNV, entomological surveys of Fucecchio and Cerbaie were undertaken during 1999-2002 by collecting mosquito larvae from breeding sites and adult mosquitoes by several methods of sampling. Among 6023 mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) collected, 11 species were identified: Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Ae. vexans (Meigen), Anopheles atroparvus Van Thiel, An. maculipennis Meigen s.s., An. plumbeus Stephens, Culex impudicus Ficalbi, Cx. pipiens L., Culiseta longiareolata Macquart), Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas), Oc. detritus (Haliday) and Oc. geniculatus (Olivier). In Fucecchio marshes, Cx. impudicus predominated with seasonal peak densities in spring and autumn: its greatest abundance during early spring coincides with arrival of migratory birds from Africa. In Cerbaie hills, Cx. pipiens predominated with peak population density in late summer. No viruses were isolated from 665 mosquitoes processed. These findings, plus other data on Italian mosquito bionomics, suggest a possible mode of WNV transmission involving the most abundant Culex in the Fucecchio-Cerbaie areas. Culex impudicus, being partly ornithophilic, might transmit WNV from migratory to non-migratory birds during springtime; Cx. pipiens, having a broader host range, would be more likely to transmit WNV from birds to horses and, perhaps, to humans by late summer. PMID:15009441

Romi, R; Pontuale, G; CIufolini, M G; Fiorentini, G; Marchi, A; Nicoletti, L; Cocchi, M; Tamburro, A

2004-03-01

193

The effectiveness of mass vaccination on Marek's disease virus (MDV) outbreaks and detection within a broiler barn: A modeling study?  

PubMed Central

Marek's disease virus (MDV), a poultry pathogen, has been increasing in virulence since the mid twentieth century. Since multiple vaccines have been developed and widely implemented, losses due to MDV have decreased. However, vaccine failure has occurred in the past and vaccine breakthroughs remain a problem. Failure of disease control with current vaccines would have significant economic and welfare consequences. Nevertheless, the epidemiology of the disease during a farm outbreak is not well understood. Here we present a mathematical model to predict the effectiveness of vaccines to reduce the outbreak probability and disease burden within a barn. We find that the chance of an outbreak within a barn increases with the virulence of an MDV strain, and is significantly reduced when the flock is vaccinated, especially when there the contaminant strain is of low virulence. With low quantities of contaminated dust, there is nearly a 100% effectiveness of vaccines to reduce MDV outbreaks. However, the vaccine effectiveness drops to zero with an increased amount of contamination with a middle virulence MDV strain. We predict that the larger the barn, and the more virulent the MDV strain is, the more virus is produced by the time the flock is slaughtered. With the low-to-moderate virulence of the strains studied here, the number of deaths due to MDV is very low compared to all-cause mortality regardless of the vaccination status of the birds. However, the cumulative MD incidence can reach 100% for unvaccinated cohorts, and 35% for vaccinated cohorts. These results suggest that death due to MDV is an insufficient metric to assess the prevalence of MDV broiler barns regardless of vaccine status, such that active surveillance is required to successfully assess the probability of MDV outbreaks, and to limit transmission of MDV between successive cohorts of broiler chickens. PMID:24267877

Atkins, Katherine E.; Read, Andrew F.; Walkden-Brown, Stephen W.; Savill, Nicholas J.; Woolhouse, Mark E.J.

2013-01-01

194

BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUS (BVDV) 1B: PREDOMINANT BVDV SUBTYPE IN CALVES WITH RESPIRATORY DISEASE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections was determined in 2 groups of stocker calves with acute respiratory disease. Both studies used calves assembled after purchase from auction markets by an order buyer and transported to feedyards, where they were held for approximately ...

195

Contribution of Viral Mimics of Cellular Genes to KSHV Infection and Disease  

PubMed Central

Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, also named Human herpesvirus 8 HHV-8) is the cause of Kaposi sarcoma (KS), the most common malignancy in HIV-infected individuals worldwide, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and multicentric Castleman disease (MCD). KSHV is a double-stranded DNA virus that encodes several homologues of cellular proteins. The structural similarity between viral and host proteins explains why some viral homologues function as their host counterparts, but sometimes at unusual anatomical sites and inappropriate times. In other cases, structural modification in the viral proteins can suppress or override the function of the host homologue, contributing to KSHV-related diseases. For example, viral IL-6 (vIL-6) is sufficiently different from human IL-6 to activate gp130 signaling independent of the ? subunit. As a consequence, vIL-6 can activate many cell types that are unresponsive to cellular IL-6, contributing to MCD disease manifestations. Here, we discuss the molecular biology of KSHV homologues of cellular products as conduits of virus/host interaction with a focus on identifying new strategies for therapy of KS and other KSHV-related diseases. PMID:25243371

Sakakibara, Shuhei; Tosato, Giovanna

2014-01-01

196

Foot-and-mouth disease virus utilizes an autophagic pathway during viral replication  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the type species of the Aphthovirus genus, of the family Picornaviridae. Infection of cells with positive-strand RNA viruses results in a rearrangement of intracellular membranes into viral replication complexes. However, the origin of these membranes remains u...

197

Carriage Rate and Effects of Vaccination after Outbreaks of Serogroup C Meningococcal Disease, Brazil, 2010  

PubMed Central

During 2010, outbreaks of serogroup C meningococcal (MenC) disease occurred in 2 oil refineries in São Paulo State, Brazil, leading to mass vaccination of employees at 1 refinery with a meningococcal polysaccharide A/C vaccine. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of meningococci carriage among workers at both refineries and to investigate the effect of vaccination on and the risk factors for pharyngeal carriage of meningococci. Among the vaccinated and nonvaccinated workers, rates of overall meningococci carriage (21.4% and 21.6%, respectively) and of MenC carriage (6.3% and 4.9%, respectively) were similar. However, a MenC strain belonging to the sequence type103 complex predominated and was responsible for the increased incidence of meningococcal disease in Brazil. A low education level was associated with higher risk of meningococci carriage. Polysaccharide vaccination did not affect carriage or interrupt transmission of the epidemic strain. These findings will help inform future vaccination strategies. PMID:24751156

Carvalhanas, Telma Regina Marques Pinto; Paula de Lemos, Ana; Gorla, Maria Cecilia Outeiro; Salgado, Maristela; Fukasawa, Lucila O.; Gonçalves, Maria Gisele; Higa, Fabio; Brandileone, Maria Cristina Cunto; Sacchi, Claudio Tavares; Ribeiro, Ana Freitas; Sato, Helena Keico; Bricks, Lucia Ferro; Cassio de Moraes, José

2014-01-01

198

Implementation of a data fusion algorithm for RODS, a real-time outbreak and disease surveillance system.  

SciTech Connect

Due to the nature of many infectious agents, such as anthrax, symptoms may either take several days to manifest or resemble those of less serious illnesses leading to misdiagnosis. Thus, bioterrorism attacks that include the release of such agents are particularly dangerous and potentially deadly. For this reason, a system is needed for the quick and correct identification of disease outbreaks. The Real-time Outbreak Disease Surveillance System (RODS), initially developed by Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh, was created to meet this need. The RODS software implements different classifiers for pertinent health surveillance data in order to determine whether or not an outbreak has occurred. In an effort to improve the capability of RODS at detecting outbreaks, we incorporate a data fusion method. Data fusion is used to improve the results of a single classification by combining the output of multiple classifiers. This paper documents the first stages of the development of a data fusion system that can combine the output of the classifiers included in RODS.

Brown, Douglas (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Gray, Genetha Anne (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

2005-10-01

199

Virus and viral diseases of the Honey Bee, Apis mellifera  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Viruses pose serious threat to the health and well-being of honey bees, Apis mellifera, the most economically valuable pollinators of agricultural and horticultural crops worldwide. Lately, honey bee viruses have gotten a lot of international attention due to the significant disease status that vir...

200

First outbreak of sleeping disease in Switzerland: disease signs and virus characterization.  

PubMed

Sleeping disease is a contagious disease mainly of freshwater farmed rainbow trout, caused by salmonid alphavirus (SAV) Subtype 2. Here we describe the first case in Switzerland. Pathological changes ranged from acute pancreas necrosis to more chronic lesions with complete loss of exocrine pancreas and simultaneous degenerative, inflammatory and regenerative heart and muscle lesions. The partial sequencing of SAV E2 and nsp3 genes placed the Swiss SAV variant within the Subtype 2 clustering together with freshwater isolates from UK and continental Europe. Although mortality stayed low, growth rates were significantly reduced, making the disease economically relevant. PMID:25266904

Schmidt-Posthaus, Heike; Diserens, Nicolas; Jankowska Hjortaas, Monika; Knüsel, Ralph; Hirschi, Regula; Taksdal, Torunn

2014-09-30

201

WATERBORNE DISEASE OUTBREAKS IN INDIVIDUAL WATER SYSTEMS IN THE UNITED STATES, 1920-80  

EPA Science Inventory

An analysis of the etiologies and causes of 302 waterborne outbreaks occurring in individual water systems during 1920-80 showed Streptococcus typhi to be the most commonly identified pathogen and use of contaminated, untreated well water the major cause of these outbreaks. These...

202

The Application of Genomics to Emerging Zoonotic Viral Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interspecies transmission of pathogens may result in the emergence of new infectious diseases in humans as well as in domestic and wild animals. Genomics tools such as high-throughput sequencing, mRNA expression profiling, and microarray-based analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms are providing unprecedented ways to analyze the diversity of the genomes of emerging pathogens as well as the molecular basis of

Bart L. Haagmans; Arno C. Andeweg; Albert D. M. E. Osterhaus

2009-01-01

203

Modeling the impact of vaccination control strategies on a foot and mouth disease outbreak in the Central United States.  

PubMed

The central United States (U.S.) has a large livestock population including cattle, swine, sheep and goats. Simulation models were developed to assess the impact of livestock herd types and vaccination on foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks using the North American Animal Disease Spread Model. In this study, potential FMD virus outbreaks in the central region of the U.S. were simulated to compare different vaccination strategies to a depopulation only scenario. Based on data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Statistics Service, a simulated population of 151,620 livestock operations characterized by latitude and longitude, production type, and herd size was generated. For the simulations, a single 17,000 head feedlot was selected as the initial latently infected herd in an otherwise susceptible population. Direct and indirect contact rates between herds were based on survey data of livestock producers in Kansas and Colorado. Control methods included ring vaccination around infected herds. Feedlots ?3000 head were either the only production type that was vaccinated or were assigned the highest vaccination priority. Simulated vaccination scenarios included low and high vaccine capacity, vaccination zones of 10km or 50km around detected infected premises, and vaccination trigger of 10 or 100 detected infected herds. Probability of transmission following indirect contact, movement controls and contact rate parameters were considered uncertain and so were the subjects of sensitivity analysis. All vaccination scenarios decreased number of herds depopulated but not all decreased outbreak duration. Increased size of the vaccination zone during an outbreak decreased the length of the outbreak and number of herds destroyed. Increased size of the vaccination zone primarily resulted in vaccinating feedlots ?3000 head across a larger area. Increasing the vaccination capacity had a smaller impact on the outbreak and may not be feasible if vaccine production and delivery is limited. The ability to vaccinate all the production types surrounding an infected herd did not appear as beneficial as priority vaccination of feedlot production types that have high numbers of indirect contacts. Outbreak duration, number of herds depopulated and the effectiveness of vaccination were sensitive to indirect contact transmission probability and movement restrictions. The results of this study will provide information about the impacts of disease control protocols which may be useful in choosing the optimal control methods to meet the goals of rapid effective control and eradication. PMID:25457133

McReynolds, Sara W; Sanderson, Michael W; Reeves, Aaron; Hill, Ashley E

2014-12-01

204

From hepatic diseases and jaundice to viral hepatitis: the configuration of a kaleidoscope.  

PubMed

Viral hepatitis A, B, C, D and E--systemic hepatotropic viral infections--present as acute hepatitis that, depending on the etiological agent, viral load and host conditions, may evolve into chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, liver cancer and acute fulminant disease. The ecological versatility of these viruses, their spectrum of transmission in time and space, potentialized by the sub-clinical course of a large proportion of infections, comprise an epidemiological challenge. This essay describes scenarios and tendencies in the socioepidemiologic profile, based on the history of these infections, and indicates the need to overcome patterns, models, and protocols and instead investigate each particular situation. In other words, it highlights the need to explore singularities in order to be able to develop new proposals for general actions tailored to local specificities. PMID:23703137

Gaze, Rosangela; Carvalho, Diana Maul de; Santoro-Lopes, Guilherme; Tura, Luiz Fernando Rangel

2013-02-01

205

Study of the Viral and Microbial Communities Associated With Crohn's Disease: A Metagenomic Approach  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to analyze and compare the diversity and structure of the viral and microbial communities in fecal samples from a control group of healthy volunteers and from patients affected by Crohn's disease (CD). METHODS: Healthy adult controls (n=8) and patients affected by ileocolic CD (n=11) were examined for the viral and microbial communities in their feces and, in one additional case, in the intestinal tissue. Using two different approaches, we compared the viral and microbial communities in several ways: by group (patients vs. controls), entity (viruses vs. bacteria), read assembly (unassembled vs. assembled reads), and methodology (our approach vs. an existing pipeline). Differences in the viral and microbial composition, and abundance between the two groups were analyzed to identify taxa that are under- or over-represented. RESULTS: A lower diversity but more variability between the CD samples in both virome and microbiome was found, with a clear distinction between groups based on the microbiome. Only ?5% of the differential viral biomarkers are more represented in the CD group (Synechococcus phage S CBS1 and Retroviridae family viruses), compared with 95% in the control group. Unrelated patterns of bacteria and bacteriophages were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our use of an extensive database is critical to retrieve more viral hits than in previous approaches. Unrelated patterns of bacteria and bacteriophages may be due to uneven representation of certain viruses in databases, among other factors. Further characterization of Retroviridae viruses in the CD group could be of interest, given their links with immunodeficiency and the immune responses. To conclude, some methodological considerations underlying the analysis of the viral community composition and abundance are discussed. PMID:23760301

Pérez-Brocal, Vicente; García-López, Rodrigo; Vázquez-Castellanos, Jorge F; Nos, Pilar; Beltrán, Belén; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andrés

2013-01-01

206

[Kenya Research Station and viral infectious disease research].  

PubMed

The Institute of Tropical Medicine, Kenya Research Station, Nagasaki University was established by a fund of the Ministry of Education (MEXT) in 2005. Currently, the station has been on ''The Clinical and Epidemiological Research Program of Tropical Medicine and Emerging Infectious Diseases-Establishment of Education and Research System between Africa and Japan- ''. The project has been supported by about 20 Japanese staff and 85 Kenyan staff, and in the research station, 10 research teams have worked on their researches for the prevention of tropical medicine and emerging diseases collaborating with other researches and The JICA Grassroots Technical Cooperation Project has also started in 2012. In April 2010, Nagasaki University, Africa Station has been established along with Kenya Research Station, and it made possible for other faculties to join research in Kenya. School of Dentistry has started oral health survey in Mbita, while School of Fishery, School of Engineering and School of Health Science have a plan of a joint project targeting areas by Lake Victoria. Our aim is to develop a foundation which enables all researchers from different fields to carry out their research for improvement health and living standards of the locals. PMID:24769581

Ichinose, Yoshio

2013-01-01

207

First Finding of Southeast Asia Topotype of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Kinmen, Taiwan, in the 2012 Outbreak.  

PubMed

Foot-and-mouth disease virus, a member of genus Aphthovirus within the family Picornaviridae, affects cloven-hoofed animals, causing foot-and-mouth disease characterized by vesicle development. The Southeast Asia topotype, one of the topotypes within serotype O of the virus, is prevalent in some Asian countries, but had not previously been found in Taiwan. The topotype was first found in pigs in Kinmen Island, Taiwan, in 2012 and identified by nucleotide sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis. Outbreaks were reported at 4 farms, resulting in the culling of 628 pigs and 1 cattle. Pigs were the only species infected during the outbreak. The incursion of Southeast Asia topotype into Taiwan implies the expansion of the topotype in East Asia. PMID:25056674

Lin, Yeou-Liang; Chang, Chia-Yi; Pan, Chu-Hsiang; Deng, Ming-Chung; Tsai, Hsiang-Jung; Lee, Fan

2014-12-01

208

First Finding of Southeast Asia Topotype of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Kinmen, Taiwan, in the 2012 Outbreak  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Foot-and-mouth disease virus, a member of genus Aphthovirus within the family Picornaviridae, affects cloven-hoofed animals, causing foot-and-mouth disease characterized by vesicle development. The Southeast Asia topotype, one of the topotypes within serotype O of the virus, is prevalent in some Asian countries, but had not previously been found in Taiwan. The topotype was first found in pigs in Kinmen Island, Taiwan, in 2012 and identified by nucleotide sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis. Outbreaks were reported at 4 farms, resulting in the culling of 628 pigs and 1 cattle. Pigs were the only species infected during the outbreak. The incursion of Southeast Asia topotype into Taiwan implies the expansion of the topotype in East Asia. PMID:25056674

LIN, Yeou-Liang; CHANG, Chia-Yi; PAN, Chu-Hsiang; DENG, Ming-Chung; TSAI, Hsiang-Jung; LEE, Fan

2014-01-01

209

Estimation of Flattened Musk Turtle (Sternotherus depressus) survival, recapture, and recovery rate during and after a disease outbreak  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We estimated survivorship, recapture probabilities and recovery rates in a threatened population of Flattened Musk Turtles (Sternotherus depressus) through a disease outbreak in Alabama in 1985. We evaluated a set of models for the demographic effects of disease by analyzing recaptures and recoveries simultaneously. Multiple-model inference suggested survival was temporally dynamic, whereas recapture probability was sex- and age-specifc. Biweekly survivorship declined from 98-99% before to 82-88% during the outbreak. Live recapture was twice as likely for male turtles relative to juveniles or females, whereas dead recoveries varied only slightly by sex and age. Our results suggest modest reduction in survival over a relatively short time period may severely affect population status.

Fonnesbeck, C.J.; Dodd, C.K., Jr.

2003-01-01

210

Multiple outbreaks of severe acute BVDV in North America occurring between 1993 and 1995 linked to the same BVDV2 strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first reported outbreak of bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) in 1946 described a transmissible acute disease characterized by severe leukopenia, high fever, gastrointestinal erosions and hemorrhages. However, in the ensuing years, the most commonly observed acute form of BVD was clinically mild. There was limited viral shed and spread following these acute infections. This led to the assumptions that acute

Julia F. Ridpath; John D. Neill; Stefan Vilcek; Edward J. Dubovi; Suzanne Carman

2006-01-01

211

Rapid Diagnosis of Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever by Reverse Transcription-PCR in an Outbreak Setting and Assessment of Patient Viral Load as a Predictor of Outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The largest outbreak on record of Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) occurred in Uganda from August 2000 to January 2001. The outbreak was centered in the Gulu district of northern Uganda, with secondary transmis- sion to other districts. After the initial diagnosis of Sudan ebolavirus by the National Institute for Virology in Johannesburg, South Africa, a temporary diagnostic laboratory was established

Jonathan S. Towner; Pierre E. Rollin; Daniel G. Bausch; Anthony Sanchez; Sharon M. Crary; Martin Vincent; William F. Lee; Christina F. Spiropoulou; Thomas G. Ksiazek; Mathew Lukwiya; Felix Kaducu; Robert Downing; Stuart T. Nichol

2004-01-01

212

Seven Strains of Enterovirus D68 Detected in the United States during the 2014 Severe Respiratory Disease Outbreak  

PubMed Central

Clusters of severe respiratory disease in the United States were reported to the CDC beginning in August 2014. Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) was identified from 83% (30/36) of initial severe cases. Investigations in August and September found severe EV-D68 cases to be widespread across the United States. We report seven EV-D68 genomes from the outbreak. PMID:25414503

Brown, B. A.; Nix, W. A.; Sheth, M.; Frace, M.

2014-01-01

213

Newcastle disease outbreaks in recent years in Western Europe were caused by an old (VI) and a novel genotype (VII)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains, isolated from outbreaks during epizootics between 1992 and 1996 in Western European\\u000a countries, were compared by restriction enzyme cleavage site mapping of the fusion (F) protein gene between nucleotides 334\\u000a and 1682 and by sequence analysis between nucleotides 47 and 435. Both methods revealed that NDV strains responsible for these\\u000a epizootics belong to two distinct

B. Lomniczi; E. Wehmann; J. Herczeg; A. Ballagi-Pordány; E. F. Kaleta; O. Werner; G. Meulemans; P. H. Jorgensen; A. P. Manté; A. L. J. Gielkens; I. Capua; J. Damoser

1998-01-01

214

Two concurrent enteric disease outbreaks among men who have sex with men, minneapolis-st paul area.  

PubMed

Between 1 November 2013 and 31 March 2014, concurrent shigellosis and cryptosporidiosis outbreaks occurred among men who have sex with men in the Minneapolis-St. Paul area, 75% of whom were HIV-infected. Current HIV/AIDS strategy emphasizing treatment as prevention may effectively decrease HIV transmission, but raises concerns about other diseases if safer sex messages are de-emphasized. PMID:24944234

Danila, Richard N; Eikmeier, Dana L; Robinson, Trisha J; La Pointe, Allison; DeVries, Aaron S

2014-10-01

215

Ebola virus outbreak 2014: clinical review for emergency physicians.  

PubMed

The 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa is the largest in history. Ebola viral disease is a severe and fatal illness characterized by a nonspecific viral syndrome followed by fulminant septic shock and coagulopathy. Despite ongoing efforts directed at experimental treatments and vaccine development, current medical management of Ebola viral disease is largely limited to supportive therapy, thus making early case identification and immediate implementation of appropriate control measures critical. Because a case of Ebola viral disease was confirmed in the United States on September 30, 2014, emergency medicine providers should be knowledgeable about it for a number of reasons: we are being called on to answer questions about Ebola and allay public fears, we are likely to be first to encounter an infected patient, and there are increasing numbers of US emergency physicians working in Africa who risk coming in direct contact with the disease. This article seeks to provide emergency physicians with the essential and up-to-date information required to identify, evaluate, and manage Ebola viral disease and to join global efforts to contain the current outbreak. PMID:25455908

Meyers, Linda; Frawley, Thomas; Goss, Sarah; Kang, Christopher

2015-01-01

216

Pacheco's parrot disease in macaws of the Lisbon's Zoological Garden. Description of an outbreak, diagnosis and management, including vaccination.  

PubMed

The Lisbon's Zoological Garden, Portugal, has maintained for many years a large collection of psittacine birds without any serious health problems. Unexpectedly, in April 1999, a total of nine macaws died after a short period of illness. Clinical signs consisted mainly of anorexia, ruffled feathers and yellowish droppings. A herpesvirus was isolated from brain, trachea, lung, liver, spleen, kidney and intestine of each of the examined dead birds, confirming that all animals succumbed during viraemia. Serotyping of the isolate in cross neutralization tests with reference sera prove that the outbreak was caused by serotype 3 of Pacheco's parrot disease herpesviruses. An autogenous, formalin-inactivated vaccine with adjuvant (aluminium hydroxid gel) was prepared from one of the isolates and injected intramuscularly 14 days and six weeks after the onset of mortality in an attempt to protect the remaining psittacine birds in the zoo from the disease. The autogenous vaccine was well tolerated and was able to rapidly stop virus spread and morbidity and mortality among the psittacine birds. Follow-up studies demonstrate that all nine blood samples from vaccinated birds obtained nine month' after the second vaccination contain neutralizing antibodies. Twenty five month' after vaccination two out of four serum samples were still antibody positive. No herpesvirus was isolated from faecal samples nine and twenty five months after the onset of the outbreak. These data prove that the autogenous vaccine played a major role in containing a severe outbreak of Pacheco's parrot disease in a large collection of psittacine birds. PMID:18077933

Barão Da Cunha, M; Correia, J J; Fagulha, T; Fevereiro, M; Peleteiro, M C; Vollrath, G; Kaleta, E F

2007-11-01

217

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains are highly prevalent in Ugandan piggeries but disease outbreaks are masked by antibiotic prophylaxis.  

PubMed

Post-weaning diarrhea (PWD) caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important disease of newly weaned piglets. ETEC strains commonly express F4 and/or F18 fimbriae that attach to carbohydrate receptors present on the intestinal epithelium during colonization. The disease status in the Ugandan piggeries had previously not been studied. In this cross-sectional sero-survey and clinical outbreak monitoring, we found very high sero-prevalence levels of both anti-F4 (70.5 %) and anti-F18 (73.7 %) antibodies, despite limited cases of clinical outbreaks. Strains isolated from these cases were typically F18(+) ETEC. High antibiotic resistance and multi-drug resistance were characteristics of the isolates, with highest resistance level of over 95 % to commonly used antibiotics such as penicillin and tetracycline. We conclude that ETEC infections are widely spread on farms in Central Uganda but clinical disease outbreaks were masked by the management practices on these farms, like the use of extensive antibiotic prophylaxis. PMID:25311441

Okello, Emmanuel; Moonens, Kristof; Erume, Joseph; De Greve, Henri

2015-01-01

218

Vector-borne infectious diseases and influenza  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a serious viral disease of animals and humans in Africa and the Middle East that is transmitted by mosquitoes. First isolated in Kenya during an outbreak in 1930 subsequent outbreaks have had a significant impact on animal and human health and national economies, and it is...

219

Rift Valley fever: A neglected zoonotic disease?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a serious viral disease of animals and humans in Africa and the Middle East that is transmitted by mosquitoes. First isolated in Kenya during an outbreak in 1930, subsequent outbreaks have had a significant impact on animal and human health, as well as national economies. ...

220

West Nile fever--a reemerging mosquito-borne viral disease in Europe.  

PubMed Central

West Nile virus causes sporadic cases and outbreaks of human and equine disease in Europe (western Mediterranean and southern Russia in 1962-64, Belarus and Ukraine in the 1970s and 1980s, Romania in 1996-97, Czechland in 1997, and Italy in 1998). Environmental factors, including human activities, that enhance population densities of vector mosquitoes (heavy rains followed by floods, irrigation, higher than usual temperature, or formation of ecologic niches that enable mass breeding of mosquitoes) could increase the incidence of West Nile fever. PMID:10511520

Hubálek, Z.; Halouzka, J.

1999-01-01

221

Outbreak Simulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page provides a problem-based activity on risk assessment of environmental health issues. The activity asks students to "study and research emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, particularly through vector-borne, food-borne, and water-borne educational activities" and "understand that certain exposures in the environment cause various infectious diseases." The activity asks students to simulate a food borne salmonella outbreak, and carry out the resulting investigation. This resource is free to download. Users must first create a login with ATEEC's website to access the file.

222

Need of surveillance response systems to combat Ebola outbreaks and other emerging infectious diseases in African countries  

PubMed Central

There is growing concern in Sub-Saharan Africa about the spread of the Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever, and the public health burden that it ensues. Since 1976, there have been 885,343 suspected and laboratory confirmed cases of EVD and the disease has claimed 2,512 cases and 932 fatality in West Africa. There are certain requirements that must be met when responding to EVD outbreaks and this process could incur certain challenges. For the purposes of this paper, five have been identified: (i) the deficiency in the development and implementation of surveillance response systems against Ebola and others infectious disease outbreaks in Africa; (ii) the lack of education and knowledge resulting in an EVD outbreak triggering panic, anxiety, psychosocial trauma, isolation and dignity impounding, stigmatisation, community ostracism and resistance to associated socio-ecological and public health consequences; (iii) limited financial resources, human technical capacity and weak community and national health system operational plans for prevention and control responses, practices and management; (iv) inadequate leadership and coordination; and (v) the lack of development of new strategies, tools and approaches, such as improved diagnostics and novel therapies including vaccines which can assist in preventing, controlling and containing Ebola outbreaks as well as the spread of the disease. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop and implement an active early warning alert and surveillance response system for outbreak response and control of emerging infectious diseases. Understanding the unending risks of transmission dynamics and resurgence is essential in implementing rapid effective response interventions tailored to specific local settings and contexts. Therefore, the following actions are recommended: (i) national and regional inter-sectorial and trans-disciplinary surveillance response systems that include early warnings, as well as critical human resources development, must be quickly adopted by allied ministries and organisations in African countries in epidemic and pandemic responses; (ii) harnessing all stakeholders commitment and advocacy in sustained funding, collaboration, communication and networking including community participation to enhance a coordinated responses, as well as tracking and prompt case management to combat challenges; (iii) more research and development in new drug discovery and vaccines; and (iv) understanding the involvement of global health to promote the establishment of public health surveillance response systems with functions of early warning, as well as monitoring and evaluation in upholding research-action programmes and innovative interventions. PMID:25120913

2014-01-01

223

Hand, foot, and mouth disease: identifying and managing an acute viral syndrome.  

PubMed

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common, typically self-limited viral syndrome in children and adults. It is marked by fever, oral ulcers, and skin manifestations affecting the palms, soles, and buttocks, with symptoms usually lasting less than 1 week. Because it has the potential to reach epidemic levels in the United States, general practitioners need to be aware of it. PMID:25183845

Repass, Gregory L; Palmer, William C; Stancampiano, Fernando F

2014-09-01

224

BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUS ANTIGENIC DIVERSITY: IMPACT ON DISEASE AND VACCINATION PROGRAMS (DETECTING AND CONTROLLING BVDV INFECTIONS, 4/4-5/02, AMES, IA)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections in cattle are associated with a variety or "diverse" clinical forms. These include digestive tract disease, respiratory disease, fetal diseases (varied, dependent on fetal age), systemic disease such as mucosal disease, immunosuppression, hemorrhagic di...

225

Borna disease virus requires cholesterol in both cellular membrane and viral envelope for efficient cell entry.  

PubMed

Borna disease virus (BDV), the prototypic member of the family Bornaviridae within the order Mononegavirales, provides an important model for the investigation of viral persistence within the central nervous system (CNS) and of associated brain disorders. BDV is highly neurotropic and enters its target cell via receptor-mediated endocytosis, a process mediated by the virus surface glycoprotein (G), but the cellular factors and pathways determining BDV cell tropism within the CNS remain mostly unknown. Cholesterol has been shown to influence viral infections via its effects on different viral processes, including replication, budding, and cell entry. In this work, we show that cell entry, but not replication and gene expression, of BDV was drastically inhibited by depletion of cellular cholesterol levels. BDV G-mediated attachment to BDV-susceptible cells was cholesterol independent, but G localized to lipid rafts (LR) at the plasma membrane. LR structure and function critically depend on cholesterol, and hence, compromised structural integrity and function of LR caused by cholesterol depletion likely inhibited the initial stages of BDV cell internalization. Furthermore, we also show that viral-envelope cholesterol is required for BDV infectivity. PMID:19129439

Clemente, Roberto; de Parseval, Aymeric; Perez, Mar; de la Torre, Juan C

2009-03-01

226

Exploring relationships between whole carcass condemnation abattoir data, non-disease factors and disease outbreaks in swine herds in Ontario (2001–2007)  

PubMed Central

Background Improving upon traditional animal disease surveillance systems may allow more rapid detection of disease outbreaks in animal populations. In Ontario, between the years 2001 – 2007, widespread outbreaks of several diseases caused major impacts to the swine industry. This study was undertaken to investigate whether whole carcass condemnation data of market pigs from provincial abattoirs from 2001 – 2007 could have provided useful information for disease surveillance of Ontario swine. The objective was to examine the suitability of these data for detection of disease outbreaks using multi-level models and spatial scan statistics. We investigated the ability of these data to provide spatially-relevant surveillance information by determining the approximate distance pigs are shipped from farm to provincial abattoirs in the province, and explored potentially biasing non-disease factors within these data. Results Provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario were found to be located in close proximity to the hog farms of origin. The fall season and increasing abattoir capacity were associated with a decrease in condemnation rates. Condemnation rates varied across agricultural regions by year, and some regions showed yearly trends consistent with the timing of emergence of new disease strains that affected the Ontario swine population. Scan statistics identified stable clusters of condemnations in space that may have represented stable underlying factors influencing condemnations. The temporal scans detected the most likely cluster of high condemnations during the timeframe in which widespread disease events were documented. One space-time cluster took place during the beginning of the historical disease outbreaks and may have provided an early warning signal within a syndromic surveillance system. Conclusions Spatial disease surveillance methods may be applicable to whole carcass condemnation data collected at provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario for disease detection on a local scale. These data could provide useful information within a syndromic disease surveillance system for protecting swine herd health within the province. However, non-disease factors including region, season and abattoir size need to be considered when applying quantitative methods to abattoir data for disease surveillance. PMID:24674622

2014-01-01

227

Aptamer-Based Therapeutics: New Approaches to Combat Human Viral Diseases  

PubMed Central

Viruses replicate inside the cells of an organism and continuously evolve to contend with an ever-changing environment. Many life-threatening diseases, such as AIDS, SARS, hepatitis and some cancers, are caused by viruses. Because viruses have small genome sizes and high mutability, there is currently a lack of and an urgent need for effective treatment for many viral pathogens. One approach that has recently received much attention is aptamer-based therapeutics. Aptamer technology has high target specificity and versatility, i.e., any viral proteins could potentially be targeted. Consequently, new aptamer-based therapeutics have the potential to lead a revolution in the development of anti-infective drugs. Additionally, aptamers can potentially bind any targets and any pathogen that is theoretically amenable to rapid targeting, making aptamers invaluable tools for treating a wide range of diseases. This review will provide a broad, comprehensive overview of viral therapies that use aptamers. The aptamer selection process will be described, followed by an explanation of the potential for treating virus infection by aptamers. Recent progress and prospective use of aptamers against a large variety of human viruses, such as HIV-1, HCV, HBV, SCoV, Rabies virus, HPV, HSV and influenza virus, with particular focus on clinical development of aptamers will also be described. Finally, we will discuss the challenges of advancing antiviral aptamer therapeutics and prospects for future success. PMID:24287493

Shum, Ka-To; Zhou, Jiehua; Rossi, John J.

2013-01-01

228

Reducing Outbreaks: Using International Governmental Risk Pools to Fund Research and Development of Infectious Disease Medicines and Vaccines  

PubMed Central

The deadliest Ebola outbreak the world has ever seen is currently ravaging West Africa, despite the concerted efforts of the World Health Organization and many national governments. The current picture is troubling, but not altogether unexpected. Ebola was initially identified in 1976, and since that time, few drugs have been developed to combat it. The same is true for myriad other dangerous infectious diseases to which the world is currently susceptible. One proposal that might prevent outbreaks of this scale and magnitude from recurring would be to have the World Health Organization (WHO) and its technical partners assess which of its member states are at high risk for a disease, either directly or indirectly, and facilitate the creation of international governmental risk pools of those member states. Risk pools would offer open-indexed grant contracts to fund vaccine and drug development for a particular disease, and pharmaceutical companies could browse the index to apply for these grants. If the risk-pool states and a particular company sign a contract, a mutually agreed upon amount of the vaccine or drug would be produced at a below-market purchase price for those states. In return, the company would keep any patents or intellectual property rights for the developed vaccines or drugs. Risk-pool countries that did not use their vaccine or drug could resell that supply on secondary markets to other countries outside of the risk pool. This arrangement will increase the supply of tested drug and vaccine candidates available for combatting unexpected outbreaks of any previously discovered major infectious disease in the future. PMID:25506281

Erfe, J. Mark

2014-01-01

229

Genetic characterization of feline calicivirus strains associated with varying disease manifestations during an outbreak season in Missouri (1995-1996).  

PubMed

Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a common cause of mild to severe upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) in cats. FCV strain 21223 was isolated from a kitten with severe pneumonia in a disease outbreak with unusually high mortality (35 %) that occurred in a Missouri feline colony in 1995-1996. Phylogenetic analysis of the genome sequence of strain 21223 indicated the emergence of a new FCV strain. Analysis of the full-length genome sequence of a closely related (99.5 % nucleotide identity) strain, 3786, obtained from an asymptomatic animal in the same colony four months later, showed the presence of seven amino acid substitutions, with six of them located in the VP1 capsid sequence encoded by ORF2. Comparative analysis of the E-region sequences (426-521 aa ORF2) presumably involved in virus-host cell receptor interactions did not identify amino acid substitutions unique to the virulent strain. We determined the complete genome sequences of four virus isolates that were collected in regional catteries in the months following the outbreak that were associated with different manifestations of the disease (URTD, chronic stomatitis, and gingivitis). We show that genetically distinct FCV strains were cocirculating in the area, and no apparent correlation could be made between overall sequence and observed disease. PMID:24217871

Prikhodko, Victor G; Sandoval-Jaime, Carlos; Abente, Eugenio J; Bok, Karin; Parra, Gabriel I; Rogozin, Igor B; Ostlund, Eileen N; Green, Kim Y; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V

2014-02-01

230

Hazard analysis of critical control points assessment as a tool to respond to emerging infectious disease outbreaks.  

PubMed

Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI) strain H5N1 has had direct and indirect economic impacts arising from direct mortality and control programmes in over 50 countries reporting poultry outbreaks. HPAI H5N1 is now reported as the most widespread and expensive zoonotic disease recorded and continues to pose a global health threat. The aim of this research was to assess the potential of utilising Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points (HACCP) assessments in providing a framework for a rapid response to emerging infectious disease outbreaks. This novel approach applies a scientific process, widely used in food production systems, to assess risks related to a specific emerging health threat within a known zoonotic disease hotspot. We conducted a HACCP assessment for HPAI viruses within Vietnam's domestic poultry trade and relate our findings to the existing literature. Our HACCP assessment identified poultry flock isolation, transportation, slaughter, preparation and consumption as critical control points for Vietnam's domestic poultry trade. Introduction of the preventative measures highlighted through this HACCP evaluation would reduce the risks posed by HPAI viruses and pressure on the national economy. We conclude that this HACCP assessment provides compelling evidence for the future potential that HACCP analyses could play in initiating a rapid response to emerging infectious diseases. PMID:23967294

Edmunds, Kelly L; Hunter, Paul R; Few, Roger; Bell, Diana J

2013-01-01

231

Genetic and antigenic analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O responsible for outbreaks in India during 2013.  

PubMed

In recent times, majority of the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks in India are caused by serotype O Ind2001 lineage. The lineage has diverged into four sub-lineages (Ind2001a, b, c and d). We report here the genetic and antigenic analyses of nine Ind2001d isolates that caused outbreaks during April 2013-March 2014 in India. The length of the genomes of outbreak viruses varied between 8153 and 8181 nucleotides without any insertion or deletion in the coding region. Of the nine isolates analyzed antigenically against the currently used Indian vaccine strain INDR2/1975, eight showed good cross serological match (>0.3) indicating optimal antigenic coverage by the vaccine strain. An unprecedented deletion of 22 nucleotides between position 57 and 78 was observed in the 3' untranslated region of one of the isolates without compromising the virus viability, which imply that partial distortion in SL2 of 3'UTR may not have influence on virus viability at least under in-vitro conditions. Recently the Ind2001 lineage has been reported from several countries including Libya and spread of this lineage across a wide geographical area needs to be monitored carefully to avoid any future pandemic. PMID:25511252

Subramaniam, Saravanan; Mohapatra, Jajati K; Das, Biswajit; Sanyal, Aniket; Pattnaik, Bramhadev

2015-03-01

232

An outbreak of Norwalk-like viral gastroenteritis in a frequently penalized food service operation: a case for mandatory training of food handlers in safety and hygiene.  

PubMed

In 1999, in Toledo, Ohio, an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred among people who had attended a Christmas dinner banquet and had eaten food prepared by a local caterer. Overall, 93 of the 137 attendees (67.9 percent) reported illness. Eight sought medical care, and one was hospitalized. Case-control studies revealed that the illness was associated with eating tossed salad (odds ratio [OR] = 2.5, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 1.02-6.26). Eleven of 12 stool specimens that were taken from ill people tested positive for a Norwalk-like virus (NLV) but were negative for E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Shigella. The primary source of the outbreak was not determined, but an infected food handler may have played a role in the transmission of the virus. The catering facility had been cited frequently for food safety and hygiene violations. None of the personnel or food handlers at this facility had been appropriately trained in safe food-handling practices, nor had the personnel at another local caterer that had prepared food items suspected of causing a multistate outbreak of NLVs. In Toledo, food service operations with trained personnel/food handlers received better inspection reports than food service operations without trained personnel and were less likely to contribute to foodborne outbreaks. Training of personnel and food handlers may be important for preventing outbreaks. PMID:11764683

Kassa, H

2001-12-01

233

Dengue Viral RNA Levels in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Are Associated with Disease Severity and Preexisting Dengue Immune Status  

PubMed Central

Background Infection with dengue viruses (DENV) causes a wide range of manifestations from asymptomatic infection to a febrile illness called dengue fever (DF), to dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). The in vivo targets of DENV and the relation between the viral burden in these cells and disease severity are not known. Method The levels of positive and negative strand viral RNA in peripheral blood monocytes, T/NK cells, and B cells and in plasma of DF and DHF cases were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. Results Positive strand viral RNA was detected in monocytes, T/NK cells and B cells with the highest amounts found in B cells. Viral RNA levels in CD14+ cells and plasma were significantly higher in DHF compared to DF, and in cases with a secondary infection compared to those undergoing a primary infection. The distribution of viral RNA among cell subpopulations was similar in DF and DHF cases. Small amounts of negative strand RNA were found in a few cases only. The severity of plasma leakage correlated with viral RNA levels in plasma and in CD14+ cells. Conclusions B cells were the principal cells containing DENV RNA in peripheral blood, but overall there was little active DENV RNA replication detectable in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Secondary infection and DHF were associated with higher viral burden in PBMC populations, especially CD14+ monocytes, suggesting that viral infection of these cells may be involved in disease pathogenesis. PMID:23284680

Srikiatkhachorn, Anon; Wichit, Sineewanlaya; Gibbons, Robert V.; Green, Sharone; Libraty, Daniel H.; Endy, Timothy P.; Ennis, Francis A.; Kalayanarooj, Siripen; Rothman, Alan L.

2012-01-01

234

Lumpy skin disease: Attempted propagation in tick cell lines and presence of viral DNA in field ticks collected from naturally-infected cattle.  

PubMed

Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is of substantial economic importance for the cattle industry in Africa and the Near and Middle East. Several insect species are thought to transmit the disease mechanically. Recent transmission studies have demonstrated the first evidence for a role of hard (ixodid) ticks as vectors of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). The aim of this study was to attempt in vitro growth of the virus in Rhipicephalus spp. tick cell lines and investigate in vivo the presence of the virus in ticks collected from cattle during LSD outbreaks in Egypt and South Africa. No evidence was obtained for replication of LSDV in tick cell lines although the virus was remarkably stable, remaining viable for 35 days at 28°C in tick cell cultures, in growth medium used for tick cells and in phosphate buffered saline. Viral DNA was detected in two-thirds of the 56 field ticks, making this the first report of the presence of potentially virulent LSDV in ticks collected from naturally infected animals. PMID:25468765

Tuppurainen, E S M; Venter, E H; Coetzer, J A W; Bell-Sakyi, L

2015-03-01

235

HIV-1 Integrase Variants Retarget Viral Integration and Are Associated with Disease Progression in a Chronic Infection Cohort.  

PubMed

Distinct integration patterns of different retroviruses, including HIV-1, have puzzled virologists for over 20 years. A tetramer of the viral integrase (IN) assembles on the two viral cDNA ends, docks onto the target DNA (tDNA), and catalyzes viral genome insertion into the host chromatin. We identified the amino acids in HIV-1 IN that directly contact tDNA bases and affect local integration site sequence selection. These residues also determine the propensity of the virus to integrate into flexible tDNA sequences. Remarkably, natural polymorphisms INS119G and INR231G retarget viral integration away from gene-dense regions. Precisely these variants were associated with rapid disease progression in a chronic HIV-1 subtype C infection cohort. These findings link integration site selection to virulence and viral evolution, but also to the host immune response and antiretroviral therapy, since HIV-1 IN119 is under selection by HLA alleles and integrase inhibitors. PMID:25525795

Demeulemeester, Jonas; Vets, Sofie; Schrijvers, Rik; Madlala, Paradise; De Maeyer, Marc; De Rijck, Jan; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Debyser, Zeger; Gijsbers, Rik

2014-11-12

236

Cooler Temperatures Destabilize RNA Interference and Increase Susceptibility of Disease Vector Mosquitoes to Viral Infection  

PubMed Central

Background The impact of global climate change on the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases is the subject of extensive debate. The transmission of mosquito-borne viral diseases is particularly complex, with climatic variables directly affecting many parameters associated with the prevalence of disease vectors. While evidence shows that warmer temperatures often decrease the extrinsic incubation period of an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus), exposure to cooler temperatures often predisposes disease vector mosquitoes to higher infection rates. RNA interference (RNAi) pathways are essential to antiviral immunity in the mosquito; however, few experiments have explored the effects of temperature on the RNAi machinery. Methodology/Principal Findings We utilized transgenic “sensor” strains of Aedes aegypti to examine the role of temperature on RNA silencing. These “sensor” strains express EGFP only when RNAi is inhibited; for example, after knockdown of the effector proteins Dicer-2 (DCR-2) or Argonaute-2 (AGO-2). We observed an increase in EGFP expression in transgenic sensor mosquitoes reared at 18°C as compared with 28°C. Changes in expression were dependent on the presence of an inverted repeat with homology to a portion of the EGFP sequence, as transgenic strains lacking this sequence, the double stranded RNA (dsRNA) trigger for RNAi, showed no change in EGFP expression when reared at 18°C. Sequencing small RNAs in sensor mosquitoes reared at low temperature revealed normal processing of dsRNA substrates, suggesting the observed deficiency in RNAi occurs downstream of DCR-2. Rearing at cooler temperatures also predisposed mosquitoes to higher levels of infection with both chikungunya and yellow fever viruses. Conclusions/Significance This data suggest that microclimates, such as those present in mosquito breeding sites, as well as more general climactic variables may influence the dynamics of mosquito-borne viral diseases by affecting the antiviral immunity of disease vectors. PMID:23738025

Adelman, Zach N.; Anderson, Michelle A. E.; Wiley, Michael R.; Murreddu, Marta G.; Samuel, Glady Hazitha; Morazzani, Elaine M.; Myles, Kevin M.

2013-01-01

237

Characteristics of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viral Strains Circulating at the Wildlife/livestock Interface of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area.  

PubMed

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) inflicts severe economic losses within infected countries and is arguably the most important trade-restricting livestock disease in the world. In southern Africa, infected African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) are the major reservoir of the South African Territories (SAT) types of the virus. With the progressive expansion of transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs), the risk of FMD outbreaks is expected to increase due to a higher probability of buffalo/livestock contacts. To investigate the dynamics of FMD within and around the Great Limpopo TFCA (GLTFCA), 5 herds of buffaloes were sampled in June 2010 to characterize circulating viruses in South Africa and Zimbabwe. Three SAT-2 and three SAT-3 viral strains were isolated in both countries, including one that was genetically linked with a recent SAT-2 outbreak in Mozambique in 2011. In addition, two groups of unvaccinated cattle (n = 192) were serologically monitored for 1 year at the wildlife/livestock interface of Gonarezhou National Park (GNP) in Zimbabwe between April 2009 and January 2010, using the liquid-phase blocking ELISA (LPBE) and a test for antibodies directed against non-structural proteins (NSP). Neither clinical signs nor vaccination of cattle were reported during the study, yet a high proportion of the monitored cattle showed antibody responses against SAT-3 and SAT-1. Antibodies against NSP were also detected in 10% of the monitored cattle. The results of this study suggest that cattle grazing in areas adjacent to the GLTFCA can be infected by buffalo or other infected livestock and that cattle trade movements can act as efficient disseminators of FMD viruses to areas several hundred kilometres from the virus source. Current methods of surveillance of FMD at the GLTFCA interface seem insufficient to control for FMD emergence and dissemination and require urgent reassessment and regional coordination. PMID:24739536

Jori, F; Caron, A; Thompson, P N; Dwarka, R; Foggin, C; de Garine-Wichatitsky, M; Hofmeyr, M; Van Heerden, J; Heath, L

2014-04-17

238

Yellow Fever in Africa: Estimating the Burden of Disease and Impact of Mass Vaccination from Outbreak and Serological Data  

PubMed Central

Background Yellow fever is a vector-borne disease affecting humans and non-human primates in tropical areas of Africa and South America. While eradication is not feasible due to the wildlife reservoir, large scale vaccination activities in Africa during the 1940s to 1960s reduced yellow fever incidence for several decades. However, after a period of low vaccination coverage, yellow fever has resurged in the continent. Since 2006 there has been substantial funding for large preventive mass vaccination campaigns in the most affected countries in Africa to curb the rising burden of disease and control future outbreaks. Contemporary estimates of the yellow fever disease burden are lacking, and the present study aimed to update the previous estimates on the basis of more recent yellow fever occurrence data and improved estimation methods. Methods and Findings Generalised linear regression models were fitted to a dataset of the locations of yellow fever outbreaks within the last 25 years to estimate the probability of outbreak reports across the endemic zone. Environmental variables and indicators for the surveillance quality in the affected countries were used as covariates. By comparing probabilities of outbreak reports estimated in the regression with the force of infection estimated for a limited set of locations for which serological surveys were available, the detection probability per case and the force of infection were estimated across the endemic zone. The yellow fever burden in Africa was estimated for the year 2013 as 130,000 (95% CI 51,000–380,000) cases with fever and jaundice or haemorrhage including 78,000 (95% CI 19,000–180,000) deaths, taking into account the current level of vaccination coverage. The impact of the recent mass vaccination campaigns was assessed by evaluating the difference between the estimates obtained for the current vaccination coverage and for a hypothetical scenario excluding these vaccination campaigns. Vaccination campaigns were estimated to have reduced the number of cases and deaths by 27% (95% CI 22%–31%) across the region, achieving up to an 82% reduction in countries targeted by these campaigns. A limitation of our study is the high level of uncertainty in our estimates arising from the sparseness of data available from both surveillance and serological surveys. Conclusions With the estimation method presented here, spatial estimates of transmission intensity can be combined with vaccination coverage levels to evaluate the impact of past or proposed vaccination campaigns, thereby helping to allocate resources efficiently for yellow fever control. This method has been used by the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI Alliance) to estimate the potential impact of future vaccination campaigns. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24800812

Garske, Tini; Van Kerkhove, Maria D.; Yactayo, Sergio; Ronveaux, Olivier; Lewis, Rosamund F.; Staples, J. Erin; Perea, William; Ferguson, Neil M.

2014-01-01

239

Surveillance of acute infectious gastroenteritis (1992-2009) and food-borne disease outbreaks (1996-2009) in Italy, with a focus on the Piedmont and Lombardy regions.  

PubMed

We describe trends in the occurrence of acute infectious gastroenteritis (1992 to 2009) and food-borne disease outbreaks (1996 to 2009) in Italy. In 2002, the Piedmont region implemented a surveillance system for early detection and control of food-borne disease outbreaks; in 2004, the Lombardy region implemented a system for surveillance of all notifiable human infectious diseases. Both systems are internet based. We compared the regional figures with the national mean using official notification data provided by the National Infectious Diseases Notification System (SIMI) and the National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT), in order to provide additional information about the epidemiology of these diseases in Italy. When compared with the national mean, data from the two regional systems showed a significant increase in notification rates of non-typhoid salmonellosis and infectious diarrhea other than non-typhoid salmonellosis, but for foodborne disease outbreaks, the increase was not statistically significant. Although the two regional systems have different objectives and structures, they showed improved sensitivity regarding notification of cases of acute infectious gastroenteritis and, to a lesser extent, food-borne disease outbreaks, and thus provide a more complete picture of the epidemiology of these diseases in Italy. PMID:22401508

Mughini-Gras, L; Graziani, C; Biorci, F; Pavan, A; Magliola, R; Ricci, A; Gilli, G; Carraro, E; Busani, L

2012-01-01

240

[Serological survey of antibodies against viral diseases of public health interest in llamas (Lama glama) from Jujuy province, Argentina].  

PubMed

Llama population from Argentina is mainly concentrated in the Andean Puna, Jujuy. Llamas represent an important economic resource for the Andean communities. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of antibodies against viral antigens associated to viral diseases of economic impact (neonatal diarrhea, reproductive and respiratory syndromes). A total of 349 serum samples from adult llamas were analyzed. The obtained antibody prevalence was 100 % for Rotavirus A and 70 % for Bovine parainfluenza virus 3. In contrast, no reactors were detected to Bovine herpesvirus 1, Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, Human influenza A virus (H1N1) and Equine influenza virus (H3N8). These results confirm the wide circulation of rotavirus and parainfluenza virus in Argentinean llamas and suggest that susceptibility to infection with bovine herpesvirus, pestivirus and influenza A viruses is low. This serologic survey provides novel information regarding the epidemiology of viral diseases affecting llamas from the Argentinean Andean Puna. PMID:24721276

Barbieri, Elena S; Rodríguez, Daniela V; Marin, Raúl E; Setti, Walter; Romero, Sandra; Barrandeguy, María; Parreño, Viviana

2014-01-01

241

Kinetics of viral shedding provide insights into the epidemiology of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in Pacific herring  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Losses from infectious diseases are an important component of natural mortality among marine fish species, but factors controlling the ecology of these diseases and their potential responses to anthropogenic changes are poorly understood. We used viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) and a laboratory stock of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii to investigate the kinetics of viral shedding and its effect on disease transmission and host mortality. Outbreaks of acute disease, accompanied by mortality and viral shedding, were initiated after waterborne exposure of herring to concentrations of VHSV as low as 10 1 plaque-forming units (pfu) ml-1. Shed virus in flow-through tanks was first detected 4 to 5 d post-exposure, peaked after 6 to 10 d, and was no longer detected after 16 d. Shedding rates, calculated from density, flow and waterborne virus titer reached 1.8 to 5.0 ?? ?10 8 pfu fish-1 d-1. Onset of viral shedding was dose-dependent and preceded initial mortality by 2 d. At 21 d, cumulative mortality in treatment groups ranged from 81 to 100% and was dependent not on challenge dose, but on the kinetics and level of viral shedding by infected fish in the tank. Possible consequences of the viral shedding and disease kinetics are discussed in the context of epizootic initiation and perpetuation among populations of wild Pacific herring. ?? Inter-Research 2010.

Hershberger, P.; Gregg, J.; Grady, C.; Collins, R.; Winton, J.

2010-01-01

242

Kinetics of viral shedding provide insights into the epidemiology of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in Pacific herring  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Losses from infectious diseases are an important component of natural mortality among marine fish species, but factors controlling the ecology of these diseases and their potential responses to anthropogenic changes are poorly understood. We used viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) and a laboratory stock of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii to investigate the kinetics of viral shedding and its effect on disease transmission and host mortality. Outbreaks of acute disease, accompanied by mortality and viral shedding, were initiated after waterborne exposure of herring to concentrations of VHSV as low as 101 plaque-forming units (pfu) ml–1. Shed virus in flow-through tanks was first detected 4 to 5 d post-exposure, peaked after 6 to 10 d, and was no longer detected after 16 d. Shedding rates, calculated from density, flow and waterborne virus titer reached 1.8 to 5.0 × 108 pfu fish–1 d–1. Onset of viral shedding was dose-dependent and preceded initial mortality by 2 d. At 21 d, cumulative mortality in treatment groups ranged from 81 to 100% and was dependent not on challenge dose, but on the kinetics and level of viral shedding by infected fish in the tank. Possible consequences of the viral shedding and disease kinetics are discussed in the context of epizootic initiation and perpetuation among populations of wild Pacific herring.

Hershberger, Paul K.; Gregg, Jacob; Winton, James R.; Grady, Courtney; Collins, Rachael

2010-01-01

243

Skin Disease Presenting as an Outbreak of Pseudobacteremia in a Laboratory Worker  

Microsoft Academic Search

An outbreak of pseudobacteremia due to Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci (GAS)) and methicil- lin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) was traced to the venting procedure for aerobic bottles prior to their loading into the incubator of the BacT\\/Alert analyzer (Organon Teknika). Bacteria shed by a laboratory worker suffering from impetigo and cellulitis contaminated the aerobic bottles of 10 patients. All blood

A. Simhon; G. Rahav; M. Shapiro; C. Block

2001-01-01

244

Respiratory disease outbreak in a veterinary hospital associated with canine parainfluenza virus infection.  

PubMed

A cluster of canine parainfluenza virus infections was identified in a veterinary referral hospital. While hospital-associated outbreaks of canine parainfluenza virus infection have not been previously reported, veterinary hospitals possess some of the same risk factors that may be present in traditional high-risk sites such as kennels. Hospital-associated transmission of canine respiratory pathogens, therefore, must be considered. PMID:23814307

Weese, J Scott; Stull, Jason

2013-01-01

245

Immune Memory to Sudan Virus: Comparison between Two Separate Disease Outbreaks.  

PubMed

Recovery from ebolavirus infection in humans is associated with the development of both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses. According to recent studies, individuals that did not survive infection with ebolaviruses appear to have lacked a robust adaptive immune response and the expression of several early innate response markers. However, a comprehensive protective immune profile has yet to be described. Here, we examine cellular memory immune responses among survivors of two separate Ebolavirus outbreaks (EVDs) due to Sudan virus (SUDV) infection in Uganda-Gulu 2000-2001 and Kibaale 2012. Freshly collected blood samples were stimulated with inactivated SUDV, as well as with recombinant SUDV or Ebola virus (EBOV) GP (GP1-649). In addition, ELISA and plaque reduction neutralization assays were performed to determine anti-SUDV IgG titers and neutralization capacity. Cytokine expression was measured in whole blood cultures in response to SUDV and SUDV GP stimulation in both survivor pools, demonstrating recall responses that indicate immune memory. Cytokine responses between groups were similar but had distinct differences. Neutralizing, SUDV-specific IgG activity against irradiated SUDV and SUDV recombinant proteins were detected in both survivor cohorts. Furthermore, humoral and cell-mediated crossreactivity to EBOV and EBOV recombinant GP1-649 was observed in both cohorts. In conclusion, immune responses in both groups of survivors demonstrate persistent recognition of relevant antigens, albeit larger cohorts are required in order to reach greater statistical significance. The differing cytokine responses between Gulu and Kibaale outbreak survivors suggests that each outbreak may not yield identical memory responses and promotes the merits of studying the immune responses among outbreaks of the same virus. Finally, our demonstration of cross-reactive immune recognition suggests that there is potential for developing cross-protective vaccines for ebolaviruses. PMID:25569078

Sobarzo, Ariel; Eskira, Yael; Herbert, Andrew S; Kuehne, Ana I; Stonier, Spencer W; Ochayon, David E; Fedida-Metula, Shlomit; Balinandi, Steven; Kislev, Yaara; Tali, Neta; Lewis, Eli C; Lutwama, Julius Julian; Dye, John M; Yavelsky, Victoria; Lobel, Leslie

2015-01-01

246

Immune Memory to Sudan Virus: Comparison between Two Separate Disease Outbreaks  

PubMed Central

Recovery from ebolavirus infection in humans is associated with the development of both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses. According to recent studies, individuals that did not survive infection with ebolaviruses appear to have lacked a robust adaptive immune response and the expression of several early innate response markers. However, a comprehensive protective immune profile has yet to be described. Here, we examine cellular memory immune responses among survivors of two separate Ebolavirus outbreaks (EVDs) due to Sudan virus (SUDV) infection in Uganda—Gulu 2000–2001 and Kibaale 2012. Freshly collected blood samples were stimulated with inactivated SUDV, as well as with recombinant SUDV or Ebola virus (EBOV) GP (GP1–649). In addition, ELISA and plaque reduction neutralization assays were performed to determine anti-SUDV IgG titers and neutralization capacity. Cytokine expression was measured in whole blood cultures in response to SUDV and SUDV GP stimulation in both survivor pools, demonstrating recall responses that indicate immune memory. Cytokine responses between groups were similar but had distinct differences. Neutralizing, SUDV-specific IgG activity against irradiated SUDV and SUDV recombinant proteins were detected in both survivor cohorts. Furthermore, humoral and cell-mediated crossreactivity to EBOV and EBOV recombinant GP1–649 was observed in both cohorts. In conclusion, immune responses in both groups of survivors demonstrate persistent recognition of relevant antigens, albeit larger cohorts are required in order to reach greater statistical significance. The differing cytokine responses between Gulu and Kibaale outbreak survivors suggests that each outbreak may not yield identical memory responses and promotes the merits of studying the immune responses among outbreaks of the same virus. Finally, our demonstration of cross-reactive immune recognition suggests that there is potential for developing cross-protective vaccines for ebolaviruses. PMID:25569078

Sobarzo, Ariel; Eskira, Yael; Herbert, Andrew S.; Kuehne, Ana I.; Stonier, Spencer W.; Ochayon, David E.; Fedida-Metula, Shlomit; Balinandi, Steven; Kislev, Yaara; Tali, Neta; Lewis, Eli C.; Lutwama, Julius Julian; Dye, John M.; Yavelsky, Victoria; Lobel, Leslie

2015-01-01

247

Chikungunya disease in nonhuman primates involves long-term viral persistence in macrophages.  

PubMed

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that induces in humans a disease characterized by fever, rash, and pain in muscles and joints. The recent emergence or reemergence of CHIKV in the Indian Ocean Islands and India has stressed the need to better understand the pathogenesis of this disease. Previous CHIKV disease models have used young or immunodeficient mice, but these do not recapitulate human disease patterns and are unsuitable for testing immune-based therapies. Herein, we describe what we believe to be a new model for CHIKV infection in adult, immunocompetent cynomolgus macaques. CHIKV infection in these animals recapitulated the viral, clinical, and pathological features observed in human disease. In the macaques, long-term CHIKV infection was observed in joints, muscles, lymphoid organs, and liver, which could explain the long-lasting CHIKV disease symptoms observed in humans. In addition, the study identified macrophages as the main cellular reservoirs during the late stages of CHIKV infection in vivo. This model of CHIKV physiopathology should allow the development of new therapeutic and/or prophylactic strategies. PMID:20179353

Labadie, Karine; Larcher, Thibaut; Joubert, Christophe; Mannioui, Abdelkrim; Delache, Benoit; Brochard, Patricia; Guigand, Lydie; Dubreil, Laurence; Lebon, Pierre; Verrier, Bernard; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Suhrbier, Andreas; Cherel, Yan; Le Grand, Roger; Roques, Pierre

2010-03-01

248

Chikungunya disease in nonhuman primates involves long-term viral persistence in macrophages  

PubMed Central

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that induces in humans a disease characterized by fever, rash, and pain in muscles and joints. The recent emergence or reemergence of CHIKV in the Indian Ocean Islands and India has stressed the need to better understand the pathogenesis of this disease. Previous CHIKV disease models have used young or immunodeficient mice, but these do not recapitulate human disease patterns and are unsuitable for testing immune-based therapies. Herein, we describe what we believe to be a new model for CHIKV infection in adult, immunocompetent cynomolgus macaques. CHIKV infection in these animals recapitulated the viral, clinical, and pathological features observed in human disease. In the macaques, long-term CHIKV infection was observed in joints, muscles, lymphoid organs, and liver, which could explain the long-lasting CHIKV disease symptoms observed in humans. In addition, the study identified macrophages as the main cellular reservoirs during the late stages of CHIKV infection in vivo. This model of CHIKV physiopathology should allow the development of new therapeutic and/or prophylactic strategies. PMID:20179353

Labadie, Karine; Larcher, Thibaut; Joubert, Christophe; Mannioui, Abdelkrim; Delache, Benoit; Brochard, Patricia; Guigand, Lydie; Dubreil, Laurence; Lebon, Pierre; Verrier, Bernard; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Suhrbier, Andreas; Cherel, Yan; Le Grand, Roger; Roques, Pierre

2010-01-01

249

Impairment of Myocardial Mitochondria in Viral Myocardial Disease and Its Reflective Window in Peripheral Cells  

PubMed Central

Background Viral myocardial disease (VMD) is a common disease inducing heart failure. It has not been clear the roles of mitochondrial damage in the pathological changes of cardiomyocytes in VMD. Methods Myocardial tissues and lymphocytes were collected from 83 VMD patients. Control groups included 12 cases of healthy accidental death with myocardial autopsy and 23 healthy blood donors. The mouse model of viral myocarditis (VMC) was established by Coxsackie virus B3 infection and myocardial tissues and skeletal muscle were collected. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion rate was quantitatively determined using polymerase chain reaction. Results There was significantly difference of myocardial mitochondrial DNA deletion rate between VMD or VMC group and control group (P<0.05). Moreover, the loss of mitochondrial membrane phospholipids was significantly different between VMD or VMC group and control group. In VMC mice, there were negative correlations between myocardial mtDNA3867 deletion rate and left ventricular peak systolic pressure (LVPSP) (r?=??0.66, P<0.05), and between myocardial mtDNA3867 deletion rate and +dp/dtmax (r?=??0.79, P<0.05), while there was positive correlation between myocardial mtDNA3867 deletion rate and ?dp/dtmax (r?=?0.80, P<0.05). Conclusion Mitochondrial damage is an important pathophysiological mechanism leading to myocardial injury and cardiac dysfunction. The mitochondrial damage in the skeletal muscle and lymphocytes reflect a “window” of myocardial mitochondrial damage. PMID:25551390

Wei, Jin; Gao, Deng-Feng; Wang, Hao; Yan, Rui; Liu, Zhi-Quan; Yuan, Zu-Yi; Liu, Jian; Chen, Ming-Xia

2014-01-01

250

CD94 is essential for NK cell-mediated resistance to a lethal viral disease  

PubMed Central

Summary It is well established that natural killer (NK) cells confer resistance to many viral diseases, but only in a few instances the molecular mechanisms whereby NK cells recognize virus-infected cells are known. Here we show that CD94, a molecule preferentially expressed by NK cells, is essential for the resistance of C57BL/6 mice to mousepox, a disease caused by the Orthopoxvirus ectromelia virus. Ectromelia virus-infected cells expressing the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class Ib molecule Qa-1b are specifically recognized by the activating receptor formed by CD94 and NKG2E. Because CD94-NKG2 receptors and their ligands are highly conserved in rodents and humans, a similar mechanism may exist during human infections with the smallpox and monkeypox viruses, which are highly homologous to ectromelia virus. PMID:21439856

Fang, Min; Orr, Mark T.; Spee, Pieter; Egebjerg, Thomas; Lanier, Lewis L.; Sigal, Luis J.

2011-01-01

251

How Ambient Humidity May Affect the Transmission of Viral Infectious Diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viral infectious diseases such as influenza have been a great burden to public health. The airborne transmission route is an important venue for the spread of many respiratory viral diseases. Many airborne viruses have been shown to be sensitive to ambient humidity, yet the mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon remain elusive. A thorough understanding of this phenomenon may provide insight into the temporal and spatial distribution of diseases. For instance, studies have repeatedly suggested ambient humidity as an important environmental determinant in the transmission of influenza in temperate regions. Further, knowing how to optimize humidity so as to minimize virus survival may have practical implications for disease prevention. In this talk, we will discuss multiple mechanisms that may account for the association between humidity and viability of viruses in aerosols, including water activity, surface inactivation, salt toxicity, and conformational changes to the virus in response to varying pH. As a case study, we will discuss our work on the effect of relative humidity (RH) on survival of influenza A virus (IAV) and how it may contribute to the transmission patterns of seasonal flu around the world. We measured the change in viability of IAV in droplets at various RHs. Results suggest three potential regimes defined by humidity: physiological (~100% RH) with high viability, concentrated (~50% to near 100% RH) with lower viability, and dry (<~50% RH) with high viability. Based on these results, we propose a mechanistic basis for the dependence of IAV's transmission on humidity. In temperate regions, the increase in influenza activity in winter may be due to enhanced transmission via the aerosol route thanks to IAV's higher viability in droplets at low RH. In tropical regions, transmission could be enhanced due to high viability of IAV at extremely high RH (rainy season), as observed in our study, possibly through both the aerosol route and the contact route.

Yang, Wan; Marr, Linsey; Elankumaran, Subbiah

2013-04-01

252

A Model for a Chikungunya Outbreak in a Rural Cambodian Setting: Implications for Disease Control in Uninfected Areas  

PubMed Central

Following almost 30 years of relative silence, chikungunya fever reemerged in Kenya in 2004. It subsequently spread to the islands of the Indian Ocean, reaching Southeast Asia in 2006. The virus was first detected in Cambodia in 2011 and a large outbreak occurred in the village of Trapeang Roka Kampong Speu Province in March 2012, in which 44% of the villagers had a recent infection biologically confirmed. The epidemic curve was constructed from the number of biologically-confirmed CHIKV cases per day determined from the date of fever onset, which was self-reported during a data collection campaign conducted in the village after the outbreak. All individuals participating in the campaign had infections confirmed by laboratory analysis, allowing for the identification of asymptomatic cases and those with an unreported date of fever onset. We develop a stochastic model explicitly including such cases, all of whom do not appear on the epidemic curve. We estimate the basic reproduction number of the outbreak to be 6.46 (95% C.I. [6.24, 6.78]). We show that this estimate is particularly sensitive to changes in the biting rate and mosquito longevity. Our model also indicates that the infection was more widespread within the population on the reported epidemic start date. We show that the exclusion of asymptomatic cases and cases with undocumented onset dates can lead to an underestimation of the reproduction number which, in turn, could negatively impact control strategies implemented by public health authorities. We highlight the need for properly documenting newly emerging pathogens in immunologically naive populations and the importance of identifying the route of disease introduction. PMID:25210729

Duong, Veasna; Ly, Sowath; Ngan, Chantha; Buchy, Philippe; Tarantola, Arnaud; Rodó, Xavier

2014-01-01

253

An introduction to food and waterborne viruses: diseases, transmission, outbreaks, detection and control  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Enteric viruses are the number one cause of foodborne illness throughout the world. In addition to foods, contaminated drinking water is another major cause of enteric viral illness. Among the enteric viruses are the noroviruses, hepatitis A and E viruses, enteric adenoviruses, rotavirus, and astro...

254

Comparative study to evaluate the anti-viral efficacy of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract and ribavirin against the Newcastle disease virus  

PubMed Central

Background: The Newcastle disease represents as one of the most infectious viral disease, which afflicts almost every species of the birds. The causative agent of the disease is a single-stranded RNA virus with rapid replication capability. Objective: This study was performed to evaluate the comparative anti-viral efficacy and toxicity of Glycyrrhiza glabra aqueous extract and ribavirin against the Newcastle disease virus. Materials and Methods: The embryonated eggs were divided into six groups (A, B, C, D, E and F). Groups A, B, C, and D were further subdivided into three subgroups. The virus was identified by hemagglutination inhibition test. Spot hemagglutination test and viability of embryos were also evaluated. Three different concentrations i-e., 30 mg/100 ml, 60 mg/100 ml, and 120 mg/100 ml of the Glycyrrhiza aqueous extract and 10 ?g/ml, 20 ?g/ml, and 40 ?g/ml ribavirin in deionized water were evaluated for their toxicity and anti-viral activity in the embryonated eggs. Results: 60 mg/100 ml concentration of Glycyrrhiza extract did not produce any toxicity in the embryonated eggs and showed anti-viral activity against the virus. Similarly, 20 ?g/ml ribavirin was non-toxic in the embryonated eggs and contained anti-viral activity. Conclusion: It may conclude from the presented study that 60 mg/100 ml Glycyrrhiza extract inhibits replication of Newcastle disease virus and is non-toxic in the embryonated eggs. So, Glycyrrhiza glabra extract may be further evaluated in future to determine the potentially active compounds for their anti-viral activity against Newcastle disease virus. Furthermore, the mechanism of action of these active phytochemicals as an antiviral agent would be helpful to elucidate the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:24497736

Omer, Muhammad Ovais; AlMalki, Waleed Hassan; Shahid, Imran; Khuram, Shahzada; Altaf, Imran; Imran, Saeed

2014-01-01

255

Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) isolated from the ISA disease outbreaks in Chile diverged from ISAV isolates from Norway around 1996 and was disseminated around 2005, based on surface glycoprotein gene sequences  

PubMed Central

Background Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) virus (ISAV) is a pathogen of marine-farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar); a disease first diagnosed in Norway in 1984. For over 25 years ISAV has caused major disease outbreaks in the Northern hemisphere, and remains an emerging fish pathogen because of the asymptomatic infections in marine wild fish and the potential for emergence of new epidemic strains. ISAV belongs to the family Orthomyxoviridae, together with influenza viruses but is sufficiently different to be assigned to its own genus, Isavirus. The Isavirus genome consists of eight single-stranded RNA species, and the virions have two surface glycoproteins; fusion (F) protein encoded on segment 5 and haemagglutinin-esterase (HE) protein encoded on segment 6. However, comparision between different ISAV isolates is complicated because there is presently no universally accepted nomenclature system for designation of genetic relatedness between ISAV isolates. The first outbreak of ISA in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon in the Southern hemisphere occurred in Chile starting in June 2007. In order to describe the molecular characteristics of the virus so as to understand its origins, how ISAV isolates are maintained and spread, and their virulence characteristics, we conducted a study where the viral sequences were directly amplified, cloned and sequenced from tissue samples collected from several ISA-affected fish on the different fish farms with confirmed or suspected ISA outbreaks in Chile. This paper describes the genetic characterization of a large number of ISAV strains associated with extensive outbreaks in Chile starting in June 2007, and their phylogenetic relationships with selected European and North American isolates that are representative of the genetic diversity of ISAV. Results RT-PCR for ISAV F and HE glycoprotein genes was performed directly on tissue samples collected from ISA-affected fish on different farms among 14 fish companies in Chile during the ISA outbreaks that started in June 2007. The genes of the F and HE glycoproteins were cloned and sequenced for 51 and 78 new isolates, respectively. An extensive comparative analysis of ISAV F and HE sequence data, including reference isolates sampled from Norway, Faroe Islands, Scotland, USA, and Canada was performed. Based on phylogenetic analysis of concatenated ISAV F and HE genes of 103 individual isolates, the isolates from the ISA outbreaks in Chile grouped in their own cluster of 7 distinct strains within Genotype I (European genotype) of ISAV, with the closest relatedness to Norwegian ISAVs isolated in 1997. The phylogenetic software program, BACKTRACK, estimated the Chile isolates diverged from Norway isolates about 1996 and, therefore, had been present in Chile for some time before the recent outbreaks. Analysis of the deduced F protein sequence showed 43 of 51 Chile isolates with an 11-amino acid insert between 265N and 266Q, with 100% sequence identity with Genotype I ISAV RNA segment 2. Twenty four different HE-HPRs, including HPR0, were detected, with HPR7b making up 79.7%. This is considered a manifestation of ISAV quasispecies HE protein sequence diversity. Conclusion Taken together, these findings suggest that the ISA outbreaks were caused by virus that was already present in Chile that mutated to new strains. This is the first comprehensive report tracing ISAV from Europe to South America. PMID:19558648

Kibenge, Frederick SB; Godoy, Marcos G; Wang, Yingwei; Kibenge, Molly JT; Gherardelli, Valentina; Mansilla, Soledad; Lisperger, Angelica; Jarpa, Miguel; Larroquete, Geraldine; Avendaño, Fernando; Lara, Marcela; Gallardo, Alicia

2009-01-01

256

Molecular investigation into outbreak of HIV in a Scottish prison.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To support already established epidemiological links between inmates of Glenochil prison positive for HIV infection by using molecular techniques and thus provide evidence of the extent of acquisition during a recent outbreak of the disease resulting from needle sharing. To identify possible sources of the outbreak, and to demonstrate the ability of the methodology to make further links beyond the original outbreak. DESIGN: Viral sequences obtained from the blood of HIV positive prisoners previously identified by standard epidemiological methods were compared with each other and with sequences from other Scottish patients. SETTING: Glenochil prison for men, central Scotland. SUBJECTS: Adult inmates and their possible contacts. RESULTS: Phylogenetic analysis of viral sequences in two different genomic regions showed that 13 of the 14 HIV positive prisoners had been infected from a common source. Previous research had shown that six of these had acquired their infection in Glenochil; molecular evidence suggests that more than double this number were infected while incarcerated. Virus from two long term HIV positive patients who were in the prison at the time of the outbreak but who were not identified in the original or subsequent surveys was sufficiently different to make it unlikely that they were the source. A viral sequence from heterosexual transmission from one inmate showed the ability of these techniques to follow the infection through different routes of infection. CONCLUSION: The number of prisoners infected with HIV during the 1993 outbreak within Glenochil prison was more than twice that previously shown. This shows the potential for the spread of bloodborne diseases within prisons by injecting drugs. PMID:9167560

Yirrell, D. L.; Robertson, P.; Goldberg, D. J.; McMenamin, J.; Cameron, S.; Leigh Brown, A. J.

1997-01-01

257

The Role of Viral and Host MicroRNAs in the Aujeszky’s Disease Virus during the Infection Process  

PubMed Central

Porcine production is a primary market in the world economy. Controlling swine diseases in the farm is essential in order to achieve the sector necessities. Aujeszky’s disease is a viral condition affecting pigs and is endemic in many countries of the world, causing important economic losses in the swine industry. microRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs which modulates gene expression in animals, plants and viruses. With the aim of understanding miRNA roles during the Aujeszky’s disease virus [ADV] (also known as suid herpesvirus type 1 [SuHV-1]) infection, the expression profiles of host and viral miRNAs were determined through deep sequencing in SuHV-1 infected porcine cell line (PK-15) and in an animal experimental SuHV-1 infection with virulent (NIA-3) and attenuated (Begonia) strains. In the in vivo approach miR-206, miR-133a, miR-133b and miR-378 presented differential expression between virus strains infection. In the in vitro approach, most miRNAs were down-regulated in infected groups. miR-92a and miR-92b-3p were up-regulated in Begonia infected samples. Functional analysis of all this over expressed miRNAs during the infection revealed their association in pathways related to viral infection processes and immune response. Furthermore, 8 viral miRNAs were detected by stem loop RT-qPCR in both in vitro and in vivo approaches, presenting a gene regulatory network affecting 59 viral genes. Most described viral miRNAs were related to Large Latency Transcript (LLT) and to viral transcription activators EP0 and IE180, and also to regulatory genes regarding their important roles in the host – pathogen interaction during viral infection. PMID:24475202

Timoneda, Oriol; Núñez-Hernández, Fernando; Balcells, Ingrid; Muñoz, Marta; Castelló, Anna; Vera, Gonzalo; Pérez, Lester J.; Egea, Raquel; Mir, Gisela; Córdoba, Sarai; Rosell, Rosa; Segalés, Joaquim; Tomàs, Anna; Sánchez, Armand; Núñez, José I.

2014-01-01

258

Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 1. Description of the problem, methods, and agents involved.  

PubMed

Food workers in many settings have been responsible for foodborne disease outbreaks for decades, and there is no indication that this is diminishing. The Committee on Control of Foodborne Illnesses of the International Association for Food Protection was tasked with collecting and evaluating any data on worker-associated outbreaks. A total of 816 reports with 80,682 cases were collected from events that occurred from 1927 until the first quarter of 2006. Most of the outbreaks reviewed were from the United States, Canada, Europe, and Australia, with relatively few from other parts of the world, indicating the skewed set of data because of availability in the literature or personal contact. Outbreaks were caused by 14 agents: norovirus or probable norovirus (338), Salmonella enterica (151), hepatitis A virus (84), Staphylococcus aureus (53), Shigella spp. (33), Streptococcus Lancefield groups A and G (17), and parasites Cyclospora, Giardia, and Cryptosporidium (23). Streptococcal, staphylococcal, and typhoid outbreaks seem to be diminishing over time; hepatitis A virus remains static, whereas norovirus and maybe nontyphoidal Salmonella are increasing. Multiple foods and multi-ingredient foods were identified most frequently with outbreaks, perhaps because of more frequent hand contact during preparation and serving. PMID:17685355

Greig, Judy D; Todd, Ewen C D; Bartleson, Charles A; Michaels, Barry S

2007-07-01

259

Cholesterol-conjugated peptide antivirals: a path to a rapid response to emerging viral diseases.  

PubMed

While it is now possible to identify and genetically fingerprint the causative agents of emerging viral diseases, often with extraordinary speed, suitable therapies cannot be developed with equivalent speed, because drug discovery requires information that goes beyond knowledge of the viral genome. Peptides, however, may represent a special opportunity. For all enveloped viruses, fusion between the viral and the target cell membrane is an obligatory step of the life cycle. Class I fusion proteins harbor regions with a repeating pattern of amino acids, the heptad repeats (HRs), that play a key role in fusion, and HR-derived peptides such as enfuvirtide, in clinical use for HIV, can block the process. Because of their characteristic sequence pattern, HRs are easily identified in the genome by means of computer programs, providing the sequence of candidate peptide inhibitors directly from genomic information. Moreover, a simple chemical modification, the attachment of a cholesterol group, can dramatically increase the antiviral potency of HR-derived inhibitors and simultaneously improve their pharmacokinetics. Further enhancement can be provided by dimerization of the cholesterol-conjugated peptide. The examples reported so far include inhibitors of retroviruses, paramyxoviruses, orthomyxoviruses, henipaviruses, coronaviruses, and filoviruses. For some of these viruses, in vivo efficacy has been demonstrated in suitable animal models. The combination of bioinformatic lead identification and potency/pharmacokinetics improvement provided by cholesterol conjugation may form the basis for a rapid response strategy, where development of an emergency cholesterol-conjugated therapeutic would immediately follow the availability of the genetic information of a new enveloped virus. Copyright © 2014 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25331523

Pessi, Antonello

2014-10-20

260

Viral load and clinical disease enhancement associated with a lentivirus cytotoxic T lymphocyte vaccine regimen.  

PubMed

Effective DNA-based vaccines against lentiviruses will likely induce CTL against conserved viral proteins. Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) infects horses worldwide, and serves as a useful model for lentiviral immune control. Although attenuated live EIAV vaccines have induced protective immune responses, DNA-based vaccines have not. In particular, DNA-based vaccines have had limited success in inducing CTL responses against intracellular pathogens in the horse. We hypothesized that priming with a codon-optimized plasmid encoding EIAV Gag p15/p26 with co-administration of a plasmid encoding an equine IL-2/IgG fusion protein as a molecular adjuvant, followed by boosting with a vaccinia vector expressing Gag p15/p26, would induce protective Gag-specific CTL responses. Although the regimen induced Gag-specific CTL in four of seven vaccinated horses, CTL were not detected until after the vaccinia boost, and protective effects were not observed in EIAV challenged vaccinates. Unexpectedly, vaccinates had significantly higher viral loads and more severe clinical disease, associated with the presence of vaccine-induced CTL. It was concluded that (1) further optimization of the timing and route of DNA immunization was needed for efficient CTL priming in vivo, (2) co-administration of the IL-2/IgG plasmid did not enhance CTL priming by the Gag p15/p26 plasmid, (3) vaccinia vectors are useful for lentivirus-specific CTL induction in the horse, (4) Gag-specific CTL alone are either insufficient or a more robust Gag-specific CTL response is needed to limit EIAV viremia and clinical disease, and (5) CTL-inducing vaccines lacking envelope immunogens can result in lentiviral disease enhancement. Although the mechanisms for enhancement associated with this vaccine regimen remain to be elucidated, these results have important implications for development of lentivirus T cell vaccines. PMID:19368787

Mealey, Robert H; Leib, Steven R; Littke, Matt H; Wagner, Bettina; Horohov, David W; McGuire, Travis C

2009-04-21

261

Emergence of cold water strawberry disease of rainbow trout Oncorynchus mykiss in England and Wales: outbreak investigations and transmission studies.  

PubMed

Cold water strawberry disease (CWSD), or red mark syndrome (RMS), is a severe dermatitis affecting the rainbow trout Oncorynchus mykiss. The condition, which presents as multifocal, raised lesions on the flanks of affected fish, was first diagnosed in Scotland in 2003 and has since spread to England and Wales. Results of field investigations indicated the condition had an infectious aetiology, with outbreaks in England linked to movements of live fish from affected sites in Scotland. Transmission trials confirmed these results, with 11 of 149 and 106 of 159 naive rainbow trout displaying CWSD-characteristic lesions 104 to 106 d after being cohabited with CWSD-affected fish from 2 farms (Farm B from England and Farm C from Wales, respectively). The condition apparently has a long latency, with the first characteristic lesions in the previously naive fish not definitively observed until 65 d (650 day-degrees) post-contact with affected fish. Affected fish from both outbreak investigations and the infection trial were examined for the presence of viruses, oomycetes, parasites and bacteria using a combination of techniques and methodologies (including culture-independent cloning of PCR-amplified bacterial 16S rRNA genes from lesions), with no potentially causative infectious agent consistently identified. The majority of the cloned phylotypes from both lesion and negative control skin samples were assigned to Acidovorax-like beta-Proteobacteria and Methylobacterium-like alpha-Proteobacteria. PMID:18589997

Verner-Jeffreys, D W; Pond, M J; Peeler, E J; Rimmer, G S E; Oidtmann, B; Way, K; Mewett, J; Jeffrey, K; Bateman, K; Reese, R A; Feist, S W

2008-05-01

262

Foot-and-mouth disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. An outbreak of FMD can have a significant economic impact because of the restrictions on international trade of susceptible animals and their products with FMD-free countries. In this chapter we discuss vario...

263

Animal viral diseases and global change: bluetongue and West Nile fever as paradigms  

PubMed Central

Environmental changes have an undoubted influence on the appearance, distribution, and evolution of infectious diseases, and notably on those transmitted by vectors. Global change refers to environmental changes arising from human activities affecting the fundamental mechanisms operating in the biosphere. This paper discusses the changes observed in recent times with regard to some important arboviral (arthropod-borne viral) diseases of animals, and the role global change could have played in these variations. Two of the most important arboviral diseases of animals, bluetongue (BT) and West Nile fever/encephalitis (WNF), have been selected as models. In both cases, in the last 15 years an important leap forward has been observed, which has lead to considering them emerging diseases in different parts of the world. BT, affecting domestic ruminants, has recently afflicted livestock in Europe in an unprecedented epizootic, causing enormous economic losses. WNF affects wildlife (birds), domestic animals (equines), and humans, thus, beyond the economic consequences of its occurrence, as a zoonotic disease, it poses an important public health threat. West Nile virus (WNV) has expanded in the last 12 years worldwide, and particularly in the Americas, where it first occurred in 1999, extending throughout the Americas relentlessly since then, causing a severe epidemic of disastrous consequences for public health, wildlife, and livestock. In Europe, WNV is known long time ago, but it is since the last years of the twentieth century that its incidence has risen substantially. Circumstances such as global warming, changes in land use and water management, increase in travel, trade of animals, and others, can have an important influence in the observed changes in both diseases. The following question is raised: What is the contribution of global changes to the current increase of these diseases in the world? PMID:22707955

Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Á

2012-01-01

264

VIRAL RNA ELEMENTS AND HOST GENES AFFECTING RNA RECOMBINATION IN TOMBUSVIRUSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNA recombination is a major factor driving viral evolution and contributing to new disease outbreaks. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of RNA recombination can help scientists to develop longer lasting antiviral strategies. Tombusviruses are one of the best model RNA viruses to study RNA virus recombination. My goals were to dissect the mechanism of tombusviral RNA recombination. To do so, in

Chi-Ping Cheng

2005-01-01

265

Transgenic Models of Alzheimer’s Disease: Better Utilization of Existing Models through Viral Transgenesis  

PubMed Central

Animal models have been used for decades in the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) research field and have been crucial for the advancement of our understanding of the disease. Most models are based on familial AD mutations of genes involved in the amyloidogenic process, such as the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PS1). Some models also incorporate mutations in tau (MAPT) known to cause frontotemporal dementia, a neurodegenerative disease that shares some elements of neuropathology with AD. While these models are complex, they fail to display pathology that perfectly recapitulates that of the human disease. Unfortunately, this level of pre-existing complexity creates a barrier to the further modification and improvement of these models. However, as the efficacy and safety of viral vectors improves, their use as an alternative to germline genetic modification is becoming a widely used research tool. In this review we discuss how this approach can be used to better utilize common mouse models in AD research. PMID:23619198

Platt, Thomas L.; Reeves, Valerie L.; Murphy, M. Paul

2013-01-01

266

Genes controlling vaccine responses and disease resistance to respiratory viral pathogens in cattle  

PubMed Central

Farm animals remain at risk of endemic, exotic and newly emerging viruses. Vaccination is often promoted as the best possible solution, and yet for many pathogens, either there are no appropriate vaccines or those that are available are far from ideal. A complementary approach to disease control may be to identify genes and chromosomal regions that underlie genetic variation in disease resistance and response to vaccination. However, identification of the causal polymorphisms is not straightforward as it generally requires large numbers of animals with linked phenotypes and genotypes. Investigation of genes underlying complex traits such as resistance or response to viral pathogens requires several genetic approaches including candidate genes deduced from knowledge about the cellular pathways leading to protection or pathology, or unbiased whole genome scans using markers spread across the genome. Evidence for host genetic variation exists for a number of viral diseases in cattle including bovine respiratory disease and anecdotally, foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV). We immunised and vaccinated a cattle cross herd with a 40-mer peptide derived from FMDV and a vaccine against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). Genetic variation has been quantified. A candidate gene approach has grouped high and low antibody and T cell responders by common motifs in the peptide binding pockets of the bovine major histocompatibility complex (BoLA) DRB3 gene. This suggests that vaccines with a minimal number of epitopes that are recognised by most cattle could be designed. Whole genome scans using microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers has revealed many novel quantitative trait loci (QTL) and SNP markers controlling both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, some of which are in genes of known immunological relevance including the toll-like receptors (TLRs). The sequencing, assembly and annotation of livestock genomes and is continuing apace. In addition, provision of high-density SNP chips should make it possible to link phenotypes with genotypes in field populations without the need for structured populations or pedigree information. This will hopefully enable fine mapping of QTL and ultimate identification of the causal gene(s). The research could lead to selection of animals that are more resistant to disease and new ways to improve vaccine efficacy. PMID:21621277

Glass, Elizabeth J.; Baxter, Rebecca; Leach, Richard J.; Jann, Oliver C.

2012-01-01

267

Efficient transmission of Cassava brown streak disease viral pathogens by chip bud grafting  

PubMed Central

Background Techniques to study plant viral diseases under controlled growth conditions are required to fully understand their biology and investigate host resistance. Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) presents a major threat to cassava production in East Africa. No infectious clones of the causal viruses, Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) or Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) are available, and mechanical transmission to cassava is not effective. An improved method for transmission of the viruses, both singly and as co-infections has been developed using bud grafts. Findings Axillary buds from CBSD symptomatic plants infected with virulent isolates of CBSV and UCBSV were excised and grafted onto 6–8 week old greenhouse-grown, disease-free cassava plants of cultivars Ebwanateraka, TME204 and 60444. Plants were assessed visually for development of CBSD symptoms and by RT-PCR for presence of the viruses in leaf and storage root tissues. Across replicated experiments, 70-100% of plants inoculated with CBSV developed CBSD leaf and stem symptoms 2–6 weeks after bud grafting. Infected plants showed typical, severe necrotic lesions in storage roots at harvest 12–14 weeks after graft inoculation. Sequential grafting of buds from plants infected with UCBSV followed 10–14 days later by buds carrying CBSV, onto the same test plant, resulted in 100% of the rootstocks becoming co-infected with both pathogens. This dual transmission rate was greater than that achieved by simultaneous grafting with UCBSV and CBSV (67%), or when grafting first with CBSV followed by UCBSV (17%). Conclusions The bud grafting method described presents an improved tool for screening cassava germplasm for resistance to CBSD causal viruses, and for studying pathogenicity of this important disease. Bud grafting provides new opportunities compared to previously reported top and side grafting systems. Test plants can be inoculated as young, uniform plants of a size easily handled in a small greenhouse or large growth chamber and can be inoculated in a controlled manner with CBSV and UCBSV, either singly or together. Disease symptoms develop rapidly, allowing better studies of interactions between these viral pathogens, their movement within shoot and root systems, and how they induce their destructive disease symptoms. PMID:24314370

2013-01-01

268

[Chikungunya, an emerging viral disease. Proposal of an algorithm for its clinical management.  

PubMed

Chikungunya fever (CHIK) is an emerging viral disease. It is caused by the Chikungunya virus, an alphavirus from the Togaviridae family. It is transmitted to humans by the bite of infected mosquitoes, mainly Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. They are also involved in the transmission of dengue, malaria, etc. CHIK is now endemic in any region of Africa and Southeast-Asia. Cases of CHIK have been reported in America, the Caribbean, and Europe (France, Italy and Spain). There are reservoirs of these mosquitoes in some regions of Spain (Catalonia, Alicante, Murcia and Balearic islands). CHIK is characterized by a sudden high and debilitating fever, and severe or disabling symmetrical arthralgia. It tends to improve in days or weeks. There are severe and chronic forms of CHIK. There is no specific treatment or prophylaxis for CHIK. An algorithm is proposed for the clinical management of CHIK based in the latest guidelines. PMID:25440971

Palacios-Martínez, D; Díaz-Alonso, R A; Arce-Segura, L J; Díaz-Vera, E

2014-10-17

269

Seasonal Drivers of Pneumococcal Disease Incidence: Impact of Bacterial Carriage and Viral Activity  

PubMed Central

Background.?Winter-seasonal epidemics of pneumococcal disease provide an opportunity to understand the drivers of incidence. We sought to determine whether seasonality of invasive pneumococcal disease is caused by increased nasopharyngeal transmission of the bacteria or increased susceptibility to invasive infections driven by cocirculating winter respiratory viruses. Methods.?We analyzed pneumococcal carriage and invasive disease data collected from children <7 years old in the Navajo/White Mountain Apache populations between 1996 and 2012. Regression models were used to quantify seasonal variations in carriage prevalence, carriage density, and disease incidence. We also fit a multivariate model to determine the contribution of carriage prevalence and RSV activity to pneumococcal disease incidence while controlling for shared seasonal factors. Results.?The seasonal patterns of invasive pneumococcal disease epidemics varied significantly by clinical presentation: bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia incidence peaked in late winter, whereas invasive nonpneumonia pneumococcal incidence peaked in autumn. Pneumococcal carriage prevalence and density also varied seasonally, with peak prevalence occurring in late autumn. In a multivariate model, RSV activity was associated with significant increases in bacteremic pneumonia cases (attributable percentage, 15.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8%–26.1%) but was not associated with invasive nonpneumonia infections (8.0%; 95% CI, ?4.8% to 19.3%). In contrast, seasonal variations in carriage prevalence were associated with significant increases in invasive nonpneumonia infections (31.4%; 95% CI, 8.8%–51.4%) but not with bacteremic pneumonia. Conclusions.The seasonality of invasive pneumococcal pneumonia could be due to increased susceptibility to invasive infection triggered by viral pathogens, whereas seasonality of other invasive pneumococcal infections might be primarily driven by increased nasopharyngeal transmission of the bacteria. PMID:24190895

Weinberger, Daniel M.; Grant, Lindsay R.; Steiner, Claudia A.; Weatherholtz, Robert; Santosham, Mathuram; Viboud, Cécile; O'Brien, Katherine L.

2014-01-01

270

Analysis of Naturally Occurring Avian Bornavirus Infection and Transmission during an Outbreak of Proventricular Dilatation Disease among Captive Psittacine Birds ? † ¶  

PubMed Central

A proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) outbreak provided the opportunity to investigate the transmissibility of avian Bornavirus (ABV) and its linkage to PDD under natural conditions. Upon exposure to a bird with a fatal case of PDD, 10 birds became symptomatic and died. ABV2 RNA was recovered from available tissues. Further screening revealed that 12/46 exposed birds were ABV2+. Three chicks boarded at this aviary developed PDD. They harbored the same ABV2 isolate and transmitted it to five of eight chicks in their home aviary. These findings demonstrate that ABV infection precedes the development of PDD. ABV-specific Western blotting and reverse transcription-PCR indicate that ABV2 is not strictly neurotropic. PMID:19955301

Kistler, Amy L.; Smith, Jeanne M.; Greninger, Alexander L.; DeRisi, Joseph L.; Ganem, Don

2010-01-01

271

EXPERIMENTAL PATHOGENESIS FOR CHICKENS, TURKEYS, AND PIGEONS OF EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS FROM AN OUTBREAK IN CALIFORNIA DURING 2002-2003  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Exotic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from chickens during the 2002-2003 California outbreak was inoculated into 4-week-old specific-pathogen-free (SPF) White Leghorn chickens, 3-week-old SPF Beltsville White turkeys, 6-week-old commercial Broad Breasted White turkeys, and 10- to 20-week-old...

272

Identification of enterovirus 71 isolates from an outbreak of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) with fatal cases of encephalomyelitis in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirteen enterovirus 71 (EV71) isolates were obtained from both fatal and non-fatal infections of patients seen in Peninsula Malaysia and in Sarawak during an outbreak of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in Malaysia in 1997, with incidences of fatal brainstem encephalomyelitis. The isolates were identified using immunofluorescence staining, neutralization assays, and partial sequencing of the 5? untranslated regions (UTR).

Sazaly AbuBakar; Hui-Yee Chee; Muhannad F. Al-Kobaisi; Jiang Xiaoshan; Kaw Bing Chua; Sai Kit Lam

1999-01-01

273

Plant Disease Note 2005 | Outbreak of Iris yellow spot virus in Onion Seed Crops in Central Oregon Overview Current Issue Past Issues Search PD Search APS Journals  

E-print Network

Plant Disease Note 2005 | Outbreak of Iris yellow spot virus in Onion Seed Crops in Central Oregon of Iris yellow spot virus in Onion Seed Crops in Central Oregon. F. J. Crowe, Department of Botany is considered an emerging or reemerging pathogen affecting onions in the United States. The virus has been

Pappu, Hanu R.

274

Skin disease presenting as an outbreak of pseudobacteremia in a laboratory worker.  

PubMed

An outbreak of pseudobacteremia due to Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci [GAS]) and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) was traced to the venting procedure for aerobic bottles prior to their loading into the incubator of the BacT/Alert analyzer (Organon Teknika). Bacteria shed by a laboratory worker suffering from impetigo and cellulitis contaminated the aerobic bottles of 10 patients. All blood culture isolates, in addition to the isolates from the laboratory worker, were of the same GAS M and T types. All MSSA isolates from blood cultures and the index case's hands had the same lytic phage profile. Procedural breakdowns were identified in the laboratory. Bottles were vented outside the biological safety cabinet, gloves were not worn, and unprotected needles were used for the venting procedure. The source of the aspirated bacteria that contaminated the bottles was identified and the index case was treated promptly. PMID:11136810

Simhon, A; Rahav, G; Shapiro, M; Block, C

2001-01-01

275

Disease outbreaks caused by steppe-type rabies viruses in China.  

PubMed

SUMMARY While rabies is a significant public health concern in China, the epidemiology of animal rabies in the north and northwest border provinces remains unknown. From February 2013 to March 2014, seven outbreaks of domestic animal rabies caused by wild carnivores in Xinjiang (XJ) and Inner Mongolia (IM) Autonomous Regions, China were reported and diagnosed in brain samples of infected animals by the fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and RT-PCR. Ten field rabies viruses were obtained. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis based on the complete N gene (1353 bp) amplified directly from the original brain tissues showed that these ten strains were steppe-type viruses, closely related to strains reported in Russia and Mongolia. None had been identified previously in China. The viruses from XJ and IM clustered separately into two lineages showing their different geographical distribution. This study emphasizes the importance of wildlife surveillance and of cross-departmental cooperation in the control of transboundary rabies transmission. PMID:25078967

Feng, Y; Wang, W; Guo, J; Alatengheli; Li, Y; Yang, G; Su, N; Zhang, L; Xu, W; Sheng, Z; Ma, L; Gui, J; Dejide; Lin, H; Tu, C

2014-07-31

276

Beak and feather disease virus: correlation between viral load and clinical signs in wild Cape parrots (Poicepahlus robustus) in South Africa.  

PubMed

Psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD), the most prevalent viral disease affecting psittacines, is caused by beak and feather disease virus (BFDV). This study assessed viral load using qPCR in a wild Cape parrot population affected by PBFD and compared it to overall physical condition based on clinical signs attributable to PBFD. A significant inverse correlation between viral load and overall physical condition was found, which confirmed that clinical signs may confidently be used to diagnose the relative severity of BFDV infections in wild populations. This is the first assessment of BFDV viral load in a wild psittacine population. PMID:25193072

Regnard, Guy L; Boyes, Rutledge S; Martin, Rowan O; Hitzeroth, Inga I; Rybicki, Edward P

2015-01-01

277

Non-random biodiversity loss underlies predictable increases in viral disease prevalence.  

PubMed

Disease dilution (reduced disease prevalence with increasing biodiversity) has been described for many different pathogens. Although the mechanisms causing this phenomenon remain unclear, the disassembly of communities to predictable subsets of species, which can be caused by changing climate, land use or invasive species, underlies one important hypothesis. In this case, infection prevalence could reflect the competence of the remaining hosts. To test this hypothesis, we measured local host species abundance and prevalence of four generalist aphid-vectored pathogens (barley and cereal yellow dwarf viruses) in a ubiquitous annual grass host at 10 sites spanning 2000 km along the North American West Coast. In laboratory and field trials, we measured viral infection as well as aphid fecundity and feeding preference on several host species. Virus prevalence increased as local host richness declined. Community disassembly was non-random: ubiquitous hosts dominating species-poor assemblages were among the most competent for vector production and virus transmission. This suggests that non-random biodiversity loss led to increased virus prevalence. Because diversity loss is occurring globally in response to anthropogenic changes, such work can inform medical, agricultural and veterinary disease research by providing insights into the dynamics of pathogens nested within a complex web of environmental forces. PMID:24352672

Lacroix, Christelle; Jolles, Anna; Seabloom, Eric W; Power, Alison G; Mitchell, Charles E; Borer, Elizabeth T

2014-03-01

278

Targeting the detection of chronic wasting disease using the hunter harvest during early phases of an outbreak in Saskatchewan, Canada.  

PubMed

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal disease of North American cervids that was first detected in a wild, hunter-shot deer in Saskatchewan along the border with Alberta in Canada in 2000. Spatially explicit models for assessing factors affecting disease detection are needed to guide surveillance and control programs. Spatio-temporal patterns in CWD prevalence can be complicated by variation in individual infection probability and sampling biases. We assessed hunter harvest data of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during the early phases of an outbreak in Saskatchewan (i.e., 2002-2007) for targeting the detection of CWD by defining (1) where to look, and (2) how much effort to use. First, we accounted for known demographic heterogeneities in infection to model the probability, P(E), that a harvested deer was infected with CWD given characteristics of the harvest location. Second, in areas where infected deer were harvested we modelled the probability, P(D), of the hunter harvest re-detecting CWD within sample units of varying size (9-54 km(2)) given the demographics of harvested deer and time since first detection in the study area. Heterogeneities in host infection were consistent with those reported elsewhere: mule deer 3.7 times >white-tailed deer, males 1.8 times>females, and quadratically related to age in both sexes. P(E) increased with number of years since the first detection in our study area (2002) and proximity to known disease sources, and also varied with distance to the South Saskatchewan River and small creek drainages, terrain ruggedness, and extent of agriculture lands within a 3 km radius of the harvest. The majority (75%) of new CWD-positive deer from our sample were found within 20 km of infected deer harvested in the previous year, while approximately 10% were greater than 40 km. P(D) modelled at 18 km(2) was best supported, but for all scales, P(D) depended on the number of harvested deer and time since the first infected deer was harvested. Within an 18 km(2) sampling unit, there was an 80% probability of detecting a CWD-positive deer with 16 harvested deer five years after the initial infected harvest. Identifying where and how much to sample to detect CWD can improve targeted surveillance programs early in the outbreak of the disease when based on hunter harvest. PMID:22137503

Rees, Erin E; Merrill, Evelyn H; Bollinger, Trent K; Hwang, Yeen Ten; Pybus, Margo J; Coltman, Dave W

2012-04-01

279

SIRT1 Activating compounds reduce oxidative stress mediated neuronal loss in viral induced CNS demyelinating disease  

PubMed Central

Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by central nervous system inflammation and demyelination, and increasing evidence demonstrates significant neuronal damage also occurs and is associated with permanent functional impairment. Current MS therapies have limited ability to prevent neuronal damage, suggesting additional neuroprotective therapies are needed. Compounds that activate the NAD+-dependent SIRT1 deacetylase prevent neuronal loss in an autoimmune-mediated MS model, but the mechanism of this effect is unknown, and it is unclear whether SIRT1 activating compounds exert similar effects in demyelinating disease induced by other etiologies. We measured neuronal loss in C57BL/6 mice inoculated with a neurotropic strain of mouse hepatitis virus, MHV-A59, that induces an MS-like disease. Results Oral treatment with the SIRT1 activating compound SRTAW04 significantly increased SIRT1 activity within optic nerves and prevented neuronal loss during optic neuritis, an inflammatory demyelinating optic nerve lesion that occurs in MS and its animal models. MHV-A59 induced neuronal loss was associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, and SRTAW04 treatment significantly reduced ROS levels while promoting increased expression of enzymes involved in mitochondrial function and reduction of ROS. SRTAW04 exerted similar protective effects in EAE spinal cords, with decreased demyelination. Conclusions Results demonstrate that SIRT1 activating compounds prevent neuronal loss in viral-induced demyelinating disease similar to their effects in autoimmune-mediated disease. One mechanism of this neuroprotective effect involves increasing mitochondrial biogenesis with reduction of oxidative stress. SIRT1 activators represent a potential neuroprotective therapy for MS. Understanding common mechanisms of these effects in distinct disease models will help identify targets for more specific therapies. PMID:24383546

2014-01-01

280

RAPID RISK ASSESSMENT Outbreak of Ebola haemorrhagic fever in the Democratic Republic of Congo  

E-print Network

An outbreak of Ebola haemorrhagic fever is ongoing in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) with 15 cases reported, including nine deaths in Orientale province. It is the first time that the Ebola species Bundibugyo has been laboratory confirmed as the cause of an Ebola outbreak in DRC. This finding indicates that the current outbreak in DRC is not related to the recently ended outbreak in Uganda, which was caused by the Ebola species Sudan. The epidemiological features of this outbreak are consistent with previous outbreaks of Ebola haemorrhagic fever, although the currently observed case fatality rate is significantly higher than the one observed in the first outbreak of Bundingbuyo virus in 2007 in Uganda. However, it is premature to draw final conclusions about the pathogenicity of this Bundingbuyo viral strain. As the incubation period can last up to three weeks, it is likely that additional cases will be identified in the coming weeks. However, control measures currently implemented in DRC with the support of international partners, e.g. isolation of cases and active monitoring of contacts, should prevent further spread of the disease. It is unlikely, but not impossible, that travellers infected in DRC could arrive in the EU while incubating the disease and develop symptoms while in the EU. These cases would seek medical attention and be isolated, preventing further transmission.

Main Conclusions

2012-01-01

281

Biosurveillance in outbreak investigations.  

PubMed

Following the terrorist attacks of September 11 and the anthrax attacks in 2001, public health entities implemented automated surveillance systems based on disease syndromes for early detection of bioterror events and to increase timeliness of responses. Despite widespread adoption, syndromic surveillance systems' ability to provide early notification of outbreaks is unproven, and there is little documentation on their role in outbreak response. We hypothesized that biosurveillance is used in practice to augment classical outbreak investigations, and we used case studies conducted in 2007-08 to determine (1) which steps in outbreak investigations were best served by biosurveillance, and (2) which steps presented the greatest opportunities for improvement. The systems used in the case studies varied in how they functioned, and there were examples in which syndromic systems had identified outbreaks before other methods. Biosurveillance was used successfully for all steps of outbreak investigations. Key advantages of syndromic systems were sensitivity, timeliness, and flexibility and as a source of data for situational awareness. Limitations of biosurveillance were a lack of specificity, reliance on chief complaint data, and a lack of formal training for users. Linking syndromic data to triage notes and medical chart data would substantially increase the value of biosurveillance in the conduct of outbreak investigations and reduce the burden on health department staff. PMID:23448272

Kaydos-Daniels, S Cornelia; Rojas Smith, Lucia; Farris, Tonya R

2013-03-01

282

Evaluating Patterns of a White-Band Disease (WBD) Outbreak in Acropora palmata Using Spatial Analysis: A Comparison of Transect and Colony Clustering  

PubMed Central

Background Despite being one of the first documented, there is little known of the causative agent or environmental stressors that promote white-band disease (WBD), a major disease of Caribbean Acropora palmata. Likewise, there is little known about the spatiality of outbreaks. We examined the spatial patterns of WBD during a 2004 outbreak at Buck Island Reef National Monument in the US Virgin Islands. Methodology/Principal Findings Ripley's K statistic was used to measure spatial dependence of WBD across scales. Localized clusters of WBD were identified using the DMAP spatial filtering technique. Statistics were calculated for colony- (number of A. palmata colonies with and without WBD within each transect) and transect-level (presence/absence of WBD within transects) data to evaluate differences in spatial patterns at each resolution of coral sampling. The Ripley's K plots suggest WBD does cluster within the study area, and approached statistical significance (p?=?0.1) at spatial scales of 1100 m or less. Comparisons of DMAP results suggest the transect-level overestimated the prevalence and spatial extent of the outbreak. In contrast, more realistic prevalence estimates and spatial patterns were found by weighting each transect by the number of individual A. palmata colonies with and without WBD. Conclusions As the search for causation continues, surveillance and proper documentation of the spatial patterns may inform etiology, and at the same time assist reef managers in allocating resources to tracking the disease. Our results indicate that the spatial scale of data collected can drastically affect the calculation of prevalence and spatial distribution of WBD outbreaks. Specifically, we illustrate that higher resolution sampling resulted in more realistic disease estimates. This should assist in selecting appropriate sampling designs for future outbreak investigations. The spatial techniques used here can be used to facilitate other coral disease studies, as well as, improve reef conservation and management. PMID:21818271

Lentz, Jennifer A.; Blackburn, Jason K.; Curtis, Andrew J.

2011-01-01

283

PRELIMINARY DESCRIPTION OF A POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION TEST FOR BLUETONGUE AND EPIZOOTIC HEMORRHAGIC DISEASE VIRAL RNA IN BOVINE SEMEN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This paper compares describes the development of procedures to detect bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease viral RNA in bovine semen using a nested-PCR test. Please reference the following: (1) HQ issued Clearance/Sensitivity Responsibility memo (attached), and also found by clicking on t...

284

An outbreak of respiratory diseases among workers at a water-damaged building--a case report.  

PubMed

We describe a military hospital building with severe, repeated and enduring water and mold damage, and the symptoms and diseases found among 14 persons who were employed at the building. The exposure of the employees was evaluated by measuring the serum immunoglobulin G (IgG)-antibodies against eight spieces of mold and yeast common in Finnish water and mold damaged buildings and by sampling airborne viable microbes within the hospital. The most abundant spieces was Sporobolomyces salmonicolor. All but one of the employees reported some building-related symptoms, the most common being a cough which was reported by nine subjects. Four new cases of asthma, confirmed by S. salmonicolor inhalation provocation tests, one of whom was also found to have alveolitis, were found among the hospital personnel. In addition, seven other workers with newly diagnosed rhinitis reacted positively in nasal S. salmonicolor provocation tests. Skin prick tests by Sporobolomyces were negative among all 14 workers. Exposure of the workers to mold and yeast in the indoor air caused an outbreak of occupational diseases, including asthma, rhinitis and alveolitis. The diseases were not immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated but might have been borne by some other, as yet unexplained, mechanism. PMID:10979195

Seuri, M; Husman, K; Kinnunen, H; Reiman, M; Kreus, R; Kuronen, P; Lehtomäki, K; Paananen, M

2000-09-01

285

Molecular epidemiology of recent outbreaks of swine vesicular disease: two genetically and antigenically distinct variants in Europe, 1987-94.  

PubMed Central

Viruses from the recent epidemic of swine vesicular disease (SVD) in Europe have been isolated and characterized by antigenic and genetic methods to examine the likely epidemiological origins of the disease. Antigenic analysis was performed on 77 SVD viruses (SVDV) isolated in Europe between 1966 and 1994 using two panels of monoclonal antibodies (MAb) in a trapping ELISA. Genetic analysis of 33 of the SVD viruses by reverse transcription-polymerase chain-reaction (RT-PCR) amplification and nucleotide sequencing of the ID (VP1) coding region was also performed. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences with each other and with three other previously published SVDV sequences revealed four distinct groups which correlated exactly with the results of the pattern of reactivity with MAbs. The first group consisted solely of the earliest SVD virus isolated (ITL/1/66) while the second group comprised viruses present in Europe and Japan between 1972 and 1981. The third group consisted of viruses isolated from outbreaks of SVD in Italy between December 1988 and June 1992. Viruses isolated between 1987 and 1994 from Romania, the Netherlands, Italy and Spain formed a fourth group. The genetic and antigenic similarity of the most recent virus isolates from Western Europe to a virus isolated in Romania 5 years previously suggests that the possible origin of the recent epidemic of swine vesicular disease in Western Europe was in Eastern Europe. PMID:9042035

Brocchi, E.; Zhang, G.; Knowles, N. J.; Wilsden, G.; McCauley, J. W.; Marquardt, O.; Ohlinger, V. F.; De Simone, F.

1997-01-01

286

Population Genetics of Two Key Mosquito Vectors of Rift Valley Fever Virus Reveals New Insights into the Changing Disease Outbreak Patterns in Kenya  

PubMed Central

Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks in Kenya have increased in frequency and range to include northeastern Kenya where viruses are increasingly being isolated from known (Aedes mcintoshi) and newly-associated (Ae. ochraceus) vectors. The factors contributing to these changing outbreak patterns are unclear and the population genetic structure of key vectors and/or specific virus-vector associations, in particular, are under-studied. By conducting mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses on >220 Kenyan specimens of Ae. mcintoshi and Ae. ochraceus, we uncovered high levels of vector complexity which may partly explain the disease outbreak pattern. Results indicate that Ae. mcintoshi consists of a species complex with one of the member species being unique to the newly-established RVF outbreak-prone northeastern region of Kenya, whereas Ae. ochraceus is a homogeneous population that appears to be undergoing expansion. Characterization of specimens from a RVF-prone site in Senegal, where Ae. ochraceus is a primary vector, revealed direct genetic links between the two Ae. ochraceus populations from both countries. Our data strongly suggest that unlike Ae. mcintoshi, Ae. ochraceus appears to be a relatively recent, single 'introduction' into Kenya. These results, together with increasing isolations from this vector, indicate that Ae. ochraceus will likely be of greater epidemiological importance in future RVF outbreaks in Kenya. Furthermore, the overall vector complexity calls into question the feasibility of mosquito population control approaches reliant on genetic modification. PMID:25474018

Tchouassi, David P.; Bastos, Armanda D. S.; Sole, Catherine L.; Diallo, Mawlouth; Lutomiah, Joel; Mutisya, James; Mulwa, Francis; Borgemeister, Christian; Sang, Rosemary; Torto, Baldwyn

2014-01-01

287

Surveillance of pneumococcal serotype 1 carriage during an outbreak of serotype 1 invasive pneumococcal disease in central Australia 2010–2012  

PubMed Central

Background An outbreak of serotype 1 invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) occurred in Central Australia from October 2010 to the latter part of 2012. Surveillance of serotype 1 carriage was conducted to determine epidemiological features of asymptomatic carriage that could potentially be driving the outbreak. Methods 130 patients and accompanying persons presenting at Alice Springs Hospital Emergency Department consented to nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) collection. NPS were processed by standard methods, including culture, pneumococcal lytA quantitative real-time PCR, serotype 1-specific real-time PCR and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Results Pneumococcal carriage was detected in 16% of participants. Carriage was highest in the under 10 year olds from remote communities surrounding Alice Springs (75%). Four NPS were positive for serotype 1 DNA by PCR; 3 were also culture-positive for serotype 1 pneumococci. Serotype 1 isolates had atypical colony morphology on primary culture. All serotype 1 carriers were healthy children 5 to 8 years of age from remote communities. By MLST, serotype 1 isolates were ST306, as were IPD isolates associated with this outbreak. Conclusions During an outbreak of serotype 1 ST306 IPD, carriage of the outbreak strain was detected in 3% NPS collected. All carriers were healthy children 5 to 8 years of age. PMID:24138669

2013-01-01

288

Population genetics of two key mosquito vectors of rift valley Fever virus reveals new insights into the changing disease outbreak patterns in kenya.  

PubMed

Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks in Kenya have increased in frequency and range to include northeastern Kenya where viruses are increasingly being isolated from known (Aedes mcintoshi) and newly-associated (Ae. ochraceus) vectors. The factors contributing to these changing outbreak patterns are unclear and the population genetic structure of key vectors and/or specific virus-vector associations, in particular, are under-studied. By conducting mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses on >220 Kenyan specimens of Ae. mcintoshi and Ae. ochraceus, we uncovered high levels of vector complexity which may partly explain the disease outbreak pattern. Results indicate that Ae. mcintoshi consists of a species complex with one of the member species being unique to the newly-established RVF outbreak-prone northeastern region of Kenya, whereas Ae. ochraceus is a homogeneous population that appears to be undergoing expansion. Characterization of specimens from a RVF-prone site in Senegal, where Ae. ochraceus is a primary vector, revealed direct genetic links between the two Ae. ochraceus populations from both countries. Our data strongly suggest that unlike Ae. mcintoshi, Ae. ochraceus appears to be a relatively recent, single 'introduction' into Kenya. These results, together with increasing isolations from this vector, indicate that Ae. ochraceus will likely be of greater epidemiological importance in future RVF outbreaks in Kenya. Furthermore, the overall vector complexity calls into question the feasibility of mosquito population control approaches reliant on genetic modification. PMID:25474018

Tchouassi, David P; Bastos, Armanda D S; Sole, Catherine L; Diallo, Mawlouth; Lutomiah, Joel; Mutisya, James; Mulwa, Francis; Borgemeister, Christian; Sang, Rosemary; Torto, Baldwyn

2014-12-01

289

A remote sensing tool to monitor and predict epidemiologic outbreaks of Hanta virus infections and Lyme disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lyme disease and Hanta virus infection are the result of the conjunction of several climatic and ecological conditions. Although both affections have different causal agents, they share an important characteristic which is the fact that rodents play an important role in the contagion. One of the most important agents in the dispersion of these diseases is the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareoulus). The bank vole is a common host for both, the Borrelia bacteria which via the ticks (Ixodes ricinus) reaches the human body and causes the Lyme disease, and the Nephropatia epidemica which is caused by Puumala Hantavirus and affects kidneys in humans. The prefered habitat of bank voles is broad-leaf forests with an important presence of beeches (Fagus sylvatica) and oaks (Quercus sp.) and a relatively dense low vegetation layer. These vegetation systems are common in West-Europe and their dynamics have a great influence in the bank voles population and, therefore, in the spreading of the infections this study is concerned about. The fact that the annual seed production is not stable in time has an important effect in bank voles population and, as it has been described in other studies, in the number of reported cases of Hanta virus infections and Lyme disease. The years in which an abundant production of seeds is observed are referred to as mast years which are believed to obey to cyclic patterns and to certain climatologically characteristics of the preceding years. Statistical analysis have confirmed the correlation in the behaviour of the number of infected cases and the presence of mast years. This project aims at the design of a remote sensing based system (INFOPRESS - INFectious disease Outbreak Prediction REmote Sensing based System) that should enable local and national health care instances to predict and locate the occurrence of infection outbreaks and design policies to counteract undesired effects. The predictive capabilities of the system are based on the understanding and modelling of the interactions between relevant climatic parameters (temperature, humidity, precipitation) and the main features of vegetation systems which host the vectors and determine the survival and infectious potential of the causal agents. Among the most important study subjects in this research initiative one can mention the time series analysis of vegetation parameters derived from satellite remote sensing and its relation to climatic time series and historical records of infected cases; with special attention to the assessment of remotely sensed evidences of the mast phenomenon. This analysis will constitute important buildind bricks in the construction of the INFOPRESS system in what concerns the assessment of the potentials of satellite remote sensing as information source for the prediction of infection outbreaks. The bank voles habitat description will also be supported by on-ground remote sensing techniques, specially LiDAR technology and soil humidity modelling. These measurements are to be coupled to bank voles epidemiologic features obtained from field capturing and lab analysis in which the presence of Hanta virus will be assessed.

Barrios, M.; Verstraeten, W. W.; Amipour, S.; Wambacq, J.; Aerts, J.-M.; Maes, P.; Berckmans, D.; Lagrou, K.; van Ranst, M.; Coppin, P.

2009-04-01

290

A remote sensing tool to monitor and predict epidemiologic outbreaks of Hanta virus infections and Lyme disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lyme disease and Hanta virus infection are the result of the conjunction of several climatic and ecological conditions. Although both affections have different causal agents, they share an important characteristic which is the fact that rodents play an important role in the contagium. One of the most important agents in the dispersion of these diseases is the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareoulus). The bank vole is a common host for both, the Borrelia bacteria which via the ticks (Ixodes ricinus) reaches the human body and causes the Lyme disease, and the Nephropatia epidemica which is caused by Puumala Hantavirus and affects kidneys in humans. The prefered habitat of bank voles is broad-leaf forests with an important presence of beeches (Fagus sylvatica) and oaks (Quercus sp.) and a relatively dense low vegetation layer. These vegetation systems are common in West-Europe and their dynamics have a great influence in the bank voles population and, therefore, in the spreading of the infections this study is concerned about. The fact that the annual seed production is not stable in time has an important effect in bank voles population and, as it has been described in other studies, in the number of reported cases of Hanta virus infections and Lyme disease. The years in which an abundant production of seeds is observed are referred to as mast years which are believed to obey to cyclic patterns and to certain climatological characteristics of the preceding years. Statistical analysis have confirmed the correlation in the behaviour of the number of infected cases and the presence of mast years. This project aims at the design of a remote sensing based system (INFOPRESS - INFectious disease Outbreak Prediction REmote Sensing based System) that should enable local and national health care instances to predict and locate the occurrence of infection outbreaks and design policies to counteract undesired effects. The predictive capabilities of the system are based on the understanding and modelling of the interactions between relevant climatic parameters (temperature, humidity, precipitation) and the main features of vegetation systems which host the vectors and determine the survival and infectious potential of the causal agents. Among the most important study subjects in this research initiative one can mention the time series analysis of vegetation parameters derived from satellite remote sensing and its relatation to climatic time series and historical records of infected cases; with special attention to the assessment of remotely sensed evidences of the mast phenomenon. These analysis will constitute important buildind bricks in the construction of the INFOPRESS system in what concerns the assessment of the potentials of satellite remote sensing as information source for the prediction of infection outbreaks. The bank voles habitat description will also be supported by on-gound remote sensing techniques, specially Lidar technology and soil humidity modelling. These measurements are to be coupled to bank voles and ticks epidemiologic features obtained from field capturing and lab analysis.

Barrios, J. M.

2009-04-01

291

Human viral gastroenteritis.  

PubMed Central

During the last 15 years, several different groups of fastidious viruses that are responsible for a large proportion of acute viral gastroenteritis cases have been discovered by the electron microscopic examination of stool specimens. This disease is one of the most prevalent and serious clinical syndromes seen around the world, especially in children. Rotaviruses, in the family Reoviridae, and fastidious fecal adenoviruses account for much of the viral gastroenteritis in infants and young children, whereas the small caliciviruses and unclassified astroviruses, and possibly enteric coronaviruses, are responsible for significantly fewer cases overall. In addition to electron microscopy, enzyme immunoassays and other rapid antigen detection systems have been developed to detect rotaviruses and fastidious fecal adenoviruses in the stool specimens of both nonhospitalized patients and those hospitalized for dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. Experimental rotavirus vaccines have also been developed, due to the prevalence and seriousness of rotavirus infection. The small, unclassified Norwalk virus and morphologically similar viruses are responsible for large and small outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in older children, adolescents, and adults. Hospitalization of older patients infected with these viruses is usually not required, and their laboratory diagnoses have been limited primarily to research laboratories. Images PMID:2644024

Christensen, M L

1989-01-01

292

vLIP, a Viral Lipase Homologue, Is a Virulence Factor of Marek's Disease Virus  

PubMed Central

The genome of Marek's disease virus (MDV) has been predicted to encode a secreted glycoprotein, vLIP, which bears significant homology to the ?/? hydrolase fold of pancreatic lipases. Here it is demonstrated that MDV vLIP mRNA is produced via splicing and that vLIP is a late gene, due to its sensitivity to inhibition of DNA replication. While vLIP was found to conserve several residues essential to hydrolase activity, an unfavorable asparagine substitution is present at the lipase catalytic triad acid position. Consistent with structural predictions, purified recombinant vLIP did not show detectable activity on traditional phospholipid or triacylglyceride substrates. Two different vLIP mutant viruses, one bearing a 173-amino-acid deletion in the lipase homologous domain, the other having an alanine point mutant at the serine nucleophile position, caused a significantly lower incidence of Marek's disease in chickens and resulted in enhanced survival relative to two independently produced vLIP revertants or parental virus. These data provide the first evidence that vLIP enhances the replication and pathogenic potential of MDV. Furthermore, while vLIP may not serve as a traditional lipase enzyme, the data indicate that the serine nucleophile position is nonetheless essential in vivo for the viral functions of vLIP. Therefore, it is suggested that this particular example of lipase homology may represent the repurposing of an ?/? hydrolase fold toward a nonenzymatic role, possibly in lipid bonding. PMID:15890938

Kamil, Jeremy P.; Tischer, B. Karsten; Trapp, Sascha; Nair, Venugopal K.; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Kung, Hsing-Jien

2005-01-01

293

Reconstruction of the Transmission History of RNA Virus Outbreaks Using Full Genome Sequences: Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Bulgaria in 2011  

PubMed Central

Improvements to sequencing protocols and the development of computational phylogenetics have opened up opportunities to study the rapid evolution of RNA viruses in real time. In practical terms, these results can be combined with field data in order to reconstruct spatiotemporal scenarios that describe the origin and transmission pathways of viruses during an epidemic. In the case of notifiable diseases, such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), these analyses provide important insights into the epidemiology of field outbreaks that can support disease control programmes. This study reconstructs the origin and transmission history of the FMD outbreaks which occurred during 2011 in Burgas Province, Bulgaria, a country that had been previously FMD-free-without-vaccination since 1996. Nineteen full genome sequences (FGS) of FMD virus (FMDV) were generated and analysed, including eight representative viruses from all of the virus-positive outbreaks of the disease in the country and 11 closely-related contemporary viruses from countries in the region where FMD is endemic (Turkey and Israel). All Bulgarian sequences shared a single putative common ancestor which was closely related to the index case identified in wild boar. The closest relative from outside of Bulgaria was a FMDV collected during 2010 in Bursa (Anatolia, Turkey). Within Bulgaria, two discrete genetic clusters were detected that corresponded to two episodes of outbreaks that occurred during January and March-April 2011. The number of nucleotide substitutions that were present between, and within, these separate clusters provided evidence that undetected FMDV infection had occurred. These conclusions are supported by laboratory data that subsequently identified three additional FMDV-infected livestock premises by serosurveillance, as well as a number of antibody positive wild boar on both sides of the border with Turkish Thrace. This study highlights how FGS analysis can be used as an effective on-the-spot tool to support and help direct epidemiological investigations of field outbreaks. PMID:23226216

Valdazo-González, Begoña; Polihronova, Lilyana; Alexandrov, Tsviatko; Normann, Preben; Knowles, Nick J.; Hammond, Jef M.; Georgiev, Georgi K.; Özyörük, Fuat; Sumption, Keith J.; Belsham, Graham J.; King, Donald P.

2012-01-01

294

Ulcerative disease outbreak in crayfish Orconectes propinquus linked to Saprolegnia australis in big Muskellunge Lake, Wisconsin.  

PubMed

Crayfish populations in the area of the North Temperate Lakes Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) project, Wisconsin, USA, have been monitored for >25 yr. In 2005, native crayfish Orconectes propinquus from Big Muskellunge Lake were found with ulcerated lesions in the cuticle. In 2006, lesions occurred in 9.5% of sampled crayfish from the lake (n=3146). Ulcers generally occurred on the appendages of affected individuals but varied in location and severity. The prevalence of ulcers varied widely among sites, sample depths, and sampling dates, ranging from < 2% to >20%. The prevalence of ulcers in crayfish increased from a minimum in early June to a maximum in late July and August. In aquarium trials, healthy crayfish representing either O. propinquus or O. rusticus co-housed with ulcerated crayfish did not develop ulcers within 4 wk of exposure. Gross and histopathologic analyses of ulcerated crayfish revealed the presence of filamentous hyphae in the lesions while hemocytic infiltrates, melanotic reactions and silver-stained sections indicated that the ulcers had an oomycete etiology. Excised samples of ulcerated crayfish cuticle grown in culture developed an oomycete that was identified as Saprolegnia australis by PCR amplification and sequence analysis of 2 different DNA fragments. This is the first report of the occurrence of ulcers in wild crayfish associated with S. australis infection in the U.S.A. The advent of the outbreak and its underlying ecological causes are still under investigation. PMID:20853742

Krugner-Higby, Lisa; Haak, Danielle; Johnson, Pieter T J; Shields, Jeffery D; Jones, William M; Reece, Kimberly S; Meinke, Tim; Gendron, Annette; Rusak, James A

2010-07-26

295

CURRENT STATUS OF RECOMBINANT MAREK'S DISEASE VACCINES FOR CONTROL OF FUTURE OUTBREAKS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

More than 4 decades of vaccination has resulted in good control of Marek’s disease (MD). Although vaccination has dramatically reduced the incidence of the disease, more virulent viruses are emerging and the development of new control strategies is needed. Recently, the student of MD virus (MDV) g...

296

RECOMBINANT ENGINEERED SAT1 FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE VIRUS AS AN APPROACH TO INVESTIGATE RECEPTOR USAGE AND GROWTH DETERMINANTS OF OUTBREAK STRAINS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Foot-and-mouth desease (FMD), a highly contagious viral disease of cattle, sheep, pigs and other cloven-hoofed animals has recently caused devastating epidemics world-wide. In the three South African Territories (SAT) types of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), the aetiological agent display grea...

297

Patterns of condemnation rates in swine from a federally inspected abattoir in relation to disease outbreak information in Ontario (2005–2007)  

PubMed Central

Strong correlations between clinical signs on farms and the presence of lesions at slaughter have been reported. The objective of this study was to determine if changes in condemnation rates provide a data source for surveillance of disease outbreaks in pigs. The data were obtained from 1 abattoir in Ontario (2005–2007). The epidemiological relevance of the results was based on an outbreak of porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD) in Ontario in 2005. The total condemnations and condemnations due to arthritis and pneumonia patterns reflected the field infection of PCVAD in 2005 followed by the widespread use of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) vaccine in 2007. In contrast, increased rates of nephritis and enteritis suggested areas for enhanced surveillance for unexplained changes in disease patterns not identified through traditional passive surveillance. Further studies looking at the benefits of using abattoir data should compare condemnation patterns with multiple sources of swine health data. PMID:21461204

Amezcua, Rocio; Pearl, David L.; Martinez, Alejandro; Friendship, Robert M.

2011-01-01

298

Genetic Characterization of Infectious Bursal Disease Viruses Associated with Gumboro Outbreaks in Commercial Broilers from Asyut Province, Egypt  

PubMed Central

Ten infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) field strains were isolated from 15 broiler flocks located in various parts of Asyut, Egypt. Seven strains were subjected to comparative sequencing and phylogenetic analyses to help provide optimal control program for protection against IBDV infection. Sequence analysis of a 530?bp hypervariable region in the VP2 gene revealed that the rate of identity and homology was around 95.6~99.1%. Sequence characterization revealed the 7 strains identified as vvIBDV with the four amino acids residues typical of vvIBDV (242I, 256I, 294I, 299S). The BURSA-VAC vaccine was the nearest vaccine in sequence similarity to the local examined IBDV strains followed by CEVACIBDL then Bursine plus and Nobilis Gumboro indicating its probable success in the face of incoming outbreaks when using these vaccines. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the presence of three clusters for the examined strains and are grouped with reference very virulent IBDVs of European and Asian origin (Japanese and Hong Kong) strains suggesting the different ancestors of our isolates. The antigenic index showed a number of changes on the major and minor hydrophilic antigenic peaks of the virus surface structures indicating a new genetic evolution of the surface structure epitopes that may lead to vaccination failure and reemergence of the disease. PMID:24977049

Mohamed, Moemen A.; Elzanaty, Kamal E. S.; Bakhit, Bakhit M.; Safwat, Marwa M.

2014-01-01

299

Ebola and Marburg Hemorrhagic Fevers: Neglected Tropical Diseases?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) and Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF) are rare viral diseases, endemic to central Africa. The overall burden of EHF and MHF is small in comparison to the more common protozoan, helminth, and bacterial diseases typically referred to as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). However, EHF and MHF outbreaks typically occur in resource-limited settings, and many aspects of these

Adam MacNeil; Pierre E. Rollin

2012-01-01

300

Participatory epidemiology : harnessing the HealthMap platform for community-based disease outbreak monitoring  

E-print Network

Due to increasing global trade and travel along with a range of environmental factors, emerging infectious diseases such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), drug-resistant tuberculosis, and 2009 HiNi continue to ...

Freifeld, Clark

2010-01-01

301

Acute bovine viral diarrhea associated with extensive mucosal lesions, high morbidity, and mortality in a commercial feedlot  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 2008, a northwest Texas feedlot underwent an outbreak of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) disease causing high morbidity and mortality involving two lots of calves (Lots A and B). Severe mucosal surface lesions were observed grossly in the oral cavity, larynx and esophagus. Mucosal lesions vari...

302

Human Papillomavirus 16, 18, 31 and 45 viral load, integration and methylation status stratified by cervical disease stage  

PubMed Central

Background Persistent infection with oncogenic Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with the development of cervical cancer with each genotype differing in their relative contribution to the prevalence of cervical disease. HPV DNA testing offers improved sensitivity over cytology testing alone but is accompanied by a generally low specificity. Potential molecular markers of cervical disease include type-specific viral load (VL), integration of HPV DNA into the host genome and methylation of the HPV genome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between HPV type-specific viral load, integration and methylation status and cervical disease stage in samples harboring HPV16, HPV18, HPV31 or HPV45. Methods Samples singly infected with HPV16 (n?=?226), HPV18 (n?=?32), HPV31 (n?=?75) or HPV45 (n?=?29) were selected from a cohort of 4,719 women attending cervical screening in England. Viral load and integration status were determined by real-time PCR while 3’L1-URR methylation status was determined by pyrosequencing or sequencing of multiple clones derived from each sample. Results Viral load could differentiate between normal and abnormal cytology with a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 80% (odds ratio [OR] 12.4, 95% CI 6.2–26.1; p?Viral integration was poorly associated with cervical disease. Few samples had fully integrated genomes and these could be found throughout the course of disease. Overall, integration status could distinguish between normal and abnormal cytology with a sensitivity of 72% and a specificity of 50% (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.0–6.8; p?=?0.054). Methylation levels were able to differentiate normal and low grade cytology from high grade cytology with a sensitivity of 64% and a specificity of 82% (OR 8.2, 95% CI 3.8–18.0; p?viral load and CpG methylation status, but not integration status, to be considered as potential biomarkers of cervical disease. PMID:24885011

2014-01-01

303

Targeting inside-out phosphatidylserine as a therapeutic strategy for viral diseases.  

PubMed

There is a pressing need for antiviral agents that are effective against multiple classes of viruses. Broad specificity might be achieved by targeting phospholipids that are widely expressed on infected host cells or viral envelopes. We reasoned that events occurring during virus replication (for example, cell activation or preapoptotic changes) would trigger the exposure of normally intracellular anionic phospholipids on the outer surface of virus-infected cells. A chimeric antibody, bavituximab, was used to identify and target the exposed anionic phospholipids. Infection of cells with Pichinde virus (a model for Lassa fever virus, a potential bioterrorism agent) led to the exposure of anionic phospholipids. Bavituximab treatment cured overt disease in guinea pigs lethally infected with Pichinde virus. Direct clearance of infectious virus from the blood and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity of virus-infected cells seemed to be the major antiviral mechanisms. Combination therapy with bavituximab and ribavirin was more effective than either drug alone. Bavituximab also bound to cells infected with multiple other viruses and rescued mice with lethal mouse cytomegalovirus infections. Targeting exposed anionic phospholipids with bavituximab seems to be safe and effective. Our study demonstrates that anionic phospholipids on infected host cells and virions may provide a new target for the generation of antiviral agents. PMID:19029986

Soares, M Melina; King, Steven W; Thorpe, Philip E

2008-12-01

304

The olfactory nerve: a shortcut for influenza and other viral diseases into the central nervous system.  

PubMed

The olfactory nerve consists mainly of olfactory receptor neurons and directly connects the nasal cavity with the central nervous system (CNS). Each olfactory receptor neuron projects a dendrite into the nasal cavity on the apical side, and on the basal side extends its axon through the cribriform plate into the olfactory bulb of the brain. Viruses that can use the olfactory nerve as a shortcut into the CNS include influenza A virus, herpesviruses, poliovirus, paramyxoviruses, vesicular stomatitis virus, rabies virus, parainfluenza virus, adenoviruses, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, chikungunya virus, La Crosse virus, mouse hepatitis virus, and bunyaviruses. However, mechanisms of transport via the olfactory nerve and subsequent spread through the CNS are poorly understood. Proposed mechanisms are either infection of olfactory receptor neurons themselves or diffusion through channels formed by olfactory ensheathing cells. Subsequent virus spread through the CNS could occur by multiple mechanisms, including trans-synaptic transport and microfusion. Viral infection of the CNS can lead to damage from infection of nerve cells per se, from the immune response, or from a combination of both. Clinical consequences range from nervous dysfunction in the absence of histopathological changes to severe meningoencephalitis and neurodegenerative disease. Copyright © 2014 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25294743

van Riel, Debby; Verdijk, Rob; Kuiken, Thijs

2015-01-01

305

The Influence of Feedlot Management on an Outbreak of Bovine Respiratory Disease  

PubMed Central

Epidemic curves, odds ratios and chisquare were used to investigate an epidemic of respiratory disease in a pen of feedlot cattle. The cattle were divided into four groups by an eartag number received at processing. Data for each group were collected from feedlot records describing purchase, transportation and processing histories, daily feeding methods, daily pen movements, daily diagnoses, treatment and mortality rates. These data were used to describe the effects of market origin and feeding management on the levels and distribution of respiratory disease. The three groups of cattle purchased from auction markets and started on high levels of grain in their rations were determined to be 6.3 times (P<0.0005) more likely to be treated for any disease, 4.9 times (P<0.0005) more likely to be treated for respiratory disease, 12.7 times (P<0.0025) more likely to die, and 6.7 times (P<0.0471) more likely to die with respiratory disease than the group made up primarily of farm-assembled heifers and started on a 10% grain ration with time for adjustment to grain. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:17422587

Wilson, Susan H.; Church, Terry L.; Acres, Stephen D.

1985-01-01

306

Efficacy of bovine viral diarrhea virus vaccination to prevent reproductive disease: A meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an important reproductive pathogen of cattle worldwide. The reproductive outcome of BVDV infection is largely dependent on the immune status of the dam and the stage of gestation at the time of infection. Potential sequelae include failure of conception, abortion, a variety of congenital malformations, and fetal infection. Vaccination is a possible tool in the control of BVDV, and there has been a recently renewed focus on providing fetal protection through vaccination. Consequently, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of BVDV vaccination to prevent reproductive disease by performing a quantitative synthesis of previously published studies. Pertinent articles to be included in the analysis were identified by performing a search in four relevant scientific databases (PubMed, CAB abstracts, National Agricultural Library catalog, and Web of Science) and examining the reference lists of 10 germane review articles. Inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis mandated that the studies were controlled, primary studies that included necessary data for use in the meta-analysis (e.g., group size, number of abortions). Forty-six studies in 41 separate articles matched the inclusion criteria. Risk ratio effect sizes were used in random effects, weighted meta-analyses to assess the impact of BVDV vaccination on three outcomes: risk of fetal infection, abortion risk, and pregnancy risk. Within each outcome, subanalyses were performed to evaluate the effect of a variety of interventions, including modified live, inactivated, polyvalent and monovalent vaccination, homologous, heterologous, or field challenge, and studies with only bovine subjects. The analysis revealed a decrease in abortions of nearly 45% and a nearly 85% decrease in fetal infection rate in cattle vaccinated for BVDV compared with unvaccinated cohorts. Additionally, pregnancy risk was increased by approximately 5% in field trials of BVDV vaccinates. This meta-analysis provides quantitative support for the benefit of vaccination in the prevention of BVDV-associated reproductive disease. PMID:25447148

Newcomer, Benjamin W; Walz, Paul H; Givens, M Daniel; Wilson, Alan E

2015-02-01

307

Variable viral clearance despite adequate ganciclovir plasma levels during valganciclovir treatment for cytomegalovirus disease in D+/R- transplant recipients  

PubMed Central

Background Valganciclovir, the oral prodrug of ganciclovir, has been demonstrated equivalent to iv ganciclovir for CMV disease treatment in solid organ transplant recipients. Variability in ganciclovir exposure achieved with valganciclovir could be implicated as a contributing factor for explaining variations in the therapeutic response. This prospective observational study aimed to correlate clinical and cytomegalovirus (CMV) viral load response (DNAemia) with ganciclovir plasma concentrations in patients treated with valganciclovir for CMV infection/disease. Methods Seven CMV D+/R- transplant recipients (4 kidney, 2 liver and 1 heart) were treated with valganciclovir (initial dose was 900-1800 mg/day for 3-6.5 weeks, followed by 450-900 mg/day for 2-9 weeks). DNAemia was monitored by real time quantitative PCR and ganciclovir plasma concentration was measured at trough (Ctrough) and 3 h after drug administration (C3h) by HPLC. Results Four patients presented with CMV syndrome, two had CMV tissue-invasive disease after prophylaxis discontinuation, and one liver recipient was treated pre-emptively for asymptomatic rising CMV viral load 5 weeks post-transplantation in the absence of prophylaxis. CMV DNAemia decreased during the first week of treatment in all recipients except in one patient (median decrease: -1.2 log copies/mL, range: -1.8 to 0) despite satisfactory ganciclovir exposure (AUC0-12 = 48 mg·h/L, range for the 7 patients: 40-118 mg·h/L). Viral clearance was obtained in five patients after a median of time of 34 days (range: 28-82 days). Two patients had recurrent CMV disease despite adequate ganciclovir exposure (65 mg·h/L, range: 44-118 mg·h/L). Conclusions Valganciclovir treatment for CMV infection/disease in D+/R- transplant recipients can thus result in variable viral clearance despite adequate ganciclovir plasma concentrations, probably correlating inversely with anti-CMV immune responses after primary infection. PMID:20053269

2010-01-01

308

Strong seasonality produces spatial asynchrony in the outbreak of infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Models for infectious diseases usually assume a fixed demographic structure. Yet, a disease can spread over a region encountering different local demographic variations that may significantly alter local dynamics. Spatial heterogeneity in the resulting dynamics can lead to important differences in the design of surveillance and control strategies. We illustrate this by exploring the north-south gradient in the seasonal demography of raccoon rabies over the eastern USA. We find that the greater variance in the timing of spring births characteristic of southern populations can lead to the spatial synchronization of southern epidemics, while the narrow birth-pulse associated with northern populations can lead to an irregular patchwork of epidemics. These results indicate that surveillance in the southern states can be reduced relative to northern locations without loss of detection ability. This approach could yield significant savings in vaccination programmes. The importance of seasonality in many widely distributed diseases indicates that our findings will find applications beyond raccoon rabies. PMID:20961894

Duke-Sylvester, Scott M; Bolzoni, Luca; Real, Leslie A

2011-06-01

309

Strong seasonality produces spatial asynchrony in the outbreak of infectious diseases  

PubMed Central

Models for infectious diseases usually assume a fixed demographic structure. Yet, a disease can spread over a region encountering different local demographic variations that may significantly alter local dynamics. Spatial heterogeneity in the resulting dynamics can lead to important differences in the design of surveillance and control strategies. We illustrate this by exploring the north–south gradient in the seasonal demography of raccoon rabies over the eastern USA. We find that the greater variance in the timing of spring births characteristic of southern populations can lead to the spatial synchronization of southern epidemics, while the narrow birth-pulse associated with northern populations can lead to an irregular patchwork of epidemics. These results indicate that surveillance in the southern states can be reduced relative to northern locations without loss of detection ability. This approach could yield significant savings in vaccination programmes. The importance of seasonality in many widely distributed diseases indicates that our findings will find applications beyond raccoon rabies. PMID:20961894

Duke-Sylvester, Scott M.; Bolzoni, Luca; Real, Leslie A.

2011-01-01

310

Evaluation of the Contributions of Individual Viral Genes to Newcastle Disease Virus Virulence and Pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Naturally occurring Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains vary greatly in virulence. The presence of multibasic residues at the proteolytic cleavage site of the fusion (F) protein has been shown to be a primary determinant differentiating virulent versus avirulent strains. However, there is wide variation in virulence among virulent strains. There also are examples of incongruity between cleavage site sequence and virulence. These observations suggest that additional viral factors contribute to virulence. In this study, we evaluated the contribution of each viral gene to virulence individually and in different combinations by exchanging genes between velogenic (highly virulent) strain GB Texas (GBT) and mesogenic (moderately virulent) strain Beaudette C (BC). These two strains are phylogenetically closely related, and their F proteins contain identical cleavage site sequences, 112RRQKR?F117. A total of 20 chimeric viruses were constructed and evaluated in vitro, in 1-day-old chicks, and in 2-week-old chickens. The results showed that both the envelope-associated and polymerase-associated proteins contribute to the difference in virulence between rBC and rGBT, with the envelope-associated proteins playing the greater role. The F protein was the major individual contributor and was sometimes augmented by the homologous M and HN proteins. The dramatic effect of F was independent of its cleavage site sequence since that was identical in the two strains. The polymerase L protein was the next major individual contributor and was sometimes augmented by the homologous N and P proteins. The leader and trailer regions did not appear to contribute to the difference in virulence between BC and GBT. IMPORTANCE This study is the first comprehensive and systematic study of NDV virulence and pathogenesis. Genetic exchanges between a mesogenic and a velogenic strain revealed that the fusion glycoprotein is the major virulence determinant regardless of the identical virulence protease cleavage site sequence present in both strains. The contribution of the large polymerase protein to NDV virulence is second only to that of the fusion glycoprotein. The identification of virulence determinants is of considerable importance, because of the potential to generate better live attenuated NDV vaccines. It may also be possible to apply these findings to other paramyxoviruses. PMID:24850737

Paldurai, Anandan; Kim, Shin-Hee; Nayak, Baibaswata; Xiao, Sa; Shive, Heather; Collins, Peter L.

2014-01-01

311

Vulnerability of a killer whale social network to disease outbreaks Paulo R. Guimares, Jr.,1,  

E-print Network

infectious diseases are among the main threats to conservation of biological diversity. A crucial task facing, Olympia, Washington 98501, USA 4 Dalhousie University, Department of Biology, 1355 Oxford Street, Halifax, 13083-970, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil Received 15 January 2007; published 16 October 2007 Emerging

Baird, Robin W.

312

Thinopyrum ponticum and Th. intermedium: the promising source of resistance to fungal and viral diseases of wheat.  

PubMed

Thinopyrum ponticum and Th. intermedium provide superior resistance against various diseases in wheat (Ttricum aestivum). Because of their readily crossing with wheat, many genes for disease resistance have been introduced from the wheatgrasses into wheat. Genes for resistance to leaf rust, stem rust, powdery mildew, Barley yellow dwarf virus, Wheat streak mosaic virus, and its vector, the wheat curl mite, have been transferred into wheat by producing chromosome translocations. These genes offer an opportunity to improve resistance of wheat to the diseases; some of them have been extensively used in protecting wheat from damage of the diseases. Moreover, new resistance to diseases is continuously detected in the progenies of wheat-Thinopyrum derivatives. The present article summaries characterization and application of the genes for fungal and viral disease-resistance derived from Th. ponticum and Th. intermedium. PMID:19782957

Li, Hongjie; Wang, Xiaoming

2009-09-01

313

Trypanosoma cruzi genotyping supports a common source of infection in a school-related oral outbreak of acute Chagas disease in Venezuela.  

PubMed

Trypanosoma cruzi I, a discrete typing unit (DTU) found in human infections in Venezuela and other countries of the northern region of South America and in Central America, has been recently classified into five intra-DTU genotypes (Ia, Ib, Ic, Id, Ie) based on sequence polymorphisms found in the spliced leader intergenic region. In this paper we report the genotype identification of T. cruzi human isolates from one outbreak of acute orally acquired Chagas disease that occurred in a non-endemic region of Venezuela and from T. cruzi triatomine and rat isolates captured at a guava juice preparation site which was identified as the presumptive source of infection. The genotyping of all these isolates as TcId supports the view of a common source of infection in this oral Chagas disease outbreak through the ingestion of guava juice. Implications for clinical manifestations and dynamics of transmission cycles are discussed. PMID:23544849

Díaz-Bello, Z; Thomas, M C; López, M C; Zavala-Jaspe, R; Noya, O; DE Noya, B Alarcón; Abate, T

2014-01-01

314

Description of the pathology of a gazelle that died during a major outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in Israel.  

PubMed

Naturally occurring foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in wildlife is a relatively mild condition but occasionally it can be devastating as has been documented in impala in South Africa and in mountain gazelles in Israel. This report describes pathological changes in an adult male gazelle with FMD from an outbreak in the Nature Reserve of Ramot-Issachar region and the lower Galilee in Israel. The outbreak was characterised by the malignant form of the disease, which is uncommon among domestic animals. Lesions observed included, ulceration in the oral cavity, oesophagus and ruminal pillars, coronitis, multifocal cardiac necrosis and pancreatic necrosis and inflammation. Pneumonia, caused by Muellerius capillaries was an incidental finding. PMID:20649158

Berkowitz, A; Waner, T; King, R; Yadin, H; Perle, S

2010-03-01

315

Clinical features and rapid viral diagnosis of human disease associated with avian influenza A H5N1 virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background Human infection with an avian influenza A virus (subtype H5N1) was reported recently in Hong Kong. We describe the clinical presentation of the first 12 patients and options for rapid viral diagnosis. Methods Case notes of 12 patients with virus-culture- confirmed influenza A H5N1 infection were analysed. The clinical presentation and risk factors associated with severe disease were

KY Yuen; PKS Chan; M Peiris; DNC Tsang; TL Que; KF Shortridge; PT Cheung; ETF Ho; R Sung; AFB Cheng

1998-01-01

316

Molecular Epidemiology of Outbreak-Associated and Wild-Waterfowl-Derived Newcastle Disease Virus Strains in Finland, Including a Novel Class I Genotype  

PubMed Central

Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious, severe disease of poultry caused by pathogenic strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV; or avian paramyxovirus-1). NDV is endemic in wild birds worldwide and one of the economically most important poultry pathogens. Most of the published strains are outbreak-associated strains, while the apathogenic NDV strains that occur in wild birds, posing a constant threat to poultry with their capability to convert into more virulent forms, have remained less studied. We screened for NDV RNA in cloacal and oropharyngeal samples from wild waterfowl in Finland during the years 2006 to 2010: 39 of 715 birds were positive (prevalence, 5.5%). The partial or full-length F genes of 37 strains were sequenced for phylogenetic purposes. We also characterized viruses derived from three NDV outbreaks in Finland and discuss the relationships between these outbreak-associated and the wild-bird-associated strains. We found that all waterfowl NDV isolates were lentogenic strains of class I or class II genotype I. We also isolated a genetically distinct class I strain (teal/Finland/13111/2008) grouping phylogenetically together with only strain HIECK87191, isolated in Northern Ireland in 1987. Together they seem to form a novel class I genotype genetically differing from other known NDVs by at least 12%. PMID:22972821

Ek-Kommonen, Christine; Väänänen, Veli-Matti; Alasaari, Jukka; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli

2012-01-01

317

Analysis of Equid Herpesvirus 1 Strain Variation Reveals a Point Mutation of the DNA Polymerase Strongly Associated with Neuropathogenic versus Nonneuropathogenic Disease Outbreaks  

PubMed Central

Equid herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) can cause a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from inapparent respiratory infection to the induction of abortion and, in extreme cases, neurological disease resulting in paralysis and ultimately death. It has been suggested that distinct strains of EHV-1 that differ in pathogenic capacity circulate in the field. In order to investigate this hypothesis, it was necessary to identify genetic markers that allow subgroups of related strains to be identified. We have determined all of the genetic differences between a neuropathogenic strain (Ab4) and a nonneuropathogenic strain (V592) of EHV-1 and developed PCR/sequencing procedures enabling differentiation of EHV-1 strains circulating in the field. The results indicate the occurrence of several major genetic subgroups of EHV-1 among isolates recovered from outbreaks over the course of 30 years, consistent with the proposal that distinct strains of EHV-1 circulate in the field. Moreover, there is evidence that certain strain groups are geographically restricted, being recovered predominantly from outbreaks occurring in either North America or Europe. Significantly, variation of a single amino acid of the DNA polymerase is strongly associated with neurological versus nonneurological disease outbreaks. Strikingly, this variant amino acid occurs at a highly conserved position for herpesvirus DNA polymerases, suggesting an important functional role. PMID:16571821

Nugent, J.; Birch-Machin, I.; Smith, K. C.; Mumford, J. A.; Swann, Z.; Newton, J. R.; Bowden, R. J.; Allen, G. P.; Davis-Poynter, N.

2006-01-01

318

Marek's disease virus influences the core gut microbiome of the chicken during the early and late phases of viral replication.  

PubMed

Marek's disease (MD) is an important neoplastic disease of chickens caused by the Marek's disease virus (MDV), an oncogenic alphaherpesvirus. In this study, dysbiosis induced by MDV on the core gut flora of chicken was assessed using next generation sequence (NGS) analysis. Total fecal and cecum-derived samples from individual birds were used to estimate the influence of MDV infection on the gut microbiome of chicken. Our analysis shows that MDV infection alters the core gut flora in the total fecal samples relatively early after infection (2-7 days) and in the late phase of viral infection (28-35 days) in cecal samples, corresponding well with the life cycle of MDV. Principle component analyses of total fecal and cecal samples showed clustering at the early and late time points, respectively. The genus Lactobacillus was exclusively present in the infected samples in both total fecal and cecal bird samples. The community colonization of core gut flora was altered by viral infection, which manifested in the enrichment of several genera during the early and late phases of MDV replication. The results suggest a relationship between viral infection and microbial composition of the intestinal tract that may influence inflammation and immunosuppression of T and B cells in the host. PMID:25065611

Perumbakkam, Sudeep; Hunt, Henry D; Cheng, Hans H

2014-10-01

319

Outbreak investigations and genetic characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus in Ethiopia in 2008/2009.  

PubMed

The study was conducted in three regional states of Ethiopia: Amhara, Oromia, and Addis Ababa from August 2008 to April 2009 with the objectives of identifying the genetic diversity of serotypes and topotypes in Ethiopia, and determining the attack rate and associations of potential risk factors with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) seropositivity. A total of 496 cattle were clinically and serologically examined for presence of specific lesions and nonstructural protein for FMD, respectively. Of which, 140 (28.2%) manifested clinical signs and lesions suggestive of FMD, and 219 (44.2%) were seropositive. From a total of 7,781 animals observed and recorded on a designed format in six districts, 1,409 (19.6%) were infected, and 15 (0.12%) died during outbreaks of FMD. Epidemiological investigations revealed that the morbidity rate of the disease was 21.1% in Akaki-kality sub-city, but the mortality rate was <2% in all districts. Furthermore, the mortality and case fatality rates were relatively higher, 1.6% and 8.9% in calves than the other age groups, respectively. From a total of 33 bovine epithelial tissue-cultured samples, 19 (57.6%) showed CPE for FMD virus, in which 16 samples had serotype O and EA-3 topotype, while three samples had found serotype A, Africa topotype, and G-VII strain. Various strains of FMD viruses were isolated in Ethiopia in this study, and therefore, further detailed studies on the evaluation of available vaccines and the development of a vaccine which contains cocktails of antigens of FMD virus strains in the country should be encouraged. PMID:20717724

Negusssie, Haileleul; Kyule, Moses N; Yami, Martha; Ayelet, Gelagay; Jenberie, Shiferaw

2011-01-01

320

First Outbreak of West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease in Humans, Croatia, 2012  

PubMed Central

Abstract Between September 6 and 21, 2012, seven human cases of West Nile virus (WNV) neuroinvasive infection were laboratory confirmed in Croatia. The median patient age was 62 years (range 48–77). Five patients presented with meningoencephalitis and two patients with meningoencephalitis followed by acute flaccid paralysis. Four of them had an underlying disease (hypertension). Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), WNV-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies of low avidity were detected in six patients, whereas one showed only IgM antibodies. All samples were confirmed using plaque-reduction neutralization and microneutralization tests. Five patients recovered fully. Before human cases were reported, acute asymptomatic WNV infection was demonstrated by detection of IgM antibodies in sentinel horses. Moreover, an increased WNV IgG seropositivity in horses was detected in counties where human cases occurred. Adulticidal and larvicidal treatments were administered immediately in the respective places of residence. The end of the warm season contributed to the fact that there were no new cases of WNV disease recorded. PMID:24283515

Vilibic-Cavlek, Tatjana; Gjenero-Margan, Ira; Pandak, Nenad; Peric, Ljiljana; Barbic, Ljubo; Listes, Eddy; Cvitkovic, Ante; Stevanovic, Vladimir; Savini, Giovanni

2014-01-01

321

Legionnaires' disease outbreak associated with a cruise liner, August 2003: epidemiological and microbiological findings.  

PubMed

Eight cases of Legionnaires' disease were identified among the 215 German passengers after a cruise to the Nordic Sea in August 2003. An unmatched case-control study was conducted to identify risk factors and the source of infection. In total, eight passengers fulfilled the case definition, one of these died. Forty-two passengers served as controls. The attack rate was 4%. The mean age was 60 years for cases and 62 years for controls. Prolonged exposure to the spa pool seemed to be a risk factor of infection (OR 4.85, P=0.09). Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, monoclonal antibody (mAb) subgroup 'Knoxville' was isolated from clinical and environmental samples. DNA sequence-based typing revealed that these isolates were indistinguishable from each other. The investigation showed the importance of an interdisciplinary approach of microbiology and epidemiology as not all sites on the ship that tested positive for L. pneumophila actually posed a relevant risk for the passengers. PMID:17109773

Beyrer, K; Lai, S; Dreesman, J; Lee, J V; Joseph, C; Harrison, T; Surman-Lee, S; Lück, C; Brodhun, B; Buchholz, U; Windorfer, A

2007-07-01

322

Trypanosoma cruzi TcIII/Z3 genotype as agent of an outbreak of Chagas disease in the Brazilian Western Amazonia.  

PubMed

Chagas' disease is an emerging and neglected disease in the Brazilian Amazon region, where T. cruzi I predominates among the acute cases of the disease; and T. cruzi III/Z3, a population cluster from sylvatic areas of the Amazon basin, is rarely associated with human infections. On 23rd April 2007, the Foundation for Health Surveillance of the State of Amazonas, Brazil reported an outbreak of acute Chagas disease in the municipality of Coari on the Solimões River banks. Fresh blood examination confirmed the infection in 25 patients. Parasite culture in LIT medium was successful for 18 isolates. Molecular characterization was performed by PCR of the non-transcribed spacer of the mini-exon and by sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) gene. The T. cruzi isolates were all from genotype Z3, and sequencing revealed that all isolates had equal COII sequences compatible with TcIII type, suggesting a single source of infection. To our knowledge, this is the first outbreak of acute cases caused uniquely by the genotype TcIII/Z3. Wild vectors harbouring TcIII stocks contribute to transmission when the triatomine species reaches human food chain or when humans invade the forest environment, where sylvatic cycle constitutes a reservoir of parasites that might be associated with specific epidemiological and clinical traits of the emergent Chagas disease in the Amazon. PMID:20579319

Monteiro, Wuelton M; Magalhães, Laylah K; Santana Filho, Franklin S; Borborema, Maurício; Silveira, Henrique; Barbosa, Maria das Graças V

2010-09-01

323

A local outbreak of dengue caused by an imported case in Dongguan China  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue, a mosquito-borne febrile viral disease, is found in tropical and sub-tropical regions around the world. Since the first occurrence of dengue was confirmed in Guangdong, China in 1978, dengue outbreaks have been reported sequentially in different provinces in South China transmitted by.peridomestic Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, diplaying Ae. aegypti, a fully domestic vector that transmits dengue worldwide. Rapid and uncontrolled urbanization is a characteristic change in developing countries, which impacts greatly on vector habitat, human lifestyle and transmission dynamics on dengue epidemics. In September 2010, an outbreak of dengue was detected in Dongguan, a city in Guangdong province characterized by its fast urbanization. An investigation was initiated to identify the cause, to describe the epidemical characteristics of the outbreak, and to implement control measures to stop the outbreak. This is the first report of dengue outbreak in Dongguan, even though dengue cases were documented before in this city. Methods Epidemiological data were obtained from local Center of Disease Control and prevention (CDC). Laboratory tests such as real-time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), the virus cDNA sequencing, and Enzyme-Linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were employed to identify the virus infection and molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed with MEGA5. The febrile cases were reported every day by the fever surveillance system. Vector control measures including insecticidal fogging and elimination of habitats of Ae. albopictus were used to control the dengue outbreak. Results The epidemiological studies results showed that this dengue outbreak was initiated by an imported case from Southeast Asia. The outbreak was characterized by 31 cases reported with an attack rate of 50.63 out of a population of 100,000. Ae. albopictus was the only vector species responsible for the outbreak. The virus cDNA sequencing analysis showed that the virus responsible for the outbreak was Dengue Virus serotype-1 (DENV-1). Conclusions Several characterized points of urbanization contributed to this outbreak of dengue in Dongguan: the residents are highly concentrated; the residents' life habits helped to form the habitats of Ae. albopictus and contributed to the high Breteau Index; the self-constructed houses lacks of mosquito prevention facilities. This report has reaffirmed the importance of a surveillance system for infectious diseases control and aroused the awareness of an imported case causing the epidemic of an infectious disease in urbanized region. PMID:22276682

2012-01-01

324

Equine disease surveillance, April to June 2010.  

PubMed

Recent outbreaks of equine infectious anaemia and equine viral arteritis in the UK. Update on the equine infectious anaemia situation in Europe. West Nile virus reported in several Mediterranean countries. Current and future approaches to equine viral arteritis control in the UK. These are among matters discussed in the quarterly equine disease surveillance report for April to June 2010, prepared by Defra, the Animal Health Trust and the British Equine Veterinary Association. PMID:21257438

2010-10-16

325

Viral infections during pregnancy.  

PubMed

Viral infections during pregnancy have long been considered benign conditions with a few notable exceptions, such as herpes virus. The recent Ebola outbreak and other viral epidemics and pandemics show how pregnant women suffer worse outcomes (such as preterm labor and adverse fetal outcomes) than the general population and non-pregnant women. New knowledge about the ways the maternal-fetal interface and placenta interact with the maternal immune system may explain these findings. Once thought to be 'immunosuppressed', the pregnant woman actually undergoes an immunological transformation, where the immune system is necessary to promote and support the pregnancy and growing fetus. When this protection is breached, as in a viral infection, this security is weakened and infection with other microorganisms can then propagate and lead to outcomes, such as preterm labor. In this manuscript, we review the major viral infections relevant to pregnancy and offer potential mechanisms for the associated adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:25582523

Silasi, Michelle; Cardenas, Ingrid; Kwon, Ja-Young; Racicot, Karen; Aldo, Paula; Mor, Gil

2015-03-01

326

Characterization of Foot-And-Mouth Disease Viruses (FMDVs) from Ugandan Cattle Outbreaks during 2012-2013: Evidence for Circulation of Multiple Serotypes  

PubMed Central

To investigate the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotypes circulating in Uganda’s cattle population, both serological and virological analyses of samples from outbreaks that occurred during 2012–2013 were performed. Altogether, 79 sera and 60 oropharyngeal fluid (OP)/tissue/oral swab samples were collected from herds with reported FMD outbreaks in seven different Ugandan districts. Overall, 61/79 (77%) of the cattle sera were positive for antibodies against FMDV by PrioCHECK FMDV NS ELISA and solid phase blocking ELISA detected titres ? 80 for serotypes O, SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3 in 41, 45, 30 and 45 of these 61 seropositive samples, respectively. Virus neutralisation tests detected the highest levels of neutralising antibodies (titres ? 45) against serotype O in the herds from Kween and Rakai districts, against SAT 1 in the herd from Nwoya district and against SAT 2 in the herds from Kiruhura, Isingiro and Ntungamo districts. The isolation of a SAT 2 FMDV from Isingiro was consistent with the detection of high levels of neutralising antibodies against SAT 2; sequencing (for the VP1 coding region) indicated that this virus belonged to lineage I within this serotype, like the currently used vaccine strain. From the Wakiso district 11 tissue/swab samples were collected; serotype A FMDV, genotype Africa (G-I), was isolated from the epithelial samples. This study shows that within a period of less than one year, FMD outbreaks in Uganda were caused by four different serotypes namely O, A, SAT 1 and SAT 2. Therefore, to enhance the control of FMD in Uganda, there is need for efficient and timely determination of outbreak virus strains/serotypes and vaccine matching. The value of incorporating serotype A antigen into the imported vaccines along with the current serotype O, SAT 1 and SAT 2 strains should be considered. PMID:25664876

Namatovu, Alice; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Belsham, Graham J.; Dhikusooka, Moses T.; Wekesa, Sabenzia N.; Muwanika, Vincent B.; Siegismund, Hans R.; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom

2015-01-01

327

Legionnaires’ disease from a cooling tower in a community outbreak in Lidköping, Sweden- epidemiological, environmental and microbiological investigation supported by meteorological modelling  

PubMed Central

Background An outbreak of Legionnaires’ Disease took place in the Swedish town Lidköping on Lake Vänern in August 2004 and the number of pneumonia cases at the local hospital increased markedly. As soon as the first patients were diagnosed, health care providers were informed and an outbreak investigation was launched. Methods Classical epidemiological investigation, diagnostic tests, environmental analyses, epidemiological typing and meteorological methods. Results Thirty-two cases were found. The median age was 62 years (range 36 – 88) and 22 (69%) were males. No common indoor exposure was found. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was found at two industries, each with two cooling towers. In one cooling tower exceptionally high concentrations, 1.2 × 109 cfu/L, were found. Smaller amounts were also found in the other tower of the first industry and in one tower of the second plant. Sero- and genotyping of isolated L. pneumophila serogroup 1 from three patients and epidemiologically suspected environmental strains supported the cooling tower with the high concentration as the source. In all, two L. pneumophila strains were isolated from three culture confirmed cases and both these strains were detected in the cooling tower, but one strain in another cooling tower as well. Meteorological modelling demonstrated probable spread from the most suspected cooling tower towards the town centre and the precise location of four cases that were stray visitors to Lidköping. Conclusions Classical epidemiological, environmental and microbiological investigation of an LD outbreak can be supported by meteorological modelling methods. The broad competence and cooperation capabilities in the investigation team from different authorities were of paramount importance in stopping this outbreak. PMID:23171054

2012-01-01

328

Outbreak of acute respiratory disease caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae on board a deployed U.S. navy ship.  

PubMed

We identified 179 cases of acute respiratory illness including 50 cases of radiographically confirmed pneumonia over the course of 4 months on a deployed U.S. Navy vessel. Laboratory tests showed Mycoplasma pneumoniae to be the etiological agent. This report represents the first published description of a shipboard outbreak of this pathogen. PMID:19846632

Sliman, Joseph A; Metzgar, David; Asseff, David C; Coon, Robert G; Faix, Dennis J; Lizewski, Stephen

2009-12-01

329

Distribution of cow-calf producers' beliefs about reporting cattle with clinical signs of foot-and-mouth disease to a veterinarian before or during a hypothetical outbreak.  

PubMed

Understanding the prevalence of cattle producers' beliefs regarding disease reporting can help officials improve surveillance programs with passive data collection. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Texas in 2008 and 2009 to determine beliefs about reporting cattle with clinical signs consistent with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) either prior to (scenario 1) or during an on-going outbreak of FMD (scenario 2). Two questionnaires were developed and distributed to Texas cow-calf producers in order to evaluate their behavioral, control, and normative beliefs related to disease reporting. The context for each behavior was provided through the use of scenarios, and belief strength was measured using a 7-point Likert-like scale. Beliefs were compared across scenarios and demographic categories, and the effect of scenario on belief examined using ordinal logistic regression. Respondents agreed that reporting clinically suspect cases would have positive economic and emotional consequences; however, when an outbreak was known to be present, producers were less likely to agree with many of the positive outcomes of reporting. Important barriers to disease reporting indicated by producers included a lack of knowledge related to clinical signs of highly contagious cattle diseases and which cattle are at risk of contracting FMD. In general, beliefs about barriers to reporting did not differ based on scenario. Veterinarians and regulatory authorities were the groups perceived to most strongly expect disease reporting, regardless of the scenario. Risk education for producers related to clinical signs of reportable livestock diseases, post-reporting procedures, and an understanding of FMD introduction and spread may improve the reporting of cattle with clinical signs consistent with FMD. PMID:25449736

Delgado, Amy H; Norby, Bo; Scott, H Morgan; Dean, Wesley; McIntosh, W Alex; Bush, Eric

2014-12-01

330

Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 4. Infective doses and pathogen carriage.  

PubMed

In this article, the fourth in a series reviewing the role of food workers in foodborne outbreaks, background information on the presence of enteric pathogens in the community, the numbers of organisms required to initiate an infection, and the length of carriage are presented. Although workers have been implicated in outbreaks, they were not always aware of their infections, either because they were in the prodromic phase before symptoms began or because they were asymptomatic carriers. Pathogens of fecal, nose or throat, and skin origin are most likely to be transmitted by the hands, highlighting the need for effective hand hygiene and other barriers to pathogen contamination, such as no bare hand contact with ready-to-eat food. The pathogens most likely to be transmitted by food workers are norovirus, hepatitis A virus, Salmonella, Shigella, and Staphylococcus aureus. However, other pathogens have been implicated in worker-associated outbreaks or have the potential to be implicated. In this study, the likelihood of pathogen involvement in foodborne outbreaks where infected workers have been implicated was examined, based on infectious dose, carriage rate in the community, duration of illness, and length of pathogen excretion. Infectious dose estimates are based on volunteer studies (mostly early experiments) or data from outbreaks. Although there is considerable uncertainty associated with these data, some pathogens appear to be able to infect at doses as low as 1 to 100 units, including viruses, parasites, and some bacteria. Lengthy postsymptomatic shedding periods and excretion by asymptomatic individuals of many enteric pathogens is an important issue for the hygienic management of food workers. PMID:19044283

Todd, Ewen C D; Greig, Judy D; Bartleson, Charles A; Michaels, Barry S

2008-11-01

331

Outbreaks of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Libya and Saudi Arabia During 2013 Due to an Exotic O/ME-SA/Ind-2001 Lineage Virus.  

PubMed

Foot-and-mouth disease viruses are often restricted to specific geographical regions and spread to new areas may lead to significant epidemics. Phylogenetic analysis of sequences of the VP1 genome region of recent outbreak viruses from Libya and Saudi Arabia has revealed a lineage, O-Ind-2001, normally found in the Indian subcontinent. This paper describes the characterization of field viruses collected from these cases and provides information about a new real-time RT-PCR assay that can be used to detect viruses from this lineage and discriminate them from other endemic FMD viruses that are co-circulating in North Africa and western Eurasia. PMID:25483996

Knowles, N J; Bachanek-Bankowska, K; Wadsworth, J; Mioulet, V; Valdazo-González, B; Eldaghayes, I M; Dayhum, A S; Kammon, A M; Sharif, M A; Waight, S; Shamia, A M; Tenzin, S; Wernery, U; Grazioli, S; Brocchi, E; Subramaniam, S; Pattnaik, B; King, D P

2014-12-01

332

Vaccines 85: Molecular and chemical basis of resistance to parasitic, bacterial, and viral diseases  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 70 selections. Some of the selection titles are: Structure of the Gene Encoding of Immunodominant Surface Antigen on the Sprozoite of the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum; Cloning and Expression in Bacteria of the Genes for Merozite-specific Antigens from the Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum; A Major Surface Antigen of Plasmodium falciparum in Merozoites: Studies on the Protein and its Gene; Genetic Construction of Cholera Vaccine Prototypes; and Viral Genes, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes and Immunity.

Lerner, R.A.; Chanock, R.M.; Brown, F.

1985-01-01

333

Sublethal iridovirus disease of the mosquito Aedes aegypti is due to viral replication not cytotoxicity.  

PubMed

Invertebrate iridescent viruses (Iridoviridae) possess a highly cytotoxic protein. In mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), invertebrate iridescent virus 6 (IIV-6) usually causes covert (inapparent) infection that reduces fitness. To determine whether sublethal effects of IIV-6 are principally due to cytotoxicity of the viral inoculum (which inhibits macromolecular synthesis in the host), or caused by replication of the virus larvae of the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L) were exposed to untreated IIV-6 virus that had previously been deactivated by heat or ultraviolet light. Control larvae were not exposed to virus. Larval development time was shortest in control larvae and extended in larvae exposed to untreated virus. Covertly infected mosquitoes laid significantly fewer eggs, produced between 20 and 35% fewer progeny and had reduced longevity compared to other treatments. Wing length was shortest in mosquitoes exposed to heat-deactivated virus. Multivariate analysis of the same data identified fecundity and progeny production as the most influential variables in defining differences among treatments. Overall, viral infection resulted in a 34% decrease in the net reproductive rate (R0) of covertly infected mosquitoes, vs. only 5-17% decrease of R0 following treatments with deactivated virus, compared to controls. Sublethal effects of IIV-6 in Ae. aegypti appear to be mainly due to virus replication, rather than cytotoxic effects of the viral inoculum. PMID:12823836

Marina, C F; Ibarra, J E; Arredondo-Jiménez, J I; Fernández-Salas, I; Valle, J; Williams, T

2003-06-01

334

Ebola virus disease: a highly fatal infectious disease reemerging in West Africa.  

PubMed

Ebolavirus can cause a highly fatal and panic-generating human disease which may jump from bats to other mammals and human. High viral loads in body fluids allow efficient transmission by contact. Lack of effective antivirals, vaccines and public health infrastructures in parts of Africa make it difficult to health workers to contain the outbreak. PMID:25456100

To, Kelvin K W; Chan, Jasper F W; Tsang, Alan K L; Cheng, Vincent C C; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

2015-02-01

335

Cellular Tropism and Viral Interleukin6 Expression Distinguish Human Herpesvirus 8 Involvement in Kaposi's Sarcoma, Primary Effusion Lymphoma, and Multicentric Castleman's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection has been implicated in the etiology of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD), three diseases that fre- quently develop in immunocompromised, human immunodeficiency virus-positive individuals. One hypothesis that would account for different pathological manifestations of infection by the same virus is that viral genes are differentially expressed in heterogeneous

KATHERINE A. STASKUS; REN SUN; GEORGE MILLER; PAUL RACZ; ANTHONY JASLOWSKI; CRAIG METROKA; HELENA BRETT-SMITH; ASHLEY T. HAASE; Travis AFB

1999-01-01

336

A fatal waterborne disease epidemic in Walkerton, Ontario: comparison with other waterborne outbreaks in the developed world.  

PubMed

An estimated 2,300 people became seriously ill and seven died from exposure to microbially contaminated drinking water in the town of Walkerton, Ontario, Canada in May 2000. The severity of this drinking water disaster resulted in the Government of Ontario calling a public inquiry by Mr. Justice Dennis O'Connor to address the cause of the outbreak, the role (if any) of government policies in contributing to this outbreak and, ultimately, the implications of this experience on the safety of drinking water across the Province of Ontario. The circumstances surrounding the Walkerton tragedy are an important reference source for those concerned with providing safe drinking water. Although some circumstances are obviously specific to this epidemic, others are uncomfortably reminiscent of waterborne outbreaks that have occurred elsewhere. These recurring themes suggested the need for attention to broad issues of drinking water security and they present the challenge for how drinking water safety can be managed to prevent such tragedies in the future. PMID:12638998

Hrudey, S E; Payment, P; Huck, P M; Gillham, R W; Hrudey, E J

2003-01-01

337

Cost-Effective Control of Chronic Viral Diseases: Finding the Optimal Level of Screening and Contact Tracing  

PubMed Central

Chronic viral diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) afflict millions of people worldwide. A key public health challenge in managing such diseases is identifying infected, asymptomatic individuals so that they can receive antiviral treatment. Such treatment can benefit both the treated individual (by improving quality and length of life) and the population as a whole (through reduced transmission). We develop a compartmental model of a chronic, treatable infectious disease and use it to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of different levels of screening and contact tracing. We show that: 1) the optimal strategy is to get infected individuals into treatment at the maximal rate until the incremental health benefits balance the incremental cost of controlling the disease; 2) as one reduces the disease prevalence by moving people into treatment (which decreases the chance that they will infect others), one should increase the level of contact tracing to compensate for the decreased effectiveness of screening; 3) as the disease becomes less prevalent, it is optimal to spend more per case identified; and 4) the relative mix of screening and contact tracing at any level of disease prevalence is such that the marginal efficiency of contact tracing (cost per infected person found) equals that of screening if possible (e.g., when capacity limitations are not binding). We also show how to determine the cost-effective equilibrium level of disease prevalence (among untreated individuals), and we develop an approximation of the path of the optimal prevalence over time. Using this, one can obtain a close approximation of the optimal solution without having to solve an optimal control problem. We apply our methods to an example of hepatitis B virus. PMID:20043926

Armbruster, Benjamin; Brandeau, Margaret L.

2010-01-01

338

Development of Strand-Specific Real-Time RT-PCR to Distinguish Viral RNAs during Newcastle Disease Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes large losses in the global fowl industry. To better understand NDV replication and transcription cycle, quantitative detection methods for distinguishing NDV genomic RNA (gRNA), antigenomic RNA (cRNA), and messenger RNA (mRNA) in NDV-infected cells are indispensible. Three reverse transcription primers were designed to specifically target the nucleoprotein (NP) region of gRNA, cRNA, and NP mRNA, and a corresponding real-time RT-PCR assay was developed to simultaneously quantify the three types of RNAs in NDV-infected cells. This method showed very good specificity, sensitivity, and reproducibility. The detection range of the assay was between 5.5 × 102 and 1.1 × 109 copies/?L of the target gene. These methods were applied to investigate the dynamics of the gRNA, cRNA, and mRNA synthesis in NDV La Sota infected DF-1 cells. The results showed that the copy numbers of viral gRNA, cRNA, and NP mRNA all exponentially increased in the beginning. The viral RNA copy number then plateaued at 10'h postinfection and gradually decreased from 16?h postinfection. No synthesis priority was observed between replication (gRNA and cRNA amounts) and transcription (mRNA amounts) during NDV infection. However, the cRNA accumulated more rapidly than gRNA, as the cRNA copy number was three- to tenfold higher than gRNA starting from 2?h postinfection. Conclusion. A real-time RT-PCR for absolute quantitation of specific viral RNA fragments in NDV-infected cells was developed for the first time. The development of this assay will be helpful for further studies on the pathogenesis and control strategies of NDV. PMID:25379553

Qiu, Xusheng; Yu, Yang; Yu, Shengqing; Zhan, Yuan; Wei, Nana; Song, Cuiping; Sun, Yingjie; Tan, Lei; Ding, Chan

2014-01-01

339

A descriptive analysis of the potential association between migration patterns of bean and white-fronted geese and the occurrence of Newcastle disease outbreaks in domestic birds.  

PubMed

The sightings and migration patterns of 65 bean (Anser fabalis) and 65 white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) are reported. In the past, these geese were serologically screened for the occurrence of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and other avian viral diseases by Hlinak et al. (3). Of the 130 birds originally tagged and serologically screened in 1991, 53 birds were resighted between 1991 and 1996. Most of the sightings were reported from main wintering and resting sites in Germany and The Netherlands. It is noteworthy that 19 of the 53 birds sighted had serologic evidence that they had been exposed to NDV before the time of marking in 1991. Although the origin of these infections in bean geese and white-fronted geese is still unknown, the sightings reported in this study indicate that, once infected, wild geese may be involved in the dissemination and spread of avian viral diseases, specifically Newcastle disease. The migration patterns of the wild geese provided further evidence that the main resting and wintering areas of migratory waterfowl are likely to be important for the inter- and intraspecies transmission of avian diseases, thereby representing risk areas for the poultry industry. PMID:10396646

Müller, T; Hlinak, A; Mühle, R U; Kramer, M; Liebherr, H; Ziedler, K; Pfeiffer, D U

1999-01-01

340

Detection of lumpy skin disease virus antigen and genomic DNA in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from an Egyptian outbreak in 2006.  

PubMed

An outbreak of lumpy skin disease (LSD) was reported in 2006 in Egypt affecting 16 provinces. Biopsies and post-mortem tissue samples were collected from calves that showed typical clinical signs of LSD and fixed in formalin. These samples were collected from a private dairy farm in the Damietta province of Egypt. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples were assessed using histology, and skin lesions were classified as either acute or subacute/chronic. Both lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) DNA detected by polymerase chain reaction and LSDV antigen detected by immunohistochemistry using a capripoxvirus-specific monoclonal antibody were observed in the acute skin lesions and in some subacute/chronic skin lesions. PMID:21699673

Awadin, W; Hussein, H; Elseady, Y; Babiuk, S; Furuoka, H

2011-10-01

341

Human cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus infection in inflammatory bowel disease: Need for mucosal viral load measurement  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the best diagnostic technique and risk factors of the human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: A cohort of 40 IBD patients (17 refractory) and 40 controls underwent peripheral blood and endoscopic colonic mucosal sample harvest. Viral infection was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, and correlations with clinical and endoscopic indexes of activity, and risk factors were investigated. RESULTS: All refractory patients carried detectable levels of HCMV and/or EBV mucosal load as compared to 13/23 (56.5%) non-refractory and 13/40 (32.5%) controls. The median DNA value was significantly higher in refractory (HCMV 286 and EBV 5.440 copies/105 cells) than in non-refractory (HCMV 0 and EBV 6 copies/105 cells; P < 0.05 and < 0.001) IBD patients and controls (HCMV and EBV 0 copies/105 cells; P < 0.001 for both). Refractory patients showed DNA peak values ? 103 copies/105 cells in diseased mucosa in comparison to non-diseased mucosa (P < 0.0121 for HCMV and < 0.0004 for EBV), while non-refractory patients and controls invariably displayed levels below this threshold, thus allowing us to differentiate viral colitis from mucosal infection. Moreover, the mucosal load positively correlated with the values found in the peripheral blood, whilst no correlation with the number of positive cells at immunohistochemistry was found. Steroid use was identified as a significant risk factor for both HCMV (P = 0.018) and EBV (P = 0.002) colitis. Finally, a course of specific antiviral therapy with ganciclovir was successful in all refractory patients with HCMV colitis, whilst refractory patients with EBV colitis did not show any improvement despite steroid tapering and discontinuation of the other medications. CONCLUSION: Viral colitis appeared to contribute to mucosal lesions in refractory IBD, and its correct diagnosis and management require quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay of mucosal specimens.

Ciccocioppo, Rachele; Racca, Francesca; Paolucci, Stefania; Campanini, Giulia; Pozzi, Lodovica; Betti, Elena; Riboni, Roberta; Vanoli, Alessandro; Baldanti, Fausto; Corazza, Gino Roberto

2015-01-01

342

Epidemiological analysis of an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (serotype SAT2) on a large dairy farm in Kenya using regular vaccination.  

PubMed

During August-September 2012, an outbreak of Foot-and-mouth Disease (FMD) due to serotype Southern African Territories-2 (SAT2) occurred on a large, extensively grazed dairy farm in Nakuru County, Kenya. Over 29 days, 400/644 (62.1%) cattle were recorded as displaying clinical signs consistent with FMD. Out of the 18 management groups present, 17 had clinical cases (weighted mean incidence rate 3.5 per 100 cattle-days, 95% CI 2.4, 5.1; range 0.064-10.9). Transmission may have been encouraged when an infected group was moved to a designated isolation paddock. A four to five day minimum incubation period was apparent in five groups for which a point source exposure was evident. Further transmission was associated with the movement of individual animals incubating infection, use of a common dip and milking parlour, and grazing of susceptible groups in paddocks neighbouring to infectious cases. Animals over 18 months old appeared to be at highest risk of disease possibly due to milder clinical signs seen among younger animals resulting in reduced transmission or cases not being recorded. Cows with a breeding pedigree containing a greater proportion of zebu appeared to be at lower risk of disease. The outbreak occurred despite regular vaccination (three times per year) last performed approximately three months before the index case. Incidence risk by the lifetime number of doses received indicated limited or no vaccine effectiveness against clinical disease. Reasons for poor vaccine effectiveness are discussed with antigenic diversity of the SAT2 serotype and poor match between the field and vaccine strain as a likely explanation. Detailed field-derived epidemiological data based on individual animals are rarely presented in the literature for FMD, particularly in East-Africa and with the SAT2 serotype. This study provides a detailed account and therefore provides a greater understanding of FMD outbreaks in this setting. Additionally, this is the first study to provide field-derived evidence of poor vaccine effectiveness using a SAT2 vaccine. Further field-based measures of vaccine effectiveness in line with evaluation of human vaccines are needed to inform FMD control policy which has previously relied heavily upon experimental data and anecdotal experience. PMID:25447264

Lyons, N A; Stärk, K D C; van Maanen, C; Thomas, S L; Chepkwony, E C; Sangula, A K; Dulu, T D; Fine, P E M

2015-03-01

343

Behçet's disease diagnosed after acute HIV infection: viral replication activating underlying autoimmunity?  

PubMed

Behçet's disease is an autoimmune systemic vasculitis that can occur after exposure to infectious agents. Behçet's disease also has been associated with HIV infection, including de novo development of this condition during chronic HIV infection and resolution of Behçet's disease symptoms following initiation of antiretroviral therapy. We describe a patient who presented with systemic vasculitis with skin and mucous membrane ulcerations in the setting of acute HIV infection, who was eventually diagnosed with Behçet's disease, demonstrating a possible link between acute HIV infection, immune activation and development of autoimmunity. PMID:24912539

Roscoe, Clay; Kinney, Rebecca; Gilles, Ryan; Blue, Sky

2014-06-01

344

Challenges of Establishing the Correct Diagnosis of Outbreaks of Acute Febrile Illnesses in Africa: The Case of a Likely Brucella Outbreak among Nomadic Pastoralists, Northeast Kenya, March–July 2005  

PubMed Central

An outbreak of acute febrile illness was reported among Somali pastoralists in remote, arid Northeast Kenya, where drinking raw milk is common. Blood specimens from 12 patients, collected mostly in the late convalescent phase, were tested for viral, bacterial, and parasitic pathogens. All were negative for viral and typhoid serology. Nine patients had Brucella antibodies present by at least one of the tests, four of whom had evidence suggestive of acute infection by the reference serologic microscopic agglutination test. Three patients were positive for leptospiral antibody by immunoglobulin M enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and two were positive for malaria. Although sensitive and specific point-of-care testing methods will improve diagnosis of acute febrile illness in developing countries, challenges of interpretation still remain when the outbreaks are remote, specimens collected too late, and positive results for multiple diseases are obtained. Better diagnostics and tools that can decipher overlapping signs and symptoms in such settings are needed. PMID:22049048

Ari, Mary D.; Guracha, Argata; Fadeel, Moustafa Abdel; Njuguna, Charles; Njenga, M. Kariuki; Kalani, Rosalia; Abdi, Hassan; Warfu, Osman; Omballa, Victor; Tetteh, Christopher; Breiman, Robert F.; Pimentel, Guillermo; Feikin, Daniel R.

2011-01-01

345

Evaluation of disease and viral biomarkers as triggers for therapeutic intervention in respiratory mousepox - an animal model of smallpox.  

PubMed

The human population is currently faced with the potential use of natural or recombinant variola and monkeypox viruses as biological weapons. Furthermore, the emergence of human monkeypox in Africa and its expanding environs poses a significant natural threat. Such occurrences would require therapeutic and prophylactic intervention with antivirals to minimize morbidity and mortality of exposed populations. Two orally-bioavailable antivirals are currently in clinical trials; namely CMX001, an ether-lipid analog of cidofovir with activity at the DNA replication stage and ST-246, a novel viral egress inhibitor. Both of these drugs have previously been evaluated in the ectromelia/mousepox system; however, the trigger for intervention was not linked to a disease biomarker or a specific marker of virus replication. In this study we used lethal, intranasal, ectromelia virus infections of C57BL/6 and hairless SKH1 mice to model human disease and evaluate exanthematous rash (rash) as an indicator to initiate antiviral treatment. We show that significant protection can be provided to C57BL/6 mice by CMX001 or ST-246 when therapy is initiated on day 6 post infection or earlier. We also show that significant protection can be provided to SKH1 mice treated with CMX001 at day 3 post infection or earlier, but this is four or more days before detection of rash (ST-246 not tested). Although in this model rash could not be used as a treatment trigger, viral DNA was detected in blood by day 4 post infection and in the oropharyngeal secretions (saliva) by day 2-3 post infection - thus providing robust and specific markers of virus replication for therapy initiation. These findings are discussed in the context of current respiratory challenge animal models in use for the evaluation of poxvirus antivirals. PMID:22381921

Parker, Scott; Chen, Nanhai G; Foster, Scott; Hartzler, Hollyce; Hembrador, Ed; Hruby, Dennis; Jordan, Robert; Lanier, Randall; Painter, George; Painter, Wesley; Sagartz, John E; Schriewer, Jill; Mark Buller, R

2012-04-01

346

Re-emergent Human Adenovirus Genome Type 7d Caused an Acute Respiratory Disease Outbreak in Southern China After a Twenty-one Year Absence  

PubMed Central

Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are highly contagious pathogens causing acute respiratory disease (ARD), among other illnesses. Of the ARD genotypes, HAdV-7 presents with more severe morbidity and higher mortality than the others. We report the isolation and identification of a genome type HAdV-7d (DG01_2011) from a recent outbreak in Southern China. Genome sequencing, phylogenetic analysis, and restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) comparisons with past pathogens indicate HAdV-7d has re-emerged in Southern China after an absence of twenty-one years. Recombination analysis reveals this genome differs from the 1950s-era prototype and vaccine strains by a lateral gene transfer, substituting the coding region for the L1 52/55?kDa DNA packaging protein from HAdV-16. DG01_2011 descends from both a strain circulating in Southwestern China (2010) and a strain from Shaanxi causing a fatality and outbreak (Northwestern China; 2009). Due to the higher morbidity and mortality rates associated with HAdV-7, the surveillance, identification, and characterization of these strains in population-dense China by REA and/or whole genome sequencing are strongly indicated. With these accurate identifications of specific HAdV types and an epidemiological database of regional HAdV pathogens, along with the HAdV genome stability noted across time and space, the development, availability, and deployment of appropriate vaccines are needed. PMID:25482188

Zhao, Suhui; Wan, Chengsong; Ke, Changwen; Seto, Jason; Dehghan, Shoaleh; Zou, Lirong; Zhou, Jie; Cheng, Zetao; Jing, Shuping; Zeng, Zhiwei; Zhang, Jing; Wan, Xuan; Wu, Xianbo; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Li; Seto, Donald; Zhang, Qiwei

2014-01-01

347

Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 5. Sources of contamination and pathogen excretion from infected persons.  

PubMed

In this article, the fifth in a series reviewing the role of food workers in foodborne outbreaks, background information on the routes of infection for food workers is considered. Contamination most frequently occurs via the fecal-oral route, when pathogens are present in the feces of ill, convalescent, or otherwise colonized persons. It is difficult for managers of food operations to identify food workers who may be excreting pathogens, even when these workers report their illnesses, because workers can shed pathogens during the prodrome phase of illness or can be long-term excretors or asymptomatic carriers. Some convalescing individuals excreted Salmonella for 102 days. Exclusion policies based on stool testing have been evaluated but currently are not considered effective for reducing the risk of enteric disease. A worker may exhibit obvious signs of illness, such as vomiting, but even if the ill worker immediately leaves the work environment, residual vomitus can contaminate food, contact surfaces, and fellow workers unless the clean-up process is meticulous. Skin infections and nasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal staphylococcal or streptococcal secretions also have been linked frequently to worker-associated outbreaks. Dermatitis, rashes, and painful hand lesions may cause workers to reduce or avoid hand washing. Regardless of the origin of the contamination, pathogens are most likely to be transmitted through the hands touching a variety of surfaces, highlighting the need for effective hand hygiene and the use of barriers throughout the work shift. PMID:19244919

Todd, Ewen C D; Greig, Judy D; Bartleson, Charles A; Michaels, Barry S

2008-12-01

348

Viral capsid assembly as a model for protein aggregation diseases: Active processes catalyzed by cellular assembly machines comprising novel drug targets.  

PubMed

Viruses can be conceptualized as self-replicating multiprotein assemblies, containing coding nucleic acids. Viruses have evolved to exploit host cellular components including enzymes to ensure their replicative life cycle. New findings indicate that also viral capsid proteins recruit host factors to accelerate their assembly. These assembly machines are RNA-containing multiprotein complexes whose composition is governed by allosteric sites. In the event of viral infection, the assembly machines are recruited to support the virus over the host and are modified to achieve that goal. Stress granules and processing bodies may represent collections of such assembly machines, readily visible by microscopy but biochemically labile and difficult to isolate by fractionation. We hypothesize that the assembly of protein multimers such as encountered in neurodegenerative or other protein conformational diseases, is also catalyzed by assembly machines. In the case of viral infection, the assembly machines have been modified by the virus to meet the virus' need for rapid capsid assembly rather than host homeostasis. In the case of the neurodegenerative diseases, it is the monomers and/or low n oligomers of the so-called aggregated proteins that are substrates of assembly machines. Examples for substrates are amyloid ? peptide (A?) and tau in Alzheimer's disease, ?-synuclein in Parkinson's disease, prions in the prion diseases, Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) in subsets of chronic mental illnesses, and others. A likely continuum between virus capsid assembly and cell-to-cell transmissibility of aggregated proteins is remarkable. Protein aggregation diseases may represent dysfunction and dysregulation of these assembly machines analogous to the aberrations induced by viral infection in which cellular homeostasis is pathologically reprogrammed. In this view, as for viral infection, reset of assembly machines to normal homeostasis should be the goal of protein aggregation therapeutics. A key basis for the commonality between viral and neurodegenerative disease aggregation is a broader definition of assembly as more than just simple aggregation, particularly suited for the crowded cytoplasm. The assembly machines are collections of proteins that catalytically accelerate an assembly reaction that would occur spontaneously but too slowly to be relevant in vivo. Being an enzyme complex with a functional allosteric site, appropriated for a non-physiological purpose (e.g. viral infection or conformational disease), these assembly machines present a superior pharmacological target because inhibition of their active site will amplify an effect on their substrate reaction. Here, we present this hypothesis based on recent proof-of-principle studies against A? assembly relevant in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25451064

Marreiros, Rita; Müller-Schiffmann, Andreas; Bader, Verian; Selvarajah, Suganya; Dey, Debendranath; Lingappa, Vishwanath R; Korth, Carsten

2014-10-25

349

Risk factors for the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease during the 2010 outbreak in Japan: a case–control study  

PubMed Central

Background In 2010, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) occurred for the first time in a decade in Japan. Movement or shipment of people and animals around infected farms was restricted; however these contingency measures proved insufficient to prevent FMD spread. Consequently, a total of 292 farms were confirmed as infected during this outbreak. We conducted a case–control study to identify the risk factors associated with FMD transmission between farms during these restrictions. As there was discordance in the control measures taken, risk factors were examined separately for two areas. Analyses were also performed separately for cattle and pig farms given their different infectivity and susceptibility. Results For cattle farms in the movement restriction area, the odds of having the factor ‘farm equipment was shared with other farms’ was significantly higher for case farms than for control farms. For cattle farms in the shipment restriction area, the odds of having the factors ‘feed transport vehicles visited the farm’ and ‘staff of livestock-related companies visited the farm’ were significantly higher on case farms than control farms. In pig farms in the movement restriction area, the odds of having factor ‘farm staff commuted from outside’ was 20 times higher for case farms than control farms. In addition, case farms were less likely to have the factors ‘fattening farm’ and ‘barn has physical barriers’ compared with control farms. Conclusions In the movement restriction area, the disease was likely to spread regardless of the movement of people and vehicles, and physical barriers were found to be a protective factor. Therefore, physical barriers from the surrounding environments seemed to prevent farms from being infected. Conversely, in the shipment restriction area, movement of people and vehicles was strongly associated with disease spread. These results allow a better understanding of the risk factors associated with FMD transmission and are useful to enhance future preventive measures against transmission during FMD outbreaks. PMID:23880398

2013-01-01

350

A malaria outbreak in Naxalbari, Darjeeling district, West Bengal, India, 2005: weaknesses in disease control, important risk factors  

PubMed Central

An outbreak of malaria in Naxalbari, West Bengal, India, in 2005 was investigated to understand determinants and propose control measures. Malaria cases were slide-confirmed. Methods included calculation of annual blood examination rates (ABER, number of slides examined/population), collection of water specimens from potential vector-breeding sites, sorting of villages in categories depending on the number of abandoned wells within two kilometers radius and review of the DDT spray coverage. Cases were compared with matched neighbourhood controls in terms of personal protection using matched odds ratios (MOR). 7,303 cases and 17 deaths were reported between April 2005 and March 2006 with a peak during October rains (Attack rate: 50 per 1,000, case fatality: 0.2%). The attack rate increased according to the number of abandoned wells within 2 kilometres radius (P < 0.0001, Chi-square for trend). Abandoned wells were Anopheles breeding sites. Compared with controls, cases were more likely to sleep outdoors (MOR: 3.8) and less likely to use of mosquito nets and repellents (MOR: 0.3 and 0.1, respectively). DDT spray coverage and ABER were 39% and 3.5%, below the recommended 85% and 10%, respectively. Overall, this outbreak resulted from weaknesses in malaria control measures and a combination of factors, including vector breeding, low implementation of personal protection and weak case detection. PMID:20003288

2009-01-01

351

Size of outbreaks near the epidemic threshold  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spread of infectious diseases near the epidemic threshold is investigated. Scaling laws for the size and the duration of outbreaks originating from a single infected individual in a large susceptible population are obtained. The maximal size of an outbreak n? scales as N2/3 with N the population size. This scaling law implies that the average outbreak size scales as N1/3 . Moreover, the maximal and the average duration of an outbreak grow as t? ˜ N1/3 and ˜ln N , respectively.

Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.

2004-05-01

352

Health control policies in fish viral diseases INRA, unit de virologie et immunologie molculaires, 78352 Jouy-en-Josas cedex, France  

E-print Network

Health control policies in fish viral diseases C Michel INRA, unité de virologie et immunologie of mortality in intensive fish farming. There is no treatment, and, because vaccination is not yet feasible, prevention is only possible through fish health control measures or policies. The transportation of fish

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

353

Diversity and distribution of white-tailed deer mtdna lineages in chronic wasting disease (cwd) outbreak areas in southern wisconsin, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting North American cervids. Because it is uniformly fatal, the disease is a major concern in the management of white-tailed deer populations. Management programs to control CWD require improved knowledge of deer interaction, movement, and population connectivity that could influence disease transmission and spread. Genetic methods were employed to evaluate connectivity among populations in the CWD management zone of southern Wisconsin. A 576-base-pair region of the mitochondrial DNA of 359 white-tailed deer from 12 sample populations was analyzed. Fifty-eight variable sites were detected within the sequence, defining 43 haplotypes. While most sample populations displayed similar levels of haplotype diversity, individual haplotypes were clustered on the landscape. Spatial clusters of different haplotypes were apparent in distinct ecoregions surrounding CWD outbreak areas. The spatial distribution of mtDNA haplotypes suggests that clustering of the deer matrilineal groups and population connectivity are associated with broad-scale geographic landscape features. These landscape characteristics may also influence the contact rates between groups and therefore the potential spread of CWD; this may be especially true of local disease spread between female social groups. Our results suggest that optimal CWD management needs to be tailored to fit gender-specific dispersal behaviors and regional differences in deer population connectivity. This information will help wildlife managers design surveillance and monitoring efforts based on population interactions and potential deer movement among CWD-affected and unaffected areas. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Rogers, K.G.; Robinson, S.J.; Samuel, M.D.; Grear, D.A.

2011-01-01

354

Distribution of cow-calf producers' beliefs regarding gathering and holding their cattle and observing animal movement restrictions during an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease.  

PubMed

The voluntary cooperation of producers with disease control measures such as movement restrictions and gathering cattle for testing, vaccination, or depopulation is critical to the success of many disease control programs. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Texas in order to determine the distribution of key beliefs about obeying movement restrictions and gathering and holding cattle for disease control purposes. Two questionnaires were developed and distributed to separate representative samples of Texas cow-calf producers, respectively. The context for each behavior was provided through the use of scenarios in the questionnaire. Belief strength was measured using a 7-point Likert-like scale. Producers surveyed were unsure about the possible negative consequences of gathering and holding their cattle when requested by authorities, suggesting a key need for communication in this area during an outbreak. Respondents identified a lack of manpower and/or financial resources to gather and hold cattle as barriers to their cooperation with orders to gather and hold cattle. Producers also expressed uncertainty about the efficacy of movement restrictions to prevent the spread of foot-and-mouth disease and concern about possible feed shortages or animal suffering. However, there are emotional benefits to complying with movement restrictions and strong social expectations of cooperation with any movement bans put in place. PMID:25315760

Delgado, Amy H; Norby, Bo; Scott, H Morgan; Dean, Wesley; McIntosh, W Alex; Bush, Eric

2014-12-01

355

Cloned Viral Protein Vaccine for Foot-and-Mouth Disease: Responses in Cattle and Swine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A DNA sequence coding for the immunogenic capsid protein VP3 of foot-and-mouth disease virus A12, prepared from the virion RNA, was ligated to a plasmid designed to express a chimeric protein from the Escherichia coli tryptophan promoter-operator system. When Escherichia coli transformed with this plasmid was grown in tryptophan-depleted media, approximately 17 percent of the total cellular protein was found to be an insoluble and stable chimeric protein. The purified chimeric protein competed equally on a molar basis with VP3 for specific antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus. When inoculated into six cattle and two swine, this protein elicited high levels of neutralizing antibody and protection against challenge with foot-and-mouth disease virus.

Kleid, Dennis G.; Yansura, Daniel; Small, Barbara; Dowbenko, Donald; Moore, Douglas M.; Grubman, Marvin J.; McKercher, Peter D.; Morgan, Donald O.; Robertson, Betty H.; Bachrach, Howard L.

1981-12-01

356

Monitoring the pollution from a pyre used to destroy animal carcasses during the outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease in Cumbria, United Kingdom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease has affected many parts of the UK but none more so than Cumbria, which has had the highest proportion of infected premises. From the beginning of the outbreak, pyres were used to destroy the animal carcasses, however, over time this policy was questioned due to the growing concern about the levels of pollution being emitted from the pyres and their potential impact on human health. Of particular concern were the potential levels of dioxins being emitted from the materials used to construct the pyres as well as from the combustion of the animal carcasses. This paper describes a monitoring campaign that measured the air concentrations of key pollutants from a pyre in Cumbria. Measurements were taken close to residences downwind of the pyre using a mobile laboratory equipped to sample respiratory irritants (SO 2, PM 10 and NO 2) and carcinogens (VOCs and particle-bound PAHs). Measurements of speciated dioxins, furans and PAHs were made on samples collected using a high-volume air sampler co-located with the laboratory. Results from the campaign showed that although the levels of pollutants such as SO 2, PM 10, dioxins, furans and PAHs were clearly elevated above normal background concentrations, the levels were unlikely to cause a substantial exceedance of air quality standards. Moreover, the work showed that for the local residents downwind of this particular pyre, all but the most sensitive individuals (i.e. severe asthmatics and sufferers of lung disease) were unlikely to experience any significant health effects.

Lowles, I.; Hill, R.; Auld, V.; Stewart, H.; Colhoun, C.

357

The Fecal Viral Flora of California Sea Lions?†  

PubMed Central

California sea lions are one of the major marine mammal species along the Pacific coast of North America. Sea lions are susceptible to a wide variety of viruses, some of which can be transmitted to or from terrestrial mammals. Using an unbiased viral metagenomic approach, we surveyed the fecal virome in California sea lions of different ages and health statuses. Averages of 1.6 and 2.5 distinct mammalian viral species were shed by pups and juvenile sea lions, respectively. Previously undescribed mammalian viruses from four RNA virus families (Astroviridae, Picornaviridae, Caliciviridae, and Reoviridae) and one DNA virus family (Parvoviridae) were characterized. The first complete or partial genomes of sapeloviruses, sapoviruses, noroviruses, and bocavirus in marine mammals are reported. Astroviruses and bocaviruses showed the highest prevalence and abundance in California sea lion feces. The diversity of bacteriophages was higher in unweaned sea lion pups than in juveniles and animals in rehabilitation, where the phage community consisted largely of phages related to the family Microviridae. This study increases our understanding of the viral diversity in marine mammals, highlights the high rate of enteric viral infections in these highly social carnivores, and may be used as a baseline viral survey for comparison with samples from California sea lions during unexplained disease outbreaks. PMID:21795334

Li, Linlin; Shan, Tongling; Wang, Chunlin; Côté, Colette; Kolman, John; Onions, David; Gulland, Frances M. D.; Delwart, Eric

2011-01-01

358

A Recombinant Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup J for Directly Monitoring Viral Infection and the Selection of Neutralizing Antibodies  

PubMed Central

Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) has induced serious clinical outbreaks and has become a serious infectious disease of chickens in China. We describe here the creation of a recombinant ALV-J tagged with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (named rHPRS-103EGFP). We successfully utilize the rHPRS-103EGFP to visualize viral infection and for development of a simplified serum-neutralization test. PMID:25522008

Wang, Qi; Li, Xiaofei; Ji, Xiaolin; Wang, Jingfei; Shen, Nan; Gao, Yulong; Qi, Xiaole; Wang, Yongqiang; Gao, Honglei; Zhang, Shide; Wang, Xiaomei

2014-01-01

359

Update on poultry viral diseases research conducted at Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory does intramural research for the United States Department of Agriculture on several poultry diseases. Following are some of the research accomplishments from last year. In the area of influenza research, we demonstrated that laying turkey hens inoculated wit...

360

Major viral diseases of the black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are five different viruses which are currently being studied for their impact on commercial farming of the black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) in Thailand. Some of these viruses cause disease in other penaeid shrimp species and even other crustacean species. Some occur not only in cultivated shrimp in other Asian countries, but also in those from Australia and the

T. W. Flegel

1997-01-01

361

Remote sensing and GIS modelling applied to viral disease in Nakhonpathom Province, Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vector-borne diseases have been the most important worldwide health problem for many years and still represent a constant and serious risk to a large part of the world's population. GIS have already been widely used in sector such as the management of natural resources, agriculture, rural and urban planning. Remotely sensed data can be used to identify, monitor and evaluate

Haja H. ANDRIANASOLO; Kanchana NAKHAPAKORN; Jean-Paul GONZALEZ

2000-01-01

362

Transfusion-transmitted virus in association with hepatitis A-E viral infections in various forms of liver diseases in India  

PubMed Central

AIM: To describe the prevalence of transfusion-transmitted virus (TTV) infection in association with hepatitis A-E viral infections in different forms of liver diseases in North India. METHODS: Sera from a total number of 137 patients, including 37 patients with acute viral hepatitis (AVH), 37 patients with chronic viral hepatitis (CVH), 31 patients with cirrhosis of liver and 32 patients with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF), were analyzed both for TTV-DNA and hepatitis A-E viral markers. Presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections was detected in different proportions in different groups. Moreover, TTV-DNA was simultaneously tested in 100 healthy blood donors also. RESULTS: None of the patients had hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis D virus (HDV) infections. Overall prevalence of TTV-DNA was detected in 27.1% cases with AVH, 18.9% cases with CVH, 48.4% cases with cirrhosis and 9.4% cases with FHF. TTV-DNA simultaneously tested in 100 healthy blood donors showed 27% positivity. On establishing a relation between TTV infection with other hepatitis viral infections, TTV demonstrated co-infection with HBV, HCV and HEV in these disease groups. Correlation of TTV with ALT level in sera did not demonstrate high ALT level in TTV-infected patients, suggesting that TTV does not cause severe liver damage. CONCLUSION: TTV infection is prevalent both in patients and healthy individuals in India. However, it does not have any significant correlation with other hepatitis viral infections, nor does it produce an evidence of severe liver damage in patients with liver diseases. PMID:16688839

Irshad, M; Sharma, Y; Dhar, I; Singh, J; Joshi, YK

2006-01-01

363

Detection of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in specimens from cattle in South Africa and possible association with clinical disease.  

PubMed

Studies covering all aspects of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) have been conducted in several countries in Europe, Asia and America. In southern Africa, more information is required about the nature of BVDV infection, the prevalence of different strains and the economic importance of the disease. The presence of BVDV in southern Africa has been known since the early 1970s through serological surveys but few reports confirming its presence by virus isolation and correlation with clinical disease are available. Specimens (n = 312) collected in 1998/99, from live and dead cattle from different farming systems, were obtained from private practitioners, feedlot consultants and abattoirs throughout the country. Specimens (n = 37) from African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) in the Kruger National Park were also included. All specimens were processed for virus isolation in cell culture with confirmation by means of immunofluorescent antibody tests and some also by means of an antigen capture ELISA. BVDV was isolated from 15 (4.7%) cattle and were all noncytopathic biotypes. BVDV was not detected in 37 lymph nodes obtained from buffaloes in the Kruger National Park. Of the clinical signs in cattle from which virus were isolated, respiratory signs was the most frequent (10/15), followed by diarrhoea (5/15). Abortion, congenital malformations, haemorrhagic diarrhoea and poor growth were also included as criteria for selection of animals for specimen collection, but no BVD viruses were isolated from cattle manifesting these clinical signs. PMID:15456165

Kabongo, N; Van Vuuren, M

2004-06-01

364

Role of virus-encoded microRNAs in Avian viral diseases.  

PubMed

With total dependence on the host cell, several viruses have adopted strategies to modulate the host cellular environment, including the modulation of microRNA (miRNA) pathway through virus-encoded miRNAs. Several avian viruses, mostly herpesviruses, have been shown to encode a number of novel miRNAs. These include the highly oncogenic Marek's disease virus-1 (26 miRNAs), avirulent Marek's disease virus-2 (36 miRNAs), herpesvirus of turkeys (28 miRNAs), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (10 miRNAs), duck enteritis virus (33 miRNAs) and avian leukosis virus (2 miRNAs). Despite the closer antigenic and phylogenetic relationship among some of the herpesviruses, miRNAs encoded by different viruses showed no sequence conservation, although locations of some of the miRNAs were conserved within the repeat regions of the genomes. However, some of the virus-encoded miRNAs showed significant sequence homology with host miRNAs demonstrating their ability to serve as functional orthologs. For example, mdv1-miR-M4-5p, a functional ortholog of gga-miR-155, is critical for the oncogenicity of Marek's disease virus. Additionally, we also describe the potential association of the recently described avian leukosis virus subgroup J encoded E (XSR) miRNA in the induction of myeloid tumors in certain genetically-distinct chicken lines. In this review, we describe the advances in our understanding on the role of virus-encoded miRNAs in avian diseases. PMID:24662606

Yao, Yongxiu; Nair, Venugopal

2014-01-01

365

Quality of raw and smoked fillets from clinically healthy Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., following an outbreak of pancreas disease (PD).  

PubMed

Pancreas disease (PD) is a viral disease of farmed salmonid fish, which causes huge economic losses. Pathological changes in skeletal muscle, pancreas and heart are hallmarks of PD. Stakeholders in the fish-smoking industry have claimed that fillets from PD-affected Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., are of poor quality. We therefore examined harvest-ready, clinically healthy Atlantic salmon from a population of fish previously affected by PD. Histopathological changes in skeletal muscle tissues ranged from minor to severe. Fillet quality measurements showed that fish with severe skeletal muscle changes provided a paler raw fillet and a yellowish and harder cold-smoked fillet than normal. PD had no significant effect on fillet gaping, bacteriological quality or off-odour development during storage. An unexpected finding was a significant subendocardial fibrosis in 23% of the PD-affected fish. The latter may indicate susceptibility to stress-related heart failure. PMID:22924617

Taksdal, T; Wiik-Nielsen, J; Birkeland, S; Dalgaard, P; Mørkøre, T

2012-12-01

366

Recovery of viral RNA and infectious foot-and-mouth disease virus from positive lateral-flow devices.  

PubMed

Foot-and-mouth disease Virus (FMDV) is an economically important, highly contagious picornavirus that affects both wild and domesticated cloven hooved animals. In developing countries, the effective laboratory diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is often hindered by inadequate sample preservation due to difficulties in the transportation and storage of clinical material. These factors can compromise the ability to detect and characterise FMD virus in countries where the disease is endemic. Furthermore, the high cost of sending infectious virus material and the biosecurity risk it presents emphasises the need for a thermo-stable, non-infectious mode of transporting diagnostic samples. This paper investigates the potential of using FMDV lateral-flow devices (LFDs) for dry transportation of clinical samples for subsequent nucleic acid amplification, sequencing and recovery of infectious virus by electroporation. FMDV positive samples (epithelial suspensions and cell culture isolates) representing four FMDV serotypes were applied to antigen LFDs: after which it was possible to recover viral RNA that could be detected using real-time RT-PCR. Using this nucleic acid, it was also possible to recover VP1 sequences and also successfully utilise protocols for amplification of complete FMD virus genomes. It was not possible to recover infectious FMDV directly from the LFDs, however following electroporation into BHK-21 cells and subsequent cell passage, infectious virus could be recovered. Therefore, these results support the use of the antigen LFD for the dry, non-hazardous transportation of samples from FMD endemic countries to international reference laboratories. PMID:25313787

Fowler, Veronica L; Bankowski, Bartlomiej M; Armson, Bryony; Di Nardo, Antonello; Valdazo-Gonzalez, Begoña; Reid, Scott M; Barnett, Paul V; Wadsworth, Jemma; Ferris, Nigel P; Mioulet, Valérie; King, Donald P

2014-01-01

367

Recovery of Viral RNA and Infectious Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus from Positive Lateral-Flow Devices  

PubMed Central

Foot-and-mouth disease Virus (FMDV) is an economically important, highly contagious picornavirus that affects both wild and domesticated cloven hooved animals. In developing countries, the effective laboratory diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is often hindered by inadequate sample preservation due to difficulties in the transportation and storage of clinical material. These factors can compromise the ability to detect and characterise FMD virus in countries where the disease is endemic. Furthermore, the high cost of sending infectious virus material and the biosecurity risk it presents emphasises the need for a thermo-stable, non-infectious mode of transporting diagnostic samples. This paper investigates the potential of using FMDV lateral-flow devices (LFDs) for dry transportation of clinical samples for subsequent nucleic acid amplification, sequencing and recovery of infectious virus by electroporation. FMDV positive samples (epithelial suspensions and cell culture isolates) representing four FMDV serotypes were applied to antigen LFDs: after which it was possible to recover viral RNA that could be detected using real-time RT-PCR. Using this nucleic acid, it was also possible to recover VP1 sequences and also successfully utilise protocols for amplification of complete FMD virus genomes. It was not possible to recover infectious FMDV directly from the LFDs, however following electroporation into BHK-21 cells and subsequent cell passage, infectious virus could be recovered. Therefore, these results support the use of the antigen LFD for the dry, non-hazardous transportation of samples from FMD endemic countries to international reference laboratories. PMID:25313787

Fowler, Veronica L.; Bankowski, Bartlomiej M.; Armson, Bryony; Di Nardo, Antonello; Valdazo-Gonzalez, Begoña; Reid, Scott M.; Barnett, Paul V.; Wadsworth, Jemma; Ferris, Nigel P.; Mioulet, Valérie; King, Donald P.

2014-01-01

368

A single amino acid mutation, R42A, in the Newcastle disease virus matrix protein abrogates its nuclear localization and attenuates viral replication and pathogenicity.  

PubMed

The Newcastle disease virus (NDV) matrix (M) protein is a highly basic and nucleocytoplasmic shuttling viral protein. Previous study has demonstrated that the N-terminal 100 aa of NDV M protein are somewhat acidic overall, but the remainder of the polypeptide is strongly basic. In this study, we investigated the role of the N-terminal basic residues in the subcellular localization of M protein and in the replication and pathogenicity of NDV. We found that mutation of the basic residue arginine (R) to alanine (A) at position 42 disrupted M's nuclear localization. Moreover, a recombinant virus with R42A mutation in the M protein reduced viral replication in DF-1 cells and attenuated the virulence and pathogenicity of the virus in chickens. This is the first report to show that a basic residue mutation in the NDV M protein abrogates its nuclear localization and attenuates viral replication and pathogenicity. PMID:24603525

Duan, Zhiqiang; Li, Juan; Zhu, Jie; Chen, Jian; Xu, Haixu; Wang, Yuyang; Liu, Huimou; Hu, Shunlin; Liu, Xiufan

2014-05-01

369

Susceptibility to viral infection is enhanced by stable expression of 3A or 3AB proteins from foot-and-mouth disease virus  

SciTech Connect

The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) 3A protein is involved in virulence and host range. A distinguishing feature of FMDV 3B among picornaviruses is that three non-identical copies are encoded in the viral RNA and required for optimal replication in cell culture. Here, we have studied the involvement of the 3AB region on viral infection using constitutive and transient expression systems. BHK-21 stably transformed clones expressed low levels of FMDV 3A or 3A(B) proteins in the cell cytoplasm. Transformed cells stably expressing these proteins did not exhibit inner cellular rearrangements detectable by electron microscope analysis. Upon FMDV infection, clones expressing either 3A alone or 3A(B) proteins showed a significant increase in the percentage of infected cells, the number of plaque forming units and the virus yield. The 3A-enhancing effect was specific for FMDV as no increase in viral multiplication was observed in transformed clones infected with another picornavirus, encephalomyocarditis virus, or the negative-strand RNA virus vesicular stomatitis virus. A potential role of 3A protein in viral RNA translation was discarded by the lack of effect on FMDV IRES-dependent translation. Increased viral susceptibility was not caused by a released factor; neither the supernatant of transformed clones nor the addition of purified 3A protein to the infection medium was responsible for this effect. Unlike stable expression, high levels of 3A or 3A(B) protein transient expression led to unspecific inhibition of viral infection. Therefore, the effect observed on viral yield, which inversely correlated with the intracellular levels of 3A protein, suggests a transacting role operating on the FMDV multiplication cycle.

Rosas, Maria F.; Vieira, Yuri A.; Postigo, Raul; Martin-Acebes, Miguel A. [Centro de Biologia Molecular 'Severo Ochoa' (CSIC-UAM), Madrid (Spain); Armas-Portela, Rosario [Centro de Biologia Molecular 'Severo Ochoa' (CSIC-UAM), Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Biologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Martinez-Salas, Encarnacion [Centro de Biologia Molecular 'Severo Ochoa' (CSIC-UAM), Madrid (Spain); Sobrino, Francisco [Centro de Biologia Molecular 'Severo Ochoa' (CSIC-UAM), Madrid (Spain); Centro de Investigacion en Sanidad Animal, INIA, Valdeolmos, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: fsobrino@cbm.uam.es

2008-10-10

370

Seroprevalence and associated risk factors of important pig viral diseases in Bhutan.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional serological study was conducted in Bhutan between October 2011 and February 2012 to determine the prevalence of antibodies to classical swine fever virus (CSFV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), swine influenza virus (SIV) subtype H1N1 and Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV). Furthermore, risk factors for the seropositive status were investigated. Antibodies to SIV, subtype H1N1 (likely pandemic H1N1 2009) were detected in 49% of the pigs in the government farms, and 8% of the village backyard pigs. For PCV2, these percentages were 73% and 37% respectively. For CSFV, the percentages were closer together, with 62% and 52% respectively. It should be taken into consideration that vaccination of piglets is routine in the government herds, and that piglets distributed to backyard farms are also vaccinated. No direct evidence of CSFV infections was found, either by clinical signs or virus isolation. Antibodies to PRRSV and Aujeszky's disease, on the other hand, were not found at all. Risk factors found are mainly related to practices of swill feeding and other biosecurity measures. For CSFV, these were swill feeding (OR=2.25, 95% CI: 1.01-4.99) and contact with neighbour's pigs (OR=0.31, 95% CI: 0.13-0.75). For PCV2 this was lending of boars for local breeding purposes (OR=3.30, 95% CI: 1.43-7.59). The results of this study showed that PCV2 and SIV infections are important in pigs in Bhutan and thus appropriate control strategies need to be designed and applied which could involve strict regulation on the import of live pigs and vaccination against these diseases. PMID:25081946

Monger, V R; Stegeman, J A; Koop, G; Dukpa, K; Tenzin, T; Loeffen, W L A

2014-11-01

371

Metagenomic approaches to disclose disease-associated pathogens: detection of viral pathogens in honeybees.  

PubMed

Metagenomic approaches have become invaluable for culture-independent and sequence-independent detection and characterization of disease-associated pathogens. Here, the sequential steps from sampling to verification of results are described for a metagenomic-based approach to detect potential pathogens in honeybees. The pre-sequencing steps are given in detail, but due to the rapid development of sequencing technologies, all platform-specific procedures, as well as subsequent bioinformatics analysis, are more generally described. It should also be noted that this approach could, with minor modifications, be adapted for other organisms and sample matrices. PMID:25399116

Granberg, Fredrik; Karlsson, Oskar E; Belák, Sándor

2015-01-01

372

Molecular evolutionary signatures reveal the role of host ecological dynamics in viral disease emergence and spread  

PubMed Central

RNA viruses account for numerous emerging and perennial infectious diseases, and are characterized by rapid rates of molecular evolution. The ecological dynamics of most emerging RNA viruses are still poorly understood and difficult to ascertain. The availability of genome sequence data for many RNA viruses, in principle, could be used to infer ecological dynamics if changes in population numbers produced a lasting signature within the pattern of genome evolution. As a result, the rapidly emerging phylogeographic structure of a pathogen, shaped by the rise and fall in the number of infections and their spatial distribution, could be used as a surrogate for direct ecological assessments. Based on rabies virus as our example, we use a model combining ecological and evolutionary processes to test whether variation in the rate of host movement results in predictive diagnostic patterns of pathogen genetic structure. We identify several linearizable relationships between host dispersal rate and measures of phylogenetic structure suggesting genetic information can be used to directly infer ecological process. We also find phylogenetic structure may be more revealing than demography for certain ecological processes. Our approach extends the reach of current analytic frameworks for infectious disease dynamics by linking phylogeography back to underlying ecological processes. PMID:23382419

Duke-Sylvester, Scott M.; Biek, Roman; Real, Leslie A.

2013-01-01

373

Coinfection by Vaccinia virus and an Orf virus-like parapoxvirus in an outbreak of vesicular disease in dairy cows in midwestern Brazil.  

PubMed

The current report describes an outbreak of vesicular disease affecting dairy cows in midwestern Brazil in which a coinfection with 2 poxviruses-Vaccinia virus (VACV) and a parapoxvirus-was demonstrated. Milking cows presented vesicles, painful reddish or whitish papules, and scabby proliferative lesions in the teats and udder, in a clinical course of approximately 10-21 days. Histologically, multifocal areas of moderate to severe acanthosis, spongiosis, hypergranulosis, and parakeratotic or orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis with adjacent focally extensive ulcers were observed in the epidermis. Rounded eosinophilic inclusion bodies were observed in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells of areas with acanthosis or necrosis. Moderate inflammatory infiltrate of lymphocytes, plasma cells, neutrophils, and macrophages were observed in some dermal areas. Two people milking the affected cows developed lesions on the hands, painful papules which progressed to ulcerative and scabby lesions in 4-7 days. Electron microscopy of scabs from 1 cow revealed the concomitant presence of orthopoxvirus and parapoxvirus particles. Scabs from 2 cows were positive by polymerase chain reaction for the parapoxvirus B2L gene; 1 of the scabs was also positive for the VACV vgf gene. Nucleotide sequencing of the B2L amplicon revealed a similarity of 96-99% with Orf virus (ORFV) and lower identity with Pseudocowpox virus (92-95%) and Bovine papular stomatitis virus (85-86%). Nucleotide sequencing of a region of parapoxvirus DNA polymerase gene revealed a high similarity (98-100%) with ORFV sequences. Thus, an unusual coinfection with VACV and a parapoxvirus, likely ORFV, was demonstrated in the outbreak. PMID:23404478

de Sant'Ana, Fabiano J F; Leal, Fábio A A; Rabelo, Rogério E; Vulcani, Valcinir A S; Moreira, Carlos A; Cargnelutti, Juliana F; Flores, Eduardo F

2013-03-01

374

Pharyngitis - viral  

MedlinePLUS

... throat. Pharyngitis may occur as part of a viral infection that also involves other organ systems, such as ... when a sore throat is due to a viral infection. The antibiotics will not help. Using them to ...

375

Outbreak Investigators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In teaching middle school students about diseases and microbes, it is surprising to discover how little they know about transmission. Misconceptions range from the idea that "giving a disease to someone" actually means "giving it away so you didn't have it anymore yourself" to a lack of understanding that tiny living things, and not dirt, are…

Balter, Nancy; Martinez, Arturo

2003-01-01

376

Local Nitric Oxide Production in Viral and Autoimmune Diseases of the Central Nervous System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of the short half-life of NO, previous studies implicating NO in central nervous system pathology during infection had to rely on the demonstration of elevated levels of NO synthase mRNA or enzyme expression or NO metabolites such as nitrate and nitrite in the infected brain. To more definitively investigate the potential causative role of NO in lesions of the central nervous system in animals infected with neurotropic viruses or suffering from experimental allergic encephalitis, we have determined directly the levels of NO present in the central nervous system of such animals. Using spin trapping of NO and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we confirm here that copious amounts of NO (up to 30-fold more than control) are elaborated in the brains of rats infected with rabies virus or borna disease virus, as well as in the spinal cords of rats that had received myelin basic protein-specific T cells.

Hooper, D. Craig; Tsuyoshi Ohnishi, S.; Kean, Rhonda; Numagami, Yoshihiro; Dietzschold, Bernhard; Koprowski, Hilary

1995-06-01

377

Outbreaks of Hantavirus induced by seasonality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a model for rodent population dynamics, we study outbreaks of Hantavirus infection induced by the alternation of seasons. Neither season by itself satisfies the environmental requirements for propagation of the disease. This result can be explained in terms of the seasonal interruption of the relaxation process of the mouse population toward equilibrium, and may shed light on the reported connection between climate variations and outbreaks of the disease.

Buceta, J.; Escudero, C.; de La Rubia, F. J.; Lindenberg, Katja

2004-02-01

378

Gene therapy delivery systems for enhancing viral and nonviral vectors for cardiac diseases: current concepts and future applications.  

PubMed

Gene therapy is one of the most promising fields for developing new treatments for the advanced stages of ischemic and monogenetic, particularly autosomal or X-linked recessive, cardiomyopathies. The remarkable ongoing efforts in advancing various targets have largely been inspired by the results that have been achieved in several notable gene therapy trials, such as the hemophilia B and Leber's congenital amaurosis. Rate-limiting problems preventing successful clinical application in the cardiac disease area, however, are primarily attributable to inefficient gene transfer, host responses, and the lack of sustainable therapeutic transgene expression. It is arguable that these problems are directly correlated with the choice of vector, dose level, and associated cardiac delivery approach as a whole treatment system. Essentially, a delicate balance exists in maximizing gene transfer required for efficacy while remaining within safety limits. Therefore, the development of safe, effective, and clinically applicable gene delivery techniques for selected nonviral and viral vectors will certainly be invaluable in obtaining future regulatory approvals. The choice of gene transfer vector, dose level, and the delivery system are likely to be critical determinants of therapeutic efficacy. It is here that the interactions between vector uptake and trafficking, delivery route means, and the host's physical limits must be considered synergistically for a successful treatment course. PMID:24164239

Katz, Michael G; Fargnoli, Anthony S; Williams, Richard D; Bridges, Charles R

2013-11-01

379

Gene Therapy Delivery Systems for Enhancing Viral and Nonviral Vectors for Cardiac Diseases: Current Concepts and Future Applications  

PubMed Central

Abstract Gene therapy is one of the most promising fields for developing new treatments for the advanced stages of ischemic and monogenetic, particularly autosomal or X-linked recessive, cardiomyopathies. The remarkable ongoing efforts in advancing various targets have largely been inspired by the results that have been achieved in several notable gene therapy trials, such as the hemophilia B and Leber's congenital amaurosis. Rate-limiting problems preventing successful clinical application in the cardiac disease area, however, are primarily attributable to inefficient gene transfer, host responses, and the lack of sustainable therapeutic transgene expression. It is arguable that these problems are directly correlated with the choice of vector, dose level, and associated cardiac delivery approach as a whole treatment system. Essentially, a delicate balance exists in maximizing gene transfer required for efficacy while remaining within safety limits. Therefore, the development of safe, effective, and clinically applicable gene delivery techniques for selected nonviral and viral vectors will certainly be invaluable in obtaining future regulatory approvals. The choice of gene transfer vector, dose level, and the delivery system are likely to be critical determinants of therapeutic efficacy. It is here that the interactions between vector uptake and trafficking, delivery route means, and the host's physical limits must be considered synergistically for a successful treatment course. PMID:24164239

Katz, Michael G.; Fargnoli, Anthony S.; Williams, Richard D.

2013-01-01

380

Polyomavirus BK infection in end-stage renal disease: analysis of viral replication in patients on hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.  

PubMed

Patients in end-stage renal disease undergoing renal replacement treatment (ESRD-RRT) are considered immunocompromised. The hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD) procedures seem to produce alterations of the immune status. Interest in immunosuppression has increased due to the poliomavirus BK (BKV) infection. Our study evaluated the prevalence of BKV infection in ESRD-RRT patients and viral replication on HD or PD. From 2006 to 2011 we selected 58 patients (34 males) in ESRD-RRT for inclusion in our study. BKV replication was evaluated by qualitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. In ESRD-RRT patients, the prevalence of BKV replication on plasma was 21%. We identified two groups of patients according to the dialysis procedure: 36 patients on HD (HD group) and 22 on PD (PD group). BKV replication in the HD group was 33% (12 of 36) versus 0% (0 of 22) in the PD group. Different age, number of months on RRT, and preserved diuresis was observed in the HD versus PD groups. With our results we can speculate that BKV infection in ESRD-RRT patients is linked to factors involved in the uremia-related immune dysfunction but also to specific mechanisms related to the different RRTs. PD is an option that could be associated with a better transplant outcome for patients undergoing kidney transplantation. PMID:22974858

Mitterhofer, A P; Umbro, I; Pietropaolo, V; Meçule, A; Russo, G E; Tinti, F; Fiacco, F; Poli, L; Bellizzi, A; Anzivino, E; Ferretti, G; Berloco, P B; Chiarini, F; Taliani, G

2012-09-01

381

ISG12a mediates cell response to Newcastle disease viral infection.  

PubMed

Newcastle disease virus (NDV) oncolysis is believed to be facilitated by a defective Type I interferon (IFN) response. We compared hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-derived cell lines and found that TRAIL-resistant cells were more susceptible to NDV oncolysis than were TRAIL-sensitive cells. In examining the IFN response, we found that basal expression of the IFN-stimulated gene (ISG)-12a was low in TRAIL-resistant but high in TRAIL-sensitive cells, and ISG12a over-expression or silencing enhanced or reduced their TRAIL sensitivities, respectively. Moreover, ISG12a over-expression in TRAIL-resistant cells decreased NDV replication but surprisingly increased oncolysis while ISG12a silencing had the opposite effect on TRAIL-sensitive cells. Finally, RIG-I and Noxa appear to also contribute to NDV oncolysis. Together, these results suggest that high basal ISG12a may inhibit NDV replication and oncolysis, while low basal ISG12a may allow sufficient NDV replication for induction of ISG12a, and other factors required for NDV oncolysis, with implications for future therapeutics. PMID:24999841

Liu, Nianli; Long, Ying; Liu, Bin; Yang, Darong; Li, Chen; Chen, Tianran; Wang, Xiaohong; Liu, Chen; Zhu, Haizhen

2014-08-01

382

The 2010 outbreak of poliomyelitis in Tajikistan: epidemiology and lessons learnt.  

PubMed

A large outbreak of poliomyelitis, with 463 laboratory-confirmed and 47 polio-compatible cases, took place in 2010 in Tajikistan. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral VP1 gene suggested a single importation of wild poliovirus type 1 from India in late 2009, its further circulation in Tajikistan and expansion into neighbouring countries, namely Kazakhstan, Russia, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Whole-genome sequencing of 14 isolates revealed recombination events with enterovirus C with cross-overs within the P2 region. Viruses with one class of recombinant genomes co-circulated with the parental virus, and representatives of both caused paralytic poliomyelitis. Serological analysis of 327 sera from acute flaccid paralysis cases as well as from patients with other diagnoses and from healthy people demonstrated inadequate immunity against polio in the years preceding the outbreak. Evidence was obtained suggesting that vaccination against poliomyelitis, in rare cases, may not prevent the disease. Factors contributing to the peculiarities of this outbreak are discussed. The outbreak emphasises the necessity of continued vaccination against polio and the need, at least in risk areas, of quality control of this vaccination through well planned serological surveillance. PMID:24576474

Yakovenko, M L; Gmyl, A P; Ivanova, O E; Eremeeva, T P; Ivanov, A P; Prostova, M A; Baykova, O Y; Isaeva, O V; Lipskaya, G Y; Shakaryan, A K; Kew, O M; Deshpande, J M; Agol, V I

2014-01-01

383

Dr.VIS v2.0: an updated database of human disease-related viral integration sites in the era of high-throughput deep sequencing.  

PubMed

Dr.VIS is a database of human disease-related viral integration sites (VIS). The number of VIS has grown rapidly since Dr.VIS was first released in 2011, and there is growing recognition of the important role that viral integration plays in the development of malignancies. The updated database version, Dr.VIS v2.0 (http://www.bioinfo.org/drvis or bminfor.tongji.edu.cn/drvis_v2), represents 25 diseases, covers 3340 integration sites of eight oncogenic viruses in human chromosomes and provides more accurate information about VIS from high-throughput deep sequencing results obtained mainly after 2012. Data of VISes for three newly identified oncogenic viruses for 14 related diseases have been added to this 2015 update, which has a 5-fold increase of VISes compared to Dr.VIS v1.0. Dr.VIS v2.0 has 2244 precise integration sites, 867 integration regions and 551 junction sequences. A total of 2295 integration sites are located near 1730 involved genes. Of the VISes, 1153 are detected in the exons or introns of genes, with 294 located up to 5 kb and a further 112 located up to 10 kb away. As viral integration may alter chromosome stability and gene expression levels, characterizing VISes will contribute toward the discovery of novel oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and tumor-associated pathways. PMID:25355513

Yang, Xiaobo; Li, Ming; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Yabing; Qian, Junyan; Wan, Xueshuai; Wang, Anqiang; Zhang, Haohai; Zhu, Chengpei; Lu, Xin; Mao, Yilei; Sang, Xinting; Zhao, Haitao; Zhao, Yi; Zhang, Xiaoyan

2015-01-28

384

16SrDNA Pyrosequencing of the Mediterranean Gorgonian Paramuricea clavata Reveals a Link among Alterations in Bacterial Holobiont Members, Anthropogenic Influence and Disease Outbreaks  

PubMed Central

Mass mortality events of benthic invertebrates in the Mediterranean Sea are becoming an increasing concern with catastrophic effects on the coastal marine environment. Sea surface temperature anomalies leading to physiological stress, starvation and microbial infections were identified as major factors triggering animal mortality. However the highest occurrence of mortality episodes in particular geographic areas and occasionally in low temperature deep environments suggest that other factors play a role as well. We conducted a comparative analysis of bacterial communities associated with the purple gorgonian Paramuricea clavata, one of the most affected species, collected at different geographic locations and depth, showing contrasting levels of anthropogenic disturbance and health status. Using massive parallel 16SrDNA gene pyrosequencing we showed that the bacterial community associated with healthy P. clavata in pristine locations was dominated by a single genus Endozoicomonas within the order Oceanospirillales which represented ?90% of the overall bacterial community. P. clavata samples collected in human impacted areas and during disease events had higher bacterial diversity and abundance of disease-related bacteria, such as vibrios, than samples collected in pristine locations whilst showed a reduced dominance of Endozoicomonas spp. In contrast, bacterial symbionts exhibited remarkable stability in P. clavata collected both at euphotic and mesophotic depths in pristine locations suggesting that fluctuations in environmental parameters such as temperature have limited effect in structuring the bacterial holobiont. Interestingly the coral pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus was not found on diseased corals collected during a deep mortality episode suggesting that neither temperature anomalies nor recognized microbial pathogens are solely sufficient to explain for the events. Overall our data suggest that anthropogenic influence may play a significant role in determining the coral health status by affecting the composition of the associated microbial community. Environmental stressful events and microbial infections may thus be superimposed to compromise immunity and trigger mortality outbreaks. PMID:23840768

Vezzulli, Luigi; Pezzati, Elisabetta; Huete-Stauffer, Carla; Pruzzo, Carla; Cerrano, Carlo

2013-01-01

385

Lumpy skin disease: preliminary vaccine efficacy assessment and overview on outbreak impact in dairy cattle at Debre Zeit, central Ethiopia.  

PubMed

This study was conducted in and around Debre Zeit town to assess the field efficacy of LSD vaccine in use and overview associated disease impact. The study comprised cross-sectional and retrospective study design which employed active disease follow-up, semi-structured questionnaire survey and molecular techniques. The finding revealed that the Kenyan sheep pox vaccine strain used for the control of LSD did not confer expected protection. From the total of 476 animals observed, 22.9% and 2.31% cattle were found sick and dead due to LSD, respectively. Breed specific morbidity rate was 22.5% in Holstein Friesian-zebu cross and 25.9% in local zebu breed. The disease was observed to be more serious in young animals and also in females. A trend of seasonality was also observed in its occurrence. The study finding urges the need for investigation of vaccine failure including vaccine matching and alternative vaccine development. PMID:23428671

Ayelet, Gelagay; Abate, Yebeyen; Sisay, Tesfaye; Nigussie, Haileleul; Gelaye, Esayas; Jemberie, Shiferaw; Asmare, Kassahun

2013-05-01

386

Controlling disease outbreaks in wildlife using limited culling: modelling classical swine fever incursions in wild pigs in Australia  

PubMed Central

Disease modelling is one approach for providing new insights into wildlife disease epidemiology. This paper describes a spatio-temporal, stochastic, susceptible- exposed-infected-recovered process model that simulates the potential spread of classical swine fever through a documented, large and free living wild pig population following a simulated incursion. The study area (300 000 km2) was in northern Australia. Published data on wild pig ecology from Australia, and international Classical Swine Fever data was used to parameterise the model. Sensitivity analyses revealed that herd density (best estimate 1-3 pigs km-2), daily herd movement distances (best estimate approximately 1 km), probability of infection transmission between herds (best estimate 0.75) and disease related herd mortality (best estimate 42%) were highly influential on epidemic size but that extraordinary movements of pigs and the yearly home range size of a pig herd were not. CSF generally established (98% of simulations) following a single point introduction. CSF spread at approximately 9 km2 per day with low incidence rates (< 2 herds per day) in an epidemic wave along contiguous habitat for several years, before dying out (when the epidemic arrived at the end of a contiguous sub-population or at a low density wild pig area). The low incidence rate indicates that surveillance for wildlife disease epidemics caused by short lived infections will be most efficient when surveillance is based on detection and investigation of clinical events, although this may not always be practical. Epidemics could be contained and eradicated with culling (aerial shooting) or vaccination when these were adequately implemented. It was apparent that the spatial structure, ecology and behaviour of wild populations must be accounted for during disease management in wildlife. An important finding was that it may only be necessary to cull or vaccinate relatively small proportions of a population to successfully contain and eradicate some wildlife disease epidemics. PMID:22243996

2012-01-01

387

Cholera outbreaks in India.  

PubMed

Cholera is a global health problem as several thousands of cases and deaths occur each year. The unique epidemiologic attribute of the disease is its propensity to occur as outbreaks that may flare-up into epidemics, if not controlled. The causative bacterial pathogen Vibrio cholerae prevails in the environment and infects humans whenever there is a breakdown in the public health component. The Indian subcontinent is vulnerable to this disease due its vast coastlines with areas of poor sanitation, unsafe drinking water, and overcrowding. Recently, it was shown that climatic conditions also play a major role in the persistence and spread of cholera. Constant change in the biotypes and serotypes of V. cholerae are also important aspects that changes virulence and survival of the pathogen. Such continuous changes increase the infection ability of the pathogen affecting the susceptible population including the children. The short-term carrier status of V. cholerae has been studied well at community level and this facet significantly contributes to the recurrence of cholera. Several molecular tools recognized altering clonality of V. cholerae in relation with the advent of a serogroup or serotype. Rapid identification systems were formulated for the timely detection of the pathogen so as to identify and control the outbreak and institute proper treatment of the patients. The antimicrobials used in the past are no longer useful in the treatment of cholera as V. cholerae has acquired several mechanisms for multiple antimicrobial resistance. This upsurge in antimicrobial resistance directly influences the management of the disease. This chapter provides an overview of cholera prevalence in India, possible sources of infection, and molecular epidemiology along with antimicrobial resistance of V. cholerae. PMID:24831345

Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Sharma, Naresh C

2014-01-01

388

Pathogenesis of Primary Respiratory Disease Induced by Isolates from a New Genetic Cluster of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Type I  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis of infection induced by cytopathogenic isolates from the newly identified genetic cluster Id of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type I was studied in two experimental infections of previously seronegative, immunocompetent calves. Experiment 1 focused on the evaluation of clinical patterns, viremia, and serological responses. All infected calves in this experiment developed respiratory symptoms and seroconverted to BVDV positivity. Contact calves also contracted a respiratory tract infection following exposure to infected animals. Viremia was demonstrated between postinfection days 2 and 17, and the virus was detected in organ specimens of all but one each of the infected and contact calves. In experiment 2, the distribution of BVDV in various tissues of calves euthanized at defined days postinfection was studied. In two of these calves recurrent shedding of BVDV in nasal secretions was shown. BVDV was detected in various tissues of all infected calves throughout the experiment and also following seroconversion and the clearance of BVDV from the circulatory system. Despite the widespread distribution of the virus in various organs, significant tissue damage was found mainly in respiratory tract and lymphoid tissues. These experiments revealed that viruses from cluster Id of BVDV are able to induce primary respiratory disease in previously seronegative, immunocompetent calves. Contact transmission and virus recurrence, contrary to observations from acute experimental infections with noncytopathogenic BVDV, are likely to reflect differences in biological features of these cytopathogenic isolates. Virus shedding and its presence in tissues following peripheral clearance and in the presence of antibodies may have implications in the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and epidemiology of BVDV-induced syndromes in cattle. PMID:11136763

Baule, C.; Kulcsár, G.; Belák, K.; Albert, M.; Mittelholzer, C.; Soós, T.; Kucsera, L.; Belák, S.

2001-01-01

389

Limited efficacy of topical recombinant feline interferon-omega for treatment of cats with acute upper respiratory viral disease.  

PubMed

Despite a lack of controlled studies confirming its efficacy, recombinant feline interferon-omega (rfeIFN-?) is used in the treatment of feline upper respiratory tract disease (FURTD), which is usually caused by feline calicivirus (FCV) or feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1). The aims of the present study were to investigate whether administration of rfeIFN-? improves clinical signs in cats with acute FURTD and whether this treatment reduces shedding of FCV. Thirty-seven cats affected with acute FURTD were recruited into a prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trial. The presence of FCV and/or FHV-1 was determined by performing quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) on oropharyngeal and conjunctival swabs. Cats were randomly assigned to treatment groups, receiving either placebo or rfeIFN-? (2.5?MU/kg) subcutaneously, followed by 0.5?MU topically at 8-h intervals via the conjunctiva, intranasally, and orally for 21 days. All cats received additional treatment with antibiotics, expectorants, and inhalation of nebulised physiological saline with camomile. Clinical signs and FCV shedding were evaluated over 42 days. All cats demonstrated improvement in clinical signs during the course of the study, with no significant difference in any of the assessed variables when comparing the two groups. FCV copy numbers decreased more rapidly in cats receiving rfeIFN-?. Treatment with rfeIFN-? was not effective in ameliorating clinical signs of acute viral FURTD compared to placebo, but might accelerate a reduction in FCV load in infected cats. PMID:25457261

Ballin, Anne C; Schulz, Bianka; Helps, Christopher; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Mueller, Ralf S; Hartmann, Katrin

2014-12-01

390

The relationship between the occurrence of undifferentiated bovine respiratory disease and titer changes to bovine coronavirus and bovine viral diarrhea virus in 3 Ontario feedlots.  

PubMed Central

Serological evidence of previous viral exposure (titer at arrival) and current viral exposure (titer increase) during a 28-day study period, was used to determine if bovine coronavirus (BCV) or bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) was associated with the occurrence of undifferentiated bovine respiratory disease (UBRD) in feedlot calves. Neutralizing antibody titers to BCV and BVDV were determined for 852 animals from 3 Ontario feedlots. Calves at 2 of the 3 feedlots (n = 753) received a modified live 4-way viral vaccine containing BVDV. On arrival at the feedlots, 90% of animals were seropositive for BCV, while 39% of animals were seropositive for BVDV. This evidence of previous exposure to both viruses was associated with reduced subsequent UBRD risk. Evidence of exposure to BCV during the study period was common, as 50% of animals showed a 16-fold or greater titer increase; however, treatment for UBRD was not associated with titer change. Although the majority of animals were vaccinated for BVDV at arrival, within a feedlot, animals treated for UBRD had larger titer increases to BVDV than non-treated animals. Based on our findings we infer that BCV was not causally related to UBRD occurrence, however consistent with other literature, BVDV may be causally related to UBRD occurrence. PMID:11480517

O'Connor, A; Martin, S W; Nagy, E; Menzies, P; Harland, R

2001-01-01

391

Poetic Justice? Rural Policy Clashes with Rural Poetry in the 2001 Outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease in the UK  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2001, the foot and mouth disease epidemic in the UK gave rise to widespread individual and community trauma and has had negative health, economic and social impacts on the people who live in affected rural areas. Many found strength by sharing their experiences with friends and relatives; others expressed their feelings in poems and art. Using…

Nerlich, Brigitte; Doring, Martin

2005-01-01

392

Stress and Stereotypes: Children's Reactions to the Outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease in the UK in 2001  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2001 foot and mouth disease broke out in the UK and millions of farm animals were slaughtered in order to eradicate it. This affected farmers, town dwellers, adults and children. Based on a small sample of 56 e-mails to a children's BBC (CBBC) message board and using an ethnomethodological approach, this article explores the way in which…

Nerlich, Brigitte; Hillyard, Sam; Wright, Nick

2005-01-01

393

Responding to global infectious disease outbreaks: Lessons from SARS on the role of risk perception, communication and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

With increased globalisation comes the likelihood that infectious disease appearing in one country will spread rapidly to another, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) being a recent example. However, although SARS infected some 10,000 individuals, killing around 1000, it did not lead to the devastating health impact that many feared, but a rather disproportionate economic impact. The disproportionate scale and nature

Richard D. Smith

2006-01-01

394

Managing an Infectious Disease Outbreak in a School. Lessons Learned from School Crises and Emergencies. Volume 2, Issue 3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Lessons Learned" is a series of publications that are a brief recounting of actual school emergencies and crises. This "Lessons Learned" issue focuses on an infectious disease incident, which resulted in the death of a student, closure of area schools and the operation of an on-site school vaccine clinic. The report highlights the critical need…

US Department of Education, 2007

2007-01-01

395

Factors Influencing Performance of Internet-Based Biosurveillance Systems Used in Epidemic Intelligence for Early Detection of Infectious Diseases Outbreaks  

PubMed Central

Background Internet-based biosurveillance systems have been developed to detect health threats using information available on the Internet, but system performance has not been assessed relative to end-user needs and perspectives. Method and Findings Infectious disease events from the French Institute for Public Health Surveillance (InVS) weekly international epidemiological bulletin published in 2010 were used to construct the gold-standard official dataset. Data from six biosurveillance systems were used to detect raw signals (infectious disease events from informal Internet sources): Argus, BioCaster, GPHIN, HealthMap, MedISys and ProMED-mail. Crude detection rates (C-DR), crude sensitivity rates (C-Se) and intrinsic sensitivity rates (I-Se) were calculated from multivariable regressions to evaluate the systems’ performance (events detected compared to the gold-standard) 472 raw signals (Internet disease reports) related to the 86 events included in the gold-standard data set were retrieved from the six systems. 84 events were detected before their publication in the gold-standard. The type of sources utilised by the systems varied significantly (p<0001). I-Se varied significantly from 43% to 71% (p?=?0001) whereas other indicators were similar (C-DR: p?=?020; C-Se, p?=?013). I-Se was significantly associated with individual systems, types of system, languages, regions of occurrence, and types of infectious disease. Conversely, no statistical difference of C-DR was observed after adjustment for other variables. Conclusion Although differences could result from a biosurveillance system's conceptual design, findings suggest that the combined expertise amongst systems enhances early detection performance for detection of infectious diseases. While all systems showed similar early detection performance, systems including human moderation were found to have a 53% higher I-Se (p?=?00001) after adjustment for other variables. Overall, the use of moderation, sources, languages, regions of occurrence, and types of cases were found to influence system performance. PMID:24599062

Barboza, Philippe; Vaillant, Laetitia; Le Strat, Yann; Hartley, David M.; Nelson, Noele P.; Mawudeku, Abla; Madoff, Lawrence C.; Linge, Jens P.; Collier, Nigel; Brownstein, John S.; Astagneau, Pascal

2014-01-01

396

Evaluation of risks of foot-and-mouth disease in Scotland to assist with decision making during the 2007 outbreak in the UK  

PubMed Central

An outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) occurred in Surrey on August 3, 2007. A Great Britain-wide ban on livestock movements was implemented immediately. This coincided with the start of seasonal sheep movements off the hills in Scotland; the majority of these animals are sold via markets. The ban therefore posed severe economic and animal-welfare hardships if it was to last through September and beyond. The Scottish Government commissioned an analysis to assess the risk of re-opening markets given the uncertainty about whether FMD had entered Scotland. Tracing of livestock moved from within the risk zone in England between July 16 and August 3 identified contact chains to 12 Scottish premises; veterinary field inspections found a further three unrecorded movements. No signs of infection were found on these holdings. Under the conservative assumption that a single unknown Scottish holding was infected with FMD, an estimate of the time-dependent probability of Scotland being FMD free given no detection was made. Analyses indicated that if FMD was not detected by early to mid-September then it was highly probable that Scotland was FMD free. Risk maps were produced to visualise the potential spread of FMD across Scotland if it was to spread either locally or via market sales. PMID:21730033

Volkova, V. V.; Bessell, P. R.; Woolhouse, M. E. J.; Savill, N. J.

2011-01-01

397

Challenges in shrimp aquaculture due to viral diseases: distribution and biology of the five major penaeid viruses and interventions to avoid viral incidence and dispersion  

PubMed Central

Shrimp aquaculture has been dramatically affected by many pathogenic diseases, mainly caused by five viruses: IHHNV, YHV, TSV, WSSV, and IMNV. Here we provide a state-of-the-art overview of these shrimp viruses, with emphasis on distribution, pathology, morphology, and genomic organization, in addition to current diagnostic methods and intervention practices. PMID:24031899

Seibert, Caroline H.; Pinto, Aguinaldo R.

2012-01-01

398

Viral hepatitis.  

PubMed

Hepatitis A is still the most frequently reported vaccine preventable disease. A reduction in the incidence will only be achieved by routine childhood vaccination rather than by targeted vaccination of high-risk groups. A larger vaccine program is warranted. Hepatitis B remains a large public health problem. Vaccination targeted to high-risk adults failed to decrease the incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Sexual as well as nosocomial transmission remain serious problems. Vaccine escape variants have also been identified in newborns from infected mothers who had been vaccinated at birth. Clearance of HBV infection results from complex immune mechanisms including TH1 cytokines significantly associated with HLA class II alleles. Escape HBV mutants, especially precore mutants, influence the outcome. The sequences of the promoter and other critical regions were associated with severe activity. Lamivudine is a major advance in therapy of chronic hepatitis B which was recently approved in many countries. Although drug resistant mutants may be selected during therapy, additional nucleoside analogues including adefovir are promising. Optimal combination strategies of different active compounds need to be researched. Three per cent of the world population has been infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Epidemiology has shifted from transfusion to non-transfusion settings. Intravenous drug abuse is currently the main risk but nosocomial infection is also of concern. Three independent factors seem associated with fibrosis progression: age, daily alcohol consumption of 50 g or more and male gender. Median duration of progression to cirrhosis is about 30 years. At the cirrhotic stage, about 3-5% of patients per year develop hepatocellular carcinoma. There is little evidence that direct cytopathicity plays a significant role in liver cell injury. HCV also infects extrahepatic cells which seems critical in the pathogenesis of the many extrahepatic manifestations. The recent identification of CD81 protein as one of the HCV receptor candidates may help us to understand how chronic HCV infection may trigger a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, autoimmune or even lymphoproliferative, through potent continuous B cell activation in the context of various host and/or environmental cofactors. Direct measurement of HCV RNA has clarified HCV replication kinetics and variability. Among patients with chronic hepatitis C, 48 weeks of treatment with interferon/ribavirin therapy produced a response rate of 28% among those with genotype 1 and 66% with other genotypes. Similar differences were found for combination therapy among patients who had relapsed following previous interferon (IFN) therapy. Viral load prior to treatment has been clearly shown to be predictive of response to interferon treatment, with increased viral load associated with decrease rates of response. In patients non-responsive to interferon, a second course of interferon alone has no beneficial effect whereas combination therapy may induce response in 25%. In conclusion, combination therapy should be given in all situations. Viral eradication should not be the only objective of the treatment since histological improvement may be obtained despite persisting viral replication with prolonged maintenance of antiviral therapy. PMID:17035815

Trépo, C; Zoulim, F; Pradat, P

1999-10-01

399

Two Adenovirus Serotype 3 Outbreaks Associated with Febrile Respiratory Disease and Pharyngoconjunctival Fever in Children under 15 Years of Age in Hangzhou, China, during 2011  

PubMed Central

Adenovirus serotype 3 and 7 outbreaks have occurred periodically in northern, eastern, and southern China since 1955, but there has been no report since the adenovirus serotype 7 outbreak first occurred in Hangzhou, China, in 1991. Here we explored the epidemiology and etiology of two adenovirus serotype 3 outbreaks in Hangzhou in 2011. One acute respiratory outbreak was found in Chun'an County, where a total of 371 cases were confirmed in 5 of 23 towns from 4 to 31 May 2011. The outbreak affected 18.57% (13/70) of schools and 14.49% (90/621) of classes. The incidence was 5.18% (371/7,163). The population was distributed among individuals ages 7 to 15 years. No parents or teachers were infected. Another pharyngoconjunctival fever outbreak was discovered in the Chenjinglun Swimming Center located in the Xihu District between 1 and 15 July 2011. A total of 134 cases were confirmed in 900 amateur swimmers, with an incidence of 14.89% (134/900). The ages ranged from 4 to 9 years. The two outbreaks had no severe complications or death. The viruses in 66.67% (10/15) of throat swabs from children with acute respiratory infections and 100% (10/10) of the swabs from children with pharyngoconjunctival fever were confirmed to be adenovirus serotype 3 with 100% homology by PCR. Of these samples, 60.0% (12/20) had a classical characteristic cytopathic effect, presented as grape-like clusters at 72 h after infection in HEp-2 c