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Sample records for viral disease outbreaks

  1. Nigerian response to the 2014 Ebola viral disease outbreak: lessons and cautions

    PubMed Central

    Oleribe, Obinna Ositadimma; Crossey, Mary Margaret Elizabeth; Taylor-Robinson, Simon David

    2015-01-01

    The Ebola virus disease outbreak that initially hit Guinea, Liberia and Senegal in 2014 was projected to affect Nigeria very badly when the first case was reported in July 2014. However, the outbreak was effectively and swiftly contained with only eight deaths out of 20 cases, confounding even the most optimistic predictions of the disease modelers. A combination of health worker and public education, a coordinated field epidemiology and laboratory training program (with prior experience in disease outbreak control in other diseases) and effective set-up of emergency operations centers were some of the measures that helped to confound the critics and contain what would have been an otherwise deadly outbreak in a densely populated country with a highly mobile population. This article highlights the measures taken in Nigeria and looks to the translatable lessons learnt for future disease outbreaks, whether that be from the Ebola virus or other infectious agents. PMID:26740841

  2. Tracking viral evolution during a disease outbreak: the rapid and complete selective sweep of a circovirus in the endangered Echo parakeet.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Samit; Faulkes, Christopher G; Greenwood, Andrew G; Jones, Carl G; Kaiser, Pete; Lyne, Owen D; Black, Simon A; Chowrimootoo, Aurelie; Groombridge, Jim J

    2012-05-01

    Circoviruses are among the smallest and simplest of all viruses, but they are relatively poorly characterized. Here, we intensively sampled two sympatric parrot populations from Mauritius over a period of 11 years and screened for the circovirus Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV). During the sampling period, a severe outbreak of psittacine beak and feather disease, which is caused by BFDV, occurred in Echo parakeets. Consequently, this data set presents an ideal system for studying the evolution of a pathogen in a natural population and to understand the adaptive changes that cause outbreaks. Unexpectedly, we discovered that the outbreak was most likely caused by changes in functionally important regions of the normally conserved replication-associated protein gene and not the immunogenic capsid. Moreover, these mutations were completely fixed in the Echo parakeet host population very shortly after the outbreak. Several capsid alleles were linked to the replication-associated protein outbreak allele, suggesting that whereas the key changes occurred in the latter, the scope of the outbreak and the selective sweep may have been influenced by positive selection in the capsid. We found evidence for viral transmission between the two host populations though evidence for the invasive species as the source of the outbreak was equivocal. Finally, the high evolutionary rate that we estimated shows how rapidly new variation can arise in BFDV and is consistent with recent results from other small single-stranded DNA viruses. PMID:22345474

  3. Dengue disease outbreak detection.

    PubMed

    Dayama, Pankaj; Sampath, Kameshwaran

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of outbreak of a disease may help in timely and effective public health interventions. Our motivation for this work is to assist EHD planning officer to analyze the incidence data and based on it declare whether there is an outbreak or not. In this paper, we develop ensemble of multiple techniques for detecting dengue disease outbreak. These techniques are applied to dengue incidence data from Singapore and results are summarized. PMID:25160360

  4. Lessons from nosocomial viral haemorrhagic fever outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Fisher-Hoch, Susan P

    2005-01-01

    The outbreak of Marburg haemorrhagic fever in Angola in 2004-2005 shows once again the devastating and rapid spread of viral haemorrhagic fevers in medical settings where hygiene practices are poorly applied or ignored. The legacy of years of war and poverty in Angola has resulted in very poor medical education and services. The initial high rate of infection among infants in Angola may have been related to poor hospital practices, possibly administration of vaccines. Though the outbreak in Angola was in a part of Africa not previously known to have filovirus infection, prior ecological modelling had predicted this location and many others. Prevention of future outbreaks will not be easy. The urgent need is dissemination of knowledge and the training, discipline and resources for good clinical practice. Educating the public to demand higher standards could be a powerful tool. Good practices are difficult to establish and maintain on the scale needed. PMID:16373655

  5. Forecasting Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaman, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic models of infectious disease systems abound and are used to study the epidemiological characteristics of disease outbreaks, the ecological mechanisms affecting transmission, and the suitability of various control and intervention strategies. The dynamics of disease transmission are non-linear and consequently difficult to forecast. Here, we describe combined model-inference frameworks developed for the prediction of infectious diseases. We show that accurate and reliable predictions of seasonal influenza outbreaks can be made using a mathematical model representing population-level influenza transmission dynamics that has been recursively optimized using ensemble data assimilation techniques and real-time estimates of influenza incidence. Operational real-time forecasts of influenza and other infectious diseases have been and are currently being generated.

  6. Fish and Shellfish Associated Disease Outbreaks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, M.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of disease outbreaks related to fish and shellfish, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers the chemical, bacterial, and viral diseases that are transmitted by fish and shellfish. A list of 50 references is also presented. (HM)

  7. Viral Skin Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ramdass, Priya; Mullick, Sahil; Farber, Harold F

    2015-12-01

    In the vast world of skin diseases, viral skin disorders account for a significant percentage. Most viral skin diseases present with an exanthem (skin rash) and, oftentimes, an accompanying enanthem (lesions involving the mucosal membrane). In this article, the various viral skin diseases are explored, including viral childhood exanthems (measles, rubella, erythema infectiosum, and roseola), herpes viruses (herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus, viral zoonotic infections [orf, monkeypox, ebola, smallpox]), and several other viral skin diseases, such as human papilloma virus, hand, foot, and mouth disease, molluscum contagiosum, and Gianotti-Crosti syndrome. PMID:26612372

  8. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davey, Victoria

    The emergence of new, transmissible infections poses a significant threat to human populations. As the 2009 novel influenza A/H1N1 pandemic and the 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic demonstrate, we have observed the effects of rapid spread of illness in non-immune populations and experienced disturbing uncertainty about future potential for human suffering and societal disruption. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of a newly emerged infectious organism are usually gathered in retrospect as the outbreak evolves and affects populations. Knowledge of potential effects of outbreaks and epidemics and most importantly, mitigation at community, regional, national and global levels is needed to inform policy that will prepare and protect people. Study of possible outcomes of evolving epidemics and application of mitigation strategies is not possible in observational or experimental research designs, but computational modeling allows conduct of `virtual' experiments. Results of well-designed computer simulations can aid in the selection and implementation of strategies that limit illness and death, and maintain systems of healthcare and other critical resources that are vital to public protection. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks.

  9. INVESTIGATIONS OF WATERBORNE DISEASE OUTBREAKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    From 1971-2000, there were about 751 waterborne disease outbreaks recognized and reported, with over 500,000 associated cases of illness. From 1989-1994, of 90 total outbreaks, 2% were associated with untreated surface water, 30% with untreated ground water, 42% with treatment de...

  10. Disease Outbreaks Caused by Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craun, Gunther F.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the disease outbreaks caused by drinking polluted water, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the waterborn outbreaks included are: (1) cholera; (2) gastroenteritis; (3) giardiasis; and (4) typhoid fever and salmonellosis. A list of 66 references is also presented. (HM)

  11. Outbreaks of food-borne and waterborne viral gastroenteritis.

    PubMed Central

    Hedberg, C W; Osterholm, M T

    1993-01-01

    Norwalk virus infection is the epidemiologic prototype for outbreaks of food-borne and waterborne gastroenteritis. Around the world, Norwalk virus and Norwalk-like viruses appear to be major causes of food-borne and waterborne illness. Assessment of the overall significance of viral agents to the epidemiology of food-borne and waterborne illness is hampered by the lack of surveillance throughout much of the world. In areas where food-borne and waterborne illness surveillance is conducted, outbreaks of viral gastroenteritis are underreported because of the lack of availability of routine laboratory services to confirm the viral etiology. Routine use of epidemiologic criteria as an alternative to laboratory confirmation will allow better assessments of the importance of viral gastroenteritis until effective laboratory methods can be widely implemented. Outbreaks of viral gastroenteritis have been propagated by contamination of water supplies, raw foods, and ill food handlers. Controlling an outbreak depends on identifying and removing the source of contamination. The demonstrated occurrence of person-to-person transmission and the likely occurrence of transmission of Norwalk-like viruses by aerosol make it necessary to evaluate the potential for transmission by food handlers and servers in every outbreak, regardless of primary source. PMID:8395330

  12. Nosocomial Spread of Viral Disease

    PubMed Central

    Aitken, Celia; Jeffries, Donald J.

    2001-01-01

    Viruses are important causes of nosocomial infection, but the fact that hospital outbreaks often result from introduction(s) from community-based epidemics, together with the need to initiate specific laboratory testing, means that there are usually insufficient data to allow the monitoring of trends in incidences. The most important defenses against nosocomial transmission of viruses are detailed and continuing education of staff and strict adherence to infection control policies. Protocols must be available to assist in the management of patients with suspected or confirmed viral infection in the health care setting. In this review, we present details on general measures to prevent the spread of viral infection in hospitals and other health care environments. These include principles of accommodation of infected patients and approaches to good hygiene and patient management. They provide detail on individual viral diseases accompanied in each case with specific information on control of the infection and, where appropriate, details of preventive and therapeutic measures. The important areas of nosocomial infection due to blood-borne viruses have been extensively reviewed previously and are summarized here briefly, with citation of selected review articles. Human prion diseases, which present management problems very different from those of viral infection, are not included. PMID:11432812

  13. Exosomes in Viral Disease.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Monique R; Kashanchi, Fatah; Jacobson, Steven

    2016-07-01

    Viruses have evolved many mechanisms by which to evade and subvert the immune system to ensure survival and persistence. However, for each method undertaken by the immune system for pathogen removal, there is a counteracting mechanism utilized by pathogens. The new and emerging role of microvesicles in immune intercellular communication and function is no different. Viruses across many different families have evolved to insert viral components in exosomes, a subtype of microvesicle, with many varying downstream effects. When assessed cumulatively, viral antigens in exosomes increase persistence through cloaking viral genomes, decoying the immune system, and even by increasing viral infection in uninfected cells. Exosomes therefore represent a source of viral antigen that can be used as a biomarker for disease and targeted for therapy in the control and eradication of these disorders. With the rise in the persistence of new and reemerging viruses like Ebola and Zika, exploring the role of exosomes become more important than ever. PMID:27324390

  14. Ebola viral disease and pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Caluwaerts, Séverine; Achar, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Ebola viral disease’s interaction with pregnancy is poorly understood and remains a particular challenge for medical and para-medical personnel responding to an outbreak. This review article is written with the benefit of hindsight and experience from the largest recorded Ebola outbreak in history. We have provided a broad overview of the issues that arise for pregnant women and for the professionals treating them during an Ebola outbreak. The discussion focuses on the specifics of Ebola infection in pregnancy and possible management strategies, including the delivery of an infected woman. We have also discussed the wider challenges posed to pregnant women and their carers during an epidemic, including the identification of suspected Ebola-infected pregnant women and the impact of the disease on pre-existing health services. This paper outlines current practices in the field, as well as highlighting the gaps in our knowledge and the paramount need to protect the health-care workers directly involved in the management of pregnant women. PMID:26457118

  15. Viral diseases of the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Krogstad, Aric P; Simpson, Janet E; Korte, Scott W

    2005-01-01

    Viral disease in the rabbit is encountered infrequently by the clinical practitioner; however, several viral diseases were reported to occur in this species. Viral diseases that are described in the rabbit primarily may affect the integument, gastrointestinal tract or, central nervous system or maybe multi-systemic in nature. Rabbit viral diseases range from oral papillomatosis, with benign clinical signs, to rabbit hemorrhagic disease and myxomatosis, which may result in significant clinical disease and mortality. The wild rabbit may serve as a reservoir for disease transmission for many of these viral agents. In general, treatment of viral disease in the rabbit is supportive in nature. PMID:15585192

  16. Communicable Diseases and Outbreak Control.

    PubMed

    Ameli, Jonathan

    2015-10-01

    Infectious disease during an emergency condition can raise the death rate 60 times in comparison to other causes including trauma. An epidemic, or outbreak, can occur when several aspects of the agent (pathogen), population (hosts), and the environment create an ideal situation for spread. Overcrowding, poor regional design and hygiene due to poverty, dirty drinking water, rapid climate changes, and natural disasters, can lead to conditions that allow easier transmission of disease. Once it has been established that an emergency condition exists, there must be a prompt and thorough response for communicable disease control. A camp should be created, and the disease managed rapidly. The overall goals are rapid assessment, prevention, surveillance, outbreak control, and disease management. PMID:27437528

  17. Detection of goldfish haematopoietic necrosis herpes virus (Cyprinid herpesvirus-2) with multi-drug resistant Aeromonas hydrophila infection in goldfish: First evidence of any viral disease outbreak in ornamental freshwater aquaculture farms in India.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, P K; Swaminathan, T Raja; Abraham, Thangapalam Jawahar; Kumar, Raj; Pattanayak, S; Mohapatra, A; Rath, S S; Patra, Avijit; Adikesavalu, Harresh; Sood, Neeraj; Pradhan, P K; Das, B K; Jayasankar, P; Jena, J K

    2016-09-01

    This outbreak report details of a mortality event where Cyprinid herpes virus-2 (CyHV-2) was detected in association with multidrug-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila infection in goldfish, Carassius auratus, from commercial farms. The goldfish exhibited large scale haemorrhages on the body, fins and gills, lepidorthosis, necrosed gills, protruded anus and shrunken eyes. White nodular necrotic foci in spleen and kidneys were noticed, along with necrosis and fusion of gill lamellae. Transmission electron microscopy of affected tissues revealed the presence of mature virus particles. Involvement of CyHV-2 was confirmed by PCR, sequencing and observed cytopathic effect in koi carp fin cell line along with experimental infection study. A bacterium isolated from the internal organs of affected fish was found to be pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila having resistance to more than 10 classes of antibiotics. We postulate that CyHV-2 was the primary etiological agent responsible for this outbreak with secondary infection by A. hydrophila. The experimental infection trials in Labeo rohita and koi carp by intraperitoneal challenge with CyHV-2 tissue homogenates failed to reproduce the disease in those co-cultured fish species. This is the first report of a viral disease outbreak in organised earthen ornamental fish farms in India and bears further investigation. PMID:27172876

  18. DISEASE OUTBREAKS CAUSED BY DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thirty-two waterborne disease outbreaks were reported to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the Environmental Protection Agency in 1981. The outbreaks occurred in 17 states and involved 4430 cases. This was only 64% of the number of outbreaks that were reported in 1980 and...

  19. Viral diseases and pathogenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It includes classification of viral infection. It describes common ways of virus entry, replication, and transmission. It introduces the routes of viral invasion and molecular basis for viral pathogenesis....

  20. Coping with Stress during Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    MedlinePlus

    · Coping With Stress During Infectious Disease Outbreaks What You Should Know When you hear, read, or watch news about an outbreak ... you may feel anxious and show signs of stress. These signs of stress are normal, and may ...

  1. Investigating a mystery disease: tales from a viral detective.

    PubMed

    Lipkin, W Ian

    2014-11-01

    Viral outbreak investigation is challenging logistically as well as scientifically. In the context of addressing a fictional emerging viral disease, I describe the process of discovery, from the initial report of a problem through discussions of intellectual property and sample management, study design, management, experimental execution, and reporting of results. PMID:25165103

  2. Investigating a Mystery Disease: Tales from a Viral Detective

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Viral outbreak investigation is challenging logistically as well as scientifically. In the context of addressing a fictional emerging viral disease, I describe the process of discovery, from the initial report of a problem through discussions of intellectual property and sample management, study design, management, experimental execution, and reporting of results. PMID:25165103

  3. Genomics and outbreaks: foot and mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Freimanis, G L; Di Nardo, A; Bankowska, K; King, D J; Wadsworth, J; Knowles, N J; King, D P

    2016-04-01

    Foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is an animal pathogen of global economic significance. Identifying the sources of outbreaks plays an important role in disease control; however, this can be confounded by the ease with which FMDV can spread via movement of infected livestock and animal products, aerosols or fomites, e.g. contaminated persons and objects. As sequencing technologies have advanced, this review highlights the uses of viral genomic data in helping to understand the global distribution and transboundary movements of FMDV, and the role that these approaches have played in control and surveillance programmes. The recent application of next-generation sequencing platforms to address important epidemiological and evolutionary challenges is discussed with particular reference to the advent of 'omics' technologies. PMID:27217177

  4. Ebola viral load at diagnosis associates with patient outcome and outbreak evolution

    PubMed Central

    de La Vega, Marc-Antoine; Caleo, Grazia; Audet, Jonathan; Qiu, Xiangguo; Kozak, Robert A.; Brooks, James I.; Kern, Steven; Wolz, Anja; Sprecher, Armand; Greig, Jane; Lokuge, Kamalini; Kargbo, David K.; Kargbo, Brima; Di Caro, Antonino; Grolla, Allen; Kobasa, Darwyn; Strong, James E.; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Van Herp, Michel; Kobinger, Gary P.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Ebola virus (EBOV) causes periodic outbreaks of life-threatening EBOV disease in Africa. Historically, these outbreaks have been relatively small and geographically contained; however, the magnitude of the EBOV outbreak that began in 2014 in West Africa has been unprecedented. The aim of this study was to describe the viral kinetics of EBOV during this outbreak and identify factors that contribute to outbreak progression. METHODS. From July to December 2014, one laboratory in Sierra Leone processed over 2,700 patient samples for EBOV detection by quantitative PCR (qPCR). Viremia was measured following patient admission. Age, sex, and approximate time of symptom onset were also recorded for each patient. The data was analyzed using various mathematical models to find trends of potential interest. RESULTS. The analysis revealed a significant difference (P = 2.7 × 10–77) between the initial viremia of survivors (4.02 log10 genome equivalents [GEQ]/ml) and nonsurvivors (6.18 log10 GEQ/ml). At the population level, patient viral loads were higher on average in July than in November, even when accounting for outcome and time since onset of symptoms. This decrease in viral loads temporally correlated with an increase in circulating EBOV-specific IgG antibodies among individuals who were suspected of being infected but shown to be negative for the virus by PCR. CONCLUSIONS. Our results indicate that initial viremia is associated with outcome of the individual and outbreak duration; therefore, care must be taken in planning clinical trials and interventions. Additional research in virus adaptation and the impacts of host factors on EBOV transmission and pathogenesis is needed. PMID:26551677

  5. Outbreak of rabbit hemorrhagic disease in domestic lagomorphs.

    PubMed

    Campagnolo, Enzo R; Ernst, Mark J; Berninger, Mary L; Gregg, Douglas A; Shumaker, Thomas J; Boghossian, Aida M

    2003-10-15

    Rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) was diagnosed in domestic lagomorphs on a rabbit farm in Illinois. Clinical signs of RHD in affected rabbits included signs of depression, anorexia, fever, paddling, convulsions, and sudden death. Findings of necropsies and histologic evaluations of specimens of liver and spleen were indicative of RHD. In liver specimens obtained from dead rabbits, RHD viral antigen was detected via hemagglutination assay and viral antigen-detection ELISA. The source of the outbreak was traced to a rabbitry in Utah. As the disease spread, the outbreak involved rabbits in various regions of the United States; > 4,800 rabbits were euthanatized and buried as a result of the depopulation effort in several states. The economic impact of the disease can be considerable; if the disease is suspected, it is imperative that the appropriate state or federal veterinarian's office be contacted immediately. PMID:14584745

  6. Incentives for Reporting Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malani, Anup; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2011-01-01

    The global spread of diseases such as swine flu and SARS highlights the difficult decision governments face when presented with evidence of a local outbreak. Reporting the outbreak may bring medical assistance but is also likely to trigger trade sanctions by countries hoping to contain the disease. Suppressing the information may avoid trade…

  7. Dengue disease outbreak definitions are implicitly variable

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Oliver J.; Smith, David L.; Scott, Thomas W.; Hay, Simon I.

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases rarely exhibit simple dynamics. Outbreaks (defined as excess cases beyond response capabilities) have the potential to cause a disproportionately high burden due to overwhelming health care systems. The recommendations of international policy guidelines and research agendas are based on a perceived standardised definition of an outbreak characterised by a prolonged, high-caseload, extra-seasonal surge. In this analysis we apply multiple candidate outbreak definitions to reported dengue case data from Brazil to test this assumption. The methods identify highly heterogeneous outbreak characteristics in terms of frequency, duration and case burden. All definitions identify outbreaks with characteristics that vary over time and space. Further, definitions differ in their timeliness of outbreak onset, and thus may be more or less suitable for early intervention. This raises concerns about the application of current outbreak guidelines for early warning/identification systems. It is clear that quantitatively defining the characteristics of an outbreak is an essential prerequisite for effective reactive response. More work is needed so that definitions of disease outbreaks can take into account the baseline capacities of treatment, surveillance and control. This is essential if outbreak guidelines are to be effective and generalisable across a range of epidemiologically different settings. PMID:25979287

  8. [Global threats from emerging viral diseases].

    PubMed

    Chastel, Claude

    2007-11-01

    Emerging viral diseases are nothing new. Smallpox probably reached Europe from Asia in the 5th century, and yellow fever emerged in the Americas during the 16th century as a consequence of the African slave trade. Dengue fever arose simultaneously in South-East Asia, Africa, and North America during the 18th century. In 1918-1919 the so-called Spanish flu spread like wildfire through all five continents, killing between 25 and 40 million people. The second half of the 20th century saw the emergence of HIV/AIDS (1981), among other viral diseases. Even more worrying is the fact that emerging and re-emerging viral diseases have had a tendency to spread more quickly and more widely during the last decade, invading whole countries and continents; witness the recent outbreaks of Nipah virus, West Nile, Rift Valley fever, SARS, monkeypox, avian flu (H5N1) and Chikungunya. The complex factors underlying these new trends are briefly discussed. PMID:18666456

  9. Viral outbreaks and communicable health hazards due to devastating floods in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Umar; Piracha, Zahra Zahid

    2016-05-12

    Pakistan is a developing country that has a population of 190 million people and faces a huge burden of viral diseases. Every year during monsoon season heavy rain fall and lack of disaster management skills potentially increase the transmission of waterborne diseases, vector borne diseases and viral outbreaks. Due to severe flooding, thousands of people lose their lives and millions are displaced each year. In most of the cases the children who lose their family members are forced into illegal professions of begging, child labor and prostitution which make them prone to sexually transmitted infections. Up to date, no scientific study has been conducted nationwide to illustrate epidemiological patterns of waterborne diseases, vector borne diseases and viral epidemics during flash flood. Mosquito sprays would not be a sufficient approach for dengue eradication; mass awareness, larvicide and biological control by Guppy fishes are also effective strategies to overcome dengue problem. International health bodies and non-governmental organizations must take note of this alerting situation and take adequate steps such as financial/medical aid in order to defeat the after-effects of flood. PMID:27175353

  10. Viral outbreaks and communicable health hazards due to devastating floods in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Umar; Piracha, Zahra Zahid

    2016-01-01

    Pakistan is a developing country that has a population of 190 million people and faces a huge burden of viral diseases. Every year during monsoon season heavy rain fall and lack of disaster management skills potentially increase the transmission of waterborne diseases, vector borne diseases and viral outbreaks. Due to severe flooding, thousands of people lose their lives and millions are displaced each year. In most of the cases the children who lose their family members are forced into illegal professions of begging, child labor and prostitution which make them prone to sexually transmitted infections. Up to date, no scientific study has been conducted nationwide to illustrate epidemiological patterns of waterborne diseases, vector borne diseases and viral epidemics during flash flood. Mosquito sprays would not be a sufficient approach for dengue eradication; mass awareness, larvicide and biological control by Guppy fishes are also effective strategies to overcome dengue problem. International health bodies and non-governmental organizations must take note of this alerting situation and take adequate steps such as financial/medical aid in order to defeat the after-effects of flood. PMID:27175353

  11. Viral hepatitis B and C outbreak related to parenteral treatment at an oncological department in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Kološová, A; Gašparovič, J

    2016-06-01

    The Regional Public Health Authority was notified about four cases of viral hepatitis (B and C) among patients with pre-event history of hospitalization at an oncological ward. An outbreak investigation was commenced in response. Forty-seven cases of viral hepatitis B and C in 39 patients hospitalized during the period from September 2009 to July 2010 were registered. We found an association between parenteral treatment and disease (hepatitis B: χ(2) = 49.53; P < 0.001; hepatitis C: χ(2) = 22.42; P < 0.001). Despite using disposable materials, there remains a risk of transmission of bloodborne virus infections in hospitals due to poor adherence to standard procedures. PMID:26944899

  12. Viral disease in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of infectious disease has been an important issue for poultry breeders, particularly since the introduction of high density rearing. Selection for enhanced genetic resistance to disease is an important factor for poultry breeding companies in gaining market share, maintaining consumer confid...

  13. IMPROVING WATERBORNE DISEASE OUTBREAK INVESTIGATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article summarizes the discussions and conclusions of a workshop held December 7-8, 1998, to consider the inherent limitations and weaknesses of waterborne outbreak investigations and make recommendations for their improvement. In recent years, an increased number of suspec...

  14. First isolation and genotyping of viruses from recent outbreaks of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Toplak, Ivan; Hostnik, Peter; Rihtaric, Danijela; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank; Jencic, Vlasta

    2010-10-26

    In November and December 2007, the virus causing viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) was detected in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss from 2 fish farms in Slovenia. During 2008 and 2009 the infection spread only among rainbow trout farms and 4 new outbreaks were confirmed. High mortality and clinical signs of VHS were observed among the diseased fish. VHSV was confirmed by virus isolation, immunoperoxidase test, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and phylogenetic analysis. Based on 1 complete (1524 nucleotides [nt]) and 9 partial (600 nt) glycoprotein gene nucleotide sequences, 9 VHSV isolates from the 6 VHS outbreaks were genetically closely related (99 to 100% identity), and were classified into the Subgroup I-a of Genotype I, most closely related to the German isolates Dstg21-07, Dstg36-06, and Dstg54-1-07 (99 to 100% identity). Phylogenetic analysis and epidemiological investigations confirmed that the VHS virus had been (re)introduced with imported live fish, and that subsequent outbreaks were linked to the initial infection. Our study shows that direct nucleotide sequencing of RT-PCR products, amplified from the tissue of VHSV-infected fish, represents a reliable tool for fast routine genotyping in diagnostic laboratories. This is the first report of a natural epidemic associated with VHSV infection in Slovenia since the eradication of the disease in 1977. PMID:21166311

  15. OutbreakTools: A new platform for disease outbreak analysis using the R software

    PubMed Central

    Jombart, Thibaut; Aanensen, David M.; Baguelin, Marc; Birrell, Paul; Cauchemez, Simon; Camacho, Anton; Colijn, Caroline; Collins, Caitlin; Cori, Anne; Didelot, Xavier; Fraser, Christophe; Frost, Simon; Hens, Niel; Hugues, Joseph; Höhle, Michael; Opatowski, Lulla; Rambaut, Andrew; Ratmann, Oliver; Soubeyrand, Samuel; Suchard, Marc A.; Wallinga, Jacco; Ypma, Rolf; Ferguson, Neil

    2014-01-01

    The investigation of infectious disease outbreaks relies on the analysis of increasingly complex and diverse data, which offer new prospects for gaining insights into disease transmission processes and informing public health policies. However, the potential of such data can only be harnessed using a number of different, complementary approaches and tools, and a unified platform for the analysis of disease outbreaks is still lacking. In this paper, we present the new R package OutbreakTools, which aims to provide a basis for outbreak data management and analysis in R. OutbreakTools is developed by a community of epidemiologists, statisticians, modellers and bioinformaticians, and implements classes and methods for storing, handling and visualizing outbreak data. It includes real and simulated outbreak datasets. Together with a number of tools for infectious disease epidemiology recently made available in R, OutbreakTools contributes to the emergence of a new, free and open-source platform for the analysis of disease outbreaks. PMID:24928667

  16. Investigation of multistate foodborne disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Sobel, Jeremy; Griffin, Patricia M; Slutsker, Laurence; Swerdlow, David L; Tauxe, Robert V

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. food supply is characterized increasingly by centralized production and wide distribution of products, and more foodborne disease outbreaks are dispersed over broad geographic areas. Such outbreaks may present as a gradual, diffuse, and initially unapparent increase in sporadic cases. Recognition and reporting by clinicians and local public health officials and the ordering of laboratory tests by clinicians continue to be cornerstones of detecting all outbreaks. New methods--such as active laboratory-based surveillance, automated algorithms for detecting increases in infection rates, and molecular subtyping--facilitate detection of diffuse outbreaks. Routines have evolved for the investigation of multistate outbreaks; they are characterized by rapid communication between local, state, and federal public health officials; timely review of epidemiologic data by expert panels; collaboration on tracebacks with food safety regulatory agencies; and communication with the public and media. Rapid, efficient investigation of multistate outbreaks may result in control of acute public health emergencies, identification and correction of hazardous food production and processing practices, and consequent improvement in food safety. PMID:12297677

  17. Viral diseases of marine invertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, P. T.

    1984-03-01

    Approximately 40 viruses are known from marine sponges; turbellarian and monogenetic flatworms; cephalopod, bivalve, and gastropod mollusks; nereid polychaetes; and isopod and decapod crustaceans. Most of the viruses can be tentatively assigned to the Herpesviridae, Baculoviridae, Iridoviridae, Adenoviridae, Papovaviridae, Reoviridae, “Birnaviridae”, Bunyaviridae, Rhabdoviridae, and Picornaviridae. Viruslike particles found in oysters might be representatives of the Togaviridae and Retroviridae. Enveloped single-stranded RNA viruses from crustaceans have developmental and morphological characteristics intermediate between families, and some show evidence of relationships to the Paramyxoviridae as well as the Bunyaviridae or Rhabdoviridae. Certain small viruses of shrimp cannot be assigned, even tentatively, to a particular family. Some viruses cause disease in wild and captive hosts, others are associated with disease states but may not be primary instigators, and many occur in apparently normal animals. The frequency of viral disease in natural populations of marine invertebrates is unknown. Several viruses that cause disease in captive animals, with or without experimental intervention, have also been found in diseased wild hosts, including herpeslike viruses of crabs and oysters, iridovirus of octopus, and reolike and bunyalike viruses of crabs. Iridolike viruses have been implicated in massive mortalities of cultured oysters. Baculoviruses, and IHHN virus, which is of uncertain affinities, cause economically damaging diseases in cultured penaeid shrimp. Double or multiple viral infection is common in crabs. For example, a reolike virus and associated rhabdolike virus act synergistically to cause paralytic and fatal disease in Callinectes sapidus. Information on host range, most susceptible stage, and viral latency is available only for viruses of shrimp. One baculovirus attacks five species of New World penaeid shrimp. IHHN virus infects three species of

  18. Meningococcal disease--outbreak in Delhi.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Anupam; Kukreja, Shyam; Jain, Vinita; Dutta, A K

    2005-06-01

    Meningococcal disease occurs both endemically and epidemically across the world. In India also meningococcal disease occurs sporadically with epidemics occurring at regular intervals. Epidemics of meningococcal disease have occurred in Delhi in the year 1935, then in the year 1966 which lasted for a year and again in 1985-86. The last epidemic took a great toll with case fatality rate nearly 13%. This year also there has been an outbreak of meningococcal disease with nearly 400 cases and case fatality rates of about 10% majority are males between the age group of 21-30 years and from the inner crowded areas of the city. PMID:15995271

  19. Immunoglobulin M-specific serologic testing in an outbreak of foodborne viral hepatitis, type A.

    PubMed

    Osterholm, M T; Kantor, R J; Bradley, D W; Hall, W N; Francis, D P; Aaron, H C; Washburn, J W; Velde, D

    1980-07-01

    Ninety-seven symptomatic and five asymptomatic infections with viral hepatitis, type A (102 cases) were identified in members, guests and employees of a private country club in an outbreak associated with consuming food and ice prepared or handled by an employee of the club's kitchen pantry. Twenty-three symptomatic persons were tested by differential radioimmunoassay for immunoglobulin M (IgM) (acute-phase) hepatitis A antibody (anti-HAV) and all 23 were documented to be infected with hepatitis A virus (HAV). Forty-one member/guest cases had only a single exposure at the county club. Their incubation periods ranged from 21 to 40 days, with a mean of 30 days. The exposure of these single-day patrons occurred over a 14-day period. The index case was not icteric and only moderately symptomatic and was diagnosed retrospectively to have viral hepatitis, type A by serologic determination of IgM anti-HAV in blood samples. Four items implicated in disease transmission were potato salad, hot dogs, molded salmon and ice handled by the index case. Serologic screening of controls did not appear to alter the conclusions of the food item analysis. PMID:6249120

  20. Bovine viral diarrhea virus outbreak in a beef cow herd in South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to describe the outcome of natural bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in a herd of 136 bred heifers. This outbreak was notable in that a total of 36 PI calves were generated. Of the 136 bred heifers, 8 failed to deliver a calf. Eight calves died shortly a...

  1. Literature Review of Associations among Attributes of Reported Drinking Water Disease Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Ligon, Grant; Bartram, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Waterborne disease outbreaks attributed to various pathogens and drinking water system characteristics have adversely affected public health worldwide throughout recorded history. Data from drinking water disease outbreak (DWDO) reports of widely varying breadth and depth were synthesized to investigate associations between outbreak attributes and human health impacts. Among 1519 outbreaks described in 475 sources identified during review of the primarily peer-reviewed, English language literature, most occurred in the U.S., the U.K. and Canada (in descending order). The outbreaks are most frequently associated with pathogens of unknown etiology, groundwater and untreated systems, and catchment realm-associated deficiencies (i.e., contamination events). Relative frequencies of outbreaks by various attributes are comparable with those within other DWDO reviews, with water system size and treatment type likely driving most of the (often statistically-significant at p < 0.05) differences in outbreak frequency, case count and attack rate. Temporal analysis suggests that while implementation of surface (drinking) water management policies is associated with decreased disease burden, further strengthening of related policies is needed to address the remaining burden attributed to catchment and distribution realm-associated deficiencies and to groundwater viral and disinfection-only system outbreaks. PMID:27240387

  2. Literature Review of Associations among Attributes of Reported Drinking Water Disease Outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Ligon, Grant; Bartram, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Waterborne disease outbreaks attributed to various pathogens and drinking water system characteristics have adversely affected public health worldwide throughout recorded history. Data from drinking water disease outbreak (DWDO) reports of widely varying breadth and depth were synthesized to investigate associations between outbreak attributes and human health impacts. Among 1519 outbreaks described in 475 sources identified during review of the primarily peer-reviewed, English language literature, most occurred in the U.S., the U.K. and Canada (in descending order). The outbreaks are most frequently associated with pathogens of unknown etiology, groundwater and untreated systems, and catchment realm-associated deficiencies (i.e., contamination events). Relative frequencies of outbreaks by various attributes are comparable with those within other DWDO reviews, with water system size and treatment type likely driving most of the (often statistically-significant at p < 0.05) differences in outbreak frequency, case count and attack rate. Temporal analysis suggests that while implementation of surface (drinking) water management policies is associated with decreased disease burden, further strengthening of related policies is needed to address the remaining burden attributed to catchment and distribution realm-associated deficiencies and to groundwater viral and disinfection-only system outbreaks. PMID:27240387

  3. Ocular manifestations of feline viral diseases.

    PubMed

    Stiles, Jean

    2014-08-01

    Feline viral diseases are common and cats can be presented with a variety of clinical manifestations. Ocular disease associated with viral pathogens is not unusual, particularly with viruses causing upper respiratory tract disease in cats, such as feline herpesvirus type 1 and feline calicivirus. These agents mainly cause ocular surface disease. Other viruses, such as feline immunodeficiency virus and feline coronavirus, can cause uveitis, while feline leukemia virus can induce ocular lymphosarcoma. This review covers the most common viral pathogens of cats that cause ocular manifestations, the specific features of the ocular diseases caused by these viruses and therapeutic recommendations. PMID:24461645

  4. Safety of community drinking-water and outbreaks of waterborne enteric disease: Israel, 1976-97.

    PubMed Central

    Tulchinsky, T. H.; Burla, E.; Clayman, M.; Sadik, C.; Brown, A.; Goldberger, S.

    2000-01-01

    Waterborne disease remains a major public health problem in many countries. We report findings on nearly three decades of waterborne disease in Israel and the part these diseases play in the total national burden of enteric disease. During the 1970s and 1980s, Israel's community water supplies were frequently of poor quality according to the microbiological standards at that time, and the country experienced many outbreaks of waterborne enteric disease. New regulations raised water quality standards and made chlorination of community water supplies mandatory, as well as imposing more stringent guidelines on maintaining water sources and distribution systems for both surface water and groundwater. This was followed by improved compliance and water quality, and a marked decline in the number of outbreaks of waterborne disease; no outbreaks were detected between 1992 and 1997. The incidence of waterborne salmonellosis, shigellosis, and typhoid declined markedly as proportions of the total burden of these diseases, but peaked during the time in which there were frequent outbreaks of waterborne disease (1980-85). Long-term trends in the total incidence of reported infectious enteric diseases from all sources, including typhoid, shigellosis, and viral hepatitis (all types) declined, while the total incidence of salmonellosis increased. Mandatory chlorination has had an important impact on improving water quality, in reducing outbreaks of waterborne disease in Israel, and reducing the total burden of enteric disease in the country. PMID:11196499

  5. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and ‘pestilence’ associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations. PMID:26168924

  6. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and 'pestilence' associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations. PMID:26168924

  7. Hand, foot and mouth disease--outbreak in Romania?

    PubMed

    Chiriac, Anca; Foia, Liliana; Chiriac, Anca; Nanescu, Sonia; Filip, Florina; Solovan, C; Gorduza, E V

    2013-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a viral illness usually occurring during the summer months in children younger than 5 years of age. In the North-East area of Romania the incidence is usually low, each dermatologist reporting 1-2 cases or even less per year. The diagnosis is usually based on the characteristic clinical aspect: vesicles and papules on the hands and feet and superficial oral ulcers. HFMD is typically a benign and self-limiting disease that resolves in approximately 7 days; in Asia there have been few reported severe cases that developed neurological complications and even death, while in certain areas of China this disease is a more and more serious public health problem. In the summer of 2012 in North-East Romania numerous cases of disease have been reported, some with atypical clinical manifestations and most of them with mild or moderate forms of disease. The present article is a discussion on one of these cases. The diagnosis was made based on lesions location and clinical appearance. An outbreak of HFMD should be confirmed by virology tests. PMID:24505914

  8. Genomics-enabled sensor platform for rapid detection of viruses related to disease outbreak.

    SciTech Connect

    Brozik, Susan Marie; Manginell, Ronald Paul; Moorman, Matthew Wallace; Xiao, Xiaoyin; Edwards, Thayne L.; Anderson, John Moses; Pfeifer, Kent Bryant; Branch, Darren W.; Wheeler, David Roger; Polsky, Ronen; Lopez, DeAnna M.; Ebel, Gregory D.; Prasad, Abhishek N.; Brozik, James A.; Rudolph, Angela R.; Wong, Lillian P.

    2013-09-01

    Bioweapons and emerging infectious diseases pose growing threats to our national security. Both natural disease outbreak and outbreaks due to a bioterrorist attack are a challenge to detect, taking days after the outbreak to identify since most outbreaks are only recognized through reportable diseases by health departments and reports of unusual diseases by clinicians. In recent decades, arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) have emerged as some of the most significant threats to human health. They emerge, often unexpectedly, from cryptic transmission foci causing localized outbreaks that can rapidly spread to multiple continents due to increased human travel and trade. Currently, diagnosis of acute infections requires amplification of viral nucleic acids, which can be costly, highly specific, technically challenging and time consuming. No diagnostic devices suitable for use at the bedside or in an outbreak setting currently exist. The original goals of this project were to 1) develop two highly sensitive and specific diagnostic assays for detecting RNA from a wide range of arboviruses; one based on an electrochemical approach and the other a fluorescent based assay and 2) develop prototype microfluidic diagnostic platforms for preclinical and field testing that utilize the assays developed in goal 1. We generated and characterized suitable primers for West Nile Virus RNA detection. Both optical and electrochemical transduction technologies were developed for DNA-RNA hybridization detection and were implemented in microfluidic diagnostic sensing platforms that were developed in this project.

  9. How outbreaks of infectious disease are detected: a review of surveillance systems and outbreaks.

    PubMed Central

    Dato, Virginia; Wagner, Michael M.; Fapohunda, Abi

    2004-01-01

    To learn how outbreaks of infectious disease are detected and to describe the entities and information systems that together function to identify outbreaks in the U.S., the authors drew on multiple sources of information to create a description of existing surveillance systems and how they interact to detect outbreaks. The results of this analysis were summarized in a system diagram. The authors reviewed a sample of recent outbreaks to determine how they were detected, with reference to the system diagram. The de facto U.S. system for detection of outbreaks consists of five components: the clinical health care system, local/state health agencies, federal agencies, academic/professional organizations, and collaborating governmental organizations. Primary data collection occurs at the level of clinical health care systems and local health agencies. The review of a convenience sample of outbreaks showed that all five components of the system participated in aggregating, analyzing, and sharing data. The authors conclude that the current U.S. approach to detection of disease outbreaks is complex and involves many organizations interacting in a loosely coupled manner. State and local health departments and the health care system are major components in the detection of outbreaks. PMID:15313109

  10. Ebola virus disease outbreak: what's going on.

    PubMed

    Giraldi, G; Marsella, L T

    2015-01-01

    The current West African Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak was confirmed in March, 2014, and after months of slow, fragmented responses, the EVD has been recognized as a public health emergency of international concern. The early diagnosis of the disease is difficult without laboratory testing, because its symptoms can be seen in many other infections. In the wake of international agencies advices, the Italian Ministry of Health, on October 1, 2014, released to the Healthcare Professional Workers (HPWs) the Protocol about the management of cases and contacts within the national territory. Due to the increasing number of humanitarian groups and HPWs involved in the field, the probability to have new cases of contamination is higher than ever. Proven specific treatments against EVD are not yet available, however, a variety of compounds have been under testing. The most effective are select monoclonal antibodies that have a high neutralizing potential against epitopes of Ebola Virus. For facing the matter, it is important a comprehensive approach according to the recommendations proposed by the international agencies because no single institution or country has all the capacities to respond to a new and emerging infectious disease. PMID:25748509

  11. An Investigation of an Outbreak of Viral Hepatitis B in Modasa Town, Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Disha A; Gupta, Praveg A; Kinariwala, Deepa M; Shah, Hetal S; Trivedi, Grishma R; Vegad, Mahendra M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Most outbreaks of viral hepatitis in India are caused by hepatitis E. Recently in the year 2009, Modasa town of Sabarkantha district in Gujarat witnessed the outbreak of hepatitis B. Purpose: An attempt was made to study the outbreak clinically and serologically, to estimate the seropositivity of hepatitis B Virus among the cases and their contacts and to know the seroprevalence of hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg) and IgM antibody against hepatitis B core antigen (IgM HBcAb) out of all the Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg) positive ones. Materials and Methods: Eight hundred and fifty-six (856) cases and 1145 contacts were evaluated for hepatitis B markers namely HBsAg, HBeAg and IgM HBcAb by enzyme-linked immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) test. Results: This outbreak of viral hepatitis B in Modasa, Gujarat was most likely due to unsafe injection practices. Evidence in support of this was collected by Government authorities. Most of the patients and approximately 40% of the surveyed population gave history of injections in last 1.5–6 months. Total 664/856 (77.57%) cases and 20/1145 (1.75%) contacts were found to be positive for HBsAg. 53.41% of the positive cases and 52.93% of the positive contacts were HBeAg-positive and thus in a highly infectious stage. Conclusions: Inadequately sterilized needles and syringes are an important cause of transmission of hepatitis B in India. Our data reflects the high positivity rate of a hepatitis B outbreak due to such unethical practices. There is a need to strengthen the routine surveillance system, and to organise a health education campaign targeting all health care workers including private practitioners, especially those working in rural areas, as well as the public at large, to take all possible measures to prevent this often fatal infection. PMID:22529628

  12. WATERBORNE DISEASE OUTBREAKS, 1986-1988

    EPA Science Inventory

    From 1986 to 1988, 24 states and Puerto Rico reported 50 outbreaks of illness due to water that people intended to drink, affecting 25,846 persons. he protozoal parasite Giardia lamblia was the agent most commonly implicated in outbreaks, as it has been for the last 10 years; man...

  13. Resilient information networks for coordination of foodborne disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Liaquat; Hassan, Muhammad Rabiul; Wigand, Rolf T

    2015-04-01

    Foodborne disease outbreaks are increasingly being seen as a greater concern by public health authorities. It has also become a global research agenda to identify improved pathways to coordinating outbreak detection. Furthermore, a significant need exists for timely coordination of the detection of potential foodborne disease outbreaks to reduce the number of infected individuals and the overall impact on public health security. This study aimed to offer an effective approach for coordinating foodborne disease outbreaks. First, we identify current coordination processes, complexities, and challenges. We then explore social media surveillance strategies, usage, and the power of these strategies to influence decision-making. Finally, based on informal (social media) and formal (organizational) surveillance approaches, we propose a hybrid information network model for improving the coordination of outbreak detection. PMID:25882125

  14. Teachers' Risk Perception and Needs in Addressing Infectious Disease Outbreak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Emmy M. Y.; Cheng, May M. H.; Lo, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    The outbreak of the Influenza A (H1N1) virus has led to numerous precautionary school closures in several countries. No research is available on the school teachers' perceptions as a health protective resource in controlling communicable disease outbreaks. The purposes of this study were to examine the risk perception, the perceived understanding…

  15. An outbreak of VHSV (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus) infection in farmed Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus in Japan.

    PubMed

    Isshik, T; Nishizawa, T; Kobayashi, T; Nagano, T; Miyazaki, T

    2001-11-01

    A rhabdoviral disease occurred in farmed populations of market sized Japanese flounder (hirame) Paralichthys olivaceus in the Seto Inland Sea of Japan in 1996. The causative agent was identified as viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) based on morphological, immunological, and genetic analyses. Diseased fish that were artificially injected with a representative virus isolate showed the same pathological signs and high mortality as observed in the natural outbreak. This is the first report of an outbreak of VHSV infection in cultured fish in Japan. Clinical signs of diseased fish included dark body coloration, an expanded abdomen due to ascites, congested liver, splenomegaly, and a swollen kidney. Myocardial necrosis was most prominent and accompanied by inflammatory reactions. Necrotic lesions also occurred in the liver, spleen and hematopoietic tissue, and were accompanied by circulatory disturbances due to cardiac failure. Hemorrhagic lesions did not always appear in the lateral musculature. Transmission electron microscopy revealed many rhabdovirus particles and associated inclusion bodies containing nucleocapsids in the necrotized myocardium. The histopathological findings indicated that the necrotizing myocarditis could be considered a pathognomonic sign of VHSV infection in Japanese flounder. PMID:11775799

  16. [Immunosupression and viral infections in rheumatic diseases].

    PubMed

    Vince, Adriana; Dusek, Davorka

    2007-01-01

    Infections are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with rheumatic diseases. Although bacterial pathogens are the most common cause of infections, a wide variety of viral pathogens can also cause serious clinical manifestations mostly due to immunosupressive therapy primarily targeting cellular immunity (steroids, cyclosporins, cyclophosphamid, leflunomid, TNF-alfa antagonists etc.). Depleted cellular immunity can lead to reactivation of latent viruses such as members of Herpesvirus family, or hepatitis B and C viruses. Symptoms of viral infection may mimic exacerbation of rheumatic disease. In this paper authors present the main clinical characteristics, diagnostics and tretment possibilities for most common viral infections in immunosupressed host with a rheumatic disease. PMID:18351141

  17. Surveillance for foodborne disease outbreaks in Iran, 2006-2011

    PubMed Central

    Masoumi Asl, Hossein; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi; Soltan-dallal, Mohammad Mehdi; Aghili, Nooshin

    2015-01-01

    Background: The outbreaks of foodborne diseases is a major health problem and occur daily in all countries, from the most to the least developed. This study is the first report of foodborne outbreaks in Iran that carried out from 2006 to 2011. Methods: A retrospective, longitudinal study carried out using foodborne disease national surveillance system data from 2006-2011, which have been reported by all provincial health centers to the Center for Communicable Disease Control. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 18 software. Results: Since 2006 to 2011, a total of 2250 outbreaks were reported in Iran. Analyzed data showed that the outbreak rate has increased from 0.07/100000 in 2006 to 1.38/100000 population in 2011. Khuzestan, Kermanshah and Qazvin were three provinces that reported more outbreaks than nationally expected outbreak incidence rate during 2011. Analysis of epidemiological characteristics of foodborne outbreaks during 2011 indicated that the numbers of outbreaks were highest in warm months, e.g. 17.8% of total outbreaks was just reported in August. Females and age group of 16-30 years old were more affected and 55% of cases occurred in rural area. Among 684 human samples which have been tested, E. coli, Shigella, Hepatitis A and Vibrio cholera were predominant etiologic agents respectively. Conclusion: Increasing the detection rate of foodborne outbreaks imply the expansion of surveillance activities and improved primary health care in Iran in recent years. Foodborne disease surveillance system is a new program in Iran that should be continued and strengthened including diagnostic laboratory capacities. PMID:26913248

  18. Modeling Estimated Personnel Needs for a Potential Foot and Mouth Disease Outbreak

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, K; Hullinger, P

    2008-01-29

    Foot and Mouth disease (FMD) is a highly infectious and contagious viral disease affecting cloven-hoofed livestock that was last detected in the United States (US) in 1929. The prevalence of FMD in other countries, as well as the current potential for this virus to be used as a form of agroterrorism, has made preparations for a potential FMD outbreak a national priority. To assist in the evaluation of national preparedness, all 50 states were surveyed via e-mail, telephone and web search to obtain emergency response plans for FMD or for foreign animal diseases in general. Information from 33 states was obtained and analyzed for estimates of personnel resources needed to respond to an outbreak. These estimates were consolidated and enhanced to create a tool that could be used by individual states to better understand the personnel that would be needed to complete various tasks over time during an outbreak response. The estimates were then coupled, post-processing, to the output from FMD outbreaks simulated in California using the Multiscale Epidemiological/Economic Simulation and Analysis (MESA) model at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to estimate the personnel resource demands, by task, over the course of an outbreak response.

  19. What's unusual in online disease outbreak news?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Accurate and timely detection of public health events of international concern is necessary to help support risk assessment and response and save lives. Novel event-based methods that use the World Wide Web as a signal source offer potential to extend health surveillance into areas where traditional indicator networks are lacking. In this paper we address the issue of systematically evaluating online health news to support automatic alerting using daily disease-country counts text mined from real world data using BioCaster. For 18 data sets produced by BioCaster, we compare 5 aberration detection algorithms (EARS C2, C3, W2, F-statistic and EWMA) for performance against expert moderated ProMED-mail postings. Results We report sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), mean alerts/100 days and F1, at 95% confidence interval (CI) for 287 ProMED-mail postings on 18 outbreaks across 14 countries over a 366 day period. Results indicate that W2 had the best F1 with a slight benefit for day of week effect over C2. In drill down analysis we indicate issues arising from the granular choice of country-level modeling, sudden drops in reporting due to day of week effects and reporting bias. Automatic alerting has been implemented in BioCaster available from http://born.nii.ac.jp. Conclusions Online health news alerts have the potential to enhance manual analytical methods by increasing throughput, timeliness and detection rates. Systematic evaluation of health news aberrations is necessary to push forward our understanding of the complex relationship between news report volumes and case numbers and to select the best performing features and algorithms. PMID:20618980

  20. Global Distribution of Outbreaks of Water-Associated Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kun; LeJeune, Jeffrey; Alsdorf, Doug; Lu, Bo; Shum, C. K.; Liang, Song

    2012-01-01

    Background Water plays an important role in the transmission of many infectious diseases, which pose a great burden on global public health. However, the global distribution of these water-associated infectious diseases and underlying factors remain largely unexplored. Methods and Findings Based on the Global Infectious Disease and Epidemiology Network (GIDEON), a global database including water-associated pathogens and diseases was developed. In this study, reported outbreak events associated with corresponding water-associated infectious diseases from 1991 to 2008 were extracted from the database. The location of each reported outbreak event was identified and geocoded into a GIS database. Also collected in the GIS database included geo-referenced socio-environmental information including population density (2000), annual accumulated temperature, surface water area, and average annual precipitation. Poisson models with Bayesian inference were developed to explore the association between these socio-environmental factors and distribution of the reported outbreak events. Based on model predictions a global relative risk map was generated. A total of 1,428 reported outbreak events were retrieved from the database. The analysis suggested that outbreaks of water-associated diseases are significantly correlated with socio-environmental factors. Population density is a significant risk factor for all categories of reported outbreaks of water-associated diseases; water-related diseases (e.g., vector-borne diseases) are associated with accumulated temperature; water-washed diseases (e.g., conjunctivitis) are inversely related to surface water area; both water-borne and water-related diseases are inversely related to average annual rainfall. Based on the model predictions, “hotspots” of risks for all categories of water-associated diseases were explored. Conclusions At the global scale, water-associated infectious diseases are significantly correlated with socio

  1. Viral skin diseases of the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Anna L

    2013-09-01

    This article describes the viral skin diseases affecting the domestic rabbit, the most important being myxomatosis. Transmission and pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and control are described and the article will be of interest to veterinary practitioners who treat rabbits. Shope fibroma virus, Shope papilloma virus, and rabbitpox are also discussed. PMID:24018033

  2. Viral Diseases of the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Phillip A.; McGavern, Dorian B.

    2015-01-01

    Virus-induced diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) represent a significant burden to human health worldwide. The complexity of these diseases is influenced by the sheer number of different neurotropic viruses, the diverse routes of CNS entry, viral tropism, and the immune system. Using a combination of human pathological data and experimental animal models, we have begun to uncover many of the mechanisms that viruses use to enter the CNS and cause disease. This review highlights a selection of neurotropic viruses that infect the CNS and explores the means by which they induce neurological diseases such as meningitis, encephalitis, and myelitis. PMID:25681709

  3. Anxiety and Depression: Linkages with Viral Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven S.

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety and mood disorders are common in the general population in countries around the world. This article provides a review of the recent literature on anxiety and depressive disorders with a focus on linkages with several important viral diseases. Although the majority of studies have been conducted in developed countries such as the United States and Great Britain, some studies have been carried out in less developed nations where only a small percentage of persons with mental illness receive treatment for their condition. The studies summarized in this review indicate that there are important linkages between anxiety and depression and viral diseases such as influenza A (H1N1) and other influenza viruses, varicella-zoster virus, herpes simplex virus, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and hepatitis C. Additional studies are needed to further clarify the mechanisms for interactions between mental health and communicable diseases, in order to assist patients and further prevention and control efforts. PMID:25264396

  4. Viral Perturbations of Host Networks Reflect Disease Etiology

    PubMed Central

    Dricot, Amélie; Padi, Megha; Byrdsong, Danielle; Franchi, Rachel; Lee, Deok-Sun; Rozenblatt-Rosen, Orit; Mar, Jessica C.; Calderwood, Michael A.; Baldwin, Amy; Zhao, Bo; Santhanam, Balaji; Braun, Pascal; Simonis, Nicolas; Huh, Kyung-Won; Hellner, Karin; Grace, Miranda; Chen, Alyce; Rubio, Renee; Marto, Jarrod A.; Christakis, Nicholas A.; Kieff, Elliott; Roth, Frederick P.; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer; DeCaprio, James A.; Cusick, Michael E.; Quackenbush, John; Hill, David E.; Münger, Karl; Vidal, Marc; Barabási, Albert-László

    2012-01-01

    Many human diseases, arising from mutations of disease susceptibility genes (genetic diseases), are also associated with viral infections (virally implicated diseases), either in a directly causal manner or by indirect associations. Here we examine whether viral perturbations of host interactome may underlie such virally implicated disease relationships. Using as models two different human viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human papillomavirus (HPV), we find that host targets of viral proteins reside in network proximity to products of disease susceptibility genes. Expression changes in virally implicated disease tissues and comorbidity patterns cluster significantly in the network vicinity of viral targets. The topological proximity found between cellular targets of viral proteins and disease genes was exploited to uncover a novel pathway linking HPV to Fanconi anemia. PMID:22761553

  5. Viral perturbations of host networks reflect disease etiology.

    PubMed

    Gulbahce, Natali; Yan, Han; Dricot, Amélie; Padi, Megha; Byrdsong, Danielle; Franchi, Rachel; Lee, Deok-Sun; Rozenblatt-Rosen, Orit; Mar, Jessica C; Calderwood, Michael A; Baldwin, Amy; Zhao, Bo; Santhanam, Balaji; Braun, Pascal; Simonis, Nicolas; Huh, Kyung-Won; Hellner, Karin; Grace, Miranda; Chen, Alyce; Rubio, Renee; Marto, Jarrod A; Christakis, Nicholas A; Kieff, Elliott; Roth, Frederick P; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer; Decaprio, James A; Cusick, Michael E; Quackenbush, John; Hill, David E; Münger, Karl; Vidal, Marc; Barabási, Albert-László

    2012-01-01

    Many human diseases, arising from mutations of disease susceptibility genes (genetic diseases), are also associated with viral infections (virally implicated diseases), either in a directly causal manner or by indirect associations. Here we examine whether viral perturbations of host interactome may underlie such virally implicated disease relationships. Using as models two different human viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human papillomavirus (HPV), we find that host targets of viral proteins reside in network proximity to products of disease susceptibility genes. Expression changes in virally implicated disease tissues and comorbidity patterns cluster significantly in the network vicinity of viral targets. The topological proximity found between cellular targets of viral proteins and disease genes was exploited to uncover a novel pathway linking HPV to Fanconi anemia. PMID:22761553

  6. Modelling the propagation of social response during a disease outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Fast, Shannon M.; González, Marta C.; Wilson, James M.; Markuzon, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Epidemic trajectories and associated social responses vary widely between populations, with severe reactions sometimes observed. When confronted with fatal or novel pathogens, people exhibit a variety of behaviours from anxiety to hoarding of medical supplies, overwhelming medical infrastructure and rioting. We developed a coupled network approach to understanding and predicting social response. We couple the disease spread and panic spread processes and model them through local interactions between agents. The social contagion process depends on the prevalence of the disease, its perceived risk and a global media signal. We verify the model by analysing the spread of disease and social response during the 2009 H1N1 outbreak in Mexico City and 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome and 2009 H1N1 outbreaks in Hong Kong, accurately predicting population-level behaviour. This kind of empirically validated model is critical to exploring strategies for public health intervention, increasing our ability to anticipate the response to infectious disease outbreaks. PMID:25589575

  7. Modelling the propagation of social response during a disease outbreak.

    PubMed

    Fast, Shannon M; González, Marta C; Wilson, James M; Markuzon, Natasha

    2015-03-01

    Epidemic trajectories and associated social responses vary widely between populations, with severe reactions sometimes observed. When confronted with fatal or novel pathogens, people exhibit a variety of behaviours from anxiety to hoarding of medical supplies, overwhelming medical infrastructure and rioting. We developed a coupled network approach to understanding and predicting social response. We couple the disease spread and panic spread processes and model them through local interactions between agents. The social contagion process depends on the prevalence of the disease, its perceived risk and a global media signal. We verify the model by analysing the spread of disease and social response during the 2009 H1N1 outbreak in Mexico City and 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome and 2009 H1N1 outbreaks in Hong Kong, accurately predicting population-level behaviour. This kind of empirically validated model is critical to exploring strategies for public health intervention, increasing our ability to anticipate the response to infectious disease outbreaks. PMID:25589575

  8. A Bayesian spatio-temporal method for disease outbreak detection

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Gregory F

    2010-01-01

    A system that monitors a region for a disease outbreak is called a disease outbreak surveillance system. A spatial surveillance system searches for patterns of disease outbreak in spatial subregions of the monitored region. A temporal surveillance system looks for emerging patterns of outbreak disease by analyzing how patterns have changed during recent periods of time. If a non-spatial, non-temporal system could be converted to a spatio-temporal one, the performance of the system might be improved in terms of early detection, accuracy, and reliability. A Bayesian network framework is proposed for a class of space-time surveillance systems called BNST. The framework is applied to a non-spatial, non-temporal disease outbreak detection system called PC in order to create the spatio-temporal system called PCTS. Differences in the detection performance of PC and PCTS are examined. The results show that the spatio-temporal Bayesian approach performs well, relative to the non-spatial, non-temporal approach. PMID:20595315

  9. Sharing Data for Global Infectious Disease Surveillance and Outbreak Detection.

    PubMed

    Aarestrup, Frank M; Koopmans, Marion G

    2016-04-01

    Rapid global sharing and comparison of epidemiological and genomic data on infectious diseases would enable more rapid and efficient global outbreak control and tracking of diseases. Several barriers for global sharing exist but, in our opinion, the presumed magnitude of the problems appears larger than they are, and solutions can be found. PMID:26875619

  10. Detection and isolation of infectious laryngotracheitis virus on a broiler farm after a disease outbreak.

    PubMed

    Dormitorio, Teresa V; Giambrone, Joseph J; Macklin, Kenneth S

    2013-12-01

    A broiler farm in North Alabama suffered a mild infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) outbreak, as determined by clinical disease and PCR. The poultry integrator sought help to control further outbreaks in subsequent flocks. Samples were collected from various areas of the poultry houses on the farm over an 8-wk period. The first sampling was conducted 8 days after the infected farm was depopulated; the second was conducted 2 days prior to subsequent flock placement; and the third was conducted when the new flock was 5 wk of age. Samples were examined for ILT virus (ILTV) DNA by real-time PCR and virus isolation in embryos. The infected houses were cleaned, disinfected, heated, litter composted, and curtains replaced after the first sampling and prior to placement of the next flock. Samples from all periods were positive for ILTV DNA. However, the number of positive samples and crossing point values indicated a decrease in the amount of viral DNA, while virus isolation in embryos was successful only on the first sampling. The subsequent flock was vaccinated against ILTV by in ovo route using a commercial recombinant vaccine. Cleaning and sanitation after the disease outbreak reduced the amount of ILTV on the farm and together with in ovo vaccination of the new flock may have prevented a recurrence of another ILT outbreak. PMID:24597126

  11. Clinical Presentation Resembling Mucosal Disease Associated with 'HoBi'-like Pestivirus in a Field Outbreak.

    PubMed

    Weber, M N; Mósena, A C S; Simões, S V D; Almeida, L L; Pessoa, C R M; Budaszewski, R F; Silva, T R; Ridpath, J F; Riet-Correa, F; Driemeier, D; Canal, C W

    2016-02-01

    The genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae consists of four recognized species: Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 2 (BVDV-2), Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and Border disease virus (BDV). Recently, atypical pestiviruses ('HoBi'-like pestiviruses) were identified in batches of contaminated foetal calf serum and in naturally infected cattle with and without clinical symptoms. Here, we describe the first report of a mucosal disease-like clinical presentation (MD) associated with a 'HoBi'-like pestivirus occurring in a cattle herd. The outbreak was investigated using immunohistochemistry, antibody detection, viral isolation and RT-PCR. The sequence and phylogenetic analysis of 5'NCR, N(pro) and E2 regions of the RT-PCR positive samples showed that four different 'HoBi'-like strains were circulating in the herd. The main clinical signs and lesions were observed in the respiratory and digestive systems, but skin lesions and corneal opacity were also observed. MD characteristic lesions and a pestivirus with cytopathic biotype were detected in one calf. The present study is the first report of a MD like presentation associated with natural infection with 'HoBi'-like pestivirus. This report describes the clinical signs and provides a pathologic framework of an outbreak associated with at least two different 'HoBi'-like strains. Based on these observations, it appears that these atypical pestiviruses are most likely underdiagnosed in Brazilian cattle. PMID:24735072

  12. An outbreak of duck viral enteritis (duck plague) in domestic Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata domesticus) in Illinois.

    PubMed

    Campagnolo, E R; Banerjee, M; Panigrahy, B; Jones, R L

    2001-01-01

    Duck viral enteritis (DVE) was diagnosed in an outbreak of the disease in a resident population of Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata domesticus) on a privately owned multispecies game bird production facility in Illinois, where it claimed 625 ducks. This disease condition had not been reported previously in domestic ducks in Illinois. Although other varieties and age groups of domestic waterfowl (i.e., black ducks, rhumen ducks, Pekin ducks, ducklings, and geese) were present on the game bird farm, the morbidity and mortality (100%) in this epornitic was solely limited to adult ducks of the Muscovy lineage. The clinical signs in the affected ducks were lethargy, diarrhea, dehydration, and death within 2-3 hr of onset of symptoms. Gross pathologic changes were nonspecific and included ecchymotic hemorrhage, effusion of fluid and blood within body cavities reflective of an acute systemic infectious disease. Light microscopic findings were necrosis of primarily digestive lining epithelium and variable lymphohistiocytic infiltration within mucosal and serosal connective tissues. Intranuclear inclusions resembling characteristic herpetic (i.e., Cowdry type A) inclusions were observed primarily in the digestive, respiratory, and reproductive tracts; liver; and spleen. Esophageal candidiasis, bacteriosis, and systemic Pasteurella anatipestifer infections, thought to be concurrent or opportunistic infections, were present in several ducks. DVE virus was demonstrated in infected Muscovy duck embryo fibroblast cells by direct DVE virus-specific fluorescent antibody staining. PMID:11417839

  13. Potential for large outbreaks of Ebola virus disease.

    PubMed

    Camacho, A; Kucharski, A J; Funk, S; Breman, J; Piot, P; Edmunds, W J

    2014-12-01

    Outbreaks of Ebola virus can cause substantial morbidity and mortality in affected regions. The largest outbreak of Ebola to date is currently underway in West Africa, with 3944 cases reported as of 5th September 2014. To develop a better understanding of Ebola transmission dynamics, we revisited data from the first known Ebola outbreak, which occurred in 1976 in Zaire (now Democratic Republic of Congo). By fitting a mathematical model to time series stratified by disease onset, outcome and source of infection, we were able to estimate several epidemiological quantities that have previously proved challenging to measure, including the contribution of hospital and community infection to transmission. We found evidence that transmission decreased considerably before the closure of the hospital, suggesting that the decline of the outbreak was most likely the result of changes in host behaviour. Our analysis suggests that the person-to-person reproduction number was 1.34 (95% CI: 0.92-2.11) in the early part of the outbreak. Using stochastic simulations we demonstrate that the same epidemiological conditions that were present in 1976 could have generated a large outbreak purely by chance. At the same time, the relatively high person-to-person basic reproduction number suggests that Ebola would have been difficult to control through hospital-based infection control measures alone. PMID:25480136

  14. Dynamic risk model for Rift Valley fever outbreaks in Kenya based on climate and disease outbreak data.

    PubMed

    Gikungu, David; Wakhungu, Jacob; Siamba, Donald; Neyole, Edward; Muita, Richard; Bett, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonotic disease that occurs throughout sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt and the Arabian Peninsula, with heavy impact in affected countries. Outbreaks are episodic and related to climate variability, especially rainfall and flooding. Despite great strides towards better prediction of RVF epidemics, there is still no observed climate data-based warning system with sufficient lead time for appropriate response and mitigation. We present a dynamic risk model based on historical RVF outbreaks and observed meteorological data. The model uses 30-year data on rainfall, temperature, relative humidity, normalised difference vegetation index and sea surface temperature data as predictors. Our research on RVF focused on Garissa, Murang'a and Kwale counties in Kenya using a research design based on a correlational, experimental, and evaluational approach. The weather data were obtained from the Kenya Meteorological Department while the RVF data were acquired from International Livestock Research Institute, and the Department of Veterinary Services. Performance of the model was evaluated by using the first 70% of the data for calibration and the remaining 30% for validation. The assessed components of the model accurately predicted already observed RVF events. The Brier score for each of the models (ranging from 0.007 to 0.022) indicated high skill. The coefficient of determination (R2) was higher in Garissa (0.66) than in Murang'a (0.21) and Kwale (0.16). The discrepancy was attributed to data distribution differences and varying ecosystems. The model outputs should complement existing early warning systems to detect risk factors that predispose for RVF outbreaks. PMID:27245792

  15. Viral hepatitis: a sexually transmitted disease?

    PubMed

    Buzby, M

    1996-03-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are often discussed in the context of herpes, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and AIDS. Viral hepatitis, specifically hepatitis B, is also an STD often omitted from these discussions. The incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is variable throughout the world. In North America, the highest incidence occurs in patients who are between the ages of 15 and 25 years. Safe and effective vaccines are available to prevent HBV infection, which has an associated increased risk of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in the carrier state. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a newly identified hepatotrophic virus that may also be sexually transmitted. There are no vaccines for the prevention of HCV infection and the majority of those who are infected become chronic carriers with chronic liver disease. Discussions focused on the prevention of STDs must include counseling for the prevention of HBV and HCV. PMID:8788658

  16. Talking with Children: Tips for Caregivers, Parents, and Teachers during Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children: TIPS FOR CAREGIVERS, PARENTS, AND TEACHERS DURING INFECTIOUS DISEASE OUTBREAKS What You Should Know When children and youth watch news on TV about an infectious disease outbreak, read about it in the news, or ...

  17. Vulnerability of a killer whale social network to disease outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimarães, Paulo R., Jr.; de Menezes, Márcio Argollo; Baird, Robin W.; Lusseau, David; Guimarães, Paulo; Dos Reis, Sérgio F.

    2007-10-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are among the main threats to conservation of biological diversity. A crucial task facing epidemiologists is to predict the vulnerability of populations of endangered animals to disease outbreaks. In this context, the network structure of social interactions within animal populations may affect disease spreading. However, endangered animal populations are often small and to investigate the dynamics of small networks is a difficult task. Using network theory, we show that the social structure of an endangered population of mammal-eating killer whales is vulnerable to disease outbreaks. This feature was found to be a consequence of the combined effects of the topology and strength of social links among individuals. Our results uncover a serious challenge for conservation of the species and its ecosystem. In addition, this study shows that the network approach can be useful to study dynamical processes in very small networks.

  18. Media impact switching surface during an infectious disease outbreak.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yanni; Tang, Sanyi; Wu, Jianhong

    2015-01-01

    There are many challenges to quantifying and evaluating the media impact on the control of emerging infectious diseases. We modeled such media impacts using a piecewise smooth function depending on both the case number and its rate of change. The proposed model was then converted into a switching system, with the switching surface determined by a functional relationship between susceptible populations and different subgroups of infectives. By parameterizing the proposed model with the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza outbreak data in the Shaanxi province of China, we observed that media impact switched off almost as the epidemic peaked. Our analysis implies that media coverage significantly delayed the epidemic's peak and decreased the severity of the outbreak. Moreover, media impacts are not always effective in lowering the disease transmission during the entire outbreak, but switch on and off in a highly nonlinear fashion with the greatest effect during the early stage of the outbreak. The finding draws the attention to the important role of informing the public about 'the rate of change of case numbers' rather than 'the absolute number of cases' to alter behavioral changes, through a self-adaptive media impact switching on and off, for better control of disease transmission. PMID:25592757

  19. Media impact switching surface during an infectious disease outbreak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yanni; Tang, Sanyi; Wu, Jianhong

    2015-01-01

    There are many challenges to quantifying and evaluating the media impact on the control of emerging infectious diseases. We modeled such media impacts using a piecewise smooth function depending on both the case number and its rate of change. The proposed model was then converted into a switching system, with the switching surface determined by a functional relationship between susceptible populations and different subgroups of infectives. By parameterizing the proposed model with the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza outbreak data in the Shaanxi province of China, we observed that media impact switched off almost as the epidemic peaked. Our analysis implies that media coverage significantly delayed the epidemic's peak and decreased the severity of the outbreak. Moreover, media impacts are not always effective in lowering the disease transmission during the entire outbreak, but switch on and off in a highly nonlinear fashion with the greatest effect during the early stage of the outbreak. The finding draws the attention to the important role of informing the public about `the rate of change of case numbers' rather than `the absolute number of cases' to alter behavioral changes, through a self-adaptive media impact switching on and off, for better control of disease transmission.

  20. Update on viral diseases of the equine respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Gilkerson, James R; Bailey, Kirsten E; Diaz-Méndez, Andrés; Hartley, Carol A

    2015-04-01

    Many viral agents have been associated with respiratory disease of the horse. The most important viral causes of respiratory disease in horses are equine influenza and the equine alphaherpesviruses. Agents such as equine viral arteritis virus, African horse sickness virus, and Hendra virus establish systemic infections. Clinical signs of disease resulting from infection with these agents can manifest as respiratory disease, but the respiratory tract is not the major body system affected by these viruses. Treatment of viral respiratory disease is generally limited to supportive therapies, whereas targeted antimicrobial therapy is effective in cases of bacterial infection. PMID:25648568

  1. Emergence of viral diseases: mathematical modeling as a tool for infection control, policy and decision making.

    PubMed

    Louz, Derrick; Bergmans, Hans E; Loos, Birgit P; Hoeben, Rob C

    2010-08-01

    Mathematical modeling can be used for the development and implementation of infection control policy to combat outbreaks and epidemics of communicable viral diseases. Here an outline is provided of basic concepts and approaches used in mathematical modeling and parameterization of disease transmission. The use of mathematical models is illustrated, using the 2001 UK foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemic, the 2003 global severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic, and human influenza pandemics, as examples. This provides insights in the strengths, limitations, and weaknesses of the various models, and demonstrates their potential for supporting policy and decision making. PMID:20218764

  2. Host behavior alters spiny lobster-viral disease dynamics: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Thomas W; Butler, Mark J; Shields, Jeffrey D

    2014-08-01

    Social behavior confers numerous benefits to animals but also risks, among them an increase in the spread of pathogenic diseases. We examined the trade-off between risk of predation and disease transmission under different scenarios of host spatial structure and disease avoidance behavior using a spatially explicit, individual-based model of the host pathogen interaction between juvenile Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) and Panulirus argus Virus 1 (PaV1). Spiny lobsters are normally social but modify their behavior to avoid diseased conspecifics, a potentially effective means of reducing transmission but one rarely observed in the wild. We found that without lobster avoidance of diseased conspecifics, viral outbreaks grew in intensity and duration in simulations until the virus was maintained continuously at unrealistically high levels. However, when we invoked disease avoidance at empirically observed levels, the intensity and duration of outbreaks was reduced and the disease extirpated within five years. Increased lobster (host) spatial aggregation mimicking that which occurs when sponge shelters for lobsters are diminished by harmful algal blooms, did not significantly increase PaV1 transmission or persistence in lobster populations. On the contrary, behavioral aversion of diseased conspecifics effectively reduced viral prevalence, even when shelters were limited, which reduced shelter availability for all lobsters but increased predation, especially of infected lobsters. Therefore, avoidance of diseased conspecifics selects against transmission by contact, promotes alternative modes of transmission, and results in a more resilient host-pathogen system. PMID:25230484

  3. Detection of Peste des Petits Ruminants Viral RNA in Fecal Samples of Goats after an Outbreak in Punjab Province of Pakistan: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Wasee Ullah, Riasat; Bin Zahur, Aamer; Latif, Asma; Iqbal Dasti, Javid; Irshad, Hamid; Afzal, Muhammad; Rasheed, Tahir; Rashid Malik, Adnan; Qureshi, Zafar-Ul-Ahsan

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious viral disease of domestic and wild small ruminants and thus has serious socioeconomic implications. In Pakistan, during the year 2012-2013, estimated losses due to PPR were worth Rs. 31.51 billions. Close contact between infected and susceptible animals is an important route of transmission of PPR. Therefore, carrier animals play an important role in unnoticed transmission of PPR. The objective of the study was to investigate the detection of PPR virus in goats recovered from PPR. A suspected PPR outbreak was investigated and confirmed as PPR after analysing appropriate samples collected from infected animals using rRT-PCR. A longitudinal study was conducted over the period of 16 weeks to ascertain the detection of PPR virus (PPRV) in faecal samples of recovered goats. Ninety-six (96) faecal samples from each sampling were collected at 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks after the outbreak. Faecal samples were analysed using rRT-PCR. Of 96 from each sampling a total of 46, 37, 29, and 25 samples were positive for PPR viral genome at 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks, respectively, after recovery. Attempts were made for the isolation of PPR virus on Vero cells, but results were negative. These results indicated the detection of PPR viral RNA up to 16 weeks after infection. Therefore, these results may help in the future epidemiology of PPR virus shedding and possible role as source of silent infection for healthy animals especially when there is no history of any outbreak in nearby flock or area. PMID:27597951

  4. Detection of Peste des Petits Ruminants Viral RNA in Fecal Samples of Goats after an Outbreak in Punjab Province of Pakistan: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Bin Zahur, Aamer; Latif, Asma; Iqbal Dasti, Javid; Irshad, Hamid; Afzal, Muhammad; Rasheed, Tahir; Rashid Malik, Adnan; Qureshi, Zafar-ul-Ahsan

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious viral disease of domestic and wild small ruminants and thus has serious socioeconomic implications. In Pakistan, during the year 2012-2013, estimated losses due to PPR were worth Rs. 31.51 billions. Close contact between infected and susceptible animals is an important route of transmission of PPR. Therefore, carrier animals play an important role in unnoticed transmission of PPR. The objective of the study was to investigate the detection of PPR virus in goats recovered from PPR. A suspected PPR outbreak was investigated and confirmed as PPR after analysing appropriate samples collected from infected animals using rRT-PCR. A longitudinal study was conducted over the period of 16 weeks to ascertain the detection of PPR virus (PPRV) in faecal samples of recovered goats. Ninety-six (96) faecal samples from each sampling were collected at 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks after the outbreak. Faecal samples were analysed using rRT-PCR. Of 96 from each sampling a total of 46, 37, 29, and 25 samples were positive for PPR viral genome at 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks, respectively, after recovery. Attempts were made for the isolation of PPR virus on Vero cells, but results were negative. These results indicated the detection of PPR viral RNA up to 16 weeks after infection. Therefore, these results may help in the future epidemiology of PPR virus shedding and possible role as source of silent infection for healthy animals especially when there is no history of any outbreak in nearby flock or area. PMID:27597951

  5. Information extraction for enhanced access to disease outbreak reports.

    PubMed

    Grishman, Ralph; Huttunen, Silja; Yangarber, Roman

    2002-08-01

    Document search is generally based on individual terms in the document. However, for collections within limited domains it is possible to provide more powerful access tools. This paper describes a system designed for collections of reports of infectious disease outbreaks. The system, Proteus-BIO, automatically creates a table of outbreaks, with each table entry linked to the document describing that outbreak; this makes it possible to use database operations such as selection and sorting to find relevant documents. Proteus-BIO consists of a Web crawler which gathers relevant documents; an information extraction engine which converts the individual outbreak events to a tabular database; and a database browser which provides access to the events and, through them, to the documents. The information extraction engine uses sets of patterns and word classes to extract the information about each event. Preparing these patterns and word classes has been a time-consuming manual operation in the past, but automated discovery tools now make this task significantly easier. A small study comparing the effectiveness of the tabular index with conventional Web search tools demonstrated that users can find substantially more documents in a given time period with Proteus-BIO. PMID:12755518

  6. Analysis of Enterovirus 68 Strains from the 2014 North American Outbreak Reveals a New Clade, Indicating Viral Evolution.

    PubMed

    Du, Juan; Zheng, Baisong; Zheng, Wenwen; Li, Peng; Kang, Jian; Hou, Jingwei; Markham, Richard; Zhao, Ke; Yu, Xiao-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus 68 (EVD68) causes respiratory illness, mostly in children. Despite a reported low-level of transmission, the occurrence of several recent outbreaks worldwide including the 2014 outbreak in North America has raised concerns regarding the pathogenesis and evolution of EVD68. To elucidate the phylogenetic features of EVD68 and possible causes for the 2014 outbreak, 216 EVD68 strain sequences were retrieved from Genbank, including 22 from the 2014 outbreak. Several geographic and genotypic origins were established for these 22 strains, 19 of which were classified as Clade B. Of these 19 strains, 17 exhibited subsequent clustering and variation in protein residues involved in host-receptor interaction and/or viral antigenicity. Approximately 18 inter-clade variations were detected in VP1, which led to the identification of a new Clade D in EVD68 strains. The classification of this new clade was also verified by the re-construction of a Neighbor-Joining tree during the phylogenetic analysis. In addition, our results indicate that members of Clade B containing highly specific alterations in VP1 protein residues were the foremost contributors to the 2014 outbreak in the US. Altered host-receptor interaction and/or host immune recognition may explain the evolution of EVD68 as well as the global emergence and ongoing adaptation of this virus. PMID:26630383

  7. Analysis of Enterovirus 68 Strains from the 2014 North American Outbreak Reveals a New Clade, Indicating Viral Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Du, Juan; Zheng, Baisong; Zheng, Wenwen; Li, Peng; Kang, Jian; Hou, Jingwei; Markham, Richard; Zhao, Ke; Yu, Xiao-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus 68 (EVD68) causes respiratory illness, mostly in children. Despite a reported low-level of transmission, the occurrence of several recent outbreaks worldwide including the 2014 outbreak in North America has raised concerns regarding the pathogenesis and evolution of EVD68. To elucidate the phylogenetic features of EVD68 and possible causes for the 2014 outbreak, 216 EVD68 strain sequences were retrieved from Genbank, including 22 from the 2014 outbreak. Several geographic and genotypic origins were established for these 22 strains, 19 of which were classified as Clade B. Of these 19 strains, 17 exhibited subsequent clustering and variation in protein residues involved in host-receptor interaction and/or viral antigenicity. Approximately 18 inter-clade variations were detected in VP1, which led to the identification of a new Clade D in EVD68 strains. The classification of this new clade was also verified by the re-construction of a Neighbor-Joining tree during the phylogenetic analysis. In addition, our results indicate that members of Clade B containing highly specific alterations in VP1 protein residues were the foremost contributors to the 2014 outbreak in the US. Altered host-receptor interaction and/or host immune recognition may explain the evolution of EVD68 as well as the global emergence and ongoing adaptation of this virus. PMID:26630383

  8. Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winton, James R.; Walker, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change.

  9. APPROACHES TO ESTIMATING THE WATERBORNE DISEASE OUTBREAK BURDEN IN THE U.S.: USES AND LIMITATIONS OF THE WATERBORNE DISEASE OUTBREAK SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Approaches to Estimating the Waterborne Disease Outbreak Burden in the United States: Uses and Limitations of the Waterborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System (External Review Draft) document presents approaches for estimating the epidemiologic and economic burden o...

  10. Molecular Epidemiology of Human Oral Chagas Disease Outbreaks in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Juan David; Montilla, Marleny; Cucunubá, Zulma M.; Floréz, Astrid Carolina; Zambrano, Pilar; Guhl, Felipe

    2013-01-01

    Background Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, displays significant genetic variability revealed by six Discrete Typing Units (TcI-TcVI). In this pathology, oral transmission represents an emerging epidemiological scenario where different outbreaks associated to food/beverages consumption have been reported in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador and Venezuela. In Colombia, six human oral outbreaks have been reported corroborating the importance of this transmission route. Molecular epidemiology of oral outbreaks is barely known observing the incrimination of TcI, TcII, TcIV and TcV genotypes. Methodology and Principal Findings High-throughput molecular characterization was conducted performing MLMT (Multilocus Microsatellite Typing) and mtMLST (mitochondrial Multilocus Sequence Typing) strategies on 50 clones from ten isolates. Results allowed observing the occurrence of TcI, TcIV and mixed infection of distinct TcI genotypes. Thus, a majority of specific mitochondrial haplotypes and allelic multilocus genotypes associated to the sylvatic cycle of transmission were detected in the dataset with the foreseen presence of mitochondrial haplotypes and allelic multilocus genotypes associated to the domestic cycle of transmission. Conclusions These findings suggest the incrimination of sylvatic genotypes in the oral outbreaks occurred in Colombia. We observed patterns of super-infection and/or co-infection with a tailored association with the severe forms of myocarditis in the acute phase of the disease. The transmission dynamics of this infection route based on molecular epidemiology evidence was unraveled and the clinical and biological implications are discussed. PMID:23437405

  11. Two Different Epidemiological Scenarios of Border Disease in the Populations of Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra p. pyrenaica) after the First Disease Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Sirera, Laura; Cabezón, Oscar; Allepuz, Alberto; Rosell, Rosa; Riquelme, Cristina; Serrano, Emmanuel; Lavín, Santiago; Marco, Ignasi

    2012-01-01

    Since 2001 several outbreaks of a new disease associated with Border disease virus (BDV) infection have caused important declines in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) populations in the Pyrenees. The goal of this study was to analyze the post-outbreak BDV epidemiology in the first two areas affected by disease with the aim to establish if the infection has become endemic. We also investigated if BDV infected wild and domestic ruminants sharing habitat with chamois. Unexpectedly, we found different epidemiological scenarios in each population. Since the disease outbreaks, some chamois populations recuperated quickly, while others did not recover as expected. In chamois from the first areas, prevalence was high (73.47%) and constant throughout the whole study period and did not differ between chamois born before and after the BDV outbreak; in all, BDV was detected by RT-PCR in six chamois. In the other areas, prevalence was lower (52.79%) and decreased during the study period; as well, prevalence was significantly lower in chamois born after the disease outbreak. No BDV were detected in this population. A comparative virus neutralisation test performed with four BDV strains and one Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) strain showed that all the chamois had BDV-specific antibodies. Pestivirus antibodies were detected in all the rest of analyzed species, with low prevalence values in wild ruminants and moderate values in domestic ruminants. No viruses were detected in these species. These results confirm the hypothesis that outbreaks of BDV infection only affect the Pyrenean chamois, although other wild ruminants can occasionally be infected. In conclusion, two different scenarios have appeared since the first border disease outbreaks in Pyrenean chamois: on the one hand frequent BDV circulation with possible negative impact on population dynamics in some areas and on the other, lack of virus circulation and quick recovery of the chamois population. PMID:23251417

  12. Respiratory disease in mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in Rwanda, 1990-2010: outbreaks, clinical course, and medical management.

    PubMed

    Spelman, Lucy H; Gilardi, Kirsten V K; Lukasik-Braum, Magdalena; Kinani, Jean-Felix; Nyirakaragire, Elisabeth; Lowenstine, Linda J; Cranfield, Michael R

    2013-12-01

    Between 1990 and 2010, 18 outbreaks of respiratory disease occurred in Rwanda's wild human-habituated mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei). An outbreak was defined as clinically observable respiratory illness involving at least one third of all the gorillas in a family group (> 30% morbidity) over the course of at least 7 days. Outbreaks lasted 2 wk to 4 mo and affected up to five different gorilla family groups, either concurrently or sequentially. An outbreak was considered over if no further clinical illness was observed in the same or another group for at least 1 mo. Clinical signs varied from nasal discharge, sneezing, and mild intermittent coughing (mild), to spasmodic coughing, lethargy, and partial anorexia (moderate), to dyspnea, tachypnea, respiratory distress, weakness, complete anorexia, and occasionally death (severe). Nearly every mountain gorilla group habituated for tourism or research in Rwanda experienced at least one outbreak, and they may be increasing in frequency. In the first 15 yr of the review period 1990-2005, there were nine outbreaks involving 16 gorilla groups; in the last 5 yr of the review period, 2006-2010, there were nine outbreaks involving 11 groups. Although most gorillas recovered without treatment, 41 veterinary procedures were required to medically manage 35 severely ill individuals. Given the rise of mountain gorilla ecotourism in Rwanda, the possibility that respiratory disease results from contact with infected humans is of great concern, and both the etiology and epidemiology of this problem are active areas of research. The observed clinical signs, response to antimicrobial therapy among the sickest individuals, and postmortem findings are most consistent with viral upper respiratory tract infections complicated in some cases by secondary bacterial infections. The current gorilla visitation rules have been designed to minimize the risk of disease transmission between humans and wild human-habituated great apes

  13. Relating phylogenetic trees to transmission trees of infectious disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Ypma, Rolf J F; van Ballegooijen, W Marijn; Wallinga, Jacco

    2013-11-01

    Transmission events are the fundamental building blocks of the dynamics of any infectious disease. Much about the epidemiology of a disease can be learned when these individual transmission events are known or can be estimated. Such estimations are difficult and generally feasible only when detailed epidemiological data are available. The genealogy estimated from genetic sequences of sampled pathogens is another rich source of information on transmission history. Optimal inference of transmission events calls for the combination of genetic data and epidemiological data into one joint analysis. A key difficulty is that the transmission tree, which describes the transmission events between infected hosts, differs from the phylogenetic tree, which describes the ancestral relationships between pathogens sampled from these hosts. The trees differ both in timing of the internal nodes and in topology. These differences become more pronounced when a higher fraction of infected hosts is sampled. We show how the phylogenetic tree of sampled pathogens is related to the transmission tree of an outbreak of an infectious disease, by the within-host dynamics of pathogens. We provide a statistical framework to infer key epidemiological and mutational parameters by simultaneously estimating the phylogenetic tree and the transmission tree. We test the approach using simulations and illustrate its use on an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease. The approach unifies existing methods in the emerging field of phylodynamics with transmission tree reconstruction methods that are used in infectious disease epidemiology. PMID:24037268

  14. Structuring an event ontology for disease outbreak detection

    PubMed Central

    Kawazoe, Ai; Chanlekha, Hutchatai; Shigematsu, Mika; Collier, Nigel

    2008-01-01

    Background This paper describes the design of an event ontology being developed for application in the machine understanding of infectious disease-related events reported in natural language text. This event ontology is designed to support timely detection of disease outbreaks and rapid judgment of their alerting status by 1) bridging a gap between layman's language used in disease outbreak reports and public health experts' deep knowledge, and 2) making multi-lingual information available. Construction and content This event ontology integrates a model of experts' knowledge for disease surveillance, and at the same time sets of linguistic expressions which denote disease-related events, and formal definitions of events. In this ontology, rather general event classes, which are suitable for application to language-oriented tasks such as recognition of event expressions, are placed on the upper-level, and more specific events of the experts' interest are in the lower level. Each class is related to other classes which represent participants of events, and linked with multi-lingual synonym sets and axioms. Conclusions We consider that the design of the event ontology and the methodology introduced in this paper are applicable to other domains which require integration of natural language information and machine support for experts to assess them. The first version of the ontology, with about 40 concepts, will be available in March 2008. PMID:18426553

  15. Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp.

    PubMed

    Walker, Peter J; Winton, James R

    2010-01-01

    The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change. PMID:20409453

  16. Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Peter J.; Winton, James R.

    2010-01-01

    The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change. PMID:20409453

  17. Global trends in emerging viral diseases of wildlife origin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Ip, Hon S.

    2015-01-01

    The following article provides examples of recently emerged viral diseases of wildlife origin. The examples have been selected to illustrate the drivers of emerging viral diseases, both novel pathogens and previously known diseases, the impacts of these diseases, as well as the role of wildlife both as “villains” or reservoirs as well as “victims” of these viral diseases. The article also discusses potential management strategies for emerging viral diseases in wildlife populations and future science directions in wildlife health to prevent, prepare, respond to, and recover from these disease events. Finally, the concept of One Health and its potential role in developing solutions to these issues of mutual concern is discussed.

  18. Ebola virus disease outbreak - Nigeria, July-September 2014.

    PubMed

    Shuaib, Faisal; Gunnala, Rajni; Musa, Emmanuel O; Mahoney, Frank J; Oguntimehin, Olukayode; Nguku, Patrick M; Nyanti, Sara Beysolow; Knight, Nancy; Gwarzo, Nasir Sani; Idigbe, Oni; Nasidi, Abdulsalam; Vertefeuille, John F

    2014-10-01

    On July 20, 2014, an acutely ill traveler from Liberia arrived at the international airport in Lagos, Nigeria, and was confirmed to have Ebola virus disease (Ebola) after being admitted to a private hospital. This index patient potentially exposed 72 persons at the airport and the hospital. The Federal Ministry of Health, with guidance from the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC), declared an Ebola emergency. Lagos, (pop. 21 million) is a regional hub for economic, industrial, and travel activities and a setting where communicable diseases can be easily spread and transmission sustained. Therefore, implementing a rapid response using all available public health assets was the highest priority. On July 23, the Federal Ministry of Health, with the Lagos State government and international partners, activated an Ebola Incident Management Center as a precursor to the current Emergency Operations Center (EOC) to rapidly respond to this outbreak. The index patient died on July 25; as of September 24, there were 19 laboratory-confirmed Ebola cases and one probable case in two states, with 894 contacts identified and followed during the response. Eleven patients with laboratory-confirmed Ebola had been discharged, an additional patient was diagnosed at convalescent stage, and eight patients had died (seven with confirmed Ebola; one probable). The isolation wards were empty, and 891 (all but three) contacts had exited follow-up, with the remainder due to exit on October 2. No new cases had occurred since August 31, suggesting that the Ebola outbreak in Nigeria might be contained. The EOC, established quickly and using an Incident Management System (IMS) to coordinate the response and consolidate decision making, is largely credited with helping contain the Nigeria outbreak early. National public health emergency preparedness agencies in the region, including those involved in Ebola responses, should consider including the development of an EOC to improve the ability to

  19. Multiple Circulating Infections Can Mimic the Early Stages of Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers and Possible Human Exposure to Filoviruses in Sierra Leone Prior to the 2014 Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Boisen, Matthew L.; Schieffelin, John S.; Goba, Augustine; Oottamasathien, Darin; Jones, Abigail B.; Shaffer, Jeffrey G.; Hastie, Kathryn M.; Hartnett, Jessica N.; Momoh, Mambu; Fullah, Mohammed; Gabiki, Michael; Safa, Sidiki; Zandonatti, Michelle; Fusco, Marnie; Bornholdt, Zach; Abelson, Dafna; Gire, Stephen K.; Andersen, Kristian G.; Tariyal, Ridhi; Stremlau, Mathew; Cross, Robert W.; Geisbert, Joan B.; Pitts, Kelly R.; Geisbert, Thomas W.; Kulakoski, Peter; Wilson, Russell B.; Henderson, Lee; Sabeti, Pardis C.; Grant, Donald S.; Garry, Robert F.; Saphire, Erica O.; Khan, Sheik Humarr

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Lassa fever (LF) is a severe viral hemorrhagic fever caused by Lassa virus (LASV). The LF program at the Kenema Government Hospital (KGH) in Eastern Sierra Leone currently provides diagnostic services and clinical care for more than 500 suspected LF cases per year. Nearly two-thirds of suspected LF patients presenting to the LF Ward test negative for either LASV antigen or anti-LASV immunoglobulin M (IgM), and therefore are considered to have a non-Lassa febrile illness (NLFI). The NLFI patients in this study were generally severely ill, which accounts for their high case fatality rate of 36%. The current studies were aimed at determining possible causes of severe febrile illnesses in non-LF cases presenting to the KGH, including possible involvement of filoviruses. A seroprevalence survey employing commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests revealed significant IgM and IgG reactivity against dengue virus, chikungunya virus, West Nile virus (WNV), Leptospira, and typhus. A polymerase chain reaction–based survey using sera from subjects with acute LF, evidence of prior LASV exposure, or NLFI revealed widespread infection with Plasmodium falciparum malaria in febrile patients. WNV RNA was detected in a subset of patients, and a 419 nt amplicon specific to filoviral L segment RNA was detected at low levels in a single patient. However, 22% of the patients presenting at the KGH between 2011 and 2014 who were included in this survey registered anti-Ebola virus (EBOV) IgG or IgM, suggesting prior exposure to this agent. The 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is already the deadliest and most widely dispersed outbreak of its kind on record. Serological evidence reported here for possible human exposure to filoviruses in Sierra Leone prior to the current EVD outbreak supports genetic analysis that EBOV may have been present in West Africa for some time prior to the 2014 outbreak. PMID:25531344

  20. Multiple circulating infections can mimic the early stages of viral hemorrhagic fevers and possible human exposure to filoviruses in Sierra Leone prior to the 2014 outbreak.

    PubMed

    Boisen, Matthew L; Schieffelin, John S; Goba, Augustine; Oottamasathien, Darin; Jones, Abigail B; Shaffer, Jeffrey G; Hastie, Kathryn M; Hartnett, Jessica N; Momoh, Mambu; Fullah, Mohammed; Gabiki, Michael; Safa, Sidiki; Zandonatti, Michelle; Fusco, Marnie; Bornholdt, Zach; Abelson, Dafna; Gire, Stephen K; Andersen, Kristian G; Tariyal, Ridhi; Stremlau, Mathew; Cross, Robert W; Geisbert, Joan B; Pitts, Kelly R; Geisbert, Thomas W; Kulakoski, Peter; Wilson, Russell B; Henderson, Lee; Sabeti, Pardis C; Grant, Donald S; Garry, Robert F; Saphire, Erica O; Branco, Luis M; Khan, Sheik Humarr

    2015-02-01

    Lassa fever (LF) is a severe viral hemorrhagic fever caused by Lassa virus (LASV). The LF program at the Kenema Government Hospital (KGH) in Eastern Sierra Leone currently provides diagnostic services and clinical care for more than 500 suspected LF cases per year. Nearly two-thirds of suspected LF patients presenting to the LF Ward test negative for either LASV antigen or anti-LASV immunoglobulin M (IgM), and therefore are considered to have a non-Lassa febrile illness (NLFI). The NLFI patients in this study were generally severely ill, which accounts for their high case fatality rate of 36%. The current studies were aimed at determining possible causes of severe febrile illnesses in non-LF cases presenting to the KGH, including possible involvement of filoviruses. A seroprevalence survey employing commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests revealed significant IgM and IgG reactivity against dengue virus, chikungunya virus, West Nile virus (WNV), Leptospira, and typhus. A polymerase chain reaction-based survey using sera from subjects with acute LF, evidence of prior LASV exposure, or NLFI revealed widespread infection with Plasmodium falciparum malaria in febrile patients. WNV RNA was detected in a subset of patients, and a 419 nt amplicon specific to filoviral L segment RNA was detected at low levels in a single patient. However, 22% of the patients presenting at the KGH between 2011 and 2014 who were included in this survey registered anti-Ebola virus (EBOV) IgG or IgM, suggesting prior exposure to this agent. The 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is already the deadliest and most widely dispersed outbreak of its kind on record. Serological evidence reported here for possible human exposure to filoviruses in Sierra Leone prior to the current EVD outbreak supports genetic analysis that EBOV may have been present in West Africa for some time prior to the 2014 outbreak. PMID:25531344

  1. Surveillance and Outbreak Response Management System (SORMAS) to support the control of the Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Fähnrich, C; Denecke, K; Adeoye, O O; Benzler, J; Claus, H; Kirchner, G; Mall, S; Richter, R; Schapranow, M P; Schwarz, N; Tom-Aba, D; Uflacker, M; Poggensee, G; Krause, G

    2015-01-01

    In the context of controlling the current outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD), the World Health Organization claimed that 'critical determinant of epidemic size appears to be the speed of implementation of rigorous control measures', i.e. immediate follow-up of contact persons during 21 days after exposure, isolation and treatment of cases, decontamination, and safe burials. We developed the Surveillance and Outbreak Response Management System (SORMAS) to improve efficiency and timeliness of these measures. We used the Design Thinking methodology to systematically analyse experiences from field workers and the Ebola Emergency Operations Centre (EOC) after successful control of the EVD outbreak in Nigeria. We developed a process model with seven personas representing the procedures of EVD outbreak control. The SORMAS system architecture combines latest In-Memory Database (IMDB) technology via SAP HANA (in-memory, relational database management system), enabling interactive data analyses, and established SAP cloud tools, such as SAP Afaria (a mobile device management software). The user interface consists of specific front-ends for smartphones and tablet devices, which are independent from physical configurations. SORMAS allows real-time, bidirectional information exchange between field workers and the EOC, ensures supervision of contact follow-up, automated status reports, and GPS tracking. SORMAS may become a platform for outbreak management and improved routine surveillance of any infectious disease. Furthermore, the SORMAS process model may serve as framework for EVD outbreak modeling. PMID:25846493

  2. Deadly Outbreak of Iron Storage Disease (ISD) in Italian Birds of the Family Turdidae

    PubMed Central

    PAVONE, Silvia; SALAMIDA, Sonia; PECORELLI, Ivan; ROSSI, Elisabetta; MANUALI, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A widespread deadly outbreak occurred in captive birds belonging to the family Turdidae in Italy. The present study was performed on 46 dead birds coming from 3 small decoy-bird breeders in central Italy. Only Turdus pilaris, Turdus iliacus, Turdus philomelos and Turdus merula were affected. No other species of bird held by these breeders died. A change of diet before the hunting season was reported from all breeders. Full necropsy of the animals and histological investigations of representative tissue samples were performed. Microscopical examination showed marked iron deposits in liver samples. Bacteriological investigations and molecular analysis to exclude bacterial and viral diseases were carried out. Contamination of food pellet samples by mycotoxins and analysis to detect heavy metal contaminants in food pellet samples were considered. An interesting result was the high iron content found in food pellets. It was higher than that considered suitable for birds, especially for species susceptible to development iron storage disease (ISD). Taken together, the results suggested an outbreak of ISD caused by the high iron content of food given to the birds before the hunting season. The high mortality recorded only in species belonging to the family Turdidae suggests a genetic predisposition in the affected birds. PMID:24920545

  3. Overcoming barriers in evaluating outbreaks of diarrheal disease in resource poor settings: assessment of recurrent outbreaks in Chobe District, Botswana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Diarrheal illness remains a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality, with the majority of deaths occurring in children <5 years of age. Lack of resources often prohibits the evaluation of outbreak characteristics and limits progress in managing this important disease syndrome, particularly in Africa. Relying only on existing medical staff and hospital resources, we assess the use of a questionnaire survey tool to identify baseline outbreak characteristics during recurrent diarrheal outbreaks in Chobe, Botswana. Methods Using historical surveillance data (2006–2009), the temporal pattern of recurrent diarrheal outbreaks was evaluated among patients <5 years of age presenting to health facilities in Chobe District. Using a questionnaire survey tool, medical staff from selected health facilities assessed patients (all ages) presenting with diarrheal disease during two diarrheal outbreaks (2011–2012). Cluster analysis and classification and regression trees (CART) were used to evaluate patient attributes by outbreak. Results We identified a bimodal, annual pattern of acute diarrhea in children <5 years of age across years (Wilcox test, W = 456.5, p = 0.052). Historical outbreak periods appeared to coincide with major hydrological phenomena (rainfall/flood recession). Across health facilities, a significant percent of patients in the prospective study were in the ≥5 age class (44%, n = 515 and 35%, n = 333 in the dry and wet season outbreaks, respectively). Cluster analysis of questionnaire data identified two main branches associated with patient age (<5 and ≥5 years of age). Patients did not cluster by outbreak or village. CART examination identified sex and hospitalization as being most predictive of patients <5 years and household diarrhea in patients ≥5 years. Water shortages and water quality deficiencies were identified in both outbreaks. Conclusions Diarrhea is a persistent, seasonally occurring disease in Chobe

  4. Epidemiology and detection as options for control of viral and parasitic foodborne disease.

    PubMed Central

    Jaykus, L. A.

    1997-01-01

    Human enteric viruses and protozoal parasites are important causes of emerging food and waterborne disease. Epidemiologic investigation and detection of the agents in clinical, food, and water specimens, which are traditionally used to establish the cause of disease outbreaks, are either cumbersome, expensive, and frequently unavailable or unattempted for the important food and waterborne enteric viruses and protozoa. However, the recent introduction of regulatory testing mandates, alternative testing strategies, and increased epidemiologic surveillance for food and waterborne disease should significantly improve the ability to detect and control these agents. We discuss new methods of investigating foodborne viral and parasitic disease and the future of these methods in recognizing, identifying, and controlling disease agents. PMID:9366607

  5. Surveillance for Waterborne Disease Outbreaks Associated with Drinking Water — United States 2011-2012

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances in water management and sanitation have reduced waterborne disease in the United States, although outbreaks continue to occur. Public health agencies in the U.S. states and territories* report information on waterborne disease outbreaks to the CDC Waterborne Disease and ...

  6. An Epidemiological Network Model for Disease Outbreak Detection

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Ben Y; Kohane, Isaac S; Mandl, Kenneth D

    2007-01-01

    Background Advanced disease-surveillance systems have been deployed worldwide to provide early detection of infectious disease outbreaks and bioterrorist attacks. New methods that improve the overall detection capabilities of these systems can have a broad practical impact. Furthermore, most current generation surveillance systems are vulnerable to dramatic and unpredictable shifts in the health-care data that they monitor. These shifts can occur during major public events, such as the Olympics, as a result of population surges and public closures. Shifts can also occur during epidemics and pandemics as a result of quarantines, the worried-well flooding emergency departments or, conversely, the public staying away from hospitals for fear of nosocomial infection. Most surveillance systems are not robust to such shifts in health-care utilization, either because they do not adjust baselines and alert-thresholds to new utilization levels, or because the utilization shifts themselves may trigger an alarm. As a result, public-health crises and major public events threaten to undermine health-surveillance systems at the very times they are needed most. Methods and Findings To address this challenge, we introduce a class of epidemiological network models that monitor the relationships among different health-care data streams instead of monitoring the data streams themselves. By extracting the extra information present in the relationships between the data streams, these models have the potential to improve the detection capabilities of a system. Furthermore, the models' relational nature has the potential to increase a system's robustness to unpredictable baseline shifts. We implemented these models and evaluated their effectiveness using historical emergency department data from five hospitals in a single metropolitan area, recorded over a period of 4.5 y by the Automated Epidemiological Geotemporal Integrated Surveillance real-time public health–surveillance system

  7. A past Haff disease outbreak associated with eating freshwater pomfret in South China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Haff disease is unexplained rhabdomyolysis caused by consumption of fishery products in the previous 24 h. It was first identified in Europe in 1924 but the condition is extremely rare in China. Here we describe a past outbreak of acute food borne muscle poisoning that occurred in Guangdong Province (South China) in 2009. Methods The first full outbreak of Haff disease reported in Jiangsu Province (East China) in 2010, indicated that the incidence of the disease may be increasing in China. We, therefore first retrospectively reviewed epidemiologic, trace-back, environmental studies, and laboratory analyses, including oral toxicity testing to ascertain risk and chemical analysis to identify toxin(s), from the 2009 Guangdong outbreak. Then we compared data from the 2009 outbreak with data from all other Haff disease outbreaks that were available. Results Clinical symptoms and laboratory findings indicated that the 2009 Guangdong outbreak disease was consistent with rhabdomyolysis. Epidemiologic, trace-back, environmental studies and laboratory analyses implied that the disease was caused by freshwater Pomfrets consumed prior to the onset of symptoms. We also identified common factors between the 2009 Guangdong outbreak and previous Haff disease outbreaks reported around the world, while as with other similar outbreaks, the exact etiological factor(s) of the disease remains unknown. Conclusions The 2009 Guangdong outbreak of ‘muscle poisoning’ was retrospectively identified as an outbreak of Haff disease. This comprised the highest number of cases reported in China thus far. Food borne diseases emerging in this unusual form and the irregular pattern of outbreaks present an ongoing public health risk, highlighting the need for improved surveillance and diagnostic methodology. PMID:23642345

  8. The contribution of molecular epidemiology to the understanding and control of viral diseases of salmonid aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Molecular epidemiology is a science which utilizes molecular biology to define the distribution of disease in a population (descriptive epidemiology) and relies heavily on integration of traditional (or analytical) epidemiological approaches to identify the etiological determinants of this distribution. The study of viral pathogens of aquaculture has provided many exciting opportunities to apply such tools. This review considers the extent to which molecular epidemiological studies have contributed to better understanding and control of disease in aquaculture, drawing on examples of viral diseases of salmonid fish of commercial significance including viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), salmonid alphavirus (SAV) and infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV). Significant outcomes of molecular epidemiological studies include: Improved taxonomic classification of viruses A better understanding of the natural distribution of viruses An improved understanding of the origins of viral pathogens in aquaculture An improved understanding of the risks of translocation of pathogens outwith their natural host range An increased ability to trace the source of new disease outbreaks Development of a basis for ensuring development of appropriate diagnostic tools An ability to classify isolates and thus target future research aimed at better understanding biological function While molecular epidemiological studies have no doubt already made a significant contribution in these areas, the advent of new technologies such as pyrosequencing heralds a quantum leap in the ability to generate descriptive molecular sequence data. The ability of molecular epidemiology to fulfil its potential to translate complex disease pathways into relevant fish health policy is thus unlikely to be limited by the generation of descriptive molecular markers. More likely, full realisation of the potential to better explain viral transmission pathways will be dependent on the ability to assimilate and

  9. Epidemic simulation of a foot and mouth disease outbreak in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Gale, S B; Miller, G Y; Eshelman, C E; Wells, S J

    2015-12-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a primary transboundary livestock disease of international concern. Outbreaks of the disease have recently occurred in several countries that were previously FMD-free. For countries with limited direct experience of this disease, modelling is a useful tool for the study of a potential outbreak. The objectives of this study were to determine specific FMD risk parameters for Minnesota and the United States (USA) and to use these parameters to create a baseline FMD outbreak model for Minnesota. Of specific interest was to assess whether the type of herd in which the outbreak began (a dairy herd or a large-scale swine herd) influenced the basic model outcomes of outbreak size and duration, and to examine the effects of depopulation and movement controls. The mean values for disease duration, outbreak duration and number of farms and animals infected were larger in the scenario with a dairy index herd. The results of these two outbreak models demonstrated the entire spectrum of FMD outbreak types; that is, from limited, focal outbreaks to widespread, uncontrolled outbreaks. The findings from this study provide details of a baseline model that emergency preparedness planners can use to evaluate response strategies for a potential incursion of FMD into the USA. These findings are also of value for all countries as veterinary authorities develop or adjust their FMD emergency response plans. PMID:27044160

  10. A review of outbreaks of foodborne disease associated with passenger ships: evidence for risk management.

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, Roisin M.; Cramer, Elaine H.; Mantha, Stacey; Nichols, Gordon; Bartram, Jamie K.; Farber, Jeffrey M.; Benembarek, Peter K.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Foodborne disease outbreaks on ships are of concern because of their potentially serious health consequences for passengers and crew and high costs to the industry. The authors conducted a review of outbreaks of foodborne diseases associated with passenger ships in the framework of a World Health Organization project on setting guidelines for ship sanitation. METHODS: The authors reviewed data on 50 outbreaks of foodborne disease associated with passenger ships. For each outbreak, data on pathogens/toxins, type of ship, factors contributing to outbreaks, mortality and morbidity, and food vehicles were collected. RESULTS: The findings of this review show that the majority of reported outbreaks were associated with cruise ships and that almost 10,000 people were affected. Salmonella spp were most frequently associated with outbreaks. Foodborne outbreaks due to enterotoxigenic E. coli spp, Shigella spp, noroviruses (formally called Norwalk-like viruses), Vibrio spp, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Cyclospora sp, and Trichinella sp also occurred on ships. Factors associated with the outbreaks reviewed include inadequate temperature control, infected food handlers, contaminated raw ingredients, cross-contamination, inadequate heat treatment, and onshore excursions. Seafood was the most common food vehicle implicated in outbreaks. CONCLUSIONS: Many ship-associated outbreaks could have been prevented if measures had been taken to ensure adequate temperature control, avoidance of cross-contamination, reliable food sources, adequate heat treatment, and exclusion of infected food handlers from work. PMID:15219800

  11. VIRAL GASTROENTERITIS AGENTS AND WATERBORNE DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The application of electron microscopic techniques in the study of human gastroenteritis led in the 1970's to the identification of new viral agents that had previously escaped detection by routine cell culture procedures. These agents have been the focus of study by researchers ...

  12. Modelling disease outbreaks in realistic urban social networks.

    PubMed

    Eubank, Stephen; Guclu, Hasan; Kumar, V S Anil; Marathe, Madhav V; Srinivasan, Aravind; Toroczkai, Zoltán; Wang, Nan

    2004-05-13

    Most mathematical models for the spread of disease use differential equations based on uniform mixing assumptions or ad hoc models for the contact process. Here we explore the use of dynamic bipartite graphs to model the physical contact patterns that result from movements of individuals between specific locations. The graphs are generated by large-scale individual-based urban traffic simulations built on actual census, land-use and population-mobility data. We find that the contact network among people is a strongly connected small-world-like graph with a well-defined scale for the degree distribution. However, the locations graph is scale-free, which allows highly efficient outbreak detection by placing sensors in the hubs of the locations network. Within this large-scale simulation framework, we then analyse the relative merits of several proposed mitigation strategies for smallpox spread. Our results suggest that outbreaks can be contained by a strategy of targeted vaccination combined with early detection without resorting to mass vaccination of a population. PMID:15141212

  13. Modelling disease outbreaks in realistic urban social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eubank, Stephen; Guclu, Hasan; Anil Kumar, V. S.; Marathe, Madhav V.; Srinivasan, Aravind; Toroczkai, Zoltán; Wang, Nan

    2004-05-01

    Most mathematical models for the spread of disease use differential equations based on uniform mixing assumptions or ad hoc models for the contact process. Here we explore the use of dynamic bipartite graphs to model the physical contact patterns that result from movements of individuals between specific locations. The graphs are generated by large-scale individual-based urban traffic simulations built on actual census, land-use and population-mobility data. We find that the contact network among people is a strongly connected small-world-like graph with a well-defined scale for the degree distribution. However, the locations graph is scale-free, which allows highly efficient outbreak detection by placing sensors in the hubs of the locations network. Within this large-scale simulation framework, we then analyse the relative merits of several proposed mitigation strategies for smallpox spread. Our results suggest that outbreaks can be contained by a strategy of targeted vaccination combined with early detection without resorting to mass vaccination of a population.

  14. Systemic Analysis of Foodborne Disease Outbreak in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Kyung; Kwak, No-Seong; Kim, Hyun Jung

    2016-02-01

    This study systemically analyzed data on the prevalence of foodborne pathogens and foodborne disease outbreaks to identify the priorities of foodborne infection risk management in Korea. Multiple correspondence analysis was applied to three variables: origin of food source, phase of food supply chain, and 12 pathogens using 358 cases from 76 original papers and official reports published in 1998-2012. In addition, correspondence analysis of two variables--place and pathogen--was conducted based on epidemiological data of 2357 foodborne outbreaks in 2002-2011 provided by the Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. The results of this study revealed three distinct areas of food monitoring: (1) livestock-derived raw food contaminated with Campylobacter spp., pathogenic Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes; (2) multi-ingredient and ready-to-eat food related to Staphylococcus aureus; and (3) water associated with norovirus. Our findings emphasize the need to track the sources and contamination pathways of foodborne pathogens for more effective risk management. PMID:26863429

  15. Outbreak of Legionnaires' disease associated with a supermarket mist machine.

    PubMed

    Barrabeig, I; Rovira, A; Garcia, M; Oliva, J M; Vilamala, A; Ferrer, M D; Sabrià, M; Domínguez, A

    2010-12-01

    An outbreak of Legionnaires' disease affected 12 customers of a supermarket in a town in Catalonia, Spain, between August and November 2006. An epidemiological and environmental investigation was undertaken. Preliminary investigation showed that all patients had visited the same supermarket in this town where a mist machine was found in the fish section. Water samples were collected from the machine and from the supermarket's water distribution system when high-risk samples were excluded. Environmental samples from the mist machine and clinical samples from two patients tested positive for L. pneumophila serogroup 1 and had the same molecular pattern. The PFGE pattern detected in the clinical and mist-machine isolates had never previously been identified in Catalonia prior to the outbreak and has not been identified since. Four days after turning off the machine, new cases ceased appearing. Molecular study supports the hypothesis that the mist machine from the fish section of the supermarket was the source of infection. We believe it is essential to include exposure to mist machines in any legionellosis epidemiological survey. PMID:20392306

  16. Epidemiology of Foodborne Disease Outbreaks Caused by Clostridium perfringens, United States, 1998–2010

    PubMed Central

    Grass, Julian E.; Gould, L. Hannah; Mahon, Barbara E.

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens is estimated to be the second most common bacterial cause of foodborne illness in the United States, causing one million illnesses each year. Local, state, and territorial health departments voluntarily report C. perfringens outbreaks to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention through the Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System. Our analysis included outbreaks confirmed by laboratory evidence during 1998–2010. A food item was implicated if C. perfringens was isolated from food or based on epidemiologic evidence. Implicated foods were classified into one of 17 standard food commodities when possible. From 1998 to 2010, 289 confirmed outbreaks of C. perfringens illness were reported with 15,208 illnesses, 83 hospitalizations, and eight deaths. The number of outbreaks reported each year ranged from 16 to 31 with no apparent trend over time. The annual number of outbreak-associated illnesses ranged from 359 to 2,173, and the median outbreak size was 24 illnesses. Outbreaks occurred year round, with the largest number in November and December. Restaurants (43%) were the most common setting of food preparation. Other settings included catering facility (19%), private home (16%), prison or jail (11%), and other (10%). Among the 144 (50%) outbreaks attributed to a single food commodity, beef was the most common commodity (66 outbreaks, 46%), followed by poultry (43 outbreaks, 30%), and pork (23 outbreaks, 16%). Meat and poultry outbreaks accounted for 92% of outbreaks with an identified single food commodity. Outbreaks caused by C. perfringens occur regularly, are often large, and can cause substantial morbidity yet are preventable if contamination of raw meat and poultry products is prevented at the farm or slaughterhouse or, after contamination, if these products are properly handled and prepared, particularly in restaurants and catering facilities. PMID:23379281

  17. Detecting Disease Outbreaks in Mass Gatherings Using Internet Data

    PubMed Central

    Yom-Tov, Elad; Cox, Ingemar J; McKendry, Rachel A

    2014-01-01

    Background Mass gatherings, such as music festivals and religious events, pose a health care challenge because of the risk of transmission of communicable diseases. This is exacerbated by the fact that participants disperse soon after the gathering, potentially spreading disease within their communities. The dispersion of participants also poses a challenge for traditional surveillance methods. The ubiquitous use of the Internet may enable the detection of disease outbreaks through analysis of data generated by users during events and shortly thereafter. Objective The intent of the study was to develop algorithms that can alert to possible outbreaks of communicable diseases from Internet data, specifically Twitter and search engine queries. Methods We extracted all Twitter postings and queries made to the Bing search engine by users who repeatedly mentioned one of nine major music festivals held in the United Kingdom and one religious event (the Hajj in Mecca) during 2012, for a period of 30 days and after each festival. We analyzed these data using three methods, two of which compared words associated with disease symptoms before and after the time of the festival, and one that compared the frequency of these words with those of other users in the United Kingdom in the days following the festivals. Results The data comprised, on average, 7.5 million tweets made by 12,163 users, and 32,143 queries made by 1756 users from each festival. Our methods indicated the statistically significant appearance of a disease symptom in two of the nine festivals. For example, cough was detected at higher than expected levels following the Wakestock festival. Statistically significant agreement (chi-square test, P<.01) between methods and across data sources was found where a statistically significant symptom was detected. Anecdotal evidence suggests that symptoms detected are indeed indicative of a disease that some users attributed to being at the festival. Conclusions Our work

  18. Whole-Genome Sequencing of Measles Virus Genotypes H1 and D8 During Outbreaks of Infection Following the 2010 Olympic Winter Games Reveals Viral Transmission Routes.

    PubMed

    Gardy, Jennifer L; Naus, Monika; Amlani, Ashraf; Chung, Walter; Kim, Hochan; Tan, Malcolm; Severini, Alberto; Krajden, Mel; Puddicombe, David; Sahni, Vanita; Hayden, Althea S; Gustafson, Reka; Henry, Bonnie; Tang, Patrick

    2015-11-15

    We used whole-genome sequencing to investigate a dual-genotype outbreak of measles occurring after the XXI Olympic Winter Games in Vancouver, Canada. By sequencing 27 complete genomes from H1 and D8 genotype measles viruses isolated from outbreak cases, we estimated the virus mutation rate, determined that person-to-person transmission is typically associated with 0 mutations between isolates, and established that a single introduction of H1 virus led to the expansion of the outbreak beyond Vancouver. This is the largest measles genomics project to date, revealing novel aspects of measles virus genetics and providing new insights into transmission of this reemerging viral pathogen. PMID:26153409

  19. Climate teleconnections and recent patterns of human and animal disease outbreaks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent clusters of outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases (Rift Valley fever and chikungunya) in Africa and parts of the Indian Ocean islands illustrate how interannual climate variability influences the changing risk patterns of disease outbreaks. Extremes in rainfall (drought and flood) during the p...

  20. Recent viroid disease outbreaks in greenhouse tomatoes in North and Central America and their management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse tomato productions in North America have suffered from several high profile viroid disease outbreaks in recent years. In this presentation, I will summarize and briefly describe each of these viroid disease outbreak and their relationship. What are viroids and their transmission through ...

  1. Redox Imbalance and Viral Infections in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    PubMed

    Limongi, Dolores; Baldelli, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are essential molecules for many physiological functions and act as second messengers in a large variety of tissues. An imbalance in the production and elimination of ROS is associated with human diseases including neurodegenerative disorders. In the last years the notion that neurodegenerative diseases are accompanied by chronic viral infections, which may result in an increase of neurodegenerative diseases progression, emerged. It is known in literature that enhanced viral infection risk, observed during neurodegeneration, is partly due to the increase of ROS accumulation in brain cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of viral infection, occurring during the progression of neurodegeneration, remain unclear. In this review, we discuss the recent knowledge regarding the role of influenza, herpes simplex virus type-1, and retroviruses infection in ROS/RNS-mediated Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). PMID:27110325

  2. Redox Imbalance and Viral Infections in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Limongi, Dolores

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are essential molecules for many physiological functions and act as second messengers in a large variety of tissues. An imbalance in the production and elimination of ROS is associated with human diseases including neurodegenerative disorders. In the last years the notion that neurodegenerative diseases are accompanied by chronic viral infections, which may result in an increase of neurodegenerative diseases progression, emerged. It is known in literature that enhanced viral infection risk, observed during neurodegeneration, is partly due to the increase of ROS accumulation in brain cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of viral infection, occurring during the progression of neurodegeneration, remain unclear. In this review, we discuss the recent knowledge regarding the role of influenza, herpes simplex virus type-1, and retroviruses infection in ROS/RNS-mediated Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). PMID:27110325

  3. Emerging viral diseases of livestock in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Bayry, Jagadeesh

    2013-12-01

    Emerging and reemerging viral diseases of livestock and human beings are in sharp rise in recent years. Importantly, many of these viruses, including influenza, Hendra, Nipah and corona are of zoonotic importance. Several viral diseases of livestock such as bluetongue, peste des petits ruminants, camel pox, equine infectious anaemia, chicken anaemia and sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever are crossing their traditional boundaries. Emergence of new serotypes and variant forms of viruses as in the case of blue tongue virus, avian infectious bronchitis virus, Newcastle disease virus adds additional level of complexity. The increased incidence of emerging and reemerging viral diseases could be attributed to several factors including deforestation and surge in direct contact of livestock and humans with wild animals and birds. This special issue of "Indian Journal of Virology" is focused on diverse aspects of above diseases: isolation and characterization of viruses, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, prevention measures and vaccine development. PMID:24426290

  4. An outbreak of mucosal disease in a dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Løken, T; Gamlem, H; Lysbakken, O

    1989-01-01

    An outbreak of mucosal disease (MD) was studied in a dairy herd, comprising 12 cows, 9 heifers and 18 calves. During a period of 1 month, six 5 to 8 month-old calves showed typical signs of MD. They all died or were killed in extremis after 2-8 days with progressively worsening clinical signs. Post mortem lesions were examined in one calf. Non-cytopathogenic MD virus was isolated from serum or tissues from 3 clinically affected calves and from 1 healthy heifer. All cows and heifers except for the viremic one possessed neutralizing antibodies against bovine pestivirus. According to the current MD-pathogenesis concept, the affected calves were probably infected transplacentally during the first half of foetal life with pestivirus from the persistently infected heifer in the herd. PMID:2629507

  5. Viral Surveillance during the 2006 Vesicular Stomatitis Outbreak in Natrona County, Wyoming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006, we collected 12203 biting flies from a vesicular stomatitis outbreak in Natrona County, Wyoming. Flies were identified to the species level and viruses were isolated and identified by RT-PCR. We detected vesicular stomatitis virus-New Jersey serotype in two pools of Simulium bivittatum, W...

  6. Norwalk-like viral gastroenteritis outbreak in U.S. Army trainees.

    PubMed Central

    Arness, M. K.; Feighner, B. H.; Canham, M. L.; Taylor, D. N.; Monroe, S. S.; Cieslak, T. J.; Hoedebecke, E. L.; Polyak, C. S.; Cuthie, J. C.; Fankhauser, R. L.; Humphrey, C. D.; Barker, T. L.; Jenkins, C. D.; Skillman, D. R.

    2000-01-01

    An outbreak of acute gastroenteritis hospitalized 99 (12%) of 835 U. S. Army trainees at Fort Bliss, El Paso, Texas, from August 27 to September 1, 1998. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction tests for Norwalk-like virus were positive for genogroup 2. Gastroenteritis was associated with one post dining facility and with soft drinks. PMID:10756159

  7. Epidemiological and viral genomic sequence analysis of the 2014 ebola outbreak reveals clustered transmission.

    PubMed

    Scarpino, Samuel V; Iamarino, Atila; Wells, Chad; Yamin, Dan; Ndeffo-Mbah, Martial; Wenzel, Natasha S; Fox, Spencer J; Nyenswah, Tolbert; Altice, Frederick L; Galvani, Alison P; Meyers, Lauren Ancel; Townsend, Jeffrey P

    2015-04-01

    Using Ebolavirus genomic and epidemiological data, we conducted the first joint analysis in which both data types were used to fit dynamic transmission models for an ongoing outbreak. Our results indicate that transmission is clustered, highlighting a potential bias in medical demand forecasts, and provide the first empirical estimate of underreporting. PMID:25516185

  8. Warmer temperatures increase disease transmission and outbreak intensity in a host-pathogen system.

    PubMed

    Elderd, Bret D; Reilly, James R

    2014-07-01

    While rising global temperatures are increasingly affecting both species and their biotic interactions, the debate about whether global warming will increase or decrease disease transmission between individuals remains far from resolved. This may stem from the lack of empirical data. Using a tractable and easily manipulated insect host-pathogen system, we conducted a series of field and laboratory experiments to examine how increased temperatures affect disease transmission using the crop-defoliating pest, the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and its species-specific baculovirus, which causes a fatal infection. To examine the effects of temperature on disease transmission in the field, we manipulated baculovirus density and temperature. As infection occurs when a host consumes leaf tissue on which the pathogen resides, baculovirus density was controlled by placing varying numbers of infected neonate larvae on experimental plants. Temperature was manipulated by using open-top chambers (OTCs). The laboratory experiments examined how increased temperatures affect fall armyworm feeding and development rates, which provide insight into how host feeding behaviour and physiology may affect transmission. Disease transmission and outbreak intensity, measured as the cumulative fraction infected during an epizootic, increased at higher temperatures. However, there was no appreciable change in the mean transmission rate of the disease, which is often the focus of empirical and theoretical research. Instead, the coefficient of variation (CV) associated with the transmission rate shrunk. As the CV decreased, heterogeneity in disease risk across individuals declined, which resulted in an increase in outbreak intensity. In the laboratory, increased temperatures increased feeding rates and decreased developmental times. As the host consumes the virus along with the leaf tissue on which it resides, increased feeding rate is likely to increase the probability of an individual

  9. Autoimmune disease: A role for new anti-viral therapies?

    PubMed

    Dreyfus, David H

    2011-12-01

    Many chronic human diseases may have an underlying autoimmune mechanism. In this review, the author presents a case of autoimmune CIU (chronic idiopathic urticaria) in stable remission after therapy with a retroviral integrase inhibitor, raltegravir (Isentress). Previous reports located using the search terms "autoimmunity" and "anti-viral" and related topics in the pubmed data-base are reviewed suggesting that novel anti-viral agents such as retroviral integrase inhibitors, gene silencing therapies and eventually vaccines may provide new options for anti-viral therapy of autoimmune diseases. Cited epidemiologic and experimental evidence suggests that increased replication of epigenomic viral pathogens such as Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) in chronic human autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus Erythematosus (SLE), and multiple sclerosis (MS) may activate endogenous human retroviruses (HERV) as a pathologic mechanism. Memory B cells are the reservoir of infection of EBV and also express endogenous retroviruses, thus depletion of memory b-lymphocytes by monoclonal antibodies (Rituximab) may have therapeutic anti-viral effects in addition to effects on B-lymphocyte presentation of both EBV and HERV superantigens. Other novel anti-viral therapies of chronic autoimmune diseases, such as retroviral integrase inhibitors, could be effective, although not without risk. PMID:21871974

  10. Case report: epithelial intracytoplasmic herpes viral inclusions associated with an outbreak of duck virus enteritis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, B.C.; Jessup, David A.; Docherty, Douglas E.; Lownestine, L.J.

    1992-01-01

    Several muscovy ducks from a free-roaming flock of 65 muscovy and mallard ducks died over a 3-week period. Three muscovy ducks were necropsied. Gross and microscopic changes were compatible with duck virus enteritis, and the virus was isolated. In addition to intranuclear viral inclusion bodies in several tissues, intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were present in esophageal and cloacal epithelium, By electron microscopy, the membrane-bound intracytoplasmic inclusions were found to contain enveloped herpesvirus, and nuclei contained herpes viral nucleocapsids.

  11. A Call to Action to Enhance Filovirus Disease Outbreak Preparedness and Response

    PubMed Central

    Roddy, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The frequency and magnitude of recognized and declared filovirus-disease outbreaks have increased in recent years, while pathogenic filoviruses are potentially ubiquitous throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Meanwhile, the efficiency and effectiveness of filovirus-disease outbreak preparedness and response efforts are currently limited by inherent challenges and persistent shortcomings. This paper delineates some of these challenges and shortcomings and provides a proposal for enhancing future filovirus-disease outbreak preparedness and response. The proposal serves as a call for prompt action by the organizations that comprise filovirus-disease outbreak response teams, namely, Ministries of Health of outbreak-prone countries, the World Health Organization, Médecins Sans Frontières, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention—Atlanta, and others. PMID:25271875

  12. Estimating Costs Associated with a Community Outbreak of Meningococcal Disease in a Colombian Caribbean City

    PubMed Central

    Pinzón-Redondo, Hernando; Coronell-Rodriguez, Wilfrido; Díaz-Martinez, Inés; Guzmán-Corena, Ángel; Constenla, Dagna

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Meningococcal disease is a serious and potentially life-threatening infection that is caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis), and it can cause meningitis, meningococcaemia outbreaks and epidemics. The disease is fatal in 9-12% of cases and with a death rate of up to 40% among patients with meningococcaemia. The objective of this study was to estimate the costs of a meningococcal outbreak that occurred in a Caribbean city of Colombia. We contacted experts involved in the outbreak and asked them specific questions about the diagnosis and treatment for meningococcal cases during the outbreak. Estimates of costs of the outbreak were also based on extensive review of medical records available during the outbreak. The costs associated with the outbreak were divided into the cost of the disease response phase and the cost of the disease surveillance phase. The costs associated with the outbreak control and surveillance were expressed in US$ (2011) as cost per 1,000 inhabitants. The average age of patients was 4.6 years (SD 3.5); 50% of the cases died; 50% of the cases were reported to have meningitis (3/6); 33% were diagnosed with meningococcaemia and myocarditis (2/6); 50% of the cases had bacteraemia (3/6); 66% of the cases had a culture specimen positive for Neisseria meningitidis; 5 of the 6 cases had RT-PCR positive for N. meningitidis. All N. meningitidis were serogroup B; 50 doses of ceftriaxone were administered as prophylaxis. Vaccine was not available at the time. The costs associated with control of the outbreak were estimated at US$ 0.8 per 1,000 inhabitants, disease surveillance at US$ 4.1 per 1,000 inhabitants, and healthcare costs at US$ 5.1 per 1,000 inhabitants. The costs associated with meningococcal outbreaks are substantial, and the outbreaks should be prevented. The mass chemoprophylaxis implemented helped control the outbreak. PMID:25395916

  13. [Emerging infectious diseases: the example of the Indian Ocean chikungunya outbreak (2005-2006)].

    PubMed

    Flahault, Antoine

    2007-01-01

    Factors known to trigger the emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases include globalisation, population growth, migration, international trade, urbanisation, forest destruction, climate change, loss of biodiversity, poverty, famine and war. Epidemics not only lead to disastrous loss of human life but may also have catastrophic economic, political and social consequences. Outbreaks may rapidly jeopardize industry, trade or tourism in countries that are unprepared. Dengue is currently spreading throughout the tropics, while another arbovirus, chikungunya, infected 30 to 75% of the population in some parts of the Indian Ocean region between 2005 and 2006. Chikungunya is now spreading through India, where more than a million people have so far been infected. This viral disease can cause lasting disability, and the first deaths were recently reported in La Réunion and Mayotte. All countries are at risk from emerging or re-emerging diseases, but the consequences are far worse in poor countries. Microbial pathogens and wild mammals, birds and arthropods do not respect man-made borders. There is still time to act against this threat of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, through prevention, anticipation, monitoring and research. PMID:17645111

  14. Surveillance for Waterborne Disease Outbreaks and Other Health Events Associated with Recreational Water -United States, 2007-2008

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Since 1978, CDC, EPA, and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have collaborated on the Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) to capture data on waterborne disease outbreaks associated with recreational water. WBDOSS is the prima...

  15. Surveillance for Waterborne Disease Outbreaks Associated with Drinking Water United States, 2007-2008

    EPA Science Inventory

    Problem/Condition: Since 1971, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have maintained a collaborative Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOS...

  16. 2013 dengue outbreaks in Singapore and Malaysia caused by different viral strains.

    PubMed

    Ng, Lee-Ching; Chem, Yu-Kie; Koo, Carmen; Mudin, Rose Nani Binti; Amin, Faridah Mohd; Lee, Kim-Sung; Kheong, Chong Chee

    2015-06-01

    Characterization of 14,079 circulating dengue viruses in a cross-border surveillance program, UNITEDengue, revealed that the 2013 outbreaks in Singapore and Malaysia were associated with replacement of predominant serotype. While the predominant virus in Singapore switched from DENV2 to DENV1, DENV2 became predominant in neighboring Malaysia. Dominance of DENV2 was most evident on the southern states where higher fatality rates were observed. PMID:25846296

  17. 2013 Dengue Outbreaks in Singapore and Malaysia Caused by Different Viral Strains

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Lee-Ching; Chem, Yu-kie; Koo, Carmen; Mudin, Rose Nani Binti; Amin, Faridah Mohd; Lee, Kim-Sung; Kheong, Chong Chee

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of 14,079 circulating dengue viruses in a cross-border surveillance program, UNITEDengue, revealed that the 2013 outbreaks in Singapore and Malaysia were associated with replacement of predominant serotype. While the predominant virus in Singapore switched from DENV2 to DENV1, DENV2 became predominant in neighboring Malaysia. Dominance of DENV2 was most evident on the southern states where higher fatality rates were observed. PMID:25846296

  18. Planning for smallpox outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Neil M.; Keeling, Matt J.; John Edmunds, W.; Gani, Raymond; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Anderson, Roy M.; Leach, Steve

    2003-10-01

    Mathematical models of viral transmission and control are important tools for assessing the threat posed by deliberate release of the smallpox virus and the best means of containing an outbreak. Models must balance biological realism against limitations of knowledge, and uncertainties need to be accurately communicated to policy-makers. Smallpox poses the particular challenge that key biological, social and spatial factors affecting disease spread in contemporary populations must be elucidated largely from historical studies undertaken before disease eradication in 1979. We review the use of models in smallpox planning within the broader epidemiological context set by recent outbreaks of both novel and re-emerging pathogens.

  19. An Outbreak of Late-Term Abortions, Premature Births, and Congenital Deformities Associated with a Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus 1 Subtype b that Induces Thrombocytopenia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) genotype 1 subtype b caused an outbreak of premature births, late term abortions, brachygnathism, growth retardation, brain deformities and rare other skeletal deformities in Holstein calves born to first calf heifers on one dairy. Experimental challenge of three,...

  20. Two outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease in Bolton Health District

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, E.; O'Mahony, M.; Watson, J. M.; Lynch, D.; Joseph, C.; Quigley, C.; Aston, R.; Constable, G. N.; Farrand, R. J.; Maxwell, S.; Hutchinson, D. N.; Craske, J.; Lee, J. V.

    1990-01-01

    In 1988, there were two outbreaks of legionellosis in Bolton Health District. Altogether 37 cases of Legionnaires' disease and 23 cases of non-pneumonic legionellosis were identified. Twenty-five patients with Legionnaires' disease were associated with an engineering plant, 4 with Bolton town centre, and 8 with both the plant and town centre. Twenty-two people with non-pneumonic legionellosis were linked with the engineering plant and one with the plant and the town centre. A case-control study carried out among 37 employees with legionellosis and 109 control subjects at the plant showed that infection was associated with one of the 15 cooling towers on the site. Legionella pneumophila indistinguishable by serological and genetic typing methods was isolated from this cooling tower and from sputum samples from two patients. In the town centre, no one tower was linked with infection and L. pneumophila was not cultured from any of the nine towers identified. Control measures were implemented and to date there have been no further cases of legionellosis associated with Bolton Health District. PMID:2323354

  1. [Zika Virus and Zika Viral Disease].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuo; Li, Dexin

    2016-01-01

    Since Zika virus (ZIKV) has firstly been isolated in 1947, Uganda, outbreaks of Zika fever have been reported in many areas such as in Africa, Southeast Asia and America. Imported cases in China also have been reported. Zika virus belongs to the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, and include Africa subtype and Asia subtype. It is a mosquito-borne virus primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Sexual transmission, Blood transmission and mother-to-fetus transmission were also reported. Zika virus can go though blood-brain barrier and infect central nervous system. Symptoms are generally mild and self-limited, but recent evidence suggests a possible association between maternal Zika virus infection and adverse fetal outcomes, such as congenital microcephaly, as well as a possible association with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Laboratorial Diagnosis includes nucleic acid detection, Serological test, and isolation of virus. Currently, no vaccine or medication exists to prevent or treat Zika virus infection. Preventive measures against Zika virus infection should be taken through prevention of mosquito bites and surveillance in epidemic area. PMID:27295893

  2. Emerging infectious diseases with cutaneous manifestations: Viral and bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Nawas, Zeena Y; Tong, Yun; Kollipara, Ramya; Peranteau, Andrew J; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Yan, Albert C; Lupi, Omar; Tyring, Stephen K

    2016-07-01

    Given increased international travel, immigration, and climate change, bacterial and viral infections that were once unrecognized or uncommon are being seen more frequently in the Western Hemisphere. A delay in diagnosis and treatment of these diseases can lead to significant patient morbidity and mortality. However, the diagnosis and management of these infections is fraught with a lack of consistency because there is a dearth of dermatology literature on the cutaneous manifestations of these infections. We review the epidemiology, cutaneous manifestations, diagnosis, and management of these emerging bacterial and viral diseases. PMID:27317512

  3. Pathogen filtration to control plant disease outbreak in greenhouse production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Sangho; Krasnow, Charles; Bhalsod, Gemini; Granke, Leah; Harlan, Blair; Hausbeck, Mary; Zhang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Previous research has been extensively focused on understanding the fate and transport of human microbial pathogens in soil and water environments. However, little is known about the transport of plant pathogens, although these pathogens are often found in irrigation waters and could cause severe crop damage and economical loss. Water mold pathogens including Phytophthora spp. and Pythium spp. are infective to a wide range of vegetable and floriculture crops, and they are primarily harbored in soils and disseminated through water flow. It is challenging to control these pathogens because they often quickly develop resistance to many fungicides. Therefore, this multi-scale study aimed to investigate physical removal of plant pathogens from water by filtration, thus reducing the pathogen exposure risks to crops. In column-scale experiments, we studied controlling factors on the transport and retention of Phytophthora capsici zoospores in saturated columns packed with iron oxide coated-sand and uncoated-sand under varying solution chemistry. Biflagellate zoospores were less retained than encysted zoospores, and lower solution pH and greater iron oxide content increased the retention of encysted zoospores. These results provided insights on environmental dispersal of Phytophthora zoospores in natural soils as well as on developing cost-effective engineered filtration systems for pathogen removal. Using small-scale greenhouse filtration systems, we further investigated the performance of varying filter media (i.e., granular sand, iron oxide coated ceramic porous media, and activated carbon) in mitigating disease outbreaks of Phytophthora and Pythium for greenhouse-grown squash and poinsettia, respectively, in comparison with fungicide treatment. For squash, filtration by iron oxide coated media was more effective in reducing the Phytophthora infection, comparing to sand filtration and fungicide application. For poinsettia, sand filtration performed better in controlling

  4. A method for detecting and characterizing outbreaks of infectious disease from clinical reports.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Gregory F; Villamarin, Ricardo; Rich Tsui, Fu-Chiang; Millett, Nicholas; Espino, Jeremy U; Wagner, Michael M

    2015-02-01

    Outbreaks of infectious disease can pose a significant threat to human health. Thus, detecting and characterizing outbreaks quickly and accurately remains an important problem. This paper describes a Bayesian framework that links clinical diagnosis of individuals in a population to epidemiological modeling of disease outbreaks in the population. Computer-based diagnosis of individuals who seek healthcare is used to guide the search for epidemiological models of population disease that explain the pattern of diagnoses well. We applied this framework to develop a system that detects influenza outbreaks from emergency department (ED) reports. The system diagnoses influenza in individuals probabilistically from evidence in ED reports that are extracted using natural language processing. These diagnoses guide the search for epidemiological models of influenza that explain the pattern of diagnoses well. Those epidemiological models with a high posterior probability determine the most likely outbreaks of specific diseases; the models are also used to characterize properties of an outbreak, such as its expected peak day and estimated size. We evaluated the method using both simulated data and data from a real influenza outbreak. The results provide support that the approach can detect and characterize outbreaks early and well enough to be valuable. We describe several extensions to the approach that appear promising. PMID:25181466

  5. Rapid quantitative detection of Aeromonas hydrophila strains associated with disease outbreaks in catfish aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the summer of 2009, a new strain of Aeromonas hydrophila was implicated in severe disease outbreaks in farm-raised catfish in Alabama, Arkansas and Mississippi. These outbreaks mostly afflicted large fish and resulted in considerable losses in short periods. Given the rapid onset and biosecurity ...

  6. Pathologic studies of fatal cases in outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease, Taiwan.

    PubMed Central

    Shieh, W. J.; Jung, S. M.; Hsueh, C.; Kuo, T. T.; Mounts, A.; Parashar, U.; Yang, C. F.; Guarner, J.; Ksiazek, T. G.; Dawson, J.; Goldsmith, C.; Chang, G. J.; Oberste, S. M.; Pallansch, M. A.; Anderson, L. J.; Zaki, S. R.

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, an outbreak of enterovirus 71-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease occurred in Taiwan. Pathologic studies of two fatal cases with similar clinical features revealed two different causative agents, emphasizing the need for postmortem examinations and modern pathologic techniques in an outbreak investigation. PMID:11266307

  7. Impact of the 2001 Foot-and-Mouth Disease Outbreak in Britain: Implications for Rural Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Alister; Christie, Michael; Midmore, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of the 2001 foot-and-mouth disease outbreak in terms of its implications for the discipline of rural studies. In particular, it focuses on the position of agriculture in rural economy and society, the standing of the government after its management of the outbreak, and the performance of the new devolved regional…

  8. Foodborne disease outbreaks of chemical etiology in the United States, 1970-1974.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J M; Horwitz, M A; Merson, M H; Barker, W H; Gangarosa, E J

    1977-03-01

    In the United States between 1970 and 1974 there was an increase each year both in the absolute number of foodborne diseases outbreaks of chemical etiology reported to the Center for Disease Control and in the proportion of these outbreaks in the total reported foodborne disease outbreaks. Nearly half (48.9%) of these foodborne disease outbreaks of chemical origin were caused by toxic fish or shellfish. Of the rest, 16.5% were caused by poisonous mushrooms, 10.9% by heavy metal poisoning, 7.2% by excessive use in food of monosodium glutamate (the etiologic agent of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome) and 16.5% by miscellaneous chemicals. Practices that contributed to the occurrence of these outbreaks included the inadvertent selection for consumption of toxic fish, shellfish, or mushrooms, storage of fish at improper temperatures, storage of acidic liquids in metal containers, and addition of excessive amounts of monosodium glutamate to foods. Commercially-processed foods were responsible for outbreaks of scombroid fish poisoning, shellfish poisoning, and heavy metal poisoning. Because outbreaks of chemical etiology due to contaminated commercial products do occur, prompt recognition and reporting of outbreaks to public health personnel are essential so that epidemiologic investigations can be conducted and effective control measures promptly initiated. PMID:557897

  9. Comparative utility of restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and gene sequencing to the molecular epidemiological investigation of a viral outbreak.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, T L; Weigel, R M; Hahn, E C; Scherba, G

    2001-06-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and partial-genome DNA sequencing are commonly used to infer genetic relationships among pathogens. This study compares the application of both techniques to the analysis of 16 pseudorabies virus isolates collected during a 1989 outbreak. Genetic distances derived from RFLP and DNA sequence data were not significantly correlated with geographic distances between farms from which isolates were collected. RFLP-based genetic distance was, however, strongly correlated with temporal distance between isolates (days separating time of isolation). Sequence-based genetic distance was significantly correlated with temporal distance only when synonymous changes (nucleotide changes not leading to amino acid changes) were considered separately. Conversely, non-synonymous changes were correlated with the host species of origin of the viral isolate. These results indicate that selectively-neutral genetic changes most accurately reflect historical relationships, but that non-neutral changes most accurately reflect the biological environment of the viral isolate (e.g. host immune system). PMID:11467798

  10. Response to Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan in 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tomoya; Fukushima, Kazuko; Abe, Keishi; Ujiie, Mugen; Umeki, Kazunori; Ootsuka, Kenkou; Matsumoto, Yasuharu; Nabae, Koji; Nakatani, Yukiko; Nakajima, Kensuke

    2015-01-01

    Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is categorized in the Category 1 Infectious Disease under the Act on Infectious Disease Control. Since the Act came into effect in 1999, no confirmed case of viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHF) has been reported, though some clinical samples have been tested for VHF in the National Institute of Infectious Diseases of Japan. Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has monitored the situation of the EVD outbreak in West Africa since the first report from Guinea in March 2014 and reinforced quarantine and public health preparedness in August. The whole-of-government response was activated at the end of October, establishing the Ministerial meeting on the Response to the EVD presided by the Prime Minister. The responses have raised the level of preparedness for such a rare import disease like VHF; however elicited many lessons. Even if the current VHF outbreak is over, the risk of the global infectious diseases outbreak will be unchanged. The maintenance and improvement of preparedness and response for infectious diseases emergency such as the Category 1 Infectious Disease outbreak by the improvement of manuals and continuous exercises are crucial for a future domestic response. In addition, human resource development is essential for contributing to global response efforts. PMID:26923964

  11. Emergency vaccination use in a modelled foot and mouth disease outbreak in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Miller, G; Gale, S B; Eshelman, C E; Wells, S J

    2015-12-01

    Epidemiological modelling is an important approach used by the Veterinary Services of the United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service to evaluate the potential effectiveness of different strategies for handling foot and mouth disease (FMD). Identifying the potential spread of FMD by modelling an outbreak, and then considering the impacts of FMD vaccination, is important in helping to inform decision-makers about the potential outcomes of vaccination programmes. The objective of this study was to evaluate emergency vaccination control strategies used in a simulated FMD outbreak in Minnesota. The North American Animal Disease Spread Model (NAADSM, Version 3.2.18) was used to simulate the outbreak. Large-scale (1,500 herds per day) emergency vaccination reduced the size of the modelled outbreak in both swine and dairy production types, but the effect was larger when the outbreak began in a dairy herd. Large-scale vaccination also overcame limitations caused by delays in vaccine delivery. Thus, even if vaccination did not begin until 21 days into the outbreak, large-scale vaccination still reduced the size and duration of the outbreak. The quantity of vaccine used was markedly larger when large-scale vaccination was used, compared with small-scale (50 herds per day) vaccine administration. In addition, the number of animals and herds vaccinated in an outbreak originating in a herd of swine was substantially lower than in an outbreak beginning in a herd of dairy cattle. PMID:27044148

  12. Bluetongue in small ruminants: An opinionated review, with a brief appraisal of the 2014 outbreak of the disease in Greece and the south-east Europe.

    PubMed

    Kyriakis, C S; Billinis, C; Papadopoulos, E; Vasileiou, N G C; Athanasiou, L V; Fthenakis, G C

    2015-12-14

    Bluetongue is an arthropod-borne viral disease of ruminants, especially of sheep, caused by Bluetongue virus, which belongs to the genus Orbivirus of the family Reoviridae and is classified into 26 antigenically distinct serotypes. Once thought to be restricted in Africa and parts of the Middle East, bluetongue has now become a concern in sheep-rearing countries around the world. In the past 10 years, severe outbreaks have occurred in Europe with important economic consequences; of these, the 2006-20008 outbreak in Europe was caused by a serotype 8 strain and the 2014 outbreak in Greece and the other countries of south-east Europe was caused by a serotype 4 strain, suggested to be a reassortant strain with genome segments from lineages of serotype 1, 2 and 4. Immunisation campaigns can be implemented for successful control and limiting of the disease. Nevertheless, in both of the above outbreaks, late application of vaccinations led to a wide spread of the disease, which subsequently resulted in significant losses in livestock in the affected regions. In view of that, standardisation of control measures in the future will be beneficial for efficiently limiting outbreaks of the disease. PMID:26304745

  13. How infectious disease outbreaks affect community-based primary care physicians

    PubMed Central

    Jaakkimainen, R. Liisa; Bondy, Susan J.; Parkovnick, Meredith; Barnsley, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To compare how the infectious disease outbreaks H1N1 and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) affected community-based GPs and FPs. Design A mailed survey sent after the H1N1 outbreak compared with the results of similar survey completed after the SARS outbreak. Setting Greater Toronto area in Ontario. Participants A total of 183 randomly selected GPs and FPs who provided office-based care. Main outcome measures The perceptions of GPs and FPs on how serious infectious disease outbreaks affected their clinical work and personal lives; their preparedness for a serious infectious disease outbreak; and the types of information they want to receive and the sources they wanted to receive information from during a serious infectious disease outbreak. The responses from this survey were compared with the responses of GPs and FPs in the greater Toronto area who completed a similar survey in 2003 after the SARS outbreak. Results After the H1N1 outbreak, GPs and FPs still had substantial concerns about the effects of serious infectious disease outbreaks on the health of their family members. Physicians made changes to various office practices in order to manage and deal with patients with serious infectious diseases. They expressed concerns about the effects of an infectious disease on the provision of health care services. Also, physicians wanted to quickly receive accurate information from the provincial government and their medical associations. Conclusion Serious community-based infectious diseases are a personal concern for GPs and FPs, and have considerable effects on their clinical practice. Further work examining the timely flow of relevant information through different health care sectors and government agencies still needs to be undertaken. PMID:25316747

  14. Estimating the Burden of Disease Associated with Outbreaks Reported to the U.S. Waterborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System: Identifying Limitations and Improvements (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report demonstrates how data from the Waterborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) can be used to estimate disease burden and presents results using 30 years of data. This systematic analysis does not attempt to provide an estimate of the actual incidence and b...

  15. A review of outbreaks of waterborne disease associated with ships: evidence for risk management.

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, Roisin M.; Bartram, Jamie K.; Cramer, Elaine H.; Mantha, Stacey; Nichols, Gordon; Suraj, Rohini; Todd, Ewen C. D.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The organization of water supply to and on ships differs considerably from that of water supply on land. Risks of contamination can arise from source water at the port or during loading, storage, or distribution on the ship. The purpose of this article is to review documented outbreaks of waterborne diseases associated with passenger, cargo, fishing, and naval ships to identify contributing factors so that similar outbreaks can be prevented in the future. METHODS: The authors reviewed 21 reported outbreaks of waterborne diseases associated with ships. For each outbreak, data on pathogens/toxins, type of ship, factors contributing to outbreaks, mortality and morbidity, and remedial action are presented. RESULTS: The findings of this review show that the majority of reported outbreaks were associated with passenger ships and that more than 6,400 people were affected. Waterborne outbreaks due to Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, noroviruses, Salmonella spp, Shigella sp, Cryptosporidium sp, and Giardia lamblia occurred on ships. Enterotoxigenic E. coli was the pathogen most frequently associated with outbreaks. One outbreak of chemical water poisoning also occurred on a ship. Risk factors included contaminated port water, inadequate treatment, improper loading techniques, poor design and maintenance of storage tanks, ingress of contamination during repair and maintenance, cross-connections, back siphonage, and insufficient residual disinfectant. CONCLUSIONS: Waterborne disease outbreaks on ships can be prevented. The factors contributing to outbreaks emphasize the need for hygienic handling of water along the supply chain from source to consumption. A comprehensive approach to water safety on ships is essential. This may be achieved by the adoption of Water Safety Plans that cover design, construction, operation, and routine inspection and maintenance. PMID:15219801

  16. Surveillance for Waterborne Disease Outbreaks Associated with Drinking Water - United States, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Beer, Karlyn D; Gargano, Julia W; Roberts, Virginia A; Hill, Vincent R; Garrison, Laurel E; Kutty, Preeta K; Hilborn, Elizabeth D; Wade, Timothy J; Fullerton, Kathleen E; Yoder, Jonathan S

    2015-08-14

    Advances in water management and sanitation have substantially reduced waterborne disease in the United States, although outbreaks continue to occur. Public health agencies in the U.S. states and territories* report information on waterborne disease outbreaks to the CDC Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (http://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/surveillance/index.html). For 2011-2012, 32 drinking water-associated outbreaks were reported, accounting for at least 431 cases of illness, 102 hospitalizations, and 14 deaths. Legionella was responsible for 66% of outbreaks and 26% of illnesses, and viruses and non-Legionella bacteria together accounted for 16% of outbreaks and 53% of illnesses. The two most commonly identified deficiencies† leading to drinking water-associated outbreaks were Legionella in building plumbing§ systems (66%) and untreated groundwater (13%). Continued vigilance by public health, regulatory, and industry professionals to identify and correct deficiencies associated with building plumbing systems and groundwater systems could prevent most reported outbreaks and illnesses associated with drinking water systems. PMID:26270059

  17. VIRAL ANTIBODIES IN AGRICULTURAL POPULATIONS EXPOSED TO AEROSOLS FROM WASTEWATER IRRIGATION DURING A VIRAL DISEASE OUTBREAK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presence of antibodies to eight enteroviruses (ecovirus types 4, 7, and 9, coxsackievirus types A9, B1, B3, B4 and hepatitis A virus (HAY)) and Varicella-zoster virus was determined during a two-year period, 1980/1981 in paired blood samples of 777 persons in selected agricul...

  18. Arthropod- and rodent-borne viral and rickettsial diseases in the WHO South-East Asia and Western Pacific Regions: Memorandum from a WHO Meeting*

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    Arthropod- and rodent-borne viral and rickettsial diseases continue to be one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in the WHO South-East Asia and Western Pacific Regions. Both epidemics and sporadic cases occur. In some years, outbreaks of dengue haemorrhagic fever and Japanese encephalitis reached alarming proportions. The significance of other arthropod- and rodent-borne viral and rickettsial diseases has still to be determined. Therefore, continuous epidemiological surveillance, diagnosis, and control of these groups of diseases remains an urgent task. The objectives, targets, priority areas, and strategies for future plans of action have been identified and recommendations formulated. PMID:6603917

  19. History and prospects for viral disease eradication.

    PubMed

    de Quadros, Ciro A

    2002-10-01

    Edward Jenner first articulated the concept of eradication when he first inoculated the vaccinia. Before considering a disease for eradication some factors should be considered, such as the biological characteristics of the infectious agent: does the infectious agent infects only humans? Does it have a non-human reservoir and induce long-life immunity after infection? Is there a tool or intervention that effectively interrupts the chain of transmission from one individual to another? The first disease to be eradicated was smallpox. This extraordinary initiative set the example for any future disease eradication program. The eradication of polio from the Americas was launched in May 1985 and the Region of the Americas was certified polio-free in September 1994. At this same year, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) launched an initiative to eradicate measles from the Americas. Only 1,500 cases have been reported during the year 2000, and transmission was interrupted in most countries of the Region. Tremendous progress has been achieved in disease eradication efforts, which resulted in the global eradication of smallpox, the eradication of poliomyelitis from the Americas and its nearly global eradication, and the nearly complete eradication of measles from the Americas. The biotechnology revolution is providing us with many new vaccines and we have to continue the search for those diseases that could eventually be eradicated. Eradication of a disease brings the greatest health benefit, which is the absence of the health threat. It is also the quintessential example of health equity, as all mankind reaps the benefits, bringing eternal cost savings. As Louis Pasteur pointed out, "it is within the power of man to eradicate infection from the earth". PMID:12410345

  20. Viral Diseases in Zebrafish: What Is Known and Unknown

    PubMed Central

    Crim, Marcus J.; Riley, Lela K.

    2013-01-01

    Naturally occurring viral infections have the potential to introduce confounding variability that leads to invalid and misinterpreted data. Whereas the viral diseases of research rodents are well characterized and closely monitored, no naturally occurring viral infections have been characterized for the laboratory zebrafish (Danio rerio), an increasingly important biomedical research model. Despite the ignorance about naturally occurring zebrafish viruses, zebrafish models are rapidly expanding in areas of biomedical research where the confounding effects of unknown infectious agents present a serious concern. In addition, many zebrafish research colonies remain linked to the ornamental (pet) zebrafish trade, which can contribute to the introduction of new pathogens into research colonies, whereas mice used for research are purpose bred, with no introduction of new mice from the pet industry. Identification, characterization, and monitoring of naturally occurring viruses in zebrafish are crucial to the improvement of zebrafish health, the reduction of unwanted variability, and the continued development of the zebrafish as a model organism. This article addresses the importance of identifying and characterizing the viral diseases of zebrafish as the scope of zebrafish models expands into new research areas and also briefly addresses zebrafish susceptibility to experimental viral infection and the utility of the zebrafish as an infection and immunology model. PMID:23382345

  1. VIRAL DISEASES OF INVERTEBRATES OTHER THAN INSECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thirteen examples of virus or viruslike related pathoses in non-insect invertebrates are described. From consideration of these examples, it becomes obvious that detailed descriptions of pathogenesis of virus diseases in non-insect invertebrates has not kept pace with the frequen...

  2. Entomologic investigations during an outbreak of West Nile virus disease in Maricopa County, Arizona, 2010.

    PubMed

    Godsey, Marvin S; Burkhalter, Kristen; Young, Ginger; Delorey, Mark; Smith, Kirk; Townsend, John; Levy, Craig; Mutebi, John-Paul

    2012-12-01

    Entomologic investigations were conducted during an intense outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) disease in Maricopa County, Arizona during July 31-August 9, 2010. The investigations compared the East Valley outbreak area, and a demographically similar control area in northwestern metropolitan Phoenix where no human cases were reported. Five mosquito species were identified in each area, and species composition was similar in both areas. Significantly more Culex quinquefasciatus females were collected by gravid traps at Outbreak sites (22.2 per trap night) than at control sites (8.9 per trap night), indicating higher Cx. quinquefasciatus abundance in the outbreak area. Twenty-eight WNV TaqMan reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-positive mosquito pools were identified, including 24 of Cx. quinquefasciatus, 3 of Psorophora columbiae, and 1 of Culex sp. However, Cx. quinquefasciatus WNV infection rates did not differ between outbreak and control sites. At outbreak sites, 30 of 39 engorged Cx. quinquefasciatus had fed on birds, 8 of 39 on humans, and 1 of 39 on a lizard. At control sites, 20 of 20 identified blood meals were from birds. Data suggest that Cx. quinquefasciatus was the primary enzootic and epidemic vector of this outbreak. The most important parameters in the outbreak were vector abundance and blood meal analysis, which suggested more frequent contact between Cx. quinquefasciatus and human hosts in the outbreak area compared with the control area. PMID:23109372

  3. Entomologic Investigations during an Outbreak of West Nile Virus Disease in Maricopa County, Arizona, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Godsey, Marvin S.; Burkhalter, Kristen; Young, Ginger; Delorey, Mark; Smith, Kirk; Townsend, John; Levy, Craig; Mutebi, John-Paul

    2012-01-01

    Entomologic investigations were conducted during an intense outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) disease in Maricopa County, Arizona during July 31–August 9, 2010. The investigations compared the East Valley outbreak area, and a demographically similar control area in northwestern metropolitan Phoenix where no human cases were reported. Five mosquito species were identified in each area, and species composition was similar in both areas. Significantly more Culex quinquefasciatus females were collected by gravid traps at Outbreak sites (22.2 per trap night) than at control sites (8.9 per trap night), indicating higher Cx. quinquefasciatus abundance in the outbreak area. Twenty-eight WNV TaqMan reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction–positive mosquito pools were identified, including 24 of Cx. quinquefasciatus, 3 of Psorophora columbiae, and 1 of Culex sp. However, Cx. quinquefasciatus WNV infection rates did not differ between outbreak and control sites. At outbreak sites, 30 of 39 engorged Cx. quinquefasciatus had fed on birds, 8 of 39 on humans, and 1 of 39 on a lizard. At control sites, 20 of 20 identified blood meals were from birds. Data suggest that Cx. quinquefasciatus was the primary enzootic and epidemic vector of this outbreak. The most important parameters in the outbreak were vector abundance and blood meal analysis, which suggested more frequent contact between Cx. quinquefasciatus and human hosts in the outbreak area compared with the control area. PMID:23109372

  4. Outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease in Peninsular Malaysia from 2001 to 2007.

    PubMed

    Ramanoon, Siti Zubaidah; Robertson, Ian Duncan; Edwards, John; Hassan, Latiffah; Isa, Kamaruddin Md

    2013-02-01

    This is a retrospective study of the outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Peninsular Malaysia between 2001 and May 2007. In total, 270 outbreaks of FMD were recorded. Serotype O virus (89.95 %) and serotype A (7.7 %) had caused the outbreaks. Significant differences on the occurrence of FMD were found between the years (t = 5.73, P = 0.000, df = 11), months (t = 4.7, P = 0.000, df = 11), monsoon season (t = 2.63, P = 0.025, df = 10) and states (t = 4.84, P = 0.001, df = 10). A peak of outbreaks observed in 2003 could be due to increased animal movement and the other peak in 2006 could be due to a compromised FMD control activities due to activities on the eradication of highly pathogenic avian influenza. Cattle (86 % of outbreaks) suffered the most. However, no difference in disease occurrence between species was observed. The populations of cattle (r = 0.672, P = 0.023) and sheep (r = 0.678, P = 0.022) were significantly correlated with occurrence of FMD. Movement of animals (66 % of outbreaks) was the main source for outbreaks. A combination of control measures were implemented during outbreaks. In conclusion, the findings of this study show that FMD is endemic in Peninsular Malaysia, and information gained could be used to improve the existing control strategy. PMID:22826115

  5. Antiviral therapies against Ebola and other emerging viral diseases using existing medicines that block virus entry.

    PubMed

    Long, Jason; Wright, Edward; Molesti, Eleonora; Temperton, Nigel; Barclay, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Emerging viral diseases pose a threat to the global population as intervention strategies are mainly limited to basic containment due to the lack of efficacious and approved vaccines and antiviral drugs. The former was the only available intervention when the current unprecedented Ebolavirus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa began. Prior to this, the development of EBOV vaccines and anti-viral therapies required time and resources that were not available. Therefore, focus has turned to re-purposing of existing, licenced medicines that may limit the morbidity and mortality rates of EBOV and could be used immediately. Here we test three such medicines and measure their ability to inhibit pseudotype viruses (PVs) of two EBOV species, Marburg virus (MARV) and avian influenza H5 (FLU-H5). We confirm the ability of chloroquine (CQ) to inhibit viral entry in a pH specific manner. The commonly used proton pump inhibitors, Omeprazole and Esomeprazole were also able to inhibit entry of all PVs tested but at higher drug concentrations than may be achieved in vivo. We propose CQ as a priority candidate to consider for treatment of EBOV. PMID:26069727

  6. Antiviral therapies against Ebola and other emerging viral diseases using existing medicines that block virus entry

    PubMed Central

    Long, Jason; Wright, Edward; Molesti, Eleonora; Temperton, Nigel; Barclay, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Emerging viral diseases pose a threat to the global population as intervention strategies are mainly limited to basic containment due to the lack of efficacious and approved vaccines and antiviral drugs. The former was the only available intervention when the current unprecedented Ebolavirus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa began. Prior to this, the development of EBOV vaccines and anti-viral therapies required time and resources that were not available. Therefore, focus has turned to re-purposing of existing, licenced medicines that may limit the morbidity and mortality rates of EBOV and could be used immediately. Here we test three such medicines and measure their ability to inhibit pseudotype viruses (PVs) of two EBOV species, Marburg virus (MARV) and avian influenza H5 (FLU-H5). We confirm the ability of chloroquine (CQ) to inhibit viral entry in a pH specific manner. The commonly used proton pump inhibitors, Omeprazole and Esomeprazole were also able to inhibit entry of all PVs tested but at higher drug concentrations than may be achieved in vivo. We propose CQ as a priority candidate to consider for treatment of EBOV. PMID:26069727

  7. Viral Agents Causing Brown Cap Mushroom Disease of Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, Daniel; Green, Julian; Grogan, Helen; Burton, Kerry

    2015-10-01

    The symptoms of viral infections of fungi range from cryptic to severe, but there is little knowledge of the factors involved in this transition of fungal/viral interactions. Brown cap mushroom disease of the cultivated Agaricus bisporus is economically important and represents a model system to describe this transition. Differentially expressed transcript fragments between mushrooms showing the symptoms of brown cap mushroom disease and control white noninfected mushrooms have been identified and sequenced. Ten of these RNA fragments have been found to be upregulated over 1,000-fold between diseased and nondiseased tissue but are absent from the Agaricus bisporus genome sequence and hybridize to double-stranded RNAs extracted from diseased tissue. We hypothesize that these transcript fragments are viral and represent components of the disease-causing agent, a bipartite virus with similarities to the family Partitiviridae. The virus fragments were found at two distinct levels within infected mushrooms, at raised levels in infected, nonsymptomatic, white mushrooms and at much greater levels (3,500 to 87,000 times greater) in infected mushrooms exhibiting brown coloration. In addition, differential screening revealed 9 upregulated and 32 downregulated host Agaricus bisporus transcripts. Chromametric analysis was able to distinguish color differences between noninfected white mushrooms and white infected mushrooms at an early stage of mushroom growth. This method may be the basis for an "on-farm" disease detection assay. PMID:26253676

  8. Viral Agents Causing Brown Cap Mushroom Disease of Agaricus bisporus

    PubMed Central

    Eastwood, Daniel; Green, Julian; Grogan, Helen

    2015-01-01

    The symptoms of viral infections of fungi range from cryptic to severe, but there is little knowledge of the factors involved in this transition of fungal/viral interactions. Brown cap mushroom disease of the cultivated Agaricus bisporus is economically important and represents a model system to describe this transition. Differentially expressed transcript fragments between mushrooms showing the symptoms of brown cap mushroom disease and control white noninfected mushrooms have been identified and sequenced. Ten of these RNA fragments have been found to be upregulated over 1,000-fold between diseased and nondiseased tissue but are absent from the Agaricus bisporus genome sequence and hybridize to double-stranded RNAs extracted from diseased tissue. We hypothesize that these transcript fragments are viral and represent components of the disease-causing agent, a bipartite virus with similarities to the family Partitiviridae. The virus fragments were found at two distinct levels within infected mushrooms, at raised levels in infected, nonsymptomatic, white mushrooms and at much greater levels (3,500 to 87,000 times greater) in infected mushrooms exhibiting brown coloration. In addition, differential screening revealed 9 upregulated and 32 downregulated host Agaricus bisporus transcripts. Chromametric analysis was able to distinguish color differences between noninfected white mushrooms and white infected mushrooms at an early stage of mushroom growth. This method may be the basis for an “on-farm” disease detection assay. PMID:26253676

  9. War diseases revealed by the social media: massive leishmaniasis outbreak in the Syrian Spring.

    PubMed

    Alasaad, Samer

    2013-01-01

    Social media introduce pivotal changes to communication between individuals, organizations and communities. A clear example of the power of social media is the spread of the revolutionary outbreaks in the Arabic countries during 2011, where people used Facebook, YouTube and Skype to communicate, organise meetings and protest actions. Here I report how Doctor-Activists use these social media as an alarm system for 'war disease' outbreaks in the Syrian Spring. Social media are used as an alarm system to attract the attention of international organizations, which should assume their responsibilities and play their part in controlling the outbreak of such war diseases. PMID:23587258

  10. Viral and bacterial diseases in livestock in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Odontsetseg, Namsraijav; Mweene, Aaron S; Kida, Hiroshi

    2005-02-01

    This review focuses on the status of infectious diseases that are serious for animal health and have adverse economic effects in Mongolia. Data presented here are limited due to the lack of published or other easily available documents. Foot-and-mouth disease continues to cause substantial economic losses as exemplified by the outbreak of infection with serotype O PanAsia lineage virus. In the case of the 2001 outbreak, a 65% reduction in export revenues was recorded. In order to ascertain the free status of Mongolia from rinderpest, sero-epidemiological surveillance has been carried out since 2001. In 2004, Mongolia was certified free from rinderpest by Office International des Epizooties (OIE). A sharp rise in both animal and human brucellosis incidence has become a serious problem. Rabies and anthrax remain endemic with occasional human cases. Other prevailing infectious diseases are contagious pustular dermatitis, contagious agalactia, enterotoxemia and pasteurellosis. The current programs for the control of infectious diseases in livestock in Mongolia lack a definite policy that would enable rapid implementation. A large-scale surveillance of infectious diseases in animals and management of appropriate preventive measures are urgently required in Mongolia. PMID:15822857

  11. [Prevention of infectious diseases of viral origin].

    PubMed

    Corre-Hurst, L

    1977-02-23

    In France, smallpox and poliomyelitis have almost disappeared thanks to generalized vaccination, no case of small pox has been reported since 1975. 17 cases of poliomyelitis were reported in 1975. These two vaccinations remain compulsory. The prophylaxis of measles, which is a very common disease, is based on vaccination recommended for young children, particularly those living in groups. The frequency of severe forms of flu is reduced by vaccination which is advised in the elderly and in weak or exposed subjects. Rubella raises the problem of contamination of pregnant women. It is recommended to vaccinate young girls and also, after serological reactions, women who are professionally exposed to the disease. Epidemic virus hepatitis (virus A) is increasing in frequency, whereas transfusion hepatitis is becoming less common since the strict application of measures of prophylaxis. The spread of rabies, mainly in the fox, is worrying for public health workers. No case of human rabies has been noted in France. Preventive anti-rabic treatment is applied in the case of a patient bitten by a suspicious animal. PMID:190696

  12. History of Meningococcal Outbreaks in the United States: Implications for Vaccination and Disease Prevention.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Bruce; Gandhi, Ashesh; Balmer, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Invasive meningococcal disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis presents a significant public health concern. Meningococcal disease is rare but potentially fatal within 24 hours of onset of illness, and survivors may experience permanent sequelae. This review presents the epidemiology, incidence, and outbreak data for invasive meningococcal disease in the United States since 1970, and it highlights recent changes in vaccine recommendations to prevent meningococcal disease. Relevant publications were obtained by database searches for articles published between January 1970 and July 2015. The incidence of meningococcal disease has decreased in the United States since 1970, but serogroup B meningococcal disease is responsible for an increasing proportion of disease burden in young adults. Recent serogroup B outbreaks on college campuses warrant broader age-based recommendations for meningococcal group B vaccines, similar to the currently recommended quadrivalent vaccine that protects against serogroups A, C, W, and Y. After the recent approval of two serogroup B vaccines, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices first updated its recommendations for routine meningococcal vaccination to cover at-risk populations, including those at risk during serogroup B outbreaks, and later it issued a recommendation for those aged 16-23 years. Meningococcal disease outbreaks remain challenging to predict, making the optimal disease management strategy one of prevention through vaccination rather than containment. How the epidemiology of serogroup B disease and prevention of outbreaks will be affected by the new category B recommendation for serogroup B vaccines remains to be seen. PMID:27332671

  13. Respiratory-borne Disease Outbreaks in Populations: Contact Networks and the Spread of Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourbohloul, Babak; Meyers, Lauren A.; Newman, Mark E. J.; Skowronski, Danuta M.

    2005-03-01

    A large class of infectious diseases spread through direct person-to-person contact. Traditional ``compartmental'' modeling in epidemiology assumes that in population groups every individual has an equal chance of spreading the disease to every other. The patterns of these contacts, however, tend to be highly heterogeneous. Explicit models of the patterns of contact among individuals in a community, contact network models, underlie a powerful approach to predicting and controlling the spread of such infectious disease and provide detailed and valuable insight into the fate and control of an outbreak. We use contact network epidemiology to predict the impact of various control policies for both a mildly contagious disease such as SARS and a more highly contagious disease such as smallpox. We demonstrate how integrating these tools into public health decision-making should facilitate more rational strategies for managing newly emerging diseases, bioterrorism and pandemic influenza in situations where empirical data are not yet available to guide decision making.

  14. Outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease in schools and nurseries in England and Wales 1992 to 1994.

    PubMed

    Evans, H S; Maguire, H

    1996-06-21

    We present data on outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease in schools and nurseries obtained from the surveillance scheme of all general outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease in England and Wales reported to the PHLS Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre between 1992 and 1994. A minimum set of data was received for 1280 outbreaks, 95 of which (7%) arose in schools and nurseries. The commonest pathogens were salmonellas, Shigella sonnei, and small round structured viruses. The mode of transmission was described as mainly from person to person in 55 outbreaks and mainly foodborne in 30. The mean attack rate was 30% and median duration was 10 days. The attack rate and duration varied with the pathogen involved. Forty-five of the 3118 people reported to have been ill were admitted to hospital. Outbreaks in schools and nurseries are common. Attack rates are high and such outbreaks are often prolonged. Effective infection control policies and appropriate training of staff are needed. Good local systems for surveillance can help identify outbreaks quickly and allow control measures to be applied early. PMID:8680501

  15. Large outbreak of Legionnaires' disease and Pontiac fever at a military base.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, J; Hampton, L M; Fleming-Dutra, K E; Marten, C; McClusky, C; Perry, C; Clemmons, N A; McCormic, Z; Peik, S; Mancuso, J; Brown, E; Kozak, N; Travis, T; Lucas, C; Fields, B; Hicks, L; Cersovsky, S B

    2014-11-01

    We investigated a mixed outbreak of Legionnaires' disease (LD) and Pontiac fever (PF) at a military base to identify the outbreak's environmental source as well as known legionellosis risk factors. Base workers with possible legionellosis were interviewed and, if consenting, underwent testing for legionellosis. A retrospective cohort study collected information on occupants of the buildings closest to the outbreak source. We identified 29 confirmed and probable LD and 38 PF cases. All cases were exposed to airborne pathogens from a cooling tower. Occupants of the building closest to the cooling tower were 6·9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2·2-22·0] and 5·5 (95% CI 2·1-14·5) times more likely to develop LD and PF, respectively, than occupants of the next closest building. Thorough preventive measures and aggressive responses to outbreaks, including searching for PF cases in mixed legionellosis outbreaks, are essential for legionellosis control. PMID:25267405

  16. Perspectives on West Africa Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak, 2013-2016

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Spengler, Jessica R.; Ervin, Elizabeth D.; Towner, Jonathan S.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Nichol, Stuart T.

    2016-06-01

    The variety of factors that contributed to the initial undetected spread of Ebola virus disease in West Africa during 2013-2016 and the difficulty controlling the outbreak once the etiology was identified highlight priorities for disease prevention, detection, and response. These factors include occurrence in a region recovering from civil instability and lacking experience with Ebola response; inadequate surveillance, recognition of suspected cases, and Ebola diagnosis; mobile populations and extensive urban transmission; and the community's insufficient general understanding about the disease. The magnitude of the outbreak was not attributable to a substantial change of the virus. Finally, continued efforts during themore » outbreak and in preparation for future outbreak response should involve identifying the reservoir, improving in-country detection and response capacity, conducting survivor studies and supporting survivors, engaging in culturally appropriate public education and risk communication, building productive interagency relationships, and continuing support for basic research.« less

  17. Perspectives on West Africa Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak, 2013–2016

    PubMed Central

    Spengler, Jessica R.; Ervin, Elizabeth D.; Towner, Jonathan S.; Rollin, Pierre E.

    2016-01-01

    The variety of factors that contributed to the initial undetected spread of Ebola virus disease in West Africa during 2013–2016 and the difficulty controlling the outbreak once the etiology was identified highlight priorities for disease prevention, detection, and response. These factors include occurrence in a region recovering from civil instability and lacking experience with Ebola response; inadequate surveillance, recognition of suspected cases, and Ebola diagnosis; mobile populations and extensive urban transmission; and the community’s insufficient general understanding about the disease. The magnitude of the outbreak was not attributable to a substantial change of the virus. Continued efforts during the outbreak and in preparation for future outbreak response should involve identifying the reservoir, improving in-country detection and response capacity, conducting survivor studies and supporting survivors, engaging in culturally appropriate public education and risk communication, building productive interagency relationships, and continuing support for basic research. PMID:27070842

  18. Perspectives on West Africa Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak, 2013-2016.

    PubMed

    Spengler, Jessica R; Ervin, Elizabeth D; Towner, Jonathan S; Rollin, Pierre E; Nichol, Stuart T

    2016-06-01

    The variety of factors that contributed to the initial undetected spread of Ebola virus disease in West Africa during 2013-2016 and the difficulty controlling the outbreak once the etiology was identified highlight priorities for disease prevention, detection, and response. These factors include occurrence in a region recovering from civil instability and lacking experience with Ebola response; inadequate surveillance, recognition of suspected cases, and Ebola diagnosis; mobile populations and extensive urban transmission; and the community's insufficient general understanding about the disease. The magnitude of the outbreak was not attributable to a substantial change of the virus. Continued efforts during the outbreak and in preparation for future outbreak response should involve identifying the reservoir, improving in-country detection and response capacity, conducting survivor studies and supporting survivors, engaging in culturally appropriate public education and risk communication, building productive interagency relationships, and continuing support for basic research. PMID:27070842

  19. Comparative molecular and antibody typing during the investigation of an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Nuñez, Marian; Quero, Sara; Catini, Stella; Pedro-Botet, Maria Lluisa; Mateu, Lourdes; Sopena, Nieves; Sabria, Miguel

    2013-10-01

    An outbreak of Legionnaires' disease with 113 confirmed cases was reported in the town of Mataró, Spain, in August 2002. In this study, we compared three different typing methods and characterized the clinical isolates by comparing them with other clinical isolates with the same ST from our own database to further characterize the outbreak. In the outbreak, a total of 16 clinical (nine patients) and 32 environmental (from four environmental sources) Legionella pneumophila isolates were analyzed by pulsed-field electrophoresis (PFGE), sequence-based typing (SBT), and monoclonal antibody typing (MAb). We compared the MAb and SBT profiles of the outbreak clinical isolates and other unrelated clinical isolates showing the same ST profile. We obtained seven different PFGE and SBT profiles and six MAb patterns from the outbreak isolates. PFGE and SBT showed 100% concordance during the outbreak. SBT proved to be highly discriminatory, particularly with the addition of the new neuA gene. One PFGE, SBT (ST-37), and Philadelphia profile was observed among the clinical isolates. Using PFGE, this ST37 Philadelphia profile was closely related to other unrelated clinical isolates. These findings suggest that the ST37 Philadelphia profile could be a virulence marker in our area. The combination of the three methodologies was useful to further characterize and obtain additional information on a very explosive outbreak. Despite the minor discrimination of PFGE versus SBT, the two genetic methods are recommended in outbreak investigations. Further studies are currently underway in this area to obtain more definitive conclusions. PMID:23572275

  20. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus-Associated Disease in Feedlot Cattle.

    PubMed

    Larson, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDv) is associated with bovine respiratory disease complex and other diseases of feedlot cattle. Although occasionally a primary pathogen, BVDv's impact on cattle health is through the immunosuppressive effects of the virus and its synergism with other pathogens. The simple presence or absence of BVDv does not result in consistent health outcomes because BVDv is only one of many risk factors that contribute to disease syndromes. Current interventions have limitations and the optimum strategy for their uses to limit the health, production, and economic costs associated with BVDv have to be carefully considered for optimum cost-effectiveness. PMID:26210765

  1. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 2. Description of outbreaks by size, severity, and settings.

    PubMed

    Todd, Ewen C D; Greig, Judy D; Bartleson, Charles A; Michaels, Barry S

    2007-08-01

    This article is the second in a series of several by members of the Committee on the Control of Foodborne Illness of the International Association of Food Protection, and it continues the analysis of 816 outbreaks where food workers were implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. In this article, we discuss case morbidity and mortality and the settings where the 816 outbreaks occurred. Some of the outbreaks were very large; 11 involved more than 1,000 persons, 4 with more than 3,000 ill. The larger outbreaks tended to be extended over several days with a continuing source of infections, such as at festivals, resorts, and community events, or the contaminated product had been shipped to a large number of customers, e.g., icing on cakes or exported raspberries. There were five outbreaks with more than 100 persons hospitalized, with rates ranging from 9.9 to 100%. However, overall, the hospitalization rate was low (1.4%), and deaths were rare (0.11% of the 80,682 cases). Many of the deaths were associated with high-risk persons (i.e., those who had underlying diseases, malnutrition, or both, as in a refugee camp, or young children), but a few occurred with apparently healthy adults. An analysis of the settings for the food worker-related events showed that most of the outbreaks came from food service facilities (376 outbreaks [46.1%]), followed by catered events (126 outbreaks [15.4%]), the home (83 outbreaks [10.2%]), schools and day care centers (49 [6.0%]), and health care institutions (43 outbreaks [5.3%]). However, many cases resulted from relatively few outbreaks (< 30 each) associated with community events (9,726), processing plants (8,580), mobile/temporary service (5,367), and camps/ armed forces (5,117). The single most frequently reported setting was restaurants, with 324 outbreaks and 16,938 cases. Improper hygienic practices in homes, on picnics, or at community events accounted for 89 of the 816 outbreaks. There were 18 outbreaks associated with

  2. ESCHERICHIA COLI O147: AN EMERGING SEROGROUP OF EDEMA DISEASE OUTBREAKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edema disease is a systemic disease of weanling pigs caused by E. coli strains that produce a variant of Shiga toxin, Stx2e. These strains usually produce F18ab fimbriae and heat stable enterotoxin b (STb). Historically, edema disease strains from U.S. outbreaks have not produced heat stable enter...

  3. A review of outbreaks of infectious disease in schools in England and Wales 1979-88.

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, C.; Noah, N.; White, J.; Hoskins, T.

    1990-01-01

    In this review of 66 outbreaks of infectious disease in schools in England and Wales between 1979-88, 27 were reported from independent and 39 from maintained schools. Altogether, over 8000 children and nearly 500 adults were affected. Most of the outbreaks investigated were due to gastrointestinal infections which affected about 5000 children: respiratory infections affected a further 2000 children. Fifty-two children and seven adults were admitted to hospital and one child with measles died. Vaccination policies and use of immunoglobulin for control and prevention of outbreaks in schools have been discussed. PMID:2209745

  4. Infectious diseases and their outbreaks in Asia-Pacific: biodiversity and its regulation loss matter.

    PubMed

    Morand, Serge; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Abdullah, Mohd Tajuddin; Huan, Tan Boon

    2014-01-01

    Despite increasing control measures, numerous parasitic and infectious diseases are emerging, re-emerging or causing recurrent outbreaks particularly in Asia and the Pacific region, a hot spot of both infectious disease emergence and biodiversity at risk. We investigate how biodiversity affects the distribution of infectious diseases and their outbreaks in this region, taking into account socio-economics (population size, GDP, public health expenditure), geography (latitude and nation size), climate (precipitation, temperature) and biodiversity (bird and mammal species richness, forest cover, mammal and bird species at threat). We show, among countries, that the overall richness of infectious diseases is positively correlated with the richness of birds and mammals, but the number of zoonotic disease outbreaks is positively correlated with the number of threatened mammal and bird species and the number of vector-borne disease outbreaks is negatively correlated with forest cover. These results suggest that, among countries, biodiversity is a source of pathogens, but also that the loss of biodiversity or its regulation, as measured by forest cover or threatened species, seems to be associated with an increase in zoonotic and vector-borne disease outbreaks. PMID:24587201

  5. Genome Sequence of Coxsackievirus A6, Isolated during a Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease Outbreak in Finland in 2008

    PubMed Central

    Koskinen, Satu; Merilahti, Pirjo; Pursiheimo, Juha-Pekka; Blomqvist, Soile; Roivainen, Merja; Laiho, Asta; Susi, Petri; Waris, Matti

    2014-01-01

    Reports of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) outbreaks caused by coxsackievirus A6 have increased worldwide after the report of the first outbreak in Finland in 2008. The complete genome of the first outbreak strain from a vesicle fluid specimen was determined. PMID:25323709

  6. Improving Response to Foodborne Disease Outbreaks in the United States: Findings of the Foodborne Disease Centers for Outbreak Response Enhancement (FoodCORE), 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Biggerstaff, Gwen

    2015-01-01

    Context Each year foodborne diseases (FBD) affect approximately 1 in 6 Americans, resulting in 128,000 hospitalizations and 3,000 deaths. Decreasing resources impact the ability of public health officials to identify, respond to, and control FBD outbreaks. Geographically dispersed outbreaks necessitate multijurisdictional coordination across all levels of the public health system. Rapid response depends on rapid detection. Objective Targeted resources were provided to state and local health departments to improve completeness and timeliness of laboratory, epidemiology, and environmental health (EH) activities for FBD surveillance and outbreak response. Design Foodborne Disease Centers for Outbreak Response Enhancement (FoodCORE) centers, selected through competitive award, implemented work plans designed to make outbreak response more complete and faster in their jurisdiction. Performance metrics were developed and used to evaluate the impact and effectiveness of activities. Participants Departments of Health in Connecticut, New York City, Ohio, South Carolina, Tennessee, Utah, and Wisconsin. Results From the first year (Y1) of the program in October 2010 to the end of second year (Y2) in December 2012, the centers completed molecular subtyping for a higher proportion of Salmonella, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, and Listeria (SSL) isolates (86% vs 98%) and reduced the average time to complete testing from a median of 8 to 4 days. The centers attempted epidemiologic interviews with more SSL case-patients (93% vs 99%) and the average time to attempt interviews was reduced from a median of 4 to 2 days. During Y2, nearly 200 EH assessments were conducted. FoodCORE centers began documenting model practices such as streamlining and standardizing case-patient interviewing. Conclusion Centers used targeted resources and process evaluation to implement and document practices that improve the completeness and timeliness of FBD surveillance and outbreak response activities

  7. Prevention and control of viral diseases of salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amend, Donald F.

    1976-01-01

    Three viral diseases of salmonids are of worldwide concern: infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS), and infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN). Six principal approaches are being used to prevent or control these diseases: 1) preventing contact o the pathogen with the host, 2) environmental manipulation, 3) immunization, 4) chemotherapy, 5 selective breeding for disease resistance, and 6) reducing stress conditions which augment disease conditions. Preventing the introduction of a pathogen into a new stock of fish has been accomplished mainly by implementing stringent laws to prevent transport of infected fish into uninfected areas. Stocks of fish already infected are sometimes destroyed, and the hatchery is disinfected and restocked with fish free of specific pathogens. Environmental manipulation (elevated water temperature) has been successfully used to control IHN. Chemotherapeutics such as povidone-iodine for IPN and benzipyrene for IHN show promise of controlling mortalities; however, the practicality of using these drugs to eliminate the carrier fish has not been evaluated. Salmonids are capable of developing immune responses to viruses; however, development of effective vaccines, selective breeding for disease resistance, and identification of stress conditions which augment disease are still in the experimental phase.

  8. Gastrointestinal Disease Outbreak Detection Using Multiple Data Streams from Electronic Medical Records

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jie; Abrams, Allyson M.; Gilliss, Debra; Reed, Mary; Platt, Richard; Huang, Susan S.; Kulldorff, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background: Passive reporting and laboratory testing delays may limit gastrointestinal (GI) disease outbreak detection. Healthcare systems routinely collect clinical data in electronic medical records (EMRs) that could be used for surveillance. This study's primary objective was to identify data streams from EMRs that may perform well for GI outbreak detection. Methods: Zip code-specific daily episode counts in 2009 were generated for 22 syndromic and laboratory-based data streams from Kaiser Permanente Northern California EMRs, covering 3.3 million members. Data streams included outpatient and inpatient diagnosis codes, antidiarrheal medication dispensings, stool culture orders, and positive microbiology tests for six GI pathogens. Prospective daily surveillance was mimicked using the space-time permutation scan statistic in single and multi-stream analyses, and space-time clusters were identified. Serotype relatedness was assessed for isolates in two Salmonella clusters. Results: Potential outbreaks included a cluster of 18 stool cultures ordered over 5 days in one zip code and a Salmonella cluster in three zip codes over 9 days, in which at least five of six cases had the same rare serotype. In all, 28 potential outbreaks were identified using single stream analyses, with signals in outpatient diagnosis codes most common. Multi-stream analyses identified additional potential outbreaks and in one example, improved the timeliness of detection. Conclusions: GI disease-related data streams can be used to identify potential outbreaks when generated from EMRs with extensive regional coverage. This process can supplement traditional GI outbreak reports to health departments, which frequently consist of outbreaks in well-defined settings (e.g., day care centers and restaurants) with no laboratory-confirmed pathogen. Data streams most promising for surveillance included microbiology test results, stool culture orders, and outpatient diagnoses. In particular

  9. Viral Vector-Based Modeling of Neurodegenerative Disorders: Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Fischer, D Luke; Gombash, Sara E; Kemp, Christopher J; Manfredsson, Fredric P; Polinski, Nicole K; Duffy, Megan F; Sortwell, Caryl E

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapy methods are increasingly used to model Parkinson's disease (PD) in animals in an effort to test experimental therapeutics within a more relevant context to disease pathophysiology and neuropathology. We have detailed several criteria that are critical or advantageous to accurately modeling PD in a murine model or in a nonhuman primate. Using these criteria, we then evaluate approaches made to model PD using viral vectors to date, including both adeno-associated viruses and lentiviruses. Lastly, we comment on the consideration of aging as a critical factor for modeling PD. PMID:26611600

  10. Outbreaks of Virulent Infectious Bursal Disease in Flocks of Battery Cage Brooding System of Commercial Chickens.

    PubMed

    Aliyu, H B; Sa'idu, L; Jamilu, A; Andamin, A D; Akpavie, S O

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and pathological investigations were conducted on outbreaks of infectious bursal disease (IBD) in pullets under brooding using the battery cage system in a commercial poultry farm in Kaduna, Nigeria. Two consecutive outbreaks of IBD on the same farm were studied. The onset of the disease and morbidity and mortality rates were recorded. Postmortem examinations were conducted and gross lesions recorded. Tissues were collected and fixed in 10% buffered formalin and processed for histopathological examinations. In the first outbreak, 80 to 100% of the chicks were affected at the age of 4 to 5 weeks and mortality rate was 95.8% and lasted for 9 days. In the second outbreak, the mortality rate was 43.3% and it also lasted for 9 days. At the onset of the disease, the birds were also 4-week-old like in case 1. The disease was diagnosed based on clinical signs, pathology, and agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID). Clinical signs, gross lesions, and histopathological findings were characteristic of virulent infectious bursal disease. After the first outbreak (case 1) the house was disinfected using polidine® (iodophor compound), V-ox® (inorganic peroxygen compounds), CID20® (quaternary ammonium chloride, aldehydes, and alcohol), terminator III® (phenols), and glutasan® (aldehyde and quaternary ammonium chloride). But they failed to eliminate the IBD virus from the poultry pen. PMID:27597990

  11. Outbreaks of Virulent Infectious Bursal Disease in Flocks of Battery Cage Brooding System of Commercial Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Sa'idu, L.; Jamilu, A.; Andamin, A. D.; Akpavie, S. O.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and pathological investigations were conducted on outbreaks of infectious bursal disease (IBD) in pullets under brooding using the battery cage system in a commercial poultry farm in Kaduna, Nigeria. Two consecutive outbreaks of IBD on the same farm were studied. The onset of the disease and morbidity and mortality rates were recorded. Postmortem examinations were conducted and gross lesions recorded. Tissues were collected and fixed in 10% buffered formalin and processed for histopathological examinations. In the first outbreak, 80 to 100% of the chicks were affected at the age of 4 to 5 weeks and mortality rate was 95.8% and lasted for 9 days. In the second outbreak, the mortality rate was 43.3% and it also lasted for 9 days. At the onset of the disease, the birds were also 4-week-old like in case 1. The disease was diagnosed based on clinical signs, pathology, and agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID). Clinical signs, gross lesions, and histopathological findings were characteristic of virulent infectious bursal disease. After the first outbreak (case 1) the house was disinfected using polidine® (iodophor compound), V-ox® (inorganic peroxygen compounds), CID20® (quaternary ammonium chloride, aldehydes, and alcohol), terminator III® (phenols), and glutasan® (aldehyde and quaternary ammonium chloride). But they failed to eliminate the IBD virus from the poultry pen. PMID:27597990

  12. Climate Teleconnections and Recent Patterns of Human and Animal Disease Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Anyamba, Assaf; Linthicum, Kenneth J.; Small, Jennifer L.; Collins, Kathrine M.; Tucker, Compton J.; Pak, Edwin W.; Britch, Seth C.; Eastman, James Ronald; Pinzon, Jorge E.; Russell, Kevin L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent clusters of outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases (Rift Valley fever and chikungunya) in Africa and parts of the Indian Ocean islands illustrate how interannual climate variability influences the changing risk patterns of disease outbreaks. Although Rift Valley fever outbreaks have been known to follow periods of above-normal rainfall, the timing of the outbreak events has largely been unknown. Similarly, there is inadequate knowledge on climate drivers of chikungunya outbreaks. We analyze a variety of climate and satellite-derived vegetation measurements to explain the coupling between patterns of climate variability and disease outbreaks of Rift Valley fever and chikungunya. Methods and Findings We derived a teleconnections map by correlating long-term monthly global precipitation data with the NINO3.4 sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly index. This map identifies regional hot-spots where rainfall variability may have an influence on the ecology of vector borne disease. Among the regions are Eastern and Southern Africa where outbreaks of chikungunya and Rift Valley fever occurred 2004–2009. Chikungunya and Rift Valley fever case locations were mapped to corresponding climate data anomalies to understand associations between specific anomaly patterns in ecological and climate variables and disease outbreak patterns through space and time. From these maps we explored associations among Rift Valley fever disease occurrence locations and cumulative rainfall and vegetation index anomalies. We illustrated the time lag between the driving climate conditions and the timing of the first case of Rift Valley fever. Results showed that reported outbreaks of Rift Valley fever occurred after ∼3–4 months of sustained above-normal rainfall and associated green-up in vegetation, conditions ideal for Rift Valley fever mosquito vectors. For chikungunya we explored associations among surface air temperature, precipitation anomalies, and chikungunya outbreak

  13. Viral biocontrol: grand experiments in disease emergence and evolution.

    PubMed

    Di Giallonardo, Francesca; Holmes, Edward C

    2015-02-01

    Although viral emergence is commonly associated with cross-species transmission, the processes and determinants of viral evolution in a novel host environment are poorly understood. We address key questions in virus emergence and evolution using data generated from two unique natural experiments: the deliberate release of myxoma virus (MYXV) and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) as biological control (biocontrol) agents against the European rabbit in Australia, and which have been of enormous benefit to Australia's ecosystem and agricultural industries. Notably, although virulence evolution in MYXV and RHDV followed different trajectories, a strongly parallel evolutionary process was observed in Australia and Europe. These biocontrol agents were also characterized by a lack of transmission to nontarget host species, suggesting that there are major barriers to successful emergence. PMID:25455418

  14. Viral biocontrol: grand experiments in disease emergence and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Di Giallonardo, Francesca; Holmes, Edward C.

    2014-01-01

    Although viral emergence is commonly associated with cross-species transmission, the processes and determinants of viral evolution in a novel host environment are poorly understood. We address key questions in virus emergence and evolution using data generated from two unique natural experiments: the deliberate release of myxoma virus (MYXV) and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) as biological control (biocontrol) agents against the European rabbit in Australia, and which have been of enormous benefit to Australia’s ecosystem and agricultural industries. Notably, although virulence evolution in MYXV and RHDV followed different trajectories, a strongly parallel evolutionary process was observed in Australia and Europe. These biocontrol agents were also characterised by a lack of transmission to non-target host species, suggesting that there are major barriers to successful emergence. PMID:25455418

  15. Estimating challenge load due to disease outbreaks and other challenges using reproduction records of sows.

    PubMed

    Mathur, P K; Herrero-Medrano, J M; Alexandri, P; Knol, E F; ten Napel, J; Rashidi, H; Mulder, H A

    2014-12-01

    A method was developed and tested to estimate challenge load due to disease outbreaks and other challenges in sows using reproduction records. The method was based on reproduction records from a farm with known disease outbreaks. It was assumed that the reduction in weekly reproductive output within a farm is proportional to the magnitude of the challenge. As the challenge increases beyond certain threshold, it is manifested as an outbreak. The reproduction records were divided into 3 datasets. The first dataset called the Training dataset consisted of 57,135 reproduction records from 10,901 sows from 1 farm in Canada with several outbreaks of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). The known disease status of sows was regressed on the traits number born alive, number of losses as a combination of still birth and mummified piglets, and number of weaned piglets. The regression coefficients from this analysis were then used as weighting factors for derivation of an index measure called challenge load indicator. These weighting factors were derived with i) a two-step approach using residuals or year-week solutions estimated from a previous step, and ii) a single-step approach using the trait values directly. Two types of models were used for each approach: a logistic regression model and a general additive model. The estimates of challenge load indicator were then compared based on their ability to detect PRRS outbreaks in a Test dataset consisting of records from 65,826 sows from 15 farms in the Netherlands. These farms differed from the Canadian farm with respect to PRRS virus strains, severity and frequency of outbreaks. The single-step approach using a general additive model was best and detected 14 out of the 15 outbreaks. This approach was then further validated using the third dataset consisting of reproduction records of 831,855 sows in 431 farms located in different countries in Europe and America. A total of 41 out of 48 outbreaks detected

  16. Replacement of a dominant viral pathogen by a fungal pathogen does not alter the collapse of a regional forest insect outbreak.

    PubMed

    Hajek, Ann E; Tobin, Patrick C; Haynes, Kyle J

    2015-03-01

    Natural enemies and environmental factors likely both influence the population cycles of many forest-defoliating insect species. Previous work suggests precipitation influences the spatiotemporal patterns of gypsy moth outbreaks in North America, and it has been hypothesized that precipitation could act indirectly through effects on pathogens. We investigated the potential role of climatic and environmental factors in driving pathogen epizootics and parasitism at 57 sites over an area of ≈72,300 km(2) in four US mid-Atlantic states during the final year (2009) of a gypsy moth outbreak. Prior work has largely reported that the Lymantria dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdNPV) was the principal mortality agent responsible for regional collapses of gypsy moth outbreaks. However, in the gypsy moth outbreak-prone US mid-Atlantic region, the fungal pathogen Entomophaga maimaiga has replaced the virus as the dominant source of mortality in dense host populations. The severity of the gypsy moth population crash, measured as the decline in egg mass densities from 2009 to 2010, tended to increase with the prevalence of E. maimaiga and larval parasitoids, but not LdNPV. A significantly negative spatial association was detected between rates of fungal mortality and parasitism, potentially indicating displacement of parasitoids by E. maimaiga. Fungal, viral, and parasitoid mortality agents differed in their associations with local abiotic and biotic conditions, but precipitation significantly influenced both fungal and viral prevalence. This study provides the first spatially robust evidence of the dominance of E. maimaiga during the collapse of a gypsy moth outbreak and highlights the important role played by microclimatic conditions. PMID:25510217

  17. Epidemiological profile of the Ebola virus disease outbreak in Nigeria, July-September 2014

    PubMed Central

    Musa, Emmanuel Onunche; Adedire, Elizabeth; Adeoye, Olawunmi; Adewuyi, Peter; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya; Nguku, Patrick; Nanjuya, Miriam; Adebayo, Bisola; Fatiregun, Akinola; Enya, Bassey; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Sabitu, Kabiru; Shuaib, Faisal; Okoh, Alex; Oguntimehin, Olukayode; Onyekwere, Nnanna; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Olayinka, Adebola

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In July 2014, Nigeria experienced an outbreak of Ebola virus disease following the introduction of the disease by an ill Liberian Traveler. The Government of Nigeria with the support of Technical and Development Partners responded quickly and effectively to contain the outbreak. The epidemiological profile of the outbreak that majorly affected two States in the country in terms of person, place and time characteristics of the cases identified is hereby described. Methods Using field investigation technique, all confirmed and probable cases were identified, line-listed and analysed using Microsoft Excel 2007 by persons, time and place. Results A total of 20 confirmed and probable cases; 16 in Lagos (including the index case from Liberia) and 4 in Port Harcourt were identified. The mean age was 39.5 ± 12.4 years with over 40% within the age group 30-39 years. The most frequent exposure type was direct physical contact in 70% of all cases and 73% among health care workers. The total case-fatality was 40%; higher among healthcare workers (46%) compared with non-healthcare workers (22%). The epidemic curve initially shows a typical common source outbreak, followed by a propagated pattern. Conclusion Investigation revealed the size and spread of the outbreak and provided information on the characteristics of persons, time and place. Enhanced surveillance measures, including contact tracing and follow- up proved very useful in early case detection and containment of the outbreak. PMID:26587177

  18. Trial design for evaluating novel treatments during an outbreak of an infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, John; Olliaro, Piero; Lang, Trudie; Horby, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Tragically, the outbreak of Ebola that started in West Africa in 2014 has been far more extensive and damaging than any previous outbreaks. The duration of the outbreak has, for the first time, allowed the clinical evaluation of Ebola treatments. This article discusses the designs used for two such clinical trials which have recruited patients in Liberia and Sierra Leone. General principles are outlined for trial designs intended to be deployed quickly, adapt flexibly and provide results soon enough to influence the course of the current epidemic rather than just providing evidence for use should Ebola break out again. Lessons are drawn for the conduct of clinical research in future outbreaks of infectious diseases, where the sequence of events may or may not be similar to the West African Ebola epidemic. PMID:26768556

  19. Effectiveness of a Mobile Short-Message-Service–Based Disease Outbreak Alert System in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Njeru, Ian; Zurovac, Dejan; Tipo, Shikanga O; Kareko, David; Mwau, Matilu; Morita, Kouichi

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a randomized, controlled trial to test the effectiveness of a text-messaging system used for notification of disease outbreaks in Kenya. Health facilities that used the system had more timely notifications than those that did not (19.2% vs. 2.6%), indicating that technology can enhance disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. PMID:26981628

  20. Historical Compilation and Georeferencing of Dengue and Chikungunya outbreak data for Disease Modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The risk of vector-borne disease spread is increasing due to significant changes and variability in the global climate and increasing global travel and trade. Understanding the relationships between climate variability and disease outbreak patterns are critical to the design and construction of pred...

  1. The Merits of Malaria Diagnostics during an Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    de Wit, Emmie; Falzarano, Darryl; Onyango, Clayton; Rosenke, Kyle; Marzi, Andrea; Ochieng, Melvin; Juma, Bonventure; Fischer, Robert J.; Prescott, Joseph B.; Safronetz, David; Omballa, Victor; Owuor, Collins; Hoenen, Thomas; Groseth, Allison; van Doremalen, Neeltje; Zemtsova, Galina; Self, Joshua; Bushmaker, Trenton; McNally, Kristin; Rowe, Thomas; Emery, Shannon L.; Feldmann, Friederike; Williamson, Brandi; Nyenswah, Tolbert G.; Grolla, Allen; Strong, James E.; Kobinger, Gary; Stroeher, Ute; Rayfield, Mark; Bolay, Fatorma K.; Zoon, Kathryn C.; Stassijns, Jorgen; Tampellini, Livia; de Smet, Martin; Nichol, Stuart T.; Fields, Barry; Sprecher, Armand; Feldmann, Heinz; Massaquoi, Moses

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a major public health concern in the countries affected by the Ebola virus disease epidemic in West Africa. We determined the feasibility of using molecular malaria diagnostics during an Ebola virus disease outbreak and report the incidence of Plasmodium spp. parasitemia in persons with suspected Ebola virus infection. PMID:26814608

  2. Effectiveness of a Mobile Short-Message-Service-Based Disease Outbreak Alert System in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Toda, Mitsuru; Njeru, Ian; Zurovac, Dejan; O-Tipo, Shikanga; Kareko, David; Mwau, Matilu; Morita, Kouichi

    2016-04-01

    We conducted a randomized, controlled trial to test the effectiveness of a text-messaging system used for notification of disease outbreaks in Kenya. Health facilities that used the system had more timely notifications than those that did not (19.2% vs. 2.6%), indicating that technology can enhance disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. PMID:26981628

  3. The Merits of Malaria Diagnostics during an Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Emmie; Falzarano, Darryl; Onyango, Clayton; Rosenke, Kyle; Marzi, Andrea; Ochieng, Melvin; Juma, Bonventure; Fischer, Robert J; Prescott, Joseph B; Safronetz, David; Omballa, Victor; Owuor, Collins; Hoenen, Thomas; Groseth, Allison; van Doremalen, Neeltje; Zemtsova, Galina; Self, Joshua; Bushmaker, Trenton; McNally, Kristin; Rowe, Thomas; Emery, Shannon L; Feldmann, Friederike; Williamson, Brandi; Nyenswah, Tolbert G; Grolla, Allen; Strong, James E; Kobinger, Gary; Stroeher, Ute; Rayfield, Mark; Bolay, Fatorma K; Zoon, Kathryn C; Stassijns, Jorgen; Tampellini, Livia; de Smet, Martin; Nichol, Stuart T; Fields, Barry; Sprecher, Armand; Feldmann, Heinz; Massaquoi, Moses; Munster, Vincent J

    2016-02-01

    Malaria is a major public health concern in the countries affected by the Ebola virus disease epidemic in West Africa. We determined the feasibility of using molecular malaria diagnostics during an Ebola virus disease outbreak and report the incidence of Plasmodium spp. parasitemia in persons with suspected Ebola virus infection. PMID:26814608

  4. Climate Teleconnections and Recent Patterns of Human and Animal Disease Outbreaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anyamba, Assaf; Linthicum, Kenneth J.; Small, Jennifer L.; Collins, Katherine M.; Tucker, Compton J.; Pak, Edwin W.; Britch, Seth C.; Eastman, James Ronald; Pinzon, Jorge E.; Russell, Kevin L.

    2011-01-01

    Recent clusters of outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases (Rift Valley fever and chikungunya) in Africa and parts of the Indian Ocean islands illustrate how interannual climate variability influences the changing risk patterns of disease outbreaks. Extremes in rainfall (drought and flood) during the period 2004 - 2009 have privileged different disease vectors. Chikungunya outbreaks occurred during the severe drought from late 2004 to 2006 over coastal East Africa and the western Indian Ocean islands and in the later years India and Southeast Asia. The chikungunya pandemic was caused by a Central/East African genotype that appears to have been precipitated and then enhanced by global-scale and regional climate conditions in these regions. Outbreaks of Rift Valley fever occurred following excessive rainfall period from late 2006 to late 2007 in East Africa and Sudan, and then in 2008 - 2009 in Southern Africa. The shift in the outbreak patterns of Rift Valley fever from East Africa to Southern Africa followed a transition of the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomena from the warm El Nino phase (2006-2007) to the cold La Nina phase (2007-2009) and associated patterns of variability in the greater Indian Ocean basin that result in the displacement of the centres of above normal rainfall from Eastern to Southern Africa. Understanding the background patterns of climate variability both at global and regional scale and their impacts on ecological drivers of vector borne-diseases is critical in long-range planning of appropriate response and mitigation measures.

  5. Clinical presentation resembling mucosal disease associated with 'HoBi'-like pestivirus in a field outbreak

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae consists of four recognized species: Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2), Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) And Border disease virus (BDV). Recently, atypical pestiviruses (‘HoBi’-like pestiviruses) were iden...

  6. Viral vector-based models of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Van der Perren, Anke; Van den Haute, Chris; Baekelandt, Veerle

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the molecular pathways of Parkinson's disease (PD) and to develop novel therapeutic strategies, scientific investigators rely on animal models. The identification of PD-associated genes has led to the development of genetic PD models as an alternative to toxin-based models. Viral vector-mediated loco-regional gene delivery provides an attractive way to express transgenes in the central nervous system. Several vector systems based on various viruses have been developed. In this chapter, we give an overview of the different viral vector systems used for targeting the CNS. Further, we describe the different viral vector-based PD models currently available based on overexpression strategies for autosomal dominant genes such as α-synuclein and LRRK2, and knockout or knockdown strategies for autosomal recessive genes, such as parkin, DJ-1, and PINK1. Models based on overexpression of α-synuclein are the most prevalent and extensively studied, and therefore the main focus of this chapter. Many efforts have been made to increase the expression levels of α-synuclein in the dopaminergic neurons. The best α-synuclein models currently available have been developed from a combined approach using newer AAV serotypes and optimized vector constructs, production, and purification methods. These third-generation α-synuclein models show improved face and predictive validity, and therefore offer the possibility to reliably test novel therapeutics. PMID:24839101

  7. Metabolic Bone Disease in Viral Cirrhosis: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Goubraim, Rabia; Kabbaj, Nawal; Salihoun, Mouna; Chaoui, Zakia; Nya, M'Hamed; Amrani, Naima

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim. Metabolic Bone disorders are well-recognized extrahepatic complications of cirrhosis. The aim was to report their prevalence and the associated factors to their development in patients with viral cirrhosis. Patients and Methods. All consecutive patients with viral cirrhosis were prospectively enrolled. Parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, liver function, and phosphocalcic tests were measured in all patients. Bone mineral density was measured at the lumbar spine and total hip by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results. Forty-six cirrhotic patients were included with hepatitis C (87%) and hepatitis B (13%). The Child-Pugh score was grade A in 87% of cases and grade B in 13%. Thirty-seven patients had decreased bone mineral density with osteopenia in 24 patients and osteoporosis in 13 patients. Decreased 25-hydroxyvitamin D was found in 95.6% of cases. Bone disorders were significantly more frequent in old patients with low body mass index, long duration of liver disease, and low 25-hydroxyvitamin D level. None of these factors was an independent factor associated with bone disorders. Conclusion. Our study revealed a high prevalence of metabolic bone disorders among viral cirrhotic patients. Consequently, bone mineral density assessment should be performed systematically in all cirrhotic patients.

  8. Stochastical modeling for Viral Disease: Statistical Mechanics and Network Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hao; Deem, Michael

    2007-04-01

    Theoretical methods of statistical mechanics are developed and applied to study the immunological response against viral disease, such as dengue. We use this theory to show how the immune response to four different dengue serotypes may be sculpted. It is the ability of avian influenza, to change and to mix, that has given rise to the fear of a new human flu pandemic. Here we propose to utilize a scale free network based stochastic model to investigate the mitigation strategies and analyze the risk.

  9. Using multitype branching processes to quantify statistics of disease outbreaks in zoonotic epidemics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sarabjeet; Schneider, David J.; Myers, Christopher R.

    2014-03-01

    Branching processes have served as a model for chemical reactions, biological growth processes, and contagion (of disease, information, or fads). Through this connection, these seemingly different physical processes share some common universalities that can be elucidated by analyzing the underlying branching process. In this work we focus on coupled branching processes as a model of infectious diseases spreading from one population to another. An exceedingly important example of such coupled outbreaks are zoonotic infections that spill over from animal populations to humans. We derive several statistical quantities characterizing the first spillover event from animals to humans, including the probability of spillover, the first passage time distribution for human infection, and disease prevalence in the animal population at spillover. Large stochastic fluctuations in those quantities can make inference of the state of the system at the time of spillover difficult. Focusing on outbreaks in the human population, we then characterize the critical threshold for a large outbreak, the distribution of outbreak sizes, and associated scaling laws. These all show a strong dependence on the basic reproduction number in the animal population and indicate the existence of a novel multicritical point with altered scaling behavior. The coupling of animal and human infection dynamics has crucial implications, most importantly allowing for the possibility of large human outbreaks even when human-to-human transmission is subcritical.

  10. Comparison of Statistical Algorithms for the Detection of Infectious Disease Outbreaks in Large Multiple Surveillance Systems.

    PubMed

    Enki, Doyo G; Garthwaite, Paul H; Farrington, C Paddy; Noufaily, Angela; Andrews, Nick J; Charlett, Andre

    2016-01-01

    A large-scale multiple surveillance system for infectious disease outbreaks has been in operation in England and Wales since the early 1990s. Changes to the statistical algorithm at the heart of the system were proposed and the purpose of this paper is to compare two new algorithms with the original algorithm. Test data to evaluate performance are created from weekly counts of the number of cases of each of more than 2000 diseases over a twenty-year period. The time series of each disease is separated into one series giving the baseline (background) disease incidence and a second series giving disease outbreaks. One series is shifted forward by twelve months and the two are then recombined, giving a realistic series in which it is known where outbreaks have been added. The metrics used to evaluate performance include a scoring rule that appropriately balances sensitivity against specificity and is sensitive to variation in probabilities near 1. In the context of disease surveillance, a scoring rule can be adapted to reflect the size of outbreaks and this was done. Results indicate that the two new algorithms are comparable to each other and better than the algorithm they were designed to replace. PMID:27513749

  11. Comparison of Statistical Algorithms for the Detection of Infectious Disease Outbreaks in Large Multiple Surveillance Systems

    PubMed Central

    Farrington, C. Paddy; Noufaily, Angela; Andrews, Nick J.; Charlett, Andre

    2016-01-01

    A large-scale multiple surveillance system for infectious disease outbreaks has been in operation in England and Wales since the early 1990s. Changes to the statistical algorithm at the heart of the system were proposed and the purpose of this paper is to compare two new algorithms with the original algorithm. Test data to evaluate performance are created from weekly counts of the number of cases of each of more than 2000 diseases over a twenty-year period. The time series of each disease is separated into one series giving the baseline (background) disease incidence and a second series giving disease outbreaks. One series is shifted forward by twelve months and the two are then recombined, giving a realistic series in which it is known where outbreaks have been added. The metrics used to evaluate performance include a scoring rule that appropriately balances sensitivity against specificity and is sensitive to variation in probabilities near 1. In the context of disease surveillance, a scoring rule can be adapted to reflect the size of outbreaks and this was done. Results indicate that the two new algorithms are comparable to each other and better than the algorithm they were designed to replace. PMID:27513749

  12. Update on oral Chagas disease outbreaks in Venezuela: epidemiological, clinical and diagnostic approaches

    PubMed Central

    de Noya, Belkisyolé Alarcón; Díaz-Bello, Zoraida; Colmenares, Cecilia; Ruiz-Guevara, Raiza; Mauriello, Luciano; Muñoz-Calderón, Arturo; Noya, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Orally transmitted Chagas disease has become a matter of concern due to outbreaks reported in four Latin American countries. Although several mechanisms for orally transmitted Chagas disease transmission have been proposed, food and beverages contaminated with whole infected triatomines or their faeces, which contain metacyclic trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, seems to be the primary vehicle. In 2007, the first recognised outbreak of orally transmitted Chagas disease occurred in Venezuela and largest recorded outbreak at that time. Since then, 10 outbreaks (four in Caracas) with 249 cases (73.5% children) and 4% mortality have occurred. The absence of contact with the vector and of traditional cutaneous and Romana’s signs, together with a florid spectrum of clinical manifestations during the acute phase, confuse the diagnosis of orally transmitted Chagas disease with other infectious diseases. The simultaneous detection of IgG and IgM by ELISA and the search for parasites in all individuals at risk have been valuable diagnostic tools for detecting acute cases. Follow-up studies regarding the microepidemics primarily affecting children has resulted in 70% infection persistence six years after anti-parasitic treatment. Panstrongylus geniculatus has been the incriminating vector in most cases. As a food-borne disease, this entity requires epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches that differ from those approaches used for traditional direct or cutaneous vector transmission. PMID:25946155

  13. Clinical Disease Severity of Respiratory Viral Co-Infection versus Single Viral Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Asner, Sandra A.; Science, Michelle E.; Tran, Dat; Smieja, Marek; Merglen, Arnaud; Mertz, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    Background Results from cohort studies evaluating the severity of respiratory viral co-infections are conflicting. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the clinical severity of viral co-infections as compared to single viral respiratory infections. Methods We searched electronic databases and other sources for studies published up to January 28, 2013. We included observational studies on inpatients with respiratory illnesses comparing the clinical severity of viral co-infections to single viral infections as detected by molecular assays. The primary outcome reflecting clinical disease severity was length of hospital stay (LOS). A random-effects model was used to conduct the meta-analyses. Results Twenty-one studies involving 4,280 patients were included. The overall quality of evidence applying the GRADE approach ranged from moderate for oxygen requirements to low for all other outcomes. No significant differences in length of hospital stay (LOS) (mean difference (MD) −0.20 days, 95% CI −0.94, 0.53, p = 0.59), or mortality (RR 2.44, 95% CI 0.86, 6.91, p = 0.09) were documented in subjects with viral co-infections compared to those with a single viral infection. There was no evidence for differences in effects across age subgroups in post hoc analyses with the exception of the higher mortality in preschool children (RR 9.82, 95% CI 3.09, 31.20, p<0.001) with viral co-infection as compared to other age groups (I2 for subgroup analysis 64%, p = 0.04). Conclusions No differences in clinical disease severity between viral co-infections and single respiratory infections were documented. The suggested increased risk of mortality observed amongst children with viral co-infections requires further investigation. PMID:24932493

  14. Transmission Dynamics and Final Epidemic Size of Ebola Virus Disease Outbreaks with Varying Interventions.

    PubMed

    Barbarossa, Maria Vittoria; Dénes, Attila; Kiss, Gábor; Nakata, Yukihiko; Röst, Gergely; Vizi, Zsolt

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa was the largest and longest ever reported since the first identification of this disease. We propose a compartmental model for EVD dynamics, including virus transmission in the community, at hospitals, and at funerals. Using time-dependent parameters, we incorporate the increasing intensity of intervention efforts. Fitting the system to the early phase of the 2014 West Africa Ebola outbreak, we estimate the basic reproduction number as 1.44. We derive a final size relation which allows us to forecast the total number of cases during the outbreak when effective interventions are in place. Our model predictions show that, as long as cases are reported in any country, intervention strategies cannot be dismissed. Since the main driver in the current slowdown of the epidemic is not the depletion of susceptibles, future waves of infection might be possible, if control measures or population behavior are relaxed. PMID:26197242

  15. Transmission Dynamics and Final Epidemic Size of Ebola Virus Disease Outbreaks with Varying Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Barbarossa, Maria Vittoria; Dénes, Attila; Kiss, Gábor; Nakata, Yukihiko; Röst, Gergely; Vizi, Zsolt

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa was the largest and longest ever reported since the first identification of this disease. We propose a compartmental model for EVD dynamics, including virus transmission in the community, at hospitals, and at funerals. Using time-dependent parameters, we incorporate the increasing intensity of intervention efforts. Fitting the system to the early phase of the 2014 West Africa Ebola outbreak, we estimate the basic reproduction number as 1.44. We derive a final size relation which allows us to forecast the total number of cases during the outbreak when effective interventions are in place. Our model predictions show that, as long as cases are reported in any country, intervention strategies cannot be dismissed. Since the main driver in the current slowdown of the epidemic is not the depletion of susceptibles, future waves of infection might be possible, if control measures or population behavior are relaxed. PMID:26197242

  16. Disease outbreak detection through clique covering on a weighted ICPC-coded graph.

    PubMed

    van Vuurden, Klaske; Hartvigsen, Gunnar; Bellika, Johan Gustav

    2008-01-01

    Even after a decade of increased research into the problem of detecting disease outbreaks, we lack a system that can limit the number of patients affected by a potential epidemic by recognising its existence at an early stage. In this paper we suggest the use of a weighted graph representing symptoms with an exceptionally high prevalence. Cliques with high weighted edges in such a graph will represent groups of symptoms that occur together more often than usual. As a result each clique will represent the main symptoms of a disease with a high incidence rate. This will make it easier to diagnose the nature of an outbreak, to reach the affected patients at an early stage and to distinguish between outbreaks occurring simultaneously. PMID:18487743

  17. EWORS: using a syndromic-based surveillance tool for disease outbreak detection in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Siswoyo, Hadi; Permana, Meda; Larasati, Ria P; Farid, Jeffryman; Suryadi, Asep; Sedyaningsih, Endang R

    2008-01-01

    Background Electronic syndromic surveillance for early outbreak detection may be a simple, effective tool to rapidly bring reliable and actionable outbreak data to the attention of public health authorities in the developing world. Methods Twenty-nine signs and symptoms from patients with conditions compatible with infectious diseases are collected from selected Provincial hospitals and analyzed daily. Data is e-mailed on a daily basis to a central data management and analysis center. Automated data analysis may be viewed at the hospital or the Early Warning Outbreak Response System (EWORS) hub at the central level (National Institute of Health Research and Development/NIHRD). Conclusion The Indonesian Ministry of Health (MoH) has adopted EWORS since 2006 and will use it as a complementary surveillance tool in wider catchment areas throughout the country. Socialization to more users is still being conducted under collaboration of three Directorate Generals (DGs) of the MoH; DG of NIHRD, DG of Medical Services and DG of Communicable Disease Control and Prevention. Currently, EWORS is being adapted to facilitate detecting a potential outbreak of pandemic influenza in the region, and automated procedures for outbreak detection have been added. PMID:19025680

  18. Evolutionary Events Associated with an Outbreak of Meningococcal Disease in Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Becher, Dörte; Deghmane, Ala-Eddine; Frosch, Matthias; Hellenbrand, Wiebke; Hong, Eva; Parent du Châtelet, Isabelle; Prior, Karola; Harmsen, Dag; Vogel, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Meningococci spread via respiratory droplets, whereas the closely related gonococci are transmitted sexually. Several outbreaks of invasive meningococcal disease have been reported in Europe and the United States among men who have sex with men (MSM). We recently identified an outbreak of serogroup C meningococcal disease among MSM in Germany and France. In this study, genomic and proteomic techniques were used to analyze the outbreak isolates. In addition, genetically identical urethritis isolates were recovered from France and Germany and included in the analysis. Genome sequencing revealed that the isolates from the outbreak among MSM and from urethritis cases belonged to a clade within clonal complex 11. Proteome analysis showed they expressed nitrite reductase, enabling anaerobic growth as previously described for gonococci. Invasive isolates from MSM, but not urethritis isolates, further expressed functional human factor H binding protein associated with enhanced survival in a newly developed transgenic mouse model expressing human factor H, a complement regulatory protein. In conclusion, our data suggest that urethritis and outbreak isolates followed a joint adaptation route including adaption to the urogenital tract. PMID:27167067

  19. Animal Models of CNS Viral Disease: Examples from Borna Disease Virus Models

    PubMed Central

    Solbrig, Marylou V.

    2010-01-01

    Borna disease (BD), caused by the neurotropic RNA virus, Borna Disease virus, is an affliction ranging from asymptomatic to fatal meningoencephalitis across naturally and experimentally infected warmblooded (mammalian and bird) species. More than 100 years after the first clinical descriptions of Borna disease in horses and studies beginning in the 1980's linking Borna disease virus to human neuropsychiatric diseases, experimentally infected rodents have been used as models for examining behavioral, neuropharmacological, and neurochemical responses to viral challenge at different stages of life. These studies have contributed to understanding the role of CNS viral injury in vulnerability to behavioral, developmental, epileptic, and neurodegenerative diseases and aided evaluation of the proposed and still controversial links to human disease. PMID:20204069

  20. SURVEILLANCE FOR WATERBORNE-DISEASE OUTBREAKS - UNITED STATES, 1999-2000

    EPA Science Inventory

    PROBLEM/CONDITION: Since 1971, CDC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) have maintained a collaborative surveillance system for the occurrences and causes of waterborne-disease outbreaks (WBDOs).This surv...

  1. SURVEILLANCE FOR WATERBORNE-DISEASE OUTBREAKS-UNITED STATES, 1997-1998

    EPA Science Inventory

    PROBLEM/CONDITION: Since 1971, CDC and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have maintained a collaborative surveillance system for collecting and periodically reporting data relating to occurrences and causes of waterborne-disease outbreaks (WBDOs). REPORTING PERIOD CO...

  2. Using multitype branching processes to quantify statistics of disease outbreaks in zoonotic epidemics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the enormous relevance of zoonotic infections to world-wide public health, and despite much effort in modeling individual zoonoses, a fundamental understanding of the disease dynamics and the nature of outbreaks emanating from such a complex system is still lacking. We introduce a simple sto...

  3. YELLOW-BLOTCH DISEASE OUTBREAK ON REEFS OF THE SAN BLAS ISLANDS, PANAMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the post-8th International Coral Reef Symposium field trip to the eastern Caribbean region of Panama, 3-5 July 1996, we observed an extensive outbreak of a new and significant disease of the scleractinian corals Montastraea faveolata and M. annularis. The first reported si...

  4. Using Earth Observation to Forecast Human and Animal Vector-Borne Disease Outbreaks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Earth observing technologies, including data from with earth-orbiting satellites, coupled with new investigations and a better understanding of the impact of environmental factors on transmission dynamics of mosquito-borne diseases permitted us to forecast Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks in animal...

  5. SURVEILLANCE AND INVESTIGATION OF WATERBORNE DISEASE OUTBREAKS - VOLUME II: SELECTED REPRINTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work consists of two volumes. olume I is a series of articles based on selected presentations made at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Association of State Drinking Water Administrators Workshop on Methods for Investigation of Water borne Disease Outbreaks ...

  6. Succesive outbreaks of Marek's Disease in brown commercial layer chickens on the same farm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease was diagnosed based on clinical signs, gross and histopathology in 15 to 17 week-old in February of 2012 and in 10 to 13-week-old Brown laying-type chickens in December of 2012 on the same farm. The outbreak involved all the 16 houses on the farm with each house containing 20,000 chi...

  7. Viral Outbreak in Corals Associated with an In Situ Bleaching Event: Atypical Herpes-Like Viruses and a New Megavirus Infecting Symbiodinium

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Adrienne M. S.; Ainsworth, Tracy D.; Rosales, Stephanie M.; Thurber, Andrew R.; Butler, Christopher R.; Vega Thurber, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of coral viruses have employed either microscopy or metagenomics, but few have attempted to comprehensively link the presence of a virus-like particle (VLP) to a genomic sequence. We conducted transmission electron microscopy imaging and virome analysis in tandem to characterize the most conspicuous viral types found within the dominant Pacific reef-building coral genus Acropora. Collections for this study inadvertently captured what we interpret as a natural outbreak of viral infection driven by aerial exposure of the reef flat coincident with heavy rainfall and concomitant mass bleaching. All experimental corals in this study had high titers of viral particles. Three of the dominant VLPs identified were observed in all tissue layers and budding out from the epidermis, including viruses that were ∼70, ∼120, and ∼150 nm in diameter; these VLPs all contained electron dense cores. These morphological traits are reminiscent of retroviruses, herpesviruses, and nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs), respectively. Some 300–500 nm megavirus-like VLPs also were observed within and associated with dinoflagellate algal endosymbiont (Symbiodinium) cells. Abundant sequence similarities to a gammaretrovirus, herpesviruses, and members of the NCLDVs, based on a virome generated from five Acropora aspera colonies, corroborated these morphology-based identifications. Additionally sequence similarities to two diagnostic genes, a MutS and (based on re-annotation of sequences from another study) a DNA polymerase B gene, most closely resembled Pyramimonas orientalis virus, demonstrating the association of a cosmopolitan megavirus with Symbiodinium. We also identified several other virus-like particles in host tissues, along with sequences phylogenetically similar to circoviruses, phages, and filamentous viruses. This study suggests that viral outbreaks may be a common but previously undocumented component of natural bleaching events, particularly

  8. Viral Outbreak in Corals Associated with an In Situ Bleaching Event: Atypical Herpes-Like Viruses and a New Megavirus Infecting Symbiodinium.

    PubMed

    Correa, Adrienne M S; Ainsworth, Tracy D; Rosales, Stephanie M; Thurber, Andrew R; Butler, Christopher R; Vega Thurber, Rebecca L

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of coral viruses have employed either microscopy or metagenomics, but few have attempted to comprehensively link the presence of a virus-like particle (VLP) to a genomic sequence. We conducted transmission electron microscopy imaging and virome analysis in tandem to characterize the most conspicuous viral types found within the dominant Pacific reef-building coral genus Acropora. Collections for this study inadvertently captured what we interpret as a natural outbreak of viral infection driven by aerial exposure of the reef flat coincident with heavy rainfall and concomitant mass bleaching. All experimental corals in this study had high titers of viral particles. Three of the dominant VLPs identified were observed in all tissue layers and budding out from the epidermis, including viruses that were ∼70, ∼120, and ∼150 nm in diameter; these VLPs all contained electron dense cores. These morphological traits are reminiscent of retroviruses, herpesviruses, and nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs), respectively. Some 300-500 nm megavirus-like VLPs also were observed within and associated with dinoflagellate algal endosymbiont (Symbiodinium) cells. Abundant sequence similarities to a gammaretrovirus, herpesviruses, and members of the NCLDVs, based on a virome generated from five Acropora aspera colonies, corroborated these morphology-based identifications. Additionally sequence similarities to two diagnostic genes, a MutS and (based on re-annotation of sequences from another study) a DNA polymerase B gene, most closely resembled Pyramimonas orientalis virus, demonstrating the association of a cosmopolitan megavirus with Symbiodinium. We also identified several other virus-like particles in host tissues, along with sequences phylogenetically similar to circoviruses, phages, and filamentous viruses. This study suggests that viral outbreaks may be a common but previously undocumented component of natural bleaching events, particularly

  9. Using social media for actionable disease surveillance and outbreak management. A systematic literature review

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Charles-Smith, Lauren E.; Reynolds, Tera L.; Cameron, Mark A.; Conway, Mike; Lau, Eric H. Y.; Olsen, Jennifer M.; Pavlin, Julie A.; Shigematsu, Mika; Streichert, Laura C.; Suda, Katie J.; et al

    2015-10-05

    Here, research studies show that social media may be valuable tools in the disease surveillance toolkit used for improving public health professionals’ ability to detect disease outbreaks faster than traditional methods and to enhance outbreak response. A social media work group, consisting of surveillance practitioners, academic researchers, and other subject matter experts convened by the International Society for Disease Surveillance, conducted a systematic primary literature review using the PRISMA framework to identify research, published through February 2013, answering either of the following questions: 1) Can social media be integrated into disease surveillance practice and outbreak management to support and improvemore » public health? 2) Can social media be used to effectively target populations, specifically vulnerable populations, to test an intervention and interact with a community to improve health outcomes? Examples of social media included are Facebook, MySpace, microblogs (e.g., Twitter), blogs, and discussion forums. For Question 1, 33 manuscripts were identified, starting in 2009 with topics on Influenza-like Illnesses (n=15), Infectious Diseases (n = 6), Non-infectious Diseases (n=4), Medication and Vaccines (n=3), and Other (n=5). For Question 2, 32 manuscripts were identified, the first in 2000 with topics on Health Risk Behaviors (n=10), Infectious Diseases (n = 3), Non-infectious Diseases (n=9), and Other (n=10). The literature on the use of social media to support public health practice has identified many gaps and biases in current knowledge. Despite the potential for success identified in exploratory studies, there are limited studies on interventions and little use of social media in practice. However, information gleaned from the articles demonstrates the effectiveness of social media in supporting and improving public health and in identifying target populations for intervention. A primary recommendation resulting from the review

  10. Using Social Media for Actionable Disease Surveillance and Outbreak Management: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Charles-Smith, Lauren E.; Reynolds, Tera L.; Cameron, Mark A.; Conway, Mike; Lau, Eric H. Y.; Olsen, Jennifer M.; Pavlin, Julie A.; Shigematsu, Mika; Streichert, Laura C.; Suda, Katie J.; Corley, Courtney D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Research studies show that social media may be valuable tools in the disease surveillance toolkit used for improving public health professionals’ ability to detect disease outbreaks faster than traditional methods and to enhance outbreak response. A social media work group, consisting of surveillance practitioners, academic researchers, and other subject matter experts convened by the International Society for Disease Surveillance, conducted a systematic primary literature review using the PRISMA framework to identify research, published through February 2013, answering either of the following questions: Can social media be integrated into disease surveillance practice and outbreak management to support and improve public health? Can social media be used to effectively target populations, specifically vulnerable populations, to test an intervention and interact with a community to improve health outcomes? Examples of social media included are Facebook, MySpace, microblogs (e.g., Twitter), blogs, and discussion forums. For Question 1, 33 manuscripts were identified, starting in 2009 with topics on Influenza-like Illnesses (n = 15), Infectious Diseases (n = 6), Non-infectious Diseases (n = 4), Medication and Vaccines (n = 3), and Other (n = 5). For Question 2, 32 manuscripts were identified, the first in 2000 with topics on Health Risk Behaviors (n = 10), Infectious Diseases (n = 3), Non-infectious Diseases (n = 9), and Other (n = 10). Conclusions The literature on the use of social media to support public health practice has identified many gaps and biases in current knowledge. Despite the potential for success identified in exploratory studies, there are limited studies on interventions and little use of social media in practice. However, information gleaned from the articles demonstrates the effectiveness of social media in supporting and improving public health and in identifying target populations for intervention. A primary recommendation resulting

  11. Using social media for actionable disease surveillance and outbreak management. A systematic literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Charles-Smith, Lauren E.; Reynolds, Tera L.; Cameron, Mark A.; Conway, Mike; Lau, Eric H. Y.; Olsen, Jennifer M.; Pavlin, Julie A.; Shigematsu, Mika; Streichert, Laura C.; Suda, Katie J.; Corley, Courtney D.; Braunstein, Lidia Adriana

    2015-10-05

    Here, research studies show that social media may be valuable tools in the disease surveillance toolkit used for improving public health professionals’ ability to detect disease outbreaks faster than traditional methods and to enhance outbreak response. A social media work group, consisting of surveillance practitioners, academic researchers, and other subject matter experts convened by the International Society for Disease Surveillance, conducted a systematic primary literature review using the PRISMA framework to identify research, published through February 2013, answering either of the following questions: 1) Can social media be integrated into disease surveillance practice and outbreak management to support and improve public health? 2) Can social media be used to effectively target populations, specifically vulnerable populations, to test an intervention and interact with a community to improve health outcomes? Examples of social media included are Facebook, MySpace, microblogs (e.g., Twitter), blogs, and discussion forums. For Question 1, 33 manuscripts were identified, starting in 2009 with topics on Influenza-like Illnesses (n=15), Infectious Diseases (n = 6), Non-infectious Diseases (n=4), Medication and Vaccines (n=3), and Other (n=5). For Question 2, 32 manuscripts were identified, the first in 2000 with topics on Health Risk Behaviors (n=10), Infectious Diseases (n = 3), Non-infectious Diseases (n=9), and Other (n=10). The literature on the use of social media to support public health practice has identified many gaps and biases in current knowledge. Despite the potential for success identified in exploratory studies, there are limited studies on interventions and little use of social media in practice. However, information gleaned from the articles demonstrates the effectiveness of social media in supporting and improving public health and in identifying target populations for intervention. A primary recommendation resulting from the review is to

  12. Prediction of Dengue Outbreaks Based on Disease Surveillance and Meteorological Data

    PubMed Central

    Ramadona, Aditya Lia; Lazuardi, Lutfan; Hii, Yien Ling; Holmner, Åsa; Kusnanto, Hari; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2016-01-01

    Research is needed to create early warnings of dengue outbreaks to inform stakeholders and control the disease. This analysis composes of a comparative set of prediction models including only meteorological variables; only lag variables of disease surveillance; as well as combinations of meteorological and lag disease surveillance variables. Generalized linear regression models were used to fit relationships between the predictor variables and the dengue surveillance data as outcome variable on the basis of data from 2001 to 2010. Data from 2011 to 2013 were used for external validation purposed of prediction accuracy of the model. Model fit were evaluated based on prediction performance in terms of detecting epidemics, and for number of predicted cases according to RMSE and SRMSE, as well as AIC. An optimal combination of meteorology and autoregressive lag terms of dengue counts in the past were identified best in predicting dengue incidence and the occurrence of dengue epidemics. Past data on disease surveillance, as predictor alone, visually gave reasonably accurate results for outbreak periods, but not for non-outbreaks periods. A combination of surveillance and meteorological data including lag patterns up to a few years in the past showed most predictive of dengue incidence and occurrence in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The external validation showed poorer results than the internal validation, but still showed skill in detecting outbreaks up to two months ahead. Prior studies support the fact that past meteorology and surveillance data can be predictive of dengue. However, to a less extent has prior research shown how the longer-term past disease incidence data, up to years, can play a role in predicting outbreaks in the coming years, possibly indicating cross-immunity status of the population. PMID:27031524

  13. [Significance of Salmonella enteritidis in outbreaks of diseases transmitted by foods in Argentina, 1986-1988].

    PubMed

    Eiguer, T; Caffer, M I; Fronchkowsky, G B

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the outbreaks of food-borne-diseases due to Salmonella Enteritidis which occurred in Argentina between 1986 and 1988. In 39 registered episodes 210 strains were isolated from human feces (28 outbreaks) and 59 from food (23 outbreaks). More than 2,500 people in different provinces were affected, the chief characteristics of the clinical picture being the gravity of the symptoms (high temperature, vomiting, diarrhea and severe dehydration). The main source of infection was related to raw eggs, eaten in the form of home-made mayonnaise. It is considered necessary to carry out an effective control of poultry products, as well as a permanent surveillance of salmonellosis. PMID:2274662

  14. A Framework for Categorization of the Economic Impacts of Outbreaks of Highly Contagious Livestock Diseases.

    PubMed

    Saatkamp, H W; Mourits, M C M; Howe, K S

    2016-08-01

    A framework for categorization of economic impacts of outbreaks of highly contagious livestock diseases (HCLD) is presented. This framework interprets veterinary measures to control HCLD outbreaks with reference to economic definitions of costs and benefits, and the implications for value losses both for different stakeholders affected and society as a whole. Four cost categories are identified, that is virus control-related direct costs (DC), spread prevention and zoning-related direct consequential costs (DCC), market and price disruption-related costs during (indirect consequential costs, ICC) and after the outbreak (aftermath costs, AC). The framework is used to review existing literature on cost estimation for different stakeholders. This review shows considerable differences between studies, making comparison of results difficult and susceptible to misunderstanding. It is concluded that the framework provides a logical basis for all future analyses of the economic impacts of HCLD. PMID:25382248

  15. Serogroup C meningococcal disease outbreak associated with discotheque attendance during carnival.

    PubMed Central

    Hauri, A. M.; Ehrhard, I.; Frank, U.; Ammer, J.; Fell, G.; Hamouda, O.; Petersen, L.

    2000-01-01

    In the week following a carnival during 19-24 February 1998, an outbreak of meningococcal disease occurred in a rural German county. The available isolates belonged to phenotype C:2a:P1.2,5 and were clonally related by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. A case-control study was done to identify risk factors for the outbreak and to define possible vaccination target groups. Five persons aged 13-16 years who fell ill during 24-27 February were included in the study. Four of 5 cases and 10 of 32 controls visited local discotheques (OR = 8.8; P = 0.06). Cases also visited discotheques more frequently than controls (chi2 for trend, P = 0.0002). Multiple discotheques during the carnival may have been predominant locations of transmission in this outbreak. Because this risk factor was limited in time, a mass community vaccination campaign was not initiated. PMID:10722132

  16. A system for automated outbreak detection of communicable diseases in Germany.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Maëlle; Schumacher, Dirk; Burmann, Hendrik; Frank, Christina; Claus, Hermann; Höhle, Michael

    2016-03-31

    We describe the design and implementation of a novel automated outbreak detection system in Germany that monitors the routinely collected surveillance data for communicable diseases. Detecting unusually high case counts as early as possible is crucial as an accumulation may indicate an ongoing outbreak. The detection in our system is based on state-of-the-art statistical procedures conducting the necessary data mining task. In addition, we have developed effective methods to improve the presentation of the results of such algorithms to epidemiologists and other system users. The objective was to effectively integrate automatic outbreak detection into the epidemiological workflow of a public health institution. Since 2013, the system has been in routine use at the German Robert Koch Institute. PMID:27063588

  17. Auditing the management of vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks: the need for a tool.

    PubMed

    Torner, Nuria; Carnicer-Pont, Dolors; Castilla, Jesus; Cayla, Joan; Godoy, Pere; Dominguez, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Public health activities, especially infectious disease control, depend on effective teamwork. We present the results of a pilot audit questionnaire aimed at assessing the quality of public health services in the management of VPD outbreaks. Audit questionnaire with three main areas indicators (structure, process and results) was developed. Guidelines were set and each indicator was assessed by three auditors. Differences in indicator scores according to median size of outbreaks were determined by ANOVA (significance at p≤0.05). Of 154 outbreaks; eighteen indicators had a satisfactory mean score, indicator "updated guidelines" and "timely reporting" had a poor mean score (2.84±106 and 2.44±1.67, respectively). Statistically significant differences were found according to outbreak size, in the indicators "availability of guidelines/protocol updated less than 3 years ago" (p = 0.03) and "days needed for outbreak control" (p = 0.04). Improving availability of updated guidelines, enhancing timely reporting and adequate recording of control procedures taken is needed to allow for management assessment and improvement. PMID:21249188

  18. Auditing the Management of Vaccine-Preventable Disease Outbreaks: The Need for a Tool

    PubMed Central

    Torner, Nuria; Carnicer-Pont, Dolors; Castilla, Jesus; Cayla, Joan; Godoy, Pere; Dominguez, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Public health activities, especially infectious disease control, depend on effective teamwork. We present the results of a pilot audit questionnaire aimed at assessing the quality of public health services in the management of VPD outbreaks. Audit questionnaire with three main areas indicators (structure, process and results) was developed. Guidelines were set and each indicator was assessed by three auditors. Differences in indicator scores according to median size of outbreaks were determined by ANOVA (significance at p≤0.05). Of 154 outbreaks; eighteen indicators had a satisfactory mean score, indicator “updated guidelines” and “timely reporting” had a poor mean score (2.84±106 and 2.44±1.67, respectively). Statistically significant differences were found according to outbreak size, in the indicators “availability of guidelines/protocol updated less than 3 years ago” (p = 0.03) and “days needed for outbreak control” (p = 0.04). Improving availability of updated guidelines, enhancing timely reporting and adequate recording of control procedures taken is needed to allow for management assessment and improvement. PMID:21249188

  19. Estimating the probability of an extinction or major outbreak for an environmentally transmitted infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Lahodny, G E; Gautam, R; Ivanek, R

    2015-01-01

    Indirect transmission through the environment, pathogen shedding by infectious hosts, replication of free-living pathogens within the environment, and environmental decontamination are suspected to play important roles in the spread and control of environmentally transmitted infectious diseases. To account for these factors, the classic Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered-Susceptible epidemic model is modified to include a compartment representing the amount of free-living pathogen within the environment. The model accounts for host demography, direct and indirect transmission, replication of free-living pathogens in the environment, and removal of free-living pathogens by natural death or environmental decontamination. Based on the assumptions of the deterministic model, a continuous-time Markov chain model is developed. An estimate for the probability of disease extinction or a major outbreak is obtained by approximating the Markov chain with a multitype branching process. Numerical simulations illustrate important differences between the deterministic and stochastic counterparts, relevant for outbreak prevention, that depend on indirect transmission, pathogen shedding by infectious hosts, replication of free-living pathogens, and environmental decontamination. The probability of a major outbreak is computed for salmonellosis in a herd of dairy cattle as well as cholera in a human population. An explicit expression for the probability of disease extinction or a major outbreak in terms of the model parameters is obtained for systems with no direct transmission or replication of free-living pathogens. PMID:25198247

  20. Persistent or Slow Viral Infections and Related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Adams, John M.

    1975-01-01

    The discovery of persistent transmissible agents by veterinarians has led to striking advances in the infectious cause of neuropathies of human beings. There is evidence for persisting infection in congenital rubella and the herpes group of viruses including cytomegalovirus infections. Hepatitis types A and B are candidates for inclusion in the category of persisting viral infections. The rubeola or measles virus is established as a persistent virus which causes elevated antibodies in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of many patients with severe demyelinating disease such as subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and multiple sclerosis. Elevated antibodies against vaccinia virus have been found in the cerebrospinal fluid of some patients with multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica, a rare form of multiple sclerosis. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7. PMID:165638

  1. Strengthening epidemiologic investigation of infectious diseases in Korea: lessons from the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Changhwan; Ki, Moran

    2015-01-01

    The recent outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus infection in Korea resulted in large socioeconomic losses. This provoked the Korean government and the general public to recognize the importance of having a well-established system against infectious diseases. Although epidemiologic investigation is one of the most important aspects of prevention, it has been pointed out that much needs to be improved in Korea. We review here the current status of the Korean epidemiologic service and suggest possible supplementation measures. We examine the current national preventive infrastructure, including human resources such as Epidemic Intelligence Service officers, its governmental management, and related policies. In addition, we describe the practical application of these resources to the recent MERS outbreak and the progress in preventive measures. The spread of MERS demonstrated that the general readiness for emerging infectious diseases in Korea is considerably low. We believe that it is essential to increase society’s investment in disease prevention. Fostering public health personnel, legislating management policies, and establishing research centers for emerging infectious diseases are potential solutions. Evaluating international preventive systems, developing cooperative measures, and initiating improvements are necessary. We evaluated the Korean epidemiologic investigation system and the public preventive measures against infectious diseases in light of the recent MERS outbreak. We suggest that governmental authorities in Korea enforce preventive policies, foster the development of highly qualified personnel, and increase investment in the public health domain of infectious disease prevention. PMID:26493654

  2. Thermal Stress and Coral Cover as Drivers of Coral Disease Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, John F; Selig, Elizabeth R; Casey, Kenneth S; Page, Cathie A; Willis, Bette L; Harvell, C. Drew; Sweatman, Hugh; Melendy, Amy M

    2007-01-01

    Very little is known about how environmental changes such as increasing temperature affect disease dynamics in the ocean, especially at large spatial scales. We asked whether the frequency of warm temperature anomalies is positively related to the frequency of coral disease across 1,500 km of Australia's Great Barrier Reef. We used a new high-resolution satellite dataset of ocean temperature and 6 y of coral disease and coral cover data from annual surveys of 48 reefs to answer this question. We found a highly significant relationship between the frequencies of warm temperature anomalies and of white syndrome, an emergent disease, or potentially, a group of diseases, of Pacific reef-building corals. The effect of temperature was highly dependent on coral cover because white syndrome outbreaks followed warm years, but only on high (>50%) cover reefs, suggesting an important role of host density as a threshold for outbreaks. Our results indicate that the frequency of temperature anomalies, which is predicted to increase in most tropical oceans, can increase the susceptibility of corals to disease, leading to outbreaks where corals are abundant. PMID:17488183

  3. Foot & Mouth Disease & Ulcerative/Vesicular Rule-outs: Challenges Encountered in Recent Outbreaks

    SciTech Connect

    Hullinger, P

    2008-01-28

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly infectious and contagious viral disease affecting bovidae (cattle, zebus, domestic buffaloes, yaks), sheep, goats, swine, all wild ruminants and suidae. Camelidae (camels, dromedaries, llamas, vicunas) have low susceptibility. Foot and mouth disease is caused by a RNS virus of the family Picornaviridae, genus Aphthovirus. There are seven immunologically distinct serotypes: A, O, C, SAT1, SAT2, SAT3, Asia 1. Foot and mouth disease causes significant economic loss both to countries who manage it as an endemic disease (with or without vaccination), as well as those FMD free countries which may become infected. The mortality rate is low in adult animals, but often higher in young due to myocarditis. Foot and mouth disease is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, the Middle East and South America (sporadic outbreaks in free areas). The Office of International Epizootics (OIE), also referred to the World Organization for Animal Health maintains an official list of free countries and zones.1 The OIE Terrestrial Code (Chapter 2.2.10) provides detailed information on the categories of freedom that can be allocated to a country as well as guidelines for the surveillance for foot and mouth disease (Appendix 3.8.7). In short, countries may be completely free of FMD, free with vaccination or infected with foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV). Source of FMDV include incubating and clinically affected animals with virus present in breath, saliva, faeces, urine, milk and semen. In experimental settings virus has been detected in milk several days before the onset of clinical signs2. Additional sources of virus are meat and by-products in which pH has remained above 6.0 as well as persistently infected carrier animals. Carrier animals may include cattle and water buffalo; convalescent animals and exposed vaccinates (virus persists in the oropharynx for up to 30 months in cattle or longer in buffalo, 9 months in sheep). Pigs do not become carriers

  4. Effects of vaccination against viral haemorrhagic disease and myxomatosis on long-term mortality rates of European wild rabbits.

    PubMed

    Calvete, C; Estrada, R; Lucientes, J; Osacar, J J; Villafuerte, R

    2004-09-25

    The effects of vaccination against myxomatosis and viral haemorrhagic disease (VHD) on long-term mortality rates in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were studied from 1993 to 1996 by radiotracking a free-living population of wild rabbits. During the three months after immunisation, unvaccinated young rabbits weighing between 180 and 600 g were 13.6 times more likely to die than vaccinated young rabbits. In adult rabbits, vaccination did not significantly decrease mortality, mainly owing to the high proportion of rabbits which had previously been exposed to the antigens of both diseases. Compared with adult rabbits with natural antibodies to VHD, rabbits without these antibodies were 5.2 times more likely to die of VHD during annual outbreaks. PMID:15499810

  5. Receptor modification as a therapeutic approach against viral diseases

    PubMed Central

    Farid, Rabia; Khan, Mohammad Haroon; Rashid, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Poliovirus causes flaccid paralysis through the destruction of motor neurons in the CNS. Susceptibility to its infection is mainly due to the interaction in between the surface capsid proteins and its receptors on the host cell surface, important for binding, penetration and other necessary events during early infection. Receptor modification is a new approach to treat viral diseases by the modification of target proteins structure. Binding domains are modified in an effective way to make it difficult for the virus to recognize it. In this study, tolerant and intolerant induced mutations in the poliovirus receptor, VP1 and VP2 were identified and substituted in the seed sequence to get the modified versions. Substitutions causing changes in initial folding were short listed and further analyzed for high level folding, physiochemical properties and interactions. Highest RMSD values were observed in between the seed and the mutant K90F (3.265 Å) and Q130W (3.270Å) respectively. The proposed substitutions were found to have low functional impact and thus can be further tested and validated by the experimental researchers. Interactions analyses proved most of the substitutions having decreased affinity for both the VP1 and VP2 and thus are of significant importance against poliovirus. This study will play an important role for bridging computational biology to other fields of applied biology and also will provide an insight to develop resistance against viral diseases. It is also expected that same approach can also be applicable against other viruses like HCV, HIV and other in near future. PMID:22553391

  6. Outbreak of nontuberculous mycobacterial disease in the central Pacific.

    PubMed

    Lillis, Joseph V; Ansdell, David

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 10% of the island population of Satowan (population, 650 persons), a small, remote coral island in the central Pacific, suffers from an acquired, chronic, disfiguring skin condition known locally as "spam." This skin disease has affected the island population since shortly after World War II. An investigation in 2007 revealed that this skin disease is caused by a nontuberculous mycobacterial infection closely related to Mycobacterium marinum. This article reviews the fascinating history of this skin disease on Satowan, its distinctive clinical presentation, and recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of clinically similar skin lesions in Pacific Islanders. PMID:21095522

  7. International employees' concerns during serious disease outbreaks and the potential impact on business continuity: Lessons identified from the 2014-15 West African Ebola outbreak.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jennifer; Watkins, Chris

    This paper presents the findings of research carried out into the information-seeking behaviour, and information requirements of a small sample of international workers stationed in West Africa during the Zaire Ebola virus outbreak of 2014-15. The research study under which these results were obtained was part of exploratory research for a PhD focused on the use, and potential uses, of social media platforms during serious disease outbreaks that might be used to inform policy planning for public health and emergency response interventions. Thus, the findings from this study may provide valuable insights to business continuity managers and emergency planners in making future decisions about information exchange and crisis decision-making during future serious disease outbreaks. PMID:26642172

  8. Viral haemorrhagic disease of rabbits and human health.

    PubMed Central

    Carman, J. A.; Garner, M. G.; Catton, M. G.; Thomas, S.; Westbury, H. A.; Cannon, R. M.; Collins, B. J.; Tribe, I. G.

    1998-01-01

    Viral haemorrhagic disease of rabbits (VHD), a potential biological control for wild rabbits in Australia and New Zealand, escaped from quarantined field trials on Wardang Island and spread to the mainland of Australia in October 1995. This study looked for any evidence of infection or illness in people occupationally exposed to the virus. Two hundred and sixty-nine people were interviewed and 259 blood samples were collected. Exposures to VHD-infected rabbits ranged from nil to very high. No VHD antibodies were detected in any of the 259 sera when tested by VHD competitive enzyme immunoassay, which had been validated with 1013 VHDV-specific antibody negative sera. A questionnaire designed to elicit symptoms of disease in a range of organ systems found no significant differences between illness in those exposed and those not exposed to VHD, nor could an association be found between exposure and subsequent episodes of illness. The findings are consistent with the view that exposure to VHD is not associated with infection or disease in humans. PMID:9825794

  9. Comparative analysis of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus strains originating from outbreaks in the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Burmakina, Galina; Malogolovkina, Nina; Lunitsin, Andrey; Titov, Ilya; Tsybanov, Sodnom; Malogolovkin, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    Since the first introduction of rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) in 1986, disease outbreaks have been continuously reported in different regions of Russia. Despite extensive vaccination, sporadic RHD cases are still reported. Here, we examine eleven RHDV strains originating from disease outbreaks occurring between 2003 and 2012 and one widely used vaccine strain. Notable phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity among RHDV strains was observed. The RHDV strains Tambov-2010, Perm-2010, Manihino-09 showed different hemagglutinating activity (HA) at 4 °C and room temperature. While all RHDV field strains were identified as hemagglutinating virulent viruses of the RHDVa variant, the vaccine strain was assigned as a "classical" RHDV. These data indicate that since 2003, RHDVa has become the predominant variant circulating in Russia. PMID:27094306

  10. An outbreak in 1965 of severe respiratory illness caused by the Legionnaires' disease bacterium.

    PubMed

    Thacker, S B; Bennett, J V; Tsai, T F; Fraser, D W; McDade, J E; Shepard, C C; Williams, K H; Stuart, W H; Dull, H B; Eickhoff, T C

    1978-10-01

    In January 1977 an unsolved outbreak of infection at St. Elizabeth's Hospital (Washington, D.C.) that occurred in 1965 was linked with Legionnaires' disease. The link was made by fluorescent antibody testing with the bacterium isolated from tissues of persons with Legionnaires' disease in the 1976 outbreak in Philadelphia. In July and August 1965, an epidemic of severe respiratory disease characterized by abrupt onset of high fever, weakness, malaise, and nonproductive cough, frequently accompanied by radiographic evidence of pneumonia, affected at least 81 patients at St. Elizabeth's Hospital, a general psychiatric hospital. Fourteen (17%) of the affected patients died. Intensive epidemiologic and laboratory investigations in 1965 did not determine the etiology. The etiologic organism may have become airborne from sites of soil excavation. PMID:361897

  11. Complete genome sequence of acute viral necrosis virus associated with massive mortality outbreaks in the Chinese scallop, Chlamys farreri

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Acute viral necrosis virus (AVNV) is the causative agent of a serious disease resulting in high mortality in cultured Chinese scallops, Chlamys farreri. We have sequenced and analyzed the complete genome of AVNV. Results The AVNV genome is a linear, double-stranded DNA molecule of 210,993 bp with a nucleotide composition of 38.5% G + C. A total of 123 open reading frames were predicted to encode functional proteins, ranging from 41 to 1,878 amino acid residues. The DNA sequence of AVNV is 97% identical to that of ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1), and the amino acid sequences of the encoded proteins of these two viruses are 94-100% identical. The genomic organization of AVNV is similar to that of OsHV-1, and consists of two unique regions (170.4 kb and 3.4 kb, respectively), each flanked by two inverted repeats (7.6 kb and 10.2 kb, respectively), with a third unique region (1.5 kb) situated between the two internal repeats. Conclusions Our results indicate that AVNV is a variant of OsHV-1. The AVNV genome sequence provides information useful for understanding the evolution and divergence of OsHV-1 in marine molluscs. PMID:23566284

  12. Economic effects of foot and mouth disease outbreaks along the cattle marketing chain in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Baluka, Sylvia Angubua

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Disease outbreaks increase the cost of animal production; reduce milk and beef yield, cattle sales, farmers’ incomes, and enterprise profitability. The study assessed the economic effects of foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks along the cattle marketing chain in selected study districts in Uganda. Materials and Methods: The study combined qualitative and quantitative study designs. Respondents were selected proportionally using simple random sampling from the sampling frame comprising of 224, 173, 291, and 185 farmers for Nakasongola, Nakaseke, Isingiro, and Rakai, respectively. Key informants were selected purposively. Data analysis combined descriptive, modeling, and regression analysis. Data on the socio-economic characteristics and how they influenced FMD outbreaks, cattle markets revenue losses, and the economic cost of the outbreaks were analyzed using descriptive measures including percentages, means, and frequencies. Results: Farmers with small and medium herds incurred higher control costs, whereas large herds experienced the highest milk losses. Total income earned by the actors per month at the processing level reduced by 23%. In Isingiro, bulls and cows were salvage sold at 83% and 88% less market value, i.e., a loss of $196.1 and $1,552.9 in small and medium herds, respectively. Conclusion: All actors along the cattle marketing chain incur losses during FMD outbreaks, but smallholder farmers are most affected. Control and prevention of FMD should remain the responsibility of the government if Uganda is to achieve a disease-free status that is a prerequisite for free movement and operation of cattle markets throughout the year which will boost cattle marketing. PMID:27397974

  13. Draft Genome Sequences of Three Flavobacterium psychrophilum Strains Isolated from Coldwater Disease Outbreaks at Three Production Hatcheries

    PubMed Central

    Neiger, Regg; Thomas, Milton; Das, Seema; Barnes, Michael; Fletcher, Brian; Snekvik, Kevin; Thompson, Jim

    2016-01-01

    We report here the genome sequences of three Flavobacterium psychrophilum strains causing a bacterial coldwater disease (BCWD) outbreak, isolated from infected rainbow trout from hatcheries in Montana and South Dakota. The availability of these virulent outbreak-causing strain genome sequences will help further understand the pathogenesis of BCWD. PMID:26966210

  14. Detection and response to a meningococcal disease outbreak following a youth football tournament with teams from four European countries.

    PubMed

    Reintjes, Ralf; Kistemann, Thomas; MacLehose, Laura; McKee, Martin; Gill, Noel; Weinberg, Julius; Schaefer, Oliver; Camaroni, Ivonne; Fulop, Naomi; Brand, Helmut

    2002-05-01

    An outbreak of meningococcal disease, caused by Neisseria meningitidis, occurred following an international youth football tournament in the summer of 1997, affecting individuals from four European countries. This paper describes the outbreak, focusing on international co-operation in detection, investigation, control and follow-up, identifying weaknesses and exploring opportunities for improved co-operation. Data came from interviews, reports and related documents. The detection and management of the outbreak in each country is analysed. Eleven cases were linked to this outbreak and serotyped as C:2a:P1.5. Control measures varied in each country, reflecting different national guidelines. The outbreak illustrated deficiencies in management of international outbreaks but also demonstrated benefits of international co-operation. PMID:12068748

  15. Get the news out loudly and quickly: the influence of the media on limiting emerging infectious disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Mummert, Anna; Weiss, Howard

    2013-01-01

    During outbreaks of infectious diseases with high morbidity and mortality, individuals closely follow media reports of the outbreak. Many will attempt to minimize contacts with other individuals in order to protect themselves from infection and possibly death. This process is called social distancing. Social distancing strategies include restricting socializing and travel, and using barrier protections. We use modeling to show that for short-term outbreaks, social distancing can have a large influence on reducing outbreak morbidity and mortality. In particular, public health agencies working together with the media can significantly reduce the severity of an outbreak by providing timely accounts of new infections and deaths. Our models show that the most effective strategy to reduce infections is to provide this information as early as possible, though providing it well into the course of the outbreak can still have a significant effect. However, our models for long-term outbreaks indicate that reporting historic infection data can result in more infections than with no reporting at all. We examine three types of media influence and we illustrate the media influence with a simulated outbreak of a generic emerging infectious disease in a small city. Social distancing can never be complete; however, for a spectrum of outbreaks, we show that leaving isolation (stopping applying social distancing measures) for up to 4 hours each day has modest effect on the overall morbidity and mortality. PMID:23990974

  16. African horse sickness: The potential for an outbreak in disease-free regions and current disease control and elimination techniques.

    PubMed

    Robin, M; Page, P; Archer, D; Baylis, M

    2016-09-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is an arboviral disease of equids transmitted by Culicoides biting midges. The virus is endemic in parts of sub-Saharan Africa and official AHS disease-free status can be obtained from the World Organization for Animal Health on fulfilment of a number of criteria. AHS is associated with case fatality rates of up to 95%, making an outbreak among naïve horses both a welfare and economic disaster. The worldwide distributions of similar vector-borne diseases (particularly bluetongue disease of ruminants) are changing rapidly, probably due to a combination of globalisation and climate change. There is extensive evidence that the requisite conditions for an AHS epizootic currently exist in disease-free countries. In particular, although the stringent regulations enforced upon competition horses make them extremely unlikely to redistribute the virus, there are great concerns over the effects of illegal equid movement. An outbreak of AHS in a disease free region would have catastrophic effects on equine welfare and industry, particularly for international events such as the Olympic Games. While many regions have contingency plans in place to manage an outbreak of AHS, further research is urgently required if the equine industry is to avoid or effectively contain an AHS epizootic in disease-free regions. This review describes the key aspects of AHS as a global issue and discusses the evidence supporting concerns that an epizootic may occur in AHS free countries, the planned government responses, and the roles and responsibilities of equine veterinarians. PMID:27292229

  17. Multistate outbreak of viral gastroenteritis associated with consumption of oysters--Apalachicola Bay, Florida, December 1994-January 1995.

    PubMed

    1995-01-20

    On January 3, 1995, the Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services (HRS) was notified of an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis associated with eating oysters. The subsequent investigation by HRS has identified 34 separate clusters of cases, many of which were associated with oysters harvested during December 29-31 from 13 Mile Area and Cat Point in Apalachicola Bay. Oysters were shipped to other states, but additional clusters of illness associated with these oysters have been reported only in Georgia. Most of these oysters were served steamed or roasted. This report summarizes the preliminary findings of the ongoing investigation of this outbreak.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7808387

  18. VESSEL SANITATION PROGRAM (VSP) - DISEASES SURVEILLANCE AND OUTBREAK INVESTIGATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the authority of the Public Health Service Act to take measures necessary to prevent the introduction, transmission, or spread of communicable diseases in the United States from a foreign country [42 United States Code Section 264(a)], a surveillance system for diarrhea ill...

  19. Climate Teleconnections, Weather Extremes, and Vector-Borne Disease Outbreaks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fluctuations in climate lead to extremes in temperature, rainfall, flooding, and droughts. These climate extremes create ideal ecological conditions that promote mosquito-borne disease transmission that impact global human and animal health. One well known driver of such global scale climate fluctua...

  20. The role of computer networking in investigating unusual disease outbreaks and allegations of biological and toxin weapons use.

    PubMed

    Woodall, J

    1998-01-01

    Computer networking can aid in the epidemiological investigation of unusual disease outbreaks and possible uses of biological weapons. Exchange of computerized data over the Internet has many advantages in facilitating the investigation of the source of a disease outbreak. It is especially useful in the investigation of suspected or alleged releases of biological weapons. Computer networking through the Internet a fosters a truly global disease outbreak early warning system in which both government and non-government sources are contributing. Such information exchange is of great potential benefit to the Biological Weapons Convention and the attempts to develop a verification protocol. PMID:9800103

  1. Recognition and management of rodent-borne infectious disease outbreaks after heavy rainfall and flooding.

    PubMed

    Diaz, James H

    2014-01-01

    Climatic events, especially heavy rains and flooding following periods of relative drought, have precipitated both arthropod-borne and rodent-borne infectious disease outbreaks. Heavy rainfall encourages excessive wild grass seed production that supports increased outdoor rodent populations, and flooding forces rodents from their burrows near water sources into the built environment and closer to humans. The objectives of this review are to alert clinicians to the climatic conditions common to hurricane-prone regions, such as Louisiana, that can precipitate outbreaks of the two rodent-borne diseases most often associated with periods of heavy rainfall and flooding, leptospirosis (LS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). It will also describe the epidemiology, presenting clinical manifestations and outcomes of these rodent-borne infectious diseases, and recommend both prophylactic therapies and effective control and prevention strategies for rodent-borne infectious disease outbreaks. Healthcare providers should maintain high levels of suspicion for LS in patients developing febrile illnesses after contaminated freshwater exposures during flooding or recreational events, and for HPS in patients with febrile illnesses that progress rapidly to respiratory failure following rodent exposures in enclosed spaces. Public health educational strategies should encourage limiting human contact with all wild and peridomestic rats and mice, avoiding all contact with rodent excreta, safely disposing of all rodent excreta, and modifying the built environment to deter rodents from colonizing households and workplaces. PMID:25369218

  2. Foreign animal disease outbreaks, the animal welfare implications for Canada: Risks apparent from international experience

    PubMed Central

    Whiting, Terry L.

    2003-01-01

    Any outbreak of an Office International des Épizooties List A disease, such as classical swine fever or foot and mouth disease, has severe consequences for animal welfare, livestock production, exports of animals and animal products, and the environment. The public concern with the animal welfare effects of methods of disease eradication that result in the destruction of large numbers of uninfected animals has initiated a reconsideration of disease eradication policy in Europe. In many recent List A disease epizootics, the financial cost of addressing animal welfare concerns in healthy animals has greatly exceeded the cost of stamping out disease in infected herds. In the event of a similar incursion in Canada, the number of animals subject to welfare slaughter will be far greater than the number of infected animals killed. Current national disease eradication plans in Canada do not address the animal welfare component of disease control methods. PMID:14601676

  3. Identification of viral and phytoplasmal agents responsible for diseases affecting plants of Gaillardia Foug. in Lithuania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gaillardia plants exhibiting symptoms characteristic of viral and phytoplasmal diseases were collected at botanical gardens and floriculture farms in Lithuania. Cucumber mosaic virus was isolated from diseased plants exhibiting symptoms characterized stunting, color breaking and malformation of flo...

  4. Recent outbreaks of foot and mouth disease in countries of east Asia.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, K; Yoshida, K

    2002-12-01

    Japan regained the status of freedom from foot and mouth disease (FMD) without vaccination in September 2000 and the Republic of Korea likewise obtained this status in September 2001. However, new outbreaks of FMD caused by the pan-Asian topotype have occurred in pigs in the Republic of Korea since May 2002. Taipei China has not experienced an outbreak of FMD since February 2001 and the country is currently implementing an eradication programme. These countries had been free from FMD for many decades when in 1997, the FMD virus (FMDV) once again invaded the region, particularly in 2000; this resulted in widespread occurrence of the disease. The types of FMDV were investigated by genome analysis, and in each case the virus concerned was found to be a member of the pan-Asian O lineage. The authors present the recent situations and the characteristics of FMD in countries of east Asia. PMID:12523687

  5. Isolation of novel variants of infectious bursal disease virus from different outbreaks in Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Morla, Sudhir; Deka, Pankaj; Kumar, Sachin

    2016-04-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a highly infectious disease of young chicken that predominantly affects the immune system. In the present study, we are reporting first comprehensive study of IBDV outbreaks from the Northeastern part of India. Northeast India shares a porous border with four different countries; and as a rule any outbreak in the neighboring countries substantially affects the poultry population in the adjoining states. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the VP2 gene of the IBDV isolates from the Northeastern part of India suggested the extreme virulent nature of the virus. The virulent marker amino acids (A222, I242, Q253, I256 and S299) in the hypervariable region of the Northeastern isolates were found identical with the reported very virulent strains of IBDV. A unique insertion of I/L294V was recorded in all the isolates of the Northeastern India. The study will be useful in understanding the circulating pathotypes of IBDV in India. PMID:26854869

  6. The role of arbitrarily primed PCR in identifying the source of an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease.

    PubMed Central

    Whitney, C G; Hofmann, J; Pruckler, J M; Benson, R F; Fields, B S; Bandyopadhyay, U; Donnally, E F; Giorgio-Almonte, C; Mermel, L A; Boland, S; Matyas, B T; Breiman, R F

    1997-01-01

    An outbreak of community-acquired Legionnaires' disease (LD) occurred in Providence, R.I., in fall 1993. To find the outbreak source, exposures of 17 case patients were compared to those of 33 matched controls. Case patients were more likely than controls to have visited a section of downtown (area A) during the 2 weeks before illness (11 [65%] versus 9 [27%]; matched odds ratio, 6.5; P = 0.01). Water samples were cultured from 27 aerosol-producing devices within area A. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates underwent monoclonal antibody (MAb) subtyping and arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR). All four L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates available from case patients who visited area A had identical MAb and AP-PCR patterns. Among 14 environmental isolates, 5 had MAb patterns that matched the case patient isolates, but only 1 had a matching AP-PCR pattern. This investigation implicates a cooling tower in area A as the outbreak source and illustrates the usefulness of AP-PCR for identifying sources of LD outbreaks. PMID:9196197

  7. Ebola virus disease outbreak in Nigeria: Transmission dynamics and rapid control.

    PubMed

    Althaus, C L; Low, N; Musa, E O; Shuaib, F; Gsteiger, S

    2015-06-01

    International air travel has already spread Ebola virus disease (EVD) to major cities as part of the unprecedented epidemic that started in Guinea in December 2013. An infected airline passenger arrived in Nigeria on July 20, 2014 and caused an outbreak in Lagos and then Port Harcourt. After a total of 20 reported cases, including 8 deaths, Nigeria was declared EVD free on October 20, 2014. We quantified the impact of early control measures in preventing further spread of EVD in Nigeria and calculated the risk that a single undetected case will cause a new outbreak. We fitted an EVD transmission model to data from the outbreak in Nigeria and estimated the reproduction number of the index case at 9.0 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.2-15.6). We also found that the net reproduction number fell below unity 15 days (95% CI: 11-21 days) after the arrival of the index case. Hence, our study illustrates the time window for successful containment of EVD outbreaks caused by infected air travelers. PMID:25979285

  8. Lessons from the Ebola Outbreak: Action Items for Emerging Infectious Disease Preparedness and Response.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Aguirre, A Alonso; Bailey, Charles L; Baranova, Ancha V; Crooks, Andrew T; Croitoru, Arie; Delamater, Paul L; Gupta, Jhumka; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Narayanan, Aarthi; Pierobon, Mariaelena; Rowan, Katherine E; Schwebach, J Reid; Seshaiyer, Padmanabhan; Sklarew, Dann M; Stefanidis, Anthony; Agouris, Peggy

    2016-03-01

    As the Ebola outbreak in West Africa wanes, it is time for the international scientific community to reflect on how to improve the detection of and coordinated response to future epidemics. Our interdisciplinary team identified key lessons learned from the Ebola outbreak that can be clustered into three areas: environmental conditions related to early warning systems, host characteristics related to public health, and agent issues that can be addressed through the laboratory sciences. In particular, we need to increase zoonotic surveillance activities, implement more effective ecological health interventions, expand prediction modeling, support medical and public health systems in order to improve local and international responses to epidemics, improve risk communication, better understand the role of social media in outbreak awareness and response, produce better diagnostic tools, create better therapeutic medications, and design better vaccines. This list highlights research priorities and policy actions the global community can take now to be better prepared for future emerging infectious disease outbreaks that threaten global public health and security. PMID:26915507

  9. The Association between Invasive Group A Streptococcal Diseases and Viral Respiratory Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Andrea L.; Huber, Victor C.; Chaussee, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Viral infections of the upper respiratory tract are associated with a variety of invasive diseases caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, the group A streptococcus, including pneumonia, necrotizing fasciitis, toxic shock syndrome, and bacteremia. While these polymicrobial infections, or superinfections, are complex, progress has been made in understanding the molecular basis of disease. Areas of investigation have included the characterization of virus-induced changes in innate immunity, differences in bacterial adherence and internalization following viral infection, and the efficacy of vaccines in mitigating the morbidity and mortality of superinfections. Here, we briefly summarize viral-S. pyogenes superinfections with an emphasis on those affiliated with influenza viruses. PMID:27047460

  10. Analysis of foodborne disease outbreaks for improvement of food safety programs in Seoul, Republic of Korea, from 2002 to 2006.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jib Ho; Lee, Joon-Hak; Kim, Moo Sang; Park, Seog Gee

    2009-03-01

    Foodborne disease (FBD) is a common food safety problem in Seoul, Republic of Korea. To identify target areas for improvement of the food safety programs, FBD outbreaks from 2002 to 2006 were analyzed with regard to facility, monthly occurrences, and causative agents. A total of 147 FBD outbreaks were reported, with an average of 29.4 FBD outbreaks per year and 49 cases per outbreak. Restaurants and school lunches were two main facilities associated with 76.2% of the outbreaks. A majority of FBD cases (73.1%) were from school lunches. The highest number of outbreaks and cases occurred in June, followed by March. Among the seven identified causative agents, norovirus was the most significant in the number of outbreaks and cases. Among the outbreaks and cases with causative agents identified, norovirus and Staphylococcus aureus were responsible for 61.7% of outbreaks and 81.5% of cases. The analysis indicates that the efficiency of current food safety programs could be enhanced if critical control points in school lunch programs are identified and incorporated in the training and inspection. Identifying risk factors for contamination of norovirus and Staphylococcus aureus would also be beneficial. PMID:19326670

  11. Mass screening for infectious disease containment and pandemic outbreaks: misconceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leando, Peter

    2015-05-01

    IR imaging in mass screening for the containment of pandemic disease is based on detecting a febril (fever) state in individuals. The ability to use IR affectively for this is dependent on a good understanding of the physiology and physics related to the pathology that we are trying to screen for and is not restricted to temperature measurements alone. The radiometric thermal data processed during real-time imaging must include calibrated reference sources, thermal pattern recognition and comparative analysis between individual people being screened. A screening test should have high `sensitivity' rather than `specificity' and to be effective the false negative rate must be very low. To achieve this the false positive rate will be higher by necessity and so a `secondary' level of screening can be implemented to bring the false positive rate to within a manageable level by the higher `specificity' secondary level of screening.

  12. Risk factors for foot and mouth disease outbreaks in grazing beef cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Elnekave, E; Zamir, L; Hamd, F; Even Tov, B; Klement, E

    2015-06-15

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is considered one of the most important diseases of cattle. Recurrence of FMD outbreaks in Israel is common, even though routine vaccination of livestock is mandatory and control measures are applied during the outbreaks. Grazing beef herds are occasionally involved in these outbreaks and play an important role in disseminating the disease, due to the large efflux of animals from these herds to feedlots. Nevertheless, the risk factors for the occurrence of FMD among these herds have never been investigated. In 2011, Israel faced a large scale outbreak of serotype O FMD virus, which strongly affected beef cattle. We conducted a case-control study of 44 beef cattle herds grazing in the Golan Heights in order to determine the risk factors for FMDV infection. Data were analyzed using a generalized estimation equation (GEE) with a logit link function. Multivariable analysis was conducted for factors with p-value lower than 0.1 in the univariable analysis. The presence of calves under 6 months of age was found as a significant risk factor for FMDV infection in the univariable analysis (odds ratio (OR)=5.95, confidence intervals of 95% (CI95%)=1.59-22.29, p=0.008). This was also the only variable that remained statistically significant in the multivariable analysis. Herds in which more than 6 months between vaccination of adults and exposure had elapsed were in higher risk, albeit not statistically significant, for the occurrence of FMDV infection (OR=3.29, CI95%=0.83-12.99, p=0.089). The higher probability of infection in herds, which included young calves may be a result of their higher susceptibility due to administration of only one or no vaccine prior to the outbreak. The results of the study thus support increasing the frequency of vaccination of both cows and calves in grazing beef herds. Intensifying surveillance where young calves are abundant may also prove efficient for early detection of infected herds and for mitigating outbreaks

  13. False rumours of disease outbreaks caused by infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) in the whiteleg shrimp in Asia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) disease outbreaks in cultivated whiteleg shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei are characterized by gross signs of whitened abdominal muscles and by slow mortality reaching up to 70%. In 2006 the first disease outbreaks caused by IMNV in Asia occurred in Indonesia. Since then rumours have periodically circulated about IMNV disease outbreaks in other Asian countries. Our findings indicate that these are false rumours. Findings Our continual testing by nested RT-PCR of shrimp samples suspected of IMNV infection from various Asian countries since 2006 has yielded negative results, except for samples from Indonesia. Our results are supported by the lack of official reports of IMNV outbreaks since January 2007 in the Quarterly Report on Aquatic Animal Diseases (QAAD) from the Network of Aquaculture Centers in Asia Pacific (NACA). In most cases, our shrimp samples for which tissue sections were possible showed signs of muscle cramp syndrome that also commonly causes muscle whitening in stressed whiteleg shrimp. Thus, we suspect that most of the false rumours in Asia about IMNV outside of Indonesia have resulted because of muscle cramp syndrome. Conclusions Results from continual testing of suspected IMNV outbreaks in Asian countries other than Indonesia since 2006 and the lack of official country reports of IMNV outbreaks since January 2007, indicate that rumours of IMNV outbreaks in Asian countries outside of Indonesia are false. We suspect that confusion has arisen because muscle cramp syndrome causes similar signs of whitened tail muscles in whiteleg shrimp. PMID:21813002

  14. Comparison of Mannheimia haemolytica isolates from an outbreak of bovine respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Rainbolt, S; Pillai, D K; Lubbers, B V; Moore, M; Davis, R; Amrine, D; Mosier, D

    2016-01-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the clonal relatedness of Mannheimia haemolytica isolates responsible for an outbreak of bovine respiratory disease in a commercial feedlot. The isolates were obtained from the lungs of 21 calves with fatal pneumonia that were part of a group of 206 total calves. All isolates were serotyped and analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and for antibiotic sensitivity patterns. ELISA and immunoblotting assays were performed to compare serum antibody levels to M. haemolytica antigens in calves with fatal pneumonia to those calves that survived the outbreak. Isolates were categorized into 14 different PFGE groups based on 90% similarity. Two Group D isolates (1 and 6), and 3 Group H isolates (14, 15, and 16) were characterized as 100% similar. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles defined 8 groups based on differences in patterns of resistance between isolates. The two 100% similar isolates from PFGE Group D were both in susceptibility Group 1. All but isolate 14 from PFGE Group H (3, 15, 16, and 19) were in susceptibility Group 4a. Serum antibody levels to M. haemolytica antigens in the dead calves were not different than the antibody levels in the 185 calves that survived the outbreak. Immunoblots of selected isolates from each of the PFGE groups demonstrated only minimal differences in antigenic profiles between strains when reacted with serum from calves that either died from or survived the outbreak. Based on the characteristics of these isolates, multiple strains of M. haemolytica were responsible for fatal pneumonia during this outbreak. PMID:26711032

  15. Legionnaires' disease outbreak in an automobile engine manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Fry, Alicia M; Rutman, Miai; Allan, Terry; Scaife, Heidi; Salehi, Ellen; Benson, Robert; Fields, Barry; Nowicki, Scott; Parrish, Mary Kay; Carpenter, Joseph; Brown, Ellen; Lucas, Claressa; Horgan, Timothy; Koch, Elizabeth; Besser, Richard E

    2003-03-15

    We investigated 4 cases of legionnaires' disease (LD) reported among workers at an Ohio automotive plant in March 2001. A "confirmed" case of LD was defined as x-ray-confirmed pneumonia and a confirmatory laboratory test. A "possible" case of LD was defined as elevated titers of antibody and respiratory symptoms. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (LP1) was isolated from 1 case patient. Legionella was isolated from 18 (9%) of 197 environmental samples; 3 isolates were LP1 but did not match the case isolate. We conducted a case-control study; 17 case patients with confirmed or possible LD and 86 control subjects (workers with low antibody titers and without symptoms) were enrolled. Visiting a specific cleaning line (odds ratio, [OR], 7.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.31-23.00) and working in the cleaning region of the plant (OR, 3.22; 95% CI, 1.11-9.38) were associated with LD. LD can be transmitted in industrial settings in which aerosols are produced. Clinicians should consider LD when treating persons from these settings for pneumonia. PMID:12660949

  16. Mass Gatherings and Respiratory Disease Outbreaks in the United States – Should We Be Worried? Results from a Systematic Literature Review and Analysis of the National Outbreak Reporting System

    PubMed Central

    Rainey, Jeanette J.; Phelps, Tiffani; Shi, Jianrong

    2016-01-01

    Background Because mass gatherings create environments conducive for infectious disease transmission, public health officials may recommend postponing or canceling large gatherings during a moderate or severe pandemic. Despite these recommendations, limited empirical information exists on the frequency and characteristics of mass gathering-related respiratory disease outbreaks occurring in the United States. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review to identify articles about mass gathering-related respiratory disease outbreaks occurring in the United States from 2005 to 2014. A standard form was used to abstract information from relevant articles identified from six medical, behavioral and social science literature databases. We also analyzed data from the National Outbreaks Reporting System (NORS), maintained by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention since 2009, to estimate the frequency of mass gathering-related respiratory disease outbreaks reported to the system. Results We identified 21 published articles describing 72 mass gathering-related respiratory disease outbreaks. Of these 72, 40 (56%) were associated with agriculture fairs and Influenza A H3N2v following probable swine exposure, and 25 (35%) with youth summer camps and pandemic Influenza A H1N1. Outbreaks of measles (n = 1) and mumps (n = 2) were linked to the international importation of disease. Between 2009 and 2013, 1,114 outbreaks were reported to NORS, including 96 respiratory disease outbreaks due to Legionella. None of these legionellosis outbreaks was linked to a mass gathering according to available data. Conclusion Mass gathering-related respiratory disease outbreaks may be uncommon in the United States, but have been reported from fairs (zoonotic transmission) as well as at camps where participants have close social contact in communal housing. International importation can also be a contributing factor. NORS collects information on certain respiratory diseases and could

  17. Spatio-temporal modelling of foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Malesios, C; Demiris, N; Kostoulas, P; Dadousis, K; Koutroumanidis, T; Abas, Z

    2016-09-01

    We present and analyse data collected during a severe epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) that occurred between July and September 2000 in a region of northeastern Greece with strategic importance since it represents the southeastern border of Europe and Asia. We implement generic Bayesian methodology, which offers flexibility in the ability to fit several realistically complex models that simultaneously capture the presence of 'excess' zeros, the spatio-temporal dependence of the cases, assesses the impact of environmental noise and controls for multicollinearity issues. Our findings suggest that the epidemic was mostly driven by the size and the animal type of each farm as well as the distance between farms while environmental and other endemic factors were not important during this outbreak. Analyses of this kind may prove useful to informing decisions related to optimal control measures for potential future FMD outbreaks as well as other acute epidemics such as FMD. PMID:27150839

  18. Coxsackievirus A6: a new emerging pathogen causing hand, foot and mouth disease outbreaks worldwide.

    PubMed

    Bian, Lianlian; Wang, Yiping; Yao, Xin; Mao, Qunying; Xu, Miao; Liang, Zhenglun

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are the predominant pathogens causing outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) worldwide. Other human enterovirus A (HEV-A) serotypes tend to cause only sporadic HFMD cases. However, since a HFMD caused by coxsackievirus A6 broke out in Finland in 2008, CA6 has been identified as the responsible pathogen for a series of HFMD outbreaks in Europe, North America and Asia. Because of the severity of the clinical manifestations and the underestimated public health burden, the epidemic of CA6-associated HFMD presents a new challenge to the control of HFMD. This article reviewed the epidemic characteristics, molecular epidemiology, clinical features and laboratory diagnosis of CA6 infection. The genetic evolution of CA6 strains associated with HFMD was also analyzed. It indicated that the development of a multivalent vaccine combining EV71, CA16 and CA6 is an urgent necessity to control HFMD. PMID:26112307

  19. Detection of Mycobacterium ulcerans in environmental samples during an outbreak of ulcerative disease.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, B C; Johnson, P D; Oppedisano, F; Marino, L; Sievers, A; Stinear, T; Hayman, J A; Veitch, M G; Robins-Browne, R M

    1997-01-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans is an environmental bacterium which causes chronic skin ulcers. Despite significant epidemiological evidence to suggest that water is the source of infection, the organism has never been identified in the environment. Environmental water samples were collected from a small town in which an outbreak of 29 cases had occurred in a 3-year period. These were examined by mycobacterial culture and PCR amplification. Similar to previous studies, M. ulcerans was not cultured from the water samples. However, five samples were positive for M. ulcerans by PCR. These samples were collected from a swamp and a golf course irrigation system within the outbreak area. This is the first time that M. ulcerans has been demonstrated to be present in the environment and supports the postulated epidemiology of disease due to this organism. PMID:9327583

  20. An unusually long-lasting outbreak of community-acquired Legionnaires' disease, 2005-2008, Italy.

    PubMed

    Scaturro, M; Fontana, S; Crippa, S; Caporali, M G; Seyler, T; Veschetti, E; Villa, G; Rota, M C; Ricci, M L

    2015-08-01

    An unusually long-lasting community-acquired outbreak of Legionnaires' disease (LD) occurred in the inhabitants of a town in northern Italy from 2005 to 2008. Overall, 43 cases were diagnosed including five deaths. Hundreds of water samples were collected for Legionella isolation but only two clinical samples were obtained. Clinical strains were ST23 as were environmental isolates detected in most Legionella-positive patients' homes and those from a public fountain. Although no Legionella was found in the municipal water mains, a continuous chlorination was applied in 2008. This action resulted in a halving of cases, although incidence remained tenfold higher than the Italian average incidence until the end of 2013, when it dropped to the expected rate. Retrospective analyses of prevalent wind direction suggested that a hidden cooling tower could have been the main cause of this uncommon outbreak, highlighting the importance of implementation of cooling tower registers in supporting LD investigations. PMID:25427871

  1. Outbreak of meningococcal disease in Rotherham illustrates the value of coordination, communication, and collaboration in management.

    PubMed

    Perrett, K; al-Wali, W; Read, C; Redgrave, P; Trend, U

    2000-09-01

    On New Year's Eve 1998, two teenagers from the same school in Rotherham died of serogroup C meningococcal septicaemia. A third linked case occurred three days later. Over eight days starting on New Year's Eve, a further five cases of meningococcal disease arose across Rotherham district, four of whom were severely ill with serogroup C meningococcal septicaemia. Intense media interest, high levels of public concern, and anxieties caused by several 'false alarm' cases added to the challenge faced by a small health district. This article describes the epidemiology of the incident and policy decisions made, but focuses on the operational aspects of outbreak management (coordination, communication, and collaboration), an area often neglected in outbreak reports. PMID:11014027

  2. Health care-associated infection outbreak investigations by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1946-2005.

    PubMed

    Archibald, Lennox K; Jarvis, William R

    2011-12-01

    Since 1946, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) personnel have investigated outbreaks of infections and adverse events associated with delivery of health care. CDC Epidemic Intelligence Service officers have led onsite investigations of these outbreaks by systematically applying epidemiology, statistics, and laboratory science. During 1946-2005, CDC Epidemic Intelligence Service officers conducted 531 outbreak investigations in facilities across the United States and abroad. Initially, the majority of outbreaks involved gastrointestinal tract infections; however, in later years, bloodstream, respiratory tract, and surgical wound infections predominated. Among pathogens implicated in CDC outbreak investigations, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus species, Enterobacteriaceae, nonfermentative Gram-negative bacteria, or yeasts predominated, but unusual organisms (e.g., the atypical mycobacteria) were often included. Outbreak types varied and often were linked to transfer of colonized patients or health care personnel between facilities (multihospital outbreaks), national distribution of contaminated products, use of invasive medical devices, or variances in practices and procedures in health care environments (e.g., intensive care units, water reservoirs, or hemodialysis units). Through partnerships with health care facilities and local and state health departments, outbreaks were terminated and lives saved. Data from investigations invariably contributed to CDC-generated guidelines for prevention and control of health care-associated infections. PMID:22135394

  3. Equine viral arteritis.

    PubMed

    Balasuriya, Udeni B R

    2014-12-01

    Equine arteritis virus (EAV), the causative agent of equine viral arteritis (EVA), is a respiratory and reproductive disease that occurs throughout the world. EAV infection is highly species-specific and exclusively limited to members of the family Equidae, which includes horses, donkeys, mules, and zebras. EVA is an economically important disease and outbreaks could cause significant losses to the equine industry. The primary objective of this article is to summarize current understanding of EVA, specifically the disease, pathogenesis, epidemiology, host immune response, vaccination and treatment strategies, prevention and control measures, and future directions. PMID:25441113

  4. Disturbance Driven Colony Fragmentation as a Driver of a Coral Disease Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Marilyn E.; Smith, Tyler B.; Correa, Adrienne M. S.; Vega-Thurber, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    In September of 2010, Brewer's Bay reef, located in St. Thomas (U.S. Virgin Islands), was simultaneously affected by abnormally high temperatures and the passage of a hurricane that resulted in the mass bleaching and fragmentation of its coral community. An outbreak of a rapid tissue loss disease among coral colonies was associated with these two disturbances. Gross lesion signs and lesion progression rates indicated that the disease was most similar to the Caribbean coral disease white plague type 1. Experiments indicated that the disease was transmissible through direct contact between colonies, and five-meter radial transects showed a clustered spatial distribution of disease, with diseased colonies being concentrated within the first meter of other diseased colonies. Disease prevalence and the extent to which colonies were bleached were both significantly higher on unattached colony fragments than on attached colonies, and disease occurred primarily on fragments found in direct contact with sediment. In contrast to other recent studies, disease presence was not related to the extent of bleaching on colonies. The results of this study suggest that colony fragmentation and contact with sediment played primary roles in the initial appearance of disease, but that the disease was capable of spreading among colonies, which suggests secondary transmission is possible through some other, unidentified mechanism. PMID:23437335

  5. Algal bloom-associated disease outbreaks among users of freshwater lakes--United States, 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Hilborn, Elizabeth D; Roberts, Virginia A; Backer, Lorraine; Deconno, Erin; Egan, Jessica S; Hyde, James B; Nicholas, David C; Wiegert, Eric J; Billing, Laurie M; Diorio, Mary; Mohr, Marika C; Hardy, Joan F; Wade, Timothy J; Yoder, Jonathan S; Hlavsa, Michele C

    2014-01-10

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are excessive accumulations of microscopic photosynthesizing aquatic organisms (phytoplankton) that produce biotoxins or otherwise adversely affect humans, animals, and ecosystems. HABs occur sporadically and often produce a visible algal scum on the water. This report summarizes human health data and water sampling results voluntarily reported to CDC's Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) via the National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS) and the Harmful Algal Bloom-Related Illness Surveillance System (HABISS)* for the years 2009-2010. For 2009-2010, 11 waterborne disease outbreaks associated with algal blooms were reported; these HABs all occurred in freshwater lakes. The outbreaks occurred in three states and affected at least 61 persons. Health effects included dermatologic, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and neurologic signs and symptoms. These 11 HAB-associated outbreaks represented 46% of the 24 outbreaks associated with untreated recreational water reported for 2009-2010, and 79% of the 14 freshwater HAB-associated outbreaks that have been reported to CDC since 1978. Clinicians should be aware of the potential for HAB-associated illness among patients with a history of exposure to freshwater. PMID:24402467

  6. A large Legionnaires' disease outbreak in Pamplona, Spain: early detection, rapid control and no case fatality

    PubMed Central

    CASTILLA, J.; BARRICARTE, A.; ALDAZ, J.; GARCÍA CENOZ, M.; FERRER, T.; PELAZ, C.; PINEDA, S.; BALADRÓN, B.; MARTÍN, I.; GOÑI, B.; ARATAJO, P.; CHAMORRO, J.; LAMEIRO, F.; TORROBA, L.; DORRONSORO, I.; MARTÍNEZ-ARTOLA, V.; ESPARZA, M. J.; GASTAMINZA, M. A.; FRAILE, P.; ALDAZ, P.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY An outbreak of Legionnaire's disease was detected in Pamplona, Spain, on 1 June 2006. Patients with pneumonia were tested to detect Legionella pneumophila antigen in urine (Binax Now; Binax Inc., Scarborough, ME, USA), and all 146 confirmed cases were interviewed. The outbreak was related to district 2 (22 012 inhabitants), where 45% of the cases lived and 50% had visited; 5% lived in neighbouring districts. The highest incidence was found in the resident population of district 2 (3/1000 inhabitants), section 2 (14/1000). All 31 cooling towers of district 2 were analysed. L. pneumophila antigen (Binax Now) was detected in four towers, which were closed on 2 June. Only the strain isolated in a tower situated in section 2 of district 2 matched all five clinical isolates, as assessed by mAb and two genotyping methods, AFLP and PFGE. Eight days after closing the towers, new cases ceased appearing. Early detection and rapid coordinated medical and environmental actions permitted immediate control of the outbreak and probably contributed to the null case fatality. PMID:17662166

  7. The relationship between infecting dose and severity of disease in reported outbreaks of Salmonella infections.

    PubMed Central

    Glynn, J. R.; Bradley, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between size of the infecting dose and severity of the resulting disease has been investigated for salmonella infections by reanalysis of data within epidemics for 32 outbreaks, and comparing data between outbreaks for 68 typhoid epidemics and 49 food-poisoning outbreaks due to salmonellas. Attack rate, incubation period, amount of infected food consumed and type of vehicle are used as proxy measures of infecting dose, while case fatality rates for typhoid and case hospitalization rates for food poisoning salmonellas were used to assess severity. Limitations of the data are discussed. Both unweighted and logit analysis models are used. There is no evidence for a dose-severity relationship for Salmonella typhi, but evidence of a correlation between dose and severity is available from within-epidemic or between-epidemic analysis, or both, for Salmonella typhimurium, S. enteritidis, S. infantis, S. newport, and S. thompson. The presence of such a relationship affects the way in which control interventions should be assessed. PMID:1468522

  8. [EPIDEMIOLOGIC ANALYSIS OF OUTBREAKS OF DISEASES CAUSED BY AMERICAN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS CAUSATIVE AGENTS IN ENDEMIC REGIONS].

    PubMed

    Petrov, A A; Lebedev, V N; Kulish, V S; Pyshnaya, N S; Stovba, L F; Borisevich, S V

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic analysis of epidemic outbreaks caused by American equine encephalitis causative agents is carried out in the review. Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE), Western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) and Venezuela equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) viruses are etiologic agents of dangerous transmissive diseases that are usually accompanied by fever and neurologic symptoms. Among the New World alphaviruses, VEE virus has the most potential danger for humans and domestic animals. Currently, enzootic strains of VEE play an increasing role as etiologic agents of human diseases. Most of the VEE cases in humans in endemic regions during inter-epidemic period are caused by infection with VEE subtype ID virus. A possibility of emergence of novel epidemic outbreaks of VEE is determined by mutations of ID subtype strains into IC subtype, and those currently pose a potential threat as an etiologic agent of the disease. Despite low morbidity, EEE and WEE are a problem for healthcare due to a relatively high frequency of lethal outcomes of the disease. PMID:26829861

  9. Molecular Epidemiology of Neisseria meningitidis Isolates from an Outbreak of Meningococcal Disease among Men Who Have Sex with Men, Chicago, Illinois, 2003▿

    PubMed Central

    Schmink, Susanna; Watson, John T.; Coulson, Garry B.; Jones, Roderick C.; Diaz, Pamela S.; Mayer, Leonard W.; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Messonnier, Nancy; Gerber, Susan I.; Fischer, Marc

    2007-01-01

    We characterized five Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C isolates from a Chicago outbreak of meningococcal disease that occurred in 2003 among a community of men who have sex with men. Isolates from this outbreak were identical to each other but distinct from the clone that caused a similar outbreak in Canada in 2001. PMID:17728467

  10. Chikungunya viral disease in district Bhilwara (Rajasthan) India.

    PubMed

    Jain, S K; Kumar, Kaushal; Bhattacharya, D; Venkatesh, S; Jain, D C; Lal, Shiv

    2007-03-01

    An investigation of chikungunya outbreak cases was carried out in Bhilwara District, Rajasthan during Aug-Sep 2006. Fever with multiple joint pains was the first presenting feature. Aedes larval surveys indicate high Breteau index (78.6 to 200), House index (48.0 to 83.3) & Container index (41.1 to 73.6) above the critical index. Out of 40 sera samples tested, 12 showed HI antibodies for chikungunya virus in high titres and another five were positive for IgM antibodies against chikungunya. The clinico-epidemiological, laboratory and entomological investigations confirm that this episode of fever was due to chikungunya fever. Strengthening and intensification of surveillance along with educating the community were recommended for control of outbreak. PMID:18338713

  11. Risk management of viral infectious diseases in wastewater reclamation and reuse: Review.

    PubMed

    Sano, Daisuke; Amarasiri, Mohan; Hata, Akihiko; Watanabe, Toru; Katayama, Hiroyuki

    2016-05-01

    Inappropriate usage of reclaimed wastewater has caused outbreaks of viral infectious diseases worldwide. International and domestic guidelines for wastewater reuse stipulate that virus infection risks are to be regulated by the multiple-barrier system, in which a wastewater treatment process composed of sequential treatment units is designed based on the pre-determined virus removal efficiency of each unit. The objectives of this review were to calculate representative values of virus removal efficiency in wastewater treatment units based on published datasets, and to identify research topics that should be further addressed for improving implementation of the multiple-barrier system. The removal efficiencies of human noroviruses, rotaviruses and enteroviruses in membrane bioreactor (MBR) and conventional activated sludge (CAS) processes were obtained by a systematic review protocol and a meta-analysis approach. The log10 reduction (LR) of norovirus GII and enterovirus in MBR were 3.35 (95% confidence interval: 2.39, 4.30) and 2.71 (1.52, 3.89), respectively. The LR values of rotavirus, norovirus GI and GII in CAS processes were 0.87 (0.20, 1.53), 1.48 (0.96, 2.00) and 1.35 (0.52, 2.18), respectively. The systematic review process eliminated a substantial number of articles about virus removal in wastewater treatment because of the lack of information required for the meta-analysis. It is recommended that future publications should explicitly describe their treatment of left-censored datasets. Indicators, surrogates and methodologies appropriate for validating virus removal performance during daily operation of wastewater reclamation systems also need to be identified. PMID:26985655

  12. Shellfish-associated enteric virus illness: virus localization, disease outbreaks and prevention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous outbreaks of shellfish-borne enteric virus illness have been reported worldwide. Most notable among the outbreaks are those involving norovirus illness and hepatitis A. Lessons learned from outbreak investigations indicate that most outbreaks are preventable. Anthropogenic sources of con...

  13. A large community outbreak of Legionnaires disease in Vila Franca de Xira, Portugal, October to November 2014.

    PubMed

    Shivaji, T; Sousa Pinto, C; San-Bento, A; Oliveira Serra, L A; Valente, J; Machado, J; Marques, T; Carvalho, L; Nogueira, P J; Nunes, B; Vasconcelos, P

    2014-01-01

    An outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease with 334 confirmed cases was identified on 7 November 2014 in Vila Franca de Xira, Portugal and declared controlled by 21 November. Epidemiological, environmental and microbiological analysis identified industrial wet cooling systems to be the probable source of infection. Preliminary results from sequence-based typing of clinical specimens and environmental isolates confirmed this link. A series of meteorological phenomena are likely to have contributed to the scale of this outbreak. PMID:25597540

  14. Global Health Security: The Lessons from the West African Ebola Virus Disease Epidemic and MERS Outbreak in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Ghsa Preparation Task Force Team

    2015-12-01

    The Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome outbreak in the Republic of Korea have given huge impacts in different aspects. Health security is no more a new coinage. Global health security became more realistic in its practical application. In the perspective of global health, it will be helpful to peruse lessons learned from the Ebola outbreak in West Africa and MERS outbreak in Korea. PMID:27429901

  15. Cost-Effective Control of Infectious Disease Outbreaks Accounting for Societal Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Fast, Shannon M.; González, Marta C.; Markuzon, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies of cost-effective disease prevention have typically focused on the tradeoff between the cost of disease transmission and the cost of applying control measures. We present a novel approach that also accounts for the cost of social disruptions resulting from the spread of disease. These disruptions, which we call social response, can include heightened anxiety, strain on healthcare infrastructure, economic losses, or violence. Methodology The spread of disease and social response are simulated under several different intervention strategies. The modeled social response depends upon the perceived risk of the disease, the extent of disease spread, and the media involvement. Using Monte Carlo simulation, we estimate the total number of infections and total social response for each strategy. We then identify the strategy that minimizes the expected total cost of the disease, which includes the cost of the disease itself, the cost of control measures, and the cost of social response. Conclusions The model-based simulations suggest that the least-cost disease control strategy depends upon the perceived risk of the disease, as well as media intervention. The most cost-effective solution for diseases with low perceived risk was to implement moderate control measures. For diseases with higher perceived severity, such as SARS or Ebola, the most cost-effective strategy shifted toward intervening earlier in the outbreak, with greater resources. When intervention elicited increased media involvement, it remained important to control high severity diseases quickly. For moderate severity diseases, however, it became most cost-effective to implement no intervention and allow the disease to run its course. Our simulation results imply that, when diseases are perceived as severe, the costs of social response have a significant influence on selecting the most cost-effective strategy. PMID:26288274

  16. Effect on diagnostic yield of repeated stool testing during outbreaks of Clostridium difficile-associated disease.

    PubMed

    Debast, S B; van Kregten, E; Oskam, K M G; van den Berg, T; Van den Berg, R J; Kuijper, E J

    2008-06-01

    The effect on diagnostic yield of testing sequential stools was assessed during two hospital epidemics of Clostridium difficile. Using a rapid immunoassay, C. difficile-associated disease was diagnosed in 237 diarrhoeal patients, of whom 204 (86%) were diagnosed from the first faeces sample and 12 (5%) were diagnosed from follow-up samples obtained within 1 week. The remaining 21 (9%) patients yielded a positive test from stools obtained >1 week after the initial negative sample. It was concluded that repeated testing of stools for C. difficile toxin is of value in controlling outbreaks of C. difficile infection. PMID:18393996

  17. Recent weather extremes and impacts on agricultural production and vector-borne disease outbreak patterns.

    PubMed

    Anyamba, Assaf; Small, Jennifer L; Britch, Seth C; Tucker, Compton J; Pak, Edwin W; Reynolds, Curt A; Crutchfield, James; Linthicum, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    We document significant worldwide weather anomalies that affected agriculture and vector-borne disease outbreaks during the 2010-2012 period. We utilized 2000-2012 vegetation index and land surface temperature data from NASA's satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to map the magnitude and extent of these anomalies for diverse regions including the continental United States, Russia, East Africa, Southern Africa, and Australia. We demonstrate that shifts in temperature and/or precipitation have significant impacts on vegetation patterns with attendant consequences for agriculture and public health. Weather extremes resulted in excessive rainfall and flooding as well as severe drought, which caused ∼10 to 80% variation in major agricultural commodity production (including wheat, corn, cotton, sorghum) and created exceptional conditions for extensive mosquito-borne disease outbreaks of dengue, Rift Valley fever, Murray Valley encephalitis, and West Nile virus disease. Analysis of MODIS data provided a standardized method for quantifying the extreme weather anomalies observed during this period. Assessments of land surface conditions from satellite-based systems such as MODIS can be a valuable tool in national, regional, and global weather impact determinations. PMID:24658301

  18. Recent Weather Extremes and Impacts on Agricultural Production and Vector-Borne Disease Outbreak Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anyamba, Assaf; Small, Jennifer L.; Britch, Seth C.; Tucker, Compton J.; Pak, Edwin W.; Reynolds, Curt A.; Crutchfield, James; Linthicum, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    We document significant worldwide weather anomalies that affected agriculture and vector-borne disease outbreaks during the 2010-2012 period. We utilized 2000-2012 vegetation index and land surface temperature data from NASA's satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to map the magnitude and extent of these anomalies for diverse regions including the continental United States, Russia, East Africa, Southern Africa, and Australia. We demonstrate that shifts in temperature and/or precipitation have significant impacts on vegetation patterns with attendant consequences for agriculture and public health. Weather extremes resulted in excessive rainfall and flooding as well as severe drought, which caused,10 to 80% variation in major agricultural commodity production (including wheat, corn, cotton, sorghum) and created exceptional conditions for extensive mosquito-borne disease outbreaks of dengue, Rift Valley fever, Murray Valley encephalitis, and West Nile virus disease. Analysis of MODIS data provided a standardized method for quantifying the extreme weather anomalies observed during this period. Assessments of land surface conditions from satellite-based systems such as MODIS can be a valuable tool in national, regional, and global weather impact determinations.

  19. Emerging and changing viral diseases in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Scully, C; Samaranayake, L P

    2016-04-01

    Most viral infections encountered in resource-rich countries are relatively trivial and transient with perhaps fever, malaise, myalgia, rash (exanthema) and sometimes mucosal manifestations (enanthema), including oral in some. However, the apparent benignity may be illusory as some viral infections have unexpected consequences - such as the oncogenicity of some herpesviruses and human papillomaviruses. Infections are transmitted from various human or animal vectors, especially by close proximity, and the increasing movements of peoples across the globe, mean that infections hitherto confined largely to the tropics now appear worldwide. Global warming also increases the range of movement of vectors such as mosquitoes. Thus recent decades have seen a most dramatic change with the emergence globally also of new viral infections - notably human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) - and the appearance of some other dangerous and sometimes lethal infections formerly seen mainly in, and reported from, resource-poor areas especially in parts of Asia, Latin America and Africa. This study offers a brief update of the most salient new aspects of the important viral infections, especially those with known orofacial manifestations or other implications for oral health care. PMID:26179810

  20. Serotype-specific outbreak of group B meningococcal disease in Iquique, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, C.; Pavez, G.; Aguilar, E.; Grawe, L.; Cam, J.; Mendez, F.; Garcia, J.; Ruiz, S.; Vicent, P.; Canepa, I.; Martinez, M.; Boslego, J.; Zollinger, W.; Arthur, J.; Caugant, D.

    1990-01-01

    From 1979 to August 1987, there have been 178 cases of meningococcal disease in Iquique, Chile, a city of about 140000. The attack rate for the last 5 years has been in excess of 20/100000 per year, more than 20 times greater than for the country overall. The mortality rate was 6%. The disease occurred in patients with ages from 4 months to 60 years, but 89% of cases were in patients < 21 years. The largest number of cases were in the age group 5—9 years (n = 54), but the highest incidence occurred in children less than 1 year of age (72·8/100000 per year). The male/female ratio was 1·2. Cases occurred all year round with little seasonal variation. Of the 178 cases, 173 were biologically confirmed. Serogroup analysis of strains from 135 patients revealed A = 1, B = 124, C = 10. Forty-four group B strains from 1985-7 were serotyped: 15:P1.3 = 36, 15:NT = 4, 4:P1.3 = 2, NT:NT = 2. Ten of 11 of the outbreak strains tested were sulfadiazine-resistant. This is the first recognized outbreak caused by a Gp B:15 strain in South America. It shares many of the characteristics of outbreaks caused by closely related strains in Europe, such as a predilection for older children and adolescents, sulfadiazine-resistance, and sustained high attack rates. The Iquique strain (B:15:P1.3) belongs to the same genetic clone (ET-5 complex) as the Norway (B:15:P1.16) and the Cuban (B:4:P1.15) strains. PMID:2116973

  1. Factors influencing psychological distress during a disease epidemic: Data from Australia's first outbreak of equine influenza

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Melanie R; Agho, Kingsley E; Stevens, Garry J; Raphael, Beverley

    2008-01-01

    Background In 2007 Australia experienced its first outbreak of highly infectious equine influenza. Government disease control measures were put in place to control, contain, and eradicate the disease; these measures included movement restrictions and quarantining of properties. This study was conducted to assess the psycho-social impacts of this disease, and this paper reports the prevalence of, and factors influencing, psychological distress during this outbreak. Methods Data were collected using an online survey, with a link directed to the affected population via a number of industry groups. Psychological distress, as determined by the Kessler 10 Psychological Distress Scale, was the main outcome measure. Results In total, 2760 people participated in this study. Extremely high levels of non-specific psychological distress were reported by respondents in this study, with 34% reporting high psychological distress (K10 > 22), compared to levels of around 12% in the Australian general population. Analysis, using backward stepwise binary logistic regression analysis, revealed that those living in high risk infection (red) zones (OR = 2.00; 95% CI: 1.57–2.55; p < 0.001) and disease buffer (amber) zones (OR = 1.83; 95% CI: 1.36–2.46; p < 0.001) were at much greater risk of high psychological distress than those living in uninfected (white zones). Although prevalence of high psychological distress was greater in infected EI zones and States, elevated levels of psychological distress were experienced in horse-owners nationally. Statistical analysis indicated that certain groups were more vulnerable to high psychological distress; specifically younger people, and those with lower levels of formal educational qualifications. Respondents whose principal source of income was from horse-related industry were more than twice as likely to have high psychological distress than those whose primary source of income was not linked to horse-related industry (OR = 2.23; 95% CI: 1

  2. The Role of the Polio Program Infrastructure in Response to Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak in Nigeria 2014

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Rui G.; Mkanda, Pascal; Banda, Richard; Komkech, William; Ekundare-Famiyesin, Olubowale O.; Onyibe, Rosemary; Abidoye, Sunday; Nsubuga, Peter; Maleghemi, Sylvester; Hannah-Murele, Bolatito; Tegegne, Sisay G.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The current West African outbreak of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) began in Guinea in December 2013 and rapidly spread to Liberia and Sierra Leone. On 20 July 2014, a sick individual flew into Lagos, Nigeria, from Monrovia, Liberia, setting off an outbreak in Lagos and later in Port Harcourt city. The government of Nigeria, supported by the World Health Organization and other partners, mounted a response to the outbreak relying on the polio program experiences and infrastructure. On 20 October 2014, the country was declared free of EVD. Methods. We examined the organization and operations of the response to the 2014 EVD outbreak in Nigeria and how experiences and support from the country's polio program infrastructure accelerated the outbreak response. Results. The deputy incident manager of the National Polio Emergency Operations Centre was appointed the incident manager of the Ebola Emergency Operations Centre (EEOC), the body that coordinated and directed the response to the EVD outbreak in the country. A total of 892 contacts were followed up, and blood specimens were collected from 61 persons with suspected EVD and tested in designated laboratories. Of these, 19 (31%) were positive for Ebola, and 11 (58%) of the case patients were healthcare workers. The overall case-fatality rate was 40%. EVD sensitization and training were conducted during the outbreak and for 2 months after the outbreak ended. The World Health Organization deployed its surveillance and logistics personnel from non–Ebola-infected states to support response activities in Lagos and Rivers states. Conclusions. The support from the polio program infrastructure, particularly the coordination mechanism adopted (the EEOC), the availability of skilled personnel in the polio program, and lessons learned from managing the polio eradication program greatly contributed to the speedy containment of the 2014 EVD outbreak in Nigeria. PMID:26908718

  3. Molecular characterization of an apoptotic strain of Newcastle disease virus isolated from an outbreak in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, U; Kumar, S

    2015-08-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious disease of poultry. The ND virus (NDV) encodes an error-prone RNA-dependent RNA polymerase which can cause high mutation rate leading to the emergence of its new antigenic variants. Antigenic difference of NDV strains may result in massive outbreak in vaccinated and unvaccinated poultry flocks around the globe. Apart from its pathogenic potential NDV has been explored as an oncolytic agent for a broad range of human cancers. In the present study, we isolated a novel NDV strain from an outbreak in chicken flock from the eastern part of India. Molecular characterization showed the NDV strain to be virulent in nature. The complete genome sequence analysis of the newly isolated strains belongs to genotype XIII. Moreover, the newly isolated strain of NDV showed positive results in various apoptotic assays in human breast cancer cells, MCF-7. The study will be useful to explore the possibility of using a newly isolated strain of NDV for virotherapy. PMID:26251032

  4. Identification, virulence, and mass spectrometry of toxic ECP fractions of West Alabama isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila obtained from a 2010 disease outbreak

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In West Alabama, disease outbreaks in 2009 caused by Aeromonas hydrophila have led to an estimated loss of more than $3 million. In 2010, disease outbreak occurred again in West Alabama, causing losses of hundreds of thousands of pounds of market size channel catfish. During the 2010 disease outbrea...

  5. Identification, virulence, and mass spectrometry of toxic ECP fractons of West Alabama isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila obtained from a 2010 disease outbreak

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In West Alabama, disease outbreaks in 2009 caused by Aeromonas hydrophila have led to an estimated loss of more than $3 million. In 2010, disease outbreak occurred again in West Alabama, causing losses of hundreds of thousands of pounds of market size channel catfish. During the 2010 disease outbrea...

  6. Detection of infectious disease outbreaks in twenty-two fragile states, 2000-2010: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Fragile states are home to a sixth of the world's population, and their populations are particularly vulnerable to infectious disease outbreaks. Timely surveillance and control are essential to minimise the impact of these outbreaks, but little evidence is published about the effectiveness of existing surveillance systems. We did a systematic review of the circumstances (mode) of detection of outbreaks occurring in 22 fragile states in the decade 2000-2010 (i.e. all states consistently meeting fragility criteria during the timeframe of the review), as well as time lags from onset to detection of these outbreaks, and from detection to further events in their timeline. The aim of this review was to enhance the evidence base for implementing infectious disease surveillance in these complex, resource-constrained settings, and to assess the relative importance of different routes whereby outbreak detection occurs. We identified 61 reports concerning 38 outbreaks. Twenty of these were detected by existing surveillance systems, but 10 detections occurred following formal notifications by participating health facilities rather than data analysis. A further 15 outbreaks were detected by informal notifications, including rumours. There were long delays from onset to detection (median 29 days) and from detection to further events (investigation, confirmation, declaration, control). Existing surveillance systems yielded the shortest detection delays when linked to reduced barriers to health care and frequent analysis and reporting of incidence data. Epidemic surveillance and control appear to be insufficiently timely in fragile states, and need to be strengthened. Greater reliance on formal and informal notifications is warranted. Outbreak reports should be more standardised and enable monitoring of surveillance systems' effectiveness. PMID:21861869

  7. Estimating Resource Requirements to Staff a Response to a Medium to Large Outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease in Australia.

    PubMed

    Garner, M G; Bombarderi, N; Cozens, M; Conway, M L; Wright, T; Paskin, R; East, I J

    2016-02-01

    A recent report to the Australian Government identified concerns relating to Australia's capacity to respond to a medium to large outbreak of FMD. To assess the resources required, the AusSpread disease simulation model was used to develop a plausible outbreak scenario that included 62 infected premises in five different states at the time of detection, 28 days after the disease entered the first property in Victoria. Movements of infected animals and/or contaminated product/equipment led to smaller outbreaks in NSW, Queensland, South Australia and Tasmania. With unlimited staff resources, the outbreak was eradicated in 63 days with 54 infected premises and a 98% chance of eradication within 3 months. This unconstrained response was estimated to involve 2724 personnel. Unlimited personnel was considered unrealistic, and therefore, the course of the outbreak was modelled using three levels of staffing and the probability of achieving eradication within 3 or 6 months of introduction determined. Under the baseline staffing level, there was only a 16% probability that the outbreak would be eradicated within 3 months, and a 60% probability of eradication in 6 months. Deployment of an additional 60 personnel in the first 3 weeks of the response increased the likelihood of eradication in 3 months to 68%, and 100% in 6 months. Deployment of further personnel incrementally increased the likelihood of timely eradication and decreased the duration and size of the outbreak. Targeted use of vaccination in high-risk areas coupled with the baseline personnel resources increased the probability of eradication in 3 months to 74% and to 100% in 6 months. This required 25 vaccination teams commencing 12 days into the control program increasing to 50 vaccination teams 3 weeks later. Deploying an equal number of additional personnel to surveillance and infected premises operations was equally effective in reducing the outbreak size and duration. PMID:24894407

  8. Methods of treating Parkinson's disease using viral vectors

    DOEpatents

    Bankiewicz, Krys; Cunningham, Janet

    2012-11-13

    Methods of delivering viral vectors, particularly recombinant AAV virions, to the central nervous system (CNS) are provided for the treatment of CNS disorders, particularly those disorders which involve the neurotransmitter dopamine. The methods entail providing rAAV virions that comprise a transgene encoding aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) and administering the virions to the brain of a mammal using a non-manual pump.

  9. [Endotoxin Is a Companent in Pathogenesis of Chronic Viral Diseases].

    PubMed

    Anikhovskaya, I; Kubatiev, A; Khasanova, G; Yakovlev, M

    2015-01-01

    The level of endotoxin and indicators of activity of antiendotoxin immunity (antibody concentration to glycolipid Re-chemotype and general antigen of enterobacteria) were estimated in serum of 174 patients with persistent viral infections (viruses: herpes simplex, hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency). The presence of markers of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (interleukin IL-1β) and acquired immunodeficiency (CD4+) in HIV-infected patients were also determined. Persistent viral infections are accompanied by endotoxin aggression intestinal origin (caused by them), which is able to induce the development of systemic inflammatory response syndrome. In HIV-infected patients with this syndrome is cyclical, when the phase of hyperactivity replaced immunodeficiency. Schematically, this process can be represented as the following sequence of events: HIV-mediated damage to the intestinal barrier--the development of endotoxin aggression--induction ofsystemic inflammatory response syndrome--the depletion of the immune system, which is transient and is related to the duration of activity of the virus replication cycle, i.e., with damage to enterocytes. Using antiendotoxin component (means of reducing levels of endotoxin in the blood) in the scheme of treatment of persistent viral infections can serve as an element of a successful prevention of complications. PMID:26237956

  10. How do resources influence control measures during a simulated outbreak of foot and mouth disease in Australia?

    PubMed

    Roche, S E; Garner, M G; Wicks, R M; East, I J; de Witte, K

    2014-03-01

    An outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD) could seriously impact Australia's livestock sector and economy. As an FMD-free country, an outbreak would trigger a major disease control and eradication program that would include the culling of infected and at risk animals ('stamping out'), movement restrictions and zoo-sanitary measures. Additional control measures may also include pre-emptive culling or vaccination. However, it is unclear what disease strategy would be most effective under Australian conditions and different resource levels. Using a stochastic simulation model that describes FMD transmission between farms in a livestock dense region of Australia, our results suggest that using current estimates of human resource capacity for surveillance, infected premises operations and vaccination, outbreaks were effectively controlled under a stamping out strategy. However, under more constrained resource allocations, ring vaccination was more likely to achieve eradication faster than stamping out or pre-emptive culling strategies. PMID:24412502

  11. Notes from the Field: Outbreak of Serogroup B Meningococcal Disease at a University - California, 2016.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Hope H; Han, George S; Wendorf, Kristen; Winter, Kathleen; Zipprich, Jennifer; Perti, Tara; Martinez, Linda; Arellano, Aileen; Kyle, Jennifer L; Zhang, Peng; Harriman, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    On January 31, 2016, the Santa Clara County Public Health Department (SCCPHD) was notified of a suspected case of meningococcal disease in a university undergraduate student. By February 2, two additional suspected cases had been reported in undergraduate students living on the same campus. The index patient (patient A) required intensive care, whereas patients B and C had milder illness; there were no deaths. All three patients were part of overlapping social networks and had attended the same events during the week before the onset of patient A's symptoms, but whether they had direct contact with one another could not be verified. Serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis was identified in cerebrospinal fluid and blood from patient A and in blood from patient B. Serogroup B has been responsible for all U.S. college outbreaks of meningococcal disease since 2011 (1). Laboratory results for patient C were inconclusive. PMID:27227576

  12. Projecting Month of Birth for At-Risk Infants after Zika Virus Disease Outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Reefhuis, Jennita; Gilboa, Suzanne M; Johansson, Michael A; Valencia, Diana; Simeone, Regina M; Hills, Susan L; Polen, Kara; Jamieson, Denise J; Petersen, Lyle R; Honein, Margaret A

    2016-05-01

    The marked increase in infants born with microcephaly in Brazil after a 2015 outbreak of Zika virus (Zika virus) disease suggests an association between maternal Zika virus infection and congenital microcephaly. To project the timing of delivery of infants born to mothers infected during early pregnancy in 1 city in Bahia State, Brazil, we incorporated data on reported Zika virus disease cases and microcephaly cases into a graphical schematic of weekly birth cohorts. We projected that these births would occur through February 2016. Applying similar projections to a hypothetical location at which Zika virus transmission started in November, we projected that full-term infants at risk for Zika virus infection would be born during April-September 2016. We also developed a modifiable spreadsheet tool that public health officials and researchers can use for their countries to plan for deliveries of infants to women who were infected with Zika virus during different pregnancy trimesters. PMID:27088494

  13. Projecting Month of Birth for At-Risk Infants after Zika Virus Disease Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Johansson, Michael A.; Valencia, Diana; Simeone, Regina M.; Hills, Susan L.; Polen, Kara; Jamieson, Denise J.; Petersen, Lyle R.; Honein, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    The marked increase in infants born with microcephaly in Brazil after a 2015 outbreak of Zika virus (Zika virus) disease suggests an association between maternal Zika virus infection and congenital microcephaly. To project the timing of delivery of infants born to mothers infected during early pregnancy in 1 city in Bahia State, Brazil, we incorporated data on reported Zika virus disease cases and microcephaly cases into a graphical schematic of weekly birth cohorts. We projected that these births would occur through February 2016. Applying similar projections to a hypothetical location at which Zika virus transmission started in November, we projected that full-term infants at risk for Zika virus infection would be born during April–September 2016. We also developed a modifiable spreadsheet tool that public health officials and researchers can use for their countries to plan for deliveries of infants to women who were infected with Zika virus during different pregnancy trimesters. PMID:27088494

  14. The use of hospital-based nurses for the surveillance of potential disease outbreaks.

    PubMed Central

    Durrheim, D. N.; Harris, B. N.; Speare, R.; Billinghurst, K.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study a novel surveillance system introduced in Mpumalanga Province, a rural area in the north-east of South Africa, in an attempt to address deficiencies in the system of notification for infectious conditions that have the potential for causing outbreaks. METHODS: Hospital-based infection control nurses in all of Mpumalanga's 32 public and private hospitals were trained to recognize, report, and respond to nine clinical syndromes that require immediate action. Sustainability of the system was assured through a schedule of regular training and networking, and by providing feedback to the nurses. The system was evaluated by formal review of hospital records, evidence of the effective containment of a cholera outbreak, and assessment of the speed and appropriateness of responses to other syndromes. FINDINGS: Rapid detection, reporting and response to six imported cholera cases resulted in effective containment, with only 19 proven secondary cholera cases, during the two-year review period. No secondary cases followed detection and prompt response to 14 patients with meningococcal disease. By the end of the first year of implementation, all facilities were providing weekly zero-reports on the nine syndromes before the designated time. Formal hospital record review for cases of acute flaccid paralysis endorsed the value of the system. CONCLUSION: The primary goal of an outbreak surveillance system is to ensure timely recognition of syndromes requiring an immediate response. Infection control nurses in Mpumalanga hospitals have excelled in timely weekly zero-reporting, participation at monthly training and feedback sessions, detection of priority clinical syndromes, and prompt appropriate response. This review provides support for the role of hospital-based nurses as valuable sentinel surveillance agents providing timely data for action. PMID:11217663

  15. Lethal outbreak of disease associated with feline calicivirus infection in cats.

    PubMed

    Coyne, K P; Jones, B R D; Kipar, A; Chantrey, J; Porter, C J; Barber, P J; Dawson, S; Gaskell, R M; Radford, A D

    2006-04-22

    Recently, in the USA, virulent mutants of feline calicivirus (FCV) have been identified as the cause of a severe and acute virulent systemic disease, characterised by jaundice, oedema and high mortality in groups of cats. This severe manifestation of FCV disease has so far only been reported in the USA. However, in 2003, an outbreak of disease affected a household of four adult cats and an adult cat from a neighbouring household in the UK. Three of the adult cats in the household and the neighbouring cat developed clinical signs including pyrexia (39.5 to 40.5 degrees C), lameness, voice loss, inappetence and jaundice. One cat was euthanased in extremis, two died and one recovered. A postmortem examination of one of the cats revealed focal cellulitis around the right hock and right elbow joints. The principal finding of histopathological examinations of selected organs from two of the cats was disseminated hepatocellular necrosis with mild inflammatory infiltration. Immunohistology identified FCV antigen in parenchymal and Kupffer cells in the liver of both animals and in alveolar macrophages of one of them. In addition, calicivirus-like particles were observed by electron microscopy within the hepatocytes of one cat. FCV was isolated from two of the dead cats and from the two surviving cats. Sequence analysis showed that they were all infected with the same strain of virus, but that it was different from strains of FCV associated with the virulent systemic disease in cats in the USA. The outbreak was successfully controlled by quarantine in the owner's house. PMID:16632527

  16. WATERBORNE GIARDIASIS: A COMMUNITYWIDE OUTBREAK OF DISEASE AND A HIGH RATE OF ASYMPTOMATIC INFECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A communitywide outbreak of gastrointestinal illness due to Giardia lamblia infection occurred in the city of Berlin, New Hampshire, during April and May 1977. The clinical, epidemiologic, and laboratory aspects of this outbreak are described here. In 213 predominantly symptomati...

  17. An overview of disease surveillance and notification system in Nigeria and the roles of clinicians in disease outbreak prevention and control.

    PubMed

    Isere, Elvis E; Fatiregun, Akinola A; Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo O

    2015-01-01

    While outbreaks of infectious diseases have long presented a public health challenge, especially in developing countries like Nigeria; within recent years, the frequency of such outbreaks has risen tremendously. Furthermore, with the recent outbreaks of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases such as Ebola virus disease and other epidemic prone diseases in Nigeria demanding immediate public health action, there is a need to strengthen the existing notifiable disease surveillance and notification system with increased clinicians' involvement in timely reporting of notifiable diseases to designated public health authorities for prompt public health action. Hence, this paper provides the opportunity to increase awareness among clinicians on the importance of immediate reporting of notifiable diseases and intensify engagement of clinicians in disease notification activities by describing various notifiable diseases in Nigeria using their surveillance case definition, outlines the reporting channel for notifying these diseases and highlights the roles of clinicians in the current disease surveillance and notification network for early disease outbreak detection and public health response in Nigeria. PMID:26229222

  18. An overview of disease surveillance and notification system in Nigeria and the roles of clinicians in disease outbreak prevention and control

    PubMed Central

    Isere, Elvis E.; Fatiregun, Akinola A.; Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo O.

    2015-01-01

    While outbreaks of infectious diseases have long presented a public health challenge, especially in developing countries like Nigeria; within recent years, the frequency of such outbreaks has risen tremendously. Furthermore, with the recent outbreaks of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases such as Ebola virus disease and other epidemic prone diseases in Nigeria demanding immediate public health action, there is a need to strengthen the existing notifiable disease surveillance and notification system with increased clinicians’ involvement in timely reporting of notifiable diseases to designated public health authorities for prompt public health action. Hence, this paper provides the opportunity to increase awareness among clinicians on the importance of immediate reporting of notifiable diseases and intensify engagement of clinicians in disease notification activities by describing various notifiable diseases in Nigeria using their surveillance case definition, outlines the reporting channel for notifying these diseases and highlights the roles of clinicians in the current disease surveillance and notification network for early disease outbreak detection and public health response in Nigeria. PMID:26229222

  19. Phenotypic variation amongst genotypically homogeneous Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates: implications for the investigation of outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease.

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, T. G.; Saunders, N. A.; Haththotuwa, A.; Hallas, G.; Birtles, R. J.; Taylor, A. G.

    1990-01-01

    One hundred and seventy-nine isolates of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, obtained from a site associated with an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease, were examined by monoclonal antibody subgrouping, restriction fragment length polymorphism typing, restriction endonuclease analysis and plasmid content. Nine distinct phenotypes were detected but at the genotypic level all strains were closely related. The data presented indicate that phenotypic variation of a single parent strain can occur within an environmental site. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to the investigation of outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:1969803

  20. Complicated infectious coryza outbreaks in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, V E; Terzolo, H R; Blackall, P J

    1994-01-01

    Seventeen complicated outbreaks of infectious coryza in layer, broiler-breeder, and broiler flocks were studied. In the layer flock outbreaks, drops in egg production of up to 35% were seen. In the broiler flocks and several of the layer flocks, losses due to persistent mortality and/or culling varied between 2 and 5%. Signs of infectious coryza in both layers and broiler-breeders were typical; in broilers, however, swollen head-like syndrome was seen. Except in one flock, no viral diseases were clinically or serologically detected. Excluding broiler-breeders, birds from most other flocks were serologically positive for Mycoplasma gallisepticum, and some were also positive for M. synoviae. Haemophilus paragallinarum was isolated from all of the outbreaks, but only as a pure culture in three outbreaks. Isolation of H. paragallinarum from sites such as liver, kidney, and particularly tarsal arthritis and ocular globes appears to be reported for the first time. Serovar A was isolated in eight outbreaks, serovar B in six, serovar C in one, and untypable serovars in two. The severity of these infectious coryza outbreaks may have been increased by concurrent salmonellosis, pasteurellosis, and mycoplasmosis, although under certain conditions H. paragallinarum is able to cause septicemia. Ten of the outbreaks occurred in birds vaccinated against infectious coryza; this may be due to the use of vaccines that do not provide protection against the types of H. paragallinarum that affect poultry in the region. PMID:7832727

  1. Role of pentraxin 3 in shaping arthritogenic alphaviral disease: from enhanced viral replication to immunomodulation.

    PubMed

    Foo, Suan-Sin; Chen, Weiqiang; Taylor, Adam; Sheng, Kuo-Ching; Yu, Xing; Teng, Terk-Shin; Reading, Patrick C; Blanchard, Helen; Garlanda, Cecilia; Mantovani, Alberto; Ng, Lisa F P; Herrero, Lara J; Mahalingam, Suresh

    2015-02-01

    The rising prevalence of arthritogenic alphavirus infections, including chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Ross River virus (RRV), and the lack of antiviral treatments highlight the potential threat of a global alphavirus pandemic. The immune responses underlying alphavirus virulence remain enigmatic. We found that pentraxin 3 (PTX3) was highly expressed in CHIKV and RRV patients during acute disease. Overt expression of PTX3 in CHIKV patients was associated with increased viral load and disease severity. PTX3-deficient (PTX3(-/-)) mice acutely infected with RRV exhibited delayed disease progression and rapid recovery through diminished inflammatory responses and viral replication. Furthermore, binding of the N-terminal domain of PTX3 to RRV facilitated viral entry and replication. Thus, our study demonstrates the pivotal role of PTX3 in shaping alphavirus-triggered immunity and disease and provides new insights into alphavirus pathogenesis. PMID:25695775

  2. Ebola Virus Disease: Rapid Diagnosis and Timely Case Reporting are Critical to the Early Response for Outbreak Control.

    PubMed

    Stamm, Lola V

    2015-09-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a life-threatening zoonosis caused by infection with the Ebola virus. Since the first reported EVD outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, several small outbreaks have been reported in central Africa with about 2,400 cases occurring between 1976 and 2013. The 2013-2015 EVD outbreak in west Africa is the first documented outbreak in this region and the largest ever with over 27,000 cases and more than 11,000 deaths. Although EVD transmission rates have recently decreased in west Africa, this crisis continues to threaten global health and security, particularly since infected travelers could spread EVD to other resource-limited areas of the world. Because vaccines and drugs are not yet licensed for EVD, outbreak control is dependent on the use of non-pharmaceutical interventions (e.g., infection control practices, isolation of EVD cases, contact tracing with follow-up and quarantine, sanitary burial, health education). However, delays in diagnosing and reporting EVD cases in less accessible rural areas continue to hamper control efforts. New advances in rapid diagnostics for identifying presumptive EVD cases and in mobile-based technologies for communicating critical health-related information should facilitate deployment of an early response to prevent the amplification of sporadic EVD cases into large-scale outbreaks. PMID:26175026

  3. Rapid quantitative detection of Aeromonas hydrophila strains associated with disease outbreaks in catfish aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Matt J; Goodwin, Andrew E; Merry, Gwenn E; Liles, Mark R; Williams, Malachi A; Ware, Cynthia; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C

    2013-07-01

    A new strain of Aeromonas hydrophila has been implicated in significant losses in farm-raised catfish. Outbreaks attributable to this new strain began in Alabama in the summer of 2009 and have spread to Arkansas and Mississippi in subsequent years. These outbreaks mostly afflicted market-sized fish and resulted in considerable losses in short periods of time. The present research was designed to develop an expeditious diagnostic procedure to detect the new strains of A. hydrophila due to the rapid onset and biosecurity concerns associated with this new disease. A discriminatory quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay was developed using gene sequences unique to the virulent strains identified in a related comparative genomic study. Using this assay, suspect colonies on a culture plate can be positively identified as the new strain within 2 hr. The assay is repeatable and reproducible with a linear dynamic range covering 8 orders of magnitude and a sensitivity of approximately 7 copies of target DNA in a 15-µl reaction. In addition, the assay is able to detect and quantify the virulent strain from catfish tissues (0.025 g), pond water (40 ml), and sediments (0.25 g) with a sensitivity limit of approximately 100 bacteria in a sample. This assay provides rapid discrimination between the new virulent strain and more common A. hydrophila and is useful for epidemiological studies involving the detection and quantification of the virulent strain in environmental samples and fish tissues. PMID:23847227

  4. Funding the Costs of Disease Outbreaks Caused by Non-Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Moser, Charlotte A; Reiss, Dorit; Schwartz, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    While vaccination rates in the United States are high - generally over 90 percent - rates of exemptions have been going up, and preventable diseases coming back. Aside from their human cost and the financial cost of treatment imposed on those who become ill, outbreaks impose financial costs on an already burdened public health system, diverting resources from other areas. This article examines the financial costs of non-vaccination, showing how high they can be and what they include. It makes a case for requiring those who do not vaccinate to cover the costs of outbreak caused by their choice. Such recouping is justified because the choice not to vaccinate can easily be seen as negligent. But even if it is not, that choice involves imposing costs on others, and there are good reasons to require the actors to internalize those costs. The article proposes alternative statutory and regulatory schemes to cover the costs imposed on the public purse, focusing on no-fault mechanisms. We consider both ex ante mechanisms like a tax or a fee that will go into a no-fault fund to cover the costs and ex post mechanisms like a statutory authorization for recoupment of those costs by health officials. PMID:26479572

  5. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: involvement in bovine respiratory disease and diagnostic challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reviews the contribution of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) to the development of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD). Veterinarians and producers generally consider BRD as one of the most significant diseases affecting production in the cattle industry. BRD can affect the performance (...

  6. The Contribution of Infections with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses to Bovine Respiratory Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The contribution of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) to the development of bovine respiratory disease is the sum of a number of different factors. These factors include the contribution of acute uncomplicated BVDV infections, the high incidence of respiratory disease in animals persistently inf...

  7. Human Survivors of Disease Outbreaks Caused by Ebola or Marburg Virus Exhibit Cross-Reactive and Long-Lived Antibody Responses.

    PubMed

    Natesan, Mohan; Jensen, Stig M; Keasey, Sarah L; Kamata, Teddy; Kuehne, Ana I; Stonier, Spencer W; Lutwama, Julius Julian; Lobel, Leslie; Dye, John M; Ulrich, Robert G

    2016-08-01

    A detailed understanding of serological immune responses to Ebola and Marburg virus infections will facilitate the development of effective diagnostic methods, therapeutics, and vaccines. We examined antibodies from Ebola or Marburg survivors 1 to 14 years after recovery from disease, by using a microarray that displayed recombinant nucleoprotein (NP), viral protein 40 (VP40), envelope glycoprotein (GP), and inactivated whole virions from six species of filoviruses. All three outbreak cohorts exhibited significant antibody responses to antigens from the original infecting species and a pattern of additional filoviruses that varied by outbreak. NP was the most cross-reactive antigen, while GP was the most specific. Antibodies from survivors of infections by Marburg marburgvirus (MARV) species were least cross-reactive, while those from survivors of infections by Sudan virus (SUDV) species exhibited the highest cross-reactivity. Based on results revealed by the protein microarray, persistent levels of antibodies to GP, NP, and VP40 were maintained for up to 14 years after infection, and survival of infection caused by one species imparted cross-reactive antibody responses to other filoviruses. PMID:27335383

  8. Diagnosis and Control of Viral Diseases of Reproductive Importance: Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis and Bovine Viral Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Newcomer, Benjamin W; Givens, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Both bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine herpesvirus 1 can have significant negative reproductive impacts on cattle health. Vaccination is the primary control method for the viral pathogens in US cattle herds. Polyvalent, modified-live vaccines are recommended to provide optimal protection against various viral field strains. Of particular importance to bovine viral diarrhea control is the limitation of contact of pregnant cattle with potential viral reservoirs during the critical first 125 days of gestation. PMID:27140298

  9. MANAGEMENT OF VIRAL DISEASES IN FLORAL AND NURSERY CROPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of plant diseases caused by viruses, viroids and fastidious prokaryotes involves exclusion, eradication, protection and the use of resistant varieties. Development of serological and molecular techniques allows rapid diagnosis of diseases and reliable detection of causal agents. Accurate ide...

  10. Responding to global infectious disease outbreaks: lessons from SARS on the role of risk perception, communication and management.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard D

    2006-12-01

    With increased globalisation comes the likelihood that infectious disease appearing in one country will spread rapidly to another, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) being a recent example. However, although SARS infected some 10,000 individuals, killing around 1000, it did not lead to the devastating health impact that many feared, but a rather disproportionate economic impact. The disproportionate scale and nature of this impact has caused concern that outbreaks of more serious disease could cause catastrophic impacts on the global economy. Understanding factors that led to the impact of SARS might help to deal with the possible impact and management of such other infectious disease outbreaks. In this respect, the role of risk--its perception, communication and management--is critical. This paper looks at the role that risk, and especially the perception of risk, its communication and management, played in driving the economic impact of SARS. It considers the public and public health response to SARS, the role of the media and official organisations, and proposes policy and research priorities for establishing a system to better deal with the next global infectious disease outbreak. It is concluded that the potential for the rapid spread of infectious disease is not necessarily a greater threat than it has always been, but the effect that an outbreak can have on the economy is, which requires further research and policy development. PMID:16978751

  11. Viral vectors for vaccine applications

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Youngjoo

    2013-01-01

    Traditional approach of inactivated or live-attenuated vaccine immunization has resulted in impressive success in the reduction and control of infectious disease outbreaks. However, many pathogens remain less amenable to deal with the traditional vaccine strategies, and more appropriate vaccine strategy is in need. Recent discoveries that led to increased understanding of viral molecular biology and genetics has rendered the used of viruses as vaccine platforms and as potential anti-cancer agents. Due to their ability to effectively induce both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, viral vectors are deemed as an attractive alternative to the traditional platforms to deliver vaccine antigens as well as to specifically target and kill tumor cells. With potential targets ranging from cancers to a vast number of infectious diseases, the benefits resulting from successful application of viral vectors to prevent and treat human diseases can be immense. PMID:23858400

  12. Induction of systemic IFITM3 expression does not effectively control foot-and-mouth disease viral infection in transgenic pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huawei; Zheng, Haixue; Qian, Ping; Xu, Jinfang; Yang, Xi; Zhou, Rui; Chen, Huanchun; Li, Xiangmin

    2016-08-15

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals, and can cause severe economic loss. Interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) proteins constitute a family of viral restriction factors that can inhibit the replication of several types of viruses. Our previous study showed that overexpression of swine IFITM3 (sIFITM3) impeded replication of the FMD virus (FMDV) in BHK-21 cells and mice. In this study, sIFITM3-transgenic (TG) pigs were produced by handmade cloning. Results showed that sIFITM3 was highly overexpressed in many organs of sIFITM3-TG pigs compared to wild-type pigs. After a virulent FMDV strain (O/ES/2001) was intramuscularly inoculated, the sIFITM3-TG pigs showed slightly higher susceptibility to FMDV infection than wild-type pigs. Both groups displayed comparable degrees of clinical symptoms throughout the 14-day observation period. Therefore, the induction of systemic sIFITM3 expression does not protect pigs against FMDV infection. Based on these observations, we propose that a combination of interferons and vaccines be used to control FMDV infections and subsequent FMD outbreaks. PMID:27374903

  13. The roles of sexual and asexual reproduction in the origin and dissemination of strains causing fungal infectious disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Ashu, Eta Ebasi; Xu, Jianping

    2015-12-01

    Sexual reproduction commonly refers to the reproductive process in which genomes from two sources are combined into a single cell through mating and then the zygote genomes are partitioned to progeny cells through meiosis. Reproduction in the absence of mating and meiosis is referred to as asexual or clonal reproduction. One major advantage of sexual reproduction is that it generates genetic variation among progeny which may allow for faster adaptation of the population to novel and/or stressful environments. However, adaptation to stressful or new environments can still occur through mutation, in the absence of sex. In this review, we analyzed the relative contributions of sexual and asexual reproduction in the origin and spread of strains causing fungal infectious diseases outbreaks. The necessity of sex and the ability of asexual fungi to initiate outbreaks are discussed. We propose a framework that relates the modes of reproduction to the origin and propagation of fungal disease outbreaks. Our analyses suggest that both sexual and asexual reproduction can play critical roles in the origin of outbreak strains and that the rapid spread of outbreak strains is often accomplished through asexual expansion. PMID:26394109

  14. Selective Impact of Disease on Coral Communities: Outbreak of White Syndrome Causes Significant Total Mortality of Acropora Plate Corals

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; Frisch, Ashley J.; Newman, Stephen J.; Wakefield, Corey B.

    2015-01-01

    Coral diseases represent a significant and increasing threat to coral reefs. Among the most destructive diseases is White Syndrome (WS), which is increasing in distribution and prevalence throughout the Indo-Pacific. The aim of this study was to determine taxonomic and spatial patterns in mortality rates of corals following the 2008 outbreak of WS at Christmas Island in the eastern Indian Ocean. WS mainly affected Acropora plate corals and caused total mortality of 36% of colonies across all surveyed sites and depths. Total mortality varied between sites but was generally much greater in the shallows (0–96% of colonies at 5 m depth) compared to deeper waters (0–30% of colonies at 20 m depth). Site-specific mortality rates were a reflection of the proportion of corals affected by WS at each site during the initial outbreak and were predicted by the initial cover of live Acropora plate cover. The WS outbreak had a selective impact on the coral community. Following the outbreak, live Acropora plate coral cover at 5 m depth decreased significantly from 7.0 to 0.8%, while the cover of other coral taxa remained unchanged. Observations five years after the initial outbreak revealed that total Acropora plate cover remained low and confirmed that corals that lost all their tissue due to WS did not recover. These results demonstrate that WS represents a significant and selective form of coral mortality and highlights the serious threat WS poses to coral reefs in the Indo-Pacific. PMID:26147291

  15. Selective Impact of Disease on Coral Communities: Outbreak of White Syndrome Causes Significant Total Mortality of Acropora Plate Corals.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; Frisch, Ashley J; Newman, Stephen J; Wakefield, Corey B

    2015-01-01

    Coral diseases represent a significant and increasing threat to coral reefs. Among the most destructive diseases is White Syndrome (WS), which is increasing in distribution and prevalence throughout the Indo-Pacific. The aim of this study was to determine taxonomic and spatial patterns in mortality rates of corals following the 2008 outbreak of WS at Christmas Island in the eastern Indian Ocean. WS mainly affected Acropora plate corals and caused total mortality of 36% of colonies across all surveyed sites and depths. Total mortality varied between sites but was generally much greater in the shallows (0-96% of colonies at 5 m depth) compared to deeper waters (0-30% of colonies at 20 m depth). Site-specific mortality rates were a reflection of the proportion of corals affected by WS at each site during the initial outbreak and were predicted by the initial cover of live Acropora plate cover. The WS outbreak had a selective impact on the coral community. Following the outbreak, live Acropora plate coral cover at 5 m depth decreased significantly from 7.0 to 0.8%, while the cover of other coral taxa remained unchanged. Observations five years after the initial outbreak revealed that total Acropora plate cover remained low and confirmed that corals that lost all their tissue due to WS did not recover. These results demonstrate that WS represents a significant and selective form of coral mortality and highlights the serious threat WS poses to coral reefs in the Indo-Pacific. PMID:26147291

  16. Modeling cholera outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Longini, Ira M.; Morris, J. Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical modeling can be a valuable tool for studying infectious disease outbreak dynamics and simulating the effects of possible interventions. Here, we describe approaches to modeling cholera outbreaks and how models have been applied to explore intervention strategies, particularly in Haiti. Mathematical models can play an important role in formulating and evaluating complex cholera outbreak response options. Major challenges to cholera modeling are insufficient data for calibrating models and the need to tailor models for different outbreak scenarios. PMID:23412687

  17. Molecular characterisation of epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus associated with a Tunisian outbreak among cattle in 2006.

    PubMed

    Ben Dhaou, Sameh; Sailleau, Corinne; Babay, Besma; Viarouge, Cyril; Sghaier, Soufien; Zientara, Stephan; Hammami, Salah; Bréard, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    In 2006, epizootic haemorrhagic disease (EHD) outbreaks were recorded in the Maghreb (Tunisia, Morocco and Algeria) among cattle, resulting in severe repercussions on herds (oedema of the head, necrotic lesions of the oral mucosa, hyperthermia of the teats, accompanied by anorexia and respiratory distress) and economic losses. The present study gives new information on the molecular characterisation of the EHD virus (EHDV) that had circulated in Tunisia. Genome segments 2, 3, 6, 7 and 10 of EHDV, corresponding to the VP2, VP3, VP5, VP7 and NS3/NS3A proteins, respectively, were amplified from the blood of one animal by RT-PCR and sequenced. Nucleotide sequence comparisons of these five segments with sequences available in the GenBank demonstrated that an EHDV serotype 6 (EHDV-6) had been present in Tunisia in 2006. The possible origin of this strain is discussed. PMID:27342096

  18. Carcass disposal: lessons from The Netherlands after the foot and mouth disease outbreak of 2001.

    PubMed

    de Klerk, P F

    2002-12-01

    The main logistical problems of the foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreak that occurred in the Netherlands in 2001 were a lack of culling and rendering capacity. Suppressive vaccination formed the basis for the solution to both problems and was primarily used to halt the possible spread of the virus. This allowed culls to take place on vaccinated farms when sufficient culling capacity eventually became available. In addition, the vaccinated cloven-hoofed animals could be removed alive and then killed in central culling places fourteen or more days after vaccination. Using slaughterhouses as central culling places meant that parts of carcasses could be deep-frozen, which solved the lack of rendering capacity. The deep-frozen carcass parts were destroyed later, when rendering capacity became available. To guarantee that all vaccinated, culled and temporarily deep-frozen cloven-hoofed animals were eventually destroyed, a balanced audit trail, partly based on kilogram records, was vital in this situation. PMID:12523715

  19. Maintenance of cooling towers following two outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease in a city.

    PubMed Central

    Bhopal, R. S.; Barr, G.

    1990-01-01

    This survey assessed the maintenance of evaporative cooling towers in Glasgow, following two Legionnaires' disease outbreaks. Information was obtained from 76 of 81 premises and a maintenance score was calculated for each of 174 towers. The quality of maintenance was extremely varied (range of maintenance scores, 8-30; mean, 22 (S.D., 5.0); median, 23; maximum possible, 33) and some towers were neglected. Breaches of maintenance principles were mainly structural and organizational, e.g. inadequate drift control, rather than failure to use chemicals. Low maintenance scores were associated with no log book, no guidelines, no change in procedures in last 5 years, solitary cooling towers, and towers on industrial premises. Despite intense publicity the standard of cooling tower maintenance in Glasgow remained a concern. Information campaigns directed at those responsible for cooling-tower maintenance are necessary. PMID:2307183

  20. Evaluation of methods for the euthanasia of cattle in a foreign animal disease outbreak.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, H J; Scrimgeour, H J

    1995-01-01

    In anticipation of the need to euthanize large numbers of cattle in the event of a foreign animal disease outbreak, two models of captive bolt gun and various firearms and ammunition loads were tested in order to assess their suitability. In the first phase of the project, two models of captive bolt stunner were used in an abattoir, and assessed for effectiveness. In the second phase, several firearms and ammunition were used on isolated bovine heads and assessed for effectiveness. Little difference was found between the two captive bolt stunners. Of the firearms and ammunition evaluated, the Ruger Mini-14 and the Core-Shot round, a prefragmented projectile, were determined to be most suitable. In situations where large herds of livestock are to be depopulated, and where the restraint required for the use of captive bolt stunners is not practical, there are commercially available firearms and ammunition that are suitable for this purpose. PMID:7757921

  1. Evaluation of methods for the euthanasia of cattle in a foreign animal disease outbreak.

    PubMed

    Baker, H J; Scrimgeour, H J

    1995-03-01

    In anticipation of the need to euthanize large numbers of cattle in the event of a foreign animal disease outbreak, two models of captive bolt gun and various firearms and ammunition loads were tested in order to assess their suitability. In the first phase of the project, two models of captive bolt stunner were used in an abattoir, and assessed for effectiveness. In the second phase, several firearms and ammunition were used on isolated bovine heads and assessed for effectiveness. Little difference was found between the two captive bolt stunners. Of the firearms and ammunition evaluated, the Ruger Mini-14 and the Core-Shot round, a prefragmented projectile, were determined to be most suitable. In situations where large herds of livestock are to be depopulated, and where the restraint required for the use of captive bolt stunners is not practical, there are commercially available firearms and ammunition that are suitable for this purpose. PMID:7757921

  2. Severe viral oesophagitis, pharyngitis, and stomatitis as antecedents of ileocecal Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Waluga, Marek; Budzyńska, Agnieszka; Kajor, Maciej; Hartleb, Marek

    2015-01-01

    We present a 22-year-old male who developed a severe erosive oesophagitis extending to the pharynx and oral cavity without obvious risk factors. Endoscopic image suggested viral aetiology that could not be confirmed by routine serological diagnostics of infections with cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and Herpes simplex virus. The histopathological evaluation also gave no definite clues to the aetiology of the inflammation. Treatment with acyclovir was ineffective, but gancyclovir therapy caused spectacular clinical improvement and healing of erosions. Two months later the patient presented febrile diarrhoea that was a symptom of ileocecal Crohn's disease proven by endoscopy, enterography, and histopathology. It is the first report of severe viral oesophagitis preceding clinical manifestation of Crohn's disease. This observation warrants further study towards the viral aetiology of oral, pharyngeal, and oesophageal erosions, frequently associated with Crohn's disease. PMID:25960815

  3. Using Satellite Images of Environmental Changes to Predict Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Colwell, Rita R.; Rose, Joan B.; Morse, Stephen S.; Rogers, David J.; Yates, Terry L.

    2009-01-01

    Recent events clearly illustrate a continued vulnerability of large populations to infectious diseases, which is related to our changing human-constructed and natural environments. A single person with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in 2007 provided a wake-up call to the United States and global public health infrastructure, as the health professionals and the public realized that today’s ease of airline travel can potentially expose hundreds of persons to an untreatable disease associated with an infectious agent. Ease of travel, population increase, population displacement, pollution, agricultural activity, changing socioeconomic structures, and international conflicts worldwide have each contributed to infectious disease events. Today, however, nothing is larger in scale, has more potential for long-term effects, and is more uncertain than the effects of climate change on infectious disease outbreaks, epidemics, and pandemics. We discuss advances in our ability to predict these events and, in particular, the critical role that satellite imaging could play in mounting an effective response. PMID:19788799

  4. An outbreak of pyrimethamine toxicity in patients with ischaemic heart disease in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan Assir, Muhammad Zaman; Ahmad, Hafiz Ijaz; Akram, Javed; Yusuf, Noshin Wasim; Kamran, Umair

    2014-09-01

    We investigated an outbreak of darkening of skin, bleeding from multiple sites, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia in ischaemic heart disease patients. Case patients were defined as patients who had received medicines from the pharmacy of Punjab Institute of Cardiology between 1 December 2011 and 12 January 2012 and who developed any one of the following: darkening of skin, bleeding from any site, thrombocytopenia and leucopenia. Clinical and drug-related data were abstracted. All 664 case patients had received iso-sorbide-mono-nitrate contaminated with about 50 mg of pyrimethamine, and 151 (23%) died. The median age of 117 patients admitted at Jinnah Hospital Lahore was 57 years (range, 37-100) and 92 (79%) were male. The median time from intake of medicine to presentation was 37 days (range 13-72). Symptoms and signs included bleeding (in 95% of the patients), skin hyperpigmentation (in 61%), diarrhoea (in 53%) and abdominal pain (in 48%). At presentation, the median white cell count was 2.3 × 10(9) /L (range, 0.1 × 10(9) -16.0 × 10(9) ), the median hemoglobin concentration was 109 g/L (range 58-169) and the median platelet count was 18 × 10(9) /L (range, 0 × 10(9) -318 × 10(9) ). Bone marrow examination revealed trileneage dysplasia and severe megaloblastosis. The predictors of mortality included presentation prior to 15 January 2012, age more than 57 years, hypotension and leukocyte count less than 1.5 × 10(9) /L. None of the patients who died received Calcium folinate because all deaths occurred prior to contaminant identification. We describe an outbreak of pyrimethamine toxicity in ischaemic heart disease patients receiving medicines from a single pharmacy due to accidental contamination of iso-sorbide mono-nitrate tablets at industrial level. Late recognition of illness resulted in high mortality. PMID:24490639

  5. A Systematic Review of Waterborne Disease Outbreaks Associated with Small Non-Community Drinking Water Systems in Canada and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Jones-Bitton, Andria; McEwen, Scott; Pintar, Katarina; Papadopoulos, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background Reports of outbreaks in Canada and the United States (U.S.) indicate that approximately 50% of all waterborne diseases occur in small non-community drinking water systems (SDWSs). Summarizing these investigations to identify the factors and conditions contributing to outbreaks is needed in order to help prevent future outbreaks. Objectives The objectives of this study were to: 1) identify published reports of waterborne disease outbreaks involving SDWSs in Canada and the U.S. since 1970; 2) summarize reported factors contributing to outbreaks, including water system characteristics and events surrounding the outbreaks; and 3) identify terminology used to describe SDWSs in outbreak reports. Methods Three electronic databases and grey literature sources were searched for outbreak reports involving SDWSs throughout Canada and the U.S. from 1970 to 2014. Two reviewers independently screened and extracted data related to water system characteristics and outbreak events. The data were analyzed descriptively with ‘outbreak’ as the unit of analysis. Results From a total of 1,995 citations, we identified 50 relevant articles reporting 293 unique outbreaks. Failure of an existing water treatment system (22.7%) and lack of water treatment (20.2%) were the leading causes of waterborne outbreaks in SDWSs. A seasonal trend was observed with 51% of outbreaks occurring in summer months (p<0.001). There was large variation in terminology used to describe SDWSs, and a large number of variables were not reported, including water source and whether water treatment was used (missing in 31% and 66% of reports, respectively). Conclusions More consistent reporting and descriptions of SDWSs in future outbreak reports are needed to understand the epidemiology of these outbreaks and to inform the development of targeted interventions for SDWSs. Additional monitoring of water systems that are used on a seasonal or infrequent basis would be worthwhile to inform future protection

  6. A prospective matched nested case-control study of bacterial gill disease outbreaks in Ontario, Canada government salmonid hatcheries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early-rearing salmonids in Ontario, Canada government fish hatcheries have been persistently affected by bacterial gill disease (BGD), and outbreaks at these locations have often been associated with high morbidity and mortality. The causative agent of BGD, Flavobacterium branchiophilum, is consider...

  7. The Broad Street pump revisited: dairy farms and an ongoing outbreak of inflammatory bowel disease in Forest, Virginia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We report an ongoing outbreak of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease in Forest, Virginia involving 15 unrelated children and teenagers who resided in close proximity to dairy farms. Some of our cases demonstrated serologic evidence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection, suggesting its potential role as an etiologic agent. PMID:22196128

  8. Surveillance for Waterborne Disease Outbreaks and Other Health Events Associated with Recreational Water -United States, 2007-2008*

    EPA Science Inventory

    Problem/Condition: Since 1978, CDC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have collaborated on the Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) for collecting and reporting data on occurrences and causes...

  9. Detecting Presymptomatic Infection Is Necessary to Forecast Major Epidemics in the Earliest Stages of Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Robin N.; Gilligan, Christopher A.; Cunniffe, Nik J.

    2016-01-01

    We assess how presymptomatic infection affects predictability of infectious disease epidemics. We focus on whether or not a major outbreak (i.e. an epidemic that will go on to infect a large number of individuals) can be predicted reliably soon after initial cases of disease have appeared within a population. For emerging epidemics, significant time and effort is spent recording symptomatic cases. Scientific attention has often focused on improving statistical methodologies to estimate disease transmission parameters from these data. Here we show that, even if symptomatic cases are recorded perfectly, and disease spread parameters are estimated exactly, it is impossible to estimate the probability of a major outbreak without ambiguity. Our results therefore provide an upper bound on the accuracy of forecasts of major outbreaks that are constructed using data on symptomatic cases alone. Accurate prediction of whether or not an epidemic will occur requires records of symptomatic individuals to be supplemented with data concerning the true infection status of apparently uninfected individuals. To forecast likely future behavior in the earliest stages of an emerging outbreak, it is therefore vital to develop and deploy accurate diagnostic tests that can determine whether asymptomatic individuals are actually uninfected, or instead are infected but just do not yet show detectable symptoms. PMID:27046030

  10. 1st International Symposium on Stress-Associated RNA Granules in Human Disease and Viral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Banfield, Bruce W.; Mouland, Andrew J.; McCormick, Craig

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, important linkages have been made between RNA granules and human disease processes. On June 8-10 of this year, we hosted a new symposium, dubbed the 1st International Symposium on Stress-Associated RNA Granules in Human Disease and Viral Infection. This symposium brought together experts from diverse research disciplines ranging from cancer and neuroscience to infectious disease. This report summarizes speaker presentations and highlights current challenges in the field. PMID:25256393

  11. Bluetongue, Schmallenberg - what is next? Culicoides-borne viral diseases in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, two pathogens transmitted by Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus, have caused serious economic losses to the European livestock industry, most notably affecting sheep and cattle. These outbreaks of arboviral disease have highlighted large knowledge gaps on the biology and ecology of indigenous Culicoides species. With these research gaps in mind, and as a means of assessing what potential disease outbreaks to expect in the future, an international workshop was held in May 2013 at Wageningen University, The Netherlands. It brought together research groups from Belgium, France, Germany, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom and The Netherlands, with diverse backgrounds in vector ecology, epidemiology, entomology, virology, animal health, modelling, and genetics. Here, we report on the key findings of this workshop. PMID:24685104

  12. Disease outbreaks, bleaching and a cyclone drive changes in coral assemblages on an inshore reef of the Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haapkylä, J.; Melbourne-Thomas, J.; Flavell, M.; Willis, B. L.

    2013-09-01

    Coral disease is a major threat to the resilience of coral reefs; thus, understanding linkages between disease outbreaks and disturbances predicted to increase with climate change is becoming increasingly important. Coral disease surveys conducted twice yearly between 2008 and 2011 at a turbid inshore reef in the central Great Barrier Reef spanned two disturbance events, a coral bleaching event in 2009 and a severe cyclone (cyclone `Yasi') in 2011. Surveys of coral cover, community structure and disease prevalence throughout this 4-yr study provide a unique opportunity to explore cumulative impacts of disturbance events and disease for inshore coral assemblages. The principal coral disease at the study site was atramentous necrosis (AtN), and it primarily affected the key inshore, reef-building coral Montipora aequituberculata. Other diseases detected were growth anomalies, white syndrome and brown band syndrome. Diseases affected eight coral genera, although Montipora was, by far, the genus mostly affected. The prevalence of AtN followed a clear seasonal pattern, with disease outbreaks occurring only in wet seasons. Mean prevalence of AtN on Montipora spp. (63.8 % ± 3.03) was three- to tenfold greater in the wet season of 2009, which coincided with the 2009 bleaching event, than in other years. Persistent wet season outbreaks of AtN combined with the impacts of bleaching and cyclone events resulted in a 50-80 % proportional decline in total coral cover. The greatest losses of branching and tabular acroporids occurred following the low-salinity-induced bleaching event of 2009, and the greatest losses of laminar montiporids occurred following AtN outbreaks in 2009 and in 2011 following cyclone Yasi. The shift to a less diverse coral assemblage and the concomitant loss of structural complexity are likely to have long-term consequences for associated vertebrate and invertebrate communities on Magnetic Island reefs.

  13. Small Non-coding RNAs Associated with Viral Infectious Diseases of Veterinary Importance: Potential Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Samir, Mohamed; Pessler, Frank

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a class of small non-coding RNA (sncRNA) molecules that can regulate mRNAs by inducing their degradation or by blocking translation. Considering that miRNAs are ubiquitous, stable, and conserved across animal species, it seems feasible to exploit them for clinical applications. Unlike in human viral diseases, where some miRNA-based molecules have progressed to clinical application, in veterinary medicine, this concept is just starting to come into view. Clinically, miRNAs could represent powerful diagnostic tools to pinpoint animal viral diseases and/or prognostic tools to follow up disease progression or remission. Additionally, the possible consequences of miRNA dysregulation make them potential therapeutic targets and open the possibilities to use them as tools to generate viral disease-resistant livestock. This review presents an update of preclinical studies on using sncRNAs to combat viral diseases that affect pet and farm animals. Moreover, we discuss the possibilities and challenges of bringing these bench-based discoveries to the veterinary clinic. PMID:27092305

  14. The Impact of Movements and Animal Density on Continental Scale Cattle Disease Outbreaks in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Buhnerkempe, Michael G.; Tildesley, Michael J.; Lindström, Tom; Grear, Daniel A.; Portacci, Katie; Miller, Ryan S.; Lombard, Jason E.; Werkman, Marleen; Keeling, Matt J.; Wennergren, Uno; Webb, Colleen T.

    2014-01-01

    Globalization has increased the potential for the introduction and spread of novel pathogens over large spatial scales necessitating continental-scale disease models to guide emergency preparedness. Livestock disease spread models, such as those for the 2001 foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemic in the United Kingdom, represent some of the best case studies of large-scale disease spread. However, generalization of these models to explore disease outcomes in other systems, such as the United States’s cattle industry, has been hampered by differences in system size and complexity and the absence of suitable livestock movement data. Here, a unique database of US cattle shipments allows estimation of synthetic movement networks that inform a near-continental scale disease model of a potential FMD-like (i.e., rapidly spreading) epidemic in US cattle. The largest epidemics may affect over one-third of the US and 120,000 cattle premises, but cattle movement restrictions from infected counties, as opposed to national movement moratoriums, are found to effectively contain outbreaks. Slow detection or weak compliance may necessitate more severe state-level bans for similar control. Such results highlight the role of large-scale disease models in emergency preparedness, particularly for systems lacking comprehensive movement and outbreak data, and the need to rapidly implement multi-scale contingency plans during a potential US outbreak. PMID:24670977

  15. Hantavirus disease outbreak in Germany: limitations of routine serological diagnostics and clustering of virus sequences of human and rodent origin.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Stefan; Emmerich, Petra; Klempa, Boris; Auste, Brita; Schnaith, Ebbo; Schmitz, Herbert; Krüger, Detlev H; Günther, Stephan; Meisel, Helga

    2007-09-01

    In Europe, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome results mainly from infection with Puumala virus (PUUV) or Dobrava virus. For 31 patients from a hantavirus disease outbreak in Lower Bavaria, a district in southeast Germany, serodiagnosis was undertaken by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunofluorescence assay, and immunoblot analysis. In a few of these cases, however, PUUV-specific typing of antibodies by these standard assays failed and a virus neutralization assay under biosafety level 3 conditions was required to verify the infection by this virus type. PUUV RNA was amplified by reverse transcription-PCR from acute-phase sera of three patients and was found to be very closely related to virus sequences obtained from bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) trapped in the same area. These findings link the outbreak with a novel PUUV lineage, "Bavaria," circulating in the local rodent population. The Bavaria lineage associated with the outbreak is only distantly related to other PUUV lineages from Germany. PMID:17626170

  16. EFFECTS OF POLLUTANTS ON HUMAN VIRAL RESPIRATORY DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many epidemiologic studies have shown excessive respiratory disease morbidity in areas of high atmospheric pollution. This study was designed to develop and characterize an animal model and investigate the possible interactive effects of infection and particulate air pollutants u...

  17. The Ebola Outbreak of 2014-2015: From Coordinated Multilateral Action to Effective Disease Containment, Vaccine Development, and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Wojda, Thomas R; Valenza, Pamela L; Cornejo, Kristine; McGinley, Thomas; Galwankar, Sagar C; Kelkar, Dhanashree; Sharpe, Richard P; Papadimos, Thomas J; Stawicki, Stanislaw P

    2015-01-01

    The Ebola outbreak of 2014-2015 exacted a terrible toll on major countries of West Africa. Latest estimates from the World Health Organization indicate that over 11,000 lives were lost to the deadly virus since the first documented case was officially recorded. However, significant progress in the fight against Ebola was made thanks to a combination of globally-supported containment efforts, dissemination of key information to the public, the use of modern information technology resources to better track the spread of the outbreak, as well as more effective use of active surveillance, targeted travel restrictions, and quarantine procedures. This article will outline the progress made by the global public health community toward containing and eventually extinguishing this latest outbreak of Ebola. Economic consequences of the outbreak will be discussed. The authors will emphasize policies and procedures thought to be effective in containing the outbreak. In addition, we will outline selected episodes that threatened inter-continental spread of the disease. The emerging topic of post-Ebola syndrome will also be presented. Finally, we will touch on some of the diagnostic (e.g., point-of-care [POC] testing) and therapeutic (e.g., new vaccines and pharmaceuticals) developments in the fight against Ebola, and how these developments may help the global public health community fight future epidemics. PMID:26752867

  18. The Ebola Outbreak of 2014-2015: From Coordinated Multilateral Action to Effective Disease Containment, Vaccine Development, and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Wojda, Thomas R; Valenza, Pamela L; Cornejo, Kristine; McGinley, Thomas; Galwankar, Sagar C; Kelkar, Dhanashree; Sharpe, Richard P; Papadimos, Thomas J; Stawicki, Stanislaw P

    2015-01-01

    The Ebola outbreak of 2014-2015 exacted a terrible toll on major countries of West Africa. Latest estimates from the World Health Organization indicate that over 11,000 lives were lost to the deadly virus since the first documented case was officially recorded. However, significant progress in the fight against Ebola was made thanks to a combination of globally-supported containment efforts, dissemination of key information to the public, the use of modern information technology resources to better track the spread of the outbreak, as well as more effective use of active surveillance, targeted travel restrictions, and quarantine procedures. This article will outline the progress made by the global public health community toward containing and eventually extinguishing this latest outbreak of Ebola. Economic consequences of the outbreak will be discussed. The authors will emphasize policies and procedures thought to be effective in containing the outbreak. In addition, we will outline selected episodes that threatened inter-continental spread of the disease. The emerging topic of post-Ebola syndrome will also be presented. Finally, we will touch on some of the diagnostic (e.g., point-of-care [POC] testing) and therapeutic (e.g., new vaccines and pharmaceuticals) developments in the fight against Ebola, and how these developments may help the global public health community fight future epidemics. PMID:26752867

  19. Modeling evolution and persistence of neurological viral diseases in wild populations.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, Dobromir T; King, Aaron A

    2008-10-01

    Viral infections are one of the leading source of mortality worldwide. The great majority of them circulate and persist in wild reservoirs and periodically spill over into humans or domestic animals. In the wild reservoirs, the progression of disease is frequently quite different from that in spillover hosts. We propose a mathematical treatment of the dynamics of viral infections in wild mammals using models with alternative outcomes. We develop and analyze compartmental epizootic models assuming permanent or temporary immunity of the individuals surviving infections and apply them to rabies in bats. We identify parameter relations that support the existing patterns in the viral ecology and estimate those parameters that are unattainable through direct measurement. We also investigate how the duration of the acquired immunity affects the disease and population dynamics. PMID:19278278

  20. Molecular Analysis of Spring Viraemia of Carp Virus in China: A Fatal Aquatic Viral Disease that Might Spread in East Asian

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yi Nan; Zhang, Ting; Xia, Chun

    2009-01-01

    Spring viraemia of carp (SVC) is a fatal viral disease for cyprinid fish, which is caused by spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV). To date, no SVC outbreak has been reported in China. Between 1998 and 2002, outbreaks of SVC were reported in ornamental and wild fish in Europe and America, imported from multiple sources including China. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the viral strain isolated from America was shown to be originated from Asia. These outbreaks not only resulted in huge economic losses, but also raise an interesting question as to whether SVCV really exists in China and if so, is it responsible for SVC outbreaks? From 2002 to 2006, we screened 6700 samples from ornamental fish farms using the cell culture method of the Office International des Epizooties (OIE), and further verified the presence of SVCV by ELISA and real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Two infected samples were found and the complete genome of SVCV was sequenced from one of the isolates, termed SVCV-C1. Several unique hallmarks of SVCV-C1 were identified, including six amino acid (KSLANA) insertion in the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L) protein and ten nucleotide insertion in the region between glycoprotein (G) and L genes in European SVCV strains. Phylogenetic tree analysis of the full-length G protein of selected SVCV isolates from the United Kingdom and United States revealed that G proteins could be classified into Ia and Id sub genogroups. The Ia sub genogroup can be further divided into newly defined sub genogroups Ia-A and Ia-B. The isolates derived from the United States and China including the SVCV-C1 belongs to in the Ia-A sub genogroup. The SVCV-C1 G protein shares more than 99% homology with the G proteins of the SVCV strains from England and the United States, making it difficult to compare their pathogenicity. Comparison of the predicted three-dimensional structure based on the published G protein sequences from five SVCV strains revealed that the main differences were in

  1. Graft-versus-host disease and sialodacryoadenitis viral infection in bone marrow transplanted rats

    SciTech Connect

    Rossie, K.M.; Sheridan, J.F.; Barthold, S.W.; Tutschka, P.J.

    1988-06-01

    The effect of a localized viral infection on the occurrence of graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) was examined in allogeneic rat bone marrow chimeras (ACI/LEW). Animals without clinical evidence of GVHD, 62 days after bone marrow transplant, were infected in salivary and lacrimal glands with sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV), and sacrificed 8-25 days postinfection. Using established histologic criteria, GVHD was found more frequently in salivary and lacrimal glands of SDAV-infected chimeras than uninfected chimeras. Skin and oral mucosa, tissues not infected by the virus, showed no differences in occurrence of GVHD, suggesting that the viral infection induced only local and not systemic GVHD. GVHD and SDAV infection, which are histologically similar, were differentiated by examining tissues for SDAV antigen using immunoperoxidase technique. Histologic changes were present for at least 1 week longer than viral antigen, suggesting they represented GVHD rather than viral infection. GVHD and SDAV infection were also differentiated by looking for a histologic feature characteristic of GVHD and not found in SDAV infection (periductal lymphocytic infiltrate). This was found in SDAV-infected chimeras more frequently than uninfected chimeras, suggesting that the viral infection somehow induced GVHD. Results showed a localized increase in the occurrence of GVHD subsequent to localized viral infection.

  2. The Evolution and Expansion of Regional Disease Surveillance Networks and Their Role in Mitigating the Threat of Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Katherine C.; Macfarlane, Sarah B.; Burke, Charlanne; Ungchusak, Kumnuan; Wibulpolprasert, Suwit

    2013-01-01

    We examine the emergence, development, and value of regional infectious disease surveillance networks that neighboring countries worldwide are organizing to control cross-border outbreaks at their source. The regional perspective represented in the paper is intended to serve as an instructive framework for others who decide to launch such networks as new technologies and emerging threats bring countries even closer together. Distinct from more formal networks in geographic regions designated by the World Health Organization (WHO), these networks usually involve groupings of fewer countries chosen by national governments to optimize surveillance efforts. Sometimes referred to as sub-regional, these “self-organizing” networks complement national and local government recognition with informal relationships across borders among epidemiologists, scientists, ministry officials, health workers, border officers, and community members. Their development over time reflects both incremental learning and growing connections among network actors; and changing disease patterns, with infectious disease threats shifting over time from local to regional to global levels. Not only has this regional disease surveillance network model expanded across the globe, it has also expanded from a mostly practitioner-based network model to one that covers training, capacity-building, and multidisciplinary research. Today, several of these networks are linked through Connecting Organizations for Regional Disease Surveillance (CORDS). We explore how regional disease surveillance networks add value to global disease detection and response by complementing other systems and efforts, by harnessing their power to achieve other goals such as health and human security, and by helping countries adapt to complex challenges via multi-sectoral solutions. We note that governmental commitment and trust among participating individuals are critical to the success of regional infectious disease

  3. Ebola virus disease outbreak; the role of field epidemiology training programme in the fight against the epidemic, Liberia, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Lubogo, Mutaawe; Donewell, Bangure; Godbless, Lucas; Shabani, Sasita; Maeda, Justin; Temba, Herilinda; Malibiche, Theophil C; Berhanu, Naod

    2015-01-01

    The African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) is a public health network established in 2005 as a non-profit networking alliance of Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs) and Field Epidemiology Training Programs (FETPs) in Africa. AFENET is dedicated to supporting Ministries of Health in Africa build strong, effective and sustainable programs and capacity to improve public health systems by partnering with global public health experts. The Network's goal is to strengthen field epidemiology and public health laboratory capacity to contribute effectively to addressing epidemics and other major public health problems in Africa. The goal for the establishment of FETP and FELTP was and still is to produce highly competent multi-disciplinary public health professionals who would assume influential posts in the public health structures and tackle emerging and re-emerging communicable and non-communicable diseases. AFENET currently networks 12 FELTPs and FETPs in sub-Saharan Africa with operations in 20 countries. During the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa, African Union Support for the Ebola Outbreak in West Africa (ASEOWA) supported FETP graduates from Uganda, Zimbabwe, Ethiopia and Tanzania for the investigation and control of the EVD outbreak in Liberia. The graduates were posted in different counties in Liberia where they lead teams of other experts conduct EVD outbreak investigations, Infection Control and Prevention trainings among health workers and communities, Strengthening integrated disease surveillance, developing Standard Operating Procedures for infection control and case notification in the Liberian setting as well as building capacity of local surveillance officers’ conduct outbreak investigation and contact tracing. The team was also responsible for EVD data management at the different Counties in Liberia. The FETP graduates have been instrumental in the earlier successes registered in various counties in

  4. The effectiveness of mass vaccination on Marek's disease virus (MDV) outbreaks and detection within a broiler barn: A modeling study☆

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Katherine E.; Read, Andrew F.; Walkden-Brown, Stephen W.; Savill, Nicholas J.; Woolhouse, Mark E.J.

    2013-01-01

    Marek's disease virus (MDV), a poultry pathogen, has been increasing in virulence since the mid twentieth century. Since multiple vaccines have been developed and widely implemented, losses due to MDV have decreased. However, vaccine failure has occurred in the past and vaccine breakthroughs remain a problem. Failure of disease control with current vaccines would have significant economic and welfare consequences. Nevertheless, the epidemiology of the disease during a farm outbreak is not well understood. Here we present a mathematical model to predict the effectiveness of vaccines to reduce the outbreak probability and disease burden within a barn. We find that the chance of an outbreak within a barn increases with the virulence of an MDV strain, and is significantly reduced when the flock is vaccinated, especially when there the contaminant strain is of low virulence. With low quantities of contaminated dust, there is nearly a 100% effectiveness of vaccines to reduce MDV outbreaks. However, the vaccine effectiveness drops to zero with an increased amount of contamination with a middle virulence MDV strain. We predict that the larger the barn, and the more virulent the MDV strain is, the more virus is produced by the time the flock is slaughtered. With the low-to-moderate virulence of the strains studied here, the number of deaths due to MDV is very low compared to all-cause mortality regardless of the vaccination status of the birds. However, the cumulative MD incidence can reach 100% for unvaccinated cohorts, and 35% for vaccinated cohorts. These results suggest that death due to MDV is an insufficient metric to assess the prevalence of MDV broiler barns regardless of vaccine status, such that active surveillance is required to successfully assess the probability of MDV outbreaks, and to limit transmission of MDV between successive cohorts of broiler chickens. PMID:24267877

  5. Short communication: Strengthening sub-national communicable disease surveillance in a remote Pacific Island country by adapting a successful African outbreak surveillance model.

    PubMed

    Nelesone, Tekaai; Durrheim, David N; Speare, Richard; Kiedrzynski, Tom; Melrose, Wayne D

    2006-01-01

    Successful communicable disease surveillance depends on effective bidirectional information flow between clinicians at the periphery and communicable disease control units at regional, national and global levels. Resource-poor countries often struggle to establish and maintain the crucial link with the periphery. A simple syndrome-based outbreak surveillance system initially developed and evaluated in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa was adapted for the Pacific island nation of Tuvalu. Eight syndromes were identified for surveillance: acute flaccid paralysis (poliomyelitis), profuse watery diarrhoea (cholera), diarrhoea outbreak, dysentery outbreak, febrile disease with abdominal symptoms and headache (typhoid), febrile disease with generalized non-blistering rash (measles), febrile disease with intense headache and/or neck stiffness with or without haemorrhagic rash (meningococcal meningitis), and outbreaks of other febrile diseases of unknown origin. A user-oriented manual, the Tuvalu Outbreak Manual (http://www.wepi.org/books/tom/), was developed to support introduction of the surveillance system. Nurses working in seven outer island clinics and the hospital outpatient department on the main island rapidly report suspected outbreaks and submit weekly zero-reports to the central communicable disease control unit. An evaluation of the system after 12 months indicated that the Outbreak Manual was regarded as very useful by clinic nurses, and there was early evidence of improved surveillance and response to the disease syndromes under surveillance. PMID:16398751

  6. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Health Workers in a Tertiary Hospital in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, towards Ebola Viral Disease

    PubMed Central

    Olowookere, Samuel Anu; Abioye-Kuteyi, Emmanuel Akintunde; Adepoju, Olusegun Kayode; Esan, Oluwaseun Taiwo; Adeolu, Temitope Michael; Adeoye, Tolulope Kola; Adepoju, Adesola Adebayo; Aderogba, Adedayo Titilayo

    2015-01-01

    Background. Health workers are more prone to Ebola viral disease (EVD) than the general population. This study assessed the preparedness of health workers in the control and management of EVD. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional study. Consenting 400 health workers completed a semistructured questionnaire that assessed participants' general knowledge, emergency preparedness, and control and management of EVD. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results. The mean age (SD) was 34.5 ± 8.62 years ranging from 20 to 59 years. Most participants were medical doctors (24.6%) and nurses (52.2%). The majority had practised <10 years (73.8%) and were aware of the EVD outbreak in the West African subregion (85.5%). Colleagues (40%) and radio (37.2%) were their major sources of information. Only 42% had good knowledge while 27% knew that there was no vaccine presently to prevent EVD. About one-quarter (24.2%) had low risk perception. The majority (89%) felt the hospital infection control policy was inadequate to protect against EVD. The only predictor of good knowledge was participants' occupation. Conclusion. There is knowledge gap and poor infection control preparedness among respondents. Thus, knowledge and practices of health workers towards EVD need improvement. PMID:26576160

  7. The History of Dengue Outbreaks in the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Brathwaite Dick, Olivia; San Martín, José L.; Montoya, Romeo H.; del Diego, Jorge; Zambrano, Betzana; Dayan, Gustavo H.

    2012-01-01

    Dengue is a viral disease usually transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Dengue outbreaks in the Americas reported in medical literature and to the Pan American Health Organization are described. The outbreak history from 1600 to 2010 was categorized into four phases: Introduction of dengue in the Americas (1600–1946); Continental plan for the eradication of the Ae. aegypti (1947–1970) marked by a successful eradication of the mosquito in 18 continental countries by 1962; Ae. aegypti reinfestation (1971–1999) caused by the failure of the mosquito eradication program; Increased dispersion of Ae. aegypti and dengue virus circulation (2000–2010) characterized by a marked increase in the number of outbreaks. During 2010 > 1.7 million dengue cases were reported, with 50,235 severe cases and 1,185 deaths. A dramatic increase in the number of outbreaks has been reported in recent years. Urgent global action is needed to avoid further disease spread. PMID:23042846

  8. Interferons as Therapy for Viral and Neoplastic Diseases: From Panacea to Pariah to Paragon

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Robert M.; Contente, Sara

    2009-01-01

    For more than 20 years after the excitement engendered by their discovery in 1957 as antiviral agents, there were no significant clinical uses of interferons; however, following their cloning they have been employed as effective treatment for several viral, autoimmune, and neoplastic diseases.

  9. Foot-and-mouth disease virus utilizes an autophagic pathway during viral replication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the type species of the Aphthovirus genus, of the family Picornaviridae. Infection of cells with positive-strand RNA viruses results in a rearrangement of intracellular membranes into viral replication complexes. However, the origin of these membranes remains u...

  10. EFFECTS OF PHOSGENE EXPOSURE ON BACTERIAL VIRAL AND NEOPLASTIC LUNG DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of phosgene inhalation exposure on host resistance models representative of bacterial, viral, and neoplastic lung diseases were assessed. ingle 4 h exposure to concentrations of phosgene of 0.025 ppm and above significantly enhanced mortality due to aerosol infection ...

  11. Viral Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... much smaller than bacteria. Viruses cause familiar infectious diseases such as the common cold, flu and warts. ... can help prevent you from getting many viral diseases. NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

  12. Carriage rate and effects of vaccination after outbreaks of serogroup C meningococcal disease, Brazil, 2010.

    PubMed

    Sáfadi, Marco Aurelio Palazzi; Carvalhanas, Telma Regina Marques Pinto; Paula de Lemos, Ana; Gorla, Maria Cecilia Outeiro; Salgado, Maristela; Fukasawa, Lucila O; Gonçalves, Maria Gisele; Higa, Fabio; Brandileone, Maria Cristina Cunto; Sacchi, Claudio Tavares; Ribeiro, Ana Freitas; Sato, Helena Keico; Bricks, Lucia Ferro; Cassio de Moraes, José

    2014-05-01

    During 2010, outbreaks of serogroup C meningococcal (MenC) disease occurred in 2 oil refineries in São Paulo State, Brazil, leading to mass vaccination of employees at 1 refinery with a meningococcal polysaccharide A/C vaccine. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of meningococci carriage among workers at both refineries and to investigate the effect of vaccination on and the risk factors for pharyngeal carriage of meningococci. Among the vaccinated and nonvaccinated workers, rates of overall meningococci carriage (21.4% and 21.6%, respectively) and of MenC carriage (6.3% and 4.9%, respectively) were similar. However, a MenC strain belonging to the sequence type103 complex predominated and was responsible for the increased incidence of meningococcal disease in Brazil. A low education level was associated with higher risk of meningococci carriage. Polysaccharide vaccination did not affect carriage or interrupt transmission of the epidemic strain. These findings will help inform future vaccination strategies. PMID:24751156

  13. Virus and viral diseases of the Honey Bee, Apis mellifera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Viruses pose serious threat to the health and well-being of honey bees, Apis mellifera, the most economically valuable pollinators of agricultural and horticultural crops worldwide. Lately, honey bee viruses have gotten a lot of international attention due to the significant disease status that vir...

  14. Learning from outbreaks of bovine tuberculosis near Riding Mountain National Park: Applications to a foreign animal disease outbreak

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Riding Mountain National Park, Manitoba, is home to a population of free-roaming elk (Cervus elaphus manitobensis) that have been found to be infected with Mycobacterium bovis, the agent of bovine tuberculosis (TB). The disease has also been found in a number of cattle herds near the Park and, as a result, Manitoba has been assigned a split status for bovine TB. A number of government agencies, with input from representatives from the wildlife and agricultural sectors, have responded by devising a program to detect, investigate, control, eradicate, and prevent TB in both wild and domestic animals. Experience from these efforts can be applied to the control of other diseases, such a foreign animal disease, elsewhere in Canada. PMID:14992251

  15. WATERBORNE DISEASE OUTBREAKS IN INDIVIDUAL WATER SYSTEMS IN THE UNITED STATES, 1920-80

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analysis of the etiologies and causes of 302 waterborne outbreaks occurring in individual water systems during 1920-80 showed Streptococcus typhi to be the most commonly identified pathogen and use of contaminated, untreated well water the major cause of these outbreaks. These...

  16. Implementation of a data fusion algorithm for RODS, a real-time outbreak and disease surveillance system.

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Douglas (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Gray, Genetha Anne (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2005-10-01

    Due to the nature of many infectious agents, such as anthrax, symptoms may either take several days to manifest or resemble those of less serious illnesses leading to misdiagnosis. Thus, bioterrorism attacks that include the release of such agents are particularly dangerous and potentially deadly. For this reason, a system is needed for the quick and correct identification of disease outbreaks. The Real-time Outbreak Disease Surveillance System (RODS), initially developed by Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh, was created to meet this need. The RODS software implements different classifiers for pertinent health surveillance data in order to determine whether or not an outbreak has occurred. In an effort to improve the capability of RODS at detecting outbreaks, we incorporate a data fusion method. Data fusion is used to improve the results of a single classification by combining the output of multiple classifiers. This paper documents the first stages of the development of a data fusion system that can combine the output of the classifiers included in RODS.

  17. Future impact of molecular biology and biotechnology on bacterial and viral diseases.

    PubMed

    Pang, T

    1993-06-01

    The advent of recombinant DNA technology has already made a significant impact on various aspects related to the basic understanding of pathogenic mechanisms in infectious diseases, as well as practical applications related to diagnostics and prevention. The present paper discusses recent technological innovations and increased analytical capabilities which promise to have an even more significant impact on the control of viral and bacterial diseases. PMID:8350782

  18. [Changes in the dynamics of viral infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Moennig, V

    1992-07-01

    Modern methods of molecular biology are suitable to analyse evolutionary processes in the area of infectious diseases. Visible expression of this evolution is the emergence of "new" infectious agents, e.g., canine parvovirus, the agent of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome and phocine distemper virus. In addition a gradual change of disease syndromes may be observed, e.g., classical and African swine fever and myxoma. These processes are based on genomic changes of the respective infectious agents, i.e., point mutations and recombinations. Especially RNA viruses are prone to genomic change, and the plasticity of their genomes enables them to adapt to varying selective pressures. Human activities in agriculture, global commerce and tourism may enhance and precipitate microbial evolution. PMID:1516549

  19. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatic cirrhosis: Comparison with viral hepatitis-associated steatosis.

    PubMed

    Haga, Yuki; Kanda, Tatsuo; Sasaki, Reina; Nakamura, Masato; Nakamoto, Shingo; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2015-12-14

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is globally increasing and has become a world-wide health problem. Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with hepatic steatosis. Viral hepatitis-associated hepatic steatosis is often caused by metabolic syndrome including obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or dyslipidemia. It has been reported that HCV genotype 3 exerts direct metabolic effects that lead to hepatic steatosis. In this review, the differences between NAFLD/NASH and viral hepatitis-associated steatosis are discussed. PMID:26675364

  20. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatic cirrhosis: Comparison with viral hepatitis-associated steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Haga, Yuki; Kanda, Tatsuo; Sasaki, Reina; Nakamura, Masato; Nakamoto, Shingo; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is globally increasing and has become a world-wide health problem. Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with hepatic steatosis. Viral hepatitis-associated hepatic steatosis is often caused by metabolic syndrome including obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or dyslipidemia. It has been reported that HCV genotype 3 exerts direct metabolic effects that lead to hepatic steatosis. In this review, the differences between NAFLD/NASH and viral hepatitis-associated steatosis are discussed. PMID:26675364

  1. Risk Factors for Serogroup C Meningococcal Disease during Outbreak among Men who Have Sex with Men, New York City, New York, USA.

    PubMed

    Ridpath, Alison; Greene, Sharon K; Robinson, Byron F; Weiss, Don

    2015-08-01

    Risk factors for illness during a serogroup C meningococcal disease outbreak among men who have sex with men in New York City, New York, USA, in 2012-2013 included methamphetamine and cocaine use and sexually transmitted infections. Outbreak investigations should consider routinely capturing information regarding drug use and sex-related risk factors. PMID:26196855

  2. Genome-virome interactions: examining the role of common viral infections in complex disease

    PubMed Central

    Foxman, Ellen F.; Iwasaki, Akiko

    2013-01-01

    Preface New technologies have widened our view of “complex diseases”--diseases with both genetic and environmental risk factors. Here, we explore recent genetic and virologic evidence implicating host-virus interactions in three diseases—type 1 diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and asthma. In these examples, the viruses implicated in disease are mucosal infections that affect most of the population and that are asymptomatic or mild in many hosts. These findings place a new emphasis on common viral infections as an important environmental factor in complex disease pathogenesis, and they compel us to pursue a better understanding of host interactions with the human virome. PMID:21407242

  3. Rota Viral Infection: A Significant Disease Burden to Libya

    PubMed Central

    ALKOSHI, Salem; ERNST, Kacey; MAIMAITI, Namaitijiang; DAHLUI, Maznah

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Rotavirus is a common infection causing 450,000 deaths annually primarily in children 5 years and below. Despite the high burden of disease, little is known about the epidemiology of rotavirus in Libya. The aim of this study was to estimate the rotavirus disease burden among Libyan children. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out prospectively among children 5 years old and below between August 2012 and April 2013. Stool samples of children with diarrhea attending the outpatient department or admitted to the pediatric wards, at three public hospitals within the northwestern region of Libya were tested for rotavirus. The seasonality, symptomology demographics and outcomes of rotavirus cases were determined and compared to other diarrhea illnesses. An estimated incidence rate per 100,000 children aged 5 years and below was determined. Results A total of 545 children with diarrhea were identified for participation. Results of rotavirus immunoassays determined 57% of cases were caused by rotavirus. Inpatients were more likely to be rotavirus positive than outpatients (58% vs. 53%, P<0.05), Most rotavirus positive cases (86%) were found among children below 2 years of age. Rotaviral cases peaked in the winter, constituting 76% of diarrheal illness in February and very few rotavirus cases in the summer months. The incidence rate of rotavirus diarrhea was estimated at 640/100,000 children aged 5 years and below. Conclusion Rotavirus infection poses a significant disease burden in Libya. Preventive measures such as proper hygiene should be emphasized. Introduction of vaccination against rotavirus into the national immunization program should be examined, as it would likely be a cost-effective investment. PMID:26060697

  4. Modeling the impact of vaccination control strategies on a foot and mouth disease outbreak in the Central United States.

    PubMed

    McReynolds, Sara W; Sanderson, Michael W; Reeves, Aaron; Hill, Ashley E

    2014-12-01

    The central United States (U.S.) has a large livestock population including cattle, swine, sheep and goats. Simulation models were developed to assess the impact of livestock herd types and vaccination on foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks using the North American Animal Disease Spread Model. In this study, potential FMD virus outbreaks in the central region of the U.S. were simulated to compare different vaccination strategies to a depopulation only scenario. Based on data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Statistics Service, a simulated population of 151,620 livestock operations characterized by latitude and longitude, production type, and herd size was generated. For the simulations, a single 17,000 head feedlot was selected as the initial latently infected herd in an otherwise susceptible population. Direct and indirect contact rates between herds were based on survey data of livestock producers in Kansas and Colorado. Control methods included ring vaccination around infected herds. Feedlots ≥3000 head were either the only production type that was vaccinated or were assigned the highest vaccination priority. Simulated vaccination scenarios included low and high vaccine capacity, vaccination zones of 10 km or 50 km around detected infected premises, and vaccination trigger of 10 or 100 detected infected herds. Probability of transmission following indirect contact, movement controls and contact rate parameters were considered uncertain and so were the subjects of sensitivity analysis. All vaccination scenarios decreased number of herds depopulated but not all decreased outbreak duration. Increased size of the vaccination zone during an outbreak decreased the length of the outbreak and number of herds destroyed. Increased size of the vaccination zone primarily resulted in vaccinating feedlots ≥3000 head across a larger area. Increasing the vaccination capacity had a smaller impact on the outbreak and may not be feasible if

  5. Tuberculosis control: lessons for outbreak preparedness in correctional facilities.

    PubMed

    Parvez, Farah M; Lobato, Mark N; Greifinger, Robert B

    2010-07-01

    Correctional facilities typically house large numbers of persons in close and crowded conditions for long periods. Clusters of communicable diseases ranging from simple viral upper respiratory infections to more serious threats, such as tuberculosis (TB), infections with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and influenza, often emerge in these surroundings. The recent H1N1 influenza pandemic highlights the importance of outbreak prevention and containment preparedness, particularly in congregate settings. In this commentary, the authors propose that the TB control model can provide valuable lessons for infection control practitioners to prepare for, identify, investigate, and control outbreaks of communicable diseases to prevent transmission in correctional facilities and to the surrounding community. PMID:20466700

  6. Economic analysis of animal disease outbreaks--BSE and Bluetongue disease as examples.

    PubMed

    Gethmann, Jörn; Probst, Carolina; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Conraths, Franz Josef

    2015-01-01

    Although there is a long tradition of research on animal disease control, economic evaluation of control measures is rather limited in veterinary medicine. This may, on the one hand, be due to the different types of costs and refunds and the different people and organizations bearing them, such as animal holders, county, region, state or European Union, but it may also be due to the fact that economic analyses are both complex and time consuming. Only recently attention has turned towards economic analysis in animal disease control. Examples include situations, when decisions between different control measures must be taken, especially if alternatives to culling or compulsory vaccination are under discussion. To determine an optimal combination of control measures (strategy), a cost-benefit analysis should be performed. It is not necessary to take decisions only based on the financial impact, but it becomes possible to take economic aspects into account. To this end, the costs caused by the animal disease and the adopted control measures must be assessed. This article presents a brief overview of the methodological approaches used to retrospectively analyse the economic impact of two particular relevant diseases in Germany in the last few years: Blue-tongue disease (BT) and Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE). PMID:26697715

  7. Control selection methods in recent case-control studies conducted as part of infectious disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Waldram, Alison; McKerr, Caoimhe; Gobin, Maya; Adak, Goutam; Stuart, James M; Cleary, Paul

    2015-06-01

    Successful investigation of national outbreaks of communicable disease relies on rapid identification of the source. Case-control methodologies are commonly used to achieve this. We assessed control selection methods used in recently published case-control studies for methodological and resource issues to determine if a standard approach could be identified. Neighbourhood controls were the most frequently used method in 53 studies of a range of different sizes, infections and settings. The most commonly used method of data collection was face to face interview. Control selection issues were identified in four areas: method of identification of controls, appropriateness of controls, ease of recruitment of controls, and resource requirements. Potential biases arising from the method of control selection were identified in half of the studies assessed. There is a need to develop new ways of selecting controls in a rapid, random and representative manner to improve the accuracy and timeliness of epidemiological investigations and maximise the effectiveness of public health interventions. Innovative methods such as prior recruitment of controls could improve timeliness and representativeness of control selection. PMID:25762171

  8. Intervention strategies for carcass disposal: pareto analysis of exposures for exotic disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Delgado, João; Longhurst, Phil; Hickman, Gordon A W; Gauntlett, Daniel M; Howson, Simon F; Irving, Phil; Hart, Alwyn; Pollard, Simon J T

    2010-06-15

    An enhanced methodology for the policy-level prioritization of intervention options during carcass disposal is presented. Pareto charts provide a semiquantitative analysis of opportunities for multiple exposures to human health, animal health, and the wider environment during carcass disposal; they identify critical control points for risk management and assist in waste technology assessment. Eighty percent of the total availability of more than 1300 potential exposures to human, animal, or environmental receptors is represented by 16 processes, these being dominated by on-farm collection and carcass processing, reinforcing the criticality of effective controls during early stages of animal culling and waste processing. Exposures during mass burials are dominated by ground- and surface-water exposures with noise and odor nuisance prevalent for mass pyres, consistent with U.K. experience. Pareto charts are discussed in the context of other visualization formats for policy officials and promoted as a communication tool for informing the site-specific risk assessments required during the operational phases of exotic disease outbreaks. PMID:20536266

  9. Communitywide outbreak of Legionnaires' disease associated with a grocery store mist machine.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, F J; Hoge, C W; Farley, T A; Barbaree, J M; Breiman, R F; Benson, R F; McFarland, L M

    1992-04-01

    From 10 October through 13 November 1989, 33 patients were hospitalized with legionnaires' disease in Bogalusa, Louisiana. A case-control study revealed case-patients were more likely than controls to have shopped at grocery store A (93% vs. 52%; odds ratio [OR], 11.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.3-78.7) in the 10 days before illness. Among those who shopped at grocery store A, case-patients were more likely to shop for greater than 30 min (OR, 18.0; CI, 2.0-407.8) and to buy produce items located close to an ultrasonic mist machine (OR, 7.4; CI, 1.3-56.2). Employees of grocery store A were more likely than employees of other grocery stores in Bogalusa to have antibody titers of greater than or equal to 1:128 to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (Lp-1; relative risk, 2.9; CI, 1.3-6.8). Lp-1 was isolated from water in the reservoir of the mist machine. The monoclonal antibody subtype of the isolate was identical to organisms identified in two patients. Viable Lp-1 was isolated from mist produced by the machine. Aerosols from a grocery store mist machine were the source of this outbreak. PMID:1552203

  10. Influenza vaccination with live-attenuated and inactivated virus-vaccines during an outbreak of disease.

    PubMed Central

    Rocchi, G.; Ragona, G.; Piga, C.; Pelosio, A.; Volpi, A.; Vella, S.; Legniti, N.; de Felici, A.

    1979-01-01

    Immunization procedures with live attenuated and inactivated vaccines were carried out on a group of young recruits at the beginning of an outbreak of infection due to an A/Victoria/3/75-related virus strain, which occurred in February 1977 in a military camp. A retrospective investigation on protection from clinical influenza was then performed in order to investigate whether immunization with live virus vaccines, administered at the beginning of an epidemic, could provide early protection from the disease. In the course of the two weeks following vaccination, laboratory-confirmed clinical influenza cases occurred in 4 subjects among the 110 volunteers of the control group which received placebo, and in 8, 7 and 4 subjects respectively of the 3 groups of about 125 individuals, each of which received one of the following vaccine preparations: (a), live attenuated A/Victoria/3/75 influenza virus oral vaccine, grown on chick embryo kidney culture; (b), live attenuated nasal vaccine, a recombinant of A/Puerto Rico/8/34 with A/Victoria/3/75 virus; and (c), inactivated A/Victoria/3/75 virus intramuscular vaccine. These data do not support the hypothesis that, during an epidemic of infection, early protection from clinical influenza can be achieved through immunization with live attenuated or inactivated influenza virus vaccines, in spite of the high immunizing capability of the vaccine preparations. PMID:512351

  11. Innovative Technological Approach to Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak Response in Nigeria Using the Open Data Kit and Form Hub Technology

    PubMed Central

    Nguku, Patrick; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya; Adewuyi, Peter; Adeoye, Olawunmi; Adeseye, Aderonke; Oguntimehin, Olukayode; Shuaib, Faisal

    2015-01-01

    The recent outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in West Africa has ravaged many lives. Effective containment of this outbreak relies on prompt and effective coordination and communication across various interventions; early detection and response being critical to successful control. The use of information and communications technology (ICT) in active surveillance has proved to be effective but its use in Ebola outbreak response has been limited. Due to the need for timeliness in reporting and communication for early discovery of new EVD cases and promptness in response; it became imperative to empower the response team members with technologies and solutions which would enable smooth and rapid data flow. The Open Data Kit and Form Hub technology were used in combination with the Dashboard technology and ArcGIS mapping for follow up of contacts, identification of cases, case investigation and management and also for strategic planning during the response. A remarkable improvement was recorded in the reporting of daily follow-up of contacts after the deployment of the integrated real time technology. The turnaround time between identification of symptomatic contacts and evacuation to the isolation facility and also for receipt of laboratory results was reduced and informed decisions could be taken by all concerned. Accountability in contact tracing was ensured by the use of a GPS enabled device. The use of innovative technologies in the response of the EVD outbreak in Nigeria contributed significantly to the prompt control of the outbreak and containment of the disease by providing a valuable platform for early warning and guiding early actions. PMID:26115402

  12. Innovative Technological Approach to Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak Response in Nigeria Using the Open Data Kit and Form Hub Technology.

    PubMed

    Tom-Aba, Daniel; Olaleye, Adeniyi; Olayinka, Adebola Tolulope; Nguku, Patrick; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya; Adewuyi, Peter; Adeoye, Olawunmi; Oladele, Saliu; Adeseye, Aderonke; Oguntimehin, Olukayode; Shuaib, Faisal

    2015-01-01

    The recent outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in West Africa has ravaged many lives. Effective containment of this outbreak relies on prompt and effective coordination and communication across various interventions; early detection and response being critical to successful control. The use of information and communications technology (ICT) in active surveillance has proved to be effective but its use in Ebola outbreak response has been limited. Due to the need for timeliness in reporting and communication for early discovery of new EVD cases and promptness in response; it became imperative to empower the response team members with technologies and solutions which would enable smooth and rapid data flow. The Open Data Kit and Form Hub technology were used in combination with the Dashboard technology and ArcGIS mapping for follow up of contacts, identification of cases, case investigation and management and also for strategic planning during the response. A remarkable improvement was recorded in the reporting of daily follow-up of contacts after the deployment of the integrated real time technology. The turnaround time between identification of symptomatic contacts and evacuation to the isolation facility and also for receipt of laboratory results was reduced and informed decisions could be taken by all concerned. Accountability in contact tracing was ensured by the use of a GPS enabled device. The use of innovative technologies in the response of the EVD outbreak in Nigeria contributed significantly to the prompt control of the outbreak and containment of the disease by providing a valuable platform for early warning and guiding early actions. PMID:26115402

  13. Estimation of Flattened Musk Turtle (Sternotherus depressus) survival, recapture, and recovery rate during and after a disease outbreak

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fonnesbeck, C.J.; Dodd, C.K., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    We estimated survivorship, recapture probabilities and recovery rates in a threatened population of Flattened Musk Turtles (Sternotherus depressus) through a disease outbreak in Alabama in 1985. We evaluated a set of models for the demographic effects of disease by analyzing recaptures and recoveries simultaneously. Multiple-model inference suggested survival was temporally dynamic, whereas recapture probability was sex- and age-specifc. Biweekly survivorship declined from 98-99% before to 82-88% during the outbreak. Live recapture was twice as likely for male turtles relative to juveniles or females, whereas dead recoveries varied only slightly by sex and age. Our results suggest modest reduction in survival over a relatively short time period may severely affect population status.

  14. Epidemiological Data Management during an Outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease: Key Issues and Observations from Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Owada, Kei; Eckmanns, Tim; Kamara, Kande-Bure O’Bai; Olu, Olushayo Oluseun

    2016-01-01

    Sierra Leone experienced intense transmission of Ebola virus disease (EVD) from May 2014 to November 2015 during which a total of 8,704 confirmed cases and over 3,589 confirmed deaths were reported. Our field observation showed many issues in the EVD data management system, which may have contributed to the magnitude and long duration of the outbreak. In this perspective article, we explain the key issues with EVD data management in the field, and the resulting obstacles in analyzing key epidemiological indicators during the outbreak response work. Our observation showed that, during the latter part of the EVD outbreak, surveillance and data management improved at all levels in the country as compared to the earlier stage. We identified incomplete filling and late arrival of the case investigation forms at data management centers, difficulties in detecting double entries and merging identified double entries in the database, and lack of clear process of how death of confirmed cases in holding, treatment, and community care centers are reported to the data centers as some of challenges to effective data management. Furthermore, there was no consolidated database that captured and linked all data sources in a structured way. We propose development of a new application tool easily adaptable to new occurrences, regular data harmonization meetings between national and district data management teams, and establishment of a data quality audit system to assure good quality data as ways to improve EVD data management during future outbreaks. PMID:27551675

  15. Epidemiological Data Management during an Outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease: Key Issues and Observations from Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Owada, Kei; Eckmanns, Tim; Kamara, Kande-Bure O'Bai; Olu, Olushayo Oluseun

    2016-01-01

    Sierra Leone experienced intense transmission of Ebola virus disease (EVD) from May 2014 to November 2015 during which a total of 8,704 confirmed cases and over 3,589 confirmed deaths were reported. Our field observation showed many issues in the EVD data management system, which may have contributed to the magnitude and long duration of the outbreak. In this perspective article, we explain the key issues with EVD data management in the field, and the resulting obstacles in analyzing key epidemiological indicators during the outbreak response work. Our observation showed that, during the latter part of the EVD outbreak, surveillance and data management improved at all levels in the country as compared to the earlier stage. We identified incomplete filling and late arrival of the case investigation forms at data management centers, difficulties in detecting double entries and merging identified double entries in the database, and lack of clear process of how death of confirmed cases in holding, treatment, and community care centers are reported to the data centers as some of challenges to effective data management. Furthermore, there was no consolidated database that captured and linked all data sources in a structured way. We propose development of a new application tool easily adaptable to new occurrences, regular data harmonization meetings between national and district data management teams, and establishment of a data quality audit system to assure good quality data as ways to improve EVD data management during future outbreaks. PMID:27551675

  16. Viral Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Haeman; Boltz, David A.; Webster, Robert G.; Smeyne, Richard Jay

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a debilitating neurological disorder characterized that affects 1-2% of the adult population over 55 years of age. For the vast majority of cases, the etiology of this disorder is unknown, although it is generally accepted that there is a genetic susceptibility to any number of environmental agents. One such agent may be viruses. It has been shown that numerous viruses can enter the nervous system, i.e. they are neurotropic, and induce a number of encephalopathies. One of the secondary consequences of these encephalopathies can be parkinsonism, that is both transient as well as permanent. One of the most highlighted and controversial cases of viral parkinsonism is that which followed the 1918 influenza outbreak and the subsequent induction of von Economo's encephalopathy. In this review, we discuss the neurological sequelae of infection by influenza virus as well as that of other viruses known to induce parkinsonism including Coxsackie, Japanese encephalitis B, St. Louis, West Nile and HIV viruses. PMID:18760350

  17. Outbreak of Serogroup W135 Meningococcal Disease after the Hajj Pilgrimage, Europe, 2000

    PubMed Central

    Perrocheau, Anne; Meffre, Christine; Hahné, Susan

    2002-01-01

    The 2000 Hajj (March 15–18) was followed by an outbreak of Neisseria meningitidis W135 2a: P1.2,5 in Europe. From March 18 to July 31, 2000, some 90 cases of meningococcal infection were reported from nine countries, mostly the United Kingdom (UK) and France; 14 cases were fatal. Although most early cases were in pilgrims, the outbreak spread to their contacts and then to those with no known pilgrim contact. In France and the UK, the outbreak case-fatality rate was compared with the rate reported from national surveillance. The risk of dying during this outbreak was higher in France and the UK, although the difference was not statistically significant. Prophylaxis for all pilgrims and their household contacts was offered in France; in the UK and other European countries, prophylaxis was recommended only for close contacts. No difference in transmission rates following intervention was detected between France and the UK. PMID:12141959

  18. Herbal plants and plant preparations as remedial approach for viral diseases.

    PubMed

    Ganjhu, Rajesh Kumar; Mudgal, Piya Paul; Maity, Hindol; Dowarha, Deepu; Devadiga, Santhosha; Nag, Snehlata; Arunkumar, Govindakarnavar

    2015-12-01

    Herbal plants, plant preparations and phytoconstituents have proved useful in attenuating infectious conditions and were the only remedies available, till the advent of antibiotics (many being of plant origin themselves). Among infectious diseases, viral diseases in particular, remain the leading cause of death in humans globally. A variety of phytoconstituents derived from medicinal herbs have been extensively studied for antiviral activity. Based on this rationale, an online search was performed, which helped to identify a large number of plant species harboring antiviral molecules. These herbal sources have been reported individually or in combinations across a large number of citations studied. Activities against rabies virus, Human immunodeficiency virus, Chandipura virus, Japanese Encephalitis Virus, Enterovirus, Influenza A/H1N1 and other influenza viruses were discovered during the literature search. This review includes all such plant species exhibiting antiviral properties. The review also encompasses composition and methodologies of preparing various antiviral formulations around the globe. An elaborate section on the formulations filed for patent registration, along with non-patented formulations, has also been included in this article. To conclude, herbal sources provide researchers enormous scope to explore and bring out viable alternatives against viral diseases, considering non-availability of suitable drug candidates and increasing resistance to existing drug molecules for many emerging and re-emerging viral diseases. PMID:26645032

  19. The transitional medical model: an innovative methodology for a community's disease outbreak and pandemic preparedness and response plan.

    PubMed

    Rega, Paul; Bork, Christopher; Bisesi, Michael; Gold, Jeffrey; Burkholder-Allen, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Infectious disease outbreaks, epidemics, and subsequent pandemics are not typical disasters in the sense that they often lack clearly delineated phases. As in any event that is biological in nature, its onset may be gradual with signs and symptoms that are so subtle that they go unrecognized, thus missing opportunities to invoke an early response and implement containment strategies. An infectious disease outbreak-whether caused by a novel virus, a particularly virulent influenza strain, or newly emerging or resistant bacteria with the capability of human-to-human transmission--can quickly degrade a community's healthcare infrastructure in advance of coordinated mitigation, preparation, and response activities. The Transitional Medical Model (TMM) was developed to aid communities with these crucial phases of disaster response as well as to assist with the initial steps within the recovery phase. The TMM is a methodology that provides a crosswalk between the routine operations and activities of a community's public health infrastructure with action steps associated with the mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery phases of an infectious disease outbreak. PMID:20496640

  20. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains are highly prevalent in Ugandan piggeries but disease outbreaks are masked by antibiotic prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Okello, Emmanuel; Moonens, Kristof; Erume, Joseph; De Greve, Henri

    2015-01-01

    Post-weaning diarrhea (PWD) caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important disease of newly weaned piglets. ETEC strains commonly express F4 and/or F18 fimbriae that attach to carbohydrate receptors present on the intestinal epithelium during colonization. The disease status in the Ugandan piggeries had previously not been studied. In this cross-sectional sero-survey and clinical outbreak monitoring, we found very high sero-prevalence levels of both anti-F4 (70.5%) and anti-F18 (73.7%) antibodies, despite limited cases of clinical outbreaks. Strains isolated from these cases were typically F18(+) ETEC. High antibiotic resistance and multi-drug resistance were characteristics of the isolates, with highest resistance level of over 95% to commonly used antibiotics such as penicillin and tetracycline. We conclude that ETEC infections are widely spread on farms in Central Uganda but clinical disease outbreaks were masked by the management practices on these farms, like the use of extensive antibiotic prophylaxis. PMID:25311441

  1. Pacheco's parrot disease in macaws of the Lisbon's Zoological Garden. Description of an outbreak, diagnosis and management, including vaccination.

    PubMed

    Barão Da Cunha, M; Correia, J J; Fagulha, T; Fevereiro, M; Peleteiro, M C; Vollrath, G; Kaleta, E F

    2007-11-01

    The Lisbon's Zoological Garden, Portugal, has maintained for many years a large collection of psittacine birds without any serious health problems. Unexpectedly, in April 1999, a total of nine macaws died after a short period of illness. Clinical signs consisted mainly of anorexia, ruffled feathers and yellowish droppings. A herpesvirus was isolated from brain, trachea, lung, liver, spleen, kidney and intestine of each of the examined dead birds, confirming that all animals succumbed during viraemia. Serotyping of the isolate in cross neutralization tests with reference sera prove that the outbreak was caused by serotype 3 of Pacheco's parrot disease herpesviruses. An autogenous, formalin-inactivated vaccine with adjuvant (aluminium hydroxid gel) was prepared from one of the isolates and injected intramuscularly 14 days and six weeks after the onset of mortality in an attempt to protect the remaining psittacine birds in the zoo from the disease. The autogenous vaccine was well tolerated and was able to rapidly stop virus spread and morbidity and mortality among the psittacine birds. Follow-up studies demonstrate that all nine blood samples from vaccinated birds obtained nine month' after the second vaccination contain neutralizing antibodies. Twenty five month' after vaccination two out of four serum samples were still antibody positive. No herpesvirus was isolated from faecal samples nine and twenty five months after the onset of the outbreak. These data prove that the autogenous vaccine played a major role in containing a severe outbreak of Pacheco's parrot disease in a large collection of psittacine birds. PMID:18077933

  2. Molecular characterization of SAT 2 foot-and-mouth disease virus from post-outbreak slaughtered animals: implications for disease control in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Balinda, S N; Belsham, G J; Masembe, C; Sangula, A K; Siegismund, H R; Muwanika, V B

    2010-08-01

    In Uganda, limiting the extent of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) spread during outbreaks involves short-term measures such as ring vaccination and restrictions of the movement of livestock and their products to and from the affected areas. In this study, the presence of FMD virus RNA was investigated in cattle samples 3 months after FMD quarantine measures had been lifted following an outbreak in 2004. Oropharyngeal tissue samples were obtained from 12 cattle slaughtered in a small town abattoir in Kiboga. FMD virus RNA was detected by diagnostic RT-PCR in nine of the 12 tissue samples. Part of the coding region for the capsid protein VP1 was amplified and sequenced. All samples were identified as belonging to the SAT 2 serotype. The implications for FMD control of both virus introduction into Uganda and the presence of carrier animals following outbreaks are discussed. PMID:20003615

  3. Ebola virus outbreak 2014: clinical review for emergency physicians.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Linda; Frawley, Thomas; Goss, Sarah; Kang, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa is the largest in history. Ebola viral disease is a severe and fatal illness characterized by a nonspecific viral syndrome followed by fulminant septic shock and coagulopathy. Despite ongoing efforts directed at experimental treatments and vaccine development, current medical management of Ebola viral disease is largely limited to supportive therapy, thus making early case identification and immediate implementation of appropriate control measures critical. Because a case of Ebola viral disease was confirmed in the United States on September 30, 2014, emergency medicine providers should be knowledgeable about it for a number of reasons: we are being called on to answer questions about Ebola and allay public fears, we are likely to be first to encounter an infected patient, and there are increasing numbers of US emergency physicians working in Africa who risk coming in direct contact with the disease. This article seeks to provide emergency physicians with the essential and up-to-date information required to identify, evaluate, and manage Ebola viral disease and to join global efforts to contain the current outbreak. PMID:25455908

  4. First record of black band disease in the Hawaiian archipelago: response, outbreak status, virulence, and a method of treatment.

    PubMed

    Aeby, Greta S; Work, Thierry M; Runyon, Christina M; Shore-Maggio, Amanda; Ushijima, Blake; Videau, Patrick; Beurmann, Silvia; Callahan, Sean M

    2015-01-01

    A high number of coral colonies, Montipora spp., with progressive tissue loss were reported from the north shore of Kaua'i by a member of the Eyes of the Reef volunteer reporting network. The disease has a distinct lesion (semi-circular pattern of tissue loss with an adjacent dark band) that was first observed in Hanalei Bay, Kaua'i in 2004. The disease, initially termed Montipora banded tissue loss, appeared grossly similar to black band disease (BBD), which affects corals worldwide. Following the initial report, a rapid response was initiated as outlined in Hawai'i's rapid response contingency plan to determine outbreak status and investigate the disease. Our study identified the three dominant bacterial constituents indicative of BBD (filamentous cyanobacteria, sulfate-reducing bacteria, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria) in coral disease lesions from Kaua'i, which provided the first evidence of BBD in the Hawaiian archipelago. A rapid survey at the alleged outbreak site found disease to affect 6-7% of the montiporids, which is higher than a prior prevalence of less than 1% measured on Kaua'i in 2004, indicative of an epizootic. Tagged colonies with BBD had an average rate of tissue loss of 5.7 cm2/day over a two-month period. Treatment of diseased colonies with a double band of marine epoxy, mixed with chlorine powder, effectively reduced colony mortality. Within two months, treated colonies lost an average of 30% less tissue compared to untreated controls. PMID:25774800

  5. First record of black band disease in the Hawaiian archipelago: response, outbreak, status, virulence, and a method of treatment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aeby, Greta S.; Work, Thierry M.; Runyon, Christina M.; Shore-Maggio, Amanda; Ushijima, Blake; Videau, Patrick; Beurmann, Silvia; Callahan, Sean M.

    2015-01-01

    A high number of coral colonies, Montipora spp., with progressive tissue loss were reported from the north shore of Kaua‘i by a member of the Eyes of the Reef volunteer reporting network. The disease has a distinct lesion (semi-circular pattern of tissue loss with an adjacent dark band) that was first observed in Hanalei Bay, Kaua‘i in 2004. The disease, initially termedMontipora banded tissue loss, appeared grossly similar to black band disease (BBD), which affects corals worldwide. Following the initial report, a rapid response was initiated as outlined in Hawai‘i’s rapid response contingency plan to determine outbreak status and investigate the disease. Our study identified the three dominant bacterial constituents indicative of BBD (filamentous cyanobacteria, sulfate-reducing bacteria, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria) in coral disease lesions from Kaua‘i, which provided the first evidence of BBD in the Hawaiian archipelago. A rapid survey at the alleged outbreak site found disease to affect 6-7% of the montiporids, which is higher than a prior prevalence of less than 1% measured on Kaua‘i in 2004, indicative of an epizootic. Tagged colonies with BBD had an average rate of tissue loss of 5.7 cm2/day over a two-month period. Treatment of diseased colonies with a double band of marine epoxy, mixed with chlorine powder, effectively reduced colony mortality. Within two months, treated colonies lost an average of 30% less tissue compared to untreated controls.

  6. First Record of Black Band Disease in the Hawaiian Archipelago: Response, Outbreak Status, Virulence, and a Method of Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Aeby, Greta S.; Work, Thierry M.; Runyon, Christina M.; Shore-Maggio, Amanda; Ushijima, Blake; Videau, Patrick; Beurmann, Silvia; Callahan, Sean M.

    2015-01-01

    A high number of coral colonies, Montipora spp., with progressive tissue loss were reported from the north shore of Kaua‘i by a member of the Eyes of the Reef volunteer reporting network. The disease has a distinct lesion (semi-circular pattern of tissue loss with an adjacent dark band) that was first observed in Hanalei Bay, Kaua‘i in 2004. The disease, initially termed Montipora banded tissue loss, appeared grossly similar to black band disease (BBD), which affects corals worldwide. Following the initial report, a rapid response was initiated as outlined in Hawai‘i’s rapid response contingency plan to determine outbreak status and investigate the disease. Our study identified the three dominant bacterial constituents indicative of BBD (filamentous cyanobacteria, sulfate-reducing bacteria, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria) in coral disease lesions from Kaua‘i, which provided the first evidence of BBD in the Hawaiian archipelago. A rapid survey at the alleged outbreak site found disease to affect 6-7% of the montiporids, which is higher than a prior prevalence of less than 1% measured on Kaua‘i in 2004, indicative of an epizootic. Tagged colonies with BBD had an average rate of tissue loss of 5.7 cm2/day over a two-month period. Treatment of diseased colonies with a double band of marine epoxy, mixed with chlorine powder, effectively reduced colony mortality. Within two months, treated colonies lost an average of 30% less tissue compared to untreated controls. PMID:25774800

  7. Emerging coral diseases in Kāne'ohe Bay, O'ahu, Hawai'i (USA): two major disease outbreaks of acute Montipora white syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aeby, Greta S; Callahan, Sean; Cox, Evelyn F; Runyon, Christina; Smith, Ashley; Stanton, Frank G; Ushijima, Blake; Work, Thierry M

    2016-05-26

    In March 2010 and January 2012, we documented 2 widespread and severe coral disease outbreaks on reefs throughout Kāne'ohe Bay, Hawai'i (USA). The disease, acute Montipora white syndrome (aMWS), manifested as acute and progressive tissue loss on the common reef coral M. capitata. Rapid visual surveys in 2010 revealed 338 aMWS-affected M. capitata colonies with a disease abundance of (mean ± SE) 0.02 ± 0.01 affected colonies per m of reef surveyed. In 2012, disease abundance was significantly higher (1232 aMWS-affected colonies) with 0.06 ± 0.02 affected colonies m(-1). Prior surveys found few acute tissue loss lesions in M. capitata in Ka¯ne'ohe Bay; thus, the high number of infected colonies found during these outbreaks would classify this as an emerging disease. Disease abundance was highest in the semi-enclosed region of south Kāne'ohe Bay, which has a history of nutrient and sediment impacts from terrestrial runoff and stream discharge. In 2010, tagged colonies showed an average tissue loss of 24% after 1 mo, and 92% of the colonies continued to lose tissue in the subsequent month but at a slower rate (chronic tissue loss). The host-specific nature of this disease (affecting only M. capitata) and the apparent spread of lesions between M. capitata colonies in the field suggest a potential transmissible agent. The synchronous appearance of affected colonies on multiple reefs across Kāne'ohe Bay suggests a common underlying factor. Both outbreaks occurred during the colder, rainy winter months, and thus it is likely that some parameter(s) associated with winter environmental conditions are linked to the emergence of disease outbreaks on these reefs. PMID:27225202

  8. Epidemiology and transmission characteristics of human adenovirus type 7 caused acute respiratory disease outbreak in military trainees in East China

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jun; Qi, Xiaoping; Chen, Dawei; Xu, Xujian; Wang, Guozheng; Dai, Yuzhu; Cui, Dawei; Chen, Qingyong; Fan, Ping; Ni, Liuda; Liu, Miao; Zhu, Feiyan; Yang, Mei; Wang, Changjun; Li, Yuexi; Sun, Changgui; Wang, Zhongyong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Human adenovirus type 7 (HAdV7) is globally attracting great concern as its high morbidity and severity in respiratory diseases, especially in Asia. Objective: To investigate the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of HAdV7 infection outbreak in East China. Methods: The clinical samples were collected from the patients of an ARD outbreak in East Chinafor the detection of causative pathogens by multiplex PCR. The molecular type of human adenovirus isolates were identified by sequencing and homologous comparison based on their hexon genes. The spatiotemporal dynamics of global HAdV7 was investigated using the phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses. Total 67 referenced HAdV7 hexon sequences (>800 bp) from GenBank were selected for constructing the maximum likelihood tree by MEGA 5.1.0, grouped according to the tree topology for the further migration analysis by PAUP* 4.0 and MigraPhyla 1.0 b to understand the transmission patterns of HAdV7 in global epidemics. Results: The results showed HAdV7 as the causative pathogen in this outbreak, and the outbreak strains had the hexon sequences highly identical with the isolates in Shaanxi (2012). The origin of HAdV7 was inferred as California, meanwhile a total of 21 migration routes were acquired. HAdV7 in this outbreak was statistically proven dispersed from Shaanxi province (2012). Conclusions: The analyses of epidemiology and transmission pattern of HAdV7 would not only enrich the molecular biological basic database but also provide theoretical basis for HAdV7 prevention and control strategy. PMID:27347341

  9. Hand, foot, and mouth disease: identifying and managing an acute viral syndrome.

    PubMed

    Repass, Gregory L; Palmer, William C; Stancampiano, Fernando F

    2014-09-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common, typically self-limited viral syndrome in children and adults. It is marked by fever, oral ulcers, and skin manifestations affecting the palms, soles, and buttocks, with symptoms usually lasting less than 1 week. Because it has the potential to reach epidemic levels in the United States, general practitioners need to be aware of it. PMID:25183845

  10. Need of surveillance response systems to combat Ebola outbreaks and other emerging infectious diseases in African countries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    There is growing concern in Sub-Saharan Africa about the spread of the Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever, and the public health burden that it ensues. Since 1976, there have been 885,343 suspected and laboratory confirmed cases of EVD and the disease has claimed 2,512 cases and 932 fatality in West Africa. There are certain requirements that must be met when responding to EVD outbreaks and this process could incur certain challenges. For the purposes of this paper, five have been identified: (i) the deficiency in the development and implementation of surveillance response systems against Ebola and others infectious disease outbreaks in Africa; (ii) the lack of education and knowledge resulting in an EVD outbreak triggering panic, anxiety, psychosocial trauma, isolation and dignity impounding, stigmatisation, community ostracism and resistance to associated socio-ecological and public health consequences; (iii) limited financial resources, human technical capacity and weak community and national health system operational plans for prevention and control responses, practices and management; (iv) inadequate leadership and coordination; and (v) the lack of development of new strategies, tools and approaches, such as improved diagnostics and novel therapies including vaccines which can assist in preventing, controlling and containing Ebola outbreaks as well as the spread of the disease. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop and implement an active early warning alert and surveillance response system for outbreak response and control of emerging infectious diseases. Understanding the unending risks of transmission dynamics and resurgence is essential in implementing rapid effective response interventions tailored to specific local settings and contexts. Therefore, the following actions are recommended: (i) national and regional inter-sectorial and trans-disciplinary surveillance response systems that include early warnings, as well

  11. Assessing the Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Students Regarding Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    HOLAKOUIE-NAIENI, Kourosh; AHMADVAND, Alireza; RAZA, Owais; ASSAN, Abraham; ELDUMA, Adel Hussein; JAMMEH, Alieu; KAMALI, Aram Salih Mohammed Amin; KAREEM, Ahang Abdullah; MUHAMMAD, Fatima Mahmud; SABAHAT, Hasnain; ABDULLAHI, Kabir Ozigi; SAEED, Raeed Ahmad; SAEED, Sami Najmaddin

    2015-01-01

    Background: The emergence and spread of Ebola outbreak is a growing problem worldwide, which represents a significant threat to public health. Evidence has shown that the level of knowledge, attitude, and practice of people in the society play major roles in controlling the spread of Ebola virus disease. This study was designed to determine knowledge, attitude and practice of students at School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences towards Ebola. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was performed in Tehran, Iran in 2014 using a pretested self-administered questionnaire on a stratified sample of 400 students. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were used for statistical analysis. Results: All-in-all, 385 students returned the completed questionnaires making a response rate of 96.3%., 239 (62.2%) were females and 145 (37.8%) were males. The mean age of female and males were 28.44 and 30.3 years respectively. Of the 385 students, 83 (21.7%) were studying at PhD level, 210 (55.0%) at Masters Level (including MPH) and 89 (23.3%) at Bachelors level. knowledge of the students regarding EVD transmission was lowest among students of Department of Occupational Health (50.0%), followed by Health Education and Promotion Department (33.3%). Virology Department recorded the highest percentage of students who had selected correct answers regarding EVD prevention (100.0%) Conclusion: These findings will aid in the assessment of the adequacy of current students’ educational curriculum. Also, it will provide further insight in designing future multifaceted interventions to promote specific messages to change attitude and improve practice. PMID:26811818

  12. A dynamic model for the outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lai, C-C; Jiang, D-S; Wu, H-M; Chen, H-H

    2016-05-01

    The first large outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) with severe complications primarily caused by enterovirus 71 was reported in Taiwan in 1998. Surveillance of HFMD to evaluate the spread of HFMD with and without infection control policy is needed. We developed a new dynamic epidemic Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) model to fit the surveillance data on containing valuable information on the severity of HFMD in order to accurately estimate the basic reproductive number (R 0) of HFMD. After fitting the empirical data, in conjunction with other relevant parameters extracted from the literature, the estimated transmission coefficients were close to 5 × 10-7 (per day) and the proportion of severe HFMD cases ranged between 0 and 0·0036 (per day). Taking into account the distribution of all parameters considered in our dynamic epidemic model, the R 0 computed was 1·37 (95% confidence interval 0·24-5·84), suggesting a higher likelihood of the spread of HFMD if no infection control policy is provided. The isolation strategy against the spread of HFMD not only delayed the epidemic peak with the delayed time ranging from 4 weeks for only 20% isolation to 47 weeks for 100% isolation but also reduced total number of HFMD cases with the percentage of reduction ranging from 1·3% for only 20% isolation to 13·3% for 100% isolation. The proposed model can also be flexible for evaluating the effectiveness of two other possible policies for containing HFMD, quarantine and vaccination (if the vaccine can be developed). PMID:26567705

  13. Borna Disease Virus Phosphoprotein Modulates Epigenetic Signaling in Neurons To Control Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Bonnaud, Emilie M.; Szelechowski, Marion; Bétourné, Alexandre; Foret, Charlotte; Thouard, Anne; Gonzalez-Dunia, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Understanding the modalities of interaction of neurotropic viruses with their target cells represents a major challenge that may improve our knowledge of many human neurological disorders for which viral origin is suspected. Borna disease virus (BDV) represents an ideal model to analyze the molecular mechanisms of viral persistence in neurons and its consequences for neuronal homeostasis. It is now established that BDV ensures its long-term maintenance in infected cells through a stable interaction of viral components with the host cell chromatin, in particular, with core histones. This has led to our hypothesis that such an interaction may trigger epigenetic changes in the host cell. Here, we focused on histone acetylation, which plays key roles in epigenetic regulation of gene expression, notably for neurons. We performed a comparative analysis of histone acetylation patterns of neurons infected or not infected by BDV, which revealed that infection decreases histone acetylation on selected lysine residues. We showed that the BDV phosphoprotein (P) is responsible for these perturbations, even when it is expressed alone independently of the viral context, and that this action depends on its phosphorylation by protein kinase C. We also demonstrated that BDV P inhibits cellular histone acetyltransferase activities. Finally, by pharmacologically manipulating cellular acetylation levels, we observed that inhibiting cellular acetyl transferases reduces viral replication in cell culture. Our findings reveal that manipulation of cellular epigenetics by BDV could be a means to modulate viral replication and thus illustrate a fascinating example of virus-host cell interaction. IMPORTANCE Persistent DNA viruses often subvert the mechanisms that regulate cellular chromatin dynamics, thereby benefitting from the resulting epigenetic changes to create a favorable milieu for their latent and persistent states. Here, we reasoned that Borna disease virus (BDV), the only

  14. Molecular epidemiological view on Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli causing human disease in Germany: Diversity, prevalence, and outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Fruth, Angelika; Prager, Rita; Tietze, Erhard; Rabsch, Wolfgang; Flieger, Antje

    2015-10-01

    Infections by intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) are among those causing a high mortality and morbidity due to diarrheal disease and post infection sequelae worldwide. Since introduction of the Infection Protection Act in Germany 2001, these pathogens rank third among bacterial infections of the gastrointestinal tract. As a major pathovar Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) which include enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) play a leading role in occurrence of sporadic cases and disease outbreaks. An outstanding example is the large outbreak in spring 2011 caused by EHEC/EAEC O104:H4. To monitor and trace back STEC infections, national surveillance programs have been implemented including activities of the German National Reference Centre for Salmonella and other Enteric Bacterial Pathogens (NRC). This review highlights advances in our understanding of STEC in the last 20 years of STEC surveillance by the NRC. Here important characteristics of STEC strains from human infections and outbreaks in Germany between 1997 and 2013 are summarized. PMID:26372529

  15. Event-based surveillance of food- and waterborne diseases in Europe: urgent inquiries (outbreak alerts) during 2008 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Gossner, C M; de Jong, B; Hoebe, C J; Coulombier, D

    2015-01-01

    During 2008 to 2013, 215 outbreak alerts, also known as 'urgent inquiries' (UI), for food- and waterborne diseases were launched in Europe, the majority of them (135; 63%) being related to salmonellosis. For 110 (51%) UI, a potential food vehicle of infection was identified, with vegetables being the most reported category (34;31%). A total of 28% (n = 60) of the outbreaks reported had an international dimension, involving at least two countries (mean: 4; standard deviation: 2; range:2–14). Participating countries posted 2,343 messages(initial posts and replies, excluding updates), with a median of 11 messages per urgent inquiry (range:1–28). Of 60 multicountry UI, 50 involved between two and four countries. The UI allowed early detection of multicountry outbreaks, facilitated the identification of the suspected vehicles and consequently contributed to the timely implementation of control measures. The introduction of an epidemic intelligence information system platform in 2010 has strengthened the role of the Food- and Waterborne Diseases and Zoonoses network in facilitating timely exchange of information between public health authorities of the participating countries. PMID:26132769

  16. Epidemiological investigation of a Legionnaires' disease outbreak in Christchurch, New Zealand: the value of spatial methods for practical public health.

    PubMed

    White, P S; Graham, F F; Harte, D J G; Baker, M G; Ambrose, C D; Humphrey, A R G

    2013-04-01

    Between April and August 2005 Christchurch, New Zealand experienced an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease. There were 19 laboratory-confirmed case including three deaths. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (Lpsg1) was identified as the causative agent for all cases. A case-control study indicated a geographical association between the cases but no specific common exposures. Rapid spatial epidemiological investigation confirmed the association and identified seven spatially significant case clusters. The clusters were all sourced in the same area and exhibited a clear anisotropic process (noticeable direction) revealing a plume effect consistent with aerosol dispersion from a prevailing southwesterly wind. Four out of five cases tested had indistinguishable allele profiles that also matched environmental isolates from a water cooling tower within the centre of the clusters. This tower was considered the most probable source for these clusters. The conclusion would suggest a maximum dispersal distance in this outbreak of 11·6 km. This work illustrated the value of geostatistical techniques for infectious disease epidemiology and for providing timely information during outbreak investigations. PMID:22697112

  17. Development of a cost-effective oral vaccination method against viral disease in fish.

    PubMed

    Companjen, A R; Florack, D E A; Bastiaans, J H M W; Matos, C I; Bosch, D; Rombout, J H W M

    2005-01-01

    Different vaccination methods have been applied to protect fish against the detrimental effects of various pathogens. Several studies have shown the potentials of oral vaccination. In theory oral vaccination is an effortless and stress-free method which can be applied at almost any age. In general, however, the vaccine has to be protected to avoid digestion, which results in high costs for application in aquaculture. In this paper we introduce a cost-effective oral vaccination strategy for viral diseases of fish. The vaccines discussed here include fusion proteins consisting of a gut adhesion molecule and a viral peptide expressed in plants. The adhesion molecule mediates binding to and uptake from the gut, whereas the viral peptide functions as vaccine antigen mediating the induction of a humoral immune response. The first pilot studies using a fusion of the gut adhesion molecule and well-characterised heterologous linear B- and T-cell viral epitopes, produced in potato tubers, showed a promising binding and subsequent uptake in the end gut of carp. The results further indicated that a specific humoral immune response was evoked. PMID:15962477

  18. The paradox of simian immunodeficiency virus infection in sooty mangabeys: active viral replication without disease progression.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Lisa A

    2004-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus SIVsm causes an asymptomatic infection in its natural host, the sooty mangabey, but induces an immunodeficiency syndrome very similar to human AIDS when transferred to a new host species such as the rhesus macaque. Unexpectedly, SIVsm replication dynamics is comparable in the two species, with rapid accumulation of viral mutations and a high viral load detected in both mangabeys and macaques. In contrast, clear differences are observed in immune parameters. Pathogenic SIV infection in macaques is associated with decreased CD4+ T cell numbers and signs of generalized immune activation, such as increased numbers of cycling and apoptotic T cells, hyperplasic lymphoid tissues, and exacerbated immune responses. Mangabeys with asymptomatic SIV infection show normal T cell regeneration parameters and signs of a moderate immune response, appropriate in the setting of chronic viral infection. The comparative analysis of simian models thus suggests that viral load alone cannot account for progression to disease, and that the capacity of primate lentiviruses to induce abnormal immune activation underlies AIDS pathogenesis. PMID:14766388

  19. Outbreak of Serogroup C Meningococcal Disease Primarily Affecting Men Who Have Sex with Men - Southern California, 2016.

    PubMed

    Nanduri, Srinivas; Foo, Chelsea; Ngo, Van; Jarashow, Claire; Civen, Rachel; Schwartz, Ben; Holguin, John; Shearer, Eric; Zahn, Matt; Harriman, Kathleen; Winter, Kathleen; Kretz, Cecilia; Chang, How Yi; Meyer, Sarah; MacNeil, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    During March 4-August 11, 2016, 25 outbreak-associated cases of meningococcal disease, including two deaths (8% case-fatality ratio), were reported in Southern California. Twenty-four of the cases were caused by serogroup C Neisseria meningitidis (NmC) and one by N. meningitidis with an undetermined serogroup (Figure). On June 24, 2016, in response to this increase in NmC cases, primarily among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Los Angeles County, the city of Long Beach, and Orange County, the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) issued a press release and health advisory, declaring an outbreak of NmC in Southern California (1). PMID:27606798

  20. BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUS ANTIGENIC DIVERSITY: IMPACT ON DISEASE AND VACCINATION PROGRAMS (DETECTING AND CONTROLLING BVDV INFECTIONS, 4/4-5/02, AMES, IA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections in cattle are associated with a variety or "diverse" clinical forms. These include digestive tract disease, respiratory disease, fetal diseases (varied, dependent on fetal age), systemic disease such as mucosal disease, immunosuppression, hemorrhagic di...

  1. Vector-borne infectious diseases and influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a serious viral disease of animals and humans in Africa and the Middle East that is transmitted by mosquitoes. First isolated in Kenya during an outbreak in 1930 subsequent outbreaks have had a significant impact on animal and human health and national economies, and it is...

  2. Rift Valley fever: A neglected zoonotic disease?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a serious viral disease of animals and humans in Africa and the Middle East that is transmitted by mosquitoes. First isolated in Kenya during an outbreak in 1930, subsequent outbreaks have had a significant impact on animal and human health, as well as national economies. ...

  3. [Investigation of a measles outbreak in Pará State, Brazil, in the age of elimination of the disease].

    PubMed

    Jesus, Hiane Santos de; Nascimento, Gilmara Lima; Rosa, Fabiano Marques; Santos, Deise Aparecida dos

    2015-10-01

    In July 27th, 2010, witnessed the late notification of a positive test result for measles IgM antibodies in Belém, Pará State, Brazil, sparking an epidemiological investigation and control and preventive measures. Two more confirmed cases were identified, both of whom were siblings of the index case, with clinical signs and symptoms and incubation period consistent with measles. We conducted a retrospective search in hospitals and laboratories for suspected cases that lived in or had visited Pará State from May 1st to August 4th, 2010, and had presented fever and exanthema accompanied by cough and/or sneezing and/or conjunctivitis. All identified cases were investigated by telephone contact and/or home visits. We reviewed 183,854 consultation forms and identified 56 (0.03%) suspected cases. We applied 2,535 doses of triple viral vaccine distributed between blockades vaccination intensifications. A household measles outbreak occurred in Belém with the detection and isolation of a viral genotype imported from Europe. Timely and sensitive epidemiological surveillance is recommended for the detection of suspected cases of measles and maintenance of high immunization coverage. PMID:26735390

  4. Investigation of outbreaks: epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease create high levels of public anxiety and media interest and inevitably consume a great deal of public health resources. Investigations should begin as early as possible in order to rapidly identify suspected sources of infection, control the outbreak and prevent further cases occurring. The investigations should be coordinated by an outbreak control team who work collaboratively within local/national/international public health guidelines and with clear terms of reference. The actions carried out by epidemiologists when investigating community-, hospital-, or travel-associated outbreaks are comprehensively outlined in this chapter. The microbiological and environmental actions that complement this work are discussed in the accompanying chapters. PMID:23150390

  5. Aptamer-Based Therapeutics: New Approaches to Combat Human Viral Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Shum, Ka-To; Zhou, Jiehua; Rossi, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Viruses replicate inside the cells of an organism and continuously evolve to contend with an ever-changing environment. Many life-threatening diseases, such as AIDS, SARS, hepatitis and some cancers, are caused by viruses. Because viruses have small genome sizes and high mutability, there is currently a lack of and an urgent need for effective treatment for many viral pathogens. One approach that has recently received much attention is aptamer-based therapeutics. Aptamer technology has high target specificity and versatility, i.e., any viral proteins could potentially be targeted. Consequently, new aptamer-based therapeutics have the potential to lead a revolution in the development of anti-infective drugs. Additionally, aptamers can potentially bind any targets and any pathogen that is theoretically amenable to rapid targeting, making aptamers invaluable tools for treating a wide range of diseases. This review will provide a broad, comprehensive overview of viral therapies that use aptamers. The aptamer selection process will be described, followed by an explanation of the potential for treating virus infection by aptamers. Recent progress and prospective use of aptamers against a large variety of human viruses, such as HIV-1, HCV, HBV, SCoV, Rabies virus, HPV, HSV and influenza virus, with particular focus on clinical development of aptamers will also be described. Finally, we will discuss the challenges of advancing antiviral aptamer therapeutics and prospects for future success. PMID:24287493

  6. Characterization of a Borna disease virus field isolate which shows efficient viral propagation and transmissibility.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yohei; Ibrahim, Madiha S; Hagiwara, Katsuro; Okamoto, Minoru; Kamitani, Wataru; Yanai, Hideyuki; Ohtaki, Naohiro; Hayashi, Yohei; Taniyama, Hiroyuki; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Tomonaga, Keizo

    2007-04-01

    To investigate the biological characteristics of field isolates of Borna disease virus (BDV), as well as to understand BDV infections outside endemic countries, we isolated the virus from brain samples of a heifer with Borna disease in Japan. We demonstrate that the brain lysate contained replication products of BDV and induced viral propagation in rat glioma cells, suggesting that a replication-competent BDV existed in the bovine brain. This field strain of BDV, named Bo/04w, showed efficient viral release and transmissibility and also displayed a distinct pattern of expression of viral phosphoprotein (P) during infection, as compared with laboratory-adapted BDV strains. Interestingly, we found the level of P to be significantly low in cells infected with Bo/04w, and the transcription of this isolate to be more efficient than that of laboratory strain of BDV. These results indicated that the field isolate may regulate the expression of P at an optimal level in infected cells. We also confirmed that Bo/04w maintains biological significance in neonatal gerbil brain. Sequencing revealed that despite the biological differences, the field isolate is closely related genetically to the laboratory strains of BDV. We discuss here the sequence similarities between BDV isolates from endemic and nonendemic countries. PMID:17306587

  7. Adventures in Infectious Diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher-Hoch, Susan

    2011-11-01

    Dr. Susan Fisher-Hoch, Virologist and Epidemiologist, will discuss her research and travels associated with viral hemorrhagic fevers. From the Ebola outbreak in Reston, Virginia to outbreaks of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in South Africa, Senegal, and Saudi Arabia, Dr. Fisher-Hoch has studied and tracked the pathophysiology of these viral diseases. These studies have led her from the Center for Disease Control in the United States, to Lyon, France where she was instrumental in designing, constructing, and rendering operational a laboratory capable of containing some of the world's most dangerous diseases.

  8. Adventures in Infectious Diseases

    ScienceCinema

    Fisher-Hoch, Susan [University of Texas School of Public Health

    2014-06-25

    Dr. Susan Fisher-Hoch, Virologist and Epidemiologist, will discuss her research and travels associated with viral hemorrhagic fevers. From the Ebola outbreak in Reston, Virginia to outbreaks of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in South Africa, Senegal, and Saudi Arabia, Dr. Fisher-Hoch has studied and tracked the pathophysiology of these viral diseases. These studies have led her from the Center for Disease Control in the United States, to Lyon, France where she was instrumental in designing, constructing, and rendering operational a laboratory capable of containing some of the world's most dangerous diseases.

  9. Reducing Outbreaks: Using International Governmental Risk Pools to Fund Research and Development of Infectious Disease Medicines and Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Erfe, J. Mark

    2014-01-01

    The deadliest Ebola outbreak the world has ever seen is currently ravaging West Africa, despite the concerted efforts of the World Health Organization and many national governments. The current picture is troubling, but not altogether unexpected. Ebola was initially identified in 1976, and since that time, few drugs have been developed to combat it. The same is true for myriad other dangerous infectious diseases to which the world is currently susceptible. One proposal that might prevent outbreaks of this scale and magnitude from recurring would be to have the World Health Organization (WHO) and its technical partners assess which of its member states are at high risk for a disease, either directly or indirectly, and facilitate the creation of international governmental risk pools of those member states. Risk pools would offer open-indexed grant contracts to fund vaccine and drug development for a particular disease, and pharmaceutical companies could browse the index to apply for these grants. If the risk-pool states and a particular company sign a contract, a mutually agreed upon amount of the vaccine or drug would be produced at a below-market purchase price for those states. In return, the company would keep any patents or intellectual property rights for the developed vaccines or drugs. Risk-pool countries that did not use their vaccine or drug could resell that supply on secondary markets to other countries outside of the risk pool. This arrangement will increase the supply of tested drug and vaccine candidates available for combatting unexpected outbreaks of any previously discovered major infectious disease in the future. PMID:25506281

  10. Trypanosoma cruzi IV Causing Outbreaks of Acute Chagas Disease and Infections by Different Haplotypes in the Western Brazilian Amazonia

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Magalhães, Laylah Kelre Costa; de Sá, Amanda Regina Nichi; Gomes, Mônica Lúcia; Toledo, Max Jean de Ornelas; Borges, Lara; Pires, Isa; de Oliveira Guerra, Jorge Augusto; Silveira, Henrique; Barbosa, Maria das Graças Vale

    2012-01-01

    Background Chagas disease is an emergent tropical disease in the Brazilian Amazon Region, with an increasing number of cases in recent decades. In this region, the sylvatic cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission, which constitutes a reservoir of parasites that might be associated with specific molecular, epidemiological and clinical traits, has been little explored. The objective of this work is to genetically characterize stocks of T. cruzi from human cases, triatomines and reservoir mammals in the State of Amazonas, in the Western Brazilian Amazon. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed 96 T. cruzi samples from four municipalities in distant locations of the State of Amazonas. Molecular characterization of isolated parasites from cultures in LIT medium or directly from vectors or whole human blood was performed by PCR of the non-transcribed spacer of the mini-exon and of the 24 S alfa ribosomal RNA gene, RFLP and sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) gene, and by sequencing of the glucose-phosphate isomerase gene. The T. cruzi parasites from two outbreaks of acute disease were all typed as TcIV. One of the outbreaks was triggered by several haplotypes of the same DTU. TcIV also occurred in isolated cases and in Rhodnius robustus. Incongruence between mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies is likely to be indicative of historical genetic exchange events resulting in mitochondrial introgression between TcIII and TcIV DTUs from Western Brazilian Amazon. TcI predominated among triatomines and was the unique DTU infecting marsupials. Conclusion/Significance DTU TcIV, rarely associated with human Chagas disease in other areas of the Amazon basin, is the major strain responsible for the human infections in the Western Brazilian Amazon, occurring in outbreaks as single or mixed infections by different haplotypes. PMID:22848457

  11. Reducing outbreaks: using international governmental risk pools to fund research and development of infectious disease medicines and vaccines.

    PubMed

    Erfe, J Mark

    2014-12-01

    The deadliest Ebola outbreak the world has ever seen is currently ravaging West Africa, despite the concerted efforts of the World Health Organization and many national governments. The current picture is troubling, but not altogether unexpected. Ebola was initially identified in 1976, and since that time, few drugs have been developed to combat it. The same is true for myriad other dangerous infectious diseases to which the world is currently susceptible. One proposal that might prevent outbreaks of this scale and magnitude from recurring would be to have the World Health Organization (WHO) and its technical partners assess which of its member states are at high risk for a disease, either directly or indirectly, and facilitate the creation of international governmental risk pools of those member states. Risk pools would offer open-indexed grant contracts to fund vaccine and drug development for a particular disease, and pharmaceutical companies could browse the index to apply for these grants. If the risk-pool states and a particular company sign a contract, a mutually agreed upon amount of the vaccine or drug would be produced at a below-market purchase price for those states. In return, the company would keep any patents or intellectual property rights for the developed vaccines or drugs. Risk-pool countries that did not use their vaccine or drug could resell that supply on secondary markets to other countries outside of the risk pool. This arrangement will increase the supply of tested drug and vaccine candidates available for combatting unexpected outbreaks of any previously discovered major infectious disease in the future. PMID:25506281

  12. Genetic characterization of feline calicivirus strains associated with varying disease manifestations during an outbreak season in Missouri (1995-1996).

    PubMed

    Prikhodko, Victor G; Sandoval-Jaime, Carlos; Abente, Eugenio J; Bok, Karin; Parra, Gabriel I; Rogozin, Igor B; Ostlund, Eileen N; Green, Kim Y; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V

    2014-02-01

    Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a common cause of mild to severe upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) in cats. FCV strain 21223 was isolated from a kitten with severe pneumonia in a disease outbreak with unusually high mortality (35 %) that occurred in a Missouri feline colony in 1995-1996. Phylogenetic analysis of the genome sequence of strain 21223 indicated the emergence of a new FCV strain. Analysis of the full-length genome sequence of a closely related (99.5 % nucleotide identity) strain, 3786, obtained from an asymptomatic animal in the same colony four months later, showed the presence of seven amino acid substitutions, with six of them located in the VP1 capsid sequence encoded by ORF2. Comparative analysis of the E-region sequences (426-521 aa ORF2) presumably involved in virus-host cell receptor interactions did not identify amino acid substitutions unique to the virulent strain. We determined the complete genome sequences of four virus isolates that were collected in regional catteries in the months following the outbreak that were associated with different manifestations of the disease (URTD, chronic stomatitis, and gingivitis). We show that genetically distinct FCV strains were cocirculating in the area, and no apparent correlation could be made between overall sequence and observed disease. PMID:24217871

  13. Usefulness of the DNA-fingerprinting pattern and the multilocus enzyme electrophoresis profile in the assessment of outbreaks of meningococcal disease.

    PubMed Central

    Weis, N.; Lind, I.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess whether genotypic characterization by means of DNA-fingerprinting pattern (DFP) and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MEE) profile as compared to phenotypic characterization would improve the differentiation of Neisseria meningitidis strains associated with outbreaks from strains associated with sporadic cases of meningococcal disease. In addition, the differentiation of serogroup C carrier strains from those associated with an outbreak of serogroup C meningococcal disease was investigated. A total of 118 N. meningitidis strains were available for the study: 59 from patients involved in outbreaks of meningococcal disease (2 serogroup B and 2 serogroup C), 37 patients considered to be sporadic cases and 22 serogroup C carrier strains. Among the 59 strains from patients involved in outbreaks the 4 strains isolated from the patient registered as the first in each outbreak were designated the index strains. Among the remaining 55 outbreak strains 52 were either DFP-identical or DFP-indistinguishable when compared with the one relevant out of the 4 index strains. This was only the case for 17 of the 37 strains isolated from sporadic cases caused by the same serogroup of meningococci during the outbreak periods, and 5 of the 22 meningococcal strains isolated from healthy carriers. Among the 56 (52 + 4) DFP-identical or DFP-indistinguishable outbreak strains 5 different electrophoretic types were identified by MEE. Among 59 assumed outbreak strains a total of 4 were identified as genotypically distinct. Among the 37 mainly DFP-indistinguishable or DFP-different strains from sporadic cases 17 different ETs were identified, and among the 22 mainly DFP-different carrier strains 13 different ETs were identified. Two strains among those selected from sporadic cases were identical to the outbreak strain. None of the local serogroup C carrier strains isolated during the outbreak of serogroup C disease were identical to the outbreak

  14. Application of Whole-Genome Sequencing to an Unusual Outbreak of Invasive Group A Streptococcal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Galloway-Peña, Jessica; Clement, Meredith E.; Sharma Kuinkel, Batu K.; Ruffin, Felicia; Flores, Anthony R.; Levinson, Howard; Shelburne, Samuel A.; Moore, Zack; Fowler, Vance G.

    2016-01-01

    Whole-genome analysis was applied to investigate atypical point-source transmission of 2 invasive group A streptococcal (GAS) infections. Isolates were serotype M4, ST39, and genetically indistinguishable. Comparison with MGAS10750 revealed nonsynonymous polymorphisms in ropB and increased speB transcription. This study demonstrates the usefulness of whole-genome analyses for GAS outbreaks. PMID:27006966

  15. Seasonality and survival associated with three outbreak seasons of West Nile virus disease in Oklahoma--2003, 2007, and 2012.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew G; Adams, Jaymes; McDonald-Hamm, Christie; Wendelboe, Aaron; Bradley, Kristy K

    2015-10-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) activity has fluctuated in the south-central United States since its introduction. Seasonal outbreaks are common, with three in Oklahoma during 2003, 2007, and 2012. Morbidity and mortality rates vary during each outbreak. Long-term neurologic sequelae in association with West Nile virus disease (WNVD) are well-described, but limited information is available about delayed mortality among acute WNV infection survivors. A retrospective cohort analysis of all confirmed and probable WNVD cases reported to the Oklahoma State Department of Health (OSDH) during 2003, 2007, and 2012 was performed. OSDH surveillance data and mortality data from Oklahoma's vital statistics database were used to construct a descriptive epidemiologic analysis of the geography, temporality, severity, and associated mortality for each outbreak season. A Kaplan-Meier survival curve and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated to measure survival of the 2003 and 2007 WNVD cohorts. Seventy-nine cases during 2003, 107 cases during 2007, and 180 cases during 2012 met inclusion criteria. Median ages of the 2003, 2007, and 2012 cohorts were 48, 58, and 59 years, respectively; race, sex, and symptom information were not substantially different. Each outbreak season had a different severity, temporality, and geography. Age- and sex-adjusted SMRs for the combined 2003 and 2007 cohorts censored at 5 years was 0.9 (95% confidence interval 0.51-1.75); no substantial difference was observed between the survival curves. Although similar patterns of long-term mortality were evident on the survival curves, SMRs did not demonstrate increased 5-year cumulative risk for death for patients surviving acute WNV infection. PMID:25946680

  16. Both cis and trans Activities of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus 3D Polymerase Are Essential for Viral RNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Herod, Morgan R.; Ferrer-Orta, Cristina; Loundras, Eleni-Anna; Ward, Joseph C.; Verdaguer, Nuria; Rowlands, David J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Picornaviridae is a large family of positive-sense RNA viruses that contains numerous human and animal pathogens, including foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). The picornavirus replication complex comprises a coordinated network of protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions involving multiple viral and host-cellular factors. Many of the proteins within the complex possess multiple roles in viral RNA replication, some of which can be provided in trans (i.e., via expression from a separate RNA molecule), while others are required in cis (i.e., expressed from the template RNA molecule). In vitro studies have suggested that multiple copies of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) 3D are involved in the viral replication complex. However, it is not clear whether all these molecules are catalytically active or what other function(s) they provide. In this study, we aimed to distinguish between catalytically active 3D molecules and those that build a replication complex. We report a novel nonenzymatic cis-acting function of 3D that is essential for viral-genome replication. Using an FMDV replicon in complementation experiments, our data demonstrate that this cis-acting role of 3D is distinct from the catalytic activity, which is predominantly trans acting. Immunofluorescence studies suggest that both cis- and trans-acting 3D molecules localize to the same cellular compartment. However, our genetic and structural data suggest that 3D interacts in cis with RNA stem-loops that are essential for viral RNA replication. This study identifies a previously undescribed aspect of picornavirus replication complex structure-function and an important methodology for probing such interactions further. IMPORTANCE Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is an important animal pathogen responsible for foot-and-mouth disease. The disease is endemic in many parts of the world with outbreaks within livestock resulting in major economic losses. Propagation of the viral genome

  17. Plasma viral RNA load predicts disease progression in accelerated feline immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Diehl, L J; Mathiason-Dubard, C K; O'Neil, L L; Hoover, E A

    1996-01-01

    Viral RNA load has been shown to indicate disease stage and predict the rapidity of disease progression in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals. We had previously demonstrated that feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) RNA levels in plasma correlate with disease stage in infected cats. Here we expand upon those observations by demonstrating that plasma virus load is 1 to 2 logs higher in cats with rapidly progressive FIV disease than in long-term survivors. Differences in plasma FIV RNA levels are evident by 1 to 2 weeks after infection and are consistent throughout infection. We also evaluated humoral immune responses in FIV-infected cats for correlation with survival times. Total anti-FIV antibody titers did not differ between cats with rapidly progressive FIV disease and long-term survivors. These findings indicate that virus replication plays an important role in FIV disease progression, as it does in HIV-1 disease progression. The parallels in virus loads and disease progressions between HIV-1 and FIV support the idea that the accelerated disease model is well suited for the study of therapeutic agents directed at reducing lentiviral replication. PMID:8642679

  18. The effect of neighbourhood definitions on spatio-temporal models of disease outbreaks: Separation distance versus range overlap.

    PubMed

    Laffan, Shawn W; Wang, Zhaoyuan; Ward, Michael P

    2011-12-01

    The definition of the spatial relatedness between infectious and susceptible animal groups is a fundamental component of spatio-temporal modelling of disease outbreaks. A common neighbourhood definition for disease spread in wild and feral animal populations is the distance between the centroids of neighbouring group home ranges. This distance can be used to define neighbourhood interactions, and also to describe the probability of successful disease transmission. Key limitations of this approach are (1) that a susceptible neighbour of an infectious group with an overlapping home range - but whose centroid lies outside the home range of an infectious group - will not be considered for disease transmission, and (2) the degree of overlap between the home ranges is not taken into account for those groups with centroids inside the infectious home range. We assessed the impact of both distance-based and range overlap methods of disease transmission on model-predicted disease spread. Range overlap was calculated using home ranges modelled as circles. We used the Sirca geographic automata model, with the population data from a nine-county study area in Texas that we have previously described. For each method we applied 100 model repetitions, each of 100 time steps, to 30 index locations. The results show that the rate of disease spread for the range-overlap method is clearly less than the distance-based method, with median outbreaks modelled using the latter being 1.4-1.45 times larger. However, the two methods show similar overall trends in the area infected, and the range-overlap median (48 and 120 for cattle and pigs, respectively) falls within the 5th-95th percentile range of the distance-based method (0-96 and 0-252 for cattle and pigs, respectively). These differences can be attributed to the calculation of the interaction probabilities in the two methods, with overlap weights generally resulting in lower interaction probabilities. The definition of spatial

  19. ECG Manifestations of the Biggest Outbreak of Chagas Disease due to Oral Infection in Latin-America

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Juan; Mendoza, Iván; Noya, Belkisyolé; Acquatella, Harry; Palacios, Igor; Marques-Mejias, María

    2013-01-01

    Background Chagas disease affects more than 15 million people worldwide. Although vector-borne transmission has decreased, oral transmission has become important. Recently, our group published the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the largest outbreak of orally transmitted Chagas disease reported till date. Objective: To describe electrocardiographic changes occurring in the study population during the outbreak caused by ingestion of contaminated guava juice. Methods We evaluated 103 positive cases, of which 76 (74%) were aged ≤ 18 years (average age: 9.1 ± 3.1 years) and 27 (26%) were aged > 18 years (average age: 46 ± 11.8 years). All patients underwent clinical evaluations and ECG. If the patients had palpitations or evident alterations of rhythm at baseline, ambulatory ECG monitoring was performed. Results A total of 68 cases (66%; 53 children and 15 adults) had ECG abnormalities. Further, 69.7% (53/76) of those aged ≤ 18 years and 56% (15/27) of those aged >18 years showed some ECG alteration (p = ns). ST-T abnormalities were observed in 37.86% cases (39/103) and arrhythmias were evident in 28.16% cases (29/103). ST alterations occurred in 72% of those aged ≤18 years compared with 19% of th ose aged >18 years (p < 0.0001). Conclusion This study reports the largest number of cases in the same outbreak of acute Chagas disease caused by oral contamination, with recorded ECGs. ECG changes suggestive of acute myocarditis and arrhythmias were the most frequent abnormalities found. PMID:23887736

  20. Serological and Molecular Detection of Senecavirus A Associated with an Outbreak of Swine Idiopathic Vesicular Disease and Neonatal Mortality.

    PubMed

    Gimenez-Lirola, Luis Gabriel; Rademacher, Chris; Linhares, Daniel; Harmon, Karen; Rotolo, Marisa; Sun, Yaxuan; Baum, David H; Zimmerman, Jeffrey; Piñeyro, Pablo

    2016-08-01

    We performed a longitudinal field study in a swine breeding herd that presented with an outbreak of vesicular disease (VD) that was associated with an increase in neonatal mortality. Initially, a USDA Foreign Animal Disease (FAD) investigation confirmed the presence of Senecavirus A (SVA) and ruled out the presence of exotic agents that produce vesicular lesions, e.g., foot-and-mouth disease virus and others. Subsequently, serum samples, tonsil swabs, and feces were collected from sows (n = 22) and their piglets (n = 33) beginning 1 week after the onset of the clinical outbreak and weekly for 6 weeks. The presence of SVA RNA was evaluated in all specimens collected by reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) targeting a conserved region of the 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR). The serological response (IgG) to SVA was evaluated by the weekly testing of sow and piglet serum samples on a SVA VP1 recombinant protein (rVP1) indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The rVP1 ELISA detected seroconversion against SVA in clinically affected and non-clinically affected sows at early stages of the outbreak as well as maternal SVA antibodies in offspring. Overall, the absence of vesicles (gross lesions) in SVA-infected animals and the variability of RT-qPCR results among specimen type demonstrated that a diagnostic algorithm based on the combination of clinical observations, RT-qPCR in multiple diagnostic specimens, and serology are essential to ensure an accurate diagnosis of SVA. PMID:27225408

  1. A phylogenetic analysis using full-length viral genomes of South American dengue serotype 3 in consecutive Venezuelan outbreaks reveals novel NS5 mutation

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, DJ; Pickett, BE; Camacho, D; Comach, G; Xhaja, K; Lennon, NJ; Rizzolo, K; de Bosch, N; Becerra, A; Nogueira, ML; Mondini, A; da Silva, EV; Vasconcelos, PF; Muñoz-Jordán, JL; Santiago, GA; Ocazionez, R; Gehrke, L; Lefkowitz, EJ; Birren, BW; Henn, MR; Bosch, I

    2013-01-01

    Dengue virus currently causes 50-100 million infections annually. Comprehensive knowledge about the evolution of Dengue in response to selection pressure is currently unavailable, but would greatly enhance vaccine design efforts. In the current study, we sequenced 187 new dengue virus serotype 3(DENV-3) genotype III whole genomes isolated from Asia and the Americas. We analyzed them together with previously-sequenced isolates to gain a more detailed understanding of the evolutionary adaptations existing in this prevalent American serotype. In order to analyze the phylogenetic dynamics of DENV-3 during outbreak periods; we incorporated datasets of 48 and 11 sequences spanning two major outbreaks in Venezuela during 2001 and 2007-2008 respectively. Our phylogenetic analysis of newly sequenced viruses shows that subsets of genomes cluster primarily by geographic location, and secondarily by time of virus isolation. DENV-3 genotype III sequences from Asia are significantly divergent from those from the Americas due to their geographical separation and subsequent speciation. We measured amino acid variation for the E protein by calculating the Shannon entropy at each position between Asian and American genomes. We found a cluster of 7 amino acid substitutions having high variability within E protein domain III, which has previously been implicated in serotype-specific neutralization escape mutants. No novel mutations were found in the E protein of sequences isolated during either Venezuelan outbreak. Shannon entropy analysis of the NS5 polymerase mature protein revealed that a G374E mutation, in a region that contributes to interferon resistance in other flaviviruses by interfering with JAK-STAT signaling was present in both the Asian and American sequences from the 2007-2008 Venezuelan outbreak, but was absent in the sequences from the 2001 Venezuelan outbreak. In addition to E, several NS5 amino acid changes were unique to the 2007-2008 epidemic in Venezuela and may

  2. An individual-based model of rabbit viral haemorrhagic disease on European wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fa, John E.; Sharples, Colin M.; Bell, Diana J.; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2001-01-01

    We developed an individual-based model of Rabbit Viral Hemorrhagic Disease (RVHD) for European wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.), representing up to 1000 rabbits in four hectares. Model output for productivity and recruitment matched published values. The disease was density-dependent and virulence affected outcome. Strains that caused death after several days produced greater overall mortality than strains in which rabbits either died or recovered very quickly. Disease effect also depended on time of year. We also elaborated a larger scale model representing 25 km2 and 100,000+ rabbits, split into a number of grid-squares. This was a more traditional model that did not represent individual rabbits, but employed a system of dynamic equations for each grid-square. Disease spread depended on probability of transmission between neighboring grid-squares. Potential recovery from a major population crash caused by the disease relied on disease virulence and frequency of recurrence. The model's dependence on probability of disease transmission between grid-squares suggests the way that the model represents the spatial distribution of the population affects simulation. Although data on RVHD in Europe are lacking, our models provide a basis for describing the disease in realistic detail and for assessing influence of various social and spatial factors on spread.

  3. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic study of the fusion genes of Newcastle disease virus from the recent outbreaks in Ahvaz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Boroomand, Zahra; Jafari, Ramezan Ali; Mayahi, Mansour

    2016-03-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is an acute and highly contagious disease affecting many domestic and wild species of birds. Its effects are most notable in domestic poultry due to their high susceptibility and the potential for severe impacts of an epizootic on the poultry industry. In this study, partial sequences of fusion genes of three Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates collected during 2013-14 outbreaks from the vaccinated commercial broiler chicken farms with high mortality around Ahvaz city (Southwest of Iran) were characterized. All three isolates showed the amino acid sequence 112RRQKRF117 at the C-terminus of the F2 protein and phenylalanine at the N-terminus of the F1 protein residue 117. These amino acid sequences were identical to a known virulent motif. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Iranian ND isolates in this study are closely related to the genotype VIId of class II NDV strains. Our results specified that there are velogenic NDV circulating in Ahvaz commercial broiler flocks and causing outbreaks in poultry industry. PMID:26925451

  4. Public health challenges and legacies of Japan's response to the Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa 2014 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tomoya

    2015-01-01

    The largest outbreak of Ebola virus disease occurred in West Africa in 2014 and resulted in unprecedented transmission even in distant countries. In Japan, only nine individuals were screened for Ebola and there was no confirmed case. However, the government promoted the reinforcement of response measures and interagency collaboration, with training and simulation exercises conducted country-wide. The legacies included: publication of a communication policy on case disclosure, a protocol for collaboration between public health and other agencies, and establishing an expert committee to assemble the limited available expertise. There were challenges in taking proportionate and flexible measures in the management of people identified to be at high risk at entry points to Japan, in the decentralised medical response strategy, and in the medical countermeasures preparedness. The Ebola outbreak in West Africa provided a crucial opportunity to reveal the challenges and improve the preparedness for rare but high impact emerging diseases that are prone to be neglected. Efforts to uphold the lessons learnt and maintain public health preparedness should help prepare for future emerging diseases, including bioterrorist acts and pandemics. PMID:26559148

  5. Outbreak of meningococcal disease in and around New Delhi, India, 2005-2006: a report from a tertiary care hospital.

    PubMed

    Nair, D; Dawar, R; Deb, M; Capoor, M R; Singal, S; Upadhayay, D J; Aggarwal, P; DAS, B; Samantaray, J C

    2009-04-01

    The first of several cases of meningococcal meningitis was reported in April 2005, in New Delhi, India. Subsequent to this the Government declared an outbreak, which persisted for two periods, from April-July 2005 and January-March 2006. The National Institute of Communicable Diseases (NICD) recommended using WHO criteria for diagnosis of disease. During the outbreak 380 clinically suspected cases were investigated. Of 55 cases diagnosed as confirmed/probable the mortality rate was 14.6%. Meningitis was reported in 60% of cases and meningococcaemia in 40%. Microscopy of petechial rash was positive in 87.5%, CSF Gram stain positive in 68.3%, and latex agglutination test of CSF positive in 64.9% of samples. Neisseria meningitidis (serogroup A) was isolated from 37.7% of cases, 57.7% from CSF. Blood culture was positive in 10.4% of cases. CrgA polymerase chain reaction for N. meningitidis confirmed the isolates. All isolates were susceptible to third-generation cephalosporins, azithromycin and rifampicin, with increasing resistance to ceftriaxone. Penicillin resistance was encountered in 15.4% of strains. Resistance to quinolones was very high at 100% for levofloxacin, 84.6% for ofloxacin and 65.4% for ciprofloxacin. All patients with penicillin-resistant organisms (4) or intermediate sensitivity (4) succumbed to the disease. These patients also had a higher minimum inhibitory concentration to ceftriaxone. PMID:18840317

  6. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis in Panama: Fatal Endemic Disease and Genetic Diversity of Etiologic Viral Strains

    PubMed Central

    Quiroz, Evelia; Aguilar, Patricia V.; Cisneros, Julio; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.

    2009-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) is a reemerging, mosquito-borne viral disease of the neotropics that is severely debilitating and sometimes fatal to humans. Periodic epidemics mediated by equine amplification have been recognized since the 1920s, but interepidemic disease is rarely recognized. We report here clinical findings and genetic characterization of 42 cases of endemic VEE detected in Panama from 1961–2004. Recent clusters of cases occurred in Darien (eastern Panama) and Panama provinces (central Panama) near rainforest and swamp habitats. Patients ranged from 10 months to 48 years of age, and the more severe cases with neurological complications, including one fatal infection, were observed in children. The VEE virus strains isolated from these cases all belonged to an enzootic, subtype ID lineage known to circulate among sylvatic vectors and rodent reservoir hosts in Panama and Peru. These findings underscore endemic VEE as an important but usually neglected arboviral disease of Latin America. PMID:19564908

  7. Heterogeneity of viral IL-6 expression in HHV-8-associated diseases.

    PubMed

    Cannon, J S; Nicholas, J; Orenstein, J M; Mann, R B; Murray, P G; Browning, P J; DiGiuseppe, J A; Cesarman, E; Hayward, G S; Ambinder, R F

    1999-09-01

    In order to characterize the expression of the viral interleukin-6 (vIL-6) homologue in various human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8)-associated diseases, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were applied to formalin-fixed specimens. These assays showed consistent expression of vIL-6 in primary effusion lymphomas and in a case of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated lymphadenopathy with a Castleman's disease-like appearance. In contrast, Kaposi's sarcoma specimens showed marked differences among specimens. In a consecutive series of specimens from the Johns Hopkins archives, vIL-6 expression was demonstrated in one of 13 cases. However, among 7 specimens selected from the AIDS Malignancy Bank because of their high levels of the T1.1 lytic transcript and virion production, vIL-6 expression was consistently demonstrated in infiltrating mononuclear cells and occasional spindle-shaped cells. Thus vIL-6 expression in clinical specimens correlates with other measures of the lytic viral cycle. Both assays generally give congruent results and are consistent with the possibility that vIL-6 expression plays a role in the pathogenesis of a variety of HHV-8-associated diseases. PMID:10438372

  8. FoodChain-Lab: A Trace-Back and Trace-Forward Tool Developed and Applied during Food-Borne Disease Outbreak Investigations in Germany and Europe

    PubMed Central

    Filter, Matthias; Falenski, Alexander; Appel, Bernd; Käsbohrer, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    FoodChain-Lab is modular open-source software for trace-back and trace-forward analysis in food-borne disease outbreak investigations. Development of FoodChain-Lab has been driven by a need for appropriate software in several food-related outbreaks in Germany since 2011. The software allows integrated data management, data linkage, enrichment and visualization as well as interactive supply chain analyses. Identification of possible outbreak sources or vehicles is facilitated by calculation of tracing scores for food-handling stations (companies or persons) and food products under investigation. The software also supports consideration of station-specific cross-contamination, analysis of geographical relationships, and topological clustering of the tracing network structure. FoodChain-Lab has been applied successfully in previous outbreak investigations, for example during the 2011 EHEC outbreak and the 2013/14 European hepatitis A outbreak. The software is most useful in complex, multi-area outbreak investigations where epidemiological evidence may be insufficient to discriminate between multiple implicated food products. The automated analysis and visualization components would be of greater value if trading information on food ingredients and compound products was more easily available. PMID:26985673

  9. FoodChain-Lab: A Trace-Back and Trace-Forward Tool Developed and Applied during Food-Borne Disease Outbreak Investigations in Germany and Europe.

    PubMed

    Weiser, Armin A; Thöns, Christian; Filter, Matthias; Falenski, Alexander; Appel, Bernd; Käsbohrer, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    FoodChain-Lab is modular open-source software for trace-back and trace-forward analysis in food-borne disease outbreak investigations. Development of FoodChain-Lab has been driven by a need for appropriate software in several food-related outbreaks in Germany since 2011. The software allows integrated data management, data linkage, enrichment and visualization as well as interactive supply chain analyses. Identification of possible outbreak sources or vehicles is facilitated by calculation of tracing scores for food-handling stations (companies or persons) and food products under investigation. The software also supports consideration of station-specific cross-contamination, analysis of geographical relationships, and topological clustering of the tracing network structure. FoodChain-Lab has been applied successfully in previous outbreak investigations, for example during the 2011 EHEC outbreak and the 2013/14 European hepatitis A outbreak. The software is most useful in complex, multi-area outbreak investigations where epidemiological evidence may be insufficient to discriminate between multiple implicated food products. The automated analysis and visualization components would be of greater value if trading information on food ingredients and compound products was more easily available. PMID:26985673

  10. Immune memory to Sudan virus: comparison between two separate disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Sobarzo, Ariel; Eskira, Yael; Herbert, Andrew S; Kuehne, Ana I; Stonier, Spencer W; Ochayon, David E; Fedida-Metula, Shlomit; Balinandi, Steven; Kislev, Yaara; Tali, Neta; Lewis, Eli C; Lutwama, Julius Julian; Dye, John M; Yavelsky, Victoria; Lobel, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    Recovery from ebolavirus infection in humans is associated with the development of both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses. According to recent studies, individuals that did not survive infection with ebolaviruses appear to have lacked a robust adaptive immune response and the expression of several early innate response markers. However, a comprehensive protective immune profile has yet to be described. Here, we examine cellular memory immune responses among survivors of two separate Ebolavirus outbreaks (EVDs) due to Sudan virus (SUDV) infection in Uganda-Gulu 2000-2001 and Kibaale 2012. Freshly collected blood samples were stimulated with inactivated SUDV, as well as with recombinant SUDV or Ebola virus (EBOV) GP (GP1-649). In addition, ELISA and plaque reduction neutralization assays were performed to determine anti-SUDV IgG titers and neutralization capacity. Cytokine expression was measured in whole blood cultures in response to SUDV and SUDV GP stimulation in both survivor pools, demonstrating recall responses that indicate immune memory. Cytokine responses between groups were similar but had distinct differences. Neutralizing, SUDV-specific IgG activity against irradiated SUDV and SUDV recombinant proteins were detected in both survivor cohorts. Furthermore, humoral and cell-mediated crossreactivity to EBOV and EBOV recombinant GP1-649 was observed in both cohorts. In conclusion, immune responses in both groups of survivors demonstrate persistent recognition of relevant antigens, albeit larger cohorts are required in order to reach greater statistical significance. The differing cytokine responses between Gulu and Kibaale outbreak survivors suggests that each outbreak may not yield identical memory responses and promotes the merits of studying the immune responses among outbreaks of the same virus. Finally, our demonstration of cross-reactive immune recognition suggests that there is potential for developing cross-protective vaccines for ebolaviruses

  11. Immune Memory to Sudan Virus: Comparison between Two Separate Disease Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Sobarzo, Ariel; Eskira, Yael; Herbert, Andrew S.; Kuehne, Ana I.; Stonier, Spencer W.; Ochayon, David E.; Fedida-Metula, Shlomit; Balinandi, Steven; Kislev, Yaara; Tali, Neta; Lewis, Eli C.; Lutwama, Julius Julian; Dye, John M.; Yavelsky, Victoria; Lobel, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    Recovery from ebolavirus infection in humans is associated with the development of both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses. According to recent studies, individuals that did not survive infection with ebolaviruses appear to have lacked a robust adaptive immune response and the expression of several early innate response markers. However, a comprehensive protective immune profile has yet to be described. Here, we examine cellular memory immune responses among survivors of two separate Ebolavirus outbreaks (EVDs) due to Sudan virus (SUDV) infection in Uganda—Gulu 2000–2001 and Kibaale 2012. Freshly collected blood samples were stimulated with inactivated SUDV, as well as with recombinant SUDV or Ebola virus (EBOV) GP (GP1–649). In addition, ELISA and plaque reduction neutralization assays were performed to determine anti-SUDV IgG titers and neutralization capacity. Cytokine expression was measured in whole blood cultures in response to SUDV and SUDV GP stimulation in both survivor pools, demonstrating recall responses that indicate immune memory. Cytokine responses between groups were similar but had distinct differences. Neutralizing, SUDV-specific IgG activity against irradiated SUDV and SUDV recombinant proteins were detected in both survivor cohorts. Furthermore, humoral and cell-mediated crossreactivity to EBOV and EBOV recombinant GP1–649 was observed in both cohorts. In conclusion, immune responses in both groups of survivors demonstrate persistent recognition of relevant antigens, albeit larger cohorts are required in order to reach greater statistical significance. The differing cytokine responses between Gulu and Kibaale outbreak survivors suggests that each outbreak may not yield identical memory responses and promotes the merits of studying the immune responses among outbreaks of the same virus. Finally, our demonstration of cross-reactive immune recognition suggests that there is potential for developing cross-protective vaccines for

  12. Yellow Fever in Africa: Estimating the Burden of Disease and Impact of Mass Vaccination from Outbreak and Serological Data

    PubMed Central

    Garske, Tini; Van Kerkhove, Maria D.; Yactayo, Sergio; Ronveaux, Olivier; Lewis, Rosamund F.; Staples, J. Erin; Perea, William; Ferguson, Neil M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Yellow fever is a vector-borne disease affecting humans and non-human primates in tropical areas of Africa and South America. While eradication is not feasible due to the wildlife reservoir, large scale vaccination activities in Africa during the 1940s to 1960s reduced yellow fever incidence for several decades. However, after a period of low vaccination coverage, yellow fever has resurged in the continent. Since 2006 there has been substantial funding for large preventive mass vaccination campaigns in the most affected countries in Africa to curb the rising burden of disease and control future outbreaks. Contemporary estimates of the yellow fever disease burden are lacking, and the present study aimed to update the previous estimates on the basis of more recent yellow fever occurrence data and improved estimation methods. Methods and Findings Generalised linear regression models were fitted to a dataset of the locations of yellow fever outbreaks within the last 25 years to estimate the probability of outbreak reports across the endemic zone. Environmental variables and indicators for the surveillance quality in the affected countries were used as covariates. By comparing probabilities of outbreak reports estimated in the regression with the force of infection estimated for a limited set of locations for which serological surveys were available, the detection probability per case and the force of infection were estimated across the endemic zone. The yellow fever burden in Africa was estimated for the year 2013 as 130,000 (95% CI 51,000–380,000) cases with fever and jaundice or haemorrhage including 78,000 (95% CI 19,000–180,000) deaths, taking into account the current level of vaccination coverage. The impact of the recent mass vaccination campaigns was assessed by evaluating the difference between the estimates obtained for the current vaccination coverage and for a hypothetical scenario excluding these vaccination campaigns. Vaccination campaigns

  13. Lumpy skin disease: Attempted propagation in tick cell lines and presence of viral DNA in field ticks collected from naturally-infected cattle

    PubMed Central

    Tuppurainen, E.S.M.; Venter, E.H.; Coetzer, J.A.W.; Bell-Sakyi, L.

    2015-01-01

    Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is of substantial economic importance for the cattle industry in Africa and the Near and Middle East. Several insect species are thought to transmit the disease mechanically. Recent transmission studies have demonstrated the first evidence for a role of hard (ixodid) ticks as vectors of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). The aim of this study was to attempt in vitro growth of the virus in Rhipicephalus spp. tick cell lines and investigate in vivo the presence of the virus in ticks collected from cattle during LSD outbreaks in Egypt and South Africa. No evidence was obtained for replication of LSDV in tick cell lines although the virus was remarkably stable, remaining viable for 35 days at 28 °C in tick cell cultures, in growth medium used for tick cells and in phosphate buffered saline. Viral DNA was detected in two-thirds of the 56 field ticks, making this the first report of the presence of potentially virulent LSDV in ticks collected from naturally infected animals. PMID:25468765

  14. Community Attitudes Toward Mass Drug Administration for Control and Elimination of Neglected Tropical Diseases After the 2014 Outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease in Lofa County, Liberia.

    PubMed

    Bogus, Joshua; Gankpala, Lincoln; Fischer, Kerstin; Krentel, Alison; Weil, Gary J; Fischer, Peter U; Kollie, Karsor; Bolay, Fatorma K

    2016-03-01

    The recent outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) interrupted mass drug administration (MDA) programs to control and eliminate neglected tropical diseases in Liberia. MDA programs treat entire communities with medication regardless of infection status to interrupt transmission and eliminate lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis. Following reports of hostilities toward health workers and fear that they might be spreading EVD, it was important to determine whether attitudes toward MDA might have changed after the outbreak. We surveyed 140 community leaders from 32 villages in Lofa County, Liberia, that had previously participated in MDA and are located in an area that was an early epicenter of the EVD outbreak. Survey respondents reported a high degree of community trust in the MDA program, and 97% thought their communities were ready to resume MDA. However, respondents predicted that fewer people would comply with MDA after the EVD epidemic than before. The survey also uncovered fears in the community that EVD and MDA might be linked. Respondents suggested that MDA programs emphasize to people that the medications are identical to those previously distributed and that MDA programs have nothing to do with EVD. PMID:26666700

  15. Community Attitudes toward Mass Drug Administration for Control and Elimination of Neglected Tropical Diseases after the 2014 Outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease in Lofa County, Liberia

    PubMed Central

    Bogus, Joshua; Gankpala, Lincoln; Fischer, Kerstin; Krentel, Alison; Weil, Gary J.; Fischer, Peter U.; Kollie, Karsor; Bolay, Fatorma K.

    2016-01-01

    The recent outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) interrupted mass drug administration (MDA) programs to control and eliminate neglected tropical diseases in Liberia. MDA programs treat entire communities with medication regardless of infection status to interrupt transmission and eliminate lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis. Following reports of hostilities toward health workers and fear that they might be spreading EVD, it was important to determine whether attitudes toward MDA might have changed after the outbreak. We surveyed 140 community leaders from 32 villages in Lofa County, Liberia, that had previously participated in MDA and are located in an area that was an early epicenter of the EVD outbreak. Survey respondents reported a high degree of community trust in the MDA program, and 97% thought their communities were ready to resume MDA. However, respondents predicted that fewer people would comply with MDA after the EVD epidemic than before. The survey also uncovered fears in the community that EVD and MDA might be linked. Respondents suggested that MDA programs emphasize to people that the medications are identical to those previously distributed and that MDA programs have nothing to do with EVD. PMID:26666700

  16. Characteristics of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viral Strains Circulating at the Wildlife/livestock Interface of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area.

    PubMed

    Jori, F; Caron, A; Thompson, P N; Dwarka, R; Foggin, C; de Garine-Wichatitsky, M; Hofmeyr, M; Van Heerden, J; Heath, L

    2016-02-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) inflicts severe economic losses within infected countries and is arguably the most important trade-restricting livestock disease in the world. In southern Africa, infected African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) are the major reservoir of the South African Territories (SAT) types of the virus. With the progressive expansion of transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs), the risk of FMD outbreaks is expected to increase due to a higher probability of buffalo/livestock contacts. To investigate the dynamics of FMD within and around the Great Limpopo TFCA (GLTFCA), 5 herds of buffaloes were sampled in June 2010 to characterize circulating viruses in South Africa and Zimbabwe. Three SAT-2 and three SAT-3 viral strains were isolated in both countries, including one that was genetically linked with a recent SAT-2 outbreak in Mozambique in 2011. In addition, two groups of unvaccinated cattle (n = 192) were serologically monitored for 1 year at the wildlife/livestock interface of Gonarezhou National Park (GNP) in Zimbabwe between April 2009 and January 2010, using the liquid-phase blocking ELISA (LPBE) and a test for antibodies directed against non-structural proteins (NSP). Neither clinical signs nor vaccination of cattle were reported during the study, yet a high proportion of the monitored cattle showed antibody responses against SAT-3 and SAT-1. Antibodies against NSP were also detected in 10% of the monitored cattle. The results of this study suggest that cattle grazing in areas adjacent to the GLTFCA can be infected by buffalo or other infected livestock and that cattle trade movements can act as efficient disseminators of FMD viruses to areas several hundred kilometres from the virus source. Current methods of surveillance of FMD at the GLTFCA interface seem insufficient to control for FMD emergence and dissemination and require urgent reassessment and regional coordination. PMID:24739536

  17. Multistate foodborne disease outbreaks associated with raw tomatoes, United States, 1990-2010: a recurring public health problem.

    PubMed

    Bennett, S D; Littrell, K W; Hill, T A; Mahovic, M; Behravesh, C Barton

    2015-05-01

    We examined multistate outbreaks attributed to raw tomatoes in the United States from 1990 to 2010. We summarized the demographic and epidemiological characteristics of 15 outbreaks resulting in 1959 illnesses, 384 hospitalizations, and three deaths. Most (80%) outbreaks were reported during 2000-2010; 73% occurred May-September. Outbreaks commonly affected adult (median age 34 years) women (median 58% of outbreak cases). All outbreaks were caused by Salmonella [serotypes Newport (n = 6 outbreaks), Braenderup (n = 2), Baildon, Enteritidis, Javiana, Montevideo, Thompson, Typhimurium (n = 1 each); multiple serotypes (n = 1)]. Red, round (69% of outbreaks), Roma (23%), and grape (8%) tomatoes were implicated. Most (93%) outbreaks were associated with tomatoes served predominantly in restaurants. However, traceback investigations suggested that contamination occurred on farms, at packinghouses, or at fresh-cut processing facilities. Government agencies, academia, trade associations, and the fresh tomato industry should consider further efforts to identify interventions to reduce contamination of tomatoes during production and processing. PMID:25167220

  18. [Serological survey of antibodies against viral diseases of public health interest in llamas (Lama glama) from Jujuy province, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Elena S; Rodríguez, Daniela V; Marin, Raúl E; Setti, Walter; Romero, Sandra; Barrandeguy, María; Parreño, Viviana

    2014-01-01

    Llama population from Argentina is mainly concentrated in the Andean Puna, Jujuy. Llamas represent an important economic resource for the Andean communities. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of antibodies against viral antigens associated to viral diseases of economic impact (neonatal diarrhea, reproductive and respiratory syndromes). A total of 349 serum samples from adult llamas were analyzed. The obtained antibody prevalence was 100 % for Rotavirus A and 70 % for Bovine parainfluenza virus 3. In contrast, no reactors were detected to Bovine herpesvirus 1, Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, Human influenza A virus (H1N1) and Equine influenza virus (H3N8). These results confirm the wide circulation of rotavirus and parainfluenza virus in Argentinean llamas and suggest that susceptibility to infection with bovine herpesvirus, pestivirus and influenza A viruses is low. This serologic survey provides novel information regarding the epidemiology of viral diseases affecting llamas from the Argentinean Andean Puna. PMID:24721276

  19. Visualizing Viral Dissemination in the Mouse Nervous System, Using a Green Fluorescent Protein-Expressing Borna Disease Virus Vector▿

    PubMed Central

    Ackermann, Andreas; Guelzow, Timo; Staeheli, Peter; Schneider, Urs; Heimrich, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Borna disease virus (BDV) frequently persists in the brain of infected animals. To analyze viral dissemination in the mouse nervous system, we generated a mouse-adapted virus that expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP). This viral vector supported GFP expression for up to 150 days and possessed an extraordinary staining capacity, visualizing complete dendritic arbors as well as individual axonal fibers of infected neurons. GFP-positive cells were first detected in cortical areas from where the virus disseminated through the entire central nervous system (CNS). Late in infection, GFP expression was found in the sciatic nerve, demonstrating viral spread from the central to the peripheral nervous system. PMID:20219925

  20. Legionnaires' Disease Outbreak at a Long-Term Care Facility Caused by a Cooling Tower Using an Automated Disinfection System--Ohio, 2013.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Celia; Demirjian, Alicia; Watkins, Louise Francois; Tomczyk, Sara; Lucas, Claressa; Brown, Ellen; Kozak-Muiznieks, Natalia; Benitez, Alvaro; Garrison, Laurel E; Kunz, Jasen; Brewer, Scott; Eitniear, Samantha; DiOrio, Mary

    2015-12-01

    On July 9, 2013, an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease (LD) was identified at Long-Term Care Facility A in central Ohio. This article describes the investigation of the outbreak and identification of the outbreak source, a cooling tower using an automated biocide delivery system. In total, 39 outbreak LD cases were identified; among these, six patients died. Water samples from a cooling tower were positive for Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, reactive to monoclonal antibody 2, with matching sequence type to a patient isolate. An electronic control system turned off cooling tower pumps during low-demand periods, preventing delivery of disinfectant by a timed-release system, and leading to amplification of Legionella in the cooling tower. Guidelines for tower maintenance should address optimal disinfection when using automated systems. PMID:26738313

  1. Use of multiple molecular subtyping techniques to investigate a Legionnaires' disease outbreak due to identical strains at two tourist lodges.

    PubMed Central

    Mamolen, M; Breiman, R F; Barbaree, J M; Gunn, R A; Stone, K M; Spika, J S; Dennis, D T; Mao, S H; Vogt, R L

    1993-01-01

    A multistate outbreak of Legionnaires' disease occurred among nine tour groups of senior citizens returning from stays at one of two lodges in a Vermont resort in October 1987. Interviews and serologic studies of 383 (85%) of the tour members revealed 17 individuals (attack rate, 4.4%) with radiologically documented pneumonia and laboratory evidence of legionellosis. A survey of tour groups staying at four nearby lodges and of Vermont-area medical facilities revealed no additional cases. Environmental investigation of common tour stops revealed no likely aerosol source of Legionella infection outside the lodges. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from water sources at both implicated lodges, and the monoclonal antibody subtype matched those of the isolates from six patients from whom clinical isolates were obtained. The cultures reacted with monoclonal antibodies MAB1, MAB2, 33G2, and 144C2 to yield a 1,2,5,7 or a Benidorm 030E pattern. The strains were also identical by alloenzyme electrophoresis and DNA ribotyping techniques. The epidemiologic and laboratory data suggest that concurrent outbreaks occurred following exposures to the same L. pneumophila serogroup 1 strain at two separate lodges. Multiple molecular subtyping techniques can provide essential information for epidemiologic investigations of Legionnaires' disease. PMID:8253953

  2. Newcastle disease outbreaks in Kazakhstan and Kyrgystan during 1998, 2000, 2001, 2003, 2004 and 2005 were caused by viruses of the genotypes VIIb and VIId

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infects domesticated and wild birds throughout the world and infections with virulent NDV strains continue to cause disease outbreaks in poultry and wild birds. To assess the evolutionary characteristics of 28 NDV strains isolated from chickens in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyz...

  3. Chikungunya disease in nonhuman primates involves long-term viral persistence in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Labadie, Karine; Larcher, Thibaut; Joubert, Christophe; Mannioui, Abdelkrim; Delache, Benoit; Brochard, Patricia; Guigand, Lydie; Dubreil, Laurence; Lebon, Pierre; Verrier, Bernard; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Suhrbier, Andreas; Cherel, Yan; Le Grand, Roger; Roques, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that induces in humans a disease characterized by fever, rash, and pain in muscles and joints. The recent emergence or reemergence of CHIKV in the Indian Ocean Islands and India has stressed the need to better understand the pathogenesis of this disease. Previous CHIKV disease models have used young or immunodeficient mice, but these do not recapitulate human disease patterns and are unsuitable for testing immune-based therapies. Herein, we describe what we believe to be a new model for CHIKV infection in adult, immunocompetent cynomolgus macaques. CHIKV infection in these animals recapitulated the viral, clinical, and pathological features observed in human disease. In the macaques, long-term CHIKV infection was observed in joints, muscles, lymphoid organs, and liver, which could explain the long-lasting CHIKV disease symptoms observed in humans. In addition, the study identified macrophages as the main cellular reservoirs during the late stages of CHIKV infection in vivo. This model of CHIKV physiopathology should allow the development of new therapeutic and/or prophylactic strategies. PMID:20179353

  4. Kinetics of viral shedding provide insights into the epidemiology of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in Pacific herring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, P.; Gregg, J.; Grady, C.; Collins, R.; Winton, J.

    2010-01-01

    Losses from infectious diseases are an important component of natural mortality among marine fish species, but factors controlling the ecology of these diseases and their potential responses to anthropogenic changes are poorly understood. We used viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) and a laboratory stock of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii to investigate the kinetics of viral shedding and its effect on disease transmission and host mortality. Outbreaks of acute disease, accompanied by mortality and viral shedding, were initiated after waterborne exposure of herring to concentrations of VHSV as low as 10 1 plaque-forming units (pfu) ml-1. Shed virus in flow-through tanks was first detected 4 to 5 d post-exposure, peaked after 6 to 10 d, and was no longer detected after 16 d. Shedding rates, calculated from density, flow and waterborne virus titer reached 1.8 to 5.0 ?? ?10 8 pfu fish-1 d-1. Onset of viral shedding was dose-dependent and preceded initial mortality by 2 d. At 21 d, cumulative mortality in treatment groups ranged from 81 to 100% and was dependent not on challenge dose, but on the kinetics and level of viral shedding by infected fish in the tank. Possible consequences of the viral shedding and disease kinetics are discussed in the context of epizootic initiation and perpetuation among populations of wild Pacific herring. ?? Inter-Research 2010.

  5. Kinetics of viral shedding provide insights into the epidemiology of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in Pacific herring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, Paul K.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Winton, James R.; Grady, Courtney; Collins, Rachael

    2010-01-01

    Losses from infectious diseases are an important component of natural mortality among marine fish species, but factors controlling the ecology of these diseases and their potential responses to anthropogenic changes are poorly understood. We used viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) and a laboratory stock of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii to investigate the kinetics of viral shedding and its effect on disease transmission and host mortality. Outbreaks of acute disease, accompanied by mortality and viral shedding, were initiated after waterborne exposure of herring to concentrations of VHSV as low as 101 plaque-forming units (pfu) ml–1. Shed virus in flow-through tanks was first detected 4 to 5 d post-exposure, peaked after 6 to 10 d, and was no longer detected after 16 d. Shedding rates, calculated from density, flow and waterborne virus titer reached 1.8 to 5.0 × 108 pfu fish–1 d–1. Onset of viral shedding was dose-dependent and preceded initial mortality by 2 d. At 21 d, cumulative mortality in treatment groups ranged from 81 to 100% and was dependent not on challenge dose, but on the kinetics and level of viral shedding by infected fish in the tank. Possible consequences of the viral shedding and disease kinetics are discussed in the context of epizootic initiation and perpetuation among populations of wild Pacific herring.

  6. An introduction to food and waterborne viruses: diseases, transmission, outbreaks, detection and control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enteric viruses are the number one cause of foodborne illness throughout the world. In addition to foods, contaminated drinking water is another major cause of enteric viral illness. Among the enteric viruses are the noroviruses, hepatitis A and E viruses, enteric adenoviruses, rotavirus, and astro...

  7. How Ambient Humidity May Affect the Transmission of Viral Infectious Diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wan; Marr, Linsey; Elankumaran, Subbiah

    2013-04-01

    Viral infectious diseases such as influenza have been a great burden to public health. The airborne transmission route is an important venue for the spread of many respiratory viral diseases. Many airborne viruses have been shown to be sensitive to ambient humidity, yet the mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon remain elusive. A thorough understanding of this phenomenon may provide insight into the temporal and spatial distribution of diseases. For instance, studies have repeatedly suggested ambient humidity as an important environmental determinant in the transmission of influenza in temperate regions. Further, knowing how to optimize humidity so as to minimize virus survival may have practical implications for disease prevention. In this talk, we will discuss multiple mechanisms that may account for the association between humidity and viability of viruses in aerosols, including water activity, surface inactivation, salt toxicity, and conformational changes to the virus in response to varying pH. As a case study, we will discuss our work on the effect of relative humidity (RH) on survival of influenza A virus (IAV) and how it may contribute to the transmission patterns of seasonal flu around the world. We measured the change in viability of IAV in droplets at various RHs. Results suggest three potential regimes defined by humidity: physiological (~100% RH) with high viability, concentrated (~50% to near 100% RH) with lower viability, and dry (<~50% RH) with high viability. Based on these results, we propose a mechanistic basis for the dependence of IAV's transmission on humidity. In temperate regions, the increase in influenza activity in winter may be due to enhanced transmission via the aerosol route thanks to IAV's higher viability in droplets at low RH. In tropical regions, transmission could be enhanced due to high viability of IAV at extremely high RH (rainy season), as observed in our study, possibly through both the aerosol route and the contact

  8. Molecular epidemiology of coxsackievirus A6 associated with outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Tianjin, China, in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xiaojuan; Li, Li; Zhang, Baomin; Jorba, Jaume; Su, Xu; Ji, Tianjiao; Yang, Dongjing; Lv, Likun; Li, Jiameng

    2015-01-01

    Since 2008, Mainland China has undergone widespread outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). In order to determine the characteristics of epidemics and enteroviruses (EV) associated with HFMD in Tianjin, in northern China, epidemiological and virological data from routine surveillance were collected and analyzed. In Tianjin, a persistent epidemic of HFMD was demonstrated during 2008–2013, involving 102,705 mild, 179 severe, and 16 fatal cases. Overall, 8234 specimens were collected from 7829 HFMD patients for EV detection during 2008–2013. Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) were the dominant serotypes during 2008–2012, and they were replaced by CV-A6 as the major causative agent in 2013. Phylogenetic analysis based on complete VP1 nucleotide sequences revealed that multiple CV-A6 lineages co-circulated in Tianjin, which grouped together with strains from China and other countries and split into two distinct clusters (clusters 1 and 2). Most Tianjin strains grouped in cluster 1 and were closely related to strains from several eastern and southern provinces of China during 2012 and 2013. Estimates from Bayesian MCMC analysis suggested that multiple lineages had been transmitted silently before the outbreaks at an estimated evolutionary rate of 4.10 × 10−3 substitutions per site per year without a specific distribution of rate variances among lineages. The sudden outbreak of CV-A6 in Tianjin during 2013 is attributed to indigenous CV-A6 lineages, which were linked to the wide spread of endemic strains around eastern and southern China. PMID:25680566

  9. The More the Better? A Comparison of the Information Sources Used by the Public during Two Infectious Disease Outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Cynthia G; Boerner, Franziska U; Boyd, Amanda D; Driedger, S Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Recent infectious disease outbreaks have resulted in renewed recognition of the importance of risk communication planning and execution to public health control strategies. Key to these efforts is public access to information that is understandable, reliable and meets their needs for informed decision-making on protective health behaviours. Learning from the trends in sources used in previous outbreaks will enable improvements in information access in future outbreaks. Two separate random-digit dialled telephone surveys were conducted in Alberta, Canada, to explore information sources used by the public, together with their perceived usefulness and credibility, during the 2003 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) epidemic (n = 1209) and 2009-2010 H1N1 pandemic (n = 1206). Traditional mass media were the most used information sources in both surveys. Although use of the Internet increased from 25% during SARS to 56% during H1N1, overall use of social media was not as high as anticipated. Friends and relatives were commonly used as an information source, but were not deemed very useful or credible. Conversely, doctors and health professionals were considered credible, but not consulted as frequently. The use of five or more information sources increased by almost 60% between the SARS and H1N1 surveys. There was a shift to older, more educated and more affluent respondents between the surveys, most likely caused by a decrease in the use of landlines amongst younger Canadians. It was concluded that people are increasingly using multiple sources of health risk information, presumably in a complementary manner. Subsequently, although using online media is important, this should be used to augment rather than replace more traditional information channels. Efforts should be made to improve knowledge transfer to health care professionals and doctors and provide them with opportunities to be more accessible as information sources. Finally, the future use of telephone

  10. The More the Better? A Comparison of the Information Sources Used by the Public during Two Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Amanda D.; Driedger, S. Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Recent infectious disease outbreaks have resulted in renewed recognition of the importance of risk communication planning and execution to public health control strategies. Key to these efforts is public access to information that is understandable, reliable and meets their needs for informed decision-making on protective health behaviours. Learning from the trends in sources used in previous outbreaks will enable improvements in information access in future outbreaks. Two separate random-digit dialled telephone surveys were conducted in Alberta, Canada, to explore information sources used by the public, together with their perceived usefulness and credibility, during the 2003 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) epidemic (n = 1209) and 2009–2010 H1N1 pandemic (n = 1206). Traditional mass media were the most used information sources in both surveys. Although use of the Internet increased from 25% during SARS to 56% during H1N1, overall use of social media was not as high as anticipated. Friends and relatives were commonly used as an information source, but were not deemed very useful or credible. Conversely, doctors and health professionals were considered credible, but not consulted as frequently. The use of five or more information sources increased by almost 60% between the SARS and H1N1 surveys. There was a shift to older, more educated and more affluent respondents between the surveys, most likely caused by a decrease in the use of landlines amongst younger Canadians. It was concluded that people are increasingly using multiple sources of health risk information, presumably in a complementary manner. Subsequently, although using online media is important, this should be used to augment rather than replace more traditional information channels. Efforts should be made to improve knowledge transfer to health care professionals and doctors and provide them with opportunities to be more accessible as information sources. Finally, the future use of telephone

  11. Comparison of the breadth and complexity of bovine viral diarrhea (BVDV) populations circulating in 34 persistently infected cattle generated in one outbreak

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposure to bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) may result in acute and persistent infections. Persistent infections are the consequence of in utero exposure during the first trimester of gestation. The resulting persistently infected (PI) animals are immunotolerant to the virus. Clinical presen...

  12. Foodborne disease outbreak in a resource-limited setting: a tale of missed opportunities and implications for response

    PubMed Central

    Ameme, Donne Kofi; Abdulai, Marijanatu; Adjei, Eric Yirenkyi; Afari, Edwin Andrews; Nyarko, Kofi Mensah; Asante, Dwamena; Kye-Duodu, Gideon; Abbas, Mona; Sackey, Samuel; Wurapa, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Foodborne diseases (FBD) have emerged as a major public health problem worldwide. Though the global burden of FBD is currently unknown, foodborne diarrhoeal diseases kill 1.9 million children globally every year. On 25th September 2014, health authorities in Eastern Region of Ghana were alerted of a suspected FBD outbreak involving patrons of a community food joint. We investigated to determine the magnitude, source and implement control and preventive measures. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted. We reviewed medical records for data on demographics and clinical features. A suspected foodborne disease was any person in the affected community with abdominal pain, vomiting and or diarrhea between 25th and 30th September 2014 and had eaten from the food joint. We conducted active case search, descriptive data analysis and calculated food specific attack rate ratios (ARR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Results Of 43 case-patients, 44.2% (19/43) were males; median age was 19 years (interquartile range: 17-24 years). Overall attack rate was 43.4% (43/99) with no fatality. Case counts rose sharply for four hours to a peak and fell to baseline levels after 12 hours. Compared to those who ate other food items, patrons who ate “waakye” and “shitor” were more likely to develop foodborne disease [ARR = 4.1 (95% CI = 1.09-15.63)]. Food samples and specimens from case-patients were unavailable for testing. Laboratory diagnostic capacity was also weak. Conclusion A point source FBD outbreak linked to probable contaminated “waakye” and or “shitor” occurred. Missed opportunities for definitive diagnosis highlighted the need for strengthening local response capacity. PMID:27217893

  13. Beyond Knowledge and Awareness: Addressing Misconceptions in Ghana’s Preparation towards an Outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease

    PubMed Central

    Adongo, Philip Baba; Tabong, Philip Teg-Nefaah; Asampong, Emmanuel; Ansong, Joana; Robalo, Magda; Adanu, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is not new to the world. However, the West African EVD epidemic which started in 2014 evolved into the largest, most severe and most complex outbreak in the history of the disease. The three most-affected countries faced enormous challenges in stopping the transmission and providing care for all patients. Although Ghana had not recorded any confirmed Ebola case, social factors have been reported to hinder efforts to control the outbreak in the three most affected countries. This qualitative study was designed to explore community knowledge and attitudes about Ebola and its transmission. Methods This study was carried out in five of the ten regions in Ghana. Twenty-five focus group discussions (N = 235) and 40 in-depth interviews were conducted across the five regions with community members, stakeholders and opinion leaders. The interviews were recorded digitally and transcribed verbatim. Framework analysis was adopted in the analysis of the data using Nvivo 10. Results The results showed a high level of awareness and knowledge about Ebola. The study further showed that knowledge on how to identify suspected cases of Ebola was also high among respondents. However, there was a firm belief that Ebola was a spiritual condition and could also be transmitted through air, mosquito bites and houseflies. These misconceptions resulted in perceptions of stigma and discrimination towards people who may get Ebola or work with Ebola patients. Conclusion We conclude that although knowledge and awareness about Ebola is high among Ghanaians who participated in the study, there are still misconceptions about the disease. The study recommends that health education on Ebola disease should move beyond creating awareness to targeting the identified misconceptions to improve future containment efforts. PMID:26889683

  14. The Ebola virus disease outbreak and the mineral sectors of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bermúdez-Lugo, Omayra; Menzie, William D.

    2015-01-01

    In response to the uncertainty surrounding the status of mineral projects in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, the National Minerals Information Center compiled information on the distribution of mines, mineral facilities, and mineral projects under development in the three countries. This fact sheet provides information on the role that the mineral sector plays in their respective economies, on the operating status of mining projects through yearend 2014, and on the coordinated actions by mining companies to support governments and international relief organizations in their efforts to contain the EVD outbreak.

  15. Dengue and Chikungunya Fever among Viral Diseases in Outpatient Febrile Children in Kilosa District Hospital, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Chipwaza, Beatrice; Mugasa, Joseph P.; Selemani, Majige; Amuri, Mbaraka; Mosha, Fausta; Ngatunga, Steve D.; Gwakisa, Paul S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Viral etiologies of fever, including dengue, Chikungunya, influenza, rota and adeno viruses, cause major disease burden in tropical and subtropical countries. The lack of diagnostic facilities in developing countries leads to failure to estimate the true burden of such illnesses, and generally the diseases are underreported. These diseases may have similar symptoms with other causes of acute febrile illnesses including malaria and hence clinical diagnosis without laboratory tests can be difficult. This study aimed to identify viral etiologies as a cause of fever in children and their co-infections with malaria. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted for 6 months at Kilosa district hospital, Tanzania. The participants were febrile children aged 2–13 years presented at the outpatient department. Diagnostic tests such as IgM and IgG ELISA, and PCR were used. Results A total of 364 patients were enrolled, of these 83(22.8%) had malaria parasites, 76 (20.9%) had presumptive acute dengue infection and among those, 29(38.2%) were confirmed cases. Dengue was more likely to occur in children ≥ 5 years than in <5 years (OR 2.28, 95% CI: 1.35–3.86). Presumptive acute Chikungunya infection was identified in 17(4.7%) of patients. We observed no presenting symptoms that distinguished patients with Chikungunya infection from those with dengue infection or malaria. Co-infections between malaria and Chikungunya, malaria and dengue fever as well as Chikungunya and dengue were detected. Most patients with Chikungunya and dengue infections were treated with antibacterials. Furthermore, our results revealed that 5(5.2%) of patients had influenza virus while 5(12.8%) had rotavirus and 2(5.1%) had adenovirus. Conclusion Our results suggest that even though viral diseases are a major public health concern, they are not given due recognition as a cause of fever in febrile patients. Emphasis on laboratory diagnostic tests for proper diagnosis and management of

  16. Transgenic models of Alzheimer's disease: better utilization of existing models through viral transgenesis.

    PubMed

    Platt, Thomas L; Reeves, Valerie L; Murphy, M Paul

    2013-09-01

    Animal models have been used for decades in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) research field and have been crucial for the advancement of our understanding of the disease. Most models are based on familial AD mutations of genes involved in the amyloidogenic process, such as the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PS1). Some models also incorporate mutations in tau (MAPT) known to cause frontotemporal dementia, a neurodegenerative disease that shares some elements of neuropathology with AD. While these models are complex, they fail to display pathology that perfectly recapitulates that of the human disease. Unfortunately, this level of pre-existing complexity creates a barrier to the further modification and improvement of these models. However, as the efficacy and safety of viral vectors improves, their use as an alternative to germline genetic modification is becoming a widely used research tool. In this review we discuss how this approach can be used to better utilize common mouse models in AD research. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Animal Models of Disease. PMID:23619198

  17. Viral meningitis.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, David R

    2005-01-01

    Viruses probably account for most cases of acute meningitis. Viral meningitis is often assumed to be a largely benign disease. For the commonest pathogens causing meningitis, enteroviruses, this is usually the case; however, for many of the other pathogens causing viral meningitis, and for common pathogens in the immunocompromised or infants, viral meningitis is frequently associated with substantial neurological complications and a significant mortality. Diagnostic methods for rapid and accurate identification of pathogens have improved over recent years, permitting more precise and earlier diagnoses. There have been fewer developments in therapies for viral meningitis, and there remain no effective therapies for most pathogens, emphasising the importance of prevention and early diagnosis. This review focuses on the presentation, diagnosis and management of viral meningitis and also covers the prevention of meningitis for pathogens where effective vaccines are available. PMID:16474042

  18. Viral respiratory diseases (ILT, aMPV infections, IB): are they ever under control?

    PubMed

    Jones, Richard C

    2010-02-01

    1. The use of vaccines is the main approach to control of the economically important poultry viral respiratory diseases infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) infections and infectious bronchitis (IB). This paper appraises the current methods of vaccine control in the light of the nature of each virus and epidemiological factors associated with each disease. 2. Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) exists as a single type with a wide range of disease severity. It is a serious disease in certain regions of the world. Recent work has distinguished molecular differences between vaccine and field strains and vaccine virus can be a cause of disease. Vaccines have remained unaltered for many years but new ones are being developed to counter vaccine side effects and reversion and reactivation of latent virus. 3. Avian metapneumoviruses, the cause of turkey rhinotracheitis and respiratory disease in chickens exists as 4 subtypes, A, B, C and D. A and B are widespread and vaccines work well provided that accurate doses are given. Newer vaccine developments are designed to eliminate reversion and possibly counter the appearance of newer field strains which may break through established vaccine coverage. 4. IB presents the biggest problem of the three. Being an unstable RNA virus, part of the viral genome that codes for the S1 spike gene can undergo mutation and recombination so that important antigenic variants can appear irregularly which may evade existing vaccine protection. While conventional vaccines work well against homologous types, new strategies are needed to counter this instability. Molecular approaches involving tailoring viruses to suit field challenges are in progress. However, the simple use of two genetically different vaccines to protect against a wide range of heterologous types is now a widespread practice that is very effective. 5. None of the three diseases described can claim to be satisfactorily controlled and it remains

  19. Molecular investigation into outbreak of HIV in a Scottish prison.

    PubMed Central

    Yirrell, D. L.; Robertson, P.; Goldberg, D. J.; McMenamin, J.; Cameron, S.; Leigh Brown, A. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To support already established epidemiological links between inmates of Glenochil prison positive for HIV infection by using molecular techniques and thus provide evidence of the extent of acquisition during a recent outbreak of the disease resulting from needle sharing. To identify possible sources of the outbreak, and to demonstrate the ability of the methodology to make further links beyond the original outbreak. DESIGN: Viral sequences obtained from the blood of HIV positive prisoners previously identified by standard epidemiological methods were compared with each other and with sequences from other Scottish patients. SETTING: Glenochil prison for men, central Scotland. SUBJECTS: Adult inmates and their possible contacts. RESULTS: Phylogenetic analysis of viral sequences in two different genomic regions showed that 13 of the 14 HIV positive prisoners had been infected from a common source. Previous research had shown that six of these had acquired their infection in Glenochil; molecular evidence suggests that more than double this number were infected while incarcerated. Virus from two long term HIV positive patients who were in the prison at the time of the outbreak but who were not identified in the original or subsequent surveys was sufficiently different to make it unlikely that they were the source. A viral sequence from heterosexual transmission from one inmate showed the ability of these techniques to follow the infection through different routes of infection. CONCLUSION: The number of prisoners infected with HIV during the 1993 outbreak within Glenochil prison was more than twice that previously shown. This shows the potential for the spread of bloodborne diseases within prisons by injecting drugs. PMID:9167560

  20. CONTROL OF VIRAL DISEASES TRANSMITTED IN A PERSISTENT MANNER BY THRIPS IN PEPPER (TOMATO SPOTTED WILT VIRUS).

    PubMed

    Fanigliulo, A; Viggiano, A; Gualco, A; Crescenzi, A

    2014-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt disease is caused by Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV) (Tospovirus, Bunyaviridae), a virus that severely damages and reduces the yield of many economically important plants worldwide and actually it is a major disease affecting the production of tomato and pepper in Italy. Due to the non-predictive nature of its outbreaks combined with the lack of forecasting, adoption of preventive measures have not always been practical, in fact the disease cycle has proven to be extremely difficult to break because of the wide and often overlapping host range of both the virus and the thrips vectors, which transmit the virus in a persistent, circulative, and propagative manner. Moreover recently, resistance breaking (RB) isolates of TSWV that overcome the resistance conferred by the Tsw gene in different pepper hybrids have been recovered in different locations in Italy and also in Brazil, USA, Spain and Australia, and this occurrence raises the question on the importance of a new approach of integrated pest management for TSWV management, including both control of its insect vector and the induction of the plant's resistance against viral infection. In this perspective, a study was performed in 2012 and 2013 with the purpose of evaluating the efficacy of the insecticide Cyantraniliprole alone or combined with Acibenzolar-S-Methyl (ASM), inducer of systemic acquired resistance, in the control of tomato spotted wilt disease in pepper. The experiment was performed in laboratory, in a thermo-conditioned greenhouse, into separate insect-proof cages and consisted of 5 treatments and 2 applications (plus a pre-transplant application for treatments were ASM was used. Variables were the mode of application of ASM in pre-transplant (by foliar or by drench) and the duration of the exposure time of the treated plants to viruliferous insects. Pepper cv. Corno di Toro, devoid of any resistance to TSWV, was used. Plants were observed daily to record any symptom induced by

  1. Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) isolated from the ISA disease outbreaks in Chile diverged from ISAV isolates from Norway around 1996 and was disseminated around 2005, based on surface glycoprotein gene sequences

    PubMed Central

    Kibenge, Frederick SB; Godoy, Marcos G; Wang, Yingwei; Kibenge, Molly JT; Gherardelli, Valentina; Mansilla, Soledad; Lisperger, Angelica; Jarpa, Miguel; Larroquete, Geraldine; Avendaño, Fernando; Lara, Marcela; Gallardo, Alicia

    2009-01-01

    Background Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) virus (ISAV) is a pathogen of marine-farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar); a disease first diagnosed in Norway in 1984. For over 25 years ISAV has caused major disease outbreaks in the Northern hemisphere, and remains an emerging fish pathogen because of the asymptomatic infections in marine wild fish and the potential for emergence of new epidemic strains. ISAV belongs to the family Orthomyxoviridae, together with influenza viruses but is sufficiently different to be assigned to its own genus, Isavirus. The Isavirus genome consists of eight single-stranded RNA species, and the virions have two surface glycoproteins; fusion (F) protein encoded on segment 5 and haemagglutinin-esterase (HE) protein encoded on segment 6. However, comparision between different ISAV isolates is complicated because there is presently no universally accepted nomenclature system for designation of genetic relatedness between ISAV isolates. The first outbreak of ISA in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon in the Southern hemisphere occurred in Chile starting in June 2007. In order to describe the molecular characteristics of the virus so as to understand its origins, how ISAV isolates are maintained and spread, and their virulence characteristics, we conducted a study where the viral sequences were directly amplified, cloned and sequenced from tissue samples collected from several ISA-affected fish on the different fish farms with confirmed or suspected ISA outbreaks in Chile. This paper describes the genetic characterization of a large number of ISAV strains associated with extensive outbreaks in Chile starting in June 2007, and their phylogenetic relationships with selected European and North American isolates that are representative of the genetic diversity of ISAV. Results RT-PCR for ISAV F and HE glycoprotein genes was performed directly on tissue samples collected from ISA-affected fish on different farms among 14 fish companies in Chile during the

  2. Haemorrhagic Fevers, Viral

    MedlinePlus

    ... fever, dengue, Omsk haemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur forest disease). Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa in 2014-2015 All information on Ebola virus disease Ebola features map Dashboard - Progress update ...

  3. Dynamics of Dengue Disease Severity Determined by the Interplay Between Viral Genetics and Serotype-Specific Immunity

    PubMed Central

    OhAinle, Molly; Balmaseda, Angel; Macalalad, Alexander R.; Tellez, Yolanda; Zody, Michael C.; Saborío, Saira; Nuñez, Andrea; Lennon, Niall J.; Birren, Bruce W.; Gordon, Aubree; Henn, Matthew R.; Harris, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The rapid spread of dengue is a worldwide public health problem. In two clinical studies of dengue in Managua, Nicaragua, we observed an abrupt increase in disease severity across several epidemic seasons of dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) transmission. Waning DENV-1 immunity appeared to increase the risk of severe disease in subsequent DENV-2 infections after a period of cross-protection. The increase in severity coincided with replacement of the Asian/American DENV-2 NI-1 clade with a new virus clade, NI-2B. In vitro analyses of viral isolates from the two clades and analysis of viremia in patient blood samples support the emergence of a fitter virus in later, relative to earlier, epidemic seasons. In addition, the NI-1 clade of viruses was more virulent specifically in children who were immune to DENV-1, while DENV-3 immunity was associated with more severe disease among NI-2B infections. Our data demonstrate that the complex interaction between viral genetics and population dynamics of serotype-specific immunity contribute to the risk of severe dengue disease. Furthermore, this work provides insights into viral evolution and the interaction between viral and immunological determinants of viral fitness and virulence. PMID:22190239

  4. Viral load and clinical disease enhancement associated with a lentivirus cytotoxic T lymphocyte vaccine regimen

    PubMed Central

    Mealey, Robert H.; Leib, Steven R.; Littke, Matt H.; Wagner, Bettina; Horohov, David W.; McGuire, Travis C.

    2009-01-01

    Effective DNA-based vaccines against lentiviruses will likely induce CTL against conserved viral proteins. Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) infects horses worldwide, and serves as a useful model for lentiviral immune control. Although attenuated live EIAV vaccines have induced protective immune responses, DNA-based vaccines have not. In particular, DNA-based vaccines have had limited success in inducing CTL responses against intracellular pathogens in the horse. We hypothesized that priming with a codon-optimized plasmid encoding EIAV Gag p15/p26 with co-administration of a plasmid encoding an equine IL-2/IgG fusion protein as a molecular adjuvant, followed by boosting with a vaccinia vector expressing Gag p15/p26, would induce protective Gag-specific CTL responses. Although the regimen induced Gag-specific CTL in four of seven vaccinated horses, CTL were not detected until after the vaccinia boost, and protective effects were not observed in EIAV challenged vaccinates. Unexpectedly, vaccinates had significantly higher viral loads and more severe clinical disease, associated with the presence of vaccine-induced CTL. It was concluded that 1.) further optimization of the timing and route of DNA immunization was needed for efficient CTL priming in vivo, 2.) co-administration of the IL-2/IgG plasmid did not enhance CTL priming by the Gag p15/p26 plasmid, 3.) vaccinia vectors are useful for lentivirus-specific CTL induction in the horse, 4.) Gag-specific CTL alone are either insufficient or a more robust Gag-specific CTL response is needed to limit EIAV viremia and clinical disease, and 5.) CTL-inducing vaccines lacking envelope immunogens can result in lentiviral disease enhancement. Although the mechanisms for enhancement associated with this vaccine regimen remain to be elucidated, these results have important implications for development of lentivirus T cell vaccines. PMID:19368787

  5. Fine mapping of loci on BTA2 and BTA26 associated with bovine viral diarrhea persistent infection and linked with bovine respiratory disease in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is considered to be the most costly infectious disease in the cattle industry. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the pathogens involved with the BRD complex of disease. Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection also negatively impacts cow reproduction and calf...

  6. Characterization of Newcastle disease virus isolates obtained from outbreak cases in commercial chickens and wild pigeons in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Damena, Delesa; Fusaro, Alice; Sombo, Melaku; Belaineh, Redeat; Heidari, Alireza; Kebede, Abera; Kidane, Menbere; Chaka, Hassen

    2016-01-01

    Newcastle disease (ND), caused by virulent avian paramyxovirus type 1, is one of the most important diseases responsible for devastating outbreaks in poultry flocks in Ethiopia. However, the information about genetic characteristics of the Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs) circulating in commercial chickens and wild birds is scarce. In this study, we characterized isolates obtained from ND suspected outbreaks during 2012-2014 from poultry farms (n = 8) and wild pigeons (n = 4). The NDVs isolated from pathological specimens, through inoculation in embryonated chicken eggs, were characterized biologically by conventional intracerebral pathogenicity indices (ICPI), and genetically on the basis of Phylogenic analysis of partial F-gene sequences (260 bp) encompassing the cleavage site. The ICPI values of isolates from chickens ranged from 0.9 to 1.8; whereas, the ICPI of pigeon isolates was 1.4. All isolates contained multiple basic amino acids at the deduced cleavage site of fusion protein, which is a typical feature of virulent viruses. Phylogenic analysis of the partial cleavage site of F-gene (260 bp) indicated that all the sequences of viruses obtained from pigeons were identical and clustered within the genotype VIh while the sequences of viruses obtained from chickens were clustered together within the genotype VIf. The similarity between the viruses obtained from chickens and those obtained from pigeons ranged from 82.5 to 85.6 %. This suggests that different sub genotypes of genotype VI are circulating in chicken and wild pigeon population in Ethiopia. This warrants further study to understand the role of wild birds in the epidemiology of NDV in Ethiopia and as well highlights the importance of continuous surveillances both in wild birds and domestic poultry. PMID:27217991

  7. Interventions to Mitigate Emergency Department and Hospital Crowding During an Infectious Respiratory Disease Outbreak: Results from an Expert Panel

    PubMed Central

    Dugas, Andrea Freyer; Morton, Melinda; Beard, Raphaelle; Pines, Jesse M.; Bayram, Jamil D.; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Kelen, Gabor; Uscher-Pines, Lori; Jeng, Kevin; Cole, Gai; Rothman, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To identify and prioritize potential Emergency Department (ED) and hospital-based interventions which could mitigate the impact of crowding during patient surge from a widespread infectious respiratory disease outbreak and determine potential data sources that may be useful for triggering decisions to implement these high priority interventions. Design: Expert panel utilizing Nominal Group Technique to identify and prioritize interventions, and in addition, determine appropriate “triggers” for implementation of the high priority interventions in the context of four different infectious respiratory disease scenarios that vary by patient volumes (high versus low) and illness severity (high versus low). Setting: One day in-person conference held November, 2011. Participants: Regional and national experts representing the fields of public health, disease surveillance, clinical medicine, ED operations, and hospital operations. Main Outcome Measure: Prioritized list of potential interventions to reduce ED and hospital crowding, respectively. In addition, we created a prioritized list of potential data sources which could be useful to trigger interventions. Results: High priority interventions to mitigate ED surge included standardizing admission and discharge criteria and instituting infection control measures. To mitigate hospital crowding, panelists prioritized mandatory vaccination and an algorithm for antiviral use. Data sources identified for triggering implementation of these interventions were most commonly ED and hospital utilization metrics. Conclusions: We developed a prioritized list of potentially useful interventions to mitigate ED and hospital crowding in various outbreak scenarios. The data sources identified to “trigger” the implementation of these high priority interventions consist mainly of sources available at the local, institutional level. PMID:23856917

  8. Isolation of a rhabdovirus during outbreaks of disease in cyprinid fish species at fishery sites in England.

    PubMed

    Way, K; Bark, S J; Longshaw, C B; Denham, K L; Dixon, P F; Feist, S W; Gardiner, R; Gubbins, M J; Le Deuff, R M; Martin, P D; Stone, D M; Taylor, G R

    2003-12-01

    A virus was isolated during disease outbreaks in bream Abramis brama, tench Tinca tinca, roach Rutilis rutilis and crucian carp Carassius carassius populations at 6 fishery sites in England in 1999. Mortalities at the sites were primarily among recently introduced fish and the predominant fish species affected was bream. The bream stocked at 5 of the 6 English fishery sites were found to have originated from the River Bann, Northern Ireland. Most fish presented few consistent external signs of disease but some exhibited clinical signs similar to those of spring viraemia of carp (SVC), with extensive skin haemorrhages, ulceration on the flanks and internal signs including ascites and petechial haemorrhages. The most prominent histopathological changes were hepatocellular necrosis, interstitial nephritis and splenitis. The virus induced a cytopathic effect in tissue cultures (Epithelioma papulosum cyprini [EPC] cells) at 20 degrees C and produced moderate signals in an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the detection of SVC virus. The virus showed a close serological relationship to pike fry rhabdovirus in both EIA and serum neutralisation assays and to a rhabdovirus isolated during a disease outbreak in a bream population in the River Bann in 1998. A high degree of sequence similarity (> or = 99.5% nucleotide identity) was observed between the English isolates and those from the River Bann. Experimental infection of juvenile bream, tench and carp with EPC cell-grown rhabdovirus by bath and intraperitoneal injection resulted in a 40% mortality of bream in the injection group only. The virus was re-isolated from pooled kidney, liver and spleen tissue samples from moribund bream. The field observations together with the experimental results indicate that this rhabdovirus is of low virulence but may have the potential to cause significant mortality in fishes under stress. PMID:14735920

  9. Cyclophilin A Interacts with Viral VP4 and Inhibits the Replication of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nian; Zhang, Lizhou; Chen, Yuming; Lu, Zhen; Gao, Li; Wang, Yongqiang; Gao, Yulong; Gao, Honglei; Cui, Hongyu; Li, Kai; Liu, Changjun; Zhang, Yanping; Qi, Xiaole; Wang, Xiaomei

    2015-01-01

    Nonstructural protein VP4, a serine protease of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) that catalyzes the hydrolysis of polyprotein pVP2-VP4-VP3 to form the viral proteins VP2, VP4, and VP3, is essential to the replication of IBDV. However, the interacting partners of VP4 in host cells and the effects of the interaction on the IBDV lifecycle remain incompletely elucidated. In this study, using the yeast two-hybrid system, the putative VP4-interacting partner cyclophilin A (CypA) was obtained from a chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) expression library. CypA was further confirmed to interact with VP4 of IBDV using co-immunoprecipitation (CO-IP), GST pull-down, and confocal microscopy assays. Moreover, we found that the overexpression of CypA suppressed IBDV replication, whereas the knock-down of CypA by small interfering RNAs promoted the replication of IBDV. Taken together, our findings indicate that the host cell protein CypA interacts with viral VP4 and inhibits the replication of IBDV. PMID:26090438

  10. Animal viral diseases and global change: bluetongue and West Nile fever as paradigms.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Á

    2012-01-01

    Environmental changes have an undoubted influence on the appearance, distribution, and evolution of infectious diseases, and notably on those transmitted by vectors. Global change refers to environmental changes arising from human activities affecting the fundamental mechanisms operating in the biosphere. This paper discusses the changes observed in recent times with regard to some important arboviral (arthropod-borne viral) diseases of animals, and the role global change could have played in these variations. Two of the most important arboviral diseases of animals, bluetongue (BT) and West Nile fever/encephalitis (WNF), have been selected as models. In both cases, in the last 15 years an important leap forward has been observed, which has lead to considering them emerging diseases in different parts of the world. BT, affecting domestic ruminants, has recently afflicted livestock in Europe in an unprecedented epizootic, causing enormous economic losses. WNF affects wildlife (birds), domestic animals (equines), and humans, thus, beyond the economic consequences of its occurrence, as a zoonotic disease, it poses an important public health threat. West Nile virus (WNV) has expanded in the last 12 years worldwide, and particularly in the Americas, where it first occurred in 1999, extending throughout the Americas relentlessly since then, causing a severe epidemic of disastrous consequences for public health, wildlife, and livestock. In Europe, WNV is known long time ago, but it is since the last years of the twentieth century that its incidence has risen substantially. Circumstances such as global warming, changes in land use and water management, increase in travel, trade of animals, and others, can have an important influence in the observed changes in both diseases. The following question is raised: What is the contribution of global changes to the current increase of these diseases in the world? PMID:22707955

  11. Animal viral diseases and global change: bluetongue and West Nile fever as paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Á

    2012-01-01

    Environmental changes have an undoubted influence on the appearance, distribution, and evolution of infectious diseases, and notably on those transmitted by vectors. Global change refers to environmental changes arising from human activities affecting the fundamental mechanisms operating in the biosphere. This paper discusses the changes observed in recent times with regard to some important arboviral (arthropod-borne viral) diseases of animals, and the role global change could have played in these variations. Two of the most important arboviral diseases of animals, bluetongue (BT) and West Nile fever/encephalitis (WNF), have been selected as models. In both cases, in the last 15 years an important leap forward has been observed, which has lead to considering them emerging diseases in different parts of the world. BT, affecting domestic ruminants, has recently afflicted livestock in Europe in an unprecedented epizootic, causing enormous economic losses. WNF affects wildlife (birds), domestic animals (equines), and humans, thus, beyond the economic consequences of its occurrence, as a zoonotic disease, it poses an important public health threat. West Nile virus (WNV) has expanded in the last 12 years worldwide, and particularly in the Americas, where it first occurred in 1999, extending throughout the Americas relentlessly since then, causing a severe epidemic of disastrous consequences for public health, wildlife, and livestock. In Europe, WNV is known long time ago, but it is since the last years of the twentieth century that its incidence has risen substantially. Circumstances such as global warming, changes in land use and water management, increase in travel, trade of animals, and others, can have an important influence in the observed changes in both diseases. The following question is raised: What is the contribution of global changes to the current increase of these diseases in the world? PMID:22707955

  12. Efficient transmission of Cassava brown streak disease viral pathogens by chip bud grafting

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Techniques to study plant viral diseases under controlled growth conditions are required to fully understand their biology and investigate host resistance. Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) presents a major threat to cassava production in East Africa. No infectious clones of the causal viruses, Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) or Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) are available, and mechanical transmission to cassava is not effective. An improved method for transmission of the viruses, both singly and as co-infections has been developed using bud grafts. Findings Axillary buds from CBSD symptomatic plants infected with virulent isolates of CBSV and UCBSV were excised and grafted onto 6–8 week old greenhouse-grown, disease-free cassava plants of cultivars Ebwanateraka, TME204 and 60444. Plants were assessed visually for development of CBSD symptoms and by RT-PCR for presence of the viruses in leaf and storage root tissues. Across replicated experiments, 70-100% of plants inoculated with CBSV developed CBSD leaf and stem symptoms 2–6 weeks after bud grafting. Infected plants showed typical, severe necrotic lesions in storage roots at harvest 12–14 weeks after graft inoculation. Sequential grafting of buds from plants infected with UCBSV followed 10–14 days later by buds carrying CBSV, onto the same test plant, resulted in 100% of the rootstocks becoming co-infected with both pathogens. This dual transmission rate was greater than that achieved by simultaneous grafting with UCBSV and CBSV (67%), or when grafting first with CBSV followed by UCBSV (17%). Conclusions The bud grafting method described presents an improved tool for screening cassava germplasm for resistance to CBSD causal viruses, and for studying pathogenicity of this important disease. Bud grafting provides new opportunities compared to previously reported top and side grafting systems. Test plants can be inoculated as young, uniform plants of a size easily handled in a

  13. Impact of risk aversion and disease outbreak characteristics on the incentives of producers as a group to participate in animal disease insurance-A simulation.

    PubMed

    Niemi, Jarkko K; Heikkilä, Jaakko

    2011-06-01

    The participation of agricultural producers in financing losses caused by livestock epidemics has been debated in many countries. One of the issues raised is how reluctant producers are to participate voluntarily in the financing of disease losses before an outbreak occurs. This study contributes to the literature by examining whether disease losses should be financed through pre- or post-outbreak premiums or their combination. A Monte Carlo simulation was employed to illustrate the costs of financing two diseases of different profiles. The profiles differed in the probability in which the damage occurs and in the average damage per event. Three hypothetical financing schemes were compared based on their ability to reduce utility losses in the case of risk-neutral and risk-averse producer groups. The schemes were examined in a dynamic setting where premiums depended on the compensation history of the sector. If producers choose the preferred financing scheme based on utility losses, results suggest that the timing of the premiums, the transaction costs of the scheme, the degree of risk aversion of the producer, and the level and the volatility of premiums affect the choice of the financing scheme. PMID:21497923

  14. Animal-induced injuries and disease, neonatal jaundice, immunizations, and viral infections.

    PubMed

    Gerson, W T

    1996-08-01

    Highlights from the past years' literature on the topics of animal-induced injuries and diseases, neonatal jaundice, immunizations, and viral infections are discussed from the perspective of the general pediatrician. An effort is made to place recent advances in care or understanding of clinical problems into the context of the pediatric office practice. The current reality of health care-be it managed care, care for the underserved, or the recent pressures on academic and hospital-based medicine-does not alter the importance of the delivery of quality care at the office level. Although it is now popular to define quality of health care in cute advertising copy, as if we are selling durable goods, excellence in pediatric office-based practice continues to require broad strokes of medical knowledge coupled with a unswerving commitment to and advocacy for the needs and well-being of infants, children, and young adults. PMID:8954278

  15. Disease outbreaks caused by steppe-type rabies viruses in China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Y; Wang, W; Guo, J; Alatengheli; Li, Y; Yang, G; Su, N; Zhang, L; Xu, W; Sheng, Z; Ma, L; Gui, J; Dejide; Lin, H; Tu, C

    2015-04-01

    While rabies is a significant public health concern in China, the epidemiology of animal rabies in the north and northwest border provinces remains unknown. From February 2013 to March 2014, seven outbreaks of domestic animal rabies caused by wild carnivores in Xinjiang (XJ) and Inner Mongolia (IM) Autonomous Regions, China were reported and diagnosed in brain samples of infected animals by the fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and RT-PCR. Ten field rabies viruses were obtained. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis based on the complete N gene (1353 bp) amplified directly from the original brain tissues showed that these ten strains were steppe-type viruses, closely related to strains reported in Russia and Mongolia. None had been identified previously in China. The viruses from XJ and IM clustered separately into two lineages showing their different geographical distribution. This study emphasizes the importance of wildlife surveillance and of cross-departmental cooperation in the control of transboundary rabies transmission. PMID:25078967

  16. Evidence for emerging parasites and pathogens influencing outbreaks of stress-related diseases like chalkbrood.

    PubMed

    Hedtke, Kati; Jensen, Per Moestrup; Jensen, Annette Bruun; Genersch, Elke

    2011-11-01

    In agriculture, honey bees play a critical role as commercial pollinators of crop monocultures which depend on insect pollination. Hence, the demise of honey bee colonies in Europe, USA, and Asia caused much concern and initiated many studies and research programmes aiming at elucidating the factors negatively affecting honey bee health and survival. Most of these studies look at individual factors related to colony losses. In contrast, we here present our data on the interaction of pathogens and parasites in honey bee colonies. We performed a longitudinal cohort study over 6 years by closely monitoring 220 honey bee colonies kept in 22 apiaries (ten randomly selected colonies per apiary). Observed winter colony losses varied between 4.8% and 22.4%; lost colonies were replaced to ensure a constant number of monitored colonies over the study period. Data on mite infestation levels, infection with viruses, Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae, and recorded outbreaks of chalkbrood were continuously collected. We now provide statistical evidence (i) that Varroa destructor infestation in summer is related to DWV infections in autumn, (ii) that V. destructor infestation in autumn is related to N. apis infection in the following spring, and most importantly (iii) that chalkbrood outbreaks in summer are related to N. ceranae infection in the preceding spring and to V. destructor infestation in the same season. These highly significant links between emerging parasites/pathogens and established pathogens need further experimental proof but they already illustrate the complexity of the host-pathogen-interactions in honey bee colonies. PMID:21906600

  17. First-order phase transitions in outbreaks of co-infectious diseases and the extended general epidemic process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, Hans-Karl; Stenull, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    In co-infections, positive feedback between multiple diseases can accelerate outbreaks. In a recent letter Chen, Ghanbarnejad, Cai, and Grassberger (CGCG) introduced a spatially homogeneous mean-field model system for such co-infections, and studied this system numerically with focus on the possible existence of discontinuous phase transitions. We show that their model coincides in mean-field theory with the homogenous limit of the extended general epidemic process (EGEP). Studying the latter analytically, we argue that the discontinuous transition observed by CGCG is basically a spinodal phase transition and not a first-order transition with phase coexistence. We derive the conditions for this spinodal transition along with predictions for important quantities such as the magnitude of the discontinuity. We also shed light on a true first-order transition with phase coexistence by discussing the EGEP with spatial inhomogeneities.

  18. Use of plasmid profiles in epidemiologic surveillance of disease outbreaks and in tracing the transmission of antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, L W

    1988-01-01

    Plasmids are circular deoxyribonucleic acid molecules that exist in bacteria, usually independent of the chromosome. The study of plasmids is important to medical microbiology because plasmids can encode genes for antibiotic resistance or virulence factors. Plasmids can also serve as markers of various bacterial strains when a typing system referred to as plasmid profiling, or plasmid fingerprinting is used. In these methods partially purified plasma deoxyribonucleic acid species