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1

Tracking Viral Evolution during a Disease Outbreak: the Rapid and Complete Selective Sweep of a Circovirus in the Endangered Echo Parakeet  

PubMed Central

Circoviruses are among the smallest and simplest of all viruses, but they are relatively poorly characterized. Here, we intensively sampled two sympatric parrot populations from Mauritius over a period of 11 years and screened for the circovirus Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV). During the sampling period, a severe outbreak of psittacine beak and feather disease, which is caused by BFDV, occurred in Echo parakeets. Consequently, this data set presents an ideal system for studying the evolution of a pathogen in a natural population and to understand the adaptive changes that cause outbreaks. Unexpectedly, we discovered that the outbreak was most likely caused by changes in functionally important regions of the normally conserved replication-associated protein gene and not the immunogenic capsid. Moreover, these mutations were completely fixed in the Echo parakeet host population very shortly after the outbreak. Several capsid alleles were linked to the replication-associated protein outbreak allele, suggesting that whereas the key changes occurred in the latter, the scope of the outbreak and the selective sweep may have been influenced by positive selection in the capsid. We found evidence for viral transmission between the two host populations though evidence for the invasive species as the source of the outbreak was equivocal. Finally, the high evolutionary rate that we estimated shows how rapidly new variation can arise in BFDV and is consistent with recent results from other small single-stranded DNA viruses. PMID:22345474

Faulkes, Christopher G.; Greenwood, Andrew G.; Jones, Carl G.; Kaiser, Pete; Lyne, Owen D.; Black, Simon A.; Chowrimootoo, Aurelie; Groombridge, Jim J.

2012-01-01

2

Viral aetiology of haemangiosarcoma outbreaks among layer hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outbreaks of neoplastic disease defined as haemangiosarcoma occurred among layer flocks of chickens in Israel. The disease caused bleeding tumours in the skin and internal organs of young layers, followed by anaemia, cessation of egg production and high mortality up to 20%.Avian leukosis virus was isolated from tumour cells which contain several viral DNA copies integrated in the cell genome.

Haim Burstein; Moshe Gilead; Uri Bendheim; Moshe Kotler

1984-01-01

3

Waterborne outbreak of viral gastroenteritis.  

PubMed

A waterborne epidemic took place in a Finnish municipality in April 1994. Some 1500-3000 people, i.e. 25-50% of the population, had symptomatic acute gastroenteritis. Laboratory findings confirmed adenovirus, a Norwalk-like agent, small round viruses (SRV), and group A and C rotaviruses as causative agents, Norwalk virus being the main cause of the outbreak. The epidemic was most probably associated with contaminated drinking water. The groundwater well, situated in the embankment of a river, was contaminated by polluted river water during the spring flood. A back flow from the river to the well had occurred via a forgotten drainage pipe. PMID:9360259

Kukkula, M; Arstila, P; Klossner, M L; Maunula, L; Bonsdorff, C H; Jaatinen, P

1997-01-01

4

Fish and Shellfish Associated Disease Outbreaks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of disease outbreaks related to fish and shellfish, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers the chemical, bacterial, and viral diseases that are transmitted by fish and shellfish. A list of 50 references is also presented. (HM)

Levin, M.

1978-01-01

5

Waterborne disease outbreaks, 1986-1988.  

PubMed

From 1986 to 1988, 24 states and Puerto Rico reported 50 outbreaks of illness due to water that people intended to drink, affecting 25,846 persons. The protozoal parasite Giardia lamblia was the agent most commonly implicated in outbreaks, as it has been for the last 10 years; many of these outbreaks were associated with ingestion of chlorinated but unfiltered surface water. Shigella sonnei was the most commonly implicated bacterial pathogen; in outbreaks caused by this pathogen, water supplies were found to be contaminated with human waste. Cryptosporidium contamination of a chlorinated, filtered public water supply caused the largest outbreak during this period, affecting an estimated 13,000 persons. A large multistate outbreak caused by commercially produced ice made from contaminated well water caused illness with Norwalk-like virus among an estimated 5,000 persons. The first reported outbreak of chronic diarrhea of unknown cause associated with drinking untreated well water occurred in 1987. Twenty-six outbreaks due to recreational water use were also reported, including outbreaks of Pseudomonas dermatitis associated with the use of hot tubs or whirlpools, and swimming-associated shigellosis, giardiasis, and viral illness. Although the total number of reported water-related outbreaks has been declining in recent years, the few large outbreaks due to Cryptosporidium, Norwalk-like agent, Shigella sonnei, and Giardia lamblia caused more cases of illness in 1987 than have been reported to the Water-Related Disease Outbreak Surveillance System for any other year since CDC and the Environmental Protection Agency began tabulating these data in 1971. PMID:2156147

Levine, W C; Stephenson, W T; Craun, G F

1990-03-01

6

Viral Disease Networks?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viral infections induce multiple perturbations that spread along the links of the biological networks of the host cells. Understanding the impact of these cascading perturbations requires an exhaustive knowledge of the cellular machinery as well as a systems biology approach that reveals how individual components of the cellular system function together. Here we describe an integrative method that provides a new approach to studying virus-human interactions and its correlations with diseases. Our method involves the combined utilization of protein - protein interactions, protein -- DNA interactions, metabolomics and gene - disease associations to build a ``viraldiseasome''. By solely using high-throughput data, we map well-known viral associated diseases and predict new candidate viral diseases. We use microarray data of virus-infected tissues and patient medical history data to further test the implications of the viral diseasome. We apply this method to Epstein-Barr virus and Human Papillomavirus and shed light into molecular development of viral diseases and disease pathways.

Gulbahce, Natali; Yan, Han; Vidal, Marc; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

2010-03-01

7

Disease Outbreaks Caused by Water.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of the disease outbreaks caused by drinking polluted water, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the waterborn outbreaks included are: (1) cholera; (2) gastroenteritis; (3) giardiasis; and (4) typhoid fever and salmonellosis. A list of 66 references is also presented. (HM)

Craun, Gunther F.

1978-01-01

8

INVESTIGATIONS OF WATERBORNE DISEASE OUTBREAKS  

EPA Science Inventory

From 1971-2000, there were about 751 waterborne disease outbreaks recognized and reported, with over 500,000 associated cases of illness. From 1989-1994, of 90 total outbreaks, 2% were associated with untreated surface water, 30% with untreated ground water, 42% with treatment de...

9

Protection of chickens against overt clinical disease and determination of viral shedding following vaccination with commercially available Newcastle disease virus vaccines upon challenge with highly virulent virus from the California 2002 exotic Newcastle disease outbreak  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 2002–2003, exotic Newcastle disease (END) virus caused a major outbreak among commercial and backyard poultry in southern California and adjacent states. The outbreak raised concerns regarding the protective immunity of commercially available vaccines for prevention and control of this virus in poultry. We sought to determine if existing commercial live and inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccines could provide

Darrell R. Kapczynski; Daniel J. King

2005-01-01

10

Nosocomial Spread of Viral Disease  

PubMed Central

Viruses are important causes of nosocomial infection, but the fact that hospital outbreaks often result from introduction(s) from community-based epidemics, together with the need to initiate specific laboratory testing, means that there are usually insufficient data to allow the monitoring of trends in incidences. The most important defenses against nosocomial transmission of viruses are detailed and continuing education of staff and strict adherence to infection control policies. Protocols must be available to assist in the management of patients with suspected or confirmed viral infection in the health care setting. In this review, we present details on general measures to prevent the spread of viral infection in hospitals and other health care environments. These include principles of accommodation of infected patients and approaches to good hygiene and patient management. They provide detail on individual viral diseases accompanied in each case with specific information on control of the infection and, where appropriate, details of preventive and therapeutic measures. The important areas of nosocomial infection due to blood-borne viruses have been extensively reviewed previously and are summarized here briefly, with citation of selected review articles. Human prion diseases, which present management problems very different from those of viral infection, are not included. PMID:11432812

Aitken, Celia; Jeffries, Donald J.

2001-01-01

11

Outbreaks of food-borne and waterborne viral gastroenteritis.  

PubMed Central

Norwalk virus infection is the epidemiologic prototype for outbreaks of food-borne and waterborne gastroenteritis. Around the world, Norwalk virus and Norwalk-like viruses appear to be major causes of food-borne and waterborne illness. Assessment of the overall significance of viral agents to the epidemiology of food-borne and waterborne illness is hampered by the lack of surveillance throughout much of the world. In areas where food-borne and waterborne illness surveillance is conducted, outbreaks of viral gastroenteritis are underreported because of the lack of availability of routine laboratory services to confirm the viral etiology. Routine use of epidemiologic criteria as an alternative to laboratory confirmation will allow better assessments of the importance of viral gastroenteritis until effective laboratory methods can be widely implemented. Outbreaks of viral gastroenteritis have been propagated by contamination of water supplies, raw foods, and ill food handlers. Controlling an outbreak depends on identifying and removing the source of contamination. The demonstrated occurrence of person-to-person transmission and the likely occurrence of transmission of Norwalk-like viruses by aerosol make it necessary to evaluate the potential for transmission by food handlers and servers in every outbreak, regardless of primary source. PMID:8395330

Hedberg, C W; Osterholm, M T

1993-01-01

12

Souvenirs: Investigating a Disease Outbreak  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Starting with a case study based on the outbreak of a pulmonary disease in Southwest US, the interactions between human behavior, exposure, and confusing clinical symptoms are highlighted. As we search for the cause, these complications reflect real life difficulty in making diagnoses. The real questions extend beyond what disease has been contracted to cascading effects on the society we live in. * weigh the personal risks of exposure to a potentially fatal virus

Janet Yagoda Shagam (RhizoTech; Biology)

0000-00-00

13

Coping with Stress during Infectious Disease Outbreaks  

MedlinePLUS

· 1 Coping With Stress During Infectious Disease Outbreaks What You Should Know When you hear, read, or watch news about an outbreak of ... you may feel anxious and show signs of stress—even when the outbreak affects people far from ...

14

Incentives for Reporting Infectious Disease Outbreaks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The global spread of diseases such as swine flu and SARS highlights the difficult decision governments face when presented with evidence of a local outbreak. Reporting the outbreak may bring medical assistance but is also likely to trigger trade sanctions by countries hoping to contain the disease. Suppressing the information may avoid trade…

Malani, Anup; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

2011-01-01

15

Ebola virus disease: history, epidemiology and outbreaks.  

PubMed

Over the past 40 years, sporadic Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks have occurred mostly in the central African region. In March 2014, an outbreak of EVD was recognized in Guinea which would become the most significant outbreak of haemorrhagic fever in Africa to date. The outbreak started in Guinea and rapidly spread to Liberia and Sierra Leone, claiming thousands of lives. Many questions still remain regarding the ecology of Ebola viruses, but it is believed that contact with infected bushmeat is an important risk factor for initial spill over of the virus into the human population. At present, there is still no registered prophylaxis or curative biologicals against EVD. PMID:25896751

Weyer, Jacqueline; Grobbelaar, Antoinette; Blumberg, Lucille

2015-05-01

16

Clinical progression and viral load in a community outbreak of coronavirus-associated SARS pneumonia: a prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background We investigated the temporal progression of the clinical, radiological, and virological changes in a community outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Methods We followed up 75 patients for 3 weeks managed with a standard treatment protocol of ribavirin and corticosteroids, and assessed the pattern of clinical disease, viral load, risk factors for poor clinical outcome, and the

JSM Peiris; CM Chu; VCC Cheng; KS Chan; IFN Hung; LLM Poon; KI Law; BSF Tang; TYW Hon; CS Chan; KH Chan; JSC Ng; BJ Zheng; WL Ng; RWM Lai; Y Guan; KY Yuen

2003-01-01

17

Diagnosis and management of viral diseases in psittacine birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

AVIAN species are susceptible to a wide range of viral diseases. With the increasing trade in psittacine species worldwide, more and more of these viruses are making their way to the shores of the UK. Practitioners are therefore more likely to be confronted with new avian viruses, a worrying thought considering the recent outbreak in the USA of West Nile

Simon Girling

2003-01-01

18

OutbreakTools: a new platform for disease outbreak analysis using the R software.  

PubMed

The investigation of infectious disease outbreaks relies on the analysis of increasingly complex and diverse data, which offer new prospects for gaining insights into disease transmission processes and informing public health policies. However, the potential of such data can only be harnessed using a number of different, complementary approaches and tools, and a unified platform for the analysis of disease outbreaks is still lacking. In this paper, we present the new R package OutbreakTools, which aims to provide a basis for outbreak data management and analysis in R. OutbreakTools is developed by a community of epidemiologists, statisticians, modellers and bioinformaticians, and implements classes and methods for storing, handling and visualizing outbreak data. It includes real and simulated outbreak datasets. Together with a number of tools for infectious disease epidemiology recently made available in R, OutbreakTools contributes to the emergence of a new, free and open-source platform for the analysis of disease outbreaks. PMID:24928667

Jombart, Thibaut; Aanensen, David M; Baguelin, Marc; Birrell, Paul; Cauchemez, Simon; Camacho, Anton; Colijn, Caroline; Collins, Caitlin; Cori, Anne; Didelot, Xavier; Fraser, Christophe; Frost, Simon; Hens, Niel; Hugues, Joseph; Höhle, Michael; Opatowski, Lulla; Rambaut, Andrew; Ratmann, Oliver; Soubeyrand, Samuel; Suchard, Marc A; Wallinga, Jacco; Ypma, Rolf; Ferguson, Neil

2014-06-01

19

OutbreakTools: A new platform for disease outbreak analysis using the R software  

PubMed Central

The investigation of infectious disease outbreaks relies on the analysis of increasingly complex and diverse data, which offer new prospects for gaining insights into disease transmission processes and informing public health policies. However, the potential of such data can only be harnessed using a number of different, complementary approaches and tools, and a unified platform for the analysis of disease outbreaks is still lacking. In this paper, we present the new R package OutbreakTools, which aims to provide a basis for outbreak data management and analysis in R. OutbreakTools is developed by a community of epidemiologists, statisticians, modellers and bioinformaticians, and implements classes and methods for storing, handling and visualizing outbreak data. It includes real and simulated outbreak datasets. Together with a number of tools for infectious disease epidemiology recently made available in R, OutbreakTools contributes to the emergence of a new, free and open-source platform for the analysis of disease outbreaks. PMID:24928667

Jombart, Thibaut; Aanensen, David M.; Baguelin, Marc; Birrell, Paul; Cauchemez, Simon; Camacho, Anton; Colijn, Caroline; Collins, Caitlin; Cori, Anne; Didelot, Xavier; Fraser, Christophe; Frost, Simon; Hens, Niel; Hugues, Joseph; Höhle, Michael; Opatowski, Lulla; Rambaut, Andrew; Ratmann, Oliver; Soubeyrand, Samuel; Suchard, Marc A.; Wallinga, Jacco; Ypma, Rolf; Ferguson, Neil

2014-01-01

20

WATERBORNE DISEASES OUTBREAK SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (WBDOSS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Waterborne Diseases Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) is a collaborative effort of the National Center for Infectious Diseases (NCID) of CDC and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for collecting and periodically reporting data relating to occurrences and causes of...

21

Foodborne disease outbreaks in Australia, 1995 to 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health agencies are increasingly conducting systematic reviews of foodborne disease outbreak inves- tigations to develop strategies to prevent future outbreaks. We surveyed state and territory health departments to summarise the epidemiology of foodborne disease outbreaks in Australia from 1995 to 2000. From 1995 through 2000, 293 outbreaks were identifi ed, with 214 being of foodborne origin. One hundred and seventy-four

Craig B Dalton; Joy Gregory; Martyn D Kirk; Russell J Stafford; Rod Givney; Ed Kraa; David Gould

2004-01-01

22

Management and investigation of viral gastroenteritis nosocomial outbreaks: lessons learned from a recent outbreak, Greece, 2012  

PubMed Central

Background: A nosocomial outbreak in a 740-bed hospital in Athens, Greece, was investigated in January-February 2012. Methods: Recommendations on infection control measures were given and two case-control studies were conducted among patients (study A) and health care workers (HCWs) (study B). Compliance to control measures was evaluated. Results: The absence of a routine recording system of nosocomial-acquired gastroenteritis cases led to a 10 days delay in outbreak identification. In total, 63 gastroenteritis cases were identified; 30 HCWs and 33 patients. In the multivariable analysis of study A the disease incidence among patients was statistical significantly associated with a prior incident of vomitus in their room (OR=7.96, 95% CI=1.29-49.2). In study B, the incidence was associated with the history of direct contact with a symptomatic patient (OR=3.03, 95%CI 1.01-9.12). Twenty one (75%) of the symptomatic HCWs reported absence from work for a median of 2 days (range: 1-4). Seven (25.0%) continued to work despite being symptomatic. Only, 11.1% of patients were isolated or cohorted after developing symptoms. In-hospital virological testing was not feasible and one specimen sent to a university laboratory was positive for norovirus. Conclusions: An appropriately designed protocol regarding the detection, the management and the laboratory investigation of nosocomial gastroenteritis outbreaks should be followed in order effective containment to be reassured. Hippokratia 2014; 18 (3): 204-208. PMID:25694751

Sideroglou, T; Kontopidou, F; Mellou, K; Maragos, A; Potamiti-Komi, M; Gerakis, T; Vogiatzakis, E; Pefanis, A; Georgakopoulou, T; Maltezou, HC

2014-01-01

23

Mosquito-Host Interactions during and after an Outbreak of Equine Viral Encephalitis in Eastern Panama  

PubMed Central

Mosquito blood meals provide information about the feeding habits and host preference of potential arthropod-borne disease vectors. Although mosquito-borne diseases are ubiquitous in the Neotropics, few studies in this region have assessed patterns of mosquito-host interactions, especially during actual disease outbreaks. Based on collections made during and after an outbreak of equine viral encephalitis, we identified the source of 338 blood meals from 10 species of mosquitoes from Aruza Abajo, a location in Darien province in eastern Panama. A PCR based method targeting three distinct mitochondrial targets and subsequent DNA sequencing was used in an effort to delineate vector-host relationships. At Aruza Abajo, large domesticated mammals dominated the assemblage of mosquito blood meals while wild bird and mammal species represented only a small portion of the blood meal pool. Most mosquito species fed on a variety of hosts; foraging index analysis indicates that eight of nine mosquito species utilize hosts at similar proportions while a stochastic model suggests dietary overlap among species was greater than would be expected by chance. The results from our null-model analysis of mosquito diet overlap are consistent with the hypothesis that in landscapes where large domestic animals dominate the local biomass, many mosquito species show little host specificity, and feed upon hosts in proportion to their biomass, which may have implications for the role of livestocking patterns in vector-borne disease ecology. PMID:24339965

Navia-Gine, Wayra G.; Loaiza, Jose R.; Miller, Matthew J.

2013-01-01

24

Viral diseases of marine invertebrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Approximately 40 viruses are known from marine sponges; turbellarian and monogenetic flatworms; cephalopod, bivalve, and gastropod mollusks; nereid polychaetes; and isopod and decapod crustaceans. Most of the viruses can be tentatively assigned to the Herpesviridae, Baculoviridae, Iridoviridae, Adenoviridae, Papovaviridae, Reoviridae, “Birnaviridae”, Bunyaviridae, Rhabdoviridae, and Picornaviridae. Viruslike particles found in oysters might be representatives of the Togaviridae and Retroviridae. Enveloped single-stranded RNA viruses from crustaceans have developmental and morphological characteristics intermediate between families, and some show evidence of relationships to the Paramyxoviridae as well as the Bunyaviridae or Rhabdoviridae. Certain small viruses of shrimp cannot be assigned, even tentatively, to a particular family. Some viruses cause disease in wild and captive hosts, others are associated with disease states but may not be primary instigators, and many occur in apparently normal animals. The frequency of viral disease in natural populations of marine invertebrates is unknown. Several viruses that cause disease in captive animals, with or without experimental intervention, have also been found in diseased wild hosts, including herpeslike viruses of crabs and oysters, iridovirus of octopus, and reolike and bunyalike viruses of crabs. Iridolike viruses have been implicated in massive mortalities of cultured oysters. Baculoviruses, and IHHN virus, which is of uncertain affinities, cause economically damaging diseases in cultured penaeid shrimp. Double or multiple viral infection is common in crabs. For example, a reolike virus and associated rhabdolike virus act synergistically to cause paralytic and fatal disease in Callinectes sapidus. Information on host range, most susceptible stage, and viral latency is available only for viruses of shrimp. One baculovirus attacks five species of New World penaeid shrimp. IHHN virus infects three species of Penaeus and causes catastrophic mortalities in P. stylirostris, but usually exhibits only inapparent infection in P. vannamei. Some shrimp viruses apparently are latent in larvae, causing disease only when shrimp have reached the postlarval or juvenile stages. Others are equally or more pathogenic in larvae. Studies of shrimp viruses and iridovirus-associated disease in cultured oysters point up the need for rapid and accurate diagnostic methods. Until appropriate cell cultures from marine invertebrates are devised, the viral identifications necessary for understanding of epizootiology, rapid containment of epizootics in cultured animals, and decisions regarding introductions of exotic species will be difficult or impossible.

Johnson, P. T.

1984-03-01

25

Outbreak of acute bovine viral diarrhea in Brazilian beef cattle: Clinicopathological findings and molecular characterization of a wild-type BVDV strain subtype 1b  

Microsoft Academic Search

When first described in 1946, bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) was characterized as an acute transmissible disease associated with severe leucopenia, high fever, depression, diarrhea, gastrointestinal erosions, and hemorrhages. Recently the severe acute form has been related only to some hypervirulent BVDV-2 strains. This article reports the detection of BVDV-1b associated with an acute and fatal outbreak of BVD in a

M. Lunardi; S. A. Headley; J. A. N. Lisbôa; A. M. Amude; A. A. Alfieri

2008-01-01

26

Safety of community drinking-water and outbreaks of waterborne enteric disease: Israel, 1976-97.  

PubMed Central

Waterborne disease remains a major public health problem in many countries. We report findings on nearly three decades of waterborne disease in Israel and the part these diseases play in the total national burden of enteric disease. During the 1970s and 1980s, Israel's community water supplies were frequently of poor quality according to the microbiological standards at that time, and the country experienced many outbreaks of waterborne enteric disease. New regulations raised water quality standards and made chlorination of community water supplies mandatory, as well as imposing more stringent guidelines on maintaining water sources and distribution systems for both surface water and groundwater. This was followed by improved compliance and water quality, and a marked decline in the number of outbreaks of waterborne disease; no outbreaks were detected between 1992 and 1997. The incidence of waterborne salmonellosis, shigellosis, and typhoid declined markedly as proportions of the total burden of these diseases, but peaked during the time in which there were frequent outbreaks of waterborne disease (1980-85). Long-term trends in the total incidence of reported infectious enteric diseases from all sources, including typhoid, shigellosis, and viral hepatitis (all types) declined, while the total incidence of salmonellosis increased. Mandatory chlorination has had an important impact on improving water quality, in reducing outbreaks of waterborne disease in Israel, and reducing the total burden of enteric disease in the country. PMID:11196499

Tulchinsky, T. H.; Burla, E.; Clayman, M.; Sadik, C.; Brown, A.; Goldberger, S.

2000-01-01

27

Genomics-enabled sensor platform for rapid detection of viruses related to disease outbreak.  

SciTech Connect

Bioweapons and emerging infectious diseases pose growing threats to our national security. Both natural disease outbreak and outbreaks due to a bioterrorist attack are a challenge to detect, taking days after the outbreak to identify since most outbreaks are only recognized through reportable diseases by health departments and reports of unusual diseases by clinicians. In recent decades, arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) have emerged as some of the most significant threats to human health. They emerge, often unexpectedly, from cryptic transmission foci causing localized outbreaks that can rapidly spread to multiple continents due to increased human travel and trade. Currently, diagnosis of acute infections requires amplification of viral nucleic acids, which can be costly, highly specific, technically challenging and time consuming. No diagnostic devices suitable for use at the bedside or in an outbreak setting currently exist. The original goals of this project were to 1) develop two highly sensitive and specific diagnostic assays for detecting RNA from a wide range of arboviruses; one based on an electrochemical approach and the other a fluorescent based assay and 2) develop prototype microfluidic diagnostic platforms for preclinical and field testing that utilize the assays developed in goal 1. We generated and characterized suitable primers for West Nile Virus RNA detection. Both optical and electrochemical transduction technologies were developed for DNA-RNA hybridization detection and were implemented in microfluidic diagnostic sensing platforms that were developed in this project.

Brozik, Susan Marie; Manginell, Ronald Paul; Moorman, Matthew Wallace; Xiao, Xiaoyin; Edwards, Thayne L.; Anderson, John Moses; Pfeifer, Kent Bryant; Branch, Darren W.; Wheeler, David Roger; Polsky, Ronen; Lopez, DeAnna M.; Ebel, Gregory D. [Colorado State University; Prasad, Abhishek N. [Colorado State University; Brozik, James A. [Washington State University; Rudolph, Angela R. [Washington State University; Wong, Lillian P. [Washington State University

2013-09-01

28

The Stafford outbreak of Legionnaires' disease  

PubMed Central

A large outbreak of Legionnaires' disease was associated with Stafford District General Hospital. A total of 68 confirmed cases was treated in hospital and 22 of these patients died. A further 35 patients, 14 of whom were treated at home, were suspected cases of Legionnaires' disease. All these patients had visited the hospital during April 1985. Epidemiological investigations demonstrated that there had been a high risk of acquiring the disease in the out patient department (OPD), but no risk in other parts of the hospital. The epidemic strain of Legionella pneumophila, serogroup 1, subgroup Pontiac 1a was isolated from the cooling water system of one of the air conditioning plants. This plant served several departments of the hospital including the OPD. The water in the cooling tower and a chiller unit which cooled the air entering the OPD were contaminated with legionellae. Bacteriological and engineering investigations showed how the chiller unit could have been contaminated and how an aerosol containing legionellae could have been generated in the U-trap below the chiller unit. These results, together with the epidemiological evidence, suggest that the chiller unit was most likely to have been the major source of the outbreak. Nearly one third of hospital staff had legionella antibodies. These staff were likely to have worked in areas of the hospital ventilated by the contaminated air conditioning plant, but not necessarily the OPD. There was evidence that a small proportion of these staff had a mild legionellosis and that these `influenza-like' illnesses had been spread over a 5-month period. A possible explanation of this finding is that small amounts of aerosol from cooling tower sources could have entered the air-intake and been distributed throughout the areas of the hospital served by this ventilation system. Legionellae, subsequently found to be of the epidemic strain, had been found in the cooling tower found in November 1984 and thus it is possible that staff were exposed to low doses of contaminated aerosol over several months. Control measures are described, but it was later apparent that the outbreak had ended before these interventions were introduced. The investigations revealed faults in the design of the ventilation system. PMID:2347381

O'Mahony, M. C.; Stanwell-Smith, R. E.; Tillett, H. E.; Harper, D.; Hutchison, J. G. P.; Farrell, I. D.; Hutchinson, D. N.; Lee, J. V.; Dennis, P. J.; Duggal, H. V.; Scully, J. A.; Denne, C.

1990-01-01

29

How outbreaks of infectious disease are detected: a review of surveillance systems and outbreaks.  

PubMed Central

To learn how outbreaks of infectious disease are detected and to describe the entities and information systems that together function to identify outbreaks in the U.S., the authors drew on multiple sources of information to create a description of existing surveillance systems and how they interact to detect outbreaks. The results of this analysis were summarized in a system diagram. The authors reviewed a sample of recent outbreaks to determine how they were detected, with reference to the system diagram. The de facto U.S. system for detection of outbreaks consists of five components: the clinical health care system, local/state health agencies, federal agencies, academic/professional organizations, and collaborating governmental organizations. Primary data collection occurs at the level of clinical health care systems and local health agencies. The review of a convenience sample of outbreaks showed that all five components of the system participated in aggregating, analyzing, and sharing data. The authors conclude that the current U.S. approach to detection of disease outbreaks is complex and involves many organizations interacting in a loosely coupled manner. State and local health departments and the health care system are major components in the detection of outbreaks. PMID:15313109

Dato, Virginia; Wagner, Michael M.; Fapohunda, Abi

2004-01-01

30

Ebola virus disease outbreak: what's going on.  

PubMed

The current West African Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak was confirmed in March, 2014, and after months of slow, fragmented responses, the EVD has been recognized as a public health emergency of international concern. The early diagnosis of the disease is difficult without laboratory testing, because its symptoms can be seen in many other infections. In the wake of international agencies advices, the Italian Ministry of Health, on October 1, 2014, released to the Healthcare Professional Workers (HPWs) the Protocol about the management of cases and contacts within the national territory. Due to the increasing number of humanitarian groups and HPWs involved in the field, the probability to have new cases of contamination is higher than ever. Proven specific treatments against EVD are not yet available, however, a variety of compounds have been under testing. The most effective are select monoclonal antibodies that have a high neutralizing potential against epitopes of Ebola Virus. For facing the matter, it is important a comprehensive approach according to the recommendations proposed by the international agencies because no single institution or country has all the capacities to respond to a new and emerging infectious disease. PMID:25748509

Giraldi, G; Marsella, L T

2015-01-01

31

Resilient information networks for coordination of foodborne disease outbreaks.  

PubMed

Foodborne disease outbreaks are increasingly being seen as a greater concern by public health authorities. It has also become a global research agenda to identify improved pathways to coordinating outbreak detection. Furthermore, a significant need exists for timely coordination of the detection of potential foodborne disease outbreaks to reduce the number of infected individuals and the overall impact on public health security. This study aimed to offer an effective approach for coordinating foodborne disease outbreaks. First, we identify current coordination processes, complexities, and challenges. We then explore social media surveillance strategies, usage, and the power of these strategies to influence decision-making. Finally, based on informal (social media) and formal (organizational) surveillance approaches, we propose a hybrid information network model for improving the coordination of outbreak detection. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2015;9:186-198). PMID:25882125

Hossain, Liaquat; Hassan, Muhammad Rabiul; Wigand, Rolf T

2015-04-01

32

Teachers' Risk Perception and Needs in Addressing Infectious Disease Outbreak  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The outbreak of the Influenza A (H1N1) virus has led to numerous precautionary school closures in several countries. No research is available on the school teachers' perceptions as a health protective resource in controlling communicable disease outbreaks. The purposes of this study were to examine the risk perception, the perceived understanding…

Wong, Emmy M. Y.; Cheng, May M. H.; Lo, S.K.

2010-01-01

33

WATERBORNE DISEASE OUTBREAKS, 1986-1988  

EPA Science Inventory

From 1986 to 1988, 24 states and Puerto Rico reported 50 outbreaks of illness due to water that people intended to drink, affecting 25,846 persons. he protozoal parasite Giardia lamblia was the agent most commonly implicated in outbreaks, as it has been for the last 10 years; man...

34

Ebola Outbreak Response; Experience and Development of Screening Tools for Viral Haemorrhagic Fever (VHF) in a HIV Center of Excellence Near to VHF Epicentres  

PubMed Central

Introduction There have been 3 outbreaks of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) in Uganda in the last 2 years. VHF often starts with non-specific symptoms prior to the onset of haemorrhagic signs. HIV clinics in VHF outbreak countries such as Uganda see large numbers of patients with HIV 1/2 infection presenting with non-specific symptoms every day. Whilst there are good screening tools for general health care facilities expecting VHF suspects, we were unable to find tools for use in HIV or other non-acute clinics. Methods We designed tools to help with communication to staff, infection control and screening of HIV patients with non-specific symptoms in a large HIV clinic during the outbreaks in Uganda. We describe our experiences in using these tools in 2 Ebola Virus Disease outbreaks in Uganda. Results During the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreaks, enhanced infection control and communication procedures were implemented within 24 hours of the WHO/Ministry of Health announcement of the outbreaks. During course of these outbreaks the clinic saw 12,544 patients with HIV 1/2 infection, of whom 3,713 attended without an appointment, suggesting new symptoms. Of these 4 were considered at risk of EVD and seen with full infection procedures; 3 were sent home after further investigation. One patient was referred to the National Referral Hospital VHF unit, but discharged on the same day. One additional VHF suspect was identified outside of a VHF outbreak; he was transferred to the National Referral Hospital and placed in isolation within 2 hours of arriving at the HIV clinic. Discussion Use of simple screening tools can be helpful in managing large numbers of symptomatic patients attending for routine and non-routine medical care (including HIV care) within a country experiencing a VHF outbreak, and can raise medical staff awareness of VHF outside of the epidemics. PMID:25007269

Parkes-Ratanshi, Rosalind; Elbireer, Ali; Mbambu, Betty; Mayanja, Faridah; Coutinho, Alex; Merry, Concepta

2014-01-01

35

Emerging viral diseases in dromedary camels in the Southern Morocco.  

PubMed

During the last fifteen years, new viral diseases such Bluetongue (BT), West Nile (WN), African horse sickness (AHS), Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) and Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) have extended their geographic distribution and emerged in North Africa and in Europe. Camel (Camelus dromedarius) is considered as a potential vector in the transmission of some of these diseases while it is host-specific for Camelpox (CP). A serological survey was conducted on 1392 sera to estimate changes of these diseases prevalence in camels over two different time spans (2003 and 2009) and across different sites of South Morocco. Results indicate clearly that BT was circulating in camels before the first notified outbreak in Morocco (2004) with 42% positive sera in Guelmim in 2003. BT and WN prevalence's increased over time from 11 to 25% and from 10 to 13% respectively. Higher prevalence of both diseases was found in camels living in oases indicating an increased intensity of viral circulation in these sites. Camels have been tested negative for AHS, EHD and PPR viruses while higher CP prevalence has been detected in camels living in Smara, the most closed site to eastern borders (i.e. Mauritania). The seroprevalence of CP in camels at interval of 7 years increases from 23% to 37%. This survey could provide information on the possible use of camel as a sentinel animal for surveillance of emerging diseases such BT and WN. PMID:22222004

Touil, N; Cherkaoui, Z; Lmrabih, Z; Loutfi, C; Harif, B; El Harrak, M

2012-04-01

36

Modeling Estimated Personnel Needs for a Potential Foot and Mouth Disease Outbreak  

SciTech Connect

Foot and Mouth disease (FMD) is a highly infectious and contagious viral disease affecting cloven-hoofed livestock that was last detected in the United States (US) in 1929. The prevalence of FMD in other countries, as well as the current potential for this virus to be used as a form of agroterrorism, has made preparations for a potential FMD outbreak a national priority. To assist in the evaluation of national preparedness, all 50 states were surveyed via e-mail, telephone and web search to obtain emergency response plans for FMD or for foreign animal diseases in general. Information from 33 states was obtained and analyzed for estimates of personnel resources needed to respond to an outbreak. These estimates were consolidated and enhanced to create a tool that could be used by individual states to better understand the personnel that would be needed to complete various tasks over time during an outbreak response. The estimates were then coupled, post-processing, to the output from FMD outbreaks simulated in California using the Multiscale Epidemiological/Economic Simulation and Analysis (MESA) model at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to estimate the personnel resource demands, by task, over the course of an outbreak response.

Simmons, K; Hullinger, P

2008-01-29

37

Multiple viral infections and genomic divergence among noroviruses during an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis.  

PubMed

An epidemic outbreak of both norovirus (NV) and astrovirus (ASV) occurred on a research ship surveying Tokyo Bay, causing acute gastroenteritis in 26 of its 37 crew members. The presence of viral pathogens in fecal specimens was analyzed, and noroviruses were identified by reverse transcription-PCR in 18 (48.6%) of these specimens. In addition, astroviruses were identified in 14 (37.8%) of the fecal samples from the affected crew members, and multiple viral infections of both NV and ASV were observed in 6 cases. The genogrouping of the NV-positive samples was then examined by dot blot hybridization, and it was determined that all of the isolates were from genogroup II (GII). No bacterial pathogens were subsequently isolated from fecal specimens. Furthermore, a variety of NV strains were identified by sequencing and single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analyses of PCR products from the fecal samples. One recombinant NV isolate, Minato/14, was identified as a recombinant NV strain of GII/6 and GII/1. The other NV isolates from this outbreak were classified into three NV genotypes (GII/1 [Minato/10], GII/4 [Minato/33], and GII/5 [Minato/6]). Furthermore, ASVs in positive samples were determined to belong to serotypes 1 and 2 by sequencing analysis. Our findings thus indicate that coinfections with NV and ASV, including a number of NV genotypes, persisted during an outbreak of gastroenteritis in a closed environment. PMID:16517856

Sasaki, Yukiko; Kai, Akemi; Hayashi, Yukinao; Shinkai, Takayuki; Noguchi, Yayoi; Hasegawa, Michiya; Sadamasu, Kenji; Mori, Kohji; Tabei, Yukiko; Nagashima, Mami; Morozumi, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Tomoko

2006-03-01

38

Global Distribution of Outbreaks of Water-Associated Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Background Water plays an important role in the transmission of many infectious diseases, which pose a great burden on global public health. However, the global distribution of these water-associated infectious diseases and underlying factors remain largely unexplored. Methods and Findings Based on the Global Infectious Disease and Epidemiology Network (GIDEON), a global database including water-associated pathogens and diseases was developed. In this study, reported outbreak events associated with corresponding water-associated infectious diseases from 1991 to 2008 were extracted from the database. The location of each reported outbreak event was identified and geocoded into a GIS database. Also collected in the GIS database included geo-referenced socio-environmental information including population density (2000), annual accumulated temperature, surface water area, and average annual precipitation. Poisson models with Bayesian inference were developed to explore the association between these socio-environmental factors and distribution of the reported outbreak events. Based on model predictions a global relative risk map was generated. A total of 1,428 reported outbreak events were retrieved from the database. The analysis suggested that outbreaks of water-associated diseases are significantly correlated with socio-environmental factors. Population density is a significant risk factor for all categories of reported outbreaks of water-associated diseases; water-related diseases (e.g., vector-borne diseases) are associated with accumulated temperature; water-washed diseases (e.g., conjunctivitis) are inversely related to surface water area; both water-borne and water-related diseases are inversely related to average annual rainfall. Based on the model predictions, “hotspots” of risks for all categories of water-associated diseases were explored. Conclusions At the global scale, water-associated infectious diseases are significantly correlated with socio-environmental factors, impacting all regions which are affected disproportionately by different categories of water-associated infectious diseases. PMID:22348158

Yang, Kun; LeJeune, Jeffrey; Alsdorf, Doug; Lu, Bo; Shum, C. K.; Liang, Song

2012-01-01

39

Emerging viral diseases of tomato crops.  

PubMed

Viral diseases are an important limiting factor in many crop production systems. Because antiviral products are not available, control strategies rely on genetic resistance or hygienic measures to prevent viral diseases, or on eradication of diseased crops to control such diseases. Increasing international travel and trade of plant materials enhances the risk of introducing new viruses and their vectors into production systems. In addition, changing climate conditions can contribute to a successful spread of newly introduced viruses or their vectors and establishment of these organisms in areas that were previously unfavorable. Tomato is economically the most important vegetable crop worldwide and many viruses infecting tomato have been described, while new viral diseases keep emerging. Pepino mosaic virus is a rapidly emerging virus which has established itself as one of the most important viral diseases in tomato production worldwide over recent years. Begomovirus species and other whitefly-transmitted viruses are invading into new areas, and several recently described new viruses such as Tomato torrado virus and new Tospovirus species are rapidly spreading over large geographic areas. In this article, emerging viruses of tomato crops are discussed. PMID:20367462

Hanssen, Inge M; Lapidot, Moshe; Thomma, Bart P H J

2010-05-01

40

APPROACHES TO ESTIMATING THE WATERBORNE DISEASE OUTBREAK BURDEN IN THE U.S.: USES AND LIMITATIONS OF THE WATERBORNE DISEASE OUTBREAK SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Approaches to Estimating the Waterborne Disease Outbreak Burden in the United States: Uses and Limitations of the Waterborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System (External Review Draft) document presents approaches for estimating the epidemiologic and economic burden o...

41

Vulnerability of a killer whale social network to disease outbreaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging infectious diseases are among the main threats to conservation of biological diversity. A crucial task facing epidemiologists is to predict the vulnerability of populations of endangered animals to disease outbreaks. In this context, the network structure of social interactions within animal populations may affect disease spreading. However, endangered animal populations are often small and to investigate the dynamics of

Paulo R. Guimarães Jr.; Márcio Argollo de Menezes; Robin W. Baird; David Lusseau; Sérgio F. Dos Reis

2007-01-01

42

Exotic emerging viral diseases: progress and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The agents causing viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) are a taxonomically diverse group of viruses that may share commonalities in the process whereby they produce systemic and frequently fatal disease. Significant progress has been made in understanding the biology of the Ebola virus, one of the best known examples. This knowledge has guided our thinking about other VHF agents, including Marburg,

Thomas W Geisbert; Peter B Jahrling

2004-01-01

43

Contributing factors to disease outbreaks associated with untreated groundwater.  

PubMed

Disease outbreaks associated with drinking water drawn from untreated groundwater sources represent a substantial proportion (30.3%) of the 818 drinking water outbreaks reported to CDC's Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) during 1971 to 2008. The objectives of this study were to identify underlying contributing factors, suggest improvements for data collection during outbreaks, and inform outbreak prevention efforts. Two researchers independently reviewed all qualifying outbreak reports (1971 to 2008), assigned contributing factors and abstracted additional information (e.g., cases, etiology, and water system attributes). The 248 outbreaks resulted in at least 23,478 cases of illness, 390 hospitalizations, and 13 deaths. The majority of outbreaks had an unidentified etiology (n?=?135, 54.4%). When identified, the primary etiologies were hepatitis A virus (n?=?21, 8.5%), Shigella spp. (n?=?20, 8.1%), and Giardia intestinalis (n?=?14, 5.7%). Among the 172 (69.4%) outbreaks with contributing factor data available, the leading contamination sources included human sewage (n?=?57, 33.1%), animal contamination (n?=?16, 9.3%), and contamination entering via the distribution system (n?=?12, 7.0%). Groundwater contamination was most often facilitated by improper design, maintenance or location of the water source or nearby waste water disposal system (i.e., septic tank; n?=?116, 67.4%). Other contributing factors included rapid pathogen transport through hydrogeologic formations (e.g., karst limestone; n?=?45, 26.2%) and preceding heavy rainfall or flooding (n?=?36, 20.9%). This analysis underscores the importance of identifying untreated groundwater system vulnerabilities through frequent inspection and routine maintenance, as recommended by protective regulations such as Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Groundwater Rule, and the need for special consideration of the local hydrogeology. PMID:24116713

Wallender, Erika K; Ailes, Elizabeth C; Yoder, Jonathan S; Roberts, Virginia A; Brunkard, Joan M

2014-01-01

44

Approved and experimental countermeasures against pestiviral diseases: Bovine viral diarrhea, classical swine fever and border disease.  

PubMed

The pestiviruses, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), classical swine fever (CSFV) and border disease virus, are important livestock pathogens in many countries, but current vaccines do not completely prevent the spread of infection. Control of pestiviral diseases is especially difficult due to the constant viremia and viral shedding of persistently infected (PI) animals, which must be identified and eliminated to prevent disease transmission. Existing vaccines are limited by the delay between vaccination and the onset of protection, the difficulty of differentiating serologically between vaccinated and naturally infected animals and the need for broad vaccine cross-protection against diverse virus strains. Antiviral therapy could potentially supplement vaccination by providing immediate protection in the case of an outbreak. Numerous compounds with in vitro antiviral activity against BVDV have been identified through its role as a surrogate for hepatitis C virus. Fewer drugs active against CSFV have been identified, but many compounds that are effective against BVDV will likely inhibit CSFV, given their similar genomic sequences. While in vitro research has been promising, the paucity of efficacy studies in animals has hindered the commercial development of effective antiviral drugs against the pestiviruses. In this article, we summarize the clinical syndromes and routes of transmission of BVD, CSF and border disease, discuss currently approved vaccines, review efforts to develop antiviral therapies for use in outbreak control and suggest promising directions for future research. PMID:23928259

Newcomer, Benjamin W; Givens, M Daniel

2013-10-01

45

Viral diseases of the respiratory system.  

PubMed

Infectious bronchitis, Newcastle disease, infectious laryngotracheitis, avian influenza, and pneumovirus are the viruses that more frequently affect the respiratory tract of chickens. Because of the tendency to change its antigenic properties, infectious bronchitis is currently the viral disease present in most poultry producing areas of the world. New serotypes and variant strains are reported in several countries. Current commercially available vaccines do not always provide protection against new field isolates. Vaccination programs are constantly adjusted in an attempt to improve protection against this disease. Infectious laryngotracheitis has appeared in the broiler industry as a serious disease. Improved vaccines are needed to control the disease in broilers. In the U.S., the control of the highly pathogenic forms of avian influenza and the velogenic forms of Newcastle disease have been achieved by eradication. In other countries, effective vaccines have been used to control Newcastle and avian influenza. Avian pneumovirus infection is also an emerging disease of chickens and turkeys. PMID:9706079

Villegas, P

1998-08-01

46

Outbreaks of budgerigar fledgling disease in three aviaries in Ontario  

PubMed Central

Outbreaks of budgerigar fledgling disease (BFD) occurred in three budgerigar aviaries in Ontario. Acute death in seven to ten-day-old nestlings and feather abnormalities in birds over three weeks of age were common findings. Ascites, hepatomegaly and hydropericardium were prominent gross lesions. Histologically, basophilic intranuclear inclusions were seen in many tissues. A severe drop in hatchability occurred in one aviary—a finding not previously reported with BFD. Interruption of breeding controlled the disease in aviary 1, but failed in two consecutive attempts in aviary 2. A third outbreak occurred in aviary 2 after depopulation and restocking. In aviary 3, the spread of disease was very rapid; 90% of the nestlings died within a few weeks. A papovavirus similar to a previously described isolate was recovered in this outbreak. PMID:17423398

Gough, Joan F.

1989-01-01

47

Potential for large outbreaks of Ebola virus disease.  

PubMed

Outbreaks of Ebola virus can cause substantial morbidity and mortality in affected regions. The largest outbreak of Ebola to date is currently underway in West Africa, with 3944 cases reported as of 5th September 2014. To develop a better understanding of Ebola transmission dynamics, we revisited data from the first known Ebola outbreak, which occurred in 1976 in Zaire (now Democratic Republic of Congo). By fitting a mathematical model to time series stratified by disease onset, outcome and source of infection, we were able to estimate several epidemiological quantities that have previously proved challenging to measure, including the contribution of hospital and community infection to transmission. We found evidence that transmission decreased considerably before the closure of the hospital, suggesting that the decline of the outbreak was most likely the result of changes in host behaviour. Our analysis suggests that the person-to-person reproduction number was 1.34 (95% CI: 0.92-2.11) in the early part of the outbreak. Using stochastic simulations we demonstrate that the same epidemiological conditions that were present in 1976 could have generated a large outbreak purely by chance. At the same time, the relatively high person-to-person basic reproduction number suggests that Ebola would have been difficult to control through hospital-based infection control measures alone. PMID:25480136

Camacho, A; Kucharski, A J; Funk, S; Breman, J; Piot, P; Edmunds, W J

2014-12-01

48

Potential for large outbreaks of Ebola virus disease  

PubMed Central

Outbreaks of Ebola virus can cause substantial morbidity and mortality in affected regions. The largest outbreak of Ebola to date is currently underway in West Africa, with 3944 cases reported as of 5th September 2014. To develop a better understanding of Ebola transmission dynamics, we revisited data from the first known Ebola outbreak, which occurred in 1976 in Zaire (now Democratic Republic of Congo). By fitting a mathematical model to time series stratified by disease onset, outcome and source of infection, we were able to estimate several epidemiological quantities that have previously proved challenging to measure, including the contribution of hospital and community infection to transmission. We found evidence that transmission decreased considerably before the closure of the hospital, suggesting that the decline of the outbreak was most likely the result of changes in host behaviour. Our analysis suggests that the person-to-person reproduction number was 1.34 (95% CI: 0.92–2.11) in the early part of the outbreak. Using stochastic simulations we demonstrate that the same epidemiological conditions that were present in 1976 could have generated a large outbreak purely by chance. At the same time, the relatively high person-to-person basic reproduction number suggests that Ebola would have been difficult to control through hospital-based infection control measures alone. PMID:25480136

Camacho, A.; Kucharski, A.J.; Funk, S.; Breman, J.; Piot, P.; Edmunds, W.J.

2014-01-01

49

An outbreak of duck viral enteritis (duck plague) in domestic Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata domesticus) in Illinois.  

PubMed

Duck viral enteritis (DVE) was diagnosed in an outbreak of the disease in a resident population of Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata domesticus) on a privately owned multispecies game bird production facility in Illinois, where it claimed 625 ducks. This disease condition had not been reported previously in domestic ducks in Illinois. Although other varieties and age groups of domestic waterfowl (i.e., black ducks, rhumen ducks, Pekin ducks, ducklings, and geese) were present on the game bird farm, the morbidity and mortality (100%) in this epornitic was solely limited to adult ducks of the Muscovy lineage. The clinical signs in the affected ducks were lethargy, diarrhea, dehydration, and death within 2-3 hr of onset of symptoms. Gross pathologic changes were nonspecific and included ecchymotic hemorrhage, effusion of fluid and blood within body cavities reflective of an acute systemic infectious disease. Light microscopic findings were necrosis of primarily digestive lining epithelium and variable lymphohistiocytic infiltration within mucosal and serosal connective tissues. Intranuclear inclusions resembling characteristic herpetic (i.e., Cowdry type A) inclusions were observed primarily in the digestive, respiratory, and reproductive tracts; liver; and spleen. Esophageal candidiasis, bacteriosis, and systemic Pasteurella anatipestifer infections, thought to be concurrent or opportunistic infections, were present in several ducks. DVE virus was demonstrated in infected Muscovy duck embryo fibroblast cells by direct DVE virus-specific fluorescent antibody staining. PMID:11417839

Campagnolo, E R; Banerjee, M; Panigrahy, B; Jones, R L

2001-01-01

50

An outbreak of viral gastroenteritis following environmental contamination at a concert hall.  

PubMed Central

In January 1999, an outbreak of viral gastroenteritis affected more than 300 people who attended a metropolitan concert hall over a 5-day period. Norwalk-like virus (NLV) was confirmed in faecal samples by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay. The index case was a concert attendee who vomited in the auditorium and adjacent male toilet. Gastrointestinal illness occurred among members of 8/15 school parties who attended the following day. Children who sat on the same level of the auditorium as the index case were much more likely to be ill than those seated elsewhere (relative risk 7.1, 95% confidence interval 5.4-9.2. P < 0.001). The majority of other reported cases had not been present on the evening of the vomiting incident. Disinfection procedure was poor and the disinfectant used contained no sodium hypochlorite. Transmission most likely occurred through direct contact with contaminated fomites. The outbreak has implications for disinfection procedures following vomiting incidents at public venues. PMID:12403111

Evans, M. R.; Meldrum, R.; Lane, W.; Gardner, D.; Ribeiro, C. D.; Gallimore, C. I.; Westmoreland, D.

2002-01-01

51

Talking with Children: Tips for Caregivers, Parents, and Teachers during Infectious Disease Outbreaks  

MedlinePLUS

... Children: TIPS FOR CAREGIVERS, PARENTS, AND TEACHERS DURING INFECTIOUS DISEASE OUTBREAKS What You Should Know When children and youth watch news on TV about an infectious disease outbreak, read about it in the news, ...

52

SURVEILLANCE AND INVESTIGATION OF WATERBORNE DISEASE OUTBREAKS - VOLUME I: HANDBOOK  

EPA Science Inventory

This work consists of two volumes. olume I is a series of articles based on selected presentations made at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Association of State Drinking Water Administrators Workshop on Methods for Investigation of Water-borne Disease Outbreaks ...

53

Rule-Based Anomaly Pattern Detection for Detecting Disease Outbreaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an algorithm for performing early detection of disease outbreaks by searching a database of emergency department cases for anomalous patterns. Traditional techniques for anomaly detection are unsat- isfactory for this problem because they identify individ- ual data points that are rare due to particular combina- tions of features. When applied to our scenario, these traditional algorithms discover

Weng-keen Wong; Andrew W. Moore; Gregory F. Cooper; Michael Wagner

2002-01-01

54

Vulnerability of a killer whale social network to disease outbreaks.  

PubMed

Emerging infectious diseases are among the main threats to conservation of biological diversity. A crucial task facing epidemiologists is to predict the vulnerability of populations of endangered animals to disease outbreaks. In this context, the network structure of social interactions within animal populations may affect disease spreading. However, endangered animal populations are often small and to investigate the dynamics of small networks is a difficult task. Using network theory, we show that the social structure of an endangered population of mammal-eating killer whales is vulnerable to disease outbreaks. This feature was found to be a consequence of the combined effects of the topology and strength of social links among individuals. Our results uncover a serious challenge for conservation of the species and its ecosystem. In addition, this study shows that the network approach can be useful to study dynamical processes in very small networks. PMID:17995045

Guimarães, Paulo R; de Menezes, Márcio Argollo; Baird, Robin W; Lusseau, David; Guimarães, Paulo; dos Reis, Sérgio F

2007-10-01

55

Media impact switching surface during an infectious disease outbreak  

PubMed Central

There are many challenges to quantifying and evaluating the media impact on the control of emerging infectious diseases. We modeled such media impacts using a piecewise smooth function depending on both the case number and its rate of change. The proposed model was then converted into a switching system, with the switching surface determined by a functional relationship between susceptible populations and different subgroups of infectives. By parameterizing the proposed model with the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza outbreak data in the Shaanxi province of China, we observed that media impact switched off almost as the epidemic peaked. Our analysis implies that media coverage significantly delayed the epidemic's peak and decreased the severity of the outbreak. Moreover, media impacts are not always effective in lowering the disease transmission during the entire outbreak, but switch on and off in a highly nonlinear fashion with the greatest effect during the early stage of the outbreak. The finding draws the attention to the important role of informing the public about ‘the rate of change of case numbers' rather than ‘the absolute number of cases' to alter behavioral changes, through a self-adaptive media impact switching on and off, for better control of disease transmission. PMID:25592757

Xiao, Yanni; Tang, Sanyi; Wu, Jianhong

2015-01-01

56

Outbreak!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Outbreak! is an online, interactive educational game that helps students and teachers learn and evaluate clinical microbiology skills. When the game was used in introductory microbiology laboratories, qualitative evaluation by students showed very positiv

Geoffrey Battle Smith

2004-09-01

57

Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy outbreak in freshwater fish farmed in Italy.  

PubMed

Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), otherwise known as viral nervous necrosis (VNN), is a neuropathological condition affecting > 40 species of fish. Although VER affects mainly marine fish, the disease has also been detected in certain species reared in freshwater environments. There are relatively few reports concerning the disease in freshwater species, and there is not much information on clinical signs. Nevertheless, the most common clinical findings reported from affected freshwater species are consistent with the typical signs observed in marine species. In this paper we describe the main clinical signs and the laboratory results associated with the detection of a betanodavirus in hybrid striped bass x white bass (Morone saxatilis x Morone chrysops) and largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, reared in a freshwater environment. We also detected the virus by real-time PCR and isolated it in cell culture from a batch of pike-perch Sander lucioperca farmed in the same system. PMID:21991664

Bovo, G; Gustinelli, A; Quaglio, F; Gobbo, F; Panzarin, V; Fusaro, A; Mutinelli, F; Caffara, M; Fioravanti, M L

2011-08-29

58

Seasonal increase in sea temperature triggers pancreas disease outbreaks in Norwegian salmon farms.  

PubMed

Pancreas disease (PD) is a viral disease causing negative impacts on economy of salmon farms and fish welfare. Its transmission route is horizontal, and water transport by ocean currents is an important factor for transmission. In this study, the effect of temperature changes on PD dynamics in the field has been analysed for the first time. To identify the potential time of exposure to the virus causing PD, a hydrodynamic current model was used. A cohort of salmon was assumed to be infected the month it was exposed to virus from other infective cohorts by estimated water contact. The number of months from exposure to outbreak defined the incubation period, which was used in this investigation to explore the relationship between temperature changes and PD dynamics. The time of outbreak was identified by peak in mortality based on monthly records from active sites. Survival analysis demonstrated that cohorts exposed to virus at decreasing sea temperature had a significantly longer incubation period than cohorts infected when the sea temperature was increasing. Hydrodynamic models can provide information on the risk of being exposed to pathogens from neighbouring farms. With the knowledge of temperature-dependent outbreak probability, the farmers can emphasize prophylactic management, avoid stressful operations until the sea temperature is decreasing and consider removal of cohorts at risk, if possible. PMID:23980568

Stene, A; Bang Jensen, B; Knutsen, Ø; Olsen, A; Viljugrein, H

2014-08-01

59

Host behavior alters spiny lobster-viral disease dynamics: a simulation study.  

PubMed

Social behavior confers numerous benefits to animals but also risks, among them an increase in the spread of pathogenic diseases. We examined the trade-off between risk of predation and disease transmission under different scenarios of host spatial structure and disease avoidance behavior using a spatially explicit, individual-based model of the host pathogen interaction between juvenile Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) and Panulirus argus Virus 1 (PaV1). Spiny lobsters are normally social but modify their behavior to avoid diseased conspecifics, a potentially effective means of reducing transmission but one rarely observed in the wild. We found that without lobster avoidance of diseased conspecifics, viral outbreaks grew in intensity and duration in simulations until the virus was maintained continuously at unrealistically high levels. However, when we invoked disease avoidance at empirically observed levels, the intensity and duration of outbreaks was reduced and the disease extirpated within five years. Increased lobster (host) spatial aggregation mimicking that which occurs when sponge shelters for lobsters are diminished by harmful algal blooms, did not significantly increase PaV1 transmission or persistence in lobster populations. On the contrary, behavioral aversion of diseased conspecifics effectively reduced viral prevalence, even when shelters were limited, which reduced shelter availability for all lobsters but increased predation, especially of infected lobsters. Therefore, avoidance of diseased conspecifics selects against transmission by contact, promotes alternative modes of transmission, and results in a more resilient host-pathogen system. PMID:25230484

Dolan, Thomas W; Butler, Mark J; Shields, Jeffrey D

2014-08-01

60

Gene expression associated with compatible viral diseases in grapevine cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral diseases affect grapevine cultures without inducing any resistance response. Thus, these plants develop systemic diseases\\u000a and are chronically infected. Molecular events associated with viral compatible infections responsible for disease establishment\\u000a and symptoms development are poorly understood. In this study, we surveyed viral infection in grapevines at a transcriptional\\u000a level. Gene expression in the Vitis vinifera red wine cultivars Carmnre

C. Espinoza; A. Vega; C. Medina; K. Schlauch; G. Cramer; P. Arce-Johnson

2007-01-01

61

ENGINEERING ASPECTS OF WATERBORNE DISEASE OUTBREAK INVESTIGATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Two recent headline causing events have reinforced the concern about the spread f diseases through waterborne routes. hese events include the current cholera epidemic in the Western Hemisphere that has caused more than 750,000 reported case of cholera through April, 1993, and the...

62

Biological warfare training: infectious disease outbreak differentiation criteria.  

PubMed

The threat of biological terrorism and warfare may increase as the availability of weaponizable agents increases, the relative production costs of these agents decrease, and, most importantly, there exist terrorist groups willing to use them. Therefore, an important consideration during the current period of heightened surveillance for emerging infectious diseases is the ability to differentiate between natural and intentional outbreaks. Certain attributes of a disease outbreak, although perhaps not pathognomonic for a biological attack when considered singly, may combine to provide convincing evidence of intentional causation. These potentially differentiating criteria include proportion of combatants at risk, temporal patterns of illness onset, number of cases, clinical presentation, strain/variant, economic impact, geographic location, morbidity/mortality, antimicrobial resistance patterns, seasonal distribution, zoonotic potential, residual infectivity/toxicity, prevention/therapeutic potential, route of exposure, weather/climate conditions, incubation period, and concurrence with belligerent activities of potential adversaries. PMID:9575761

Noah, D L; Sobel, A L; Ostroff, S M; Kildew, J A

1998-04-01

63

Biological warfare training. Infectious disease outbreak differentiation criteria.  

PubMed

The threat of biological terrorism and warfare may increase as the availability of weaponizable agents increase, the relative production costs of these agents decrease, and, most importantly, there exist terrorist groups willing to use them. Therefore, an important consideration during the current emphasis of heightened surveillance for emerging infectious diseases is the capability to differentiate between natural and intentional outbreaks. Certain attributes of a disease outbreak, while perhaps not pathognomic for a biological attack when considered singly, may in combination with other attributes provide convincing evidence for intentional causation. These potentially differentiating criteria include proportion of combatants at risk, temporal patterns of illness onset, number of cases, clinical presentation, strain/variant, economic impact, geographic location, morbidity/mortality, antimicrobial resistance patterns, seasonal distribution, zoonotic potential, residual infectivity/toxicity, prevention/therapeutic potential, route of exposure, weather/climate conditions, incubation period, and concurrence with belligerent activities of potential adversaries. PMID:10681967

Noah, D L; Sobel, A L; Ostroff, S M; Kildew, J A

1999-01-01

64

Information extraction for enhanced access to disease outbreak reports.  

PubMed

Document search is generally based on individual terms in the document. However, for collections within limited domains it is possible to provide more powerful access tools. This paper describes a system designed for collections of reports of infectious disease outbreaks. The system, Proteus-BIO, automatically creates a table of outbreaks, with each table entry linked to the document describing that outbreak; this makes it possible to use database operations such as selection and sorting to find relevant documents. Proteus-BIO consists of a Web crawler which gathers relevant documents; an information extraction engine which converts the individual outbreak events to a tabular database; and a database browser which provides access to the events and, through them, to the documents. The information extraction engine uses sets of patterns and word classes to extract the information about each event. Preparing these patterns and word classes has been a time-consuming manual operation in the past, but automated discovery tools now make this task significantly easier. A small study comparing the effectiveness of the tabular index with conventional Web search tools demonstrated that users can find substantially more documents in a given time period with Proteus-BIO. PMID:12755518

Grishman, Ralph; Huttunen, Silja; Yangarber, Roman

2002-08-01

65

Lumpy skin disease in cattle in central Ethiopia: outbreak investigation and isolation and molecular detection of the virus.  

PubMed

The study was a combination of two investigations into active outbreaks of lumpy skin disease (LSD) in cattle in central Ethiopia and a retrospective analysis of outbreak reports between January 2007 and December 2011 covering the entire country. Active outbreaks were investigated in four districts of central Ethiopia: Adama, Wenji, Mojo and Welenchiti. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to acquire data at individual and herd levels, and tissue samples were collected for viral isolation and characterisation. The retrospective analyses showed that, during the five-year period, a total of 1,675 outbreaks were reported, with 62,176 cases and 4,372 deaths. The highest number of outbreaks was reported in Oromia (1,066), followed by Amhara (365) and the Southern Nations, Nationalities and People's Region (123). Outbreaks were more frequently observed between September and December and the highest number of outbreaks was reported in 2010. During the period studied, a total of 2,174 local zebu cattle were clinically examined and morbidity and mortality rates of 13.61% (296) and 4.97% (108) were recorded, respectively. Analysis of the active outbreaks revealed a relatively consistent morbidity rate, with the highest observed in Adama (15.38%), followed by Wenji (10.26%). The highest mortality rates were also observed in Adama (5.89%) and Wenji (3.42%). The LSD virus was isolated from 22 samples and all tested positive in polymerase chain reaction analysis. The disease was observed in the cattle regardless of previous vaccination with Kenyan sheep- and goat-pox vaccine; thus, vaccine efficacy was assessed under field conditions and the authors' findings, together with a possible remedy, are presented in this paper. PMID:25812211

Ayelet, G; Haftu, R; Jemberie, S; Belay, A; Gelaye, E; Sibhat, B; Skjerve, E; Asmare, K

2014-12-01

66

Two Different Epidemiological Scenarios of Border Disease in the Populations of Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra p. pyrenaica) after the First Disease Outbreaks  

PubMed Central

Since 2001 several outbreaks of a new disease associated with Border disease virus (BDV) infection have caused important declines in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) populations in the Pyrenees. The goal of this study was to analyze the post-outbreak BDV epidemiology in the first two areas affected by disease with the aim to establish if the infection has become endemic. We also investigated if BDV infected wild and domestic ruminants sharing habitat with chamois. Unexpectedly, we found different epidemiological scenarios in each population. Since the disease outbreaks, some chamois populations recuperated quickly, while others did not recover as expected. In chamois from the first areas, prevalence was high (73.47%) and constant throughout the whole study period and did not differ between chamois born before and after the BDV outbreak; in all, BDV was detected by RT-PCR in six chamois. In the other areas, prevalence was lower (52.79%) and decreased during the study period; as well, prevalence was significantly lower in chamois born after the disease outbreak. No BDV were detected in this population. A comparative virus neutralisation test performed with four BDV strains and one Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) strain showed that all the chamois had BDV-specific antibodies. Pestivirus antibodies were detected in all the rest of analyzed species, with low prevalence values in wild ruminants and moderate values in domestic ruminants. No viruses were detected in these species. These results confirm the hypothesis that outbreaks of BDV infection only affect the Pyrenean chamois, although other wild ruminants can occasionally be infected. In conclusion, two different scenarios have appeared since the first border disease outbreaks in Pyrenean chamois: on the one hand frequent BDV circulation with possible negative impact on population dynamics in some areas and on the other, lack of virus circulation and quick recovery of the chamois population. PMID:23251417

Fernández-Sirera, Laura; Cabezón, Oscar; Allepuz, Alberto; Rosell, Rosa; Riquelme, Cristina; Serrano, Emmanuel; Lavín, Santiago; Marco, Ignasi

2012-01-01

67

The 2011 West Nile disease outbreak in Sardinia region, Italy.  

PubMed

In 2011, strains of West Nile Virus (WNV) belonging to lineage 1 spread for the first time in Sardinia region (Italy). In contrast to previous WNV Italian incursion, the strains were found in Culex modestus and, more surprisingly, they were able to cause severe clinical signs in the affected birds. Based on the partial sequence of the NS3 encoding gene, the Sardinian WNV strains demonstrated a high similarity with the other WNV strains recently detected in the Mediterranean Basin. Nonetheless, the 2011 Sardinian sequences were grouped in a distinct sub-cluster. Both the NS3-249P and NS3-249T genotypes were detected in the Sardinian outbreaks confirming that the co-circulation of different genotypes in the affected population might be common for WNV as for many RNA viruses. No association, however, was observed between virulence and viral genotype. PMID:25842208

Monaco, Federica; Goffredo, Maria; Briguglio, Paolo; Pinoni, Chiara; Polci, Andrea; Iannetti, Simona; Marruchella, Giuseppe; Di Francesco, Gabriella; Di Gennaro, Anna Pia; Pais, Monica; Teodori, Liana; Bruno, Rossana; Catalani, Monica; Ruiu, Angelo; Lelli, Rossella; Savini, Giovanni

2015-03-31

68

Viral diseases of olive flounder in Korean hatcheries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to elucidate the state of diseases, especially viral diseases, and to prevent viral diseases from occurring in olive flounder hatcheries, a range of studies, including epidemiological study, were performed from 1997 to 2003. The location of the hatcheries investigated includes several representative sites in the east (Kangnung, Uljin, Pohang, Yangsan, Ulsan, Pusan), south (Wando, Changheung, Goheung, Yeosu, Namhae, Tongyeong, Geoje, Jeju) and west (Seosan, Kunsan, Gochang, Yeongkwang, Mokpo, Chindo) costal areas of the Korea Peninsula. A total of 2000 cases have been examined in 7 years, in which mortality caused by viral agents accounts for 22%, or 446 cases. Mortalities associated with viral infection considerably increased from 14% in 1997 to 27% in 2003. A variety of viral diseases were observed, and the occurrences of viral epidermal hyperplasia, viral ascites and viral deformity, viral nervous necrosis, and hirame rhabdoviral disease are 14%, 51%, 25%, and 8% respectively. By investigating the viral infection of broodstock flounder, the infection rate of marine birnavirus (MABV) in hatcheries was identified to be approximately 30%, therefore, it is highly necessary to acquire and keep non-infected broodstock fishes.

Oh, M.-J.; Jung, S.-J.; Kitamura, S.-I.; Kim, H.-Y.; Kang, S. Y.

2006-01-01

69

Respiratory disease in mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in Rwanda, 1990-2010: outbreaks, clinical course, and medical management.  

PubMed

Between 1990 and 2010, 18 outbreaks of respiratory disease occurred in Rwanda's wild human-habituated mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei). An outbreak was defined as clinically observable respiratory illness involving at least one third of all the gorillas in a family group (> 30% morbidity) over the course of at least 7 days. Outbreaks lasted 2 wk to 4 mo and affected up to five different gorilla family groups, either concurrently or sequentially. An outbreak was considered over if no further clinical illness was observed in the same or another group for at least 1 mo. Clinical signs varied from nasal discharge, sneezing, and mild intermittent coughing (mild), to spasmodic coughing, lethargy, and partial anorexia (moderate), to dyspnea, tachypnea, respiratory distress, weakness, complete anorexia, and occasionally death (severe). Nearly every mountain gorilla group habituated for tourism or research in Rwanda experienced at least one outbreak, and they may be increasing in frequency. In the first 15 yr of the review period 1990-2005, there were nine outbreaks involving 16 gorilla groups; in the last 5 yr of the review period, 2006-2010, there were nine outbreaks involving 11 groups. Although most gorillas recovered without treatment, 41 veterinary procedures were required to medically manage 35 severely ill individuals. Given the rise of mountain gorilla ecotourism in Rwanda, the possibility that respiratory disease results from contact with infected humans is of great concern, and both the etiology and epidemiology of this problem are active areas of research. The observed clinical signs, response to antimicrobial therapy among the sickest individuals, and postmortem findings are most consistent with viral upper respiratory tract infections complicated in some cases by secondary bacterial infections. The current gorilla visitation rules have been designed to minimize the risk of disease transmission between humans and wild human-habituated great apes. PMID:24450064

Spelman, Lucy H; Gilardi, Kirsten V K; Lukasik-Braum, Magdalena; Kinani, Jean-Felix; Nyirakaragire, Elisabeth; Lowenstine, Linda J; Cranfield, Michael R

2013-12-01

70

Molecular Epidemiology of Human Oral Chagas Disease Outbreaks in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Background Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, displays significant genetic variability revealed by six Discrete Typing Units (TcI-TcVI). In this pathology, oral transmission represents an emerging epidemiological scenario where different outbreaks associated to food/beverages consumption have been reported in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador and Venezuela. In Colombia, six human oral outbreaks have been reported corroborating the importance of this transmission route. Molecular epidemiology of oral outbreaks is barely known observing the incrimination of TcI, TcII, TcIV and TcV genotypes. Methodology and Principal Findings High-throughput molecular characterization was conducted performing MLMT (Multilocus Microsatellite Typing) and mtMLST (mitochondrial Multilocus Sequence Typing) strategies on 50 clones from ten isolates. Results allowed observing the occurrence of TcI, TcIV and mixed infection of distinct TcI genotypes. Thus, a majority of specific mitochondrial haplotypes and allelic multilocus genotypes associated to the sylvatic cycle of transmission were detected in the dataset with the foreseen presence of mitochondrial haplotypes and allelic multilocus genotypes associated to the domestic cycle of transmission. Conclusions These findings suggest the incrimination of sylvatic genotypes in the oral outbreaks occurred in Colombia. We observed patterns of super-infection and/or co-infection with a tailored association with the severe forms of myocarditis in the acute phase of the disease. The transmission dynamics of this infection route based on molecular epidemiology evidence was unraveled and the clinical and biological implications are discussed. PMID:23437405

Ramírez, Juan David; Montilla, Marleny; Cucunubá, Zulma M.; Floréz, Astrid Carolina; Zambrano, Pilar; Guhl, Felipe

2013-01-01

71

Business reactions to the 2001 foot and mouth disease outbreak in Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper focuses on two aspects of the 2001 foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreak in Scotland that have been largely ignored: first, business managers perceptions of the impact of FMD during and immediately after the outbreak; and second, reactions to the outbreak in terms of action taken by businesses and advice sought. A panel survey of non-farm businesses conducted

Wendy Kenyon; Alana Gilbert

2005-01-01

72

Outbreaks of Enteric Disease Associated with Animal Contact: Not Just a Foodborne Problem Anymore  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past 10 years, an increasing number of outbreaks of enteric disease associated with animals in public settings, such as fairs and petting zoos, have been reported. Fifty-five of these outbreaks that occurred in the United States during 1991- 2005 are reviewed in this article. Lessons learned from these outbreaks and recommendations for prevention are also discussed. Physicians should

Frederick J. Angulo; Nicole Steinmuller; Linda Demma; Jeff B. Bender; Millicent Eidson

2006-01-01

73

The 2014 Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa.  

PubMed

On 23 March 2014, the World Health Organization issued its first communiqué on a new outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD), which began in December 2013 in Guinée Forestière (Forested Guinea), the eastern sector of the Republic of Guinea. Located on the Atlantic coast of West Africa, Guinea is the first country in this geographical region in which an outbreak of EVD has occurred, leaving aside the single case reported in Ivory Coast in 1994. Cases have now also been confirmed across Guinea as well as in the neighbouring Republic of Liberia. The appearance of cases in the Guinean capital, Conakry, and the transit of another case through the Liberian capital, Monrovia, presents the first large urban setting for EVD transmission. By 20 April 2014, 242 suspected cases had resulted in a total of 147 deaths in Guinea and Liberia. The causative agent has now been identified as an outlier strain of Zaire Ebola virus. The full geographical extent and degree of severity of the outbreak, its zoonotic origins and its possible spread to other continents are sure to be subjects of intensive discussion over the next months. PMID:24795448

Gatherer, Derek

2014-08-01

74

Origin Detection During Food-borne Disease Outbreaks - A Case Study of the 2011 EHEC/HUS Outbreak in Germany.  

PubMed

The key challenge during food-borne disease outbreaks, e.g. the 2011 EHEC/HUS outbreak in Germany, is the design of efficient mitigation strategies based on a timely identification of the outbreak's spatial origin. Standard public health procedures typically use case-control studies and tracings along food shipping chains. These methods are time-consuming and suffer from biased data collected slowly in patient interviews. Here we apply a recently developed, network-theoretical method to identify the spatial origin of food-borne disease outbreaks. Thereby, the network captures the transportation routes of contaminated foods. The technique only requires spatial information on case reports regularly collected by public health institutions and a model for the underlying food distribution network. The approach is based on the idea of replacing the conventional geographic distance with an effective distance that is derived from the topological structure of the underlying food distribution network. We show that this approach can efficiently identify most probable epicenters of food-borne disease outbreaks. We assess and discuss the method in the context of the 2011 EHEC epidemic. Based on plausible assumptions on the structure of the national food distribution network, the approach can correctly localize the origin of the 2011 German EHEC/HUS outbreak. PMID:24818065

Manitz, Juliane; Kneib, Thomas; Schlather, Martin; Helbing, Dirk; Brockmann, Dirk

2014-01-01

75

Origin Detection During Food-borne Disease Outbreaks - A Case Study of the 2011 EHEC/HUS Outbreak in Germany  

PubMed Central

The key challenge during food-borne disease outbreaks, e.g. the 2011 EHEC/HUS outbreak in Germany, is the design of efficient mitigation strategies based on a timely identification of the outbreak's spatial origin. Standard public health procedures typically use case-control studies and tracings along food shipping chains. These methods are time-consuming and suffer from biased data collected slowly in patient interviews. Here we apply a recently developed, network-theoretical method to identify the spatial origin of food-borne disease outbreaks. Thereby, the network captures the transportation routes of contaminated foods. The technique only requires spatial information on case reports regularly collected by public health institutions and a model for the underlying food distribution network. The approach is based on the idea of replacing the conventional geographic distance with an effective distance that is derived from the topological structure of the underlying food distribution network. We show that this approach can efficiently identify most probable epicenters of food-borne disease outbreaks. We assess and discuss the method in the context of the 2011 EHEC epidemic. Based on plausible assumptions on the structure of the national food distribution network, the approach can correctly localize the origin of the 2011 German EHEC/HUS outbreak. PMID:24818065

Manitz, Juliane; Kneib, Thomas; Schlather, Martin; Helbing, Dirk; Brockmann, Dirk

2014-01-01

76

Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp.  

PubMed

The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change. PMID:20409453

Walker, Peter J; Winton, James R

2010-01-01

77

Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp  

PubMed Central

The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change. PMID:20409453

Walker, Peter J.; Winton, James R.

2010-01-01

78

Deadly Outbreak of Iron Storage Disease (ISD) in Italian Birds of the Family Turdidae  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT A widespread deadly outbreak occurred in captive birds belonging to the family Turdidae in Italy. The present study was performed on 46 dead birds coming from 3 small decoy-bird breeders in central Italy. Only Turdus pilaris, Turdus iliacus, Turdus philomelos and Turdus merula were affected. No other species of bird held by these breeders died. A change of diet before the hunting season was reported from all breeders. Full necropsy of the animals and histological investigations of representative tissue samples were performed. Microscopical examination showed marked iron deposits in liver samples. Bacteriological investigations and molecular analysis to exclude bacterial and viral diseases were carried out. Contamination of food pellet samples by mycotoxins and analysis to detect heavy metal contaminants in food pellet samples were considered. An interesting result was the high iron content found in food pellets. It was higher than that considered suitable for birds, especially for species susceptible to development iron storage disease (ISD). Taken together, the results suggested an outbreak of ISD caused by the high iron content of food given to the birds before the hunting season. The high mortality recorded only in species belonging to the family Turdidae suggests a genetic predisposition in the affected birds. PMID:24920545

PAVONE, Silvia; SALAMIDA, Sonia; PECORELLI, Ivan; ROSSI, Elisabetta; MANUALI, Elisabetta

2014-01-01

79

A past Haff disease outbreak associated with eating freshwater pomfret in South China  

PubMed Central

Background Haff disease is unexplained rhabdomyolysis caused by consumption of fishery products in the previous 24 h. It was first identified in Europe in 1924 but the condition is extremely rare in China. Here we describe a past outbreak of acute food borne muscle poisoning that occurred in Guangdong Province (South China) in 2009. Methods The first full outbreak of Haff disease reported in Jiangsu Province (East China) in 2010, indicated that the incidence of the disease may be increasing in China. We, therefore first retrospectively reviewed epidemiologic, trace-back, environmental studies, and laboratory analyses, including oral toxicity testing to ascertain risk and chemical analysis to identify toxin(s), from the 2009 Guangdong outbreak. Then we compared data from the 2009 outbreak with data from all other Haff disease outbreaks that were available. Results Clinical symptoms and laboratory findings indicated that the 2009 Guangdong outbreak disease was consistent with rhabdomyolysis. Epidemiologic, trace-back, environmental studies and laboratory analyses implied that the disease was caused by freshwater Pomfrets consumed prior to the onset of symptoms. We also identified common factors between the 2009 Guangdong outbreak and previous Haff disease outbreaks reported around the world, while as with other similar outbreaks, the exact etiological factor(s) of the disease remains unknown. Conclusions The 2009 Guangdong outbreak of ‘muscle poisoning’ was retrospectively identified as an outbreak of Haff disease. This comprised the highest number of cases reported in China thus far. Food borne diseases emerging in this unusual form and the irregular pattern of outbreaks present an ongoing public health risk, highlighting the need for improved surveillance and diagnostic methodology. PMID:23642345

2013-01-01

80

Overcoming barriers in evaluating outbreaks of diarrheal disease in resource poor settings: assessment of recurrent outbreaks in Chobe District, Botswana  

PubMed Central

Background Diarrheal illness remains a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality, with the majority of deaths occurring in children <5 years of age. Lack of resources often prohibits the evaluation of outbreak characteristics and limits progress in managing this important disease syndrome, particularly in Africa. Relying only on existing medical staff and hospital resources, we assess the use of a questionnaire survey tool to identify baseline outbreak characteristics during recurrent diarrheal outbreaks in Chobe, Botswana. Methods Using historical surveillance data (2006–2009), the temporal pattern of recurrent diarrheal outbreaks was evaluated among patients <5 years of age presenting to health facilities in Chobe District. Using a questionnaire survey tool, medical staff from selected health facilities assessed patients (all ages) presenting with diarrheal disease during two diarrheal outbreaks (2011–2012). Cluster analysis and classification and regression trees (CART) were used to evaluate patient attributes by outbreak. Results We identified a bimodal, annual pattern of acute diarrhea in children <5 years of age across years (Wilcox test, W?=?456.5, p?=?0.052). Historical outbreak periods appeared to coincide with major hydrological phenomena (rainfall/flood recession). Across health facilities, a significant percent of patients in the prospective study were in the ?5 age class (44%, n?=?515 and 35%, n?=?333 in the dry and wet season outbreaks, respectively). Cluster analysis of questionnaire data identified two main branches associated with patient age (<5 and ?5 years of age). Patients did not cluster by outbreak or village. CART examination identified sex and hospitalization as being most predictive of patients <5 years and household diarrhea in patients ?5 years. Water shortages and water quality deficiencies were identified in both outbreaks. Conclusions Diarrhea is a persistent, seasonally occurring disease in Chobe District, Botswana. Lack of variation in outbreak variables suggests the possibility of environmental drivers influencing outbreak dynamics and the potential importance of human-environmental linkages in this region. Public health strategy should be directed at securing improved water service and correcting water quality deficiencies. Public health education should include increased emphasis on sanitation practices when providing care to household members with diarrhea. While global diarrheal disease surveillance is directed at the under-5 age group, this may not be appropriate in areas of high HIV prevalence such as that found in our study area where a large immune-compromised population may warrant increased surveillance across age groups. The approach used in this study provided the first detailed characterization of diarrheal disease outbreaks in the area, an important starting point for immediate intervention and development of working hypotheses for future disease investigations. While data derived from this approach are necessarily limited, they identify critical information on outbreak characteristics in resource poor settings where data gaps continue and disease incidence is high. PMID:23971427

2013-01-01

81

Gaining insights into human viral diseases through mathematics.  

PubMed

Mathematical models have been recognized as powerful tools for providing new insights into the understanding of viral dynamics of human diseases at both the population and cellular levels. This article briefly reviews the role of mathematical models and their historical precedents for creating new knowledge of the mechanisms of disease pathogenesis, transmission, and control of some human viral infections. Future research in the modelling of infectious diseases will need to rely upon incorporation of the fundamental principles that govern viral dynamics in vivo as well as in the population. PMID:16721632

Moghadas, Seyed M

2006-01-01

82

Multiple circulating infections can mimic the early stages of viral hemorrhagic fevers and possible human exposure to filoviruses in Sierra Leone prior to the 2014 outbreak.  

PubMed

Lassa fever (LF) is a severe viral hemorrhagic fever caused by Lassa virus (LASV). The LF program at the Kenema Government Hospital (KGH) in Eastern Sierra Leone currently provides diagnostic services and clinical care for more than 500 suspected LF cases per year. Nearly two-thirds of suspected LF patients presenting to the LF Ward test negative for either LASV antigen or anti-LASV immunoglobulin M (IgM), and therefore are considered to have a non-Lassa febrile illness (NLFI). The NLFI patients in this study were generally severely ill, which accounts for their high case fatality rate of 36%. The current studies were aimed at determining possible causes of severe febrile illnesses in non-LF cases presenting to the KGH, including possible involvement of filoviruses. A seroprevalence survey employing commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests revealed significant IgM and IgG reactivity against dengue virus, chikungunya virus, West Nile virus (WNV), Leptospira, and typhus. A polymerase chain reaction-based survey using sera from subjects with acute LF, evidence of prior LASV exposure, or NLFI revealed widespread infection with Plasmodium falciparum malaria in febrile patients. WNV RNA was detected in a subset of patients, and a 419 nt amplicon specific to filoviral L segment RNA was detected at low levels in a single patient. However, 22% of the patients presenting at the KGH between 2011 and 2014 who were included in this survey registered anti-Ebola virus (EBOV) IgG or IgM, suggesting prior exposure to this agent. The 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is already the deadliest and most widely dispersed outbreak of its kind on record. Serological evidence reported here for possible human exposure to filoviruses in Sierra Leone prior to the current EVD outbreak supports genetic analysis that EBOV may have been present in West Africa for some time prior to the 2014 outbreak. PMID:25531344

Boisen, Matthew L; Schieffelin, John S; Goba, Augustine; Oottamasathien, Darin; Jones, Abigail B; Shaffer, Jeffrey G; Hastie, Kathryn M; Hartnett, Jessica N; Momoh, Mambu; Fullah, Mohammed; Gabiki, Michael; Safa, Sidiki; Zandonatti, Michelle; Fusco, Marnie; Bornholdt, Zach; Abelson, Dafna; Gire, Stephen K; Andersen, Kristian G; Tariyal, Ridhi; Stremlau, Mathew; Cross, Robert W; Geisbert, Joan B; Pitts, Kelly R; Geisbert, Thomas W; Kulakoski, Peter; Wilson, Russell B; Henderson, Lee; Sabeti, Pardis C; Grant, Donald S; Garry, Robert F; Saphire, Erica O; Branco, Luis M; Khan, Sheik Humarr

2015-02-01

83

Occurrence and phylogenetic analysis of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in outbreaks of respiratory disease in Norway  

PubMed Central

Background Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is one of the major pathogens involved in the bovine respiratory disease (BRD) complex. The seroprevalence to BRSV in Norwegian cattle herds is high, but its role in epidemics of respiratory disease is unclear. The aims of the study were to investigate the etiological role of BRSV and other respiratory viruses in epidemics of BRD and to perform phylogenetic analysis of Norwegian BRSV strains. Results BRSV infection was detected either serologically and/or virologically in 18 (86%) of 21 outbreaks and in most cases as a single viral agent. When serology indicated that bovine coronavirus and/or bovine parainfluenza virus 3 were present, the number of BRSV positive animals in the herd was always higher, supporting the view of BRSV as the main pathogen. Sequencing of the G gene of BRSV positive samples showed that the current circulating Norwegian BRSVs belong to genetic subgroup II, along with other North European isolates. One isolate from an outbreak in Norway in 1976 was also investigated. This strain formed a separate branch in subgroup II, clearly different from the current Scandinavian sequences. The currently circulating BRSV could be divided into two different strains that were present in the same geographical area at the same time. The sequence variations between the two strains were in an antigenic important part of the G protein. Conclusion The results demonstrated that BRSV is the most important etiological agent of epidemics of BRD in Norway and that it often acts as the only viral agent. The phylogenetic analysis of the Norwegian strains of BRSV and several previously published isolates supported the theory of geographical and temporal clustering of BRSV. PMID:24423030

2014-01-01

84

Ménière’s Disease Is a Viral Neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphological and clinical evidence supports a viral neuropathy in Ménière’s disease (MD). Quantitative examination of 11 sectioned temporal bones (TBs) from 8 patients with a history of MD revealed a significant loss of vestibular ganglion cells in both the endolymph hydropic (EH) and non-EH ears. Transmission electron microscopy of vestibular ganglion cells excised from a patient with MD revealed viral

Richard R. Gacek

2009-01-01

85

Health Care–Acquired Viral Respiratory Diseases  

PubMed Central

Health care–associated viral respiratory infections, common among hospitalized children, also occur among adults and institutionalized persons and result in increased patient morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. Approximately 20% of patients with health care–associated pneumonia have viral respiratory infections, with 70% of these infections caused by adenovirus, influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).1 These infections typically reflect the level of viral activity within the community.1,2 This article focuses on the epidemiology, transmission, and control of health care–associated RSV and influenza virus. PMID:21316002

Goins, William P.; Talbot, H. Keipp; Talbot, Thomas R.

2014-01-01

86

The contribution of molecular epidemiology to the understanding and control of viral diseases of salmonid aquaculture  

PubMed Central

Molecular epidemiology is a science which utilizes molecular biology to define the distribution of disease in a population (descriptive epidemiology) and relies heavily on integration of traditional (or analytical) epidemiological approaches to identify the etiological determinants of this distribution. The study of viral pathogens of aquaculture has provided many exciting opportunities to apply such tools. This review considers the extent to which molecular epidemiological studies have contributed to better understanding and control of disease in aquaculture, drawing on examples of viral diseases of salmonid fish of commercial significance including viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), salmonid alphavirus (SAV) and infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV). Significant outcomes of molecular epidemiological studies include: Improved taxonomic classification of viruses A better understanding of the natural distribution of viruses An improved understanding of the origins of viral pathogens in aquaculture An improved understanding of the risks of translocation of pathogens outwith their natural host range An increased ability to trace the source of new disease outbreaks Development of a basis for ensuring development of appropriate diagnostic tools An ability to classify isolates and thus target future research aimed at better understanding biological function While molecular epidemiological studies have no doubt already made a significant contribution in these areas, the advent of new technologies such as pyrosequencing heralds a quantum leap in the ability to generate descriptive molecular sequence data. The ability of molecular epidemiology to fulfil its potential to translate complex disease pathways into relevant fish health policy is thus unlikely to be limited by the generation of descriptive molecular markers. More likely, full realisation of the potential to better explain viral transmission pathways will be dependent on the ability to assimilate and analyse knowledge from a range of more traditional information sources. The development of methods to systematically record and share such epidemiologically important information thus represents a major challenge for fish health professionals in making the best future use of molecular data in supporting fish health policy and disease control. PMID:21466673

2011-01-01

87

Asymmetry in the presence of migration stabilizes multistrain disease outbreaks  

PubMed Central

We study the effect of migration between coupled populations, or patches, on the stability properties of multistrain disease dynamics. The epidemic model used in this work displays a Hopf bifurcation to oscillations in a single well mixed population. It is shown numerically that migration between two non-identical patches stabilizes the endemic steady state, delaying the onset of large amplitude outbreaks and reducing the total number of infections. This result is motivated by analyzing generic Hopf bifurcations with different frequencies and with diffusive coupling between them. Stabilization of the steady state is again seen, indicating that our observation in the full multistrain model is based on qualitative characteristics of the dynamics rather than on details of the disease model. PMID:20464521

Bianco, Simone; Shaw, Leah B.

2010-01-01

88

Modelling disease outbreaks in realistic urban social networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most mathematical models for the spread of disease use differential equations based on uniform mixing assumptions or ad hoc models for the contact process. Here we explore the use of dynamic bipartite graphs to model the physical contact patterns that result from movements of individuals between specific locations. The graphs are generated by large-scale individual-based urban traffic simulations built on actual census, land-use and population-mobility data. We find that the contact network among people is a strongly connected small-world-like graph with a well-defined scale for the degree distribution. However, the locations graph is scale-free, which allows highly efficient outbreak detection by placing sensors in the hubs of the locations network. Within this large-scale simulation framework, we then analyse the relative merits of several proposed mitigation strategies for smallpox spread. Our results suggest that outbreaks can be contained by a strategy of targeted vaccination combined with early detection without resorting to mass vaccination of a population.

Eubank, Stephen; Guclu, Hasan; Anil Kumar, V. S.; Marathe, Madhav V.; Srinivasan, Aravind; Toroczkai, Zoltán; Wang, Nan

2004-05-01

89

Antiviral agents for the control of viral diseases*  

PubMed Central

Infectious viral diseases are an important worldwide problem and as a result of more efficient epidemiological studies and improved techniques of viral diagnosis ”new” diseases are periodically identified. More importantly, as we learn to control cancer and perform tissue and organ transplants, the immunosuppressed patient is at greater risk of viral infection. There are currently very few generally accepted antiviral agents, but recent research efforts are encouraging. The status of the approved agents and of those showing the greatest promise is discussed in this article. PMID:6172211

Galasso, George J.

1981-01-01

90

Climate teleconnections and recent patterns of human and animal disease outbreaks  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent clusters of outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases (Rift Valley fever and chikungunya) in Africa and parts of the Indian Ocean islands illustrate how interannual climate variability influences the changing risk patterns of disease outbreaks. Extremes in rainfall (drought and flood) during the p...

91

Detecting Disease Outbreaks in Mass Gatherings Using Internet Data  

PubMed Central

Background Mass gatherings, such as music festivals and religious events, pose a health care challenge because of the risk of transmission of communicable diseases. This is exacerbated by the fact that participants disperse soon after the gathering, potentially spreading disease within their communities. The dispersion of participants also poses a challenge for traditional surveillance methods. The ubiquitous use of the Internet may enable the detection of disease outbreaks through analysis of data generated by users during events and shortly thereafter. Objective The intent of the study was to develop algorithms that can alert to possible outbreaks of communicable diseases from Internet data, specifically Twitter and search engine queries. Methods We extracted all Twitter postings and queries made to the Bing search engine by users who repeatedly mentioned one of nine major music festivals held in the United Kingdom and one religious event (the Hajj in Mecca) during 2012, for a period of 30 days and after each festival. We analyzed these data using three methods, two of which compared words associated with disease symptoms before and after the time of the festival, and one that compared the frequency of these words with those of other users in the United Kingdom in the days following the festivals. Results The data comprised, on average, 7.5 million tweets made by 12,163 users, and 32,143 queries made by 1756 users from each festival. Our methods indicated the statistically significant appearance of a disease symptom in two of the nine festivals. For example, cough was detected at higher than expected levels following the Wakestock festival. Statistically significant agreement (chi-square test, P<.01) between methods and across data sources was found where a statistically significant symptom was detected. Anecdotal evidence suggests that symptoms detected are indeed indicative of a disease that some users attributed to being at the festival. Conclusions Our work shows the feasibility of creating a public health surveillance system for mass gatherings based on Internet data. The use of multiple data sources and analysis methods was found to be advantageous for rejecting false positives. Further studies are required in order to validate our findings with data from public health authorities. PMID:24943128

Yom-Tov, Elad; Cox, Ingemar J; McKendry, Rachel A

2014-01-01

92

Warmer temperatures increase disease transmission and outbreak intensity in a host-pathogen system.  

PubMed

While rising global temperatures are increasingly affecting both species and their biotic interactions, the debate about whether global warming will increase or decrease disease transmission between individuals remains far from resolved. This may stem from the lack of empirical data. Using a tractable and easily manipulated insect host-pathogen system, we conducted a series of field and laboratory experiments to examine how increased temperatures affect disease transmission using the crop-defoliating pest, the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and its species-specific baculovirus, which causes a fatal infection. To examine the effects of temperature on disease transmission in the field, we manipulated baculovirus density and temperature. As infection occurs when a host consumes leaf tissue on which the pathogen resides, baculovirus density was controlled by placing varying numbers of infected neonate larvae on experimental plants. Temperature was manipulated by using open-top chambers (OTCs). The laboratory experiments examined how increased temperatures affect fall armyworm feeding and development rates, which provide insight into how host feeding behaviour and physiology may affect transmission. Disease transmission and outbreak intensity, measured as the cumulative fraction infected during an epizootic, increased at higher temperatures. However, there was no appreciable change in the mean transmission rate of the disease, which is often the focus of empirical and theoretical research. Instead, the coefficient of variation (CV) associated with the transmission rate shrunk. As the CV decreased, heterogeneity in disease risk across individuals declined, which resulted in an increase in outbreak intensity. In the laboratory, increased temperatures increased feeding rates and decreased developmental times. As the host consumes the virus along with the leaf tissue on which it resides, increased feeding rate is likely to increase the probability of an individual consuming virus-infected leaf tissue. On the other hand, decreased developmental time increases the sloughing of midgut cells, which is predicted to hinder viral infection. Increases in outbreak intensity or epizootic severity, as the climate warms, may lead to changes in the long-term dynamics of pests whose populations are strongly affected by host-pathogen interactions. Overall, this work demonstrates that the usual assumptions governing these effects, via changes in the mean transmission rate alone, may not be correct. PMID:24219180

Elderd, Bret D; Reilly, James R

2013-11-12

93

Using dimension reduction to improve outbreak predictability of multistrain diseases  

E-print Network

Multistrain diseases have multiple distinct coexisting serotypes (strains). For some diseases, such as dengue fever, the serotypes interact by antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), in which infection with a single serotype is asymptomatic, but contact with a second serotype leads to higher viral load and greater infectivity. We present and analyze a dynamic compartmental model for multiple serotypes exhibiting ADE. Using center manifold techniques, we show how the dynamics rapidly collapses to a lower dimensional system. Using the constructed reduced model, we can explain previously observed synchrony between certain classes of primary and secondary infectives (Schwartz et al., Phys. Rev. E 72: 066201, 2005). Additionally, we show numerically that the center manifold equations apply even to noisy systems. Both deterministic and stochastic versions of the model enable prediction of asymptomatic individuals that are difficult to track during an epidemic. We also show how this technique may be applicable to other multistrain disease models, such as those with cross-immunity.

Leah B. Shaw; Lora Billings; Ira B. Schwartz

2006-07-12

94

A Call to Action to Enhance Filovirus Disease Outbreak Preparedness and Response  

PubMed Central

The frequency and magnitude of recognized and declared filovirus-disease outbreaks have increased in recent years, while pathogenic filoviruses are potentially ubiquitous throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Meanwhile, the efficiency and effectiveness of filovirus-disease outbreak preparedness and response efforts are currently limited by inherent challenges and persistent shortcomings. This paper delineates some of these challenges and shortcomings and provides a proposal for enhancing future filovirus-disease outbreak preparedness and response. The proposal serves as a call for prompt action by the organizations that comprise filovirus-disease outbreak response teams, namely, Ministries of Health of outbreak-prone countries, the World Health Organization, Médecins Sans Frontières, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention—Atlanta, and others. PMID:25271875

Roddy, Paul

2014-01-01

95

Surveillance for Waterborne Disease Outbreaks and Other Health Events Associated with Recreational Water -United States, 2007-2008  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: Since 1978, CDC, EPA, and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have collaborated on the Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) to capture data on waterborne disease outbreaks associated with recreational water. WBDOSS is the prima...

96

Estimating Costs Associated with a Community Outbreak of Meningococcal Disease in a Colombian Caribbean City  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Meningococcal disease is a serious and potentially life-threatening infection that is caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis), and it can cause meningitis, meningococcaemia outbreaks and epidemics. The disease is fatal in 9-12% of cases and with a death rate of up to 40% among patients with meningococcaemia. The objective of this study was to estimate the costs of a meningococcal outbreak that occurred in a Caribbean city of Colombia. We contacted experts involved in the outbreak and asked them specific questions about the diagnosis and treatment for meningococcal cases during the outbreak. Estimates of costs of the outbreak were also based on extensive review of medical records available during the outbreak. The costs associated with the outbreak were divided into the cost of the disease response phase and the cost of the disease surveillance phase. The costs associated with the outbreak control and surveillance were expressed in US$ (2011) as cost per 1,000 inhabitants. The average age of patients was 4.6 years (SD 3.5); 50% of the cases died; 50% of the cases were reported to have meningitis (3/6); 33% were diagnosed with meningococcaemia and myocarditis (2/6); 50% of the cases had bacteraemia (3/6); 66% of the cases had a culture specimen positive for Neisseria meningitidis; 5 of the 6 cases had RT-PCR positive for N. meningitidis. All N. meningitidis were serogroup B; 50 doses of ceftriaxone were administered as prophylaxis. Vaccine was not available at the time. The costs associated with control of the outbreak were estimated at US$ 0.8 per 1,000 inhabitants, disease surveillance at US$ 4.1 per 1,000 inhabitants, and healthcare costs at US$ 5.1 per 1,000 inhabitants. The costs associated with meningococcal outbreaks are substantial, and the outbreaks should be prevented. The mass chemoprophylaxis implemented helped control the outbreak. PMID:25395916

Pinzón-Redondo, Hernando; Coronell-Rodriguez, Wilfrido; Díaz-Martinez, Inés; Guzmán-Corena, Ángel; Constenla, Dagna

2014-01-01

97

Surveillance for Waterborne Disease Outbreaks Associated with Drinking Water United States, 2007-2008  

EPA Science Inventory

Problem/Condition: Since 1971, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have maintained a collaborative Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOS...

98

Emerging viral diseases of livestock in the developing world.  

PubMed

Emerging and reemerging viral diseases of livestock and human beings are in sharp rise in recent years. Importantly, many of these viruses, including influenza, Hendra, Nipah and corona are of zoonotic importance. Several viral diseases of livestock such as bluetongue, peste des petits ruminants, camel pox, equine infectious anaemia, chicken anaemia and sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever are crossing their traditional boundaries. Emergence of new serotypes and variant forms of viruses as in the case of blue tongue virus, avian infectious bronchitis virus, Newcastle disease virus adds additional level of complexity. The increased incidence of emerging and reemerging viral diseases could be attributed to several factors including deforestation and surge in direct contact of livestock and humans with wild animals and birds. This special issue of "Indian Journal of Virology" is focused on diverse aspects of above diseases: isolation and characterization of viruses, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, prevention measures and vaccine development. PMID:24426290

Bayry, Jagadeesh

2013-12-01

99

Chikungunya: an emerging and spreading arthropod-borne viral disease.  

PubMed

The virus causing Chikungunya disease was identified over 50 years ago; however, because the disease appeared only in developing countries, little research on it has been done. Research interest in the disease increased after an important epidemiological outbreak occurred in 2005 on the French metropolitan island of La Reunion located in the south-eastern part of the Indian Ocean. In 2007, a smaller outbreak of Chikungunya developed in the north-eastern part of Italy made possible by immigration of a viremic patient from the Indian Ocean area and the enormous population of Aedes albopictus in Italy. Currently, Chikungunya is spreading in Southeast Asian aspects, clinical pictures, diagnosis and treatment of the disease caused by Chikungunya virus. PMID:20009275

Cavrini, Francesca; Gaibani, Paolo; Pierro, Anna Maria; Rossini, Giada; Landini, Maria Paola; Sambri, Vittorio

2009-01-01

100

Ebola Virus Disease The current outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in West Africa has involved the  

E-print Network

Ebola Virus Disease The current outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in West Africa has involved the countries of Sierra Leone, Liberia, Guinea, and Nigeria. This has become the largest outbreak of Ebola want to make sure you have the most accurate information about this illness. What is Ebola Virus

MacAdam, Keith

101

Seafood-associated disease outbreaks in New York, 1980–1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Seafood-associated disease outbreaks in New York were examined to describe their epidemiology and to identify areas for prevention and control efforts.Methods: We reviewed reports submitted to the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) of seafood-associated outbreaks occurring from January 1, 1980, through December 31, 1994.Results: During 1980–1994, 339 seafood-associated outbreaks were reported, resulting in 3959 illnesses, 76 hospitalizations,

Barbara J Wallace; John J Guzewich; Michael Cambridge; Sean Altekruse; Dale L Morse

1999-01-01

102

Planning for smallpox outbreaks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mathematical models of viral transmission and control are important tools for assessing the threat posed by deliberate release of the smallpox virus and the best means of containing an outbreak. Models must balance biological realism against limitations of knowledge, and uncertainties need to be accurately communicated to policy-makers. Smallpox poses the particular challenge that key biological, social and spatial factors affecting disease spread in contemporary populations must be elucidated largely from historical studies undertaken before disease eradication in 1979. We review the use of models in smallpox planning within the broader epidemiological context set by recent outbreaks of both novel and re-emerging pathogens.

Ferguson, Neil M.; Keeling, Matt J.; John Edmunds, W.; Gani, Raymond; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Anderson, Roy M.; Leach, Steve

2003-10-01

103

Adoptive cellular immunotherapy for viral diseases.  

PubMed

Viral infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality after pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Adoptive transfer of donor-derived virus-specific T cells can reconstitute antiviral immunity in recipients and be effective both in preventing and treating cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus and adenovirus infection. Current efforts are focused on providing protection toward a broader range of viruses safely, rapidly and effectively. PMID:17982497

Fujita, Y; Rooney, C M; Heslop, H E

2008-01-01

104

Assessment of viral interference using a chemical receptor blocker against avian influenza and establishment of protection levels in field outbreaks.  

PubMed

Avian influenza (AI) currently poses a serious problem for poultry farming worldwide. Its prevalence in Mexico, despite vaccination, has highlighted the need for new approaches to control AI and reduce the economic losses associated with its occurrence in susceptible birds. The different interactions between AI viruses (AIV) and cellular receptors have been described, along with the affinity of some viruses for certain types of species-specific receptors. This receptor-ligand specificity, combined with an understanding of viral interference processes and their relevance in different viral models, permits the assessment of new strategies for controlling AIV. The present study was designed to investigate the feasibility of using viral interference as a novel approach for AIV control, taking advantage of the high receptor-ligand specificity between AIV and animal cells. The results from field outbreak tests and cell culture analysis along with measurements of specific antibodies against AIV demonstrate that the mortality associated with AI infection can be reduced by using a receptor blocker against AIV. This receptor blocker approach also has the potential to be used on an industrial scale for the efficient control of AIV. PMID:24440209

Fernandez-Siurob, I; Retana, M A; Tellez, G; Arroyo-Navarro, L; Bañuelos-Hernandez, B; Castellanos-Huerta, I

2014-03-01

105

Epidemiological and viral genomic sequence analysis of the 2014 ebola outbreak reveals clustered transmission.  

PubMed

Using Ebolavirus genomic and epidemiological data, we conducted the first joint analysis in which both data types were used to fit dynamic transmission models for an ongoing outbreak. Our results indicate that transmission is clustered, highlighting a potential bias in medical demand forecasts, and provide the first empirical estimate of underreporting. PMID:25516185

Scarpino, Samuel V; Iamarino, Atila; Wells, Chad; Yamin, Dan; Ndeffo-Mbah, Martial; Wenzel, Natasha S; Fox, Spencer J; Nyenswah, Tolbert; Altice, Frederick L; Galvani, Alison P; Meyers, Lauren Ancel; Townsend, Jeffrey P

2015-04-01

106

Two outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease in Bolton Health District  

PubMed Central

In 1988, there were two outbreaks of legionellosis in Bolton Health District. Altogether 37 cases of Legionnaires' disease and 23 cases of non-pneumonic legionellosis were identified. Twenty-five patients with Legionnaires' disease were associated with an engineering plant, 4 with Bolton town centre, and 8 with both the plant and town centre. Twenty-two people with non-pneumonic legionellosis were linked with the engineering plant and one with the plant and the town centre. A case-control study carried out among 37 employees with legionellosis and 109 control subjects at the plant showed that infection was associated with one of the 15 cooling towers on the site. Legionella pneumophila indistinguishable by serological and genetic typing methods was isolated from this cooling tower and from sputum samples from two patients. In the town centre, no one tower was linked with infection and L. pneumophila was not cultured from any of the nine towers identified. Control measures were implemented and to date there have been no further cases of legionellosis associated with Bolton Health District. PMID:2323354

Mitchell, E.; O'Mahony, M.; Watson, J. M.; Lynch, D.; Joseph, C.; Quigley, C.; Aston, R.; Constable, G. N.; Farrand, R. J.; Maxwell, S.; Hutchinson, D. N.; Craske, J.; Lee, J. V.

1990-01-01

107

Phylogenetic analysis of strains of Orf virus isolated from two outbreaks of the disease in sheep in Greece  

PubMed Central

Background Although orf is endemic around the world, there are few descriptions of Orf virus strains and comparisons of these strains. We report the sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the partial B2L gene of Orf virus from two outbreaks of the disease in Greece. The first was an outbreak of genital form of the disease in a flock imported from France, whilst the second was an outbreak of the disease in the udder skin of ewes and around the mouth of lambs in an indigenous flock. Results Phylogenetic analysis was performed on a part (498 bp) of the B2L gene of 35 Parapoxvirus isolates, including the two Orf virus isolates recovered from each of the two outbreaks in the present study. This analysis revealed that the maximum nucleotide and amino-acid variation amongst Orf virus strains worldwide (n = 33) was 8.1% and 9.6%, respectively. The homology of the nucleotide and amino-acid sequences between the two Greek isolates was 99.0% and 98.8%, respectively. The two Greek isolates clustered only with Orf virus strains. Conclusions We suggest that there can be differences between strains based on their geographical origin. However, differences in the origin of strains or in the clinical presentation of the disease may not be associated with their pathogenicity. More work is required to determine if differing clinical presentations are linked to viral strain differences or if other factors, e.g., flock immunity, method of exposure or genetic susceptibility, are more important to determine the clinical presentation of the infection. PMID:22260526

2012-01-01

108

Critical response to post-outbreak vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease  

E-print Network

Critical response to post-outbreak vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease G. Chowell, A. L. Rivas, N. W. Hengartner, J. M. Hyman, and C. Castillo-Chavez Abstract. The effectiveness of vaccinations initiated after the onset of an infectious epidemic (post-outbreak vaccinations or POV) was retrospectively

Chowell, Gerardo

109

A method for detecting and characterizing outbreaks of infectious disease from clinical reports.  

PubMed

Outbreaks of infectious disease can pose a significant threat to human health. Thus, detecting and characterizing outbreaks quickly and accurately remains an important problem. This paper describes a Bayesian framework that links clinical diagnosis of individuals in a population to epidemiological modeling of disease outbreaks in the population. Computer-based diagnosis of individuals who seek healthcare is used to guide the search for epidemiological models of population disease that explain the pattern of diagnoses well. We applied this framework to develop a system that detects influenza outbreaks from emergency department (ED) reports. The system diagnoses influenza in individuals probabilistically from evidence in ED reports that are extracted using natural language processing. These diagnoses guide the search for epidemiological models of influenza that explain the pattern of diagnoses well. Those epidemiological models with a high posterior probability determine the most likely outbreaks of specific diseases; the models are also used to characterize properties of an outbreak, such as its expected peak day and estimated size. We evaluated the method using both simulated data and data from a real influenza outbreak. The results provide support that the approach can detect and characterize outbreaks early and well enough to be valuable. We describe several extensions to the approach that appear promising. PMID:25181466

Cooper, Gregory F; Villamarin, Ricardo; Rich Tsui, Fu-Chiang; Millett, Nicholas; Espino, Jeremy U; Wagner, Michael M

2015-02-01

110

Rapid quantitative detection of Aeromonas hydrophila strains associated with disease outbreaks in catfish aquaculture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the summer of 2009, a new strain of Aeromonas hydrophila was implicated in severe disease outbreaks in farm-raised catfish in Alabama, Arkansas and Mississippi. These outbreaks mostly afflicted large fish and resulted in considerable losses in short periods. Given the rapid onset and biosecurity ...

111

Impact of the 2001 Foot-and-Mouth Disease Outbreak in Britain: Implications for Rural Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper assesses the impact of the 2001 foot-and-mouth disease outbreak in terms of its implications for the discipline of rural studies. In particular, it focuses on the position of agriculture in rural economy and society, the standing of the government after its management of the outbreak, and the performance of the new devolved regional…

Scott, Alister; Christie, Michael; Midmore, Peter

2004-01-01

112

Case report: epithelial intracytoplasmic herpes viral inclusions associated with an outbreak of duck virus enteritis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Several muscovy ducks from a free-roaming flock of 65 muscovy and mallard ducks died over a 3-week period. Three muscovy ducks were necropsied. Gross and microscopic changes were compatible with duck virus enteritis, and the virus was isolated. In addition to intranuclear viral inclusion bodies in several tissues, intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were present in esophageal and cloacal epithelium, By electron microscopy, the membrane-bound intracytoplasmic inclusions were found to contain enveloped herpesvirus, and nuclei contained herpes viral nucleocapsids.

Barr, B.C.; Jessup, David A.; Docherty, Douglas E.; Lownestine, L.J.

1992-01-01

113

Outbreak of Legionnaires' disease among cruise ship passengers exposed to a contaminated whirlpool spa  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryBackground Outbreaks of travel-related Legionnaires' disease present a public-health challenge since rapid, sensitive, and specific diagnostic tests are not widely used and because detection of clusters of disease among travellers is difficult. We report an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease among cruise ship passengers that occurred in April, 1994, but that went unrecognised until July, 1994.Methods After rapid diagnosis of Legionnaires'

D. B Jernigan; J Hofmann; M. S Cetron; J. P Nuorti; B. S Fields; R. F Benson; R. F Breiman; H. B Lipman; R. J Carter; C. A Genese; S. M Paul; P. H Edelstein; I. C Guerrero

1996-01-01

114

Classifying infectious disease outbreaks to improve timeliness and efficiency of response.  

PubMed

Following the intentional dissemination of B.anthracis through the U.S. Postal Service in 2001, use of the term "naturally occurring" to classify some infectious disease outbreaks has become more evident. However, this term is neither a scientific nor an epidemiologic classification that is helpful in describing either the source or the mode of transmission in outbreaks. In this paper, the authors provide examples of how and when the public health community has recognized potentially flawed or misleading taxonomy in the past and taken steps to improve the taxonomy's accuracy and usefulness. We also offer examples of alternative terms for classifying outbreaks since inaccurate descriptions of outbreaks could potentially lead to a flawed or incomplete set of underlying assumptions about the outbreak's causal factors. This, in turn, could lead to implementing a flawed or incomplete intervention or response strategy which could extend the duration of the outbreak, resulting in avoidable morbidity and mortality. PMID:24612828

Posid, Joseph M; Goodman, Richard A; Khan, Ali S

2014-02-01

115

Management of nosocomial scabies, an outbreak of occupational disease.  

PubMed

Background The optimal approach to managing institutional scabies outbreaks has yet to be defined. We report on outbreak managements are needed. Methods We report on a large outbreak of scabies in three acute care wards in a tertiary university teaching hospital in the Netherlands. Results The outbreak potentially effected 460 patients and 185 health care workers who had been exposed to the index patient. Conclusion Containment of an outbreak relies on a quick and strict implementation of appropriate infection control measures and should include simultaneous treatment of all infested persons and exposed contacts to prevent secondary spread and prolonged post-intervention surveillance. Am. J. Ind. Med. 58:577-582, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25777802

Jungbauer, Frank H W; Veenstra-Kyuchukova, Yanka K; Koeze, Jacqueline; KruijtSpanjer, Martijn R; Kardaun, Sylvia H

2015-05-01

116

An Outbreak of Late-Term Abortions, Premature Births, and Congenital Deformities Associated with a Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus 1 Subtype b that Induces Thrombocytopenia  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) genotype 1 subtype b caused an outbreak of premature births, late term abortions, brachygnathism, growth retardation, brain deformities and rare other skeletal deformities in Holstein calves born to first calf heifers on one dairy. Experimental challenge of three,...

117

A waterborne outbreak of gastroenteritis with secondary person-to-person spread. Association with a viral agent.  

PubMed

In December, 1976, an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred at a resort camp in Colorado. Data obtained by questionnaire from 760 persons indicated that 418 (55%) had had gastroenteritis at the camp or within a week of leaving it, with peak onset within a two-day period. Symptoms included vomiting (81%), diarrhoea (65%), and fever (49%); median duration of illness was twenty-four hours. The attack-rate increased with consumption of water or ice-containing beverages. The camp water supply was found to be inadequately chlorinated and contaminated by a leaking septic tank. Although routine laboratory tests did not reveal bacterial, viral, or parasitic pathogens, immune electron microscopy detected virus-like particles in two of five diarrhoeal stool filtrates. Oral administration of one of these bacteria-free filtrates to two volunteers induced a gastrointestinal illness similar to that observed in the camp visitors. PMID:87627

Morens, D M; Zweighaft, R M; Vernon, T M; Gary, G W; Eslien, J J; Wood, B T; Holman, R C; Dolin, R

1979-05-01

118

A review of outbreaks of waterborne disease associated with ships: evidence for risk management.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The organization of water supply to and on ships differs considerably from that of water supply on land. Risks of contamination can arise from source water at the port or during loading, storage, or distribution on the ship. The purpose of this article is to review documented outbreaks of waterborne diseases associated with passenger, cargo, fishing, and naval ships to identify contributing factors so that similar outbreaks can be prevented in the future. METHODS: The authors reviewed 21 reported outbreaks of waterborne diseases associated with ships. For each outbreak, data on pathogens/toxins, type of ship, factors contributing to outbreaks, mortality and morbidity, and remedial action are presented. RESULTS: The findings of this review show that the majority of reported outbreaks were associated with passenger ships and that more than 6,400 people were affected. Waterborne outbreaks due to Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, noroviruses, Salmonella spp, Shigella sp, Cryptosporidium sp, and Giardia lamblia occurred on ships. Enterotoxigenic E. coli was the pathogen most frequently associated with outbreaks. One outbreak of chemical water poisoning also occurred on a ship. Risk factors included contaminated port water, inadequate treatment, improper loading techniques, poor design and maintenance of storage tanks, ingress of contamination during repair and maintenance, cross-connections, back siphonage, and insufficient residual disinfectant. CONCLUSIONS: Waterborne disease outbreaks on ships can be prevented. The factors contributing to outbreaks emphasize the need for hygienic handling of water along the supply chain from source to consumption. A comprehensive approach to water safety on ships is essential. This may be achieved by the adoption of Water Safety Plans that cover design, construction, operation, and routine inspection and maintenance. PMID:15219801

Rooney, Roisin M.; Bartram, Jamie K.; Cramer, Elaine H.; Mantha, Stacey; Nichols, Gordon; Suraj, Rohini; Todd, Ewen C. D.

2004-01-01

119

Entomologic Investigations during an Outbreak of West Nile Virus Disease in Maricopa County, Arizona, 2010  

PubMed Central

Entomologic investigations were conducted during an intense outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) disease in Maricopa County, Arizona during July 31–August 9, 2010. The investigations compared the East Valley outbreak area, and a demographically similar control area in northwestern metropolitan Phoenix where no human cases were reported. Five mosquito species were identified in each area, and species composition was similar in both areas. Significantly more Culex quinquefasciatus females were collected by gravid traps at Outbreak sites (22.2 per trap night) than at control sites (8.9 per trap night), indicating higher Cx. quinquefasciatus abundance in the outbreak area. Twenty-eight WNV TaqMan reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction–positive mosquito pools were identified, including 24 of Cx. quinquefasciatus, 3 of Psorophora columbiae, and 1 of Culex sp. However, Cx. quinquefasciatus WNV infection rates did not differ between outbreak and control sites. At outbreak sites, 30 of 39 engorged Cx. quinquefasciatus had fed on birds, 8 of 39 on humans, and 1 of 39 on a lizard. At control sites, 20 of 20 identified blood meals were from birds. Data suggest that Cx. quinquefasciatus was the primary enzootic and epidemic vector of this outbreak. The most important parameters in the outbreak were vector abundance and blood meal analysis, which suggested more frequent contact between Cx. quinquefasciatus and human hosts in the outbreak area compared with the control area. PMID:23109372

Godsey, Marvin S.; Burkhalter, Kristen; Young, Ginger; Delorey, Mark; Smith, Kirk; Townsend, John; Levy, Craig; Mutebi, John-Paul

2012-01-01

120

A systems view and lessons from the ongoing Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa.  

PubMed

This article analyses the on-going (2014) Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa from a systems perspective; and draws out lessons for West Africa in general and Ghana in particular. PMID:25709128

Agyepong, I A

2014-09-01

121

Are staff management practices and inspection risk ratings associated with foodborne disease outbreaks in the catering industry in England and Wales?  

PubMed

Despite structured enforcement of food hygiene requirements known to prevent foodborne disease outbreaks, catering businesses continue to be the most common setting for outbreaks in the United Kingdom. In a matched case control study of catering businesses, 148 businesses associated with outbreaks were compared with 148 control businesses. Hazard analysis critical control point systems and/or formal food hygiene training qualifications were not protective. Food hygiene inspection scores were not useful in predicting which catering businesses were associated with outbreaks. Businesses associated with outbreaks were more likely to be larger small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) or to serve Chinese cuisine and less likely to have the owner or manager working in the kitchen, but when size of the SME was taken into account these two differences were no longer significant. In larger businesses, case businesses were more likely to be hotels and were more commonly associated with viral foodborne outbreaks, but there was no explanation within the data for this association. PMID:18389699

Jones, Sarah L; Parry, Sharon M; O'Brien, Sarah J; Palmer, Stephen R

2008-03-01

122

War diseases revealed by the social media: massive leishmaniasis outbreak in the Syrian Spring.  

PubMed

Social media introduce pivotal changes to communication between individuals, organizations and communities. A clear example of the power of social media is the spread of the revolutionary outbreaks in the Arabic countries during 2011, where people used Facebook, YouTube and Skype to communicate, organise meetings and protest actions. Here I report how Doctor-Activists use these social media as an alarm system for 'war disease' outbreaks in the Syrian Spring. Social media are used as an alarm system to attract the attention of international organizations, which should assume their responsibilities and play their part in controlling the outbreak of such war diseases. PMID:23587258

Alasaad, Samer

2013-01-01

123

The Role of Mathematical Models in Explaining Recurrent Outbreaks of Infectious Childhood Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious childhood diseases such as measles are characterized by recurrent outbreaks. Mathematicians have long used models\\u000a in an effort to better understand and predict these recurrent outbreak patterns. This paper summarizes and comments upon those\\u000a efforts, providing a historical outline of childhood disease models that have been developed since the start of the twentieth\\u000a century. This paper also discusses the

Chris T. Bauch

124

Respiratory-borne Disease Outbreaks in Populations: Contact Networks and the Spread of Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large class of infectious diseases spread through direct person-to-person contact. Traditional ``compartmental'' modeling in epidemiology assumes that in population groups every individual has an equal chance of spreading the disease to every other. The patterns of these contacts, however, tend to be highly heterogeneous. Explicit models of the patterns of contact among individuals in a community, contact network models, underlie a powerful approach to predicting and controlling the spread of such infectious disease and provide detailed and valuable insight into the fate and control of an outbreak. We use contact network epidemiology to predict the impact of various control policies for both a mildly contagious disease such as SARS and a more highly contagious disease such as smallpox. We demonstrate how integrating these tools into public health decision-making should facilitate more rational strategies for managing newly emerging diseases, bioterrorism and pandemic influenza in situations where empirical data are not yet available to guide decision making.

Pourbohloul, Babak; Meyers, Lauren A.; Newman, Mark E. J.; Skowronski, Danuta M.

2005-03-01

125

A framework for responding to coral disease outbreaks that facilitates adaptive management.  

PubMed

Predicted increases in coral disease outbreaks associated with climate change have implications for coral reef ecosystems and the people and industries that depend on them. It is critical that coral reef managers understand these implications and have the ability to assess and reduce risk, detect and contain outbreaks, and monitor and minimise impacts. Here, we present a coral disease response framework that has four core components: (1) an early warning system, (2) a tiered impact assessment program, (3) scaled management actions and (4) a communication plan. The early warning system combines predictive tools that monitor the risk of outbreaks of temperature-dependent coral diseases with in situ observations provided by a network of observers who regularly report on coral health and reef state. Verified reports of an increase in disease prevalence trigger a tiered response of more detailed impact assessment, targeted research and/or management actions. The response is scaled to the risk posed by the outbreak, which is a function of the severity and spatial extent of the impacts. We review potential management actions to mitigate coral disease impacts and facilitate recovery, considering emerging strategies unique to coral disease and more established strategies to support reef resilience. We also describe approaches to communicating about coral disease outbreaks that will address common misperceptions and raise awareness of the coral disease threat. By adopting this framework, managers and researchers can establish a community of practice and can develop response plans for the management of coral disease outbreaks based on local needs. The collaborations between managers and researchers we suggest will enable adaptive management of disease impacts following evaluating the cost-effectiveness of emerging response actions and incrementally improving our understanding of outbreak causation. PMID:22042407

Beeden, Roger; Maynard, Jeffrey A; Marshall, Paul A; Heron, Scott F; Willis, Bette L

2012-01-01

126

A Framework for Responding to Coral Disease Outbreaks that Facilitates Adaptive Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Predicted increases in coral disease outbreaks associated with climate change have implications for coral reef ecosystems and the people and industries that depend on them. It is critical that coral reef managers understand these implications and have the ability to assess and reduce risk, detect and contain outbreaks, and monitor and minimise impacts. Here, we present a coral disease response framework that has four core components: (1) an early warning system, (2) a tiered impact assessment program, (3) scaled management actions and (4) a communication plan. The early warning system combines predictive tools that monitor the risk of outbreaks of temperature-dependent coral diseases with in situ observations provided by a network of observers who regularly report on coral health and reef state. Verified reports of an increase in disease prevalence trigger a tiered response of more detailed impact assessment, targeted research and/or management actions. The response is scaled to the risk posed by the outbreak, which is a function of the severity and spatial extent of the impacts. We review potential management actions to mitigate coral disease impacts and facilitate recovery, considering emerging strategies unique to coral disease and more established strategies to support reef resilience. We also describe approaches to communicating about coral disease outbreaks that will address common misperceptions and raise awareness of the coral disease threat. By adopting this framework, managers and researchers can establish a community of practice and can develop response plans for the management of coral disease outbreaks based on local needs. The collaborations between managers and researchers we suggest will enable adaptive management of disease impacts following evaluating the cost-effectiveness of emerging response actions and incrementally improving our understanding of outbreak causation.

Beeden, Roger; Maynard, Jeffrey A.; Marshall, Paul A.; Heron, Scott F.; Willis, Bette L.

2012-01-01

127

Large outbreak of Legionnaires' disease and Pontiac fever at a military base.  

PubMed

We investigated a mixed outbreak of Legionnaires' disease (LD) and Pontiac fever (PF) at a military base to identify the outbreak's environmental source as well as known legionellosis risk factors. Base workers with possible legionellosis were interviewed and, if consenting, underwent testing for legionellosis. A retrospective cohort study collected information on occupants of the buildings closest to the outbreak source. We identified 29 confirmed and probable LD and 38 PF cases. All cases were exposed to airborne pathogens from a cooling tower. Occupants of the building closest to the cooling tower were 6·9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2·2-22·0] and 5·5 (95% CI 2·1-14·5) times more likely to develop LD and PF, respectively, than occupants of the next closest building. Thorough preventive measures and aggressive responses to outbreaks, including searching for PF cases in mixed legionellosis outbreaks, are essential for legionellosis control. PMID:25267405

Ambrose, J; Hampton, L M; Fleming-Dutra, K E; Marten, C; McClusky, C; Perry, C; Clemmons, N A; McCormic, Z; Peik, S; Mancuso, J; Brown, E; Kozak, N; Travis, T; Lucas, C; Fields, B; Hicks, L; Cersovsky, S B

2014-11-01

128

VIRAL DISEASES OF INVERTEBRATES OTHER THAN INSECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Thirteen examples of virus or viruslike related pathoses in non-insect invertebrates are described. From consideration of these examples, it becomes obvious that detailed descriptions of pathogenesis of virus diseases in non-insect invertebrates has not kept pace with the frequen...

129

VIRAL ANTIBODIES IN AGRICULTURAL POPULATIONS EXPOSED TO AEROSOLS FROM WASTEWATER IRRIGATION DURING A VIRAL DISEASE OUTBREAK  

EPA Science Inventory

The presence of antibodies to eight enteroviruses (ecovirus types 4, 7, and 9, coxsackievirus types A9, B1, B3, B4 and hepatitis A virus (HAY)) and Varicella-zoster virus was determined during a two-year period, 1980/1981 in paired blood samples of 777 persons in selected agricul...

130

Factors influencing psychological distress during a disease epidemic: Data from Australia's first outbreak of equine influenza  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In 2007 Australia experienced its first outbreak of highly infectious equine influenza. Government disease control measures were put in place to control, contain, and eradicate the disease; these measures included movement restrictions and quarantining of properties. This study was conducted to assess the psycho-social impacts of this disease, and this paper reports the prevalence of, and factors influencing, psychological

Melanie R Taylor; Kingsley E Agho; Garry J Stevens; Beverley Raphael

2008-01-01

131

Kyasanur Forest Disease Outbreak and Vaccination Strategy, Shimoga District, India, 2013–2014  

PubMed Central

We investigated a Kyasanur Forest disease outbreak in Karnataka, India during December 2013–April 2014. Surveillance and retrospective study indicated low vaccine coverage, low vaccine effectiveness, and spread of disease to areas beyond those selected for vaccination and to age groups not targeted for vaccination. To control disease, vaccination strategies need to be reviewed. PMID:25531141

Kiran, S.K.; Pasi, Achhelal; Kumar, Satish; Kasabi, Gudadappa S.; Gujjarappa, Prabhakara; Shrivastava, Aakash; Mehendale, Sanjay; Chauhan, L.S.; Laserson, Kayla F.

2015-01-01

132

Viral hepatitis E outbreak in Al-Sadr city, Baghdad, Iraq.  

PubMed

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of acute hepatitis in many developing countries. This study describes an outbreak of HEV infection in Al-Sadr city, Baghdad. Blood samples obtained from patients with jaundice attending 19 primary health care centres in AI-Sadr city during a 6-month period in 2005 were tested for HEV. HEV (IgM) antibodies were detected in 38.1% of 268 patients. The association of HEV infection with unacceptable residual chlorine concentrations and/or bacteriologically unsafe water samples was significant. High rates of HEV infection, low chlorine concentrations and unsafe water were reported in June. Gross isruption of sanitation and water supplies was the most likely contributing factor. PMID:21218735

Al-Nasrawi, K K; Al Diwan, J K; Al-Hadithi, T S; Saleh, A M

2010-11-01

133

Fault tree analysis of the causes of waterborne outbreaks.  

PubMed

Prevention and containment of outbreaks requires examination of the contribution and interrelation of outbreak causative events. An outbreak fault tree was developed and applied to 61 enteric outbreaks related to public drinking water supplies in the EU. A mean of 3.25 causative events per outbreak were identified; each event was assigned a score based on percentage contribution per outbreak. Source and treatment system causative events often occurred concurrently (in 34 outbreaks). Distribution system causative events occurred less frequently (19 outbreaks) but were often solitary events contributing heavily towards the outbreak (a mean % score of 87.42). Livestock and rainfall in the catchment with no/inadequate filtration of water sources contributed concurrently to 11 of 31 Cryptosporidium outbreaks. Of the 23 protozoan outbreaks experiencing at least one treatment causative event, 90% of these events were filtration deficiencies; by contrast, for bacterial, viral, gastroenteritis and mixed pathogen outbreaks, 75% of treatment events were disinfection deficiencies. Roughly equal numbers of groundwater and surface water outbreaks experienced at least one treatment causative event (18 and 17 outbreaks, respectively). Retrospective analysis of multiple outbreaks of enteric disease can be used to inform outbreak investigations, facilitate corrective measures, and further develop multi-barrier approaches. PMID:17890833

Risebro, Helen L; Doria, Miguel F; Andersson, Yvonne; Medema, Gertjan; Osborn, Keith; Schlosser, Olivier; Hunter, Paul R

2007-01-01

134

Biochemical laboratory tests in viral hepatitis and other hepatic diseases  

PubMed Central

The differential diagnosis between viral hepatitis and other liver diseases (particularly obstructive jaundice) is often difficult on purely clinical grounds. Damage to the liver causes changes in the pattern of the serum enzymes and this has led to the development in recent years of a number of enzyme tests. The authors have amassed evidence to show that the most useful of these is determination of the levels of serum glutamic oxalacetic and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGOT and SGPT), coupled with calculation of the SGOT/SGPT ratio. It is characteristic of viral hepatitis that both levels are greatly increased, but the SGOT/SGPT ratio, normally greater than one, falls considerably below his figure. In a few cases of obstructive jaundice, the serum transaminase picture may initially resemble that in viral hepatitis, but the differential diagnosis can be established by repeating the determinations at intervals. Other enzyme tests, such as determination of alkaline phosphatase and leucylaminopeptidase, may be used to confirm the biliary obstruction. Flocculation tests and electrophoretic determination of the plasma protein picture, while of limited value in the diagnosis of acute viral hepatitis, are useful in conjunction with the serum transaminase test for assessing the activity of the disease and any tendency to progress towards “active” chronic hepatitis or post-hepatic cirrhosis. PMID:14292063

De Ritis, Fernando; Giusti, Giuseppe; Piccinino, Felice; Cacciatore, Luigi

1965-01-01

135

A Simulation Model of Waterborne Gastro-Intestinal Disease Outbreaks: Description and Initial Evaluation  

PubMed Central

We present an agent-based simulation model for generating realistic multivariable outbreak signals. The model defines a synthetic population and simulates the dissemination of pathogenic organisms through a municipal water distribution system, the mobility of individuals between geographic locations, their exposure to pathogens through water consumption, and disease progression in infected individuals. We present the results of an initial evaluation of the model – a simulation study replicating the historical outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Milwaukee in 1993. PMID:21347040

Okhmatovskaia, Anya; Verma, Aman D.; Barbeau, Benoit; Carriere, Annie; Pasquet, Romain; Buckeridge, David L.

2010-01-01

136

Mixed viral infections causing acute gastroenteritis in children in a waterborne outbreak.  

PubMed

We examined stool specimens for viral pathogens from 50 children referred to hospital due to acute gastroenteritis (AGE) resulting from consuming drinking water contaminated with sewage in a Finnish community using PCR methods. Rotavirus was detected in 33 (66%), human calicivirus in 31 (62%), and both in 40% of cases. Of the caliciviruses, 20/31 (65%) were noroviruses and 11 (35%) sapoviruses. Furthermore, Aichi virus was detected in 25 (50%), adenovirus in six (12%) and bocavirus in four (8%) cases. Campylobacter jejuni was present in 20 (61%) and Salmonella in four (12%) of the 33 stools cultured for bacteria. On a 20-point scale median severity score of AGE in the 28 hospitalized children was 17; the severity was similar regardless of viruses detected. Bloody diarrhoea occurred only when C. jejuni was present. To conclude, massive exposure to several AGE viruses caused mixed infections and severe AGE regardless of the aetiological agents. PMID:20092670

Räsänen, S; Lappalainen, S; Kaikkonen, S; Hämäläinen, M; Salminen, M; Vesikari, T

2010-09-01

137

Climate Teleconnections and Recent Patterns of Human and Animal Disease Outbreaks  

PubMed Central

Background Recent clusters of outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases (Rift Valley fever and chikungunya) in Africa and parts of the Indian Ocean islands illustrate how interannual climate variability influences the changing risk patterns of disease outbreaks. Although Rift Valley fever outbreaks have been known to follow periods of above-normal rainfall, the timing of the outbreak events has largely been unknown. Similarly, there is inadequate knowledge on climate drivers of chikungunya outbreaks. We analyze a variety of climate and satellite-derived vegetation measurements to explain the coupling between patterns of climate variability and disease outbreaks of Rift Valley fever and chikungunya. Methods and Findings We derived a teleconnections map by correlating long-term monthly global precipitation data with the NINO3.4 sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly index. This map identifies regional hot-spots where rainfall variability may have an influence on the ecology of vector borne disease. Among the regions are Eastern and Southern Africa where outbreaks of chikungunya and Rift Valley fever occurred 2004–2009. Chikungunya and Rift Valley fever case locations were mapped to corresponding climate data anomalies to understand associations between specific anomaly patterns in ecological and climate variables and disease outbreak patterns through space and time. From these maps we explored associations among Rift Valley fever disease occurrence locations and cumulative rainfall and vegetation index anomalies. We illustrated the time lag between the driving climate conditions and the timing of the first case of Rift Valley fever. Results showed that reported outbreaks of Rift Valley fever occurred after ?3–4 months of sustained above-normal rainfall and associated green-up in vegetation, conditions ideal for Rift Valley fever mosquito vectors. For chikungunya we explored associations among surface air temperature, precipitation anomalies, and chikungunya outbreak locations. We found that chikungunya outbreaks occurred under conditions of anomalously high temperatures and drought over Eastern Africa. However, in Southeast Asia, chikungunya outbreaks were negatively correlated (p<0.05) with drought conditions, but positively correlated with warmer-than-normal temperatures and rainfall. Conclusions/Significance Extremes in climate conditions forced by the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) lead to severe droughts or floods, ideal ecological conditions for disease vectors to emerge, and may result in epizootics and epidemics of Rift Valley fever and chikungunya. However, the immune status of livestock (Rift Valley fever) and human (chikungunya) populations is a factor that is largely unknown but very likely plays a role in the spatial-temporal patterns of these disease outbreaks. As the frequency and severity of extremes in climate increase, the potential for globalization of vectors and disease is likely to accelerate. Understanding the underlying patterns of global and regional climate variability and their impacts on ecological drivers of vector-borne diseases is critical in long-range planning of appropriate disease and disease-vector response, control, and mitigation strategies. PMID:22292093

Anyamba, Assaf; Linthicum, Kenneth J.; Small, Jennifer L.; Collins, Kathrine M.; Tucker, Compton J.; Pak, Edwin W.; Britch, Seth C.; Eastman, James Ronald; Pinzon, Jorge E.; Russell, Kevin L.

2012-01-01

138

Detection of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks by CUSUM-based overcrowd-severe-respiratory-disease-index model.  

PubMed

A severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreak correlates with a high demand of specific supplies and specialized personnel to hold it back in a wide region or set of regions; these supplies would be beds, storage areas, hemodynamic monitors, and mechanical ventilators, as well as physicians, respiratory technicians, and specialized nurses. We describe an online cumulative sum based model named Overcrowd-Severe-Respiratory-Disease-Index based on the Modified Overcrowd Index that simultaneously monitors and informs the demand of those supplies and personnel in a healthcare network generating early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks through the interpretation of such variables. A post hoc historical archive is generated, helping physicians in charge to improve the transit and future allocation of supplies in the entire hospital network during the outbreak. The model was thoroughly verified in a virtual scenario, generating multiple epidemic outbreaks in a 6-year span for a 13-hospital network. When it was superimposed over the H1N1 influenza outbreak census (2008-2010) taken by the National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubiran in Mexico City, it showed that it is an effective algorithm to notify early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks with a minimal rate of false alerts. PMID:24069063

Polanco, Carlos; Castañón-González, Jorge Alberto; Macías, Alejandro E; Samaniego, José Lino; Buhse, Thomas; Villanueva-Martínez, Sebastián

2013-01-01

139

Detection of Severe Respiratory Disease Epidemic Outbreaks by CUSUM-Based Overcrowd-Severe-Respiratory-Disease-Index Model  

PubMed Central

A severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreak correlates with a high demand of specific supplies and specialized personnel to hold it back in a wide region or set of regions; these supplies would be beds, storage areas, hemodynamic monitors, and mechanical ventilators, as well as physicians, respiratory technicians, and specialized nurses. We describe an online cumulative sum based model named Overcrowd-Severe-Respiratory-Disease-Index based on the Modified Overcrowd Index that simultaneously monitors and informs the demand of those supplies and personnel in a healthcare network generating early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks through the interpretation of such variables. A post hoc historical archive is generated, helping physicians in charge to improve the transit and future allocation of supplies in the entire hospital network during the outbreak. The model was thoroughly verified in a virtual scenario, generating multiple epidemic outbreaks in a 6-year span for a 13-hospital network. When it was superimposed over the H1N1 influenza outbreak census (2008–2010) taken by the National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubiran in Mexico City, it showed that it is an effective algorithm to notify early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks with a minimal rate of false alerts. PMID:24069063

Castañón-González, Jorge Alberto; Macías, Alejandro E.; Samaniego, José Lino; Buhse, Thomas; Villanueva-Martínez, Sebastián

2013-01-01

140

Vulnerability of a killer whale social network to disease outbreaks Paulo R. Guimares, Jr.,1,  

E-print Network

to promote ecological replacement be- tween species 3 , cause local extinction of animal and plant epidemiologists is to predict the vulnerability of populations of endangered animals to disease outbreaks. In this context, the network structure of social interactions within animal populations may affect disease

Baird, Robin W.

141

Historical Compilation and Georeferencing of Dengue and Chikungunya outbreak data for Disease Modeling  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The risk of vector-borne disease spread is increasing due to significant changes and variability in the global climate and increasing global travel and trade. Understanding the relationships between climate variability and disease outbreak patterns are critical to the design and construction of pred...

142

A Plague on Both Houses: Modeling Viral Infection to Control a Pest Outbreak  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Introduced as a control measure for reducing the rabbit population in Australia, the Myxoma virus produced some unintended effects. A computationally rich Excel workbook based on a SIR model for disease transmission provides an opportunity to explore the use of an infectious disease as a control agent. Modeling the emergence of multiple Myxoma strains offers intriguing insights into the complexities of control. * explore the dynamics of the evolving Myxoma virus on virtual rabbit populations in an Excel workbook

Anton E. Weisstein (Truman State University; Biology)

2006-05-20

143

Climate Teleconnections and Recent Patterns of Human and Animal Disease Outbreaks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent clusters of outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases (Rift Valley fever and chikungunya) in Africa and parts of the Indian Ocean islands illustrate how interannual climate variability influences the changing risk patterns of disease outbreaks. Extremes in rainfall (drought and flood) during the period 2004 - 2009 have privileged different disease vectors. Chikungunya outbreaks occurred during the severe drought from late 2004 to 2006 over coastal East Africa and the western Indian Ocean islands and in the later years India and Southeast Asia. The chikungunya pandemic was caused by a Central/East African genotype that appears to have been precipitated and then enhanced by global-scale and regional climate conditions in these regions. Outbreaks of Rift Valley fever occurred following excessive rainfall period from late 2006 to late 2007 in East Africa and Sudan, and then in 2008 - 2009 in Southern Africa. The shift in the outbreak patterns of Rift Valley fever from East Africa to Southern Africa followed a transition of the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomena from the warm El Nino phase (2006-2007) to the cold La Nina phase (2007-2009) and associated patterns of variability in the greater Indian Ocean basin that result in the displacement of the centres of above normal rainfall from Eastern to Southern Africa. Understanding the background patterns of climate variability both at global and regional scale and their impacts on ecological drivers of vector borne-diseases is critical in long-range planning of appropriate response and mitigation measures.

Anyamba, Assaf; Linthicum, Kenneth J.; Small, Jennifer L.; Collins, Katherine M.; Tucker, Compton J.; Pak, Edwin W.; Britch, Seth C.; Eastman, James Ronald; Pinzon, Jorge E.; Russell, Kevin L.

2011-01-01

144

Shrimp viral diseases, import risk assessment and international trade.  

PubMed

Shrimp is an important commodity in international trade accounting for 15 % in terms of value of internationally traded seafood products which reached $102.00 billion in 2008. Aquaculture contributes to over 50 % of global shrimp production. One of the major constraints faced by shrimp aquaculture is the loss due to viral diseases like white spot syndrome, yellow head disease, and Taura syndrome. There are several examples of global spread of shrimp diseases due to importation of live shrimp for aquaculture. Though millions of tonnes of frozen or processed shrimp have been traded internationally during the last two decades despite prevalence of viral diseases in shrimp producing areas in Asia and the Americas, there is no evidence of diseases having been transmitted through shrimp imported for human consumption. The guidelines developed by the World Animal Health Organisation for movement of live animals for aquaculture, frozen crustaceans for human consumption, and the regulations implemented by some shrimp importing regions in the world are reviewed. PMID:23997438

Karunasagar, Iddya; Ababouch, Lahsen

2012-09-01

145

Clinical presentation resembling mucosal disease associated with 'HoBi'-like Pestivirus in a field outbreak  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae consists of four recognized species: Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2), Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) And Border disease virus (BDV). Recently, atypical pestiviruses (‘HoBi’-like pestiviruses) were iden...

146

The AFHSC-Division of GEIS Operations Predictive Surveillance Program: a multidisciplinary approach for the early detection and response to disease outbreaks  

PubMed Central

The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System Operations (AFHSC-GEIS) initiated a coordinated, multidisciplinary program to link data sets and information derived from eco-climatic remote sensing activities, ecologic niche modeling, arthropod vector, animal disease-host/reservoir, and human disease surveillance for febrile illnesses, into a predictive surveillance program that generates advisories and alerts on emerging infectious disease outbreaks. The program’s ultimate goal is pro-active public health practice through pre-event preparedness, prevention and control, and response decision-making and prioritization. This multidisciplinary program is rooted in over 10 years experience in predictive surveillance for Rift Valley fever outbreaks in Eastern Africa. The AFHSC-GEIS Rift Valley fever project is based on the identification and use of disease-emergence critical detection points as reliable signals for increased outbreak risk. The AFHSC-GEIS predictive surveillance program has formalized the Rift Valley fever project into a structured template for extending predictive surveillance capability to other Department of Defense (DoD)-priority vector- and water-borne, and zoonotic diseases and geographic areas. These include leishmaniasis, malaria, and Crimea-Congo and other viral hemorrhagic fevers in Central Asia and Africa, dengue fever in Asia and the Americas, Japanese encephalitis (JE) and chikungunya fever in Asia, and rickettsial and other tick-borne infections in the U.S., Africa and Asia. PMID:21388561

2011-01-01

147

Using multitype branching processes to quantify statistics of disease outbreaks in zoonotic epidemics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Branching processes have served as a model for chemical reactions, biological growth processes, and contagion (of disease, information, or fads). Through this connection, these seemingly different physical processes share some common universalities that can be elucidated by analyzing the underlying branching process. In this work we focus on coupled branching processes as a model of infectious diseases spreading from one population to another. An exceedingly important example of such coupled outbreaks are zoonotic infections that spill over from animal populations to humans. We derive several statistical quantities characterizing the first spillover event from animals to humans, including the probability of spillover, the first passage time distribution for human infection, and disease prevalence in the animal population at spillover. Large stochastic fluctuations in those quantities can make inference of the state of the system at the time of spillover difficult. Focusing on outbreaks in the human population, we then characterize the critical threshold for a large outbreak, the distribution of outbreak sizes, and associated scaling laws. These all show a strong dependence on the basic reproduction number in the animal population and indicate the existence of a novel multicritical point with altered scaling behavior. The coupling of animal and human infection dynamics has crucial implications, most importantly allowing for the possibility of large human outbreaks even when human-to-human transmission is subcritical.

Singh, Sarabjeet; Schneider, David J.; Myers, Christopher R.

2014-03-01

148

INFECTIOUS DISEASE OUTBREAKS Avian Flu, measles, Mumps, SARs, and other infectious diseases can pose a threat to the  

E-print Network

INFECTIOUS DISEASE OUTBREAKS Avian Flu, measles, Mumps, SARs, and other infectious diseases can Avian Flu: · There have been no reported cases of Avian Flu in humans in the United States. · A very few suspected cases of human-to-human transmission of Avian Flu have been reported globally, but these cases

Meyers, Steven D.

149

Detection of Clostridium perfringens type C in pig herds following disease outbreak and subsequent vaccination.  

PubMed

Immunisation of sows using Clostridium perfringens type C toxoid vaccines is recommended to prevent necrotising enteritis (NE) on pig breeding farms. Absence of disease, however, oftentimes leads to the false assumption of pathogens being eradicated. The prevalence of C perfringens type C was determined by PCR in faecal samples of piglets and sows in three Swiss pig breeding farms two to four years after implementation of a vaccination programme following disease outbreaks. C perfringens type C could still be detected several years after an outbreak despite absence of NE. In-herd prevalence of the pathogens varied significantly between the farms and was also lower compared with a farm which experienced a recent outbreak. In conclusion, C perfringens type C can be detected on once-affected farms, even in the absence of NE for several years. PMID:23100304

Schäfer, K; Wyder, M; Gobeli, S; Candi, A; Doherr, M G; Zehnder, B; Zimmermann, W; Posthaus, H

2012-11-17

150

Understanding Foodborne Disease Outbreaks Using Environmental Assessments Kristin C. Delea,* Carol A. Selman, and EHS-Net  

E-print Network

contributing factors to foodborne illness outbreaks in food- service establishments (restaurants, delisUnderstanding Foodborne Disease Outbreaks Using Environmental Assessments Kristin C. Delea,* Carol, GA March 16-19, 2008 Introduction Foodborne disease surveillance is an essential component of a food

151

Using blood glucose data as an indicator for epidemic disease outbreaks.  

PubMed

In the future, transfer of vital sensor data from patients to the public health care system is likely to become commonplace. Systems for automatic transfer of sensor data are now at the prototype stage. As electronic health record (EHR) systems adapt such functionality, widespread use may become an actuality in the foreseeable future.To prevent spreading of diseases, an early detection of infection is important. At the time an outbreak is diagnosed, many people may already be infected due to the incubation period. This study suggests an approach for detecting an epidemic outbreak at an early stage by monitoring blood glucose data collected from people with diabetes. Continuous analysis of blood glucose data may have the potential to prevent large outbreaks of infectious diseases, such as different strains of Influenza, Cholera, Plague, Ebola, Anthrax and SARS.When a person gets infected, the blood glucose value increases. If the blood glucose data from a large number of patients with diabetes are collected in a central database, it may be possible to detect an epidemic disease outbreak at an early stage. Advanced data analysis on the data may detect predominant numbers of incidences, indicating a possible outbreak. This gives the health authorities the possibilities to take actions to limit the outbreak and its consequences for all the inhabitants in an affected area.At the Norwegian Centre for Telemedicine, a mobile system for automatic transfer of blood glucose values has been constructed. By using wireless communication standards such as Bluetooth and GSM, the system transfers blood glucose data to an electronic health record system. Combined with a system accessing and querying data from EHR systems for patient surveillance we are extending our work into an Epidemic Disease Detection using blood Glucose (EDDG) system. PMID:16160262

Arsand, Eirik; Walseth, Ole Anders; Andersson, Niklas; Fernando, Ruchith; Granberg, Ove; Bellika, Johan G; Hartvigsen, Gunnar

2005-01-01

152

Stochastical modeling for Viral Disease: Statistical Mechanics and Network Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical methods of statistical mechanics are developed and applied to study the immunological response against viral disease, such as dengue. We use this theory to show how the immune response to four different dengue serotypes may be sculpted. It is the ability of avian influenza, to change and to mix, that has given rise to the fear of a new human flu pandemic. Here we propose to utilize a scale free network based stochastic model to investigate the mitigation strategies and analyze the risk.

Zhou, Hao; Deem, Michael

2007-04-01

153

Analyses of infectious disease data from household outbreaks by Markov chain Monte Carlo methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper exploresthe use of Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods for the analysis ofinfectious disease data, with the hope that they will permit analyses to be madeunder more realistic assumptions. Two important kinds of data sets are considered,containing temporal and non-temporal information respectively, from outbreaks ofmeasles and influenza. Stochastic epidemic models are used to describe the processesthat generate the

Philip D. ONeill; David J. Balding; Niels G. Becker; Mervi Eerola; Denis Mollison

2000-01-01

154

YELLOW-BLOTCH DISEASE OUTBREAK ON REEFS OF THE SAN BLAS ISLANDS, PANAMA  

EPA Science Inventory

During the post-8th International Coral Reef Symposium field trip to the eastern Caribbean region of Panama, 3-5 July 1996, we observed an extensive outbreak of a new and significant disease of the scleractinian corals Montastraea faveolata and M. annularis. The first reported si...

155

Complete Genome Sequence of a Newcastle Disease Virus Isolate from an Outbreak in Central India  

PubMed Central

The complete genome sequence of a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain NDV/Chicken/Nagpur/01/12 was isolated from vaccinated chicken farms in India during outbreaks in 2012. The genome is 15,192 nucleotides in length and is classified as genotype VII in class II. PMID:25593257

Gogoi, Polakshee; Morla, Sudhir; Kaore, Megha; Kurkure, Nitin Vasantrao

2015-01-01

156

Modeling Clinician Detection Time of a Disease Outbreak Due to Inhalational Anthrax  

E-print Network

Modeling Clinician Detection Time of a Disease Outbreak Due to Inhalational Anthrax Christina of anthrax spores, when the clinicians only have access to traditional clinical information (e diagnose a patient as having inhala- tion anthrax (IA). One way involves obtaining a chest radiograph

Wong, Weng-Keen

157

What is the best control strategy for multiple infectious disease outbreaks?  

E-print Network

that immediately come to mind are the relatively recent SARS outbreak--which was fortunately contained intervention measures lead to less infections and accompanying mortality. There- fore, from a viewpoint the model as simple as possible, we ignore natural births and deaths as well as disease-induced mortality

Handel, Andreas

158

Using multitype branching processes to quantify statistics of disease outbreaks in zoonotic epidemics  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Despite the enormous relevance of zoonotic infections to world-wide public health, and despite much effort in modeling individual zoonoses, a fundamental understanding of the disease dynamics and the nature of outbreaks emanating from such a complex system is still lacking. We introduce a simple sto...

159

Infectious Disease Outbreaks in Competitive SportsA Review of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent outbreaks of infectious diseases in athletes in competitive sports have stimulated considerable interest. The environments in which these athletes compete, practice, receive therapy for injuries, and travel, both domestically and internationally, provide varied opportunities for the transmission of infectious organisms. The purpose of this medical literature review is to identify the agents most commonly reported in the medical literature

Sean D. Turbeville; Linda D. Cowan; Ronald A. Greenfield

2006-01-01

160

SURVEILLANCE FOR WATERBORNE-DISEASE OUTBREAKS-UNITED STATES, 1997-1998  

EPA Science Inventory

PROBLEM/CONDITION: Since 1971, CDC and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have maintained a collaborative surveillance system for collecting and periodically reporting data relating to occurrences and causes of waterborne-disease outbreaks (WBDOs). REPORTING PERIOD CO...

161

SURVEILLANCE AND INVESTIGATION OF WATERBORNE DISEASE OUTBREAKS - VOLUME II: SELECTED REPRINTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This work consists of two volumes. olume I is a series of articles based on selected presentations made at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Association of State Drinking Water Administrators Workshop on Methods for Investigation of Water borne Disease Outbreaks ...

162

SURVEILLANCE FOR WATERBORNE-DISEASE OUTBREAKS - UNITED STATES, 1999-2000  

EPA Science Inventory

PROBLEM/CONDITION: Since 1971, CDC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) have maintained a collaborative surveillance system for the occurrences and causes of waterborne-disease outbreaks (WBDOs).This surv...

163

Viral Plasmacytosis (Aleutian Disease) of Mink Resembling Human Collagen Disease  

PubMed Central

A disease in mink has been discovered that has many of the features of collagen diseases in man. Affected animals suffer from wasting with leukopenia and thrombocytopenia as well as plasma cell infiltration, hypergammaglobulinemia, glomerulonephritis, arteritis and amyloidosis. Cell-free filtrates and ultracentrifugates from diseased animals induced the disease in normal mink, and aleutian genotypes were unusually susceptible to infection. This genotype was characterized by abnormal lysosomal structures in all the granule-forming cells, resembling the Chediak-Higashi syndrome of man. Anti-?-globulin factors similar to human rheumatoid factors were reported, although tests for antibodies such as ANF and LE factors have been negative. Arteritis and glomerulonephritis lesions stained positively for ?-globulin, and Coombs-type sensitized red cells have been detected in the majority of affected mink. Some mink develop a monodispersion of hypergammaglobulinemia resembling the serum protein changes in human myeloma. These studies highlight genetic, immunological and microbiological causative factors in a mink disorder resembling human collagen disease. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:5336835

Gordon, Duncan A.; Franklin, Arthur E.; Karstad, Lars

1967-01-01

164

Antibodies for the prevention and treatment of viral diseases.  

PubMed

This paper reviews current use and evolving role of polyclonal and monoclonal antibody products for the prevention and treatment of viral diseases. Antibodies continue to be indicated for prophylaxis either prior to an anticipated exposure especially in situations of travel, or more commonly following an exposure. The predominant indication for use of antibody products is to prevent infection. With the availability of vaccines for the prevention of chickenpox, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, measles, rabies and smallpox, the role of passive immunization is reserved for susceptible individuals and those at high risk for complications of infection. Risks of transmission of infections associated with use of human plasma-derived products have been reduced by improvements in donor screening and virus removal and inactivation procedures. An additional safety concern has been addressed by the removal of thimerosal as a preservative. Within the last 5 years, two antibodies have been licensed for a viral indication, RespiGam and Synagis both for prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infection. RespiGam is a human plasma derived antibody and Synagis is a humanized monoclonal antibody, the first such antibody to be licensed for an infectious disease indication. CytoGam for prevention of cytomegalovirus infection in kidney transplant patients has recently been granted an expanded indication to include use in lung, liver, pancreas and heart transplant patients. As the use of therapeutics becomes more sophisticated, researchers may find better ways of using antibody products. PMID:10996394

Sawyer, L A

2000-08-01

165

[Ocular symptoms and treatment of Ebola viral disease].  

PubMed

Ocular signs and symptoms of Ebola infection initially suggest banal conjunctivitis, but in advanced cases severe haemorrhagic conjunctivitis appears and, in the final stage of the disease, retinal and chorioidal haemorrhages may occur which can cause even blindness. Although the viral infection accompanied by ocular symptoms of a non-specific conjunctivitis, the high fever present from the onset of the disease should raise the suspicion of Ebola infection. There is no causal therapy know so far, and the only adjunctive treatment may be delivered by an ophthalmologist. Because the virus can be detected in the tear, it can theoretically be the mediator of the infection and, therefore, ophthalmological examinations should be carried out with the highest caution. In case of suspected Ebola infection the nearest competent healthcare authority should be immediately alerted in order to take further actions. Orv. Hetil., 2015, 156(11), 431-433. PMID:25749536

Végh, Mihály; Roth, Hans-Walter; Hári-Kovács, András; Facskó, Andrea

2015-03-01

166

A Framework for Categorization of the Economic Impacts of Outbreaks of Highly Contagious Livestock Diseases.  

PubMed

A framework for categorization of economic impacts of outbreaks of highly contagious livestock diseases (HCLD) is presented. This framework interprets veterinary measures to control HCLD outbreaks with reference to economic definitions of costs and benefits, and the implications for value losses both for different stakeholders affected and society as a whole. Four cost categories are identified, that is virus control-related direct costs (DC), spread prevention and zoning-related direct consequential costs (DCC), market and price disruption-related costs during (indirect consequential costs, ICC) and after the outbreak (aftermath costs, AC). The framework is used to review existing literature on cost estimation for different stakeholders. This review shows considerable differences between studies, making comparison of results difficult and susceptible to misunderstanding. It is concluded that the framework provides a logical basis for all future analyses of the economic impacts of HCLD. PMID:25382248

Saatkamp, H W; Mourits, M C M; Howe, K S

2014-11-01

167

[Significance of Salmonella enteritidis in outbreaks of diseases transmitted by foods in Argentina, 1986-1988].  

PubMed

This paper reports on the outbreaks of food-borne-diseases due to Salmonella Enteritidis which occurred in Argentina between 1986 and 1988. In 39 registered episodes 210 strains were isolated from human feces (28 outbreaks) and 59 from food (23 outbreaks). More than 2,500 people in different provinces were affected, the chief characteristics of the clinical picture being the gravity of the symptoms (high temperature, vomiting, diarrhea and severe dehydration). The main source of infection was related to raw eggs, eaten in the form of home-made mayonnaise. It is considered necessary to carry out an effective control of poultry products, as well as a permanent surveillance of salmonellosis. PMID:2274662

Eiguer, T; Caffer, M I; Fronchkowsky, G B

1990-01-01

168

Prevalence of Salmonella typhimurium infection in Norwegian hedgehog populations associated with two human disease outbreaks.  

PubMed Central

Faecal carriage of salmonella was investigated in 320 hedgehogs from Moss municipality in south-eastern Norway, Askøy, Bergen and Os municipalities in central-western Norway, and five municipalities in south-western and central Norway. The sampling in Moss was carried out 1 year after a human outbreak of salmonellosis, whereas the sampling in Askøy, Bergen and Os was carried out during a human outbreak. Both outbreaks were caused by Salmonella Typhimurium 4,5,12:i:1,2. No salmonella were detected in the hedgehogs from south-western (0/115) and central (0/24) Norway. Thirty-nine percent (39/99) of the animals sampled on Jeløy, and 41% (34/82) of those from Askøy, Bergen and Os, carried S. Typhimurium 4,5,12:i:1,2. The PFGE profile of isolates from hedgehogs and human beings were identical within each of the two outbreak areas. A significantly higher carrier rate of S. Typhimurium occurred among hedgehogs sampled at feeding places, compared to those caught elsewhere. The salmonella-infected hedgehog populations most likely constituted the primary source of infection during both of the human disease outbreaks, and the Norwegian hedgehog is suggested as a reservoir host of S. Typhimurium 4,5,12:i:1,2. PMID:12113498

Handeland, K.; Refsum, T.; Johansen, B. S.; Holstad, G.; Knutsen, G.; Solberg, I.; Schulze, J.; Kapperud, G.

2002-01-01

169

Legionnaires' disease: the epidemiology of two outbreaks in Burlington, Vermont, 1980.  

PubMed

Eighty-five cases of Legionnaires' disease were diagnosed in two major outbreaks at a large regional medical center in Burlington, Vermont, in the summer of 1980. Cases in both outbreaks were positive for Legionella pneumophila, serogroup 1 by culture, serology, or direct fluorescent antibody tests. All cases had spent time in the city of Burlington in the 10 days before the onset of symptoms. Cases in both outbreaks were both hospital- and community-acquired. A case-control study identified no common in-hospital exposure, including shower use, that was associated with illness. Cases without previous exposure to the hospital were more likely to occur in persons with residences in neighborhoods just downwind of cooling tower A, but not throughout the municipal water system. Epidemiologic and environmental studies supported the association of this cooling tower, located 150 m from the hospital, with both outbreaks. Maintenance employees who worked with tower A had higher Legionella titers than those who worked with a comparison tower located 1.6 km away. Aerosolization of L. pneumophila by tower A and airborne spread to the hospital and community are postulated. The distance of airborne transmission of L. pneumophila in these consecutive outbreaks is greater than previously reported. PMID:6702814

Klaucke, D N; Vogt, R L; LaRue, D; Witherell, L E; Orciari, L A; Spitalny, K C; Pelletier, R; Cherry, W B; Novick, L F

1984-03-01

170

Thermal Stress and Coral Cover as Drivers of Coral Disease Outbreaks  

PubMed Central

Very little is known about how environmental changes such as increasing temperature affect disease dynamics in the ocean, especially at large spatial scales. We asked whether the frequency of warm temperature anomalies is positively related to the frequency of coral disease across 1,500 km of Australia's Great Barrier Reef. We used a new high-resolution satellite dataset of ocean temperature and 6 y of coral disease and coral cover data from annual surveys of 48 reefs to answer this question. We found a highly significant relationship between the frequencies of warm temperature anomalies and of white syndrome, an emergent disease, or potentially, a group of diseases, of Pacific reef-building corals. The effect of temperature was highly dependent on coral cover because white syndrome outbreaks followed warm years, but only on high (>50%) cover reefs, suggesting an important role of host density as a threshold for outbreaks. Our results indicate that the frequency of temperature anomalies, which is predicted to increase in most tropical oceans, can increase the susceptibility of corals to disease, leading to outbreaks where corals are abundant. PMID:17488183

Bruno, John F; Selig, Elizabeth R; Casey, Kenneth S; Page, Cathie A; Willis, Bette L; Harvell, C. Drew; Sweatman, Hugh; Melendy, Amy M

2007-01-01

171

VIRAL EVOLUTION Genomic surveillance elucidates  

E-print Network

VIRAL EVOLUTION Genomic surveillance elucidates Ebola virus origin and transmission during the 2014,12,13 § Robert F. Garry,8 § S. Humarr Khan,3 § Pardis C. Sabeti1,2 § In its largest outbreak, Ebola virus disease is spreading through Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Nigeria. We sequenced 99 Ebola virus genomes from 78

Napp, Nils

172

Detection of Disease Outbreaks by the Use of Oral Manifestations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral manifestations of diseases caused by bioterrorist agents could be a potential data source for biosurveillance. This study had the objectives of determining the oral manifestations of diseases caused by bioterrorist agents, measuring the prevalence of these manifestations in emergency department reports, and constructing and evaluating a detection algorithm based on them. We developed a software application to detect oral

M. H. Torres-Urquidy; G. Wallstrom; T. K. L. Schleyer

2009-01-01

173

Case Report: Outbreak of Bumper Car Disease Caused by Anophryoides haemophila in a Lobster Holding Facility in Nova Scotia, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case report provides pathologic and confirmatory molecular characterization of an outbreak of bumper car disease caused by the scuticociliate Anophryoides haemophila in American lobster Homarus americanus, from a commercial holding facility in Nova Scotia, Canada. Although sporadically and anecdotally reported to be present in Atlantic Canada, this is the first report detailing observations from a natural outbreak of bumper

Spencer J. Greenwood; Béatrice M. Després; Richard J. Cawthorn; Jean Lavallée; David B. Groman; Adrian Desbarats

2005-01-01

174

The mathematics of diseases On Modeling Hong Kong's SARS Outbreak  

E-print Network

of different disease control strategies . The WHO's eradication project reduced smallpox (variola) deaths from two million in 1967 to zero in 1977­80. Smallpox was officially declared eradicated in 1979. smallpox

Ng, Tuen Wai "Patrick"

175

Get the News Out Loudly and Quickly: The Influence of the Media on Limiting Emerging Infectious Disease Outbreaks  

PubMed Central

During outbreaks of infectious diseases with high morbidity and mortality, individuals closely follow media reports of the outbreak. Many will attempt to minimize contacts with other individuals in order to protect themselves from infection and possibly death. This process is called social distancing. Social distancing strategies include restricting socializing and travel, and using barrier protections. We use modeling to show that for short-term outbreaks, social distancing can have a large influence on reducing outbreak morbidity and mortality. In particular, public health agencies working together with the media can significantly reduce the severity of an outbreak by providing timely accounts of new infections and deaths. Our models show that the most effective strategy to reduce infections is to provide this information as early as possible, though providing it well into the course of the outbreak can still have a significant effect. However, our models for long-term outbreaks indicate that reporting historic infection data can result in more infections than with no reporting at all. We examine three types of media influence and we illustrate the media influence with a simulated outbreak of a generic emerging infectious disease in a small city. Social distancing can never be complete; however, for a spectrum of outbreaks, we show that leaving isolation (stopping applying social distancing measures) for up to 4 hours each day has modest effect on the overall morbidity and mortality. PMID:23990974

Mummert, Anna; Weiss, Howard

2013-01-01

176

Persistent or Slow Viral Infections and Related Diseases  

PubMed Central

The discovery of persistent transmissible agents by veterinarians has led to striking advances in the infectious cause of neuropathies of human beings. There is evidence for persisting infection in congenital rubella and the herpes group of viruses including cytomegalovirus infections. Hepatitis types A and B are candidates for inclusion in the category of persisting viral infections. The rubeola or measles virus is established as a persistent virus which causes elevated antibodies in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of many patients with severe demyelinating disease such as subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and multiple sclerosis. Elevated antibodies against vaccinia virus have been found in the cerebrospinal fluid of some patients with multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica, a rare form of multiple sclerosis. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7. PMID:165638

Adams, John M.

1975-01-01

177

Temporospatial clustering of foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks in Israel and Palestine, 2006-2007.  

PubMed

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic to the Middle East and there is a perception that political instability and limited resources have led to the uncontrolled circulation of FMD virus throughout the region. Certain aspects of FMD epidemiology in the Middle East remain unknown. The goal of this study was to identify the geographical location, temporal extent and direction of spread of clusters of 70 FMD outbreaks reported in Israel and Palestine from February 4, 2006, through July 15, 2007. The space-time permutation model of the scan statistic test detected nine significant (P < 0.1) clusters. Significant (P < 0.05) direction of spread was identified in four of the nine clusters. The Gaza Strip, where no outbreaks were reported, or a nearby location, seemed to be the origin of a cluster of outbreaks located in Hadarom (April 2007); a cluster of outbreaks centered in West Bank (February 2006) may be linked with spread from Northern Israel; a cluster in Hazafon (January 2007) seemed to have originated from nearby the Jordan borders; and a cluster located in Northern Hazafon was likely related to areas next to the Lebanon and Syrian borders. The association between the clusters in West Bank and earlier Israeli samples and between the cluster in Hazafon and Jordan was also supported (P < 0.05) by phylogenetic analysis of samples collected from the outbreaks. These results suggest that the FMD outbreaks reported in Israel and Palestine in 2006 and 2007 were likely a consequence of different epidemics associated with the circulation and spread of FMD virus strains from different regions of the Middle East. PMID:19245666

Alkhamis, M A; Perez, A M; Yadin, H; Knowles, N J

2009-04-01

178

Learning from history, predicting the future: the UK Dutch elm disease outbreak in relation to contemporary tree disease threats  

PubMed Central

Expanding international trade and increased transportation are heavily implicated in the growing threat posed by invasive pathogens to biodiversity and landscapes. With trees and woodland in the UK now facing threats from a number of disease systems, this paper looks to historical experience with the Dutch elm disease (DED) epidemic of the 1970s to see what can be learned about an outbreak and attempts to prevent, manage and control it. The paper draws on an interdisciplinary investigation into the history, biology and policy of the epidemic. It presents a reconstruction based on a spatial modelling exercise underpinned by archival research and interviews with individuals involved in the attempted management of the epidemic at the time. The paper explores what, if anything, might have been done to contain the outbreak and discusses the wider lessons for plant protection. Reading across to present-day biosecurity concerns, the paper looks at the current outbreak of ramorum blight in the UK and presents an analysis of the unfolding epidemiology and policy of this more recent, and potentially very serious, disease outbreak. The paper concludes by reflecting on the continuing contemporary relevance of the DED experience at an important juncture in the evolution of plant protection policy. PMID:21624917

Potter, Clive; Harwood, Tom; Knight, Jon; Tomlinson, Isobel

2011-01-01

179

Foreign animal disease outbreaks, the animal welfare implications for Canada: Risks apparent from international experience  

PubMed Central

Any outbreak of an Office International des Épizooties List A disease, such as classical swine fever or foot and mouth disease, has severe consequences for animal welfare, livestock production, exports of animals and animal products, and the environment. The public concern with the animal welfare effects of methods of disease eradication that result in the destruction of large numbers of uninfected animals has initiated a reconsideration of disease eradication policy in Europe. In many recent List A disease epizootics, the financial cost of addressing animal welfare concerns in healthy animals has greatly exceeded the cost of stamping out disease in infected herds. In the event of a similar incursion in Canada, the number of animals subject to welfare slaughter will be far greater than the number of infected animals killed. Current national disease eradication plans in Canada do not address the animal welfare component of disease control methods. PMID:14601676

Whiting, Terry L.

2003-01-01

180

Viral haemorrhagic disease of rabbits and human health.  

PubMed Central

Viral haemorrhagic disease of rabbits (VHD), a potential biological control for wild rabbits in Australia and New Zealand, escaped from quarantined field trials on Wardang Island and spread to the mainland of Australia in October 1995. This study looked for any evidence of infection or illness in people occupationally exposed to the virus. Two hundred and sixty-nine people were interviewed and 259 blood samples were collected. Exposures to VHD-infected rabbits ranged from nil to very high. No VHD antibodies were detected in any of the 259 sera when tested by VHD competitive enzyme immunoassay, which had been validated with 1013 VHDV-specific antibody negative sera. A questionnaire designed to elicit symptoms of disease in a range of organ systems found no significant differences between illness in those exposed and those not exposed to VHD, nor could an association be found between exposure and subsequent episodes of illness. The findings are consistent with the view that exposure to VHD is not associated with infection or disease in humans. PMID:9825794

Carman, J. A.; Garner, M. G.; Catton, M. G.; Thomas, S.; Westbury, H. A.; Cannon, R. M.; Collins, B. J.; Tribe, I. G.

1998-01-01

181

Recognition and management of rodent-borne infectious disease outbreaks after heavy rainfall and flooding.  

PubMed

Climatic events, especially heavy rains and flooding following periods of relative drought, have precipitated both arthropod-borne and rodent-borne infectious disease outbreaks. Heavy rainfall encourages excessive wild grass seed production that supports increased outdoor rodent populations, and flooding forces rodents from their burrows near water sources into the built environment and closer to humans. The objectives of this review are to alert clinicians to the climatic conditions common to hurricane-prone regions, such as Louisiana, that can precipitate outbreaks of the two rodent-borne diseases most often associated with periods of heavy rainfall and flooding, leptospirosis (LS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). It will also describe the epidemiology, presenting clinical manifestations and outcomes of these rodent-borne infectious diseases, and recommend both prophylactic therapies and effective control and prevention strategies for rodent-borne infectious disease outbreaks. Healthcare providers should maintain high levels of suspicion for LS in patients developing febrile illnesses after contaminated freshwater exposures during flooding or recreational events, and for HPS in patients with febrile illnesses that progress rapidly to respiratory failure following rodent exposures in enclosed spaces. Public health educational strategies should encourage limiting human contact with all wild and peridomestic rats and mice, avoiding all contact with rodent excreta, safely disposing of all rodent excreta, and modifying the built environment to deter rodents from colonizing households and workplaces. PMID:25369218

Diaz, James H

2014-01-01

182

VESSEL SANITATION PROGRAM (VSP) - DISEASES SURVEILLANCE AND OUTBREAK INVESTIGATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Under the authority of the Public Health Service Act to take measures necessary to prevent the introduction, transmission, or spread of communicable diseases in the United States from a foreign country [42 United States Code Section 264(a)], a surveillance system for diarrhea ill...

183

Diversity in pathogenicity can cause outbreaks of meningococcal disease  

E-print Network

January 30, 2004) Neisseria meningitidis, the meningococcus, is a major cause of bacterial meningitis criticality epidemiology meningitis septicemia Meningococcal disease is the collective name for the patho of the cerebro- spinal fluid and meninges, resulting in meningitis, and the release of highly active

184

Detecting disease outbreaks using a combined Bayesian network and particle filter approach.  

PubMed

Evaluating whether a disease outbreak has occurred based on limited information in medical records is inherently a probabilistic problem. This paper presents a methodology for consistently analysing the probability that a disease targeted by a surveillance system has appeared in the population, based on the medical records of the individuals within the target population, using a Bayesian network. To enable the system to produce a probability density function of the fraction of the population that is infected, a mathematically consistent conjoining of Bayesian networks and particle filters is used. This approach is tested against the default algorithm of ESSENCE Desktop Edition (which adaptively uses Poisson, exponentially weighted moving average and linear regression techniques as needed), and is shown, for the simulated test data used, to give significantly shorter detection times at false alarm rates of practical interest. This methodology shows promise to greatly improve detection times for outbreaks in populations where timely electronic health records are available for data-mining. PMID:25637764

Dawson, Peter; Gailis, Ralph; Meehan, Alaster

2015-04-01

185

Characterisation of a SAT1 outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in captive African buffalo ( Syncerus caffer): Clinical symptoms, genetic characterisation and phylogenetic comparison of outbreak isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) play an important role in the maintenance of the SAT types of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in southern Africa. These long-term carriers mostly become sub-clinically infected, maintaining the disease and posing a threat to other susceptible wildlife and domestic species. During an unrelated bovine tuberculosis experiment using captive buffalo in the Kruger National Park (KNP), an outbreak

W. Vosloo; L.-M. de Klerk; C. I. Boshoff; B. Botha; R. M. Dwarka; D. Keet; D. T. Haydon

2007-01-01

186

Viral Load Drives Disease in Humans Experimentally Infected with Respiratory Syncytial Virus  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of childhood lower respiratory infection, yet viable therapies are lacking. Two major challenges have stalled antiviral development: ethical difficulties in performing pediatric proof-of-concept studies and the prevailing concept that the disease is immune-mediated rather than being driven by viral load. Objectives: The development of a human experimental wild-type RSV infection model to address these challenges. Methods: Healthy volunteers (n = 35), in five cohorts, received increasing quantities (3.0–5.4 log plaque-forming units/person) of wild-type RSV-A intranasally. Measurements and Main Results: Overall, 77% of volunteers consistently shed virus. Infection rate, viral loads, disease severity, and safety were similar between cohorts and were unrelated to quantity of RSV received. Symptoms began near the time of initial viral detection, peaked in severity near when viral load peaked, and subsided as viral loads (measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction) slowly declined. Viral loads correlated significantly with intranasal proinflammatory cytokine concentrations (IL-6 and IL-8). Increased viral load correlated consistently with increases in multiple different disease measurements (symptoms, physical examination, and amount of nasal mucus). Conclusions: Viral load appears to drive disease manifestations in humans with RSV infection. The observed parallel viral and disease kinetics support a potential clinical benefit of RSV antivirals. This reproducible model facilitates the development of future RSV therapeutics. PMID:20622030

DeVincenzo, John P.; Wilkinson, Tom; Vaishnaw, Akshay; Cehelsky, Jeff; Meyers, Rachel; Nochur, Saraswathy; Harrison, Lisa; Meeking, Patricia; Mann, Alex; Moane, Elizabeth; Oxford, John; Pareek, Rajat; Moore, Ryves; Walsh, Ed; Studholme, Robert; Dorsett, Preston; Alvarez, Rene; Lambkin-Williams, Robert

2010-01-01

187

Complete genome sequence of acute viral necrosis virus associated with massive mortality outbreaks in the Chinese scallop, Chlamys farreri  

PubMed Central

Background Acute viral necrosis virus (AVNV) is the causative agent of a serious disease resulting in high mortality in cultured Chinese scallops, Chlamys farreri. We have sequenced and analyzed the complete genome of AVNV. Results The AVNV genome is a linear, double-stranded DNA molecule of 210,993 bp with a nucleotide composition of 38.5% G + C. A total of 123 open reading frames were predicted to encode functional proteins, ranging from 41 to 1,878 amino acid residues. The DNA sequence of AVNV is 97% identical to that of ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1), and the amino acid sequences of the encoded proteins of these two viruses are 94-100% identical. The genomic organization of AVNV is similar to that of OsHV-1, and consists of two unique regions (170.4 kb and 3.4 kb, respectively), each flanked by two inverted repeats (7.6 kb and 10.2 kb, respectively), with a third unique region (1.5 kb) situated between the two internal repeats. Conclusions Our results indicate that AVNV is a variant of OsHV-1. The AVNV genome sequence provides information useful for understanding the evolution and divergence of OsHV-1 in marine molluscs. PMID:23566284

2013-01-01

188

Serogroup B Meningococcal Disease Outbreaks The following information on serogroup B meningococcal disease outbreaks is provided by  

E-print Network

and distributing meningitis awareness materials on campus. Available resources include: o The CDC Preteen and Teen Vaccines page o Meningococcal Disease and Vaccination Fact Sheet from the National Meningitis Association [pdf] #12;o Meningococcal Meningitis Flyer from the National Meningitis Association [pdf] We encourage

Royer, Dana

189

Characterisation of a SAT-1 outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in captive African buffalo (Syncerus caffer): clinical symptoms, genetic characterisation and phylogenetic comparison of outbreak isolates.  

PubMed

African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) play an important role in the maintenance of the SAT types of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in southern Africa. These long-term carriers mostly become sub-clinically infected, maintaining the disease and posing a threat to other susceptible wildlife and domestic species. During an unrelated bovine tuberculosis experiment using captive buffalo in the Kruger National Park (KNP), an outbreak of SAT-1 occurred and was further investigated. The clinical signs were recorded and all animals demonstrated significant weight loss and lymphopenia that lasted 100 days. In addition, the mean cell volume and mean cell haemoglobin values were significantly higher than before the outbreak started. Virus was isolated from several buffalo over a period of 167 days post infection and the molecular clock estimated to be 3 x 10(-5) nucleotide substitutions per site per day. Seven amino acid changes occurred of which four occurred in hypervariable regions previously described for SAT-1. The genetic relationship of the outbreak virus was compared to buffalo viruses previously obtained from the KNP but the phylogeny was largely unresolved, therefore the relationship of this outbreak strain to others isolated from the KNP remains unclear. PMID:17194552

Vosloo, W; de Klerk, L-M; Boshoff, C I; Botha, B; Dwarka, R M; Keet, D; Haydon, D T

2007-03-10

190

Disturbance Driven Colony Fragmentation as a Driver of a Coral Disease Outbreak  

PubMed Central

In September of 2010, Brewer's Bay reef, located in St. Thomas (U.S. Virgin Islands), was simultaneously affected by abnormally high temperatures and the passage of a hurricane that resulted in the mass bleaching and fragmentation of its coral community. An outbreak of a rapid tissue loss disease among coral colonies was associated with these two disturbances. Gross lesion signs and lesion progression rates indicated that the disease was most similar to the Caribbean coral disease white plague type 1. Experiments indicated that the disease was transmissible through direct contact between colonies, and five-meter radial transects showed a clustered spatial distribution of disease, with diseased colonies being concentrated within the first meter of other diseased colonies. Disease prevalence and the extent to which colonies were bleached were both significantly higher on unattached colony fragments than on attached colonies, and disease occurred primarily on fragments found in direct contact with sediment. In contrast to other recent studies, disease presence was not related to the extent of bleaching on colonies. The results of this study suggest that colony fragmentation and contact with sediment played primary roles in the initial appearance of disease, but that the disease was capable of spreading among colonies, which suggests secondary transmission is possible through some other, unidentified mechanism. PMID:23437335

Brandt, Marilyn E.; Smith, Tyler B.; Correa, Adrienne M. S.; Vega-Thurber, Rebecca

2013-01-01

191

Disturbance driven colony fragmentation as a driver of a coral disease outbreak.  

PubMed

In September of 2010, Brewer's Bay reef, located in St. Thomas (U.S. Virgin Islands), was simultaneously affected by abnormally high temperatures and the passage of a hurricane that resulted in the mass bleaching and fragmentation of its coral community. An outbreak of a rapid tissue loss disease among coral colonies was associated with these two disturbances. Gross lesion signs and lesion progression rates indicated that the disease was most similar to the Caribbean coral disease white plague type 1. Experiments indicated that the disease was transmissible through direct contact between colonies, and five-meter radial transects showed a clustered spatial distribution of disease, with diseased colonies being concentrated within the first meter of other diseased colonies. Disease prevalence and the extent to which colonies were bleached were both significantly higher on unattached colony fragments than on attached colonies, and disease occurred primarily on fragments found in direct contact with sediment. In contrast to other recent studies, disease presence was not related to the extent of bleaching on colonies. The results of this study suggest that colony fragmentation and contact with sediment played primary roles in the initial appearance of disease, but that the disease was capable of spreading among colonies, which suggests secondary transmission is possible through some other, unidentified mechanism. PMID:23437335

Brandt, Marilyn E; Smith, Tyler B; Correa, Adrienne M S; Vega-Thurber, Rebecca

2013-01-01

192

Equine viral arteritis.  

PubMed

Equine arteritis virus (EAV), the causative agent of equine viral arteritis (EVA), is a respiratory and reproductive disease that occurs throughout the world. EAV infection is highly species-specific and exclusively limited to members of the family Equidae, which includes horses, donkeys, mules, and zebras. EVA is an economically important disease and outbreaks could cause significant losses to the equine industry. The primary objective of this article is to summarize current understanding of EVA, specifically the disease, pathogenesis, epidemiology, host immune response, vaccination and treatment strategies, prevention and control measures, and future directions. PMID:25441113

Balasuriya, Udeni B R

2014-12-01

193

A multi-level spatial clustering algorithm for detection of disease outbreaks.  

PubMed

In this paper, we proposed a Multi-level Spatial Clustering (MSC) algorithm for rapid detection of emerging disease outbreaks prospectively. We used the semi-synthetic data for algorithm evaluation. We applied BARD algorithm [1] to generate outbreak counts for simulation of aerosol release of Anthrax. We compared MSC with two spatial clustering algorithms: Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic [2] and Bayesian spatial scan statistic [3]. The evaluation results showed that the areas under ROC had no significant difference among the three algorithms, so did the areas under AMOC. MSC demonstrated significant computational efficiency (100 + times faster) and higher PPV. However, MSC showed 2-6 hours delay on average for outbreak detection when the false alarm rate was lower than 1 false alarm per 4 weeks. We concluded that the MSC algorithm is computationally efficient and it is able to provide more precise and compact clusters in a timely manner while keeping high detection accuracy (cluster sensitivity) and low false alarm rates. PMID:18999304

Que, Jialan; Tsui, Fu-Chiang

2008-01-01

194

A Multi-level Spatial Clustering Algorithm for Detection of Disease Outbreaks  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we proposed a Multi-level Spatial Clustering (MSC) algorithm for rapid detection of emerging disease outbreaks prospectively. We used the semi-synthetic data for algorithm evaluation. We applied BARD algorithm[1] to generate outbreak counts for simulation of aerosol release of Anthrax. We compared MSC with two spatial clustering algorithms: Kulldorff’s spatial scan statistic[2] and Bayesian spatial scan statistic[3]. The evaluation results showed that the areas under ROC had no significant difference among the three algorithms, so did the areas under AMOC. MSC demonstrated significant computational effciency (100+ times faster) and higher PPV. However, MSC showed 2–6 hours delay on average for outbreak detection when the false alarm rate was lower than 1 false alarm per 4 weeks. We concluded that the MSC algorithm is computationally efficient and it is able to provide more precise and compact clusters in a timely manner while keeping high detection accuracy (cluster sensitivity) and low false alarm rates. PMID:18999304

Que, Jialan; Tsui, Fu-Chiang

2008-01-01

195

The relationship between infecting dose and severity of disease in reported outbreaks of Salmonella infections.  

PubMed Central

The relationship between size of the infecting dose and severity of the resulting disease has been investigated for salmonella infections by reanalysis of data within epidemics for 32 outbreaks, and comparing data between outbreaks for 68 typhoid epidemics and 49 food-poisoning outbreaks due to salmonellas. Attack rate, incubation period, amount of infected food consumed and type of vehicle are used as proxy measures of infecting dose, while case fatality rates for typhoid and case hospitalization rates for food poisoning salmonellas were used to assess severity. Limitations of the data are discussed. Both unweighted and logit analysis models are used. There is no evidence for a dose-severity relationship for Salmonella typhi, but evidence of a correlation between dose and severity is available from within-epidemic or between-epidemic analysis, or both, for Salmonella typhimurium, S. enteritidis, S. infantis, S. newport, and S. thompson. The presence of such a relationship affects the way in which control interventions should be assessed. PMID:1468522

Glynn, J. R.; Bradley, D. J.

1992-01-01

196

Maximum linkage space-time permutation scan statistics for disease outbreak detection  

PubMed Central

Background In disease surveillance, the prospective space-time permutation scan statistic is commonly used for the early detection of disease outbreaks. The scanning window that defines potential clusters of diseases is cylindrical in shape, which does not allow incorporating into the cluster shape potential factors that can contribute to the spread of the disease, such as information about roads, landscape, among others. Furthermore, the cylinder scanning window assumes that the spatial extent of the cluster does not change in time. Alternatively, a dynamic space-time cluster may indicate the potential spread of the disease through time. For instance, the cluster may decrease over time indicating that the spread of the disease is vanishing. Methods This paper proposes two irregularly shaped space-time permutation scan statistics. The cluster geometry is dynamically created using a graph structure. The graph can be created to include nearest-neighbor structures, geographical adjacency information or any relevant prior information regarding the contagious behavior of the event under surveillance. Results The new methods are illustrated using influenza cases in three New England states, and compared with the cylindrical version. A simulation study is provided to investigate some properties of the proposed arbitrary cluster detection techniques. Conclusion We have successfully developed two new space-time permutation scan statistics methods with irregular shapes and improved computational performance. The results demonstrate the potential of these methods to quickly detect disease outbreaks with irregular geometries. Future work aims at performing intensive simulation studies to evaluate the proposed methods using different scenarios, number of cases, and graph structures. PMID:24916839

2014-01-01

197

Shellfish-associated enteric virus illness: virus localization, disease outbreaks and prevention  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Numerous outbreaks of shellfish-borne enteric virus illness have been reported worldwide. Most notable among the outbreaks are those involving norovirus illness and hepatitis A. Lessons learned from outbreak investigations indicate that most outbreaks are preventable. Anthropogenic sources of con...

198

Viral warts in a patient with Darier's disease show acantholytic dyskeratosis.  

PubMed

A 15-year-old boy with classic clinical and histopathological features of Darier's disease developed viral warts that were confirmed by DNA hybridization studies. Histologically, there were features of acantholytic dyskeratosis in otherwise typical common warts. PMID:9056661

Jacyk, W K; du Plessis, P J

1997-02-01

199

The Impact of Viral Genotype on Pathogenesis and Disease Severity: Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Rhinoviruses  

PubMed Central

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infection (LRI) and viral death in infants. RSV disease in infants is characterized by epithelial desquamation, neutrophilic bronchiolitis and pneumonia, and obstructive pulmonary mucus. Human rhinoviruses (HRV) are by far the most common cause of symptomatic upper respiratory tract infection (URI) in people and are more recently appreciated as a significant cause of LRI. RSV and HRV are also implicated in asthma pathogenesis. Within both RSV and HRV, viral genetic differences play a role in disease severity and/or prevalence in patient populations, and viral genetic differences affect pathogenesis. Here, we review data on how viral genetic differences impact disease using RSV and HRV as examples, including effects on the host immune response. Virus genotype-phenotype relationships can be exploited in the laboratory to gain insight into mechanisms by which respiratory viruses modulate host immune responses and cause disease. PMID:24455766

Moore, Martin L.; Stokes, Kate L.; Hartert, Tina V.

2013-01-01

200

Recent Weather Extremes and Impacts on Agricultural Production and Vector-Borne Disease Outbreak Patterns  

PubMed Central

We document significant worldwide weather anomalies that affected agriculture and vector-borne disease outbreaks during the 2010–2012 period. We utilized 2000–2012 vegetation index and land surface temperature data from NASA's satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to map the magnitude and extent of these anomalies for diverse regions including the continental United States, Russia, East Africa, Southern Africa, and Australia. We demonstrate that shifts in temperature and/or precipitation have significant impacts on vegetation patterns with attendant consequences for agriculture and public health. Weather extremes resulted in excessive rainfall and flooding as well as severe drought, which caused ?10 to 80% variation in major agricultural commodity production (including wheat, corn, cotton, sorghum) and created exceptional conditions for extensive mosquito-borne disease outbreaks of dengue, Rift Valley fever, Murray Valley encephalitis, and West Nile virus disease. Analysis of MODIS data provided a standardized method for quantifying the extreme weather anomalies observed during this period. Assessments of land surface conditions from satellite-based systems such as MODIS can be a valuable tool in national, regional, and global weather impact determinations. PMID:24658301

Anyamba, Assaf; Small, Jennifer L.; Britch, Seth C.; Tucker, Compton J.; Pak, Edwin W.; Reynolds, Curt A.; Crutchfield, James; Linthicum, Kenneth J.

2014-01-01

201

An outbreak of Legionnaires' disease associated with a contaminated air-conditioning cooling tower.  

PubMed

In August and September 1978, an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease occurred in Memphis, Tennessee. Of the 44 ill, 39 had been either patients, employees, visitors, or passers-by at one Memphis hospital (Hospital A) during the 10 days before. Assuming an incubation period of between two and 10 days, the onset of cases correlated precisely with the use of Hospital A's auxiliary air-conditioning cooling tower. L. pneumophila was recovered from two samples of water from the tower. Infection appeared to have occurred both outside and within the hospital. A significant association was demonstrated between acquisition of Legionnaires' disease and prior hospitalization in those areas of Hospital A that received ventilating air from air intakes near the auxiliary cooling tower. Tracer-smoke studies indicated that contaminated aerosols from the tower could easily reach these air intakes, as well as the street below, where four passers-by had been before they contracted Legionnaires' disease. This represents a common-source outbreak in which the source of L. pneumophila infection and airborne transmission were identified. PMID:7351928

Dondero, T J; Rendtorff, R C; Mallison, G F; Weeks, R M; Levy, J S; Wong, E W; Schaffner, W

1980-02-14

202

Recent Weather Extremes and Impacts on Agricultural Production and Vector-Borne Disease Outbreak Patterns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We document significant worldwide weather anomalies that affected agriculture and vector-borne disease outbreaks during the 2010-2012 period. We utilized 2000-2012 vegetation index and land surface temperature data from NASA's satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to map the magnitude and extent of these anomalies for diverse regions including the continental United States, Russia, East Africa, Southern Africa, and Australia. We demonstrate that shifts in temperature and/or precipitation have significant impacts on vegetation patterns with attendant consequences for agriculture and public health. Weather extremes resulted in excessive rainfall and flooding as well as severe drought, which caused,10 to 80% variation in major agricultural commodity production (including wheat, corn, cotton, sorghum) and created exceptional conditions for extensive mosquito-borne disease outbreaks of dengue, Rift Valley fever, Murray Valley encephalitis, and West Nile virus disease. Analysis of MODIS data provided a standardized method for quantifying the extreme weather anomalies observed during this period. Assessments of land surface conditions from satellite-based systems such as MODIS can be a valuable tool in national, regional, and global weather impact determinations.

Anyamba, Assaf; Small, Jennifer L.; Britch, Seth C.; Tucker, Compton J.; Pak, Edwin W.; Reynolds, Curt A.; Crutchfield, James; Linthicum, Kenneth J.

2014-01-01

203

Recent weather extremes and impacts on agricultural production and vector-borne disease outbreak patterns.  

PubMed

We document significant worldwide weather anomalies that affected agriculture and vector-borne disease outbreaks during the 2010-2012 period. We utilized 2000-2012 vegetation index and land surface temperature data from NASA's satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to map the magnitude and extent of these anomalies for diverse regions including the continental United States, Russia, East Africa, Southern Africa, and Australia. We demonstrate that shifts in temperature and/or precipitation have significant impacts on vegetation patterns with attendant consequences for agriculture and public health. Weather extremes resulted in excessive rainfall and flooding as well as severe drought, which caused ?10 to 80% variation in major agricultural commodity production (including wheat, corn, cotton, sorghum) and created exceptional conditions for extensive mosquito-borne disease outbreaks of dengue, Rift Valley fever, Murray Valley encephalitis, and West Nile virus disease. Analysis of MODIS data provided a standardized method for quantifying the extreme weather anomalies observed during this period. Assessments of land surface conditions from satellite-based systems such as MODIS can be a valuable tool in national, regional, and global weather impact determinations. PMID:24658301

Anyamba, Assaf; Small, Jennifer L; Britch, Seth C; Tucker, Compton J; Pak, Edwin W; Reynolds, Curt A; Crutchfield, James; Linthicum, Kenneth J

2014-01-01

204

Foodborne Outbreaks Surveillance Data  

MedlinePLUS

... and Reporting Food Safety Share Compartir Surveillance for Foodborne Disease Outbreaks Captures outbreak data from local and state ... departments on agents, foods, and settings responsible for foodborne illness Prevention from the Farm to the Table Click ...

205

Identification, virulence, and mass spectrometry of toxic ECP fractions of West Alabama isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila obtained from a 2010 disease outbreak  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In West Alabama, disease outbreaks in 2009 caused by Aeromonas hydrophila have led to an estimated loss of more than $3 million. In 2010, disease outbreak occurred again in West Alabama, causing losses of hundreds of thousands of pounds of market size channel catfish. During the 2010 disease outbrea...

206

What is Pandemic Influenza? A pandemic is a global disease outbreak. A flu pandemic occurs when a new  

E-print Network

What is Pandemic Influenza? A pandemic is a global disease outbreak. A flu pandemic occurs when as many as 40 million deaths worldwide. What is swine flu? H1N1 Influenza is a respiratory disease of pigs swine flu, but human infections can and do happen. Swine flu viruses have been reported to spread from

207

Clinical Outcomes of Thirteen Patients with Acute Chagas Disease Acquired through Oral Transmission from Two Urban Outbreaks in Northeastern Brazil  

E-print Network

Background: Outbreaks of orally transmitted Trypanosoma cruzi continue to be reported in Brazil and are associated with a high mortality rate, mainly due to myocarditis. Methods: This study is a detailed report on the disease progression of acute Chagas disease in 13 patients who were infected

Claudilson J. C. Bastos; Roque Aras; Gildo Mota; Francisco Reis; Juarez Pereira Dias; Robson Silva De; Miralba Silva Freire; Eline G. De Araújo; Juliana Prazeres; Maria Fern; A Rios Grassi

208

Marble Spleen Disease (MSD) : an outbreak in game pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) anatomo -pathological and histo-pathological findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION Marble Speen Disease (MSD) is one of the foremost virosis (aviadenovirus II) of pheasants. Actually are not known outbreaks in wild animals, while it is a typical disease in 3-6 months old farmed pheasants. Anatomo-pathologic and Histo- pathological findings are described in order to make easy the laboratory diagnosis and the control in the farmed flock. In march 2004,

S. Gavaudan; S. Fiorelli; C. Bartolini; P. Mancini; E. Manuali; F. Savelli; F. Barchiesi; M. Delogu

209

Factors influencing psychological distress during a disease epidemic: Data from Australia's first outbreak of equine influenza  

PubMed Central

Background In 2007 Australia experienced its first outbreak of highly infectious equine influenza. Government disease control measures were put in place to control, contain, and eradicate the disease; these measures included movement restrictions and quarantining of properties. This study was conducted to assess the psycho-social impacts of this disease, and this paper reports the prevalence of, and factors influencing, psychological distress during this outbreak. Methods Data were collected using an online survey, with a link directed to the affected population via a number of industry groups. Psychological distress, as determined by the Kessler 10 Psychological Distress Scale, was the main outcome measure. Results In total, 2760 people participated in this study. Extremely high levels of non-specific psychological distress were reported by respondents in this study, with 34% reporting high psychological distress (K10 > 22), compared to levels of around 12% in the Australian general population. Analysis, using backward stepwise binary logistic regression analysis, revealed that those living in high risk infection (red) zones (OR = 2.00; 95% CI: 1.57–2.55; p < 0.001) and disease buffer (amber) zones (OR = 1.83; 95% CI: 1.36–2.46; p < 0.001) were at much greater risk of high psychological distress than those living in uninfected (white zones). Although prevalence of high psychological distress was greater in infected EI zones and States, elevated levels of psychological distress were experienced in horse-owners nationally. Statistical analysis indicated that certain groups were more vulnerable to high psychological distress; specifically younger people, and those with lower levels of formal educational qualifications. Respondents whose principal source of income was from horse-related industry were more than twice as likely to have high psychological distress than those whose primary source of income was not linked to horse-related industry (OR = 2.23; 95% CI: 1.82–2.73; p < 0.001). Conclusion Although, methodologically, this study had good internal validity, it has limited generalisability because it was not possible to identify, bound, or sample the target population accurately. However, this study is the first to collect psychological distress data from an affected population during such a disease outbreak and has potential to inform those involved in assessing the potential psychological impacts of human infectious diseases, such as pandemic influenza. PMID:18831770

Taylor, Melanie R; Agho, Kingsley E; Stevens, Garry J; Raphael, Beverley

2008-01-01

210

Foodborne viral illness - status in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Norwalk-like virus contamination of oysters and orange juice, and hepatitis A virus contamination of oysters have been responsible for large outbreaks of foodborne viral disease in Australia. Rotavirus, adenovirus, astrovirus, parvovirus and other enteroviruses also contribute to the incidence of gastroenteritis in this country but the role of foods and waters in transmitting these viruses is unclear. Protocols for the

Graham H Fleet; Paul Heiskanen; Iona Reid; Ken A Buckle

2000-01-01

211

Developing vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease and some other exotic viral diseases of livestock  

PubMed Central

Vaccines remain the main tool for the control of livestock viral diseases that pose a serious threat to animal and occasionally human health, reduce food security, distort trade in animals and their products, and undermine agricultural development in poor countries. Globalization and climate change increase the likelihood for new patterns of emergence and spread of livestock viruses. Conventionally attenuated and killed virus products have had spectacular success, and recent examples include the global eradication of rinderpest and the control of bluetongue in the UK and northern Europe. However, in many cases, livestock vaccines could benefit from improvement in some properties (e.g. stability, speed of onset and duration of immunity, and breadth of cross-protection to different serotypes or strains) and in some cases are not available at all. Compared with human vaccines, uptake of livestock products is highly cost-sensitive and their use may also need to be compatible with post-vaccination screening methods to determine whether or not animals continue to be infected. Requirements and prospects for new or improved vaccines are described for some priority viral diseases with potential for transboundary spread, particularly for foot-and-mouth disease. PMID:21893540

Paton, David J.; Taylor, Geraldine

2011-01-01

212

Detection of infectious disease outbreaks in twenty-two fragile states, 2000-2010: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Fragile states are home to a sixth of the world's population, and their populations are particularly vulnerable to infectious disease outbreaks. Timely surveillance and control are essential to minimise the impact of these outbreaks, but little evidence is published about the effectiveness of existing surveillance systems. We did a systematic review of the circumstances (mode) of detection of outbreaks occurring in 22 fragile states in the decade 2000-2010 (i.e. all states consistently meeting fragility criteria during the timeframe of the review), as well as time lags from onset to detection of these outbreaks, and from detection to further events in their timeline. The aim of this review was to enhance the evidence base for implementing infectious disease surveillance in these complex, resource-constrained settings, and to assess the relative importance of different routes whereby outbreak detection occurs. We identified 61 reports concerning 38 outbreaks. Twenty of these were detected by existing surveillance systems, but 10 detections occurred following formal notifications by participating health facilities rather than data analysis. A further 15 outbreaks were detected by informal notifications, including rumours. There were long delays from onset to detection (median 29 days) and from detection to further events (investigation, confirmation, declaration, control). Existing surveillance systems yielded the shortest detection delays when linked to reduced barriers to health care and frequent analysis and reporting of incidence data. Epidemic surveillance and control appear to be insufficiently timely in fragile states, and need to be strengthened. Greater reliance on formal and informal notifications is warranted. Outbreak reports should be more standardised and enable monitoring of surveillance systems' effectiveness. PMID:21861869

2011-01-01

213

The use of hospital-based nurses for the surveillance of potential disease outbreaks.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To study a novel surveillance system introduced in Mpumalanga Province, a rural area in the north-east of South Africa, in an attempt to address deficiencies in the system of notification for infectious conditions that have the potential for causing outbreaks. METHODS: Hospital-based infection control nurses in all of Mpumalanga's 32 public and private hospitals were trained to recognize, report, and respond to nine clinical syndromes that require immediate action. Sustainability of the system was assured through a schedule of regular training and networking, and by providing feedback to the nurses. The system was evaluated by formal review of hospital records, evidence of the effective containment of a cholera outbreak, and assessment of the speed and appropriateness of responses to other syndromes. FINDINGS: Rapid detection, reporting and response to six imported cholera cases resulted in effective containment, with only 19 proven secondary cholera cases, during the two-year review period. No secondary cases followed detection and prompt response to 14 patients with meningococcal disease. By the end of the first year of implementation, all facilities were providing weekly zero-reports on the nine syndromes before the designated time. Formal hospital record review for cases of acute flaccid paralysis endorsed the value of the system. CONCLUSION: The primary goal of an outbreak surveillance system is to ensure timely recognition of syndromes requiring an immediate response. Infection control nurses in Mpumalanga hospitals have excelled in timely weekly zero-reporting, participation at monthly training and feedback sessions, detection of priority clinical syndromes, and prompt appropriate response. This review provides support for the role of hospital-based nurses as valuable sentinel surveillance agents providing timely data for action. PMID:11217663

Durrheim, D. N.; Harris, B. N.; Speare, R.; Billinghurst, K.

2001-01-01

214

WATERBORNE GIARDIASIS: A COMMUNITYWIDE OUTBREAK OF DISEASE AND A HIGH RATE OF ASYMPTOMATIC INFECTION  

EPA Science Inventory

A communitywide outbreak of gastrointestinal illness due to Giardia lamblia infection occurred in the city of Berlin, New Hampshire, during April and May 1977. The clinical, epidemiologic, and laboratory aspects of this outbreak are described here. In 213 predominantly symptomati...

215

Outbreak of bluetongue disease (BTD) in Germany and the danger for Europe.  

PubMed

In August 2006, the blue tongue virus (BTV-type South Africa serotype 8) was detected for the first time in cattle blood probes in the Netherlands, immediately followed by cases in Belgium and in cattle on German farms, which were situated close to Aachen at the border to those countries. Within less than 2 months the disease spread eastwards crossing the Rhine, southwards to Luxemburg and to Northern France. At the end of the year 2006, nearly 1,000 farms were affected in Germany. Catches on two German cattle farms proved that the ceratopogonid species Culicoides obsoletus was obviously the vector, since many females-fed and unfed ones-were found to be infected with this virus. This sudden outbreak of bluetongue disease (BTD) is surely not a primary result of global warming, but rather an effect of globalization-i.e. the intensive worldwide import and export of animals; but a hot summer, as in 2006, and a warm winter like that of the years 2006/2007 supported the new spread starting again in masses in August 2007 leading to 596 PCR-confirmed cases until then with more than 200,000 animals infected. Thus, new agents coming from elsewhere have only a chance to spread if appropriate vectors are available and the conditions remain favourable during a reasonably long period. Effects of global warming-of course-will support persistence of such outbreaks of diseases due to offering of spreading of imported viruses, bacteria and/or parasites. PMID:19030889

Mehlhorn, Heinz; Walldorf, Volker; Klimpel, Sven; Schmahl, Günter

2008-12-01

216

Role of pentraxin 3 in shaping arthritogenic alphaviral disease: from enhanced viral replication to immunomodulation.  

PubMed

The rising prevalence of arthritogenic alphavirus infections, including chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Ross River virus (RRV), and the lack of antiviral treatments highlight the potential threat of a global alphavirus pandemic. The immune responses underlying alphavirus virulence remain enigmatic. We found that pentraxin 3 (PTX3) was highly expressed in CHIKV and RRV patients during acute disease. Overt expression of PTX3 in CHIKV patients was associated with increased viral load and disease severity. PTX3-deficient (PTX3(-/-)) mice acutely infected with RRV exhibited delayed disease progression and rapid recovery through diminished inflammatory responses and viral replication. Furthermore, binding of the N-terminal domain of PTX3 to RRV facilitated viral entry and replication. Thus, our study demonstrates the pivotal role of PTX3 in shaping alphavirus-triggered immunity and disease and provides new insights into alphavirus pathogenesis. PMID:25695775

Foo, Suan-Sin; Chen, Weiqiang; Taylor, Adam; Sheng, Kuo-Ching; Yu, Xing; Teng, Terk-Shin; Reading, Patrick C; Blanchard, Helen; Garlanda, Cecilia; Mantovani, Alberto; Ng, Lisa F P; Herrero, Lara J; Mahalingam, Suresh

2015-02-01

217

Reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide in viral diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolites derived from superoxide (o2\\u000a •?) and nitric oxide (NO•) play an important role in antimicrobial and antitumoral defense, but may also harm the host. Low\\u000a levels of such metabolites can also facilitate viral replication because of their mitogenic effects on cells. Most viruses\\u000a grow better in proliferating cells, and indeed, many viruses induced in their host cell changes similar

Ernst Peterhans

1997-01-01

218

The Contribution of Infections with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses to Bovine Respiratory Disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The contribution of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) to the development of bovine respiratory disease is the sum of a number of different factors. These factors include the contribution of acute uncomplicated BVDV infections, the high incidence of respiratory disease in animals persistently inf...

219

Bovine viral diarrhea virus: involvement in bovine respiratory disease and diagnostic challenges  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This paper reviews the contribution of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) to the development of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD). Veterinarians and producers generally consider BRD as one of the most significant diseases affecting production in the cattle industry. BRD can affect the performance (...

220

MedMyst Disease Defenders. Students learn how experts work as a team to solve infectious disease outbreaks while using the scientific method.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a problem-based learning adventure game in which players investigate infectious disease outbreaks. By interacting with professionals in the field and in the laboratory, players learn about the science of infectious disease and real medical science careers. Players can choose to train with an epidemiologist, microbiologist, or veterinarian to learn how these experts work as a team to solve infectious disease outbreaks while using the scientific method. Each expert path has its own learning objectives and stresses different parts of the scientific method. Key topics covered in this game: Scientific method, science process skills, rabies, necropsy, case-control study. Also available in Spanish.

Center for Technology in Teaching and Learning

2011-09-28

221

Evaluation of methods for the euthanasia of cattle in a foreign animal disease outbreak.  

PubMed Central

In anticipation of the need to euthanize large numbers of cattle in the event of a foreign animal disease outbreak, two models of captive bolt gun and various firearms and ammunition loads were tested in order to assess their suitability. In the first phase of the project, two models of captive bolt stunner were used in an abattoir, and assessed for effectiveness. In the second phase, several firearms and ammunition were used on isolated bovine heads and assessed for effectiveness. Little difference was found between the two captive bolt stunners. Of the firearms and ammunition evaluated, the Ruger Mini-14 and the Core-Shot round, a prefragmented projectile, were determined to be most suitable. In situations where large herds of livestock are to be depopulated, and where the restraint required for the use of captive bolt stunners is not practical, there are commercially available firearms and ammunition that are suitable for this purpose. PMID:7757921

Baker, H J; Scrimgeour, H J

1995-01-01

222

Maintenance of cooling towers following two outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease in a city.  

PubMed Central

This survey assessed the maintenance of evaporative cooling towers in Glasgow, following two Legionnaires' disease outbreaks. Information was obtained from 76 of 81 premises and a maintenance score was calculated for each of 174 towers. The quality of maintenance was extremely varied (range of maintenance scores, 8-30; mean, 22 (S.D., 5.0); median, 23; maximum possible, 33) and some towers were neglected. Breaches of maintenance principles were mainly structural and organizational, e.g. inadequate drift control, rather than failure to use chemicals. Low maintenance scores were associated with no log book, no guidelines, no change in procedures in last 5 years, solitary cooling towers, and towers on industrial premises. Despite intense publicity the standard of cooling tower maintenance in Glasgow remained a concern. Information campaigns directed at those responsible for cooling-tower maintenance are necessary. PMID:2307183

Bhopal, R. S.; Barr, G.

1990-01-01

223

A Bayesian Inferential Approach to Quantify the Transmission Intensity of Disease Outbreak  

PubMed Central

Background. Emergence of infectious diseases like influenza pandemic (H1N1) 2009 has become great concern, which posed new challenges to the health authorities worldwide. To control these diseases various studies have been developed in the field of mathematical modelling, which is useful tool for understanding the epidemiological dynamics and their dependence on social mixing patterns. Method. We have used Bayesian approach to quantify the disease outbreak through key epidemiological parameter basic reproduction number (R0), using effective contacts, defined as sum of the product of incidence cases and probability of generation time distribution. We have estimated R0 from daily case incidence data for pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 in India, for the initial phase. Result. The estimated R0 with 95% credible interval is consistent with several other studies on the same strain. Through sensitivity analysis our study indicates that infectiousness affects the estimate of R0. Conclusion. Basic reproduction number R0 provides the useful information to the public health system to do some effort in controlling the disease by using mitigation strategies like vaccination, quarantine, and so forth. PMID:25784956

Kadi, Adiveppa S.; Avaradi, Shivakumari R.

2015-01-01

224

Modeling cholera outbreaks  

PubMed Central

Mathematical modeling can be a valuable tool for studying infectious disease outbreak dynamics and simulating the effects of possible interventions. Here, we describe approaches to modeling cholera outbreaks and how models have been applied to explore intervention strategies, particularly in Haiti. Mathematical models can play an important role in formulating and evaluating complex cholera outbreak response options. Major challenges to cholera modeling are insufficient data for calibrating models and the need to tailor models for different outbreak scenarios. PMID:23412687

Longini, Ira M.; Morris, J. Glenn

2014-01-01

225

Hantavirus Disease Outbreak in Germany: Limitations of Routine Serological Diagnostics and Clustering of Virus Sequences of Human and Rodent Origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Europe, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome results mainly from infection with Puumala virus (PUUV) or Dobrava virus. For 31 patients from a hantavirus disease outbreak in Lower Bavaria, a district in southeast Germany, serodiagnosis was undertaken by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunofluores- cence assay, and immunoblot analysis. In a few of these cases, however, PUUV-specific typing of antibodies by these

Stefan Schilling; Petra Emmerich; Boris Klempa; Brita Auste; Ebbo Schnaith; Herbert Schmitz; Detlev H. Kruger; Stephan Gunther; Helga Meisel

226

Surveillance for Waterborne Disease Outbreaks and Other Health Events Associated with Recreational Water -United States, 2007-2008*  

EPA Science Inventory

Problem/Condition: Since 1978, CDC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have collaborated on the Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) for collecting and reporting data on occurrences and causes...

227

A prospective matched nested case-control study of bacterial gill disease outbreaks in Ontario, Canada government salmonid hatcheries  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Early-rearing salmonids in Ontario, Canada government fish hatcheries have been persistently affected by bacterial gill disease (BGD), and outbreaks at these locations have often been associated with high morbidity and mortality. The causative agent of BGD, Flavobacterium branchiophilum, is consider...

228

Predator disease out-break modulates top-down, bottom-up and climatic effects on herbivore population dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human-introduced disease and climatic change are increasingly perturbing natural ecosystems worldwide, but scientists know very little about how they interact to affect ecological dynamics. An outbreak of canine parvovirus (CPV) in the wolf population on Isle Royale allowed us to test the transient effects of an introduced pathogen and global climatic variation on the dynamics of a three-level food chain.

Christopher C. Wilmers; Eric Post; Rolf O. Peterson; John A. Vucetich

2006-01-01

229

MANAGEMENT OF VIRAL DISEASES IN FLORAL AND NURSERY CROPS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Control of plant diseases caused by viruses, viroids and fastidious prokaryotes involves exclusion, eradication, protection and the use of resistant varieties. Development of serological and molecular techniques allows rapid diagnosis of diseases and reliable detection of causal agents. Accurate ide...

230

Viral nucleoprotein localization and lesions of Newcastle disease in tissues of indigenous ducks.  

PubMed

Localization of Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein and pathological lesions was evaluated in tissues of 55 indigenous ducks (45 experimentally infected and 10 sentinel ones). In addition, ten Newcastle disease infected chickens were used to ensure that the virus inoculum administered to the ducks produced the disease in chickens, the susceptible hosts. Ducks were killed on day 1, 4, 8 and 14 post-infection. Post-mortem examination was done with six tissues (liver, spleen, lung, caecal tonsils, kidneys and brain) being collected from each bird. The tissues were preserved in 10% neutral formalin for 24 h. They were then transferred to 70% ethanol for histology and immunohistochemical staining. Airsacculitis, necrotic splenic foci, congested intestines, lymphoid depleted caecal tonsils and focal infiltrations by mononuclear cells were the main pathological lesions in infected ducks. Over 28.9% of the infected ducks had Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein in macrophage-like large mononuclear cells in the caecal tonsils and kidney tubular epithelium. The viral antigens were located in the cytoplasm and nucleolus of the cells. The other organs had no detectable viral antigens. This study shows that the kidneys and caecal tonsils are the likely predilection sites for the virus in ducks. They thus need to be considered as diagnostic indicators for the viral carriage in ducks. PMID:21858730

Njagi, Lucy Wanjiru; Mbuthia, Paul Gichohi; Nyaga, Phillip Njeru; Bebora, Lilly Caroline; Minga, Uswege M

2012-04-01

231

Disease outbreaks, bleaching and a cyclone drive changes in coral assemblages on an inshore reef of the Great Barrier Reef  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coral disease is a major threat to the resilience of coral reefs; thus, understanding linkages between disease outbreaks and disturbances predicted to increase with climate change is becoming increasingly important. Coral disease surveys conducted twice yearly between 2008 and 2011 at a turbid inshore reef in the central Great Barrier Reef spanned two disturbance events, a coral bleaching event in 2009 and a severe cyclone (cyclone `Yasi') in 2011. Surveys of coral cover, community structure and disease prevalence throughout this 4-yr study provide a unique opportunity to explore cumulative impacts of disturbance events and disease for inshore coral assemblages. The principal coral disease at the study site was atramentous necrosis (AtN), and it primarily affected the key inshore, reef-building coral Montipora aequituberculata. Other diseases detected were growth anomalies, white syndrome and brown band syndrome. Diseases affected eight coral genera, although Montipora was, by far, the genus mostly affected. The prevalence of AtN followed a clear seasonal pattern, with disease outbreaks occurring only in wet seasons. Mean prevalence of AtN on Montipora spp. (63.8 % ± 3.03) was three- to tenfold greater in the wet season of 2009, which coincided with the 2009 bleaching event, than in other years. Persistent wet season outbreaks of AtN combined with the impacts of bleaching and cyclone events resulted in a 50-80 % proportional decline in total coral cover. The greatest losses of branching and tabular acroporids occurred following the low-salinity-induced bleaching event of 2009, and the greatest losses of laminar montiporids occurred following AtN outbreaks in 2009 and in 2011 following cyclone Yasi. The shift to a less diverse coral assemblage and the concomitant loss of structural complexity are likely to have long-term consequences for associated vertebrate and invertebrate communities on Magnetic Island reefs.

Haapkylä, J.; Melbourne-Thomas, J.; Flavell, M.; Willis, B. L.

2013-09-01

232

The Impact of Movements and Animal Density on Continental Scale Cattle Disease Outbreaks in the United States  

PubMed Central

Globalization has increased the potential for the introduction and spread of novel pathogens over large spatial scales necessitating continental-scale disease models to guide emergency preparedness. Livestock disease spread models, such as those for the 2001 foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemic in the United Kingdom, represent some of the best case studies of large-scale disease spread. However, generalization of these models to explore disease outcomes in other systems, such as the United States’s cattle industry, has been hampered by differences in system size and complexity and the absence of suitable livestock movement data. Here, a unique database of US cattle shipments allows estimation of synthetic movement networks that inform a near-continental scale disease model of a potential FMD-like (i.e., rapidly spreading) epidemic in US cattle. The largest epidemics may affect over one-third of the US and 120,000 cattle premises, but cattle movement restrictions from infected counties, as opposed to national movement moratoriums, are found to effectively contain outbreaks. Slow detection or weak compliance may necessitate more severe state-level bans for similar control. Such results highlight the role of large-scale disease models in emergency preparedness, particularly for systems lacking comprehensive movement and outbreak data, and the need to rapidly implement multi-scale contingency plans during a potential US outbreak. PMID:24670977

Buhnerkempe, Michael G.; Tildesley, Michael J.; Lindström, Tom; Grear, Daniel A.; Portacci, Katie; Miller, Ryan S.; Lombard, Jason E.; Werkman, Marleen; Keeling, Matt J.; Wennergren, Uno; Webb, Colleen T.

2014-01-01

233

1st International Symposium on Stress-Associated RNA Granules in Human Disease and Viral Infection  

PubMed Central

In recent years, important linkages have been made between RNA granules and human disease processes. On June 8-10 of this year, we hosted a new symposium, dubbed the 1st International Symposium on Stress-Associated RNA Granules in Human Disease and Viral Infection. This symposium brought together experts from diverse research disciplines ranging from cancer and neuroscience to infectious disease. This report summarizes speaker presentations and highlights current challenges in the field. PMID:25256393

Banfield, Bruce W.; Mouland, Andrew J.; McCormick, Craig

2014-01-01

234

The pioneering use of a questionnaire to investigate a food borne disease outbreak in early 20th century Britain  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the investigation by a British local government board inspector in 1902, H Timbrell Bulstrode, into the cause of an outbreak of enteric fever after a mayoral banquet given at Winchester. This investigation helped to confirm the role of oysters as an agent of transmission of typhoid fever. The data are also reanalysed using a modern approach, which confirmed the role of oysters (odds ratio = 11.2, 95% CI 2.5 to 50.1). This episode is illustrative of the role of British public health inspectors at the turn of the 20th century as well as of the conditions in which the technique of investigating outbreaks of food borne diseases using a standardised menu was developed. Current methods of outbreak investigations that differ from Bulstrode's pioneering work are also discussed. PMID:15650138

Morabia, A.; Hardy, A.

2005-01-01

235

The evolution and expansion of regional disease surveillance networks and their role in mitigating the threat of infectious disease outbreaks.  

PubMed

We examine the emergence, development, and value of regional infectious disease surveillance networks that neighboring countries worldwide are organizing to control cross-border outbreaks at their source. The regional perspective represented in the paper is intended to serve as an instructive framework for others who decide to launch such networks as new technologies and emerging threats bring countries even closer together. Distinct from more formal networks in geographic regions designated by the World Health Organization (WHO), these networks usually involve groupings of fewer countries chosen by national governments to optimize surveillance efforts. Sometimes referred to as sub-regional, these "self-organizing" networks complement national and local government recognition with informal relationships across borders among epidemiologists, scientists, ministry officials, health workers, border officers, and community members. Their development over time reflects both incremental learning and growing connections among network actors; and changing disease patterns, with infectious disease threats shifting over time from local to regional to global levels. Not only has this regional disease surveillance network model expanded across the globe, it has also expanded from a mostly practitioner-based network model to one that covers training, capacity-building, and multidisciplinary research. Today, several of these networks are linked through Connecting Organizations for Regional Disease Surveillance (CORDS). We explore how regional disease surveillance networks add value to global disease detection and response by complementing other systems and efforts, by harnessing their power to achieve other goals such as health and human security, and by helping countries adapt to complex challenges via multi-sectoral solutions. We note that governmental commitment and trust among participating individuals are critical to the success of regional infectious disease surveillance networks. PMID:23362414

Bond, Katherine C; Macfarlane, Sarah B; Burke, Charlanne; Ungchusak, Kumnuan; Wibulpolprasert, Suwit

2013-01-01

236

The Evolution and Expansion of Regional Disease Surveillance Networks and Their Role in Mitigating the Threat of Infectious Disease Outbreaks  

PubMed Central

We examine the emergence, development, and value of regional infectious disease surveillance networks that neighboring countries worldwide are organizing to control cross-border outbreaks at their source. The regional perspective represented in the paper is intended to serve as an instructive framework for others who decide to launch such networks as new technologies and emerging threats bring countries even closer together. Distinct from more formal networks in geographic regions designated by the World Health Organization (WHO), these networks usually involve groupings of fewer countries chosen by national governments to optimize surveillance efforts. Sometimes referred to as sub-regional, these “self-organizing” networks complement national and local government recognition with informal relationships across borders among epidemiologists, scientists, ministry officials, health workers, border officers, and community members. Their development over time reflects both incremental learning and growing connections among network actors; and changing disease patterns, with infectious disease threats shifting over time from local to regional to global levels. Not only has this regional disease surveillance network model expanded across the globe, it has also expanded from a mostly practitioner-based network model to one that covers training, capacity-building, and multidisciplinary research. Today, several of these networks are linked through Connecting Organizations for Regional Disease Surveillance (CORDS). We explore how regional disease surveillance networks add value to global disease detection and response by complementing other systems and efforts, by harnessing their power to achieve other goals such as health and human security, and by helping countries adapt to complex challenges via multi-sectoral solutions. We note that governmental commitment and trust among participating individuals are critical to the success of regional infectious disease surveillance networks. PMID:23362414

Bond, Katherine C.; Macfarlane, Sarah B.; Burke, Charlanne; Ungchusak, Kumnuan; Wibulpolprasert, Suwit

2013-01-01

237

The History of Dengue Outbreaks in the Americas  

PubMed Central

Dengue is a viral disease usually transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Dengue outbreaks in the Americas reported in medical literature and to the Pan American Health Organization are described. The outbreak history from 1600 to 2010 was categorized into four phases: Introduction of dengue in the Americas (1600–1946); Continental plan for the eradication of the Ae. aegypti (1947–1970) marked by a successful eradication of the mosquito in 18 continental countries by 1962; Ae. aegypti reinfestation (1971–1999) caused by the failure of the mosquito eradication program; Increased dispersion of Ae. aegypti and dengue virus circulation (2000–2010) characterized by a marked increase in the number of outbreaks. During 2010 > 1.7 million dengue cases were reported, with 50,235 severe cases and 1,185 deaths. A dramatic increase in the number of outbreaks has been reported in recent years. Urgent global action is needed to avoid further disease spread. PMID:23042846

Brathwaite Dick, Olivia; San Martín, José L.; Montoya, Romeo H.; del Diego, Jorge; Zambrano, Betzana; Dayan, Gustavo H.

2012-01-01

238

Molecular Analysis of Spring Viraemia of Carp Virus in China: A Fatal Aquatic Viral Disease that Might Spread in East Asian  

PubMed Central

Spring viraemia of carp (SVC) is a fatal viral disease for cyprinid fish, which is caused by spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV). To date, no SVC outbreak has been reported in China. Between 1998 and 2002, outbreaks of SVC were reported in ornamental and wild fish in Europe and America, imported from multiple sources including China. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the viral strain isolated from America was shown to be originated from Asia. These outbreaks not only resulted in huge economic losses, but also raise an interesting question as to whether SVCV really exists in China and if so, is it responsible for SVC outbreaks? From 2002 to 2006, we screened 6700 samples from ornamental fish farms using the cell culture method of the Office International des Epizooties (OIE), and further verified the presence of SVCV by ELISA and real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Two infected samples were found and the complete genome of SVCV was sequenced from one of the isolates, termed SVCV-C1. Several unique hallmarks of SVCV-C1 were identified, including six amino acid (KSLANA) insertion in the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L) protein and ten nucleotide insertion in the region between glycoprotein (G) and L genes in European SVCV strains. Phylogenetic tree analysis of the full-length G protein of selected SVCV isolates from the United Kingdom and United States revealed that G proteins could be classified into Ia and Id sub genogroups. The Ia sub genogroup can be further divided into newly defined sub genogroups Ia-A and Ia-B. The isolates derived from the United States and China including the SVCV-C1 belongs to in the Ia-A sub genogroup. The SVCV-C1 G protein shares more than 99% homology with the G proteins of the SVCV strains from England and the United States, making it difficult to compare their pathogenicity. Comparison of the predicted three-dimensional structure based on the published G protein sequences from five SVCV strains revealed that the main differences were in the loops of the pleckstrin homology domains. Since SVCV is highly pathogenic, we speculate that SVC may therefore pose a serious threat to farmed cyprinid fish in China. PMID:19623265

Jiang, Yi Nan; Zhang, Ting; Xia, Chun

2009-01-01

239

MicroRNAs and Major Blood-borne Infectious Viral Diseases.  

PubMed

The presence of microRNAs (miRNAs) and their ease of detection in body fluids including serum and whole blood have opened new avenues for developing novel non-invasive methods for diagnostics and therapeutic applications for both infectious and noninfectious diseases. Blood-borne infectious viral diseases pose challenge to public health at large and, especially to health care workers, emergency responders and public safety personnel. Several studies have explored these newly identified miRNAs in blood borne infectious diseases for various purposes. This review highlights and focuses only on some of the available literature on the patient associated cellular miRNAs in blood-borne viral diseases and its occasional extrapolation to infected cell cultures as it relates to blood-borne hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Where appropriate, this review further points to the potential of miRNAs as non-invasive early disease detection biomarkers for these viral infections as well as possible prospects and challenges of miRNA-based therapies in treating these viral infections. PMID:25069445

Dahiya, Neetu; Atreya, Chintamani D

2014-01-01

240

Interferon-? rs12979860 genotype and liver fibrosis in viral and non-viral chronic liver disease  

PubMed Central

Tissue fibrosis is a core pathologic process that contributes to mortality in ~45% of the population and is likely to be influenced by the host genetic architecture. Here we demonstrate, using liver disease as a model, that a single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs12979860) in the intronic region of interferon-?4 (IFNL4) is a strong predictor of fibrosis in an aetiology-independent manner. In a cohort of 4,172 patients, including 3,129 with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), 555 with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and 488 with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), those with rs12979860CC have greater hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. In CHC, those with rs12979860CC also have greater stage-constant and stage-specific fibrosis progression rates (P<0.0001 for all). The impact of rs12979860 genotypes on fibrosis is maximal in young females, especially those with HCV genotype 3. These findings establish rs12979860 genotype as a strong aetiology-independent predictor of tissue inflammation and fibrosis. PMID:25740255

Eslam, Mohammed; Hashem, Ahmed M.; Leung, Reynold; Romero-Gomez, Manuel; Berg, Thomas; Dore, Gregory J.; Chan, Henry L.K.; Irving, William L.; Sheridan, David; Abate, Maria L.; Adams, Leon A.; Mangia, Alessandra; Weltman, Martin; Bugianesi, Elisabetta; Spengler, Ulrich; Shaker, Olfat; Fischer, Janett; Mollison, Lindsay; Cheng, Wendy; Powell, Elizabeth; Nattermann, Jacob; Riordan, Stephen; McLeod, Duncan; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Douglas, Mark W.; Liddle, Christopher; Booth, David R.; George, Jacob; Ahlenstiel, Golo; Ampuero, Javier; Bassendine, Margaret; Wong, Vincent W. S.; Rosso, Chiara; White, Rose; Mezzabotta, Lavinia; Suppiah, Vijayaprakash; Michalk, Monika; Malik, Barbara; Matthews, Gail; Applegate, Tanya; Grebely, Jason; Fragomeli, Vincenzo; Jonsson, Julie R.; Santaro, Rosanna

2015-01-01

241

Carriage Rate and Effects of Vaccination after Outbreaks of Serogroup C Meningococcal Disease, Brazil, 2010  

PubMed Central

During 2010, outbreaks of serogroup C meningococcal (MenC) disease occurred in 2 oil refineries in São Paulo State, Brazil, leading to mass vaccination of employees at 1 refinery with a meningococcal polysaccharide A/C vaccine. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of meningococci carriage among workers at both refineries and to investigate the effect of vaccination on and the risk factors for pharyngeal carriage of meningococci. Among the vaccinated and nonvaccinated workers, rates of overall meningococci carriage (21.4% and 21.6%, respectively) and of MenC carriage (6.3% and 4.9%, respectively) were similar. However, a MenC strain belonging to the sequence type103 complex predominated and was responsible for the increased incidence of meningococcal disease in Brazil. A low education level was associated with higher risk of meningococci carriage. Polysaccharide vaccination did not affect carriage or interrupt transmission of the epidemic strain. These findings will help inform future vaccination strategies. PMID:24751156

Carvalhanas, Telma Regina Marques Pinto; Paula de Lemos, Ana; Gorla, Maria Cecilia Outeiro; Salgado, Maristela; Fukasawa, Lucila O.; Gonçalves, Maria Gisele; Higa, Fabio; Brandileone, Maria Cristina Cunto; Sacchi, Claudio Tavares; Ribeiro, Ana Freitas; Sato, Helena Keico; Bricks, Lucia Ferro; Cassio de Moraes, José

2014-01-01

242

Training public health students to investigate disease outbreaks--examples of community service.  

PubMed Central

In a cooperative effort among the Centers for Disease Control, the Yale University Department of Epidemiology, and the Connecticut State Department of Health Services, an epidemiology demonstration training program was established in which student-faculty rapid response teams responded to requests from the State and from local health departments to investigate acute disease outbreaks or the health effects of natural experiments. Over five academic semesters, 23 teams, consisting of a total of 76 students, responded to requests and produced reports regarding the etiology and recommendations for control to the appropriate agencies. By the end of the fifth semester, there had been three papers or reports published in medical or public health journals, two papers accepted for publication, four presentations at meetings, and five additional manuscripts had been submitted to journals or were being prepared for submission. Throughout the experience, a high level of cooperation between local and State health departments and the school of public health was maintained. Involved students, faculty, and State investigators believed the experience to be highly productive and worthwhile. PMID:3124201

Helgerson, S D; Jekel, J F; Hadler, J L

1988-01-01

243

Carriage rate and effects of vaccination after outbreaks of serogroup C meningococcal disease, Brazil, 2010.  

PubMed

During 2010, outbreaks of serogroup C meningococcal (MenC) disease occurred in 2 oil refineries in São Paulo State, Brazil, leading to mass vaccination of employees at 1 refinery with a meningococcal polysaccharide A/C vaccine. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of meningococci carriage among workers at both refineries and to investigate the effect of vaccination on and the risk factors for pharyngeal carriage of meningococci. Among the vaccinated and nonvaccinated workers, rates of overall meningococci carriage (21.4% and 21.6%, respectively) and of MenC carriage (6.3% and 4.9%, respectively) were similar. However, a MenC strain belonging to the sequence type103 complex predominated and was responsible for the increased incidence of meningococcal disease in Brazil. A low education level was associated with higher risk of meningococci carriage. Polysaccharide vaccination did not affect carriage or interrupt transmission of the epidemic strain. These findings will help inform future vaccination strategies. PMID:24751156

Sáfadi, Marco Aurelio Palazzi; Carvalhanas, Telma Regina Marques Pinto; Paula de Lemos, Ana; Gorla, Maria Cecilia Outeiro; Salgado, Maristela; Fukasawa, Lucila O; Gonçalves, Maria Gisele; Higa, Fabio; Brandileone, Maria Cristina Cunto; Sacchi, Claudio Tavares; Ribeiro, Ana Freitas; Sato, Helena Keico; Bricks, Lucia Ferro; Cassio de Moraes, José

2014-05-01

244

Molecular Mechanisms Deployed by Virally Encoded G Protein Coupled Receptors in Human Diseases  

PubMed Central

G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent the largest family of cell surface molecules involved in signal transduction. Surprisingly, open reading frames for multiple GPCRs were hijacked in the process of co-evolution between herpesviridae family viruses and their human and mammalian hosts. Virally encoded GPCRs (vGPCRs) evolved as parts of viral genomes, which allowed harnessing the power of host GPCR signaling circuitries to ensure viral replicative success. Although vGPCRs are phylogenetically related to human chemokine receptors, they feature a number of unique characteristics. Here, we describe the molecular mechanisms underlying vGPCR-mediated viral pathogenesis which include constitutive activity, aberrant coupling to human G-proteins and ?-arrestins, binding and activation by human chemokines, and dimerization with human GPCRs expressed in infected cells. The likely structural basis for these molecular events is described for the two closest viral homologs of human GPCRs. This information can be exploited for developing novel targeted therapeutic strategies against viral diseases. PMID:23092247

Montaner, Silvia; Kufareva, Irina; Abagyan, Ruben; Gutkind, J. Silvio

2014-01-01

245

Graft-versus-host disease and sialodacryoadenitis viral infection in bone marrow transplanted rats  

SciTech Connect

The effect of a localized viral infection on the occurrence of graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) was examined in allogeneic rat bone marrow chimeras (ACI/LEW). Animals without clinical evidence of GVHD, 62 days after bone marrow transplant, were infected in salivary and lacrimal glands with sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV), and sacrificed 8-25 days postinfection. Using established histologic criteria, GVHD was found more frequently in salivary and lacrimal glands of SDAV-infected chimeras than uninfected chimeras. Skin and oral mucosa, tissues not infected by the virus, showed no differences in occurrence of GVHD, suggesting that the viral infection induced only local and not systemic GVHD. GVHD and SDAV infection, which are histologically similar, were differentiated by examining tissues for SDAV antigen using immunoperoxidase technique. Histologic changes were present for at least 1 week longer than viral antigen, suggesting they represented GVHD rather than viral infection. GVHD and SDAV infection were also differentiated by looking for a histologic feature characteristic of GVHD and not found in SDAV infection (periductal lymphocytic infiltrate). This was found in SDAV-infected chimeras more frequently than uninfected chimeras, suggesting that the viral infection somehow induced GVHD. Results showed a localized increase in the occurrence of GVHD subsequent to localized viral infection.

Rossie, K.M.; Sheridan, J.F.; Barthold, S.W.; Tutschka, P.J.

1988-06-01

246

Healthcare-Associated Hepatitis B and C Outbreaks Reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 2008-2012  

E-print Network

Healthcare-Associated Hepatitis B and C Outbreaks Reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 2008-2012 1 The tables below summarize healthcare-associated outbreaks of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection reported in the United States during 2008

Straight, Aaron

247

EFFECTS OF POLLUTANTS ON HUMAN VIRAL RESPIRATORY DISEASE  

EPA Science Inventory

Many epidemiologic studies have shown excessive respiratory disease morbidity in areas of high atmospheric pollution. This study was designed to develop and characterize an animal model and investigate the possible interactive effects of infection and particulate air pollutants u...

248

Clinical manifestations of pancreas disease outbreaks in Norwegian marine salmon farming - variations due to salmonid alphavirus subtype.  

PubMed

Pancreas disease (PD) in Norwegian salmonid aquaculture has traditionally been caused by salmonid alphavirus (SAV) subtype 3. Following the isolation of a novel SAV subtype in 2010, marine SAV2, two separate endemic areas have developed. It has been debated whether disease outbreaks due to marine SAV2 result in milder clinical manifestations compared to outbreaks caused by SAV3. The aim of this study was to descriptively investigate site-level differences in the clinical manifestations of marine SAV2 and SAV3 at Norwegian seawater sites diagnosed with PD in 2012. The findings suggest that Norwegian PD outbreaks caused by marine SAV2 result in lower mortality and milder clinical signs compared to outbreaks caused by SAV3. For sites without reported PD-related mortality, there was no difference in the mortality levels between sites infected by marine SAV2 and SAV3. The results also indicate that there are no differences in grading quality at slaughter between the SAV subtypes. PMID:24661057

Jansen, M D; Jensen, B Bang; Brun, E

2015-04-01

249

Implementation of a data fusion algorithm for RODS, a real-time outbreak and disease surveillance system.  

SciTech Connect

Due to the nature of many infectious agents, such as anthrax, symptoms may either take several days to manifest or resemble those of less serious illnesses leading to misdiagnosis. Thus, bioterrorism attacks that include the release of such agents are particularly dangerous and potentially deadly. For this reason, a system is needed for the quick and correct identification of disease outbreaks. The Real-time Outbreak Disease Surveillance System (RODS), initially developed by Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh, was created to meet this need. The RODS software implements different classifiers for pertinent health surveillance data in order to determine whether or not an outbreak has occurred. In an effort to improve the capability of RODS at detecting outbreaks, we incorporate a data fusion method. Data fusion is used to improve the results of a single classification by combining the output of multiple classifiers. This paper documents the first stages of the development of a data fusion system that can combine the output of the classifiers included in RODS.

Brown, Douglas (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Gray, Genetha Anne (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

2005-10-01

250

ELR(+) chemokine signaling in host defense and disease in a viral model of central nervous system disease  

PubMed Central

Intracranial infection of the neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV) into the central nervous system (CNS) of susceptible strains of mice results in an acute encephalomyelitis, accompanied by viral replication in glial cells and robust infiltration of virus-specific T cells that contribute to host defense through cytokine secretion and cytolytic activity. Mice surviving the acute stage of disease develop an immune-mediated demyelinating disease, characterized by viral persistence in white matter tracts and a chronic neuroinflammatory response dominated by T cells and macrophages. Chemokines and their corresponding chemokine receptors are dynamically expressed throughout viral infection of the CNS, influencing neuroinflammation by regulating immune cell infltration and glial biology. This review is focused upon the pleiotropic chemokine receptor CXCR2 and its effects upon neutrophils and oligodendrocytes during JHMV infection and a number of other models of CNS inflammation. PMID:24987333

Hosking, Martin P.; Lane, Thomas E.

2014-01-01

251

BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUS (BVDV) 1B: PREDOMINANT BVDV SUBTYPE IN CALVES WITH RESPIRATORY DISEASE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections was determined in 2 groups of stocker calves with acute respiratory disease. Both studies used calves assembled after purchase from auction markets by an order buyer and transported to feedyards, where they were held for approximately ...

252

VIRAL RESCUE FROM AN INFECTIOUS CLONE OF A MESOGENIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Reverse genetics is a powerful tool for the study of viral pathogenesis of negative stranded RNA viruses through the manipulation of genes associated with interactions of the pathogen with the host. The present work describes the generation of an infectious clone of the Newcastle disease virus Anhin...

253

Contribution of Viral Mimics of Cellular Genes to KSHV Infection and Disease  

PubMed Central

Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, also named Human herpesvirus 8 HHV-8) is the cause of Kaposi sarcoma (KS), the most common malignancy in HIV-infected individuals worldwide, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and multicentric Castleman disease (MCD). KSHV is a double-stranded DNA virus that encodes several homologues of cellular proteins. The structural similarity between viral and host proteins explains why some viral homologues function as their host counterparts, but sometimes at unusual anatomical sites and inappropriate times. In other cases, structural modification in the viral proteins can suppress or override the function of the host homologue, contributing to KSHV-related diseases. For example, viral IL-6 (vIL-6) is sufficiently different from human IL-6 to activate gp130 signaling independent of the ? subunit. As a consequence, vIL-6 can activate many cell types that are unresponsive to cellular IL-6, contributing to MCD disease manifestations. Here, we discuss the molecular biology of KSHV homologues of cellular products as conduits of virus/host interaction with a focus on identifying new strategies for therapy of KS and other KSHV-related diseases. PMID:25243371

Sakakibara, Shuhei; Tosato, Giovanna

2014-01-01

254

Foot-and-mouth disease virus utilizes an autophagic pathway during viral replication  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the type species of the Aphthovirus genus, of the family Picornaviridae. Infection of cells with positive-strand RNA viruses results in a rearrangement of intracellular membranes into viral replication complexes. However, the origin of these membranes remains u...

255

Black leaf streak and viral leaf streak: New banana diseases in East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black leaf streak, caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis a virulent pathogen of bananas and plantains, is recorded from Zanzibar. This is the first record of this important pathogen from East Africa. Viral leaf streak of bananas is also identified from Zanzibar. The presence of panama disease and high infestations of root nematode are also noted.

A. J. Dabek; J. M. Waller

1990-01-01

256

EFFECTS OF PHOSGENE EXPOSURE ON BACTERIAL VIRAL AND NEOPLASTIC LUNG DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY IN MICE  

EPA Science Inventory

The effects of phosgene inhalation exposure on host resistance models representative of bacterial, viral, and neoplastic lung diseases were assessed. ingle 4 h exposure to concentrations of phosgene of 0.025 ppm and above significantly enhanced mortality due to aerosol infection ...

257

Emergence of Fatal PRRSV Variants: Unparalleled Outbreaks of Atypical PRRS in China and Molecular Dissection of the Unique Hallmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a severe viral disease in pigs, causing great economic losses worldwide each year. The causative agent of the disease, PRRS virus (PRRSV), is a member of the family Arteriviridae. Here we report our investigation of the unparalleled large-scale outbreaks of an originally unknown, but so-called ''high fever'' disease in China in 2006 with

Kegong Tian; Xiuling Yu; Tiezhu Zhao; Youjun Feng; Zhen Cao; Chuanbin Wang; Yan Hu; Xizhao Chen; Dongmei Hu; Xinsheng Tian; Di Liu; Shuo Zhang; Xiaoyu Deng; Yinqiao Ding; Lu Yang; Yunxia Zhang; Haixia Xiao; Mingming Qiao; Bin Wang; Lili Hou; Xiaoying Wang; Xinyan Yang; Liping Kang; Ming Sun; Ping Jin; Shujuan Wang; Yoshihiro Kitamura; Jinghua Yan; George F. Gao

2007-01-01

258

Emergence of Fatal PRRSV Variants: Unparalleled Outbreaks of Atypical PRRS in China and Molecular Dissection of the Unique Hallmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a severe viral disease in pigs, causing great economic losses worldwide each year. The causative agent of the disease, PRRS virus (PRRSV), is a member of the family Arteriviridae. Here we report our investigation of the unparalleled large-scale outbreaks of an originally unknown, but so-called “high fever” disease in China in 2006 with

Kegong Tian; Xiuling Yu; Tiezhu Zhao; Youjun Feng; Zhen Cao; Chuanbin Wang; Yan Hu; Xizhao Chen; Dongmei Hu; Xinsheng Tian; Di Liu; Shuo Zhang; Xiaoyu Deng; Yinqiao Ding; Lu Yang; Yunxia Zhang; Haixia Xiao; Mingming Qiao; Bin Wang; Lili Hou; Xiaoying Wang; Xinyan Yang; Liping Kang; Ming Sun; Ping Jin; Shujuan Wang; Yoshihiro Kitamura; Jinghua Yan; George F. Gao; Joel Montgomery

2007-01-01

259

WATERBORNE DISEASE OUTBREAKS IN INDIVIDUAL WATER SYSTEMS IN THE UNITED STATES, 1920-80  

EPA Science Inventory

An analysis of the etiologies and causes of 302 waterborne outbreaks occurring in individual water systems during 1920-80 showed Streptococcus typhi to be the most commonly identified pathogen and use of contaminated, untreated well water the major cause of these outbreaks. These...

260

An outbreak of pertussis in rural Texas: an example of the resurgence of the disease in the United States.  

PubMed

During 2012, an increase in the number of pertussis cases or outbreaks was reported among most states within the United States. The majority of these cases included previously vaccinated children between the ages of 7-10 years. This underscores the growing concern regarding current immunization practices and vaccine efficacy, especially as it pertains to pertussis prevention within this age group. In the fall of 2012, an outbreak of pertussis occurred within a school district in a rural Texas county that was reflective of this national pattern. Our objective is to describe this outbreak, highlight the similarities with the national trend, and identify strategies for better disease prevention. The cases in this outbreak were interviewed and laboratory testing done. Information regarding exposure and immunization history among cases was obtained. Immunization audits of the affected institutions were also conducted. We performed a descriptive analysis of the collected data using EPI-INFO software v.3.5.3. A total of 34 cases were identified in this outbreak, of which 23 were PCR confirmed and 11 were epidemiologically linked. Ages ranged from 5 months to 12 years, and 62 % were among children aged 7-10 years. All cases were up-to-date on their pertussis vaccinations. Immunization coverage rate was over 90 % within each of the affected institutions. The characteristics of this outbreak bear striking similarities to the current national trend in terms of age groups and immunization status of the affected cases. Increased focus on this vulnerable target group, including heightened scrutiny of vaccine efficacy and delivery, is indicated. PMID:24927977

Eshofonie, Anthony O; Lin, Huai; Valcin, Randy P; Martin, LaTasha R; Grunenwald, Paul E

2015-02-01

261

Viral Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... much smaller than bacteria. Viruses cause familiar infectious diseases such as the common cold, flu and warts. ... can help prevent you from getting many viral diseases. NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

262

Ebola viral disease: What should be done to combat the epidemic in 2014?  

PubMed

Ebola virus disease (EVD) was defined first in 1976. Since then, more than 24 epidemics have been reported from Africa, predominantly with the Zaire species. On 21 March 2014, the current West Africa outbreak was reported by the World Health Organization, the largest one ever recorded. The Congo epidemic was reported in July 2014. It was considered that the two epidemics had unrelated origins with 96.8% identical genomic sequence of the virus. EVD outbreaks occurred in areas with limited resources but it has a potentially global effect due to the possibility of imported infection and the potential misuse of the virus as a bioweapon agent. Although EVD is a zoonotic disease with the reservoir of fruit bats, human-to-human transmission is essential in the spread of the infection. The case-fatality rate of EVD was reported as 70.8%. There is no approved prophylaxis, effective treatment, or licensed vaccine. Early diagnosis and isolation of the patients, contact tracing, appropriate use of personal protective equipment, and adherence to the guidance for safe funeral practices constitute the essential requirements to control the epidemics. This article provides a review of the literature regarding the characteristics and management of EVD outbreak. PMID:25790522

Ba?tu?, Aliye; Bodur, Hürrem

2015-01-01

263

Modeling the impact of vaccination control strategies on a foot and mouth disease outbreak in the Central United States.  

PubMed

The central United States (U.S.) has a large livestock population including cattle, swine, sheep and goats. Simulation models were developed to assess the impact of livestock herd types and vaccination on foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks using the North American Animal Disease Spread Model. In this study, potential FMD virus outbreaks in the central region of the U.S. were simulated to compare different vaccination strategies to a depopulation only scenario. Based on data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Statistics Service, a simulated population of 151,620 livestock operations characterized by latitude and longitude, production type, and herd size was generated. For the simulations, a single 17,000 head feedlot was selected as the initial latently infected herd in an otherwise susceptible population. Direct and indirect contact rates between herds were based on survey data of livestock producers in Kansas and Colorado. Control methods included ring vaccination around infected herds. Feedlots ?3000 head were either the only production type that was vaccinated or were assigned the highest vaccination priority. Simulated vaccination scenarios included low and high vaccine capacity, vaccination zones of 10 km or 50 km around detected infected premises, and vaccination trigger of 10 or 100 detected infected herds. Probability of transmission following indirect contact, movement controls and contact rate parameters were considered uncertain and so were the subjects of sensitivity analysis. All vaccination scenarios decreased number of herds depopulated but not all decreased outbreak duration. Increased size of the vaccination zone during an outbreak decreased the length of the outbreak and number of herds destroyed. Increased size of the vaccination zone primarily resulted in vaccinating feedlots ?3000 head across a larger area. Increasing the vaccination capacity had a smaller impact on the outbreak and may not be feasible if vaccine production and delivery is limited. The ability to vaccinate all the production types surrounding an infected herd did not appear as beneficial as priority vaccination of feedlot production types that have high numbers of indirect contacts. Outbreak duration, number of herds depopulated and the effectiveness of vaccination were sensitive to indirect contact transmission probability and movement restrictions. The results of this study will provide information about the impacts of disease control protocols which may be useful in choosing the optimal control methods to meet the goals of rapid effective control and eradication. PMID:25457133

McReynolds, Sara W; Sanderson, Michael W; Reeves, Aaron; Hill, Ashley E

2014-12-01

264

Viral respiratory diseases (ILT, aMPV infections, IB): are they ever under control?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract1.?The use of vaccines is the main approach to control of the economically important poultry viral respiratory diseases infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) infections and infectious bronchitis (IB). This paper appraises the current methods of vaccine control in the light of the nature of each virus and epidemiological factors associated with each disease.2.?Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) exists as a

Richard C. Jones

2010-01-01

265

Evolutionary analysis of the dynamics of viral infectious disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many organisms that cause infectious diseases, particularly RNA viruses, mutate so rapidly that their evolutionary and ecological behaviours are inextricably linked. Consequently, aspects of the transmission and epidemiology of these pathogens are imprinted on the genetic diversity of their genomes. Large-scale empirical analyses of the evolutionary dynamics of important pathogens are now feasible owing to the increasing availability of pathogen

Oliver G. Pybus; Andrew Rambaut

2009-01-01

266

Virus and viral diseases of the Honey Bee, Apis mellifera  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Viruses pose serious threat to the health and well-being of honey bees, Apis mellifera, the most economically valuable pollinators of agricultural and horticultural crops worldwide. Lately, honey bee viruses have gotten a lot of international attention due to the significant disease status that vir...

267

Fitness alteration of foot-and-mouth disease virus mutants: measurement of adaptability of viral quasispecies.  

PubMed Central

We document the rapid alteration of fitness of two foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) mutants resistant to a neutralizing monoclonal antibody. Both mutants showed a selective disadvantage in BHK-21 cells when passaged in competition with their parental FMDV. Upon repeated replication of the mutants alone, they acquired a selective advantage over the parental FMDV and fixed additional genomic substitutions without reversion of the monoclonal antibody-resistant phenotype. Thus, variants that were previously kept at low frequency in the mutant spectrum of a viral quasispecies rapidly became the master sequence of a new genomic distribution and dominated the viral population. PMID:1645804

Martínez, M A; Carrillo, C; González-Candelas, F; Moya, A; Domingo, E; Sobrino, F

1991-01-01

268

Review: Micronutrient Selenium Deficiency Influences Evolution of Some Viral Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently emerged viral infectious diseases (VIDs) include HIV\\/AIDS, influenzas H5N1 and 2009 H1N1, SARS, and Ebola hemorrhagic\\u000a fevers. Earlier research determined metabolic oxidative stress in hosts deficient in antioxidant selenium (Se) (<1 ?Mol Se\\/L\\u000a of blood) induces both impaired human host immunocompetence and rapidly mutated benign variants of RNA viruses to virulence.\\u000a These viral mutations are consistent, rather than stochastic, and long-lived.

Michalann Harthill

269

Transparency and Documentation in Simulations of Infectious Disease Outbreaks: Towards Evidence-Based Public Health Decisions and Communications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computer simulations have emerged as important tools in the preparation for outbreaks of infectious disease. To support the collaborative planning and responding to the outbreaks, reports from simulations need to be transparent (accessible) with regard to the underlying parametric settings. This paper presents a design for generation of simulation reports where the background settings used in the simulation models are automatically visualized. We extended the ontology-management system Protégé to tag different settings into categories, and included these in report generation in parallel to the simulation outcomes. The report generator takes advantage of an XSLT specification and collects the documentation of the particular simulation settings into abridged XMLs including also summarized results. We conclude that even though inclusion of critical background settings in reports may not increase the accuracy of infectious disease simulations, it can prevent misunderstandings and less than optimal public health decisions.

Ekberg, Joakim; Timpka, Toomas; Morin, Magnus; Jenvald, Johan; Nyce, James M.; Gursky, Elin A.; Eriksson, Henrik

270

Estimation of Flattened Musk Turtle (Sternotherus depressus) survival, recapture, and recovery rate during and after a disease outbreak  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We estimated survivorship, recapture probabilities and recovery rates in a threatened population of Flattened Musk Turtles (Sternotherus depressus) through a disease outbreak in Alabama in 1985. We evaluated a set of models for the demographic effects of disease by analyzing recaptures and recoveries simultaneously. Multiple-model inference suggested survival was temporally dynamic, whereas recapture probability was sex- and age-specifc. Biweekly survivorship declined from 98-99% before to 82-88% during the outbreak. Live recapture was twice as likely for male turtles relative to juveniles or females, whereas dead recoveries varied only slightly by sex and age. Our results suggest modest reduction in survival over a relatively short time period may severely affect population status.

Fonnesbeck, C.J.; Dodd, C.K., Jr.

2003-01-01

271

Outbreak of legionnaires' disease from a cooling water system in a power station.  

PubMed Central

In September and October 1981 six cases of pneumonia occurred among men working in a power station under construction. Three were identified as cases of legionella pneumonia and two others had serology suggestive of legionella infection. In a sample of 92 men from the site 10 had low levels of antibodies to legionella; a similar sample of men working on an adjacent site showed none with positive serology. In a case control study it was found that cases of pneumonia were more likely than controls to have worked on a part of the site where four small capacity cooling towers were located. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from the water systems of these four towers but was not found in samples from any other cooling towers or hot or cold water outlets on the site. It would appear that there was airborne spread of the organism from these cooling water systems which had not received conventional treatment to inhibit corrosion and organic growth. This is the first outbreak of legionnaires' disease to be recorded in an industrial setting in the United Kingdom. No cases of legionella infection have occurred on the site since the introduction of control measures. PMID:3756116

Morton, S; Bartlett, C L; Bibby, L F; Hutchinson, D N; Dyer, J V; Dennis, P J

1986-01-01

272

Multiple outbreaks of severe acute BVDV in North America occurring between 1993 and 1995 linked to the same BVDV2 strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first reported outbreak of bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) in 1946 described a transmissible acute disease characterized by severe leukopenia, high fever, gastrointestinal erosions and hemorrhages. However, in the ensuing years, the most commonly observed acute form of BVD was clinically mild. There was limited viral shed and spread following these acute infections. This led to the assumptions that acute

Julia F. Ridpath; John D. Neill; Stefan Vilcek; Edward J. Dubovi; Suzanne Carman

2006-01-01

273

Ebola virus outbreak 2014: clinical review for emergency physicians.  

PubMed

The 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa is the largest in history. Ebola viral disease is a severe and fatal illness characterized by a nonspecific viral syndrome followed by fulminant septic shock and coagulopathy. Despite ongoing efforts directed at experimental treatments and vaccine development, current medical management of Ebola viral disease is largely limited to supportive therapy, thus making early case identification and immediate implementation of appropriate control measures critical. Because a case of Ebola viral disease was confirmed in the United States on September 30, 2014, emergency medicine providers should be knowledgeable about it for a number of reasons: we are being called on to answer questions about Ebola and allay public fears, we are likely to be first to encounter an infected patient, and there are increasing numbers of US emergency physicians working in Africa who risk coming in direct contact with the disease. This article seeks to provide emergency physicians with the essential and up-to-date information required to identify, evaluate, and manage Ebola viral disease and to join global efforts to contain the current outbreak. PMID:25455908

Meyers, Linda; Frawley, Thomas; Goss, Sarah; Kang, Christopher

2015-01-01

274

First record of black band disease in the hawaiian archipelago: response, outbreak status, virulence, and a method of treatment.  

PubMed

A high number of coral colonies, Montipora spp., with progressive tissue loss were reported from the north shore of Kaua'i by a member of the Eyes of the Reef volunteer reporting network. The disease has a distinct lesion (semi-circular pattern of tissue loss with an adjacent dark band) that was first observed in Hanalei Bay, Kaua'i in 2004. The disease, initially termed Montipora banded tissue loss, appeared grossly similar to black band disease (BBD), which affects corals worldwide. Following the initial report, a rapid response was initiated as outlined in Hawai'i's rapid response contingency plan to determine outbreak status and investigate the disease. Our study identified the three dominant bacterial constituents indicative of BBD (filamentous cyanobacteria, sulfate-reducing bacteria, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria) in coral disease lesions from Kaua'i, which provided the first evidence of BBD in the Hawaiian archipelago. A rapid survey at the alleged outbreak site found disease to affect 6-7% of the montiporids, which is higher than a prior prevalence of less than 1% measured on Kaua'i in 2004, indicative of an epizootic. Tagged colonies with BBD had an average rate of tissue loss of 5.7 cm2/day over a two-month period. Treatment of diseased colonies with a double band of marine epoxy, mixed with chlorine powder, effectively reduced colony mortality. Within two months, treated colonies lost an average of 30% less tissue compared to untreated controls. PMID:25774800

Aeby, Greta S; Work, Thierry M; Runyon, Christina M; Shore-Maggio, Amanda; Ushijima, Blake; Videau, Patrick; Beurmann, Silvia; Callahan, Sean M

2015-01-01

275

First Record of Black Band Disease in the Hawaiian Archipelago: Response, Outbreak Status, Virulence, and a Method of Treatment  

PubMed Central

A high number of coral colonies, Montipora spp., with progressive tissue loss were reported from the north shore of Kaua‘i by a member of the Eyes of the Reef volunteer reporting network. The disease has a distinct lesion (semi-circular pattern of tissue loss with an adjacent dark band) that was first observed in Hanalei Bay, Kaua‘i in 2004. The disease, initially termed Montipora banded tissue loss, appeared grossly similar to black band disease (BBD), which affects corals worldwide. Following the initial report, a rapid response was initiated as outlined in Hawai‘i’s rapid response contingency plan to determine outbreak status and investigate the disease. Our study identified the three dominant bacterial constituents indicative of BBD (filamentous cyanobacteria, sulfate-reducing bacteria, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria) in coral disease lesions from Kaua‘i, which provided the first evidence of BBD in the Hawaiian archipelago. A rapid survey at the alleged outbreak site found disease to affect 6-7% of the montiporids, which is higher than a prior prevalence of less than 1% measured on Kaua‘i in 2004, indicative of an epizootic. Tagged colonies with BBD had an average rate of tissue loss of 5.7 cm2/day over a two-month period. Treatment of diseased colonies with a double band of marine epoxy, mixed with chlorine powder, effectively reduced colony mortality. Within two months, treated colonies lost an average of 30% less tissue compared to untreated controls. PMID:25774800

Aeby, Greta S.; Work, Thierry M.; Runyon, Christina M.; Shore-Maggio, Amanda; Ushijima, Blake; Videau, Patrick; Beurmann, Silvia; Callahan, Sean M.

2015-01-01

276

First record of black band disease in the Hawaiian archipelago: response, outbreak, status, virulence, and a method of treatment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A high number of coral colonies, Montipora spp., with progressive tissue loss were reported from the north shore of Kaua‘i by a member of the Eyes of the Reef volunteer reporting network. The disease has a distinct lesion (semi-circular pattern of tissue loss with an adjacent dark band) that was first observed in Hanalei Bay, Kaua‘i in 2004. The disease, initially termedMontipora banded tissue loss, appeared grossly similar to black band disease (BBD), which affects corals worldwide. Following the initial report, a rapid response was initiated as outlined in Hawai‘i’s rapid response contingency plan to determine outbreak status and investigate the disease. Our study identified the three dominant bacterial constituents indicative of BBD (filamentous cyanobacteria, sulfate-reducing bacteria, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria) in coral disease lesions from Kaua‘i, which provided the first evidence of BBD in the Hawaiian archipelago. A rapid survey at the alleged outbreak site found disease to affect 6-7% of the montiporids, which is higher than a prior prevalence of less than 1% measured on Kaua‘i in 2004, indicative of an epizootic. Tagged colonies with BBD had an average rate of tissue loss of 5.7 cm2/day over a two-month period. Treatment of diseased colonies with a double band of marine epoxy, mixed with chlorine powder, effectively reduced colony mortality. Within two months, treated colonies lost an average of 30% less tissue compared to untreated controls.

Aeby, Greta S.; Work, Thierry M.; Runyon, Christina M.; Shore-Maggio, Amanda; Ushijima, Blake; Videau, Patrick; Beurmann, Silvia; Callahan, Sean M.

2015-01-01

277

[Kenya Research Station and viral infectious disease research].  

PubMed

The Institute of Tropical Medicine, Kenya Research Station, Nagasaki University was established by a fund of the Ministry of Education (MEXT) in 2005. Currently, the station has been on ''The Clinical and Epidemiological Research Program of Tropical Medicine and Emerging Infectious Diseases-Establishment of Education and Research System between Africa and Japan- ''. The project has been supported by about 20 Japanese staff and 85 Kenyan staff, and in the research station, 10 research teams have worked on their researches for the prevention of tropical medicine and emerging diseases collaborating with other researches and The JICA Grassroots Technical Cooperation Project has also started in 2012. In April 2010, Nagasaki University, Africa Station has been established along with Kenya Research Station, and it made possible for other faculties to join research in Kenya. School of Dentistry has started oral health survey in Mbita, while School of Fishery, School of Engineering and School of Health Science have a plan of a joint project targeting areas by Lake Victoria. Our aim is to develop a foundation which enables all researchers from different fields to carry out their research for improvement health and living standards of the locals. PMID:24769581

Ichinose, Yoshio

2013-01-01

278

Prediction of province-level outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease in Iran using a zero-inflated negative binomial model.  

PubMed

To identify events that could predict province-level frequency of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks in Iran, 5707 outbreaks reported from April 1995 to March 2002 were studied. A zero-inflated negative binomial model was used to estimate the probability of a 'no-outbreak' status and the number of outbreaks in a province, using the number of previous occurrences of FMD for the same or adjacent provinces and season as covariates. For each province, the probability of observing no outbreak was negatively associated with the number of outbreaks in the same province in the previous month (odds ratio [OR]=0.06, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.01, 0.30) and in 'the second previous month' (OR=0.10, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.51), the total number of outbreaks in the second previous month in adjacent provinces (OR=0.57, 95% CI: 0.36, 0.91) and the season (winter [OR=0.18, 95% CI: 0.06, 0.55] and spring [OR=0.27, 95% CI: 0.09, 0.81], compared with summer). The expected number of outbreaks in a province was positively associated with number of outbreaks in the same province in previous month (coefficient [coef]=0.74, 95% CI: 0.66, 0.82) and in the second previous month (coef=0.23, 95% CI: 0.16, 0.31), total number of outbreaks in adjacent provinces in the previous month (coef=0.32, 95% CI: 0.22, 0.41) and season (fall [coef=0.20, 95% CI: 0.07, 0.33] and spring [coef=0.18, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.31], compared to summer); however, number of outbreaks was negatively associated with the total number of outbreaks in adjacent provinces in the second previous month (coef=-0.19, 95% CI: -0.28, -0.09). The findings indicate that the probability of an outbreak (and the expected number of outbreaks if any) may be predicted based on previous province information, which could help decision-makers allocate resources more efficiently for province-level disease control measures. Further, the study illustrates use of zero inflated negative binomial model to study diseases occurrence where disease is infrequently observed. PMID:24768434

Jafarzadeh, S Reza; Norris, Michelle; Thurmond, Mark C

2014-08-01

279

Rapid Diagnosis of Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever by Reverse Transcription-PCR in an Outbreak Setting and Assessment of Patient Viral Load as a Predictor of Outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The largest outbreak on record of Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) occurred in Uganda from August 2000 to January 2001. The outbreak was centered in the Gulu district of northern Uganda, with secondary transmis- sion to other districts. After the initial diagnosis of Sudan ebolavirus by the National Institute for Virology in Johannesburg, South Africa, a temporary diagnostic laboratory was established

Jonathan S. Towner; Pierre E. Rollin; Daniel G. Bausch; Anthony Sanchez; Sharon M. Crary; Martin Vincent; William F. Lee; Christina F. Spiropoulou; Thomas G. Ksiazek; Mathew Lukwiya; Felix Kaducu; Robert Downing; Stuart T. Nichol

2004-01-01

280

Adventures in Infectious Diseases  

SciTech Connect

Dr. Susan Fisher-Hoch, Virologist and Epidemiologist, will discuss her research and travels associated with viral hemorrhagic fevers. From the Ebola outbreak in Reston, Virginia to outbreaks of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in South Africa, Senegal, and Saudi Arabia, Dr. Fisher-Hoch has studied and tracked the pathophysiology of these viral diseases. These studies have led her from the Center for Disease Control in the United States, to Lyon, France where she was instrumental in designing, constructing, and rendering operational a laboratory capable of containing some of the world's most dangerous diseases.

Fisher-Hoch, Susan [University of Texas School of Public Health

2011-11-01

281

Adventures in Infectious Diseases  

ScienceCinema

Dr. Susan Fisher-Hoch, Virologist and Epidemiologist, will discuss her research and travels associated with viral hemorrhagic fevers. From the Ebola outbreak in Reston, Virginia to outbreaks of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in South Africa, Senegal, and Saudi Arabia, Dr. Fisher-Hoch has studied and tracked the pathophysiology of these viral diseases. These studies have led her from the Center for Disease Control in the United States, to Lyon, France where she was instrumental in designing, constructing, and rendering operational a laboratory capable of containing some of the world's most dangerous diseases.

Fisher-Hoch, Susan [University of Texas School of Public Health

2014-06-25

282

Need of surveillance response systems to combat Ebola outbreaks and other emerging infectious diseases in African countries  

PubMed Central

There is growing concern in Sub-Saharan Africa about the spread of the Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever, and the public health burden that it ensues. Since 1976, there have been 885,343 suspected and laboratory confirmed cases of EVD and the disease has claimed 2,512 cases and 932 fatality in West Africa. There are certain requirements that must be met when responding to EVD outbreaks and this process could incur certain challenges. For the purposes of this paper, five have been identified: (i) the deficiency in the development and implementation of surveillance response systems against Ebola and others infectious disease outbreaks in Africa; (ii) the lack of education and knowledge resulting in an EVD outbreak triggering panic, anxiety, psychosocial trauma, isolation and dignity impounding, stigmatisation, community ostracism and resistance to associated socio-ecological and public health consequences; (iii) limited financial resources, human technical capacity and weak community and national health system operational plans for prevention and control responses, practices and management; (iv) inadequate leadership and coordination; and (v) the lack of development of new strategies, tools and approaches, such as improved diagnostics and novel therapies including vaccines which can assist in preventing, controlling and containing Ebola outbreaks as well as the spread of the disease. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop and implement an active early warning alert and surveillance response system for outbreak response and control of emerging infectious diseases. Understanding the unending risks of transmission dynamics and resurgence is essential in implementing rapid effective response interventions tailored to specific local settings and contexts. Therefore, the following actions are recommended: (i) national and regional inter-sectorial and trans-disciplinary surveillance response systems that include early warnings, as well as critical human resources development, must be quickly adopted by allied ministries and organisations in African countries in epidemic and pandemic responses; (ii) harnessing all stakeholders commitment and advocacy in sustained funding, collaboration, communication and networking including community participation to enhance a coordinated responses, as well as tracking and prompt case management to combat challenges; (iii) more research and development in new drug discovery and vaccines; and (iv) understanding the involvement of global health to promote the establishment of public health surveillance response systems with functions of early warning, as well as monitoring and evaluation in upholding research-action programmes and innovative interventions. PMID:25120913

2014-01-01

283

West Nile fever--a reemerging mosquito-borne viral disease in Europe.  

PubMed Central

West Nile virus causes sporadic cases and outbreaks of human and equine disease in Europe (western Mediterranean and southern Russia in 1962-64, Belarus and Ukraine in the 1970s and 1980s, Romania in 1996-97, Czechland in 1997, and Italy in 1998). Environmental factors, including human activities, that enhance population densities of vector mosquitoes (heavy rains followed by floods, irrigation, higher than usual temperature, or formation of ecologic niches that enable mass breeding of mosquitoes) could increase the incidence of West Nile fever. PMID:10511520

Hubálek, Z.; Halouzka, J.

1999-01-01

284

Epidemiological investigation of a Legionnaires' disease outbreak in Christchurch, New Zealand: the value of spatial methods for practical public health.  

PubMed

Between April and August 2005 Christchurch, New Zealand experienced an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease. There were 19 laboratory-confirmed case including three deaths. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (Lpsg1) was identified as the causative agent for all cases. A case-control study indicated a geographical association between the cases but no specific common exposures. Rapid spatial epidemiological investigation confirmed the association and identified seven spatially significant case clusters. The clusters were all sourced in the same area and exhibited a clear anisotropic process (noticeable direction) revealing a plume effect consistent with aerosol dispersion from a prevailing southwesterly wind. Four out of five cases tested had indistinguishable allele profiles that also matched environmental isolates from a water cooling tower within the centre of the clusters. This tower was considered the most probable source for these clusters. The conclusion would suggest a maximum dispersal distance in this outbreak of 11·6 km. This work illustrated the value of geostatistical techniques for infectious disease epidemiology and for providing timely information during outbreak investigations. PMID:22697112

White, P S; Graham, F F; Harte, D J G; Baker, M G; Ambrose, C D; Humphrey, A R G

2013-04-01

285

BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUS ANTIGENIC DIVERSITY: IMPACT ON DISEASE AND VACCINATION PROGRAMS (DETECTING AND CONTROLLING BVDV INFECTIONS, 4/4-5/02, AMES, IA)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections in cattle are associated with a variety or "diverse" clinical forms. These include digestive tract disease, respiratory disease, fetal diseases (varied, dependent on fetal age), systemic disease such as mucosal disease, immunosuppression, hemorrhagic di...

286

Planning for smallpox outbreaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mathematical models of viral transmission and control are important tools for assessing the threat posed by deliberate release of the smallpox virus and the best means of containing an outbreak. Models must balance biological realism against limitations of knowledge, and uncertainties need to be accurately communicated to policy-makers. Smallpox poses the particular challenge that key biological, social and spatial factors

Matt J. Keeling; W. John Edmunds; Raymond Gani; Bryan T. Grenfell; Roy M. Anderson; Steve Leach; Neil M. Ferguson

2003-01-01

287

Reducing Outbreaks: Using International Governmental Risk Pools to Fund Research and Development of Infectious Disease Medicines and Vaccines  

PubMed Central

The deadliest Ebola outbreak the world has ever seen is currently ravaging West Africa, despite the concerted efforts of the World Health Organization and many national governments. The current picture is troubling, but not altogether unexpected. Ebola was initially identified in 1976, and since that time, few drugs have been developed to combat it. The same is true for myriad other dangerous infectious diseases to which the world is currently susceptible. One proposal that might prevent outbreaks of this scale and magnitude from recurring would be to have the World Health Organization (WHO) and its technical partners assess which of its member states are at high risk for a disease, either directly or indirectly, and facilitate the creation of international governmental risk pools of those member states. Risk pools would offer open-indexed grant contracts to fund vaccine and drug development for a particular disease, and pharmaceutical companies could browse the index to apply for these grants. If the risk-pool states and a particular company sign a contract, a mutually agreed upon amount of the vaccine or drug would be produced at a below-market purchase price for those states. In return, the company would keep any patents or intellectual property rights for the developed vaccines or drugs. Risk-pool countries that did not use their vaccine or drug could resell that supply on secondary markets to other countries outside of the risk pool. This arrangement will increase the supply of tested drug and vaccine candidates available for combatting unexpected outbreaks of any previously discovered major infectious disease in the future. PMID:25506281

Erfe, J. Mark

2014-01-01

288

Trypanosoma cruzi IV Causing Outbreaks of Acute Chagas Disease and Infections by Different Haplotypes in the Western Brazilian Amazonia  

PubMed Central

Background Chagas disease is an emergent tropical disease in the Brazilian Amazon Region, with an increasing number of cases in recent decades. In this region, the sylvatic cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission, which constitutes a reservoir of parasites that might be associated with specific molecular, epidemiological and clinical traits, has been little explored. The objective of this work is to genetically characterize stocks of T. cruzi from human cases, triatomines and reservoir mammals in the State of Amazonas, in the Western Brazilian Amazon. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed 96 T. cruzi samples from four municipalities in distant locations of the State of Amazonas. Molecular characterization of isolated parasites from cultures in LIT medium or directly from vectors or whole human blood was performed by PCR of the non-transcribed spacer of the mini-exon and of the 24 S alfa ribosomal RNA gene, RFLP and sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) gene, and by sequencing of the glucose-phosphate isomerase gene. The T. cruzi parasites from two outbreaks of acute disease were all typed as TcIV. One of the outbreaks was triggered by several haplotypes of the same DTU. TcIV also occurred in isolated cases and in Rhodnius robustus. Incongruence between mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies is likely to be indicative of historical genetic exchange events resulting in mitochondrial introgression between TcIII and TcIV DTUs from Western Brazilian Amazon. TcI predominated among triatomines and was the unique DTU infecting marsupials. Conclusion/Significance DTU TcIV, rarely associated with human Chagas disease in other areas of the Amazon basin, is the major strain responsible for the human infections in the Western Brazilian Amazon, occurring in outbreaks as single or mixed infections by different haplotypes. PMID:22848457

Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Magalhães, Laylah Kelre Costa; de Sá, Amanda Regina Nichi; Gomes, Mônica Lúcia; Toledo, Max Jean de Ornelas; Borges, Lara; Pires, Isa; de Oliveira Guerra, Jorge Augusto; Silveira, Henrique; Barbosa, Maria das Graças Vale

2012-01-01

289

Sensitivity of three urinary antigen tests associated with clinical severity in a large outbreak of Legionnaires' disease in The Netherlands.  

PubMed

In 1999 an outbreak involving 188 patients with Legionnaires' disease (LD) occurred among visitors to a flower show in the Netherlands. Two enzyme immunoassays (Binax and Biotest) and one immunochromatographic assay (Binax NOW) were tested, using urine samples from LD patients from the 1999 outbreak. Sensitivity was calculated using positive culture and/or seroconversion as the "gold standard" in outbreak-related patients with radiographically confirmed pneumonia who fulfilled the epidemiological critera. The Binax EIA, Biotest EIA, and Binax NOW assay showed overall sensitivities of 69, 71, and 72%, respectively. When the tests were performed with concentrated urine samples, the overall sensitivities increased to 79, 74, and 81%, respectively. Using multiple logistic regression analysis with backward elimination, a statistically significant association was found between clinical severity and test sensitivity for all tests. For patients with mild LD, the test sensitivities ranged from 40 to 53%, whereas for patients with severe LD who needed immediate special medical care, the sensitivities reached 88 to 100%. These findings have major implications for the diagnostic process in patients with mild pneumonia and suggest that patients with mild pneumonia may go underdiagnosed if urine antigen tests alone are used. PMID:12202558

Yzerman, Ed P F; den Boer, Jeroen W; Lettinga, Kamilla D; Schellekens, Joop; Dankert, Jacob; Peeters, Marcel

2002-09-01

290

Genetic and antigenic analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O responsible for outbreaks in India during 2013.  

PubMed

In recent times, majority of the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks in India are caused by serotype O Ind2001 lineage. The lineage has diverged into four sub-lineages (Ind2001a, b, c and d). We report here the genetic and antigenic analyses of nine Ind2001d isolates that caused outbreaks during April 2013-March 2014 in India. The length of the genomes of outbreak viruses varied between 8153 and 8181 nucleotides without any insertion or deletion in the coding region. Of the nine isolates analyzed antigenically against the currently used Indian vaccine strain INDR2/1975, eight showed good cross serological match (>0.3) indicating optimal antigenic coverage by the vaccine strain. An unprecedented deletion of 22 nucleotides between position 57 and 78 was observed in the 3' untranslated region of one of the isolates without compromising the virus viability, which imply that partial distortion in SL2 of 3'UTR may not have influence on virus viability at least under in-vitro conditions. Recently the Ind2001 lineage has been reported from several countries including Libya and spread of this lineage across a wide geographical area needs to be monitored carefully to avoid any future pandemic. PMID:25511252

Subramaniam, Saravanan; Mohapatra, Jajati K; Das, Biswajit; Sanyal, Aniket; Pattnaik, Bramhadev

2015-03-01

291

Aptamer-Based Therapeutics: New Approaches to Combat Human Viral Diseases  

PubMed Central

Viruses replicate inside the cells of an organism and continuously evolve to contend with an ever-changing environment. Many life-threatening diseases, such as AIDS, SARS, hepatitis and some cancers, are caused by viruses. Because viruses have small genome sizes and high mutability, there is currently a lack of and an urgent need for effective treatment for many viral pathogens. One approach that has recently received much attention is aptamer-based therapeutics. Aptamer technology has high target specificity and versatility, i.e., any viral proteins could potentially be targeted. Consequently, new aptamer-based therapeutics have the potential to lead a revolution in the development of anti-infective drugs. Additionally, aptamers can potentially bind any targets and any pathogen that is theoretically amenable to rapid targeting, making aptamers invaluable tools for treating a wide range of diseases. This review will provide a broad, comprehensive overview of viral therapies that use aptamers. The aptamer selection process will be described, followed by an explanation of the potential for treating virus infection by aptamers. Recent progress and prospective use of aptamers against a large variety of human viruses, such as HIV-1, HCV, HBV, SCoV, Rabies virus, HPV, HSV and influenza virus, with particular focus on clinical development of aptamers will also be described. Finally, we will discuss the challenges of advancing antiviral aptamer therapeutics and prospects for future success. PMID:24287493

Shum, Ka-To; Zhou, Jiehua; Rossi, John J.

2013-01-01

292

Four Foodborne Disease Outbreaks Caused by a New Type of Enterotoxin-Producing Clostridium perfringens.  

PubMed

The epidemiological and bacteriological investigations on four foodborne outbreaks caused by a new type of enterotoxin-producing Clostridium perfringens are described. C. perfringens isolated from patients of these outbreaks did not produce any known enterotoxin and did not carry the C. perfringens enterotoxin gene. However, the culture filtrates of these isolates induced the accumulation of fluid in rabbit ileal loop tests. The molecular weight of the new enterotoxin may be between 50,000 and 100,000, although the known C. perfringens enterotoxin is ca. 35,000. This new enterotoxin was heat labile, and its biological activities were inactivated by heating for 5 min at 60°C. The new enterotoxin was sensitive to pH values higher than 11.0 and protease treatment but was resistant to trypsin treatment. These results suggest that the new enterotoxin may be a protein. Although C. perfringens enterotoxin induced morphological changes in Vero cells, the changes induced by the new enterotoxin differed from those by the known C. perfringens enterotoxin. The new enterotoxin also induced morphological changes in L929 cells, whereas the known C. perfringens enterotoxin did not, because L929 cells lacked an appropriate enterotoxin receptor. Although C. perfringens enterotoxin is recognized as the only diarrheagenic toxin responsible for C. perfringens foodborne outbreaks, the results of the present study indicate that C. perfringens isolated from these four outbreaks produced a new type of enterotoxin. PMID:25568432

Monma, Chie; Hatakeyama, Kaoru; Obata, Hiromi; Yokoyama, Keiko; Konishi, Noriko; Itoh, Takeshi; Kai, Akemi

2015-03-01

293

[Outbreak of hand, foot and mouth disease in a day-nursery. A new clinical form? (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Ten cases of vesicular eruption affecting primarily the hands (4/10) and feet (6/10) occurred in a day-nursery for infants. An enterovirus related to coxsackie A 16 virus was isolated from two vesicular fluids and nine stools. The fact that the outbreak took place in the winter, the rarity of pharyngeal lesions (2/10), the high incidence of foot lesions and the presence of listlessness as only associated symptom lead to a discussion of the relationship between this small epidemic and true hand, foot and mouth disease. PMID:6252539

Freymuth, F; Langeard, M M; Guihard, J; Delavenne, J; Leroy, D; Marteret, P; Valdazo, A

1980-09-13

294

Interventions to Mitigate Emergency Department and Hospital Crowding During an Infectious Respiratory Disease Outbreak: Results from an Expert Panel  

PubMed Central

Objective: To identify and prioritize potential Emergency Department (ED) and hospital-based interventions which could mitigate the impact of crowding during patient surge from a widespread infectious respiratory disease outbreak and determine potential data sources that may be useful for triggering decisions to implement these high priority interventions. Design: Expert panel utilizing Nominal Group Technique to identify and prioritize interventions, and in addition, determine appropriate “triggers” for implementation of the high priority interventions in the context of four different infectious respiratory disease scenarios that vary by patient volumes (high versus low) and illness severity (high versus low). Setting: One day in-person conference held November, 2011. Participants: Regional and national experts representing the fields of public health, disease surveillance, clinical medicine, ED operations, and hospital operations. Main Outcome Measure: Prioritized list of potential interventions to reduce ED and hospital crowding, respectively. In addition, we created a prioritized list of potential data sources which could be useful to trigger interventions. Results: High priority interventions to mitigate ED surge included standardizing admission and discharge criteria and instituting infection control measures. To mitigate hospital crowding, panelists prioritized mandatory vaccination and an algorithm for antiviral use. Data sources identified for triggering implementation of these interventions were most commonly ED and hospital utilization metrics. Conclusions: We developed a prioritized list of potentially useful interventions to mitigate ED and hospital crowding in various outbreak scenarios. The data sources identified to “trigger” the implementation of these high priority interventions consist mainly of sources available at the local, institutional level. PMID:23856917

Dugas, Andrea Freyer; Morton, Melinda; Beard, Raphaelle; Pines, Jesse M.; Bayram, Jamil D.; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Kelen, Gabor; Uscher-Pines, Lori; Jeng, Kevin; Cole, Gai; Rothman, Richard

2013-01-01

295

Yellow Fever in Africa: Estimating the Burden of Disease and Impact of Mass Vaccination from Outbreak and Serological Data  

PubMed Central

Background Yellow fever is a vector-borne disease affecting humans and non-human primates in tropical areas of Africa and South America. While eradication is not feasible due to the wildlife reservoir, large scale vaccination activities in Africa during the 1940s to 1960s reduced yellow fever incidence for several decades. However, after a period of low vaccination coverage, yellow fever has resurged in the continent. Since 2006 there has been substantial funding for large preventive mass vaccination campaigns in the most affected countries in Africa to curb the rising burden of disease and control future outbreaks. Contemporary estimates of the yellow fever disease burden are lacking, and the present study aimed to update the previous estimates on the basis of more recent yellow fever occurrence data and improved estimation methods. Methods and Findings Generalised linear regression models were fitted to a dataset of the locations of yellow fever outbreaks within the last 25 years to estimate the probability of outbreak reports across the endemic zone. Environmental variables and indicators for the surveillance quality in the affected countries were used as covariates. By comparing probabilities of outbreak reports estimated in the regression with the force of infection estimated for a limited set of locations for which serological surveys were available, the detection probability per case and the force of infection were estimated across the endemic zone. The yellow fever burden in Africa was estimated for the year 2013 as 130,000 (95% CI 51,000–380,000) cases with fever and jaundice or haemorrhage including 78,000 (95% CI 19,000–180,000) deaths, taking into account the current level of vaccination coverage. The impact of the recent mass vaccination campaigns was assessed by evaluating the difference between the estimates obtained for the current vaccination coverage and for a hypothetical scenario excluding these vaccination campaigns. Vaccination campaigns were estimated to have reduced the number of cases and deaths by 27% (95% CI 22%–31%) across the region, achieving up to an 82% reduction in countries targeted by these campaigns. A limitation of our study is the high level of uncertainty in our estimates arising from the sparseness of data available from both surveillance and serological surveys. Conclusions With the estimation method presented here, spatial estimates of transmission intensity can be combined with vaccination coverage levels to evaluate the impact of past or proposed vaccination campaigns, thereby helping to allocate resources efficiently for yellow fever control. This method has been used by the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI Alliance) to estimate the potential impact of future vaccination campaigns. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24800812

Garske, Tini; Van Kerkhove, Maria D.; Yactayo, Sergio; Ronveaux, Olivier; Lewis, Rosamund F.; Staples, J. Erin; Perea, William; Ferguson, Neil M.

2014-01-01

296

Absence of measles viral genomic sequence in intestinal tissues from Crohn's disease by nested polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed Central

The aetiology of Crohn's disease remains unknown, although evidence for a viral cause has long been sought. Recent studies have shown inflammation of the submucosal microvascular endothelium and granulomata, and endothelial cell cytoplasmic inclusions, consistent with paramyxovirus, were identified by electron microscopy suggesting a persistent measles virus infection in Crohn's disease. Measles, mumps, and rubella viruses were tested for Crohn's disease by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RNA was extracted from resected intestinal specimens from 15 patients with Crohn's disease, 14 with ulcerative colitis, and 14 controls without inflammatory bowel disease. This was used to perform nested PCR after reverse transcription (RT) of the RNA to cDNA with primer pairs directed against two regions in the genome of the measles virus and one region in the mumps and rubella viral genomes. Despite enhanced sensitivity of nested RT-PCR, measles, mumps, and rubella viral genomic sequences were not found in any intestinal specimen. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8801199

Haga, Y; Funakoshi, O; Kuroe, K; Kanazawa, K; Nakajima, H; Saito, H; Murata, Y; Munakata, A; Yoshida, Y

1996-01-01

297

Lumpy skin disease: attempted propagation in tick cell lines and presence of viral DNA in field ticks collected from naturally-infected cattle.  

PubMed

Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is of substantial economic importance for the cattle industry in Africa and the Near and Middle East. Several insect species are thought to transmit the disease mechanically. Recent transmission studies have demonstrated the first evidence for a role of hard (ixodid) ticks as vectors of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). The aim of this study was to attempt in vitro growth of the virus in Rhipicephalus spp. tick cell lines and investigate in vivo the presence of the virus in ticks collected from cattle during LSD outbreaks in Egypt and South Africa. No evidence was obtained for replication of LSDV in tick cell lines although the virus was remarkably stable, remaining viable for 35 days at 28°C in tick cell cultures, in growth medium used for tick cells and in phosphate buffered saline. Viral DNA was detected in two-thirds of the 56 field ticks, making this the first report of the presence of potentially virulent LSDV in ticks collected from naturally infected animals. PMID:25468765

Tuppurainen, E S M; Venter, E H; Coetzer, J A W; Bell-Sakyi, L

2015-03-01

298

Lumpy skin disease: Attempted propagation in tick cell lines and presence of viral DNA in field ticks collected from naturally-infected cattle  

PubMed Central

Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is of substantial economic importance for the cattle industry in Africa and the Near and Middle East. Several insect species are thought to transmit the disease mechanically. Recent transmission studies have demonstrated the first evidence for a role of hard (ixodid) ticks as vectors of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). The aim of this study was to attempt in vitro growth of the virus in Rhipicephalus spp. tick cell lines and investigate in vivo the presence of the virus in ticks collected from cattle during LSD outbreaks in Egypt and South Africa. No evidence was obtained for replication of LSDV in tick cell lines although the virus was remarkably stable, remaining viable for 35 days at 28 °C in tick cell cultures, in growth medium used for tick cells and in phosphate buffered saline. Viral DNA was detected in two-thirds of the 56 field ticks, making this the first report of the presence of potentially virulent LSDV in ticks collected from naturally infected animals. PMID:25468765

Tuppurainen, E.S.M.; Venter, E.H.; Coetzer, J.A.W.; Bell-Sakyi, L.

2015-01-01

299

Free-ranging Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep and an outbreak of inflammatory bowel disease along the Clark Fork River in Plains, Montana.  

PubMed

Nine individuals with ulcerative colitis or Crohn disease grew up or lived in Plains, Montana, a 1,200-person community adjacent to the Clark Fork River near herds of free ranging Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep. This inflammatory bowel disease outbreak is similar to others that have occurred along rivers contaminated by animal feces. PMID:23076274

Pierce, Ellen S

2012-10-01

300

Newcastle disease outbreaks in Kazakhstan and Kyrgystan during 1998, 2000, 2001, 2003, 2004 and 2005 were caused by viruses of the genotypes VIIb and VIId  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infects domesticated and wild birds throughout the world and infections with virulent NDV strains continue to cause disease outbreaks in poultry and wild birds. To assess the evolutionary characteristics of 28 NDV strains isolated from chickens in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyz...

301

HIV-1 integrase variants retarget viral integration and are associated with disease progression in a chronic infection cohort.  

PubMed

Distinct integration patterns of different retroviruses, including HIV-1, have puzzled virologists for over 20 years. A tetramer of the viral integrase (IN) assembles on the two viral cDNA ends, docks onto the target DNA (tDNA), and catalyzes viral genome insertion into the host chromatin. We identified the amino acids in HIV-1 IN that directly contact tDNA bases and affect local integration site sequence selection. These residues also determine the propensity of the virus to integrate into flexible tDNA sequences. Remarkably, natural polymorphisms INS119G and INR231G retarget viral integration away from gene-dense regions. Precisely these variants were associated with rapid disease progression in a chronic HIV-1 subtype C infection cohort. These findings link integration site selection to virulence and viral evolution, but also to the host immune response and antiretroviral therapy, since HIV-1 IN119 is under selection by HLA alleles and integrase inhibitors. PMID:25525795

Demeulemeester, Jonas; Vets, Sofie; Schrijvers, Rik; Madlala, Paradise; De Maeyer, Marc; De Rijck, Jan; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Debyser, Zeger; Gijsbers, Rik

2014-11-12

302

Immune memory to Sudan virus: comparison between two separate disease outbreaks.  

PubMed

Recovery from ebolavirus infection in humans is associated with the development of both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses. According to recent studies, individuals that did not survive infection with ebolaviruses appear to have lacked a robust adaptive immune response and the expression of several early innate response markers. However, a comprehensive protective immune profile has yet to be described. Here, we examine cellular memory immune responses among survivors of two separate Ebolavirus outbreaks (EVDs) due to Sudan virus (SUDV) infection in Uganda-Gulu 2000-2001 and Kibaale 2012. Freshly collected blood samples were stimulated with inactivated SUDV, as well as with recombinant SUDV or Ebola virus (EBOV) GP (GP1-649). In addition, ELISA and plaque reduction neutralization assays were performed to determine anti-SUDV IgG titers and neutralization capacity. Cytokine expression was measured in whole blood cultures in response to SUDV and SUDV GP stimulation in both survivor pools, demonstrating recall responses that indicate immune memory. Cytokine responses between groups were similar but had distinct differences. Neutralizing, SUDV-specific IgG activity against irradiated SUDV and SUDV recombinant proteins were detected in both survivor cohorts. Furthermore, humoral and cell-mediated crossreactivity to EBOV and EBOV recombinant GP1-649 was observed in both cohorts. In conclusion, immune responses in both groups of survivors demonstrate persistent recognition of relevant antigens, albeit larger cohorts are required in order to reach greater statistical significance. The differing cytokine responses between Gulu and Kibaale outbreak survivors suggests that each outbreak may not yield identical memory responses and promotes the merits of studying the immune responses among outbreaks of the same virus. Finally, our demonstration of cross-reactive immune recognition suggests that there is potential for developing cross-protective vaccines for ebolaviruses. PMID:25569078

Sobarzo, Ariel; Eskira, Yael; Herbert, Andrew S; Kuehne, Ana I; Stonier, Spencer W; Ochayon, David E; Fedida-Metula, Shlomit; Balinandi, Steven; Kislev, Yaara; Tali, Neta; Lewis, Eli C; Lutwama, Julius Julian; Dye, John M; Yavelsky, Victoria; Lobel, Leslie

2015-01-01

303

Immune Memory to Sudan Virus: Comparison between Two Separate Disease Outbreaks  

PubMed Central

Recovery from ebolavirus infection in humans is associated with the development of both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses. According to recent studies, individuals that did not survive infection with ebolaviruses appear to have lacked a robust adaptive immune response and the expression of several early innate response markers. However, a comprehensive protective immune profile has yet to be described. Here, we examine cellular memory immune responses among survivors of two separate Ebolavirus outbreaks (EVDs) due to Sudan virus (SUDV) infection in Uganda—Gulu 2000–2001 and Kibaale 2012. Freshly collected blood samples were stimulated with inactivated SUDV, as well as with recombinant SUDV or Ebola virus (EBOV) GP (GP1–649). In addition, ELISA and plaque reduction neutralization assays were performed to determine anti-SUDV IgG titers and neutralization capacity. Cytokine expression was measured in whole blood cultures in response to SUDV and SUDV GP stimulation in both survivor pools, demonstrating recall responses that indicate immune memory. Cytokine responses between groups were similar but had distinct differences. Neutralizing, SUDV-specific IgG activity against irradiated SUDV and SUDV recombinant proteins were detected in both survivor cohorts. Furthermore, humoral and cell-mediated crossreactivity to EBOV and EBOV recombinant GP1–649 was observed in both cohorts. In conclusion, immune responses in both groups of survivors demonstrate persistent recognition of relevant antigens, albeit larger cohorts are required in order to reach greater statistical significance. The differing cytokine responses between Gulu and Kibaale outbreak survivors suggests that each outbreak may not yield identical memory responses and promotes the merits of studying the immune responses among outbreaks of the same virus. Finally, our demonstration of cross-reactive immune recognition suggests that there is potential for developing cross-protective vaccines for ebolaviruses. PMID:25569078

Sobarzo, Ariel; Eskira, Yael; Herbert, Andrew S.; Kuehne, Ana I.; Stonier, Spencer W.; Ochayon, David E.; Fedida-Metula, Shlomit; Balinandi, Steven; Kislev, Yaara; Tali, Neta; Lewis, Eli C.; Lutwama, Julius Julian; Dye, John M.; Yavelsky, Victoria; Lobel, Leslie

2015-01-01

304

Summary of foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks reported in and around the Kruger National Park, South Africa, between 1970 and 2009.  

PubMed

Information with regard to foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks that occurred in the Kruger National Park (KNP) and adjacent areas of South Africa between 1970 and 2009 was collected from reports and files of various government departments and collated into one report. The collected data were summarised in a table and assessed for patterns. Fifty-one FMD outbreaks occurred during this period in the target area, of which 16 were SAT 1, 31 were SAT 2,4 were SAT 3 and 3 were not serotyped. No pattern could be discerned although SAT 1 outbreaks occurred more frequently in the summer months while more SAT 2 outbreaks occurred in winter. PMID:21526733

Dyason, E

2010-12-01

305

Outbreak of Newcastle disease due to pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 in grey partridges (Perdix perdix) in Scotland in October 2006.  

PubMed

In October 2006, following an initially non-statutory disease investigation affecting 12-week-old grey partridges (Perdix perdix), an outbreak of Newcastle disease due to infection with the avian paramyxovirus type 1 virus responsible for the current panzootic in pigeons (PPMV-1) was confirmed in Scotland. Two pens of partridges were affected by signs including loss of condition, diarrhoea, progressive neurological signs and mortality totalling approximately 24 per cent, and laboratory evidence of the infection was obtained only in these groups. The premises had approximately 17,000 poultry including a collection of 375 birds of rare breeds, containing endangered breeds of significant conservation value, which were not culled but subjected to a health monitoring and testing programme. Investigations suggested that a population of feral pigeons living above the affected pens of partridges was the likely source of the outbreak. Laboratory and genetic analyses confirmed that the isolate recovered from the clinically affected partridges was PPMV-1, belonging to genetic lineage 4b. However, the virus could not be isolated from or detected in dead pigeons collected from the affected buildings. PMID:19880861

Irvine, R M; Aldous, E W; Manvell, R J; Cox, W J; Ceeraz, V; Fuller, C M; Wood, A M; Milne, J C; Wilson, M; Hepple, R G; Hurst, A; Sharpe, C E; Alexander, D J; Brown, I H

2009-10-31

306

Characteristics of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viral Strains Circulating at the Wildlife/livestock Interface of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area.  

PubMed

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) inflicts severe economic losses within infected countries and is arguably the most important trade-restricting livestock disease in the world. In southern Africa, infected African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) are the major reservoir of the South African Territories (SAT) types of the virus. With the progressive expansion of transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs), the risk of FMD outbreaks is expected to increase due to a higher probability of buffalo/livestock contacts. To investigate the dynamics of FMD within and around the Great Limpopo TFCA (GLTFCA), 5 herds of buffaloes were sampled in June 2010 to characterize circulating viruses in South Africa and Zimbabwe. Three SAT-2 and three SAT-3 viral strains were isolated in both countries, including one that was genetically linked with a recent SAT-2 outbreak in Mozambique in 2011. In addition, two groups of unvaccinated cattle (n = 192) were serologically monitored for 1 year at the wildlife/livestock interface of Gonarezhou National Park (GNP) in Zimbabwe between April 2009 and January 2010, using the liquid-phase blocking ELISA (LPBE) and a test for antibodies directed against non-structural proteins (NSP). Neither clinical signs nor vaccination of cattle were reported during the study, yet a high proportion of the monitored cattle showed antibody responses against SAT-3 and SAT-1. Antibodies against NSP were also detected in 10% of the monitored cattle. The results of this study suggest that cattle grazing in areas adjacent to the GLTFCA can be infected by buffalo or other infected livestock and that cattle trade movements can act as efficient disseminators of FMD viruses to areas several hundred kilometres from the virus source. Current methods of surveillance of FMD at the GLTFCA interface seem insufficient to control for FMD emergence and dissemination and require urgent reassessment and regional coordination. PMID:24739536

Jori, F; Caron, A; Thompson, P N; Dwarka, R; Foggin, C; de Garine-Wichatitsky, M; Hofmeyr, M; Van Heerden, J; Heath, L

2014-04-17

307

Multistate foodborne disease outbreaks associated with raw tomatoes, United States, 1990-2010: a recurring public health problem.  

PubMed

We examined multistate outbreaks attributed to raw tomatoes in the United States from 1990 to 2010. We summarized the demographic and epidemiological characteristics of 15 outbreaks resulting in 1959 illnesses, 384 hospitalizations, and three deaths. Most (80%) outbreaks were reported during 2000-2010; 73% occurred May-September. Outbreaks commonly affected adult (median age 34 years) women (median 58% of outbreak cases). All outbreaks were caused by Salmonella [serotypes Newport (n = 6 outbreaks), Braenderup (n = 2), Baildon, Enteritidis, Javiana, Montevideo, Thompson, Typhimurium (n = 1 each); multiple serotypes (n = 1)]. Red, round (69% of outbreaks), Roma (23%), and grape (8%) tomatoes were implicated. Most (93%) outbreaks were associated with tomatoes served predominantly in restaurants. However, traceback investigations suggested that contamination occurred on farms, at packinghouses, or at fresh-cut processing facilities. Government agencies, academia, trade associations, and the fresh tomato industry should consider further efforts to identify interventions to reduce contamination of tomatoes during production and processing. PMID:25167220

Bennett, S D; Littrell, K W; Hill, T A; Mahovic, M; Behravesh, C Barton

2015-05-01

308

[Serological survey of antibodies against viral diseases of public health interest in llamas (Lama glama) from Jujuy province, Argentina].  

PubMed

Llama population from Argentina is mainly concentrated in the Andean Puna, Jujuy. Llamas represent an important economic resource for the Andean communities. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of antibodies against viral antigens associated to viral diseases of economic impact (neonatal diarrhea, reproductive and respiratory syndromes). A total of 349 serum samples from adult llamas were analyzed. The obtained antibody prevalence was 100 % for Rotavirus A and 70 % for Bovine parainfluenza virus 3. In contrast, no reactors were detected to Bovine herpesvirus 1, Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, Human influenza A virus (H1N1) and Equine influenza virus (H3N8). These results confirm the wide circulation of rotavirus and parainfluenza virus in Argentinean llamas and suggest that susceptibility to infection with bovine herpesvirus, pestivirus and influenza A viruses is low. This serologic survey provides novel information regarding the epidemiology of viral diseases affecting llamas from the Argentinean Andean Puna. PMID:24721276

Barbieri, Elena S; Rodríguez, Daniela V; Marin, Raúl E; Setti, Walter; Romero, Sandra; Barrandeguy, María; Parreño, Viviana

2014-01-01

309

Viral Meningitis  

MedlinePLUS

... Non-infectious Meningitis Resources for Healthcare Professionals Related Links Vaccine Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Viral ... lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus . Â Top of Page Related Links Mumps MMR Vaccine Chickenpox Chickenpox Vaccine Enteroviruses Arboviruses ...

310

Serological Evidence of Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis in Rainbow Trout from a French Outbreak of Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the detection of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in France in April 1987, a serological survey was conducted of the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (formerly Salmo gairdneri) from an infected cultured stock previously known to be contaminated with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) for 3 years. The work lasted from April to December 1987, at which time all the

A.-M. Hattenberger-Baudouy; M. Danton; G. Merle; C. Torchy; P. De Kinkelin

1989-01-01

311

An introduction to food and waterborne viruses: diseases, transmission, outbreaks, detection and control  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Enteric viruses are the number one cause of foodborne illness throughout the world. In addition to foods, contaminated drinking water is another major cause of enteric viral illness. Among the enteric viruses are the noroviruses, hepatitis A and E viruses, enteric adenoviruses, rotavirus, and astro...

312

Restaurant outbreak of Legionnaires' disease associated with a decorative fountain: an environmental and case-control study  

PubMed Central

Background From June to November 2005, 18 cases of community-acquired Legionnaires' disease (LD) were reported in Rapid City South Dakota. We conducted epidemiologic and environmental investigations to identify the source of the outbreak. Methods We conducted a case-control study that included the first 13 cases and 52 controls randomly selected from emergency department records and matched on underlying illness. We collected information about activities of case-patients and controls during the 14 days before symptom onset. Environmental samples (n = 291) were cultured for Legionella. Clinical and environmental isolates were compared using monoclonal antibody subtyping and sequence based typing (SBT). Results Case-patients were significantly more likely than controls to have passed through several city areas that contained or were adjacent to areas with cooling towers positive for Legionella. Six of 11 case-patients (matched odds ratio (mOR) 32.7, 95% CI 4.7-?) reported eating in Restaurant A versus 0 controls. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from four clinical specimens: 3 were Benidorm type strains and 1 was a Denver type strain. Legionella were identified from several environmental sites including 24 (56%) of 43 cooling towers tested, but only one site, a small decorative fountain in Restaurant A, contained Benidorm, the outbreak strain. Clinical and environmental Benidorm isolates had identical SBT patterns. Conclusion This is the first time that small fountain without obvious aerosol-generating capability has been implicated as the source of a LD outbreak. Removal of the fountain halted transmission. PMID:17688692

O'Loughlin, Rosalyn E; Kightlinger, Lon; Werpy, Matthew C; Brown, Ellen; Stevens, Valerie; Hepper, Clark; Keane, Tim; Benson, Robert F; Fields, Barry S; Moore, Matthew R

2007-01-01

313

Molecular epidemiology of coxsackievirus A6 associated with outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Tianjin, China, in 2013.  

PubMed

Since 2008, Mainland China has undergone widespread outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). In order to determine the characteristics of epidemics and enteroviruses (EV) associated with HFMD in Tianjin, in northern China, epidemiological and virological data from routine surveillance were collected and analyzed. In Tianjin, a persistent epidemic of HFMD was demonstrated during 2008-2013, involving 102,705 mild, 179 severe, and 16 fatal cases. Overall, 8234 specimens were collected from 7829 HFMD patients for EV detection during 2008-2013. Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) were the dominant serotypes during 2008-2012, and they were replaced by CV-A6 as the major causative agent in 2013. Phylogenetic analysis based on complete VP1 nucleotide sequences revealed that multiple CV-A6 lineages co-circulated in Tianjin, which grouped together with strains from China and other countries and split into two distinct clusters (clusters 1 and 2). Most Tianjin strains grouped in cluster 1 and were closely related to strains from several eastern and southern provinces of China during 2012 and 2013. Estimates from Bayesian MCMC analysis suggested that multiple lineages had been transmitted silently before the outbreaks at an estimated evolutionary rate of 4.10 × 10(-3) substitutions per site per year without a specific distribution of rate variances among lineages. The sudden outbreak of CV-A6 in Tianjin during 2013 is attributed to indigenous CV-A6 lineages, which were linked to the wide spread of endemic strains around eastern and southern China. PMID:25680566

Tan, Xiaojuan; Li, Li; Zhang, Baomin; Jorba, Jaume; Su, Xu; Ji, Tianjiao; Yang, Dongjing; Lv, Likun; Li, Jiameng; Xu, Wenbo

2015-04-01

314

A Model for a Chikungunya Outbreak in a Rural Cambodian Setting: Implications for Disease Control in Uninfected Areas  

PubMed Central

Following almost 30 years of relative silence, chikungunya fever reemerged in Kenya in 2004. It subsequently spread to the islands of the Indian Ocean, reaching Southeast Asia in 2006. The virus was first detected in Cambodia in 2011 and a large outbreak occurred in the village of Trapeang Roka Kampong Speu Province in March 2012, in which 44% of the villagers had a recent infection biologically confirmed. The epidemic curve was constructed from the number of biologically-confirmed CHIKV cases per day determined from the date of fever onset, which was self-reported during a data collection campaign conducted in the village after the outbreak. All individuals participating in the campaign had infections confirmed by laboratory analysis, allowing for the identification of asymptomatic cases and those with an unreported date of fever onset. We develop a stochastic model explicitly including such cases, all of whom do not appear on the epidemic curve. We estimate the basic reproduction number of the outbreak to be 6.46 (95% C.I. [6.24, 6.78]). We show that this estimate is particularly sensitive to changes in the biting rate and mosquito longevity. Our model also indicates that the infection was more widespread within the population on the reported epidemic start date. We show that the exclusion of asymptomatic cases and cases with undocumented onset dates can lead to an underestimation of the reproduction number which, in turn, could negatively impact control strategies implemented by public health authorities. We highlight the need for properly documenting newly emerging pathogens in immunologically naive populations and the importance of identifying the route of disease introduction. PMID:25210729

Duong, Veasna; Ly, Sowath; Ngan, Chantha; Buchy, Philippe; Tarantola, Arnaud; Rodó, Xavier

2014-01-01

315

A model for a chikungunya outbreak in a rural Cambodian setting: implications for disease control in uninfected areas.  

PubMed

Following almost 30 years of relative silence, chikungunya fever reemerged in Kenya in 2004. It subsequently spread to the islands of the Indian Ocean, reaching Southeast Asia in 2006. The virus was first detected in Cambodia in 2011 and a large outbreak occurred in the village of Trapeang Roka Kampong Speu Province in March 2012, in which 44% of the villagers had a recent infection biologically confirmed. The epidemic curve was constructed from the number of biologically-confirmed CHIKV cases per day determined from the date of fever onset, which was self-reported during a data collection campaign conducted in the village after the outbreak. All individuals participating in the campaign had infections confirmed by laboratory analysis, allowing for the identification of asymptomatic cases and those with an unreported date of fever onset. We develop a stochastic model explicitly including such cases, all of whom do not appear on the epidemic curve. We estimate the basic reproduction number of the outbreak to be 6.46 (95% C.I. [6.24, 6.78]). We show that this estimate is particularly sensitive to changes in the biting rate and mosquito longevity. Our model also indicates that the infection was more widespread within the population on the reported epidemic start date. We show that the exclusion of asymptomatic cases and cases with undocumented onset dates can lead to an underestimation of the reproduction number which, in turn, could negatively impact control strategies implemented by public health authorities. We highlight the need for properly documenting newly emerging pathogens in immunologically naive populations and the importance of identifying the route of disease introduction. PMID:25210729

Robinson, Marguerite; Conan, Anne; Duong, Veasna; Ly, Sowath; Ngan, Chantha; Buchy, Philippe; Tarantola, Arnaud; Rodó, Xavier

2014-09-01

316

Impairment of Myocardial Mitochondria in Viral Myocardial Disease and Its Reflective Window in Peripheral Cells  

PubMed Central

Background Viral myocardial disease (VMD) is a common disease inducing heart failure. It has not been clear the roles of mitochondrial damage in the pathological changes of cardiomyocytes in VMD. Methods Myocardial tissues and lymphocytes were collected from 83 VMD patients. Control groups included 12 cases of healthy accidental death with myocardial autopsy and 23 healthy blood donors. The mouse model of viral myocarditis (VMC) was established by Coxsackie virus B3 infection and myocardial tissues and skeletal muscle were collected. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion rate was quantitatively determined using polymerase chain reaction. Results There was significantly difference of myocardial mitochondrial DNA deletion rate between VMD or VMC group and control group (P<0.05). Moreover, the loss of mitochondrial membrane phospholipids was significantly different between VMD or VMC group and control group. In VMC mice, there were negative correlations between myocardial mtDNA3867 deletion rate and left ventricular peak systolic pressure (LVPSP) (r?=??0.66, P<0.05), and between myocardial mtDNA3867 deletion rate and +dp/dtmax (r?=??0.79, P<0.05), while there was positive correlation between myocardial mtDNA3867 deletion rate and ?dp/dtmax (r?=?0.80, P<0.05). Conclusion Mitochondrial damage is an important pathophysiological mechanism leading to myocardial injury and cardiac dysfunction. The mitochondrial damage in the skeletal muscle and lymphocytes reflect a “window” of myocardial mitochondrial damage. PMID:25551390

Wei, Jin; Gao, Deng-Feng; Wang, Hao; Yan, Rui; Liu, Zhi-Quan; Yuan, Zu-Yi; Liu, Jian; Chen, Ming-Xia

2014-01-01

317

Control of viral replication and disease onset in cynomolgus monkeys by HIV-1 TAT vaccine.  

PubMed

The Tat protein of HIV is produced early after infection and it is essential for viral replication and transmission. Tat is released by infected lymphocytes and is detected in the serum of HIV-infected patients. Extracellular Tat enters cells, where promotes HIV replication. Several studies suggest that humoral and cellular anti-Tat immunity have a protective role and may control disease progression. Of importance, Tat is conserved in its immunogenic regions among all viral subtypes except O subtype. Thus, the immunization with Tat cannot block virus entry but might block HIV replication and progression to disease. To test this hypothesis, monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were immunized with a biologically active Tat protein. Tat was non toxic and induced specific humoral and cellular immune responses. High titers of anti-Tat antibodies capable of neutralizing Tat activity and the in vitro infection with the SHIV89.6P, Tat-specific proliferation, CTLs, TNFalpha production and skin tests were detected in the vaccinated monkeys. Most importantly, upon challenge with the highly pathogenic SHIV89.6P (10 MID50, i.v.), 5/7 of the vaccinated monkeys showed no signs of infection nor CD4+-T cell decline over a 19 months of follow-up, whereas 3/3 controls were highly infected. Thus, a Tat-vaccine is capable of controlling the acute phase of infection in nonhuman primates. These data open new avenues for the development of an AIDS vaccine. PMID:10763887

Ensoli, B; Cafaro, A

2000-01-01

318

Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) isolated from the ISA disease outbreaks in Chile diverged from ISAV isolates from Norway around 1996 and was disseminated around 2005, based on surface glycoprotein gene sequences  

PubMed Central

Background Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) virus (ISAV) is a pathogen of marine-farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar); a disease first diagnosed in Norway in 1984. For over 25 years ISAV has caused major disease outbreaks in the Northern hemisphere, and remains an emerging fish pathogen because of the asymptomatic infections in marine wild fish and the potential for emergence of new epidemic strains. ISAV belongs to the family Orthomyxoviridae, together with influenza viruses but is sufficiently different to be assigned to its own genus, Isavirus. The Isavirus genome consists of eight single-stranded RNA species, and the virions have two surface glycoproteins; fusion (F) protein encoded on segment 5 and haemagglutinin-esterase (HE) protein encoded on segment 6. However, comparision between different ISAV isolates is complicated because there is presently no universally accepted nomenclature system for designation of genetic relatedness between ISAV isolates. The first outbreak of ISA in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon in the Southern hemisphere occurred in Chile starting in June 2007. In order to describe the molecular characteristics of the virus so as to understand its origins, how ISAV isolates are maintained and spread, and their virulence characteristics, we conducted a study where the viral sequences were directly amplified, cloned and sequenced from tissue samples collected from several ISA-affected fish on the different fish farms with confirmed or suspected ISA outbreaks in Chile. This paper describes the genetic characterization of a large number of ISAV strains associated with extensive outbreaks in Chile starting in June 2007, and their phylogenetic relationships with selected European and North American isolates that are representative of the genetic diversity of ISAV. Results RT-PCR for ISAV F and HE glycoprotein genes was performed directly on tissue samples collected from ISA-affected fish on different farms among 14 fish companies in Chile during the ISA outbreaks that started in June 2007. The genes of the F and HE glycoproteins were cloned and sequenced for 51 and 78 new isolates, respectively. An extensive comparative analysis of ISAV F and HE sequence data, including reference isolates sampled from Norway, Faroe Islands, Scotland, USA, and Canada was performed. Based on phylogenetic analysis of concatenated ISAV F and HE genes of 103 individual isolates, the isolates from the ISA outbreaks in Chile grouped in their own cluster of 7 distinct strains within Genotype I (European genotype) of ISAV, with the closest relatedness to Norwegian ISAVs isolated in 1997. The phylogenetic software program, BACKTRACK, estimated the Chile isolates diverged from Norway isolates about 1996 and, therefore, had been present in Chile for some time before the recent outbreaks. Analysis of the deduced F protein sequence showed 43 of 51 Chile isolates with an 11-amino acid insert between 265N and 266Q, with 100% sequence identity with Genotype I ISAV RNA segment 2. Twenty four different HE-HPRs, including HPR0, were detected, with HPR7b making up 79.7%. This is considered a manifestation of ISAV quasispecies HE protein sequence diversity. Conclusion Taken together, these findings suggest that the ISA outbreaks were caused by virus that was already present in Chile that mutated to new strains. This is the first comprehensive report tracing ISAV from Europe to South America. PMID:19558648

Kibenge, Frederick SB; Godoy, Marcos G; Wang, Yingwei; Kibenge, Molly JT; Gherardelli, Valentina; Mansilla, Soledad; Lisperger, Angelica; Jarpa, Miguel; Larroquete, Geraldine; Avendaño, Fernando; Lara, Marcela; Gallardo, Alicia

2009-01-01

319

Molecular investigation into outbreak of HIV in a Scottish prison.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To support already established epidemiological links between inmates of Glenochil prison positive for HIV infection by using molecular techniques and thus provide evidence of the extent of acquisition during a recent outbreak of the disease resulting from needle sharing. To identify possible sources of the outbreak, and to demonstrate the ability of the methodology to make further links beyond the original outbreak. DESIGN: Viral sequences obtained from the blood of HIV positive prisoners previously identified by standard epidemiological methods were compared with each other and with sequences from other Scottish patients. SETTING: Glenochil prison for men, central Scotland. SUBJECTS: Adult inmates and their possible contacts. RESULTS: Phylogenetic analysis of viral sequences in two different genomic regions showed that 13 of the 14 HIV positive prisoners had been infected from a common source. Previous research had shown that six of these had acquired their infection in Glenochil; molecular evidence suggests that more than double this number were infected while incarcerated. Virus from two long term HIV positive patients who were in the prison at the time of the outbreak but who were not identified in the original or subsequent surveys was sufficiently different to make it unlikely that they were the source. A viral sequence from heterosexual transmission from one inmate showed the ability of these techniques to follow the infection through different routes of infection. CONCLUSION: The number of prisoners infected with HIV during the 1993 outbreak within Glenochil prison was more than twice that previously shown. This shows the potential for the spread of bloodborne diseases within prisons by injecting drugs. PMID:9167560

Yirrell, D. L.; Robertson, P.; Goldberg, D. J.; McMenamin, J.; Cameron, S.; Leigh Brown, A. J.

1997-01-01

320

How Ambient Humidity May Affect the Transmission of Viral Infectious Diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viral infectious diseases such as influenza have been a great burden to public health. The airborne transmission route is an important venue for the spread of many respiratory viral diseases. Many airborne viruses have been shown to be sensitive to ambient humidity, yet the mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon remain elusive. A thorough understanding of this phenomenon may provide insight into the temporal and spatial distribution of diseases. For instance, studies have repeatedly suggested ambient humidity as an important environmental determinant in the transmission of influenza in temperate regions. Further, knowing how to optimize humidity so as to minimize virus survival may have practical implications for disease prevention. In this talk, we will discuss multiple mechanisms that may account for the association between humidity and viability of viruses in aerosols, including water activity, surface inactivation, salt toxicity, and conformational changes to the virus in response to varying pH. As a case study, we will discuss our work on the effect of relative humidity (RH) on survival of influenza A virus (IAV) and how it may contribute to the transmission patterns of seasonal flu around the world. We measured the change in viability of IAV in droplets at various RHs. Results suggest three potential regimes defined by humidity: physiological (~100% RH) with high viability, concentrated (~50% to near 100% RH) with lower viability, and dry (<~50% RH) with high viability. Based on these results, we propose a mechanistic basis for the dependence of IAV's transmission on humidity. In temperate regions, the increase in influenza activity in winter may be due to enhanced transmission via the aerosol route thanks to IAV's higher viability in droplets at low RH. In tropical regions, transmission could be enhanced due to high viability of IAV at extremely high RH (rainy season), as observed in our study, possibly through both the aerosol route and the contact route.

Yang, Wan; Marr, Linsey; Elankumaran, Subbiah

2013-04-01

321

The Ebola virus disease outbreak and the mineral sectors of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In response to the uncertainty surrounding the status of mineral projects in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, the National Minerals Information Center compiled information on the distribution of mines, mineral facilities, and mineral projects under development in the three countries. This fact sheet provides information on the role that the mineral sector plays in their respective economies, on the operating status of mining projects through yearend 2014, and on the coordinated actions by mining companies to support governments and international relief organizations in their efforts to contain the EVD outbreak.

Bermúdez-Lugo, Omayra; Menzie, William D.

2015-01-01

322

Fine mapping of loci on BTA2 and BTA26 associated with bovine viral diarrhea persistent infection and linked with bovine respiratory disease in cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is considered to be the most costly infectious disease in the cattle industry. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the pathogens involved with the BRD complex of disease. Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection also negatively impacts cow reproduction and calf...

323

The Role of Viral and Host MicroRNAs in the Aujeszky’s Disease Virus during the Infection Process  

PubMed Central

Porcine production is a primary market in the world economy. Controlling swine diseases in the farm is essential in order to achieve the sector necessities. Aujeszky’s disease is a viral condition affecting pigs and is endemic in many countries of the world, causing important economic losses in the swine industry. microRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs which modulates gene expression in animals, plants and viruses. With the aim of understanding miRNA roles during the Aujeszky’s disease virus [ADV] (also known as suid herpesvirus type 1 [SuHV-1]) infection, the expression profiles of host and viral miRNAs were determined through deep sequencing in SuHV-1 infected porcine cell line (PK-15) and in an animal experimental SuHV-1 infection with virulent (NIA-3) and attenuated (Begonia) strains. In the in vivo approach miR-206, miR-133a, miR-133b and miR-378 presented differential expression between virus strains infection. In the in vitro approach, most miRNAs were down-regulated in infected groups. miR-92a and miR-92b-3p were up-regulated in Begonia infected samples. Functional analysis of all this over expressed miRNAs during the infection revealed their association in pathways related to viral infection processes and immune response. Furthermore, 8 viral miRNAs were detected by stem loop RT-qPCR in both in vitro and in vivo approaches, presenting a gene regulatory network affecting 59 viral genes. Most described viral miRNAs were related to Large Latency Transcript (LLT) and to viral transcription activators EP0 and IE180, and also to regulatory genes regarding their important roles in the host – pathogen interaction during viral infection. PMID:24475202

Timoneda, Oriol; Núñez-Hernández, Fernando; Balcells, Ingrid; Muñoz, Marta; Castelló, Anna; Vera, Gonzalo; Pérez, Lester J.; Egea, Raquel; Mir, Gisela; Córdoba, Sarai; Rosell, Rosa; Segalés, Joaquim; Tomàs, Anna; Sánchez, Armand; Núñez, José I.

2014-01-01

324

Characterization of the recent outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT2 in Egypt.  

PubMed

An outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Egypt affected approximately 40,000 cattle and water buffaloes and killed more than 4,600 animals during February-March 2012. To investigate the etiology of the 2012 outbreak, specimens were collected from six governorates and analyzed using universal primers to amplify the 5' untranslated region (UTR) by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Only FMDV-SAT2 was detected, with an overall detection rate of 80.3 %. Complete VP1- and leader-proteinase-coding sequences, obtained from three isolates from three different governorates, were compared with previously reported sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences indicated that the circulating viruses were homogeneous and were closely related to topotype VII. Importantly, the newly emerged viruses were genetically closely related to strains isolated from Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Eritrea and Cameroon between 2000 and 2010, suggesting the dominant nature of this virus and underscoring the need for worldwide intensive surveillance to minimize its devastating consequences. PMID:23132412

Kandeil, Ahmed; El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Kayali, Ghazi; Moatasim, Yassmin; Bagato, Ola; Darwish, Mohamed; Gaffar, Alkhateib; Younes, Abdelgayed; Farag, Tarek; Kutkat, Mohamed A; Ali, Mohamed A

2013-03-01

325

Foot-and-mouth disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. An outbreak of FMD can have a significant economic impact because of the restrictions on international trade of susceptible animals and their products with FMD-free countries. In this chapter we discuss vario...

326

First report of a family outbreak of Chagas disease in French Guiana and posttreatment follow-up.  

PubMed

The outbreak of acute Chagas disease due to oral transmission of the parasite is a well-known phenomenon mainly occurring in the Amazon. Such an event is described here for the first time in French Guiana. Eight patients of the same family, presenting epidemiological and clinical histories compatible with recent Trypanosoma cruzi infection of Chagas disease due to the ingestion of palm Oenocarpus bacaba juice were, rather late after the putative date of infection, underwent four parasitological and two serological specific tests for confirmation of the diagnosis. Real-time PCR results were positive for all the patients; strains were isolated by hemoculture from four patients, PCR identification of TcI DTU was made for six patients, while parasites were not detected in any of the patients by direct microscopic examination. The results of two serologic tests were positive. All patients were treated with benznidazole, and two patients were additionally given nifurtimox. A 6-year follow-up was possible for six patients. Real-time PCR was negative for these patients after 1 year, while the antibody rates decreased slowly and serology results were negative only after several years (1-5 years). Our findings confirm the occurrence of an outbreak of Chagas infection in members of the same family, with the oral mode of infection being the most likely hypothesis to explain this group of cases. Our results show the successful treatment of patients infected by TcI and the usefulness of real-time PCR for the emergency diagnosis of recent Chagas disease cases and in posttreatment follow-up. PMID:25448161

Blanchet, Denis; Brenière, Simone Frédérique; Schijman, Alejandro G; Bisio, Margarita; Simon, Stéphane; Véron, Vincent; Mayence, Claire; Demar-Pierre, Magalie; Djossou, Félix; Aznar, Christine

2014-12-01

327

Acute/recent HCV infection. Clinical course, viral replication kunetic and disease outcome.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to reveal and investigate acute/recent HCV infection at the very early stage in seronegative blood donors and seronegative Injecting Drug Users (IDUs) and to assess clinical laboratory variants of infection, viral replication kinetic, disease outcome, host and viral characteristics. Two groups of patients were included in this study. The first group consisted of ELISA negative 7000 blood donors; the second group included 3000 Injecting Drug Users (IDUs). All patients were investigated on HCV RNA by qualitative PCR using mini pool method. A pool of 6 was applied for blood donors' and a pool of 5 for IDUs. PCR negative pools were excluded from the study, while PCR positives were examined on individual samples. Anti-HCV was detected by ELISA and RIBA. Detection HCV RNA was performed by Real time PCR technique using COBAS TaqMan Test. HCV genotyping--by INNO-Lipa. HLA typing--by Sequence Specific Primer Amplification (SSP). 16 patients with acute/recent HCV were revealed: 7 from blood donors, 9 from IDUs. Among them: 4 were symptomatics and 12 asymptomatics. Out of 4 symptomatics 3 were with jaundice. Among 12 asymptomatics: 8 had elevated ALT; 2 neither elevated ALT nor symptoms but developed anti-HCV; 2 were with normal ALT and without further anti-HCV seroconversion. Among 16 subjects: 9 had genotype -1b, 1--genotype 1a, 3--genotype 2a/2c and 3--genotype 3a. Out of 16 cases 4 cleared the virus; 12 developed chronic infection. Spontaneous clearance (recovery from the disease) was observed in 2 out of 4 symptomatic patients and only in 2 patients out of 12 asymptomatics. In all patients viremia increased rapidly and reached a peak by week 4. Viral titer was remarkably stable for the next three weeks, followed by two or three fold decrease by week 9. After week 10 the viremia rapidly decreased: 4 or 5 logs by week 12 and it became either undetectable by weeks 16-18 (viral clearance), or virus was not eliminated and viral titer persisted in all follow up period (chronic infection). HLA DRB1 1101, DQB1 0301 and DRB1 1301/DQA1 0103 alleles were associated with clearance of HCV whereas DRB1 0301 was associated with chronic infection. Prevalence of HCV among seronegative blood donors was 0.1% and among IDUs 0.3%. Among acute/recent HCV infected patients rate of chronicity was 75% (50% in symptomatics and 83% in asymptomatics). Rate of recovery was 50% in symptomatic patients and about 16% in asymptomatics. Acute/recent HCV infection might have following clinical laboratory forms: symptomatic disease with or without jaundice, asymptomatic with or without elevated ALT, but with further anti-HCV seroconversion. It remains unclear whether enigmatic form of disease--acute/recent HCV infection without further seroconversion exists or not. PMID:19124916

Tsertsvadze, T; Sharvadze, L; Dzigua, L; Dolmazashvili, E; Nelson, Kenrad E

2008-12-01

328

Differences in virulence among Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains isolated from humans during disease outbreaks and from healthy cattle.  

PubMed

Escherichia coli O157:H7 causes life-threatening outbreaks of diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic-uremic syndrome in humans and significant economic loss in agriculture and could be a potential agent of bioterrorism. Although the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in cattle and other species with which humans have frequent contact is high, human infections are relatively uncommon, despite a low infectious dose. A plausible explanation for the low disease incidence is the possibility that not all strains are virulent in humans. If there are substantial differences in virulence among strains in nature, then human disease may select for high virulence. We used a gnotobiotic piglet model to investigate the virulence of isolates from healthy cattle and from humans in disease outbreaks and to determine the correlation between production of Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) and Stx2 and virulence. Overall, E. coli O157:H7 strains isolated from healthy cattle were less virulent in gnotobiotic piglets than strains isolated from humans during disease outbreaks. The amount of Stx2 produced by E. coli O157:H7 strains correlated with strain virulence as measured by a reduction in piglet survival and signs of central nervous system disease due to brain infarction. The amount of Stx1 produced in culture was not correlated with the length of time of piglet survival or with signs of central nervous system disease. We suggest that disease outbreaks select for producers of high levels of Stx2 among E. coli O157:H7 strains shed by animals and further suggest that Stx1 expression is unlikely to be significant in human outbreaks. PMID:17890332

Baker, Diane R; Moxley, Rodney A; Steele, Mike B; Lejeune, Jeffrey T; Christopher-Hennings, Jane; Chen, Ding-Geng; Hardwidge, Philip R; Francis, David H

2007-11-01

329

Differences in Virulence among Escherichia coli O157:H7 Strains Isolated from Humans during Disease Outbreaks and from Healthy Cattle?  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli O157:H7 causes life-threatening outbreaks of diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic-uremic syndrome in humans and significant economic loss in agriculture and could be a potential agent of bioterrorism. Although the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in cattle and other species with which humans have frequent contact is high, human infections are relatively uncommon, despite a low infectious dose. A plausible explanation for the low disease incidence is the possibility that not all strains are virulent in humans. If there are substantial differences in virulence among strains in nature, then human disease may select for high virulence. We used a gnotobiotic piglet model to investigate the virulence of isolates from healthy cattle and from humans in disease outbreaks and to determine the correlation between production of Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) and Stx2 and virulence. Overall, E. coli O157:H7 strains isolated from healthy cattle were less virulent in gnotobiotic piglets than strains isolated from humans during disease outbreaks. The amount of Stx2 produced by E. coli O157:H7 strains correlated with strain virulence as measured by a reduction in piglet survival and signs of central nervous system disease due to brain infarction. The amount of Stx1 produced in culture was not correlated with the length of time of piglet survival or with signs of central nervous system disease. We suggest that disease outbreaks select for producers of high levels of Stx2 among E. coli O157:H7 strains shed by animals and further suggest that Stx1 expression is unlikely to be significant in human outbreaks. PMID:17890332

Baker, Diane R.; Moxley, Rodney A.; Steele, Mike B.; LeJeune, Jeffrey T.; Christopher-Hennings, Jane; Chen, Ding-Geng; Hardwidge, Philip R.; Francis, David H.

2007-01-01

330

Cholesterol-conjugated peptide antivirals: a path to a rapid response to emerging viral diseases.  

PubMed

While it is now possible to identify and genetically fingerprint the causative agents of emerging viral diseases, often with extraordinary speed, suitable therapies cannot be developed with equivalent speed, because drug discovery requires information that goes beyond knowledge of the viral genome. Peptides, however, may represent a special opportunity. For all enveloped viruses, fusion between the viral and the target cell membrane is an obligatory step of the life cycle. Class I fusion proteins harbor regions with a repeating pattern of amino acids, the heptad repeats (HRs), that play a key role in fusion, and HR-derived peptides such as enfuvirtide, in clinical use for HIV, can block the process. Because of their characteristic sequence pattern, HRs are easily identified in the genome by means of computer programs, providing the sequence of candidate peptide inhibitors directly from genomic information. Moreover, a simple chemical modification, the attachment of a cholesterol group, can dramatically increase the antiviral potency of HR-derived inhibitors and simultaneously improve their pharmacokinetics. Further enhancement can be provided by dimerization of the cholesterol-conjugated peptide. The examples reported so far include inhibitors of retroviruses, paramyxoviruses, orthomyxoviruses, henipaviruses, coronaviruses, and filoviruses. For some of these viruses, in vivo efficacy has been demonstrated in suitable animal models. The combination of bioinformatic lead identification and potency/pharmacokinetics improvement provided by cholesterol conjugation may form the basis for a rapid response strategy, where development of an emergency cholesterol-conjugated therapeutic would immediately follow the availability of the genetic information of a new enveloped virus. Copyright © 2014 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25331523

Pessi, Antonello

2014-10-20

331

Viral load and clinical disease enhancement associated with a lentivirus cytotoxic T lymphocyte vaccine regimen  

PubMed Central

Effective DNA-based vaccines against lentiviruses will likely induce CTL against conserved viral proteins. Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) infects horses worldwide, and serves as a useful model for lentiviral immune control. Although attenuated live EIAV vaccines have induced protective immune responses, DNA-based vaccines have not. In particular, DNA-based vaccines have had limited success in inducing CTL responses against intracellular pathogens in the horse. We hypothesized that priming with a codon-optimized plasmid encoding EIAV Gag p15/p26 with co-administration of a plasmid encoding an equine IL-2/IgG fusion protein as a molecular adjuvant, followed by boosting with a vaccinia vector expressing Gag p15/p26, would induce protective Gag-specific CTL responses. Although the regimen induced Gag-specific CTL in four of seven vaccinated horses, CTL were not detected until after the vaccinia boost, and protective effects were not observed in EIAV challenged vaccinates. Unexpectedly, vaccinates had significantly higher viral loads and more severe clinical disease, associated with the presence of vaccine-induced CTL. It was concluded that 1.) further optimization of the timing and route of DNA immunization was needed for efficient CTL priming in vivo, 2.) co-administration of the IL-2/IgG plasmid did not enhance CTL priming by the Gag p15/p26 plasmid, 3.) vaccinia vectors are useful for lentivirus-specific CTL induction in the horse, 4.) Gag-specific CTL alone are either insufficient or a more robust Gag-specific CTL response is needed to limit EIAV viremia and clinical disease, and 5.) CTL-inducing vaccines lacking envelope immunogens can result in lentiviral disease enhancement. Although the mechanisms for enhancement associated with this vaccine regimen remain to be elucidated, these results have important implications for development of lentivirus T cell vaccines. PMID:19368787

Mealey, Robert H.; Leib, Steven R.; Littke, Matt H.; Wagner, Bettina; Horohov, David W.; McGuire, Travis C.

2009-01-01

332

Viral RNA extraction for in-the-field analysis  

PubMed Central

Retroviruses encode their genetic information with RNA molecules, and have a high genomic recombination rate which allows them to mutate more rapidly, thereby posting a higher risk to humans. One important way to help combat a pandemic of viral infectious diseases is early detection before large scale outbreaks occur. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) have been used to identify precisely different strains of some very closely related pathogens. However, isolation and detection of viral RNA in the field are difficult due to the unstable nature of viral RNA molecules. Consequently, performing in-the-field nucleic acid analysis to monitor the spread of viruses is financially and technologically challenging in remote and underdeveloped regions that are high-risk areas for outbreaks. A simplified rapid viral RNA extraction method is reported to meet the requirements for in-the-field viral RNA extraction and detection. The ability of this device to perform viral RNA extraction with subsequent RT-PCR detection of retrovirus is demonstrated. This inexpensive device has the potential to be distributed on a large scale to underdeveloped regions for early detection of retrovirus, with the possibility of reducing viral pandemic events. PMID:17548117

Zhong, Jiang F.; Weiner, Leslie P.; Burke, Kathy; Taylor, Clive R.

2012-01-01

333

Torque teno virus: an improved indicator for viral pathogens in drinking waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Currently applied indicator organism systems, such as coliforms, are not fully protective of public health from enteric viruses in water sources. Waterborne disease outbreaks have occurred in systems that tested negative for coliforms, and positive coliform results do not necessarily correlate with viral risk. It is widely recognized that bacterial indicators do not co-occur exclusively with infectious viruses, nor

Jennifer S Griffin; Jeanine D Plummer; Sharon C Long

2008-01-01

334

Animal viral diseases and global change: bluetongue and West Nile fever as paradigms  

PubMed Central

Environmental changes have an undoubted influence on the appearance, distribution, and evolution of infectious diseases, and notably on those transmitted by vectors. Global change refers to environmental changes arising from human activities affecting the fundamental mechanisms operating in the biosphere. This paper discusses the changes observed in recent times with regard to some important arboviral (arthropod-borne viral) diseases of animals, and the role global change could have played in these variations. Two of the most important arboviral diseases of animals, bluetongue (BT) and West Nile fever/encephalitis (WNF), have been selected as models. In both cases, in the last 15 years an important leap forward has been observed, which has lead to considering them emerging diseases in different parts of the world. BT, affecting domestic ruminants, has recently afflicted livestock in Europe in an unprecedented epizootic, causing enormous economic losses. WNF affects wildlife (birds), domestic animals (equines), and humans, thus, beyond the economic consequences of its occurrence, as a zoonotic disease, it poses an important public health threat. West Nile virus (WNV) has expanded in the last 12 years worldwide, and particularly in the Americas, where it first occurred in 1999, extending throughout the Americas relentlessly since then, causing a severe epidemic of disastrous consequences for public health, wildlife, and livestock. In Europe, WNV is known long time ago, but it is since the last years of the twentieth century that its incidence has risen substantially. Circumstances such as global warming, changes in land use and water management, increase in travel, trade of animals, and others, can have an important influence in the observed changes in both diseases. The following question is raised: What is the contribution of global changes to the current increase of these diseases in the world? PMID:22707955

Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Á

2012-01-01

335

Disease outbreaks caused by steppe-type rabies viruses in China.  

PubMed

While rabies is a significant public health concern in China, the epidemiology of animal rabies in the north and northwest border provinces remains unknown. From February 2013 to March 2014, seven outbreaks of domestic animal rabies caused by wild carnivores in Xinjiang (XJ) and Inner Mongolia (IM) Autonomous Regions, China were reported and diagnosed in brain samples of infected animals by the fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and RT-PCR. Ten field rabies viruses were obtained. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis based on the complete N gene (1353 bp) amplified directly from the original brain tissues showed that these ten strains were steppe-type viruses, closely related to strains reported in Russia and Mongolia. None had been identified previously in China. The viruses from XJ and IM clustered separately into two lineages showing their different geographical distribution. This study emphasizes the importance of wildlife surveillance and of cross-departmental cooperation in the control of transboundary rabies transmission. PMID:25078967

Feng, Y; Wang, W; Guo, J; Alatengheli; Li, Y; Yang, G; Su, N; Zhang, L; Xu, W; Sheng, Z; Ma, L; Gui, J; Dejide; Lin, H; Tu, C

2015-04-01

336

Multi-pathogen waterborne disease outbreak associated with a dinner cruise on Lake Michigan.  

PubMed

We report an outbreak associated with a dinner cruise on Lake Michigan. This took place on the same day as heavy rainfall, which resulted in 42·4 billion liters of rainwater and storm runoff containing highly diluted sewage being released into the lake. Of 72 cruise participants, 41 (57%) reported gastroenteritis. Stool specimens were positive for Shigella sonnei (n=3), Giardia (n=3), and Cryptosporidium (n=2). Ice consumption was associated with illness (risk ratio 2·2, P=0·011). S. sonnei was isolated from a swab obtained from the one of the boat's ice bins. Environmental inspection revealed conditions and equipment that could have contributed to lake water contaminating the hose used to load potable water onto the boat. Knowledge of water holding and distribution systems on boats, and of potential risks associated with flooding and the release of diluted sewage into large bodies of water, is crucial for public health guidance regarding recreational cruises. PMID:21676362

Serdarevic, F; Jones, R C; Weaver, K N; Black, S R; Ritger, K A; Guichard, F; Dombroski, P; Emanuel, B P; Miller, L; Gerber, S I

2012-04-01

337

Molecular identfication and virulence of three Aeromonas hydrophila isolates cultured from infected channel catfish during a disease outbreak in West Alabama (USA) in 2009  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three isolates (AL09-71, AL09-72, and AL09-73) of Aeromonas hydrophila were cultured from infected channel catfish during a disease outbreak in West Alabama in August 2009. Sequence analysis of 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region (ISR), cpn60, gyrB, and rpoD genes of the three strains revealed tha...

338

Emergency euthanasia of cattle challenged with Escherichia coli O157:H7 - A case study for evaluating the response to an infectious disease outbreak  

PubMed Central

In the event of an infectious disease outbreak in cattle, carcasses must be disposed of in a rapid and contained manner. This brief communication details injection of a barbiturate to euthanize cattle inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 followed by carcass composting in a manner that prevents the spread of infectious agents. PMID:23388438

Gilroyed, Brandon H.; Reuter, Tim; Kastelic, John P.

2013-01-01

339

Plant Disease Note 2005 | Outbreak of Iris yellow spot virus in Onion Seed Crops in Central Oregon Overview Current Issue Past Issues Search PD Search APS Journals  

E-print Network

Plant Disease Note 2005 | Outbreak of Iris yellow spot virus in Onion Seed Crops in Central Oregon of Iris yellow spot virus in Onion Seed Crops in Central Oregon. F. J. Crowe, Department of Botany is considered an emerging or reemerging pathogen affecting onions in the United States. The virus has been

Pappu, Hanu R.

340

Surveillance for waterborne disease and outbreaks associated with recreational water use and other aquatic facility-associated health events-United States, 2005-2006  

EPA Science Inventory

PROBLEM/CONDITION: Since 1971, CDC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have collaboratively maintained the Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System for collecting and reporting data related to waterborne-d...

341

Surveillance for waterborne disease and outbreaks associated with drinking water and water not intended for drinking-United States, 2005-2006  

EPA Science Inventory

PROBLEM/CONDITION: Since 1971, CDC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have maintained a collaborative Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) for collecting and reporting data related to o...

342

SUSCEPTIBILITY AND PROTECTION OF NAIVE AND VACCINATED RACING PIGEONS (COLUMBA LIVA) AGAINST EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS FROM THE CALIFORNIA 2002-03 OUTBREAK  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The susceptibility, immune response and protection to challenge following vaccination in racing pigeons was assessed using the 2002-03 exotic Newcastle disease (END) virus responsible for the most recent major outbreak in southern California. Immunologically naïve pigeons appeared resistant to dise...

343

CASO CLÍNICO: BROTE DE ENFERMEDAD DEL MÚSCULO BLANCO O MIODEGENERACIÓN NUTRICIONAL EN TERNEROS Clinical Case: Outbreak of White Muscle Disease or Nutritional Muscular Dystrophy in Calves  

Microsoft Academic Search

An outbreak of White Muscle Disease, WMD, or Nutritional Muscular Dystrophy is reported in a flock of 56 Red Friesian calves, where 18 calves of 4 to 5 months of age died in a pe- riod of 45 days. The signs observed were tachypnea, difficulty to walk, tachycardia, dilated jugular veins, temperature 38- 39°C. Signs of alterations of the nervous

Pedro A. Contreras; Enrique Paredes; Fernando Wittwer; Sergio Carrillo

2005-01-01

344

EXPERIMENTAL PATHOGENESIS FOR CHICKENS, TURKEYS, AND PIGEONS OF EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS FROM AN OUTBREAK IN CALIFORNIA DURING 2002-2003  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Exotic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from chickens during the 2002-2003 California outbreak was inoculated into 4-week-old specific-pathogen-free (SPF) White Leghorn chickens, 3-week-old SPF Beltsville White turkeys, 6-week-old commercial Broad Breasted White turkeys, and 10- to 20-week-old...

345

Vaccination reduces the viral load and the risk of transmission of Jembrana disease virus in Bali cattle.  

PubMed

The efficacy of a tissue-derived vaccine, which is currently used in Indonesia to control the spread of Jembrana disease in Bali cattle, was determined by quantifying the viral load in plasma following experimental infection with Jembrana disease virus. Virus transmission is most likely to occur during the acute phase of infection when viral titers are greater than 10(6) genomes/ml. Vaccinated cattle were found to have a 96% reduction in viral load above this threshold compared to control cattle. This would reduce the chance of virus transmission as the number of days above the threshold in the vaccinated cattle was reduced by 33%. Viral loads at the onset and resolution of fever were significantly lower in the vaccinated cattle and immune function was maintained with the development of antibody responses to Env proteins within 10-24 days post challenge. There was, however, no significant reduction in the duration of the febrile period in vaccinated animals. The duration and severity of clinical parameters were found to be variable within each group of cattle but the quantification of viral load revealed the benefits of vaccinating to reduce the risk of virus transmission as well as to ameliorate disease. PMID:19261319

Ditcham, William G F; Lewis, Joshua R; Dobson, Robert J; Hartaningsih, Nining; Wilcox, Graham E; Desport, Moira

2009-04-10

346

Targeting the detection of chronic wasting disease using the hunter harvest during early phases of an outbreak in Saskatchewan, Canada.  

PubMed

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal disease of North American cervids that was first detected in a wild, hunter-shot deer in Saskatchewan along the border with Alberta in Canada in 2000. Spatially explicit models for assessing factors affecting disease detection are needed to guide surveillance and control programs. Spatio-temporal patterns in CWD prevalence can be complicated by variation in individual infection probability and sampling biases. We assessed hunter harvest data of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during the early phases of an outbreak in Saskatchewan (i.e., 2002-2007) for targeting the detection of CWD by defining (1) where to look, and (2) how much effort to use. First, we accounted for known demographic heterogeneities in infection to model the probability, P(E), that a harvested deer was infected with CWD given characteristics of the harvest location. Second, in areas where infected deer were harvested we modelled the probability, P(D), of the hunter harvest re-detecting CWD within sample units of varying size (9-54 km(2)) given the demographics of harvested deer and time since first detection in the study area. Heterogeneities in host infection were consistent with those reported elsewhere: mule deer 3.7 times >white-tailed deer, males 1.8 times>females, and quadratically related to age in both sexes. P(E) increased with number of years since the first detection in our study area (2002) and proximity to known disease sources, and also varied with distance to the South Saskatchewan River and small creek drainages, terrain ruggedness, and extent of agriculture lands within a 3 km radius of the harvest. The majority (75%) of new CWD-positive deer from our sample were found within 20 km of infected deer harvested in the previous year, while approximately 10% were greater than 40 km. P(D) modelled at 18 km(2) was best supported, but for all scales, P(D) depended on the number of harvested deer and time since the first infected deer was harvested. Within an 18 km(2) sampling unit, there was an 80% probability of detecting a CWD-positive deer with 16 harvested deer five years after the initial infected harvest. Identifying where and how much to sample to detect CWD can improve targeted surveillance programs early in the outbreak of the disease when based on hunter harvest. PMID:22137503

Rees, Erin E; Merrill, Evelyn H; Bollinger, Trent K; Hwang, Yeen Ten; Pybus, Margo J; Coltman, Dave W

2012-04-01

347

[Chikungunya, an emerging viral disease. Proposal of an algorithm for its clinical management].  

PubMed

Chikungunya fever (CHIK) is an emerging viral disease. It is caused by the Chikungunya virus, an alphavirus from the Togaviridae family. It is transmitted to humans by the bite of infected mosquitoes, mainly Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. They are also involved in the transmission of dengue, malaria, etc. CHIK is now endemic in any region of Africa and Southeast-Asia. Cases of CHIK have been reported in America, the Caribbean, and Europe (France, Italy and Spain). There are reservoirs of these mosquitoes in some regions of Spain (Catalonia, Alicante, Murcia and Balearic islands). CHIK is characterized by a sudden high and debilitating fever, and severe or disabling symmetrical arthralgia. It tends to improve in days or weeks. There are severe and chronic forms of CHIK. There is no specific treatment or prophylaxis for CHIK. An algorithm is proposed for the clinical management of CHIK based in the latest guidelines. PMID:25440971

Palacios-Martínez, D; Díaz-Alonso, R A; Arce-Segura, L J; Díaz-Vera, E

2015-01-01

348

Viral small interfering RNAs target host genes to mediate disease symptoms in plants.  

PubMed

The Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) Y-satellite RNA (Y-Sat) has a small non-protein-coding RNA genome that induces yellowing symptoms in infected Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). How this RNA pathogen induces such symptoms has been a longstanding question. We show that the yellowing symptoms are a result of small interfering RNA (siRNA)-directed RNA silencing of the chlorophyll biosynthetic gene, CHLI. The CHLI mRNA contains a 22-nucleotide (nt) complementary sequence to the Y-Sat genome, and in Y-Sat-infected plants, CHLI expression is dramatically down-regulated. Small RNA sequencing and 5' RACE analyses confirmed that this 22-nt sequence was targeted for mRNA cleavage by Y-Sat-derived siRNAs. Transformation of tobacco with a RNA interference (RNAi) vector targeting CHLI induced Y-Sat-like symptoms. In addition, the symptoms of Y-Sat infection can be completely prevented by transforming tobacco with a silencing-resistant variant of the CHLI gene. These results suggest that siRNA-directed silencing of CHLI is solely responsible for the Y-Sat-induced symptoms. Furthermore, we demonstrate that two Nicotiana species, which do not develop yellowing symptoms upon Y-Sat infection, contain a single nucleotide polymorphism within the siRNA-targeted CHLI sequence. This suggests that the previously observed species specificity of Y-Sat-induced symptoms is due to natural sequence variation in the CHLI gene, preventing CHLI silencing in species with a mismatch to the Y-Sat siRNA. Taken together, these findings provide the first demonstration of small RNA-mediated viral disease symptom production and offer an explanation of the species specificity of the viral disease. PMID:21573142

Smith, Neil A; Eamens, Andrew L; Wang, Ming-Bo

2011-05-01

349

Beak and feather disease virus: correlation between viral load and clinical signs in wild Cape parrots (Poicepahlus robustus) in South Africa.  

PubMed

Psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD), the most prevalent viral disease affecting psittacines, is caused by beak and feather disease virus (BFDV). This study assessed viral load using qPCR in a wild Cape parrot population affected by PBFD and compared it to overall physical condition based on clinical signs attributable to PBFD. A significant inverse correlation between viral load and overall physical condition was found, which confirmed that clinical signs may confidently be used to diagnose the relative severity of BFDV infections in wild populations. This is the first assessment of BFDV viral load in a wild psittacine population. PMID:25193072

Regnard, Guy L; Boyes, Rutledge S; Martin, Rowan O; Hitzeroth, Inga I; Rybicki, Edward P

2015-01-01

350

Viral Vectors for In Vivo Gene Transfer in Parkinson’s disease: Properties and Clinical Grade Production  

PubMed Central

Because Parkinson’s disease is a progressive degenerative disorder that is mainly confined to the basal ganglia, gene transfer to deliver therapeutic molecules is an attractive treatment avenue. The present review focuses on direct in vivo gene transfer vectors that have been developed to a degree that they have been successfully used in animal model of Parkinson’s disease. Accordingly, the properties of recombinant adenovirus, recombinant adeno-associated virus, herpes simplex virus, and lentivirus are described and contrasted. In order for viral vectors to be developed into clinical grade reagents, they must be manufactured and tested to precise regulatory standards. Indeed, clinical lots of viral vectors can be produced in compliance with current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs) regulations using industry accepted manufacturing methodologies, manufacturing controls, and quality systems. The viral vector properties themselves combined with physiological product formulations facilitate long-term storage and direct in vivo administration. PMID:17916354

Burger, Corinna; Snyder, Richard O.

2009-01-01

351

Evaluating Patterns of a White-Band Disease (WBD) Outbreak in Acropora palmata Using Spatial Analysis: A Comparison of Transect and Colony Clustering  

PubMed Central

Background Despite being one of the first documented, there is little known of the causative agent or environmental stressors that promote white-band disease (WBD), a major disease of Caribbean Acropora palmata. Likewise, there is little known about the spatiality of outbreaks. We examined the spatial patterns of WBD during a 2004 outbreak at Buck Island Reef National Monument in the US Virgin Islands. Methodology/Principal Findings Ripley's K statistic was used to measure spatial dependence of WBD across scales. Localized clusters of WBD were identified using the DMAP spatial filtering technique. Statistics were calculated for colony- (number of A. palmata colonies with and without WBD within each transect) and transect-level (presence/absence of WBD within transects) data to evaluate differences in spatial patterns at each resolution of coral sampling. The Ripley's K plots suggest WBD does cluster within the study area, and approached statistical significance (p?=?0.1) at spatial scales of 1100 m or less. Comparisons of DMAP results suggest the transect-level overestimated the prevalence and spatial extent of the outbreak. In contrast, more realistic prevalence estimates and spatial patterns were found by weighting each transect by the number of individual A. palmata colonies with and without WBD. Conclusions As the search for causation continues, surveillance and proper documentation of the spatial patterns may inform etiology, and at the same time assist reef managers in allocating resources to tracking the disease. Our results indicate that the spatial scale of data collected can drastically affect the calculation of prevalence and spatial distribution of WBD outbreaks. Specifically, we illustrate that higher resolution sampling resulted in more realistic disease estimates. This should assist in selecting appropriate sampling designs for future outbreak investigations. The spatial techniques used here can be used to facilitate other coral disease studies, as well as, improve reef conservation and management. PMID:21818271

Lentz, Jennifer A.; Blackburn, Jason K.; Curtis, Andrew J.

2011-01-01

352

Non-random biodiversity loss underlies predictable increases in viral disease prevalence  

PubMed Central

Disease dilution (reduced disease prevalence with increasing biodiversity) has been described for many different pathogens. Although the mechanisms causing this phenomenon remain unclear, the disassembly of communities to predictable subsets of species, which can be caused by changing climate, land use or invasive species, underlies one important hypothesis. In this case, infection prevalence could reflect the competence of the remaining hosts. To test this hypothesis, we measured local host species abundance and prevalence of four generalist aphid-vectored pathogens (barley and cereal yellow dwarf viruses) in a ubiquitous annual grass host at 10 sites spanning 2000 km along the North American West Coast. In laboratory and field trials, we measured viral infection as well as aphid fecundity and feeding preference on several host species. Virus prevalence increased as local host richness declined. Community disassembly was non-random: ubiquitous hosts dominating species-poor assemblages were among the most competent for vector production and virus transmission. This suggests that non-random biodiversity loss led to increased virus prevalence. Because diversity loss is occurring globally in response to anthropogenic changes, such work can inform medical, agricultural and veterinary disease research by providing insights into the dynamics of pathogens nested within a complex web of environmental forces. PMID:24352672

Lacroix, Christelle; Jolles, Anna; Seabloom, Eric W.; Power, Alison G.; Mitchell, Charles E.; Borer, Elizabeth T.

2014-01-01

353

Tactics and strategies for managing Ebola outbreaks and the salience of immunization.  

PubMed

We present a stochastic transmission chain simulation model for Ebola viral disease (EVD) in West Africa, with the salutary result that the virus may be more controllable than previously suspected. The ongoing tactics to detect cases as rapidly as possible and isolate individuals as safely as practicable is essential to saving lives in the current outbreaks in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. Equally important are educational campaigns that reduce contact rates between susceptible and infectious individuals in the community once an outbreak occurs. However, due to the relatively low R 0 of Ebola (around 1.5 to 2.5 next generation cases are produced per current generation case in naïve populations), rapid isolation of infectious individuals proves to be highly efficacious in containing outbreaks in new areas, while vaccination programs, even with low efficacy vaccines, can be decisive in curbing future outbreaks in areas where the Ebola virus is maintained in reservoir populations. PMID:25755674

Getz, Wayne M; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Salter, Richard; Bangura, James; Carlson, Colin; Coomber, Moinya; Dougherty, Eric; Kargbo, David; Wolfe, Nathan D; Wauquier, Nadia

2015-01-01

354

Tactics and Strategies for Managing Ebola Outbreaks and the Salience of Immunization  

PubMed Central

We present a stochastic transmission chain simulation model for Ebola viral disease (EVD) in West Africa, with the salutary result that the virus may be more controllable than previously suspected. The ongoing tactics to detect cases as rapidly as possible and isolate individuals as safely as practicable is essential to saving lives in the current outbreaks in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. Equally important are educational campaigns that reduce contact rates between susceptible and infectious individuals in the community once an outbreak occurs. However, due to the relatively low R0 of Ebola (around 1.5 to 2.5 next generation cases are produced per current generation case in naïve populations), rapid isolation of infectious individuals proves to be highly efficacious in containing outbreaks in new areas, while vaccination programs, even with low efficacy vaccines, can be decisive in curbing future outbreaks in areas where the Ebola virus is maintained in reservoir populations. PMID:25755674

Getz, Wayne M.; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Salter, Richard; Bangura, James; Carlson, Colin; Coomber, Moinya; Dougherty, Eric; Kargbo, David; Wolfe, Nathan D.; Wauquier, Nadia

2015-01-01

355

A sheeppox outbreak in Morocco: isolation and identification of virus responsible for the new clinical form of disease  

PubMed Central

Background Sheeppoxvirus (SPPV) is a member of the Capripoxvirus genus of the Poxviridae family, which causes significant economic losses in Morocco. The resurgence of the sheeppox disease during 2010 was characterized by an emergence of a classical nodular form for the first time in Morocco. However, little is known about the virus strain responsible for nodular form. In this study, thirty three sheep, from the eastern region of Morocco, clinically infected were examined and dead animals were autopsied. A rapid diagnostic assay for SPPV using different type of clinical samples would be useful for outbreak management. The aim of this work was to isolate the virus strain responsible for nodular form and we identified and compared by phylogenetic analysis the field strain with Moroccan vaccine strain targeting the thymidine kinase (TK) gene and the chemokine analogue receptor of interleukin (IL8) gene. Further, it was important to investigate and validate a real-time PCR using different clinical and post-mortem samples to manage epidemic sheeppox disease. Results The nodular form of sheeppox disease observed in Morocco was clinically characterized by fever, depression, lacrimation, diarrhea in lambs and nodule. At necropsy, the most affected organ was the lung. The etiological strain was successfully isolated from lung nodule in a dead lamb and was identified by using real-time PCR that has been tested and validated on different types of clinical and post mortem samples from naturally infected animals. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of TK and IL8 gene showed that there was a very close relationship between field and vaccine strain. They were clustered within other SPPV strains. Conclusion In the current study, we show for the first time the nodular form of sheeppox in Morocco. We demonstrate a robust real-time PCR-based diagnostic assay to detect the sheeppox virus in multiple sample that can be implemented to efficiently manage the disease outbreak. Our study also offers the prospect for future molecular studies to understand the clinical forms. PMID:24467833

2014-01-01

356

SIRT1 Activating compounds reduce oxidative stress mediated neuronal loss in viral induced CNS demyelinating disease  

PubMed Central

Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by central nervous system inflammation and demyelination, and increasing evidence demonstrates significant neuronal damage also occurs and is associated with permanent functional impairment. Current MS therapies have limited ability to prevent neuronal damage, suggesting additional neuroprotective therapies are needed. Compounds that activate the NAD+-dependent SIRT1 deacetylase prevent neuronal loss in an autoimmune-mediated MS model, but the mechanism of this effect is unknown, and it is unclear whether SIRT1 activating compounds exert similar effects in demyelinating disease induced by other etiologies. We measured neuronal loss in C57BL/6 mice inoculated with a neurotropic strain of mouse hepatitis virus, MHV-A59, that induces an MS-like disease. Results Oral treatment with the SIRT1 activating compound SRTAW04 significantly increased SIRT1 activity within optic nerves and prevented neuronal loss during optic neuritis, an inflammatory demyelinating optic nerve lesion that occurs in MS and its animal models. MHV-A59 induced neuronal loss was associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, and SRTAW04 treatment significantly reduced ROS levels while promoting increased expression of enzymes involved in mitochondrial function and reduction of ROS. SRTAW04 exerted similar protective effects in EAE spinal cords, with decreased demyelination. Conclusions Results demonstrate that SIRT1 activating compounds prevent neuronal loss in viral-induced demyelinating disease similar to their effects in autoimmune-mediated disease. One mechanism of this neuroprotective effect involves increasing mitochondrial biogenesis with reduction of oxidative stress. SIRT1 activators represent a potential neuroprotective therapy for MS. Understanding common mechanisms of these effects in distinct disease models will help identify targets for more specific therapies. PMID:24383546

2014-01-01

357

Population Genetics of Two Key Mosquito Vectors of Rift Valley Fever Virus Reveals New Insights into the Changing Disease Outbreak Patterns in Kenya  

PubMed Central

Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks in Kenya have increased in frequency and range to include northeastern Kenya where viruses are increasingly being isolated from known (Aedes mcintoshi) and newly-associated (Ae. ochraceus) vectors. The factors contributing to these changing outbreak patterns are unclear and the population genetic structure of key vectors and/or specific virus-vector associations, in particular, are under-studied. By conducting mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses on >220 Kenyan specimens of Ae. mcintoshi and Ae. ochraceus, we uncovered high levels of vector complexity which may partly explain the disease outbreak pattern. Results indicate that Ae. mcintoshi consists of a species complex with one of the member species being unique to the newly-established RVF outbreak-prone northeastern region of Kenya, whereas Ae. ochraceus is a homogeneous population that appears to be undergoing expansion. Characterization of specimens from a RVF-prone site in Senegal, where Ae. ochraceus is a primary vector, revealed direct genetic links between the two Ae. ochraceus populations from both countries. Our data strongly suggest that unlike Ae. mcintoshi, Ae. ochraceus appears to be a relatively recent, single 'introduction' into Kenya. These results, together with increasing isolations from this vector, indicate that Ae. ochraceus will likely be of greater epidemiological importance in future RVF outbreaks in Kenya. Furthermore, the overall vector complexity calls into question the feasibility of mosquito population control approaches reliant on genetic modification. PMID:25474018

Tchouassi, David P.; Bastos, Armanda D. S.; Sole, Catherine L.; Diallo, Mawlouth; Lutomiah, Joel; Mutisya, James; Mulwa, Francis; Borgemeister, Christian; Sang, Rosemary; Torto, Baldwyn

2014-01-01

358

Population genetics of two key mosquito vectors of rift valley Fever virus reveals new insights into the changing disease outbreak patterns in kenya.  

PubMed

Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks in Kenya have increased in frequency and range to include northeastern Kenya where viruses are increasingly being isolated from known (Aedes mcintoshi) and newly-associated (Ae. ochraceus) vectors. The factors contributing to these changing outbreak patterns are unclear and the population genetic structure of key vectors and/or specific virus-vector associations, in particular, are under-studied. By conducting mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses on >220 Kenyan specimens of Ae. mcintoshi and Ae. ochraceus, we uncovered high levels of vector complexity which may partly explain the disease outbreak pattern. Results indicate that Ae. mcintoshi consists of a species complex with one of the member species being unique to the newly-established RVF outbreak-prone northeastern region of Kenya, whereas Ae. ochraceus is a homogeneous population that appears to be undergoing expansion. Characterization of specimens from a RVF-prone site in Senegal, where Ae. ochraceus is a primary vector, revealed direct genetic links between the two Ae. ochraceus populations from both countries. Our data strongly suggest that unlike Ae. mcintoshi, Ae. ochraceus appears to be a relatively recent, single 'introduction' into Kenya. These results, together with increasing isolations from this vector, indicate that Ae. ochraceus will likely be of greater epidemiological importance in future RVF outbreaks in Kenya. Furthermore, the overall vector complexity calls into question the feasibility of mosquito population control approaches reliant on genetic modification. PMID:25474018

Tchouassi, David P; Bastos, Armanda D S; Sole, Catherine L; Diallo, Mawlouth; Lutomiah, Joel; Mutisya, James; Mulwa, Francis; Borgemeister, Christian; Sang, Rosemary; Torto, Baldwyn

2014-12-01

359

Surveillance of pneumococcal serotype 1 carriage during an outbreak of serotype 1 invasive pneumococcal disease in central Australia 2010–2012  

PubMed Central

Background An outbreak of serotype 1 invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) occurred in Central Australia from October 2010 to the latter part of 2012. Surveillance of serotype 1 carriage was conducted to determine epidemiological features of asymptomatic carriage that could potentially be driving the outbreak. Methods 130 patients and accompanying persons presenting at Alice Springs Hospital Emergency Department consented to nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) collection. NPS were processed by standard methods, including culture, pneumococcal lytA quantitative real-time PCR, serotype 1-specific real-time PCR and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Results Pneumococcal carriage was detected in 16% of participants. Carriage was highest in the under 10 year olds from remote communities surrounding Alice Springs (75%). Four NPS were positive for serotype 1 DNA by PCR; 3 were also culture-positive for serotype 1 pneumococci. Serotype 1 isolates had atypical colony morphology on primary culture. All serotype 1 carriers were healthy children 5 to 8 years of age from remote communities. By MLST, serotype 1 isolates were ST306, as were IPD isolates associated with this outbreak. Conclusions During an outbreak of serotype 1 ST306 IPD, carriage of the outbreak strain was detected in 3% NPS collected. All carriers were healthy children 5 to 8 years of age. PMID:24138669

2013-01-01

360

A remote sensing tool to monitor and predict epidemiologic outbreaks of Hanta virus infections and Lyme disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lyme disease and Hanta virus infection are the result of the conjunction of several climatic and ecological conditions. Although both affections have different causal agents, they share an important characteristic which is the fact that rodents play an important role in the contagion. One of the most important agents in the dispersion of these diseases is the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareoulus). The bank vole is a common host for both, the Borrelia bacteria which via the ticks (Ixodes ricinus) reaches the human body and causes the Lyme disease, and the Nephropatia epidemica which is caused by Puumala Hantavirus and affects kidneys in humans. The prefered habitat of bank voles is broad-leaf forests with an important presence of beeches (Fagus sylvatica) and oaks (Quercus sp.) and a relatively dense low vegetation layer. These vegetation systems are common in West-Europe and their dynamics have a great influence in the bank voles population and, therefore, in the spreading of the infections this study is concerned about. The fact that the annual seed production is not stable in time has an important effect in bank voles population and, as it has been described in other studies, in the number of reported cases of Hanta virus infections and Lyme disease. The years in which an abundant production of seeds is observed are referred to as mast years which are believed to obey to cyclic patterns and to certain climatologically characteristics of the preceding years. Statistical analysis have confirmed the correlation in the behaviour of the number of infected cases and the presence of mast years. This project aims at the design of a remote sensing based system (INFOPRESS - INFectious disease Outbreak Prediction REmote Sensing based System) that should enable local and national health care instances to predict and locate the occurrence of infection outbreaks and design policies to counteract undesired effects. The predictive capabilities of the system are based on the understanding and modelling of the interactions between relevant climatic parameters (temperature, humidity, precipitation) and the main features of vegetation systems which host the vectors and determine the survival and infectious potential of the causal agents. Among the most important study subjects in this research initiative one can mention the time series analysis of vegetation parameters derived from satellite remote sensing and its relation to climatic time series and historical records of infected cases; with special attention to the assessment of remotely sensed evidences of the mast phenomenon. This analysis will constitute important buildind bricks in the construction of the INFOPRESS system in what concerns the assessment of the potentials of satellite remote sensing as information source for the prediction of infection outbreaks. The bank voles habitat description will also be supported by on-ground remote sensing techniques, specially LiDAR technology and soil humidity modelling. These measurements are to be coupled to bank voles epidemiologic features obtained from field capturing and lab analysis in which the presence of Hanta virus will be assessed.

Barrios, M.; Verstraeten, W. W.; Amipour, S.; Wambacq, J.; Aerts, J.-M.; Maes, P.; Berckmans, D.; Lagrou, K.; van Ranst, M.; Coppin, P.

2009-04-01

361

A remote sensing tool to monitor and predict epidemiologic outbreaks of Hanta virus infections and Lyme disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lyme disease and Hanta virus infection are the result of the conjunction of several climatic and ecological conditions. Although both affections have different causal agents, they share an important characteristic which is the fact that rodents play an important role in the contagium. One of the most important agents in the dispersion of these diseases is the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareoulus). The bank vole is a common host for both, the Borrelia bacteria which via the ticks (Ixodes ricinus) reaches the human body and causes the Lyme disease, and the Nephropatia epidemica which is caused by Puumala Hantavirus and affects kidneys in humans. The prefered habitat of bank voles is broad-leaf forests with an important presence of beeches (Fagus sylvatica) and oaks (Quercus sp.) and a relatively dense low vegetation layer. These vegetation systems are common in West-Europe and their dynamics have a great influence in the bank voles population and, therefore, in the spreading of the infections this study is concerned about. The fact that the annual seed production is not stable in time has an important effect in bank voles population and, as it has been described in other studies, in the number of reported cases of Hanta virus infections and Lyme disease. The years in which an abundant production of seeds is observed are referred to as mast years which are believed to obey to cyclic patterns and to certain climatological characteristics of the preceding years. Statistical analysis have confirmed the correlation in the behaviour of the number of infected cases and the presence of mast years. This project aims at the design of a remote sensing based system (INFOPRESS - INFectious disease Outbreak Prediction REmote Sensing based System) that should enable local and national health care instances to predict and locate the occurrence of infection outbreaks and design policies to counteract undesired effects. The predictive capabilities of the system are based on the understanding and modelling of the interactions between relevant climatic parameters (temperature, humidity, precipitation) and the main features of vegetation systems which host the vectors and determine the survival and infectious potential of the causal agents. Among the most important study subjects in this research initiative one can mention the time series analysis of vegetation parameters derived from satellite remote sensing and its relatation to climatic time series and historical records of infected cases; with special attention to the assessment of remotely sensed evidences of the mast phenomenon. These analysis will constitute important buildind bricks in the construction of the INFOPRESS system in what concerns the assessment of the potentials of satellite remote sensing as information source for the prediction of infection outbreaks. The bank voles habitat description will also be supported by on-gound remote sensing techniques, specially Lidar technology and soil humidity modelling. These measurements are to be coupled to bank voles and ticks epidemiologic features obtained from field capturing and lab analysis.

Barrios, J. M.

2009-04-01

362

[Estimation of the financial reserves required by livestock disease compensation funds for rebates in the course of disease outbreaks using the example of Saxony-Anhalt (Germany)].  

PubMed

With certain restrictions, the federal states of Germany are obligated to financially compensate livestock owners for animal losses due to livestock diseases. If livestock disease compensation funds demand contributions from livestock owners for certain species in order to pay compensations, the federal states have to pay only one half of the rebate. The remaining 50% has to be financed through reserves of the respective compensation fund built up with the contributions. But there is no reference on how to calculate such financial reserves. Therefore, for the livestock disease compensation fund of Saxony-Anhalt (Germany), an attempt was made to estimate the required reserves.To this end, expert opinions concerning the expected number of affected holdings in potential outbreaks of different diseases were collected. In a conservative approach, assuming these diseases occur in parallel within a single year, overall costs as well as individual costs for altogether 25 categories and subcategories of livestock species were stochastically modeled.The 99.9th percentile of the resulting frequency distribution of the overall costs referred to a financial volume of about 23 million euro. Thus, financial reserves of 11,5 million euro were recommended to the livestock disease compensation fund. PMID:24490340

Denzin, Nicolai; Ewert, Benno; Salchert, Falk; Kramer, Matthias

2014-01-01

363

Electron microscopic studies of bovine viral diarrhea virus in tissues of diseased calves and in cell cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Pathomorfological studies by electron microscopy (EM) were carried out on the intestines and lymphoid tissues, the buffy coat cells and cultured lymphocytes from calves suffering from mucosal disease (MD). This led to the detection of particles, 45–55 nm in diameter, within characteristic vesicular structures. As these findings coincided with the isolation of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) from the

H. Bielefeldt Ohmann; B. Bloch

1982-01-01

364

Immunopathology of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease. The demonstration of Coxsackie group B viral antigen in the myocardium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Immunopathologic studies were performed on heart tissue of patients with acute rheumatic fever with carditis and chronic rheumatic heart disease. Coxsackie group B viral antigen was demonstrated in 3 heart specimens of patients clinically compatible with active rheumatic fever. In two of these the pathologic findings were compatible with acute rheumatic carditis. Immunoglobulin was detected in 2 and complement in

B. Pongpanich; S. Boonpucknavig; C. Wasi; P. Tanphaichitr; V. Boonpucknavig

1983-01-01

365

Outbreaks of infectious disease associated with private drinking water supplies in England and Wales 1970-2000.  

PubMed Central

In England and Wales over the last 30 years there have been 25 reported outbreaks of infection, associated with private water supplies (PWS). The majority (16 outbreaks) were reported after the introduction of enhanced surveillance. Although PWS only serve 0.5% of the population, 36% of drinking water outbreaks are associated with PWS. The main pathogen, campylobacter, was implicated in 13 (52%) outbreaks. Most reported outbreaks (88%) occurred in commercial or Category Two supplies, which potentially affect larger populations. The main factors implicated in these outbreaks are temporary or transient populations, treatment (lack or failure), the presence of animals and heavy rains. The public health problem associated with PWS could be prevented by the identification and understanding of risk factors, by the proper protection of water sources and adequate treatment and maintenance. This could be facilitated through the introduction of a risk assessment as part of a scheme for PWS. PMID:12825731

Said, B.; Wright, F.; Nichols, G. L.; Reacher, M.; Rutter, M.

2003-01-01

366

Analysing Spatio-Temporal Clustering of Meningococcal Meningitis Outbreaks in Niger Reveals Opportunities for Improved Disease Control  

PubMed Central

Background Meningococcal meningitis is a major health problem in the “African Meningitis Belt” where recurrent epidemics occur during the hot, dry season. In Niger, a central country belonging to the Meningitis Belt, reported meningitis cases varied between 1,000 and 13,000 from 2003 to 2009, with a case-fatality rate of 5–15%. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to gain insight in the epidemiology of meningococcal meningitis in Niger and to improve control strategies, the emergence of the epidemics and their diffusion patterns at a fine spatial scale have been investigated. A statistical analysis of the spatio-temporal distribution of confirmed meningococcal meningitis cases was performed between 2002 and 2009, based on health centre catchment areas (HCCAs) as spatial units. Anselin's local Moran's I test for spatial autocorrelation and Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic were used to identify spatial and spatio-temporal clusters of cases. Spatial clusters were detected every year and most frequently occurred within nine southern districts. Clusters most often encompassed few HCCAs within a district, without expanding to the entire district. Besides, strong intra-district heterogeneity and inter-annual variability in the spatio-temporal epidemic patterns were observed. To further investigate the benefit of using a finer spatial scale for surveillance and disease control, we compared timeliness of epidemic detection at the HCCA level versus district level and showed that a decision based on threshold estimated at the HCCA level may lead to earlier detection of outbreaks. Conclusions/Significance Our findings provide an evidence-based approach to improve control of meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa. First, they can assist public health authorities in Niger to better adjust allocation of resources (antibiotics, rapid diagnostic tests and medical staff). Then, this spatio-temporal analysis showed that surveillance at a finer spatial scale (HCCA) would be more efficient for public health response: outbreaks would be detected earlier and reactive vaccination would be better targeted. PMID:22448297

Paireau, Juliette; Girond, Florian; Collard, Jean-Marc; Maïnassara, Halima B.; Jusot, Jean-François

2012-01-01

367

RECOMBINANT ENGINEERED SAT1 FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE VIRUS AS AN APPROACH TO INVESTIGATE RECEPTOR USAGE AND GROWTH DETERMINANTS OF OUTBREAK STRAINS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Foot-and-mouth desease (FMD), a highly contagious viral disease of cattle, sheep, pigs and other cloven-hoofed animals has recently caused devastating epidemics world-wide. In the three South African Territories (SAT) types of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), the aetiological agent display grea...

368

CURRENT STATUS OF RECOMBINANT MAREK'S DISEASE VACCINES FOR CONTROL OF FUTURE OUTBREAKS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

More than 4 decades of vaccination has resulted in good control of Marek’s disease (MD). Although vaccination has dramatically reduced the incidence of the disease, more virulent viruses are emerging and the development of new control strategies is needed. Recently, the student of MD virus (MDV) g...

369

Synthetic viruses: a new opportunity to understand and prevent viral disease  

PubMed Central

Rapid progress in DNA synthesis and sequencing is spearheading the deliberate, large-scale genetic alteration of organisms. These new advances in DNA manipulation have been extended to the level of whole-genome synthesis, as evident from the synthesis of poliovirus, from the resurrection of the extinct 1918 strain of influenza virus and of human endogenous retroviruses and from the restructuring of the phage T7 genome. The largest DNA synthesized so far is the 582,970 base pair genome of Mycoplasma genitalium, although, as yet, this synthetic DNA has not been ‘booted’ to life. As genome synthesis is independent of a natural template, it allows modification of the structure and function of a virus’s genetic information to an extent that was hitherto impossible. The common goal of this new strategy is to further our understanding of an organism’s properties, particularly its pathogenic armory if it causes disease in humans, and to make use of this new information to protect from, or treat, human viral disease. Although only a few applications of virus synthesis have been described as yet, key recent findings have been the resurrection of the 1918 influenza virus and the generation of codon- and codon pair–deoptimized polioviruses. PMID:20010599

Wimmer, Eckard; Mueller, Steffen; Tumpey, Terrence M; Taubenberger, Jeffery K

2010-01-01

370

vLIP, a Viral Lipase Homologue, Is a Virulence Factor of Marek's Disease Virus  

PubMed Central

The genome of Marek's disease virus (MDV) has been predicted to encode a secreted glycoprotein, vLIP, which bears significant homology to the ?/? hydrolase fold of pancreatic lipases. Here it is demonstrated that MDV vLIP mRNA is produced via splicing and that vLIP is a late gene, due to its sensitivity to inhibition of DNA replication. While vLIP was found to conserve several residues essential to hydrolase activity, an unfavorable asparagine substitution is present at the lipase catalytic triad acid position. Consistent with structural predictions, purified recombinant vLIP did not show detectable activity on traditional phospholipid or triacylglyceride substrates. Two different vLIP mutant viruses, one bearing a 173-amino-acid deletion in the lipase homologous domain, the other having an alanine point mutant at the serine nucleophile position, caused a significantly lower incidence of Marek's disease in chickens and resulted in enhanced survival relative to two independently produced vLIP revertants or parental virus. These data provide the first evidence that vLIP enhances the replication and pathogenic potential of MDV. Furthermore, while vLIP may not serve as a traditional lipase enzyme, the data indicate that the serine nucleophile position is nonetheless essential in vivo for the viral functions of vLIP. Therefore, it is suggested that this particular example of lipase homology may represent the repurposing of an ?/? hydrolase fold toward a nonenzymatic role, possibly in lipid bonding. PMID:15890938

Kamil, Jeremy P.; Tischer, B. Karsten; Trapp, Sascha; Nair, Venugopal K.; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Kung, Hsing-Jien

2005-01-01

371

Genetic Characterization of Infectious Bursal Disease Viruses Associated with Gumboro Outbreaks in Commercial Broilers from Asyut Province, Egypt  

PubMed Central

Ten infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) field strains were isolated from 15 broiler flocks located in various parts of Asyut, Egypt. Seven strains were subjected to comparative sequencing and phylogenetic analyses to help provide optimal control program for protection against IBDV infection. Sequence analysis of a 530?bp hypervariable region in the VP2 gene revealed that the rate of identity and homology was around 95.6~99.1%. Sequence characterization revealed the 7 strains identified as vvIBDV with the four amino acids residues typical of vvIBDV (242I, 256I, 294I, 299S). The BURSA-VAC vaccine was the nearest vaccine in sequence similarity to the local examined IBDV strains followed by CEVACIBDL then Bursine plus and Nobilis Gumboro indicating its probable success in the face of incoming outbreaks when using these vaccines. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the presence of three clusters for the examined strains and are grouped with reference very virulent IBDVs of European and Asian origin (Japanese and Hong Kong) strains suggesting the different ancestors of our isolates. The antigenic index showed a number of changes on the major and minor hydrophilic antigenic peaks of the virus surface structures indicating a new genetic evolution of the surface structure epitopes that may lead to vaccination failure and reemergence of the disease. PMID:24977049

Mohamed, Moemen A.; Elzanaty, Kamal E. S.; Bakhit, Bakhit M.; Safwat, Marwa M.

2014-01-01

372

Human viral gastroenteritis.  

PubMed Central

During the last 15 years, several different groups of fastidious viruses that are responsible for a large proportion of acute viral gastroenteritis cases have been discovered by the electron microscopic examination of stool specimens. This disease is one of the most prevalent and serious clinical syndromes seen around the world, especially in children. Rotaviruses, in the family Reoviridae, and fastidious fecal adenoviruses account for much of the viral gastroenteritis in infants and young children, whereas the small caliciviruses and unclassified astroviruses, and possibly enteric coronaviruses, are responsible for significantly fewer cases overall. In addition to electron microscopy, enzyme immunoassays and other rapid antigen detection systems have been developed to detect rotaviruses and fastidious fecal adenoviruses in the stool specimens of both nonhospitalized patients and those hospitalized for dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. Experimental rotavirus vaccines have also been developed, due to the prevalence and seriousness of rotavirus infection. The small, unclassified Norwalk virus and morphologically similar viruses are responsible for large and small outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in older children, adolescents, and adults. Hospitalization of older patients infected with these viruses is usually not required, and their laboratory diagnoses have been limited primarily to research laboratories. Images PMID:2644024

Christensen, M L

1989-01-01

373

Ebola and Marburg Hemorrhagic Fevers: Neglected Tropical Diseases?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) and Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF) are rare viral diseases, endemic to central Africa. The overall burden of EHF and MHF is small in comparison to the more common protozoan, helminth, and bacterial diseases typically referred to as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). However, EHF and MHF outbreaks typically occur in resource-limited settings, and many aspects of these

Adam MacNeil; Pierre E. Rollin

2012-01-01

374

Low numbers of repeat units in variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) regions of white spot syndrome virus are correlated with disease outbreaks.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most important pathogen in shrimp farming systems worldwide including the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. The genome of WSSV is characterized by the presence of two major 'indel regions' found at ORF14/15 and ORF23/24 (WSSV-Thailand) and three regions with variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) located in ORF75, ORF94 and ORF125. In the current study, we investigated whether or not the number of repeat units in the VNTRs correlates with virus outbreak status and/or shrimp farming practice. We analysed 662 WSSV samples from individual WSSV-infected Penaeus monodon shrimp from 104 ponds collected from two important shrimp farming regions of the Mekong Delta: Ca Mau and Bac Lieu. Using this large data set and statistical analysis, we found that for ORF94 and ORF125, the mean number of repeat units (RUs) in VNTRs was significantly lower in disease outbreak ponds than in non-outbreak ponds. Although a higher mean RU number was observed in the improved-extensive system than in the rice-shrimp or semi-intensive systems, these differences were not significant. VNTR sequences are thus not only useful markers for studying WSSV genotypes and populations, but specific VNTR variants also correlate with disease outbreaks in shrimp farming systems. PMID:22913744

Hoa, T T T; Zwart, M P; Phuong, N T; de Jong, M C M; Vlak, J M

2012-11-01

375

SURVEILLANCE FOR WATERBORNE DISEASE AND OUTBREAK ASSOCIATED WITH RECREATIONAL WATER - UNITED STATES 2003-2004  

EPA Science Inventory

Problem/Condition: Since 1971, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have maintained a collaborative surveillance system for collecting and periodically reporting da...

376

Participatory epidemiology : harnessing the HealthMap platform for community-based disease outbreak monitoring  

E-print Network

Due to increasing global trade and travel along with a range of environmental factors, emerging infectious diseases such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), drug-resistant tuberculosis, and 2009 HiNi continue to ...

Freifeld, Clark

2010-01-01

377

Is This an Outbreak? A retrospective evaluation of syndromic surveillance for emerging infectious disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decade, worldwide several major infectious disease events occurred — like the anthrax attacks in the\\u000aUSA in 2001, the SARS epidemic in 2003 and the 2009 influenza pandemic. As a result, public-health authorities\\u000aworldwide have acknowledged the need for improved surveillance for emerging infectious diseases, as early\\u000adetection and control may well mitigate the impact of emerging

Wijngaard van den C. C

2010-01-01

378

METHODS USED TO ANALYZE A NOROVIRUS OUTBREAK  

EPA Science Inventory

Project Goals and Objectives: To isolate and identify the viral agents in well water samples associated with two outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis reported to the Wyoming Department of Health in February 2001 and October 2001. To isolate and identify the viral agents in pati...

379

Options for managing animal welfare on intensive pig farms confined by movement restrictions during an outbreak of foot and mouth disease.  

PubMed

An outbreak of foot and mouth disease in Australia would trigger a major disease control and eradication program that would include restriction of movement of live animals within defined disease control zones. Experiences from outbreaks in other countries show that restrictions that limit the ability to turn off stock can lead to animal welfare compromise on intensively managed farms that are not infected with the disease. Intensive pig farms are considered to be at high risk of developing welfare problems during a control program due to the imposed movement restrictions and limited space available to house growing pigs. This study was designed to investigate strategies that could be used to mitigate animal welfare problems on intensive pig farms during a simulated outbreak of foot and mouth disease in a livestock dense region of Australia. Three strategies for managing farms affected by animal welfare problems were assessed, including on-farm culling of grower and finisher pigs, on-farm culling of finisher pigs only, and permit-based movement of finisher pigs to slaughter at abattoir. Under traditional approaches of giving infected premises (IP) priority over culling of farms with welfare problems (WP), delays of up to 25 days were experienced prior to culling of WPs. Deployment of vaccination did little to reduce the delay to culling of WPs. These delays were sensitive to resources available for control, with reduced resources increasing the time until welfare problems were addressed. Assigning equal priority to all farms requiring culling regardless of status as IP or WP and culling each as they arose reduced the delay to culling of WPs to no more than 4 days without large increases in either the duration or the size of the outbreaks observed. PMID:25457134

East, I J; Roche, S E; Wicks, R M; de Witte, K; Garner, M G

2014-12-01

380

International network for capacity building for the control of emerging viral vector-borne zoonotic diseases: ARBO-ZOONET.  

PubMed

Arboviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, which include West Nile fever virus (WNFV), a mosquito-borne virus, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-borne virus, and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a tick-borne virus. These arthropod-borne viruses can cause disease in different domestic and wild animals and in humans, posing a threat to public health because of their epidemic and zoonotic potential. In recent decades, the geographical distribution of these diseases has expanded. Outbreaks of WNF have already occurred in Europe, especially in the Mediterranean basin. Moreover, CCHF is endemic in many European countries and serious outbreaks have occurred, particularly in the Balkans, Turkey and Southern Federal Districts of Russia. In 2000, RVF was reported for the first time outside the African continent, with cases being confirmed in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. This spread was probably caused by ruminant trade and highlights that there is a threat of expansion of the virus into other parts of Asia and Europe. In the light of global warming and globalisation of trade and travel, public interest in emerging zoonotic diseases has increased. This is especially evident regarding the geographical spread of vector-borne diseases. A multi-disciplinary approach is now imperative, and groups need to collaborate in an integrated manner that includes vector control, vaccination programmes, improved therapy strategies, diagnostic tools and surveillance, public awareness, capacity building and improvement of infrastructure in endemic regions. PMID:19341603

Ahmed, J; Bouloy, M; Ergonul, O; Fooks, Ar; Paweska, J; Chevalier, V; Drosten, C; Moormann, R; Tordo, N; Vatansever, Z; Calistri, P; Estrada-Pena, A; Mirazimi, A; Unger, H; Yin, H; Seitzer, U

2009-03-26

381

WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION'S RESPONSE TO WATERBORNE DISEASE OUTBREAKS  

EPA Science Inventory

The WSWRD in NRMRL/ORD has had a successful collaborative relationship with the Cetners for Disease Control & Prevention (CDCP) for over twenty years. When invited, EPA has supplied technical assistance and advice on traking causative events, evaluation of drinking water problems...

382

Human Papillomavirus 16, 18, 31 and 45 viral load, integration and methylation status stratified by cervical disease stage  

PubMed Central

Background Persistent infection with oncogenic Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with the development of cervical cancer with each genotype differing in their relative contribution to the prevalence of cervical disease. HPV DNA testing offers improved sensitivity over cytology testing alone but is accompanied by a generally low specificity. Potential molecular markers of cervical disease include type-specific viral load (VL), integration of HPV DNA into the host genome and methylation of the HPV genome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between HPV type-specific viral load, integration and methylation status and cervical disease stage in samples harboring HPV16, HPV18, HPV31 or HPV45. Methods Samples singly infected with HPV16 (n?=?226), HPV18 (n?=?32), HPV31 (n?=?75) or HPV45 (n?=?29) were selected from a cohort of 4,719 women attending cervical screening in England. Viral load and integration status were determined by real-time PCR while 3’L1-URR methylation status was determined by pyrosequencing or sequencing of multiple clones derived from each sample. Results Viral load could differentiate between normal and abnormal cytology with a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 80% (odds ratio [OR] 12.4, 95% CI 6.2–26.1; p?Viral integration was poorly associated with cervical disease. Few samples had fully integrated genomes and these could be found throughout the course of disease. Overall, integration status could distinguish between normal and abnormal cytology with a sensitivity of 72% and a specificity of 50% (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.0–6.8; p?=?0.054). Methylation levels were able to differentiate normal and low grade cytology from high grade cytology with a sensitivity of 64% and a specificity of 82% (OR 8.2, 95% CI 3.8–18.0; p?viral load and CpG methylation status, but not integration status, to be considered as potential biomarkers of cervical disease. PMID:24885011

2014-01-01

383

MedMyst: Animal Alert! Students learn how epidemiologists, microbiologists, and veterinarians work as a team to solve infectious disease outbreaks.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In MedMyst: Animal Alert!, players learn about a mysterious disease that is affecting people in a distant tropical region. Players can choose to work as an epidemiologist, microbiologist, or veterinarian to determine what is making people sick. Animal Alert! can be played after Disease Defenders or independently of that mission. While role-playing as an expert, players will learn how epidemiologists, microbiologists, and veterinarians work as a team to solve infectious disease outbreaks. Each expert path has its own learning objectives.

Center for Technology in Teaching and Learning

2011-09-28

384

The olfactory nerve: a shortcut for influenza and other viral diseases into the central nervous system.  

PubMed

The olfactory nerve consists mainly of olfactory receptor neurons and directly connects the nasal cavity with the central nervous system (CNS). Each olfactory receptor neuron projects a dendrite into the nasal cavity on the apical side, and on the basal side extends its axon through the cribriform plate into the olfactory bulb of the brain. Viruses that can use the olfactory nerve as a shortcut into the CNS include influenza A virus, herpesviruses, poliovirus, paramyxoviruses, vesicular stomatitis virus, rabies virus, parainfluenza virus, adenoviruses, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, chikungunya virus, La Crosse virus, mouse hepatitis virus, and bunyaviruses. However, mechanisms of transport via the olfactory nerve and subsequent spread through the CNS are poorly understood. Proposed mechanisms are either infection of olfactory receptor neurons themselves or diffusion through channels formed by olfactory ensheathing cells. Subsequent virus spread through the CNS could occur by multiple mechanisms, including trans-synaptic transport and microfusion. Viral infection of the CNS can lead to damage from infection of nerve cells per se, from the immune response, or from a combination of both. Clinical consequences range from nervous dysfunction in the absence of histopathological changes to severe meningoencephalitis and neurodegenerative disease. PMID:25294743

van Riel, Debby; Verdijk, Rob; Kuiken, Thijs

2015-01-01

385

Targeting inside-out phosphatidylserine as a therapeutic strategy for viral diseases.  

PubMed

There is a pressing need for antiviral agents that are effective against multiple classes of viruses. Broad specificity might be achieved by targeting phospholipids that are widely expressed on infected host cells or viral envelopes. We reasoned that events occurring during virus replication (for example, cell activation or preapoptotic changes) would trigger the exposure of normally intracellular anionic phospholipids on the outer surface of virus-infected cells. A chimeric antibody, bavituximab, was used to identify and target the exposed anionic phospholipids. Infection of cells with Pichinde virus (a model for Lassa fever virus, a potential bioterrorism agent) led to the exposure of anionic phospholipids. Bavituximab treatment cured overt disease in guinea pigs lethally infected with Pichinde virus. Direct clearance of infectious virus from the blood and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity of virus-infected cells seemed to be the major antiviral mechanisms. Combination therapy with bavituximab and ribavirin was more effective than either drug alone. Bavituximab also bound to cells infected with multiple other viruses and rescued mice with lethal mouse cytomegalovirus infections. Targeting exposed anionic phospholipids with bavituximab seems to be safe and effective. Our study demonstrates that anionic phospholipids on infected host cells and virions may provide a new target for the generation of antiviral agents. PMID:19029986

Soares, M Melina; King, Steven W; Thorpe, Philip E

2008-12-01

386

Description of the pathology of a gazelle that died during a major outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in Israel.  

PubMed

Naturally occurring foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in wildlife is a relatively mild condition but occasionally it can be devastating as has been documented in impala in South Africa and in mountain gazelles in Israel. This report describes pathological changes in an adult male gazelle with FMD from an outbreak in the Nature Reserve of Ramot-Issachar region and the lower Galilee in Israel. The outbreak was characterised by the malignant form of the disease, which is uncommon among domestic animals. Lesions observed included, ulceration in the oral cavity, oesophagus and ruminal pillars, coronitis, multifocal cardiac necrosis and pancreatic necrosis and inflammation. Pneumonia, caused by Muellerius capillaries was an incidental finding. PMID:20649158

Berkowitz, A; Waner, T; King, R; Yadin, H; Perle, S

2010-03-01

387

Trypanosoma cruzi genotyping supports a common source of infection in a school-related oral outbreak of acute Chagas disease in Venezuela.  

PubMed

Trypanosoma cruzi I, a discrete typing unit (DTU) found in human infections in Venezuela and other countries of the northern region of South America and in Central America, has been recently classified into five intra-DTU genotypes (Ia, Ib, Ic, Id, Ie) based on sequence polymorphisms found in the spliced leader intergenic region. In this paper we report the genotype identification of T. cruzi human isolates from one outbreak of acute orally acquired Chagas disease that occurred in a non-endemic region of Venezuela and from T. cruzi triatomine and rat isolates captured at a guava juice preparation site which was identified as the presumptive source of infection. The genotyping of all these isolates as TcId supports the view of a common source of infection in this oral Chagas disease outbreak through the ingestion of guava juice. Implications for clinical manifestations and dynamics of transmission cycles are discussed. PMID:23544849

Díaz-Bello, Z; Thomas, M C; López, M C; Zavala-Jaspe, R; Noya, O; DE Noya, B Alarcón; Abate, T

2014-01-01

388

Efficacy of bovine viral diarrhea virus vaccination to prevent reproductive disease: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an important reproductive pathogen of cattle worldwide. The reproductive outcome of BVDV infection is largely dependent on the immune status of the dam and the stage of gestation at the time of infection. Potential sequelae include failure of conception, abortion, a variety of congenital malformations, and fetal infection. Vaccination is a possible tool in the control of BVDV, and there has been a recently renewed focus on providing fetal protection through vaccination. Consequently, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of BVDV vaccination to prevent reproductive disease by performing a quantitative synthesis of previously published studies. Pertinent articles to be included in the analysis were identified by performing a search in four relevant scientific databases (PubMed, CAB abstracts, National Agricultural Library catalog, and Web of Science) and examining the reference lists of 10 germane review articles. Inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis mandated that the studies were controlled, primary studies that included necessary data for use in the meta-analysis (e.g., group size, number of abortions). Forty-six studies in 41 separate articles matched the inclusion criteria. Risk ratio effect sizes were used in random effects, weighted meta-analyses to assess the impact of BVDV vaccination on three outcomes: risk of fetal infection, abortion risk, and pregnancy risk. Within each outcome, subanalyses were performed to evaluate the effect of a variety of interventions, including modified live, inactivated, polyvalent and monovalent vaccination, homologous, heterologous, or field challenge, and studies with only bovine subjects. The analysis revealed a decrease in abortions of nearly 45% and a nearly 85% decrease in fetal infection rate in cattle vaccinated for BVDV compared with unvaccinated cohorts. Additionally, pregnancy risk was increased by approximately 5% in field trials of BVDV vaccinates. This meta-analysis provides quantitative support for the benefit of vaccination in the prevention of BVDV-associated reproductive disease. PMID:25447148

Newcomer, Benjamin W; Walz, Paul H; Givens, M Daniel; Wilson, Alan E

2015-02-01

389

Field application of a recombinant protein-based ELISA during the 2010 outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease type A in South Korea.  

PubMed

A recombinant protein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (RP ELISA) exists for the detection of antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) type A. In this study, the efficacy of the RP ELISA was compared to that of other current tests by examining sera collected in the field during an FMD type A outbreak in South Korea in 2010. The RP ELISA detected early antibodies to FMDV with the same sensitivity as the liquid-phase blocking ELISA (LPB ELISA), identifying FMD farm outbreaks correctly on a herd basis. In addition, the two assays exhibited a high correlation coefficient (?(2)=0.83) when testing thirty seven sera from one outbreak farm exhibiting various antibody titers. The sensitivity and specificity of the RP ELISA relative to the LPB ELISA were 84% and 97%, respectively, and excellent agreement (kappa=0.82) was observed between the two tests. Taken together, the RP ELISA should be a useful alternative to the LPB ELISA for the detection of early antibodies to FMDV type A during an outbreak. PMID:22001272

Ko, Young-Joon; Lee, Hyang-Sim; Park, Jong-Hyeon; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Kim, Su-Mi; Cho, In-Soo; Joo, Hoo-Don; Paik, Sang-Gi; Paton, David J; Parida, Satya

2012-01-01

390

Outbreak of hand, foot and mouth disease caused by Coxsackie A16 virus in a childcare centre in Croatia, February to March 2011.  

PubMed

We describe an outbreak of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in a childcare centre in a district of Zagreb county, north-west Croatia. A total of eleven cases of HFMD occurred in the childcare centre and another nine were reported from nearby areas in the district. Coxsackie A16 virus was diagnosed in 13 clinical specimens obtained from 11 symptomatic and asymptomatic children. All cases resolved without complications. PMID:21632018

Ljubin-Sternak, S; Slavic-Vrzic, V; Vilibi?-?avlek, T; Aleraj, B; Gjenero-Margan, I

2011-01-01

391

Do Marketing Margins Change with Food Scares? Examining the Effects of Food Recalls and Disease Outbreaks in the U.S. Red Meat Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of food scares on marketing margins in the US beef and pork industries. We analyze how market stresses induced by different food recalls and disease outbreaks affect price spreads and the extent of price transmission at the slaughter-to-wholesale and wholesale-to-retail levels. We use monthly data for the period 1986–2008. The results indicate that marketing margins

Sergio Colin-Castillo; Oral Capps Jr.; Manuel A. Hernandez

2012-01-01

392

Do marketing margins change with food scares?: Examining the effects of food recalls and disease outbreaks in the us red meat industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of food scares on marketing margins in the US beef and pork industry. We analyze how market stresses induced by different food recalls and disease outbreaks affect price margins and the extent of price transmission at the slaughter-to-wholesale and wholesale-to-retail levels. We use monthly data for the period 1986–2008. The results indicate that marketing margins

Manuel Hernandez; Sergio Colin-Castillo; Oral Capps Jr.

2011-01-01

393

Change of Major Genotype of Enterovirus 71 in Outbreaks of Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Taiwan between 1998 and 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two outbreaks of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) occurred in Taiwan between 1998 and 2000. Enteroviruses were isolated from a total of 1,892 patients in this laboratory during this period. Of the virus isolates, enterovirus 71 (EV71) was diagnosed in 44.4% of the patients (132 of 297) in 1998, 2% (13 of 646) in 1999, and 20.5% (195 of 949) in 2000.

Jen-Ren Wang; Yen-Chang Tuan; Huey-Pin Tsai; Jing-Jou Yan; Ching-Chuan Liu; Ih-Jen Su

394

Evaluation of the Contributions of Individual Viral Genes to Newcastle Disease Virus Virulence and Pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Naturally occurring Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains vary greatly in virulence. The presence of multibasic residues at the proteolytic cleavage site of the fusion (F) protein has been shown to be a primary determinant differentiating virulent versus avirulent strains. However, there is wide variation in virulence among virulent strains. There also are examples of incongruity between cleavage site sequence and virulence. These observations suggest that additional viral factors contribute to virulence. In this study, we evaluated the contribution of each viral gene to virulence individually and in different combinations by exchanging genes between velogenic (highly virulent) strain GB Texas (GBT) and mesogenic (moderately virulent) strain Beaudette C (BC). These two strains are phylogenetically closely related, and their F proteins contain identical cleavage site sequences, 112RRQKR?F117. A total of 20 chimeric viruses were constructed and evaluated in vitro, in 1-day-old chicks, and in 2-week-old chickens. The results showed that both the envelope-associated and polymerase-associated proteins contribute to the difference in virulence between rBC and rGBT, with the envelope-associated proteins playing the greater role. The F protein was the major individual contributor and was sometimes augmented by the homologous M and HN proteins. The dramatic effect of F was independent of its cleavage site sequence since that was identical in the two strains. The polymerase L protein was the next major individual contributor and was sometimes augmented by the homologous N and P proteins. The leader and trailer regions did not appear to contribute to the difference in virulence between BC and GBT. IMPORTANCE This study is the first comprehensive and systematic study of NDV virulence and pathogenesis. Genetic exchanges between a mesogenic and a velogenic strain revealed that the fusion glycoprotein is the major virulence determinant regardless of the identical virulence protease cleavage site sequence present in both strains. The contribution of the large polymerase protein to NDV virulence is second only to that of the fusion glycoprotein. The identification of virulence determinants is of considerable importance, because of the potential to generate better live attenuated NDV vaccines. It may also be possible to apply these findings to other paramyxoviruses. PMID:24850737

Paldurai, Anandan; Kim, Shin-Hee; Nayak, Baibaswata; Xiao, Sa; Shive, Heather; Collins, Peter L.

2014-01-01

395

Molecular Epidemiology of Outbreak-Associated and Wild-Waterfowl-Derived Newcastle Disease Virus Strains in Finland, Including a Novel Class I Genotype  

PubMed Central

Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious, severe disease of poultry caused by pathogenic strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV; or avian paramyxovirus-1). NDV is endemic in wild birds worldwide and one of the economically most important poultry pathogens. Most of the published strains are outbreak-associated strains, while the apathogenic NDV strains that occur in wild birds, posing a constant threat to poultry with their capability to convert into more virulent forms, have remained less studied. We screened for NDV RNA in cloacal and oropharyngeal samples from wild waterfowl in Finland during the years 2006 to 2010: 39 of 715 birds were positive (prevalence, 5.5%). The partial or full-length F genes of 37 strains were sequenced for phylogenetic purposes. We also characterized viruses derived from three NDV outbreaks in Finland and discuss the relationships between these outbreak-associated and the wild-bird-associated strains. We found that all waterfowl NDV isolates were lentogenic strains of class I or class II genotype I. We also isolated a genetically distinct class I strain (teal/Finland/13111/2008) grouping phylogenetically together with only strain HIECK87191, isolated in Northern Ireland in 1987. Together they seem to form a novel class I genotype genetically differing from other known NDVs by at least 12%. PMID:22972821

Ek-Kommonen, Christine; Väänänen, Veli-Matti; Alasaari, Jukka; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli

2012-01-01

396

Estimation of the Infection Window for the 2010/2011 Korean Foot-and-Mouth Disease Outbreak  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study aims to develop a method for calculating infection time lines for disease outbreaks on farms was developed using the 2010/2011 foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemic in the Republic of Korea. Methods Data on farm demography, the detection date of FMD, the clinical history for the manifestation of lesions, the presence of antibodies against FMD virus (including antibodies against the structural and nonstructural proteins of serotype O), vaccination status (O1 Manisa strain), the number of reactors and information on the slaughter of infected animals were utilized in this method. Results Based on estimates of the most likely infection date, a cumulative detection probability that an infected farm would be identified on a specific day was determined. Peak infection was observed between late December and early January, but peak detection occurred in mid-January. The early detection probability was highest for pigs, followed by cattle (dairy, then beef) and small ruminants. Nearly 90% of the infected pig farms were detected by Day 11 post-infection while 13 days were required for detection for both dairy and beef cattle farms, and 21 days were necessary for small ruminant (goat and deer) farms. On average, 8.1 ± 3.1 days passed prior to detecting the presence of FMD virus on a farm. The interval between infection and detection of FMD was inversely associated with the intensity of farming. Conclusion The results of our study emphasize the importance of intensive clinical inspection, which is the quickest method of detecting FMD infection and minimizing the damage caused by an epidemic. PMID:24159543

Yoon, Hachung; Yoon, Soon-Seek; Kim, Han; Kim, Youn-Ju; Kim, Byounghan; Wee, Sung-Hwan

2013-01-01

397

[Pasteurella multocida as the cause of disease outbreaks in commercial poultry flocks].  

PubMed

Six cases of fowl cholera in growing turkeys and 3 in adult breeder chickens of the broiler type as well as one case each of a Pasteurella (P.) multocida-associated disease in ducklings and goslings were described in consideration of own laboratory findings and available informations of the case history. Furthermore a report is given on a treatment strategy successfully used in turkeys with highly acute fowl cholera. All the P. multocida strains isolated culturally could be assigned to the subspecies multocida. In one case Bordetella avium, Salmonella (S.) arizonae and S. hadar were additionally cultured form part of turkeys submitted. P. multocida and Moraxella (Pasteurella) anatipestifer could be determined as the causative agents of the disease of ducklings and goslings. P. multocida strains from turkeys were identified serologically as serovars A:3.4 (3x), F:3.4 (2x) and A:3 (1x); those from the breeder chickens as A:3 (3x); and one each from ducklings and goslings as F:3.4 and -:3. (uncapsulated). No death occurred in turkeys with clinical signs of a highly acute fowl cholera if the treatment of the affected birds was started with an intravenous injection of sulfadimethoxine and continued with a combination of sulfachlorpyridazine (SCP) and trimethoprim (TMP) given in the drinking water for 5 days. However relapse occurred 2-3 days after withdrawal of the drug, although the therapy was clinically highly effective. The recurrence of the disease could be prevented reliably if the turkeys were vaccinated with an effective oil-based bacterin and subsequently treated with the SCP-TMP combination given in drinking water over a 12 day period. PMID:1953629

Hinz, K H; Lüders, H

1991-09-01

398

Predicting and Mitigating Outbreaks of Vector-Borne Disease Utilizing Satellite Remote Sensing Technology and Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Public Health application area focuses on Earth science applications to public health and safety, particularly regarding infectious disease, emergency preparedness and response, and environmental health issues. The application explores issues of toxic and pathogenic exposure, as well as natural and man-made hazards and their effects, for risk characterization/mitigation and improvements to health and safety. The program elements of the NASA Applied Sciences Program are: Agricultural Efficiency, Air Quality, Climate, Disaster Management, Ecological Forecasting, Water Resources, Weather, and Public Health.

Estes, Sue M.

2009-01-01

399

Legionnaires' disease in elderly people: the first sign of an outbreak in the community?  

PubMed

Legionella pneumophila is responsible for up to 5% of cases of community-acquired pneumonia and mainly affects people aged over 50 years. The confirmation of legionellosis in two elderly patients living close to each other prompted a search for other cases. A total of eleven subjects with legionnaires' disease was recognized. The clinical findings are described and the diagnosis of legionellosis is discussed. Environmental investigations pointed to a cooling tower in the local town centre as the probable source of infection. PMID:1471585

Peiris, V; Prasad, M K; Bradley, D; Zawistowicz, W; Sivayoham, S; Naqvi, S N; Hutchinson, D N

1992-11-01

400

BTA2 and BTA26 are linked with bovine respiratory disease and associated with persistent infection of bovine viral diarrhea virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bovine viral diarrhea virus is a pathogen associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). BRD causes 28% of all cattle deaths and an annual U.S. loss over $692 million. The objective of this study was to refine the linkage of BRD and association of bovine viral diarrhea-persistent infection (BVD-P...

401

Fitting outbreak models to data from many small norovirus outbreaks  

PubMed Central

Infectious disease often occurs in small, independent outbreaks in populations with varying characteristics. Each outbreak by itself may provide too little information for accurate estimation of epidemic model parameters. Here we show that using standard stochastic epidemic models for each outbreak and allowing parameters to vary between outbreaks according to a linear predictor leads to a generalized linear model that accurately estimates parameters from many small and diverse outbreaks. By estimating initial growth rates in addition to transmission rates, we are able to characterize variation in numbers of initially susceptible individuals or contact patterns between outbreaks. With simulation, we find that the estimates are fairly robust to the data being collected at discrete intervals and imputation of about half of all infectious periods. We apply the method by fitting data from 75 norovirus outbreaks in health-care settings. Our baseline regression estimates are 0.0037 transmissions per infective–susceptible day, an initial growth rate of 0.27 transmissions per infective day, and a symptomatic period of 3.35 days. Outbreaks in long-term–care facilities had significantly higher transmission and initial growth rates than outbreaks in hospitals. PMID:24593918

O’Dea, Eamon B.; Pepin, Kim M.; Lopman, Ben A.; Wilke, Claus O.

2014-01-01

402

Clinical features and rapid viral diagnosis of human disease associated with avian influenza A H5N1 virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background Human infection with an avian influenza A virus (subtype H5N1) was reported recently in Hong Kong. We describe the clinical presentation of the first 12 patients and options for rapid viral diagnosis. Methods Case notes of 12 patients with virus-culture- confirmed influenza A H5N1 infection were analysed. The clinical presentation and risk factors associated with severe disease were

KY Yuen; PKS Chan; M Peiris; DNC Tsang; TL Que; KF Shortridge; PT Cheung; ETF Ho; R Sung; AFB Cheng

1998-01-01

403

Mucosal disease induced in cattle persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus by antigenically different cytopathic virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?Four cattle persistently infected with non-cytopathic (NCP) bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus were challenged with cytopathic\\u000a (CP) BVD virus that was antigenically different from the persistent virus. Two of the animals were injected with dexamethasone\\u000a (DM) and then challenged. They developed mucosal disease on days 21 and 33 post-challenge. CP-BVD viruses were isolated from\\u000a their lymph nodes but not from

H. Sentsui; T. Nishimori; R. Kirisawa; A. Morooka

2001-01-01

404

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells: sensing nucleic acids in viral infection and autoimmune diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are important mediators of antiviral immunity through their ability to produce large amounts of type I interferons (IFNs) on viral infection. This function of pDCs is linked to their expression of Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) and TLR9, which sense viral nucleic acids within the early endosomes. Exclusion of self nucleic acids from TLR-containing early endosomes normally

Michel Gilliet; Wei Cao; Yong-Jun Liu

2008-01-01

405

Viral carcinogenesis: revelation of molecular mechanisms and etiology of human disease  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The RNA and DNA tumor viruses have made fundamental contributions to two major areas of cancer research. Viruses were vital, first, to the discovery and analysis of cellular growth control pathways and the synthesis of current concepts of cancer biology and, second, to the recognition of the etiology of some human cancers. Transforming retroviruses carry oncogenes derived from cellular genes that are involved in mitogenic signalling and growth control. DNA tumor viruses encode oncogenes of viral origin that are essential for viral replication and cell transformation; viral oncoproteins complex with cellular proteins to stimulate cell cycle progression and led to the discovery of tumor suppressors. Viral systems support the concept that cancer development occurs by the accumulation of multiple cooperating events. Viruses are now accepted as bona fide etiologic factors of human cancer; these include hepatitis B virus, Epstein-Barr virus, human papillomaviruses, human T-cell leukemia virus type I and hepatitis C virus, plus several candidate human cancer viruses. It is estimated that 15% of all human tumors worldwide are caused by viruses. The infectious nature of viruses distinguishes them from all other cancer-causing factors; tumor viruses establish long-term persistent infections in humans, with cancer an accidental side effect of viral replication strategies. Viruses are usually not complete carcinogens, and the known human cancer viruses display different roles in transformation. Many years may pass between initial infection and tumor appearance and most infected individuals do not develop cancer, although immunocompromised individuals are at elevated risk of viral-associated cancers. Variable factors that influence viral carcinogenesis are reviewed, including possible synergy between viruses and environmental cofactors. The difficulties in establishing an etiologic role for a virus in human cancer are discussed, as well as the different approaches that proved viral links to cancer. Future directions for tumor virus studies are considered.

Butel, J. S.

2000-01-01

406

An Outbreak of Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease in Western Afghanistan Associated with Exposure to Wheat Flour Contaminated with Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids  

PubMed Central

Pyrrolizidine alakloids (PAs) are known to cause hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD). Outbreaks have occurred in Western Afghanistan since 1974, the latest in February 2008. We conducted an outbreak investigation using a case-control design. Sixty-seven cases of VOD were compared with 199 community controls. Consumption of bread was strongly associated with disease (adjusted odds ratio: 35.8 [95%CI: 7.6–168.2]). Toxic doses of PA were found in plant extracts and in samples of wheat flour taken from the study area. Compared to wheat flour there was 1000 times less PA in milk and whey and in water samples the PA content was zero. Although direct analysis was not possible, contaminated wheat flour used to make bread was the likely source of PA causing the outbreak. Eating a more varied diet including meat and fruit may be protective. Prevention and control measures will rely on community awareness and agricultural interventions to ensure safety of the food supply. PMID:20652038

Kakar, Faizullah; Akbarian, Zarif; Leslie, Toby; Mustafa, Mir Lais; Watson, John; van Egmond, Hans P.; Omar, Mohammad Fahim; Mofleh, Jawad

2010-01-01

407

Epitope specificity is critical for high and moderate avidity cytotoxic T lymphocytes associated with control of viral load and clinical disease in horses with equine infectious anemia virus  

PubMed Central

Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is a lentivirus that causes persistent infections in horses. We hypothesized that high-avidity CTL specific for nonvariable epitopes might be associated with low viral load and minimal disease in EIAV-infected horses. To test this hypothesis, memory CTL (CTLm) responses were analyzed in two infected horses with high plasma viral loads and recurrent disease (progressors), and in two infected horses with low-to-undetectable viral loads and mild disease (nonprogressors). High-avidity CTLm in one progressor recognized an envelope gp90 epitope, and the data documented for the first time in EIAV that viral variation led to CTL escape. Each of the nonprogressors had high-to-moderate avidity CTLm directed against epitopes within Rev, including the nuclear export and nuclear localization domains. These results suggested that the epitope specificity of high- and moderate-avidity CTLm was an important determinant for disease outcome in the EIAV-infected horses examined. PMID:12954220

Mealey, Robert H.; Zhang, Baoshan; Leib, Steven R.; Littke, Matt H.; McGuire, Travis C.

2012-01-01

408

Correlation between breakdown of the blood-brain barrier and disease outcome of viral encephalitis in mice.  

PubMed

Changes in the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) were evaluated in two mouse models of viral encephalitis. The ability of sodium fluorescein (NaFl) to cross the BBB from the serum into the central nervous system was assayed in animals inoculated with virulent strains of either Banzi or Semliki Forest viruses. To test the hypothesis that increases in BBB permeability were associated with poor disease outcome subsequent experiments measured BBB permeability in conjunction with treatment with the interferon inducer Ampligen (poly I:poly C(12)U). A single intraperitoneal injection of Ampligen (1 mg/kg) administered either 24 h or 4-6 h before, but not 24 h after, virus inoculation with Banzi virus provided significant improvements in survival, viral brain titers, weight change and BBB permeability. In comparison, a similar treatment with Ampligen administered either 24 h or 4-6 h before inoculation with Semliki Forest virus was able to significantly improve weight change, and BBB permeability, but only animals receiving Ampligen 4-6 h pre-virus showed a significantly improved mortality. In general, it was found that evaluation of BBB permeability was a more sensitive indicator of disease outcome and the antiviral efficacy Ampligen than either weight change or brain viral titers. PMID:17223204

Olsen, Aaron L; Morrey, John D; Smee, Donald F; Sidwell, Robert W

2007-08-01

409

THE KEY VIRAL PLAYERS  

EPA Science Inventory

A number of different types of human enteric viruses cause waterborne outbreaks when individuals are exposed to contaminated drinking and recreational waters. Members of the enterovirus group cause numerous diseases, including gastroenteritis, encephalitis, meningitis, myocard...

410

Norovirus outbreak associated with a hotel in the west of Ireland, 2006.  

PubMed

An outbreak of gastrointestinal disease (nausea, vomiting or diarrhoea) occurred among a party of wedding guests, staff and other guests in a hotel in the west of Ireland, in October 2006. Upon notification, a multi-disciplinary outbreak control team was convened to investigate and control the outbreak. In all, 98 people were ascertained ill. The median duration of illness was 48 hours. The attack rate ranged between 48 and 85%. The hotel voluntarily notified health authorities and co-operated fully with investigation and control measures. Strict prevention and control measures were instituted promptly, including air ventilation, enhanced hand hygiene, isolation of cases, temporary "cooked food only", temporary alternative accommodation and specialised cleaning. Three cases of norovirus infection were laboratory-confirmed. There was no evidence of food- or water-borne transmission. Clinical and epidemiological findings indicated person-to-person transmission of norovirus. This report highlights the potential for large social gatherings to facilitate the spread of viral gastroenteritis by person-to-person transmission and via contaminated environment. Effective community management of this outbreak appears to have prevented its having an impact on local acute hospital services. The authors conclude that in addition to the existing national guidelines on the management of outbreaks of norovirus in healthcare settings, agreed guidelines for the management of norovirus outbreaks in the hotel and tourism industry are needed in Ireland. PMID:17991406

Michel, A; Fitzgerald, R; Whyte, D; Fitzgerald, A; Beggan, E; O'Connell, N; Greally, T

2007-07-01

411

Identification, virulence, and mass spectrometry of toxic ECP fractions of West Alabama isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila obtained from a 2010 disease outbreak.  

PubMed

In West Alabama, disease outbreaks in 2009 caused by Aeromonas hydrophila have led to an estimated loss of more than $3 million. In 2010, disease outbreak occurred again in West Alabama, causing losses of hundreds of thousands of pounds of market size channel catfish. During the 2010 disease outbreak in West Alabama, four isolates of A. hydrophila were cultured from the kidney tissues of diseased channel catfish. Both analytical profile index (API) 20 E biochemical tests and 16S-23S rRNA sequencing results confirmed the four isolates as A. hydrophila. Virulence studies revealed that the four isolates were highly virulent to channel catfish by intraperitoneal injection, with LD50 value of ? 1.3 × 10(5)CFU/fish. Extracellular proteins (ECPs) of A. hydrophila are well known to be toxic to fish. Therefore, ECPs of the four 2010 West Alabama isolates of A. hydrophila were characterized in this study. The ECPs of the four 2010 isolates were found to be toxic to channel catfish fingerlings, with LD50 value of 16 ?g/fish. Thirty ECP fractions were obtained from the ECPs of the 2010 isolates of A. hydrophila by cation-exchange chromatography, of which nine fractions were found to be toxic to catfish gill cells and channel catfish fingerlings. Mass spectrometry identified 228 proteins from the nine toxic fractions, of which 23 were shared by toxic fractions, including well known virulence factors such as hemolysin, aerolysin, elastase (metalloprotease), nuclease, and 5'-nucleotidase. Hemolytic activity, protease activity, and nuclease activity of the four isolates were found to be significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of a reference A. hydrophila strain AL98-C1B. Our results might shed light on the possible virulence factors of the highly virulent West Alabama isolates of A. hydrophila. PMID:23523171

Pridgeon, Julia W; Klesius, Phillip H; Song, Lin; Zhang, Dunhua; Kojima, Kyoko; Mobley, James A

2013-06-28

412

Simultaneous detection of five notifiable viral diseases of cattle by single-tube multiplex real-time RT-PCR.  

PubMed

Multiplexed real-time PCR (qPCR) assays enable the detection of several target genes in a single reaction, which is applicable for simultaneous testing for the most important viral diseases in samples obtained from ruminants with unspecific clinical symptoms. Here, reverse transcription qPCR (RT-qPCR) systems for the detection of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and bluetongue virus (BTV) were combined with an internal control system based on the beta-actin gene. Additionally, a background screening for three further major pathogens of cloven-hoofed animals reportable to the World Organisation for Animal Health, namely foot-and-mouth disease virus, epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus, and Rift Valley fever virus, was integrated using the identical fluorophore for the respective RT-qPCR assays. Every pathogen-specific assay had an analytical sensitivity of at least 100genome copies per reaction within the multiplex approach, and a series of reference samples and clinical specimens obtained from cattle, but also from small ruminants, were detected reliably. The qPCR systems integrated in the background screening were even not influenced by the simultaneous amplification of very high BVDV and BTV genome copy numbers. The newly developed multiplex qPCR allows the specific and sensitive detection of five of the most important diseases of ruminants and could be used in the context of monitoring programs or for differential diagnostics. PMID:25746154

Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Beer, Martin

2015-06-01

413

Norovirus outbreak in an elementary school--District of Columbia, February 2007.  

PubMed

On February 8, 2007, the District of Columbia Department of Health (DCDOH) was notified of an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis in an elementary school (prekindergarten through sixth grade). The school nurse reported that 27 students and two staff members had become ill during February 4--8 with nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea; because symptoms lasted <48 hours, a viral etiology was suspected. DCDOH recommended two preinvestigation interventions, which were implemented the same evening (February 8): 1) more thorough handwashing and 2) bleach cleaning of all shared environmental surfaces with a diluted (1:50 concentration) household bleach solution. This report summarizes the subseque