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Sample records for virgo stellar substructure

  1. The Origin of the Virgo Stellar Substructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Yam, William; Casetti-Dinescu, Dana I.; Willett, Benjamin A.; Newberg, Heidi J.; Majewski, Steven R.; Girard, Terrence M.

    2012-07-01

    We present three-dimensional space velocities of stars selected to be consistent with membership in the Virgo stellar substructure. Candidates were selected from SA 103, a single 40' × 40' field from our proper-motion (PM) survey in Kapteyn's Selected Areas (SAs), based on the PMs, Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) photometry, and follow-up spectroscopy of 215 stars. The signature of the Virgo substructure is clear in the SDSS color-magnitude diagram (CMD) centered on SA 103, and 16 stars are identified that have high Galactocentric-frame radial velocities (V GSR > 50 km s-1) and lie near the CMD locus of Virgo. The implied distance to the Virgo substructure from the candidates is 14 ± 3 kpc. We derive mean kinematics from these 16 stars, finding a radial velocity V GSR = 153 ± 22 km s-1 and proper motions (??cos ?, ??) = (- 5.24, -0.91) ± (0.43, 0.46) mas yr-1. From the mean kinematics of these members, we determine that the Virgo progenitor was on an eccentric (e ~ 0.8) orbit that recently passed near the Galactic center (pericentric distance Rp ~ 6 kpc). This destructive orbit is consistent with the idea that the substructure(s) in Virgo originated in the tidal disruption of a Milky Way satellite. N-body simulations suggest that the entire cloud-like Virgo substructure (encompassing the "Virgo Overdensity" and the "Virgo Stellar Stream") is likely the tidal debris remnant from a recently disrupted massive (~109 M ?) dwarf galaxy. The model also suggests that some other known stellar overdensities in the Milky Way halo (e.g., the Pisces Overdensity and debris near NGC 2419 and SEGUE 1) are explained by the disruption of the Virgo progenitor.

  2. THE ORIGIN OF THE VIRGO STELLAR SUBSTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Yam, William; Willett, Benjamin A.; Newberg, Heidi J.; Casetti-Dinescu, Dana I.; Girard, Terrence M.; Majewski, Steven R.

    2012-07-10

    We present three-dimensional space velocities of stars selected to be consistent with membership in the Virgo stellar substructure. Candidates were selected from SA 103, a single 40' Multiplication-Sign 40' field from our proper-motion (PM) survey in Kapteyn's Selected Areas (SAs), based on the PMs, Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) photometry, and follow-up spectroscopy of 215 stars. The signature of the Virgo substructure is clear in the SDSS color-magnitude diagram (CMD) centered on SA 103, and 16 stars are identified that have high Galactocentric-frame radial velocities (V{sub GSR} > 50 km s{sup -1}) and lie near the CMD locus of Virgo. The implied distance to the Virgo substructure from the candidates is 14 {+-} 3 kpc. We derive mean kinematics from these 16 stars, finding a radial velocity V{sub GSR} = 153 {+-} 22 km s{sup -1} and proper motions ({mu}{sub {alpha}}cos {delta}, {mu}{sub {delta}}) = (- 5.24, -0.91) {+-} (0.43, 0.46) mas yr{sup -1}. From the mean kinematics of these members, we determine that the Virgo progenitor was on an eccentric (e {approx} 0.8) orbit that recently passed near the Galactic center (pericentric distance R{sub p} {approx} 6 kpc). This destructive orbit is consistent with the idea that the substructure(s) in Virgo originated in the tidal disruption of a Milky Way satellite. N-body simulations suggest that the entire cloud-like Virgo substructure (encompassing the 'Virgo Overdensity' and the 'Virgo Stellar Stream') is likely the tidal debris remnant from a recently disrupted massive ({approx}10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }) dwarf galaxy. The model also suggests that some other known stellar overdensities in the Milky Way halo (e.g., the Pisces Overdensity and debris near NGC 2419 and SEGUE 1) are explained by the disruption of the Virgo progenitor.

  3. Probing Kinematic Substructures in the Virgo Overdensity using RR Lyrae from Recent Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, John; Vivas, A. Katherina

    2015-01-01

    The Virgo Overdensity is one of the most intriguing features of the galactic halo, as it covers a large portion of the sky and seems to contain several kinematic substructures. It has been suggested that the remnants of several merger events coexist in this region. RR Lyrae stars are an excellent tracer for disentangling the different components of this overdensity, since they are excellent standard candles; by using both positions and pulsation-corrected radial velocities, we can identify distinct groups in phase space. In the last year, several surveys for RR Lyraes covering the Virgo region have become publicly available. We present analysis of ~300 spectra for ~200 stars in the Virgo overdensity region. This is a significant increase in the known sample of these stars in the region, spanning a significantly larger area of the sky than previous studies. Photometry for these data are taken primarily from the La Silla and Venezuela QUEST variability surveys with spectra provided by SDSS Data Release 10. Radial velocities for type ab RR Lyrae stars are corrected using the new set of template radial velocity curves for Balmer and metallic lines given by Sesar (2012). We combine data from QUEST, the Catalina Sky Survey, LINEAR, and spectroscopic observations from Duffau (2014) to give our full sample. A preliminary analysis reveals confirmation for several known stellar streams.

  4. STELLAR POPULATIONS AND RADIAL MIGRATIONS IN VIRGO DISK GALAXIES

    E-print Network

    Roediger, Joel C.

    We present new stellar age profiles, derived from well-resolved optical and near-infrared images of 64 Virgo cluster disk galaxies, whose analysis poses a challenge for current disk galaxy formation models. Our ability to ...

  5. Early dynamical evolution of substructured stellar clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorval, Julien; Boily, Christian

    2015-08-01

    It is now widely accepted that stellar clusters form with a high level of substructure (Kuhn et al. 2014, Bate 2009), inherited from the molecular cloud and the star formation process. Evidence from observations and simulations also indicate the stars in such young clusters form a subvirial system (Kirk et al. 2007, Maschberger et al. 2010). The subsequent dynamical evolution can cause important mass loss, ejecting a large part of the birth population in the field. It can also imprint the stellar population and still be inferred from observations of evolved clusters. Nbody simulations allow a better understanding of these early twists and turns, given realistic initial conditions. Nowadays, substructured, clumpy young clusters are usually obtained through pseudo-fractal growth (Goodwin et al. 2004) and velocity inheritance. Such models are visually realistics and are very useful, they are however somewhat artificial in their velocity distribution. I introduce a new way to create clumpy initial conditions through a "Hubble expansion" which naturally produces self consistent clumps, velocity-wise. A velocity distribution analysis shows the new method produces realistic models, consistent with the dynamical state of the newly created cores in hydrodynamic simulation of cluster formation (Klessen & Burkert 2000). I use these initial conditions to investigate the dynamical evolution of young subvirial clusters, up to 80000 stars. I find an overall soft evolution, with hierarchical merging leading to a high level of mass segregation. I investigate the influence of the mass function on the fate of the cluster, specifically on the amount of mass loss induced by the early violent relaxation. Using a new binary detection algorithm, I also find a strong processing of the native binary population.

  6. A comprehensive view of the Virgo stellar stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffau, Sonia; Vivas, A. Katherina; Zinn, Robert; Méndez, René A.; Ruiz, María T.

    2014-06-01

    To explore the complex halo substructure that has been reported in the direction of the Virgo constellation, radial velocities and metallicities have been measured for 82 RR Lyrae stars (RRLS) that were identified by the QUEST survey. These stars are distributed over 90 square degrees of the sky, and lie from 4 to 23 kpc from the Sun. Using an algorithm for finding groups in phase space and modeling the smooth halo component in the region, we identified the 5 most significant RRLS groups, some of which were previously known or suspected. We have examined the SEKBO and the Catalina catalog of RRLS (with available spectroscopic measurements), as well as the bright QUEST RRLS sample, the catalog of Red Giant stars from the Spaghetti survey, and three recent catalogs of blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars, for stars that may be related to the QUEST RRLS groups. The most significant group of RRLS is the Virgo stellar stream (VSS) identified here as group A, which is composed of at least 10 RRLS and 3 BHB stars. It has a mean distance of 19.6 kpc and a mean radial velocity Vgsr = 128 km s-1, as estimated from its RRLS members. With the revised velocities reported here, there is no longer an offset in velocity between the RRLS in the VSS and the prominent peak in the velocities of main-sequence turnoff stars reported by other researchers in the same direction and at a similar distance (known as S297+63-20.5). The location in phase space of two other groups (F and H) suggests a possible connection with the VSS, which cannot be discarded at this point, although the turnoff colors of the VSS and group H, as identified from other works, suggest they might be composed of different populations. Two more groups, B and D, are found at mean distances of 19.0 and 5.7 kpc, and mean radial velocities of Vgsr = -94 and 32 km s-1. The latter is the more numerous in terms of total members, as well as the more extended in RA. A comparison with the latest model of the disruption of the Sagittarius dwarf, indicates that none of the above groups is related to it. Rather than being the result of a single accretion event, the excess of stars observed in Virgo appears to be composed of several halo substructures along the same line of sight. Figure 6 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgFull Tables 5, 6, and 9 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/566/A118

  7. Stellar Substructures Around the Hercules Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roderick, T. A.; Jerjen, H.; Mackey, A. D.; Da Costa, G. S.

    2015-05-01

    We present deep g and i band Dark Energy Camera stellar photometry of the Hercules Milky Way satellite galaxy, and its surrounding field, out to a radial distance of 5.4 times the tidal radius. We have identified nine extended stellar substructures associated with the dwarf; preferentially distributed along the major axis of the galaxy. Two significant over-densities lie outside the 95% confidence band for the likely orbital path of the galaxy and appear to be free-floating tidal debris. We estimate the luminosity of the new stellar substructures, and find that approximately the same amount of stellar flux is lying in these extended structures as inside the main body of Hercules. We also analyze the distribution of candidate blue-horizontal-branch stars and find agreement with the alignment of the substructures at a confidence level greater than 98%. Our analysis provides a quantitative demonstration that Hercules is a strongly tidally disrupted system, with noticeable stellar features at least 1.9 kpc away from the galaxy.

  8. Stellar Substructures around the Hercules Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    E-print Network

    Roderick, T A; Mackey, A D; Da Costa, G S

    2015-01-01

    We present deep $g,i$-band DECam stellar photometry of the Hercules Milky Way satellite galaxy, and its surrounding field, out to a radial distance of 5.4 times the tidal radius. We have identified nine extended stellar substructures associated with the dwarf; preferentially distributed along the major axis of the galaxy. Two significant over-densities lie outside the 95\\% confidence band for the likely orbital path of the galaxy and appear to be free-floating tidal debris. We estimate the luminosity of the new stellar substructures, and find that approximately the same amount of stellar flux is lying in these extended structures as inside the main body of Hercules. We also analyse the distribution of candidate blue-horizontal-branch stars and find agreement with the alignment of the substructures at a confidence level greater than 98\\%. Our analysis provides a quantitative demonstration that Hercules is a strongly tidally disrupted system, with noticeable stellar features at least 1.9 kpc away from the galax...

  9. QUANTIFYING KINEMATIC SUBSTRUCTURE IN THE MILKY WAY'S STELLAR HALO

    SciTech Connect

    Xue Xiangxiang; Zhao Gang; Luo Ali; Rix, Hans-Walter; Bell, Eric F.; Koposov, Sergey E.; Kang, Xi; Liu, Chao; Yanny, Brian; Beers, Timothy C.; Lee, Young Sun; Bullock, James S.; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Morrison, Heather; Rockosi, Constance

    2011-09-01

    We present and analyze the positions, distances, and radial velocities for over 4000 blue horizontal-branch (BHB) stars in the Milky Way's halo, drawn from SDSS DR8. We search for position-velocity substructure in these data, a signature of the hierarchical assembly of the stellar halo. Using a cumulative 'close pair distribution' as a statistic in the four-dimensional space of sky position, distance, and velocity, we quantify the presence of position-velocity substructure at high statistical significance among the BHB stars: pairs of BHB stars that are close in position on the sky tend to have more similar distances and radial velocities compared to a random sampling of these overall distributions. We make analogous mock observations of 11 numerical halo formation simulations, in which the stellar halo is entirely composed of disrupted satellite debris, and find a level of substructure comparable to that seen in the actually observed BHB star sample. This result quantitatively confirms the hierarchical build-up of the stellar halo through a signature in phase (position-velocity) space. In detail, the structure present in the BHB stars is somewhat less prominent than that seen in most simulated halos, quite possibly because BHB stars represent an older sub-population. BHB stars located beyond 20 kpc from the Galactic center exhibit stronger substructure than at r{sub gc} < 20 kpc.

  10. KINEMATICS AND CHEMISTRY OF HALO SUBSTRUCTURES: THE VICINITY OF THE VIRGO OVERDENSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Andrew R.; Keller, Stefan C.; Da Costa, Gary

    2012-04-15

    We present observations obtained with the Anglo-Australian Telescope's 2dF wide field spectrograph AAOmega of K-type stars located within a region of the sky which contains the Virgo Overdensity and the leading arm of the Sagittarius Stream. On the basis of the resulting velocity histogram, we isolate halo substructures in these overlapping regions including Sagittarius and previously discovered Virgo groups. Through comparisons with N-body models of the Galaxy-Sagittarius interaction, we find a tri-axial dark matter halo is favored and we exclude a prolate shape. This result is contradictory with other observations along the Sagittarius leading arm, which typically favor prolate models. We have also uncovered K-giant members of Sagittarius that are notably more metal-poor (([Fe/H]) = -1.7 {+-} 0.3 dex) than previous studies. This suggests a significantly wider metallicity distribution exists in the Sagittarius Stream than formerly considered. We also present data on five carbon stars which were discovered in our sample.

  11. Substructure in the Stellar Halos of the Aquarius Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmi, Amina; Cooper, A. P.; White, S. D. M.; Cole, S.; Frenk, C. S.; Navarro, J. F.

    2011-05-01

    We characterize the substructure in the simulated stellar halos of Cooper et al. which were formed by the disruption of satellite galaxies within the cosmological N-body simulations of galactic halos of the Aquarius project. These stellar halos exhibit a wealth of tidal features: broad overdensities and very narrow faint streams akin to those observed around the Milky Way. The substructures are distributed anisotropically on the sky, a characteristic that should become apparent in the next generation of photometric surveys. The normalized RMS of the density of stars on the sky appears to be systematically larger for our halos compared with the value estimated for the Milky Way from main-sequence turnoff stars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We show that this is likely to be due in part to contamination by faint QSOs and redder main-sequence stars, and might suggest that ~10% of the Milky Way halo stars have formed in situ.

  12. STELLAR POPULATIONS AND RADIAL MIGRATIONS IN VIRGO DISK GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Roediger, Joel C.; Courteau, Stephane; Sanchez-Blazquez, Patricia; McDonald, Michael E-mail: courteau@astro.queensu.ca E-mail: mcdonald@space.mit.edu

    2012-10-10

    We present new stellar age profiles, derived from well-resolved optical and near-infrared images of 64 Virgo cluster disk galaxies, whose analysis poses a challenge for current disk galaxy formation models. Our ability to break the age-metallicity degeneracy and the significant size of our sample represent key improvements over complementary studies of field disk galaxies. Our results can be summarized as follows: first, and contrary to observations of disk galaxies in the field, these cluster galaxies are distributed almost equally amongst the three main types of disk galaxy luminosity profiles (I/II/III), indicating that the formation and/or survival of Type II breaks is suppressed within the cluster environment. Second, we find examples of statistically significant inversions ({sup U}-shapes{sup )} in the age profiles of all three disk galaxy types, reminiscent of predictions from high-resolution simulations of classically truncated Type II disks in the field. These features characterize the age profiles for only about a third ({<=}36%) of each disk galaxy type in our sample. An even smaller fraction of cluster disks ({approx}11% of the total sample) exhibit age profiles that decrease outward (i.e., negative age gradients). Instead, flat and/or positive age gradients prevail ({>=}50%) within our Type I, II, and III subsamples. These observations thus suggest that while stellar migrations and inside-out growth can play a significant role in the evolution of all disk galaxy types, other factors contributing to the evolution of galaxies can overwhelm the predicted signatures of these processes. We interpret our observations through a scenario whereby Virgo cluster disk galaxies formed initially like their brethren in the field but which, upon falling into the cluster, were transformed into their present state through external processes linked to the environment (e.g., ram-pressure stripping and harassment). Current disk galaxy formation models, which have largely focused on field galaxies, fail to reproduce these results, thus calling for adequate hydrodynamical simulations of dense galaxy environments if we are to understand cluster disks. The current paper highlights numerous constraints for such simulations. In the Appendix, we confirm the claim by Erwin et al. that Type II breaks are absent in Virgo cluster S0s and discuss the detection of Type III breaks in such galaxies.

  13. A PHOTOMETRIC METALLICITY ESTIMATE OF THE VIRGO STELLAR OVERDENSITY

    SciTech Connect

    An, Deokkeun; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Terndrup, Donald M.; Masseron, Thomas; Beers, Timothy C.; Lee, Young Sun; Delahaye, Franck

    2009-12-10

    We determine photometric metal abundance estimates for individual main-sequence stars in the Virgo Overdensity (VOD), which covers almost 1000 deg{sup 2} on the sky, based on a calibration of the metallicity sensitivity of stellar isochrones in the gri filter passbands using field stars with well-determined spectroscopic metal abundances. Despite the low precision of the method for individual stars, we derive [Fe/H] = -2.0 +- 0.1(internal) +- 0.5(systematic) for the metal abundance of the VOD from photometric measurements of 0.7 million stars in the northern Galactic hemisphere with heliocentric distances from approx10 kpc to approx20 kpc. The metallicity of the VOD is indistinguishable, within DELTA[Fe/H] <= 0.2, from that of field halo stars covering the same distance range. This initial application suggests that the Sloan Digital Sky Survey gri passbands can be used to probe the properties of main-sequence stars beyond approx10 kpc, complementing studies of nearby stars from more metallicity-sensitive color indices that involve the u passband.

  14. A Photometric Metallicity Estimate of the Virgo Stellar Overdensity

    E-print Network

    An, Deokkeun; Beers, Timothy C; Pinsonneault, Marc H; Terndrup, Donald M; Delahaye, Franck; Lee, Young Sun; Masseron, Thomas; Yanny, Brian

    2009-01-01

    We determine photometric metal abundance estimates for individual main-sequence stars in the Virgo Overdensity (VOD), which covers almost 1000 deg^2 on the sky, based on a calibration of the metallicity sensitivity of stellar isochrones in the gri filter passbands using field stars with well-determined spectroscopic metal abundances. Despite the low precision of the method for individual stars, we derive [Fe/H] = -2.0 +/-0.1 (internal) +/-0.5 (systematic) for the metal abundance of the VOD from photometric measurements of 0.7 million stars in the Northern Galactic hemisphere with heliocentric distances from ~10 kpc to ~20 kpc. The metallicity of the VOD is indistinguishable, within Delta [Fe/H] < 0.2, from that of field halo stars covering the same distance range. This initial application suggests that the SDSS gri passbands can be used to probe the properties of main-sequence stars beyond ~10 kpc, complementing studies of nearby stars from more metallicity-sensitive color indices that involve the u passba...

  15. The extended stellar substructures of four metal-poor globular clusters in the galactic bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Sang-Hyun; Sohn, Young-Jong

    2015-08-01

    We investigated stellar spatial density distribution around four metal-poor globular clusters (NGC 6266, NGC 6626, NGC 6642 and NGC 6723) in order to find extended stellar substructures. Wide-field deep J, H, and K imaging data were taken using the WFCAM near-infrared array on United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT). The contamination of field stars around clusters was minimised by applying a statistical weighted filtering algorithm for the stars on the color-magnitude diagram. In two-dimensional isodensity contour map, we find that all four of the globular clusters shows tidal stripping stellar features in the form of tidal tails (NGC 6266 and NGC 6723) or small density lobes/chunk (NGC 6642 and NGC 6723). The stellar substructures extend toward the Galactic centre or anticancer, and the proper motion direction of the clusters. The radial density profiles of the clusters also depart from theoretical King and Wilson models and show overdensity feature with a break in a slope of profile at the outer region of clusters. The observed results indicate that four globular clusters in the Galactic bulge have experienced strong tidal force or bulge/disk shock effect of the Galaxy. These observational results provide us further constraints to understand the evolution of clusters in the Galactic bulge region as well as the formation of the Galaxy.

  16. Integral-field Stellar and Ionized Gas Kinematics of Peculiar Virgo Cluster Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortés, Juan R.; Kenney, Jeffrey D. P.; Hardy, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    We present the stellar and ionized gas kinematics of 13 bright peculiar Virgo cluster galaxies observed with the DensePak Integral Field Unit at the WIYN 3.5 m telescope in order to look for kinematic evidence that these galaxies have experienced gravitational interactions or gas stripping. Two-dimensional maps of the stellar velocity V, stellar velocity dispersion ?, and the ionized gas velocity (H? and/or [O III]) are presented for the galaxies in the sample. The stellar rotation curves and velocity dispersion profiles are determined for 13 galaxies, and the ionized gas rotation curves are determined for 6 galaxies. Misalignments between the optical and kinematical major axes are found in several galaxies. While in some cases this is due to a bar, in other cases it seems to be associated with gravitational interaction or ongoing ram pressure stripping. Non-circular gas motions are found in nine galaxies, with various causes including bars, nuclear outflows, or gravitational disturbances. Several galaxies have signatures of kinematically distinct stellar components, which are likely signatures of accretion or mergers. For all of our galaxies, we compute the angular momentum parameter ? R . An evaluation of the galaxies in the ? R ellipticity plane shows that all but two of the galaxies have significant support from random stellar motions, and have likely experienced gravitational interactions. This includes some galaxies with very small bulges and truncated/compact H? morphologies, indicating that such galaxies cannot be fully explained by simple ram pressure stripping, but must have had significant gravitational encounters. Most of the sample galaxies show evidence for ICM-ISM stripping as well as gravitational interactions, indicating that the evolution of a significant fraction of cluster galaxies is likely strongly impacted by both effects.

  17. INTEGRAL-FIELD STELLAR AND IONIZED GAS KINEMATICS OF PECULIAR VIRGO CLUSTER SPIRAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Cortés, Juan R.; Hardy, Eduardo; Kenney, Jeffrey D. P. E-mail: ehardy@nrao.cl

    2015-01-01

    We present the stellar and ionized gas kinematics of 13 bright peculiar Virgo cluster galaxies observed with the DensePak Integral Field Unit at the WIYN 3.5 m telescope in order to look for kinematic evidence that these galaxies have experienced gravitational interactions or gas stripping. Two-dimensional maps of the stellar velocity V, stellar velocity dispersion ?, and the ionized gas velocity (H? and/or [O III]) are presented for the galaxies in the sample. The stellar rotation curves and velocity dispersion profiles are determined for 13 galaxies, and the ionized gas rotation curves are determined for 6 galaxies. Misalignments between the optical and kinematical major axes are found in several galaxies. While in some cases this is due to a bar, in other cases it seems to be associated with gravitational interaction or ongoing ram pressure stripping. Non-circular gas motions are found in nine galaxies, with various causes including bars, nuclear outflows, or gravitational disturbances. Several galaxies have signatures of kinematically distinct stellar components, which are likely signatures of accretion or mergers. For all of our galaxies, we compute the angular momentum parameter ? {sub R}. An evaluation of the galaxies in the ? {sub R} ellipticity plane shows that all but two of the galaxies have significant support from random stellar motions, and have likely experienced gravitational interactions. This includes some galaxies with very small bulges and truncated/compact H? morphologies, indicating that such galaxies cannot be fully explained by simple ram pressure stripping, but must have had significant gravitational encounters. Most of the sample galaxies show evidence for ICM-ISM stripping as well as gravitational interactions, indicating that the evolution of a significant fraction of cluster galaxies is likely strongly impacted by both effects.

  18. Tidal stripping stellar substructures around four metal-poor globular clusters in the galactic bulge

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, Sang-Hyun; Kang, Minhee; Jung, DooSeok; Sohn, Young-Jong

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the spatial density configuration of stars around four metal-poor globular clusters (NGC 6266, NGC 6626, NGC 6642, and NGC 6723) in the Galactic bulge region using wide-field deep J, H, and K imaging data obtained with the Wide Field Camera near-infrared array on the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope. A statistical weighted filtering algorithm for the stars on the color–magnitude diagram is applied in order to sort cluster member candidates from the field star contamination. In two-dimensional isodensity contour maps of the clusters, we find that all four of the globular clusters exhibit strong evidence of tidally stripped stellar features beyond the tidal radius in the form of tidal tails or small density lobes/chunks. The orientations of the extended stellar substructures are likely to be associated with the effect of dynamic interaction with the Galaxy and the cluster's space motion. The observed radial density profiles of the four globular clusters also describe the extended substructures; they depart from theoretical King and Wilson models and have an overdensity feature with a break in the slope of the profile at the outer region of clusters. The observed results could imply that four globular clusters in the Galactic bulge region have experienced strong environmental effects such as tidal forces or bulge/disk shocks of the Galaxy during the dynamical evolution of globular clusters. These observational results provide further details which add to our understanding of the evolution of clusters in the Galactic bulge region as well as the formation of the Galaxy.

  19. Tidal Stripping Stellar Substructures Around Four Metal-Poor Globular Clusters in the Galactic Bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Sang-Hyun; Kang, Minhee; Jung, DooSeok; Sohn, Young-Jong

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the spatial density configuration of stars around four metal-poor globular clusters (NGC 6266, NGC 6626, NGC 6642, and NGC 6723) in the Galactic bulge region using wide-field deep J, H, and K imaging data obtained with the Wide Field Camera near-infrared array on the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope. A statistical weighted filtering algorithm for the stars on the color-magnitude diagram is applied in order to sort cluster member candidates from the field star contamination. In two-dimensional isodensity contour maps of the clusters, we find that all four of the globular clusters exhibit strong evidence of tidally stripped stellar features beyond the tidal radius in the form of tidal tails or small density lobes/chunks. The orientations of the extended stellar substructures are likely to be associated with the effect of dynamic interaction with the Galaxy and the cluster's space motion. The observed radial density profiles of the four globular clusters also describe the extended substructures; they depart from theoretical King and Wilson models and have an overdensity feature with a break in the slope of the profile at the outer region of clusters. The observed results could imply that four globular clusters in the Galactic bulge region have experienced strong environmental effects such as tidal forces or bulge/disk shocks of the Galaxy during the dynamical evolution of globular clusters. These observational results provide further details which add to our understanding of the evolution of clusters in the Galactic bulge region as well as the formation of the Galaxy.

  20. PROPER MOTIONS IN KAPTEYN SELECTED AREA 103: A PRELIMINARY ORBIT FOR THE VIRGO STELLAR STREAM

    SciTech Connect

    Casetti-Dinescu, Dana I.; Girard, Terrence M.; Van Altena, William F.; Majewski, Steven R.; Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Vivas, A. Katherina; Wilhelm, Ronald; Beers, Timothy C.

    2009-08-10

    We present absolute proper motions in Kapteyn Selected Area (SA) 103. This field is located 7 deg. west of the center of the Virgo Stellar Stream (VSS), and has a well-defined main sequence representing the stream. In SA 103, we identify one RR Lyrae star as a member of the VSS, according to its metallicity, radial velocity, and distance. VSS candidate turnoff and subgiant stars have proper motions consistent with that of the RR Lyrae star. The three-dimensional velocity data imply an orbit with a pericenter of {approx}11 kpc and an apocenter of {approx}90 kpc. Thus, the VSS comprises tidal debris found near the pericenter of a highly destructive orbit. Examining the six globular clusters at distances larger than 50 kpc from the Galactic center, and the proposed orbit of the VSS, we find one tentative association, NGC 2419. We speculate that NGC 2419 is possibly the nucleus of a disrupted system of which the VSS is a part.

  1. The Virgo stellar over-density: Mapping the infall of the Sagittarius tidal stream onto the Milky Way disk

    E-print Network

    David Martinez-Delgado; Jorge Penarrubia; Mario Juric; Emilio J. Alfaro; Zeljko Ivezic

    2007-01-31

    The recently discovered Virgo stellar over-density, which expands over \\~1000deg^2 perpendicularly to the Galactic disk plane (7Milky Way. We carry out N-body simulations of the Sagittarius stream to show that this giant stellar over-density is a confirmation of theoretical model predictions for the leading tail of the Sagittarius stream to cross the Milky Way plane in the Solar neighborhood. Radial velocity measurements are needed to confirm this association and to further constrain the shape of the Milky Way dark matter halo through a new generation of theoretical models. If the identification of Virgo over-density and the Sagittarius leading arm is correct, we predict highly negative radial velocities for the stars of Virgo over-density. The detection of this new portion of the Sagittarius tidal stream would represent an excellent target for the on-going and future kinematic surveys and for dark matter direct detection experiments in the proximity of the Sun.

  2. Extending the Virgo Stellar Stream with SEKBO Survey RR Lyrae Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prior, Sayuri L.; Da Costa, G. S.; Keller, Stefan C.; Murphy, Simon J.

    2009-01-01

    A subset of the RR Lyrae (RRL) candidates identified from the Southern Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt Object (SEKBO) survey data have been followed up photometrically (n = 106) and spectroscopically (n = 51). Period and light curve fitting reveals a 24% ± 7% contamination of SEKBO survey data by non-RRLs. This paper focuses on the region of the Virgo Stellar Stream (VSS), particularly on its extension to the south of the declination limits of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and of the Quasar Equatorial Survey Team RRL survey. The distribution of radial velocities in the Galactic standard of rest frame (V GSR) for the 11 RRLs observed in the VSS region has two apparent peaks. The larger peak coincides with the four RRLs having langV GSRrang = 127 ± 10 km s-1 and dispersion ? = 27 km s-1, marginally larger than that expected from the errors alone. The two type ab RRLs in this group have lang[Fe/H]rang = -1.95 ± 0.1. Both the radial velocities and metal abundances are consistent with membership in the VSS. The second velocity peak, which occurs at langV GSRrang = -175 ± 10 km s-1 may indicate the presence of stars from the Sgr leading tidal tail, which is expected to have large negative velocities in this region. We explore the spatial extent of the VSS by constructing luminosity functions from the SEKBO data and comparing them to data synthesized with the Besançon Galactic model. Analysis of the excess over the model predictions reveals the VSS as a large (~760 deg2) overdensity centered at roughly (R.A., decl.) ~ (186°, -4°), spanning a length of ~15 kpc in projection, assuming a heliocentric distance of 19 kpc. The data reveal for the first time the more southern regions of the stream and trace it to decl. ?-15° and Galactic latitudes as low as b ? 45°.

  3. Stellar Kinematics and Structural Properties of Virgo Cluster Dwarf Early-Type Galaxies from the SMAKCED Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toloba, Elisa; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Peletier, Reynier; Boselli, Alessandro; Lisker, Thorsten; Emsellem, Eric; Simon, Joshua D.; van de Ven, Glenn; Smakced Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the stellar kinematics of 39 dwarf early-type galaxies (dEs) in the Virgo cluster. This is the largest survey conducted so far on spatially resolved kinematics of dEs. This sample is representative of the early-type population in the absolute magnitude range -19.0 < M_r < -16.0. For each dE, we measure the rotation curve and velocity dispersion profile and fit an analytic function to the rotation curve. We study the significance of the departure of the rotation curve from the best fit analytic function (poorly fit) and of the difference between the approaching and receding sides of the rotation curve (asymmetry). We find that 62+/-8% (23 out of the 39) of the dEs have a significant anomaly in their rotation curve. Analysis of the images reveals photometric anomalies for most galaxies. However, there is no clear correlation between the significance of the photometric and kinematic anomalies. Based on the specific stellar angular momentum and the ellipticity, we find 11 slow rotators and 28 fast rotators. The fast rotators in the outer parts of the Virgo cluster rotate significantly faster than fast rotators in the inner parts of the cluster. Moreover, 10 out of the 11 slow rotators are located in the inner Mpc of the cluster. The fast rotators contain subtle disky structures that are visible in high-pass filtered optical images, while the slow rotators do not exhibit these structures. In addition, two of the dEs have kinematically decoupled cores and four more have emission partially filling in the Balmer absorption lines. These properties suggest that Virgo cluster dEs may have originated from late-type star-forming galaxies that were transformed by the environment after their infall into the cluster. The correlation between the specific angular momentum and the clustercentric distance can be explained by a scenario where low luminosity star-forming galaxies fall into the cluster, their gas is rapidly removed by ram pressure stripping, although some of it can be retained in their core, their star-formation is quenched but their stellar kinematics are preserved. After a long time in the cluster and several passes through its center, the galaxies are heated up and transformed into slow rotating dEs.

  4. A Gemini/GMOS Study of Intermediate Luminosity Early-type Virgo Cluster Galaxies. I. Globular Cluster and Stellar Kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Biao; Peng, Eric W.; Zhang, Hong-xin; Blakeslee, John P.; Côté, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Jordán, Andrés; Liu, Chengze; Mei, Simona; Puzia, Thomas H.; Takamiya, Marianne; Trancho, Gelys; West, Michael J.

    2015-06-01

    We present a kinematic analysis of the globular cluster (GC) systems and diffuse stellar light of four intermediate luminosity (sub-L*) early-type galaxies in the Virgo cluster based on Gemini Multi-Object Spectrographs (GMOS) data. Our galaxy sample is fainter (-23.8\\lt {{M}K}\\lt -22.7) than most previous studies, nearly doubling the number of galaxies in this magnitude range that now have GC kinematics. The data for the diffuse light extends to 4Re, and the data for the GCs reaches 8-12Re. We find that the kinematics in these outer regions are all different despite the fact that these four galaxies have similar photometric properties, and are uniformly classified as “fast rotators” from their stellar kinematics within 1Re. The GC systems exhibit a wide range of kinematic morphology. The rotation axis and amplitude can change between the inner and outer regions, including a case of counter-rotation. This difference shows the importance of wide-field kinematic studies, and shows that stellar and GC kinematics can change significantly as one moves beyond the inner regions of galaxies. Moreover, the kinematics of the GC systems can differ from that of the stars, suggesting that the formation of the two populations are also distinct.

  5. CLOSE STELLAR ENCOUNTERS IN YOUNG, SUBSTRUCTURED, DISSOLVING STAR CLUSTERS: STATISTICS AND EFFECTS ON PLANETARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, Jonathan; Krumholz, Mark R.

    2013-06-01

    Both simulations and observations indicate that stars form in filamentary, hierarchically clustered associations, most of which disperse into their galactic field once feedback destroys their parent clouds. However, during their early evolution in these substructured environments, stars can undergo close encounters with one another that might have significant impacts on their protoplanetary disks or young planetary systems. We perform N-body simulations of the early evolution of dissolving, substructured clusters with a wide range of properties, with the aim of quantifying the expected number and orbital element distributions of encounters as a function of cluster properties. We show that the presence of substructure both boosts the encounter rate and modifies the distribution of encounter velocities compared to what would be expected for a dynamically relaxed cluster. However, the boost only lasts for a dynamical time, and as a result the overall number of encounters expected remains low enough that gravitational stripping is unlikely to be a significant effect for the vast majority of star-forming environments in the Galaxy. We briefly discuss the implications of this result for models of the origin of the solar system, and of free-floating planets. We also provide tabulated encounter rates and orbital element distributions suitable for inclusion in population synthesis models of planet formation in a clustered environment.

  6. Where stellar halos coexist with intracluster light: a case study of the giant Virgo-central galaxy M87

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longobardi, Alessia

    2016-01-01

    What is the role that accretion events play in the evolution of galaxies in dense environments, such as galaxy clusters? Cosmological simulations allow us to study in detail the evolution of galaxies' halos in cluster environments and have shown that the formation of extended halos around central cluster galaxies and intracluster light (ICL) is closely correlated to the morphological transformation of galaxies in clusters. However, the extremely low surface brightness of these components makes it difficult to gather observational constraints. Planetary nebulas (PNs) offer a unique tool to investigate these environments owing to their strong [OIII] emission line. I will present a study of the light and stellar motion in the halo of the giant elliptical galaxy M87 and its surrounding IC component at the centre of the Virgo cluster, prime targets to shed light on the hierarchical assembly of structure in the Universe. We make use of a deep and extended PN sample (~ 300 objects) to study out to ~150 kpc in radius M87. We show that at all distance the galaxy halo overlap with theVirgo ICL. However, they are dynamically distinct components with different density profiles, and parent stellarpopulations, consistent with the halo of M87 being redder and more metal rich than the ICL. Moreover, the synergy between PN kinematical information and deep V/B-band photometry made it possible to unveal an ongoing accretion process in the outskirt of M87, that has caused a non-negligible modification of the halo properties. The ongoing assembly of this galaxy at distances R>60 kpc is also shown by the overall PN halo kinematics, reflecting the dynamical complexity of a still growing system.

  7. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey. XII. Stellar Populations and Kinematics of Compact, Low-mass Early-type Galaxies from Gemini GMOS-IFU Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guérou, Adrien; Emsellem, Eric; McDermid, Richard M.; Côté, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Blakeslee, John P.; Durrell, Patrick R.; MacArthur, Lauren A.; Peng, Eric W.; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Gwyn, Stephen

    2015-05-01

    We present Gemini Multi Object Spectrograph integral-field unit (GMOS-IFU) data of eight compact, low-mass early-type galaxies (ETGs) in the Virgo cluster. We analyze their stellar kinematics and stellar population and present two-dimensional maps of these properties covering the central 5? × 7? region. We find a large variety of kinematics, from nonrotating to highly rotating objects, often associated with underlying disky isophotes revealed by deep images from the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey. In half of our objects, we find a centrally concentrated younger and more metal-rich stellar population. We analyze the specific stellar angular momentum through the ?R parameter and find six fast rotators and two slow rotators, one having a thin counterrotating disk. We compare the local galaxy density and stellar populations of our objects with those of 39 more extended low-mass Virgo ETGs from the SMAKCED survey and 260 massive (M > 1010 {{M}? }) ETGs from the ATLAS3D sample. The compact low-mass ETGs in our sample are located in high-density regions, often close to a massive galaxy, and have, on average, older and more metal-rich stellar populations than less compact low-mass galaxies. We find that the stellar population parameters follow lines of constant velocity dispersion in the mass-size plane, smoothly extending the comparable trends found for massive ETGs. Our study supports a scenario where low-mass compact ETGs have experienced long-lived interactions with their environment, including ram-pressure stripping and gravitational tidal forces, that may be responsible for their compact nature.

  8. STELLAR KINEMATICS AND STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF VIRGO CLUSTER DWARF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES FROM THE SMAKCED PROJECT. III. ANGULAR MOMENTUM AND CONSTRAINTS ON FORMATION SCENARIOS

    SciTech Connect

    Toloba, E.; Guhathakurta, P.; Peletier, R. F.; Emsellem, E.; Lisker, T.; Van de Ven, G.; Simon, J. D.; Adams, J. J.; Benson, A. J.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Ry?, A.; Gorgas, J.; Hensler, G.; Janz, J.; Laurikainen, E.; Salo, H.; Paudel, S.

    2015-02-01

    We analyze the stellar kinematics of 39 dwarf early-type galaxies (dEs) in the Virgo Cluster. Based on the specific stellar angular momentum ?{sub Re} and the ellipticity, we find 11 slow rotators and 28 fast rotators. The fast rotators in the outer parts of the Virgo Cluster rotate significantly faster than fast rotators in the inner parts of the cluster. Moreover, 10 out of the 11 slow rotators are located in the inner 3° (D < 1 Mpc) of the cluster. The fast rotators contain subtle disk-like structures that are visible in high-pass filtered optical images, while the slow rotators do not exhibit these structures. In addition, two of the dEs have kinematically decoupled cores and four more have emission partially filling in the Balmer absorption lines. These properties suggest that Virgo Cluster dEs may have originated from late-type star-forming galaxies that were transformed by the environment after their infall into the cluster. The correlation between ?{sub Re} and the clustercentric distance can be explained by a scenario where low luminosity star-forming galaxies fall into the cluster, their gas is rapidly removed by ram-pressure stripping, although some of it can be retained in their core, their star formation is quenched but their stellar kinematics are preserved. After a long time in the cluster and several passes through its center, the galaxies are heated up and transformed into slow rotating dEs.

  9. Stellar Kinematics and Structural Properties of Virgo Cluster Dwarf Early-type Galaxies from the SMAKCED Project. III. Angular Momentum and Constraints on Formation Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toloba, E.; Guhathakurta, P.; Boselli, A.; Peletier, R. F.; Emsellem, E.; Lisker, T.; van de Ven, G.; Simon, J. D.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Adams, J. J.; Benson, A. J.; Boissier, S.; den Brok, M.; Gorgas, J.; Hensler, G.; Janz, J.; Laurikainen, E.; Paudel, S.; Ry?, A.; Salo, H.

    2015-02-01

    We analyze the stellar kinematics of 39 dwarf early-type galaxies (dEs) in the Virgo Cluster. Based on the specific stellar angular momentum ?Re and the ellipticity, we find 11 slow rotators and 28 fast rotators. The fast rotators in the outer parts of the Virgo Cluster rotate significantly faster than fast rotators in the inner parts of the cluster. Moreover, 10 out of the 11 slow rotators are located in the inner 3° (D < 1 Mpc) of the cluster. The fast rotators contain subtle disk-like structures that are visible in high-pass filtered optical images, while the slow rotators do not exhibit these structures. In addition, two of the dEs have kinematically decoupled cores and four more have emission partially filling in the Balmer absorption lines. These properties suggest that Virgo Cluster dEs may have originated from late-type star-forming galaxies that were transformed by the environment after their infall into the cluster. The correlation between ?Re and the clustercentric distance can be explained by a scenario where low luminosity star-forming galaxies fall into the cluster, their gas is rapidly removed by ram-pressure stripping, although some of it can be retained in their core, their star formation is quenched but their stellar kinematics are preserved. After a long time in the cluster and several passes through its center, the galaxies are heated up and transformed into slow rotating dEs.

  10. The outer regions of the giant Virgo galaxy M 87 Kinematic separation of stellar halo and intracluster light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longobardi, Alessia; Arnaboldi, Magda; Gerhard, Ortwin; Hanuschik, Reinhard

    2015-07-01

    Aims: We present a spectroscopic study of a sample of 287 planetary nebulas (PNs) around the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) M 87 in Virgo A, of which 211 are located between 40 kpc and 150 kpc from the galaxy centre. With these data we can distinguish the stellar halo from the co-spatial intracluster light (ICL) and study both components separately. Methods: We obtained PN velocities with a high resolution FLAMES/VLT survey targeting eight fields in a total area of ~0.4 deg2. We identified PNs from their narrow and symmetric redshifted ?5007 Å [OIII] emission line, the presence of the second ?4959 Å [OIII] emission line, and the absence of significant continuum. We implement a robust technique to measure the halo velocity dispersion from the projected phase-space to identify PNs associated with the M 87 halo and ICL. Using photometric magnitudes, we construct PN luminosity functions (PNLFs), which are complete down to m5007 = 28.8. Results: The velocity distribution of the spectroscopically confirmed PNs is bimodal, containing a narrow component centred on the systemic velocity of the BCG and an off-centred broader component, which we identify as halo and ICL, respectively. We find that 243 PNs are part of the velocity distribution of the M 87 halo, while the remaining subsample of 44 PNs are intracluster PNs (ICPNs). Halo and ICPNs have different spatial distributions: the number density of halo PNs follow the galaxy's surface brightness profile, whereas the ICPNs are characterised by a shallower power-law profile, IICL ? R? with ? in the range [-0.34, -0.04 ]. No evidence is found for an asymmetry in the halo and ICPN density distributions when the NW and SE fields are studied separately. A study of the composite PN number density profile confirms the superposition of different PN populations associated with the M 87 halo and the ICL, characterised by different PN specific numbers ?. We derive ?halo = 1.06 × 10-8NPN L?,bol-1 and ?ICL = 2.72 × 10-8NPN L?,bol-1, respectively. The M 87 halo PNLF has fewer bright PNs and a steeper slope towards faint magnitudes than the ICPNLF, and both are steeper than the standard PNLF for the M 31 bulge. Moreover, the ICPNLF has a dip at ~1-1.5 mag fainter than the bright cut-off, reminiscent of the PNLFs of systems with extended star formation history, such as M 33 or the Magellanic clouds. Conclusions: The BCG halo of M 87 and the Virgo ICL are dynamically distinct components with different density profiles and velocity distributions. Moreover, the different ?-parameter values and PNLF shapes of the halo and ICL indicate distinct parent stellar populations, consistent with the existence of a gradient towards bluer colours at large radii. These results reflect the hierarchical build-up of the Virgo cluster. Based on observations made with the VLT at Paranal Observatory under programs 088.B-0288(A) and 093.B-066(A), and with the SUBARU Telescope under program S10A-039.

  11. Virgo cluster and field dwarf ellipticals in 3D - III. Spatially and temporally resolved stellar populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ry?, Agnieszka; Koleva, Mina; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Vazdekis, Alexandre; Lisker, Thorsten; Peletier, Reynier; van de Ven, Glenn

    2015-09-01

    We present the stellar population analysis of a sample of 12 dwarf elliptical galaxies, observed with the SAURON integral field unit, using the full-spectrum fitting method. We show that star formation histories (SFHs) resolved into two populations can be recovered even within a limited wavelength range, provided that high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) data are used. We confirm that dEs have had complex SFHs, with star formation extending to (more) recent epochs: for the majority of our galaxies star formation activity was either still strong a few (?5) Gyr ago or they experienced a secondary burst of star formation roughly at that time. This latter possibility is in agreement with the proposed dE formation scenario where tidal harassment drives the gas remaining in their progenitors inwards and induces a star formation episode. For one of our field galaxies, ID 0918, we find a correlation between its stellar population and kinematic properties, pointing to a possible merger origin of its kinematically decoupled core. One of our cluster objects, VCC 1431, appears to be composed exclusively of an old population (?10-12 Gyr). Combining this with our earlier dynamical results, we conclude that the galaxy was either ram-pressure stripped early on in its evolution in a group environment and subsequently tidally heated, or that it evolved in situ in the cluster's central parts, compact enough to avoid tidal disruption. These are only two of the examples illustrating the SFH richness of these objects confirmed with our data.

  12. THE DOMINANCE OF METAL-RICH STREAMS IN STELLAR HALOS: A COMPARISON BETWEEN SUBSTRUCTURE IN M31 AND {lambda}CDM MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, Karoline M.; Font, Andreea S.; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Guhathakurta, Puragra E-mail: andreea.font@durham.ac.uk E-mail: raja@ucolick.org

    2009-08-10

    Extensive photometric and spectroscopic surveys of the Andromeda galaxy (M31) have discovered tidal debris features throughout M31's stellar halo. We present stellar kinematics and metallicities in fields with identified substructure from our on-going SPLASH survey of M31 red giant branch stars with the DEIMOS spectrograph on the Keck II 10 m telescope. Radial velocity criteria are used to isolate members of the kinematically cold substructures. The substructures are shown to be metal-rich relative to the rest of the dynamically hot stellar population in the fields in which they are found. We calculate the mean metallicity and average surface brightness of the various kinematical components in each field, and show that, on average, higher surface brightness features tend to be more metal-rich than lower surface brightness features. Simulations of stellar halo formation via accretion in a cosmological context are used to illustrate that the observed trend can be explained as a natural consequence of the observed dwarf galaxy mass-metallicity relation. A significant spread in metallicity at a given surface brightness is seen in the data; we show that this is due to time effects, namely, the variation in the time since accretion of the tidal streams' progenitor onto the host halo. We show that in this theoretical framework a relationship between the alpha-enhancement and surface brightness of tidal streams is expected, which arises from the varying times of accretion of the progenitor satellites onto the host halo. Thus, measurements of the alpha-enrichment, metallicity, and surface brightness of tidal debris can be used to reconstruct the luminosity and time of accretion onto the host halo of the progenitors of tidal streams.

  13. Intracluster light in the Virgo cluster: large scale distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Rodriguéz, N.; Arnaboldi, M.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Gerhard, O.; Okamura, S.; Yasuda, N.; Freeman, K. C.

    2009-11-01

    Aims: The intracluster light (ICL) is a faint diffuse stellar component of clusters made of stars that are not bound to individual galaxies. We have carried out a large scale study of this component in the nearby Virgo cluster. Methods: The diffuse light is traced using planetary nebulae (PNe). The surveyed areas were observed with a narrow-band filter centered on the [OIII]? 5007 Å emission line redshifted to the Virgo cluster distance (the on-band image), and a broad-band filter (the off-band image). For some fields, additional narrow band imaging data corresponding to the H? emission were also obtained. The PNe are detected in the on-band image due to their strong emission in the [OIII]? 5007 Å line, but disappear in the off-band image. The contribution of Ly-? emitters at z=3.14 are corrected statistically using blank field surveys, when the H? image at the field position is not available. Results: We have surveyed a total area of 3.3 square degrees in the Virgo cluster with eleven fields located at different radial distances. Those fields located at smaller radii than 80 arcmin from the cluster center contain most of the detected diffuse light. In this central region of the cluster, the ICL has a surface brightness in the range ?B = 28.8-30 mag arsec-2, it is not uniformly distributed, and represents about 7% of the total galaxy light in this area. At distances larger than 80 arcmin the ICL is confined to single fields and individual sub-structures, e.g. in the sub-clump B, the M 60/M 59 group. For several fields at 2 and 3 degrees from the Virgo cluster center we set only upper limits. Conclusions: These results indicate that the ICL is not homogeneously distributed in the Virgo core, and it is concentrated in the high density regions of the Virgo cluster, e.g. the cluster core and other sub-structures. Outside these regions, the ICL is confined within areas of ~100 kpc in size, where tidal effects may be at work. These observational results link the formation of the ICL with the formation history of the most luminous cluster galaxies. Based on data collected with the 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope on La Palma, the Subaru telescope, operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, and the ESO/MPI 2.2 m telescope at La Silla, Chile, operated by ESO during observing runs 62.N-0248 and 70.B-0086(A).

  14. The Stellar Populations of Nuclei, Globular Clusters, and Stars in dE Galaxies in Virgo and Fornax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitfield Miller, Bryan; Hyazinth Puzia, Thomas; Hilker, Michael; Sanchez-Janssen, Ruben; Kissler-Patig, Markus

    2015-08-01

    We present ages and metallicities for globular clusters, nuclei, and underlying stars in nucleated dwarf elliptical galaxies (dE,N) in the Virgo and Fornax Cluster based on Lick/IDS index measurements and SSP models. Gemini/GMOS spectroscopy shows that the globular clusters are mostly old and metal-poor, very similar to the globular clusters in the Milky Way halo. The nuclei and underlying stars tend to be more metal-rich than the globular clusters and have a wide range of ages. The [?/Fe] ratios for both the globular clusters and nuclei range between 0.0 and 0.3. Formation scenarios for globular clusters and nuclei will be discussed.

  15. Stellar Kinematics and Structural Properties of Virgo Cluster Dwarf Early-type Galaxies from the SMAKCED Project. I. Kinematically Decoupled Cores and Implications for Infallen Groups in Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toloba, E.; Guhathakurta, P.; van de Ven, G.; Boissier, S.; Boselli, A.; den Brok, M.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Hensler, G.; Janz, J.; Laurikainen, E.; Lisker, T.; Paudel, S.; Peletier, R. F.; Ry?, A.; Salo, H.

    2014-03-01

    We present evidence for kinematically decoupled cores (KDCs) in two dwarf early-type (dE) galaxies in the Virgo cluster, VCC 1183 and VCC 1453, studied as part of the SMAKCED stellar absorption-line spectroscopy and imaging survey. These KDCs have radii of 1.''8 (0.14 kpc) and 4.''2 (0.33 kpc), respectively. Each of these KDCs is distinct from the main body of its host galaxy in two ways: (1) inverted sense of rotation and (2) younger (and possibly more metal-rich) stellar population. The observed stellar population differences are probably associated with the KDC, although we cannot rule out the possibility of intrinsic radial gradients in the host galaxy. We describe a statistical analysis method to detect, quantify the significance of, and characterize KDCs in long-slit rotation curve data. We apply this method to the two dE galaxies presented in this paper and to five other dEs for which KDCs have been reported in the literature. Among these seven dEs, there are four significant KDC detections, two marginal KDC detections, and one dE with an unusual central kinematic anomaly that may be an asymmetric KDC. The frequency of occurrence of KDCs and their properties provide important constraints on the formation history of their host galaxies. We discuss different formation scenarios for these KDCs in cluster environments and find that dwarf-dwarf wet mergers or gas accretion can explain the properties of these KDCs. Both of these mechanisms require that the progenitor had a close companion with a low relative velocity. This suggests that KDCs were formed in galaxy pairs residing in a poor group environment or in isolation whose subsequent infall into the cluster quenched star formation.

  16. Stellar kinematics and structural properties of virgo cluster dwarf early-type galaxies from the SMAKCED project. I. Kinematically decoupled cores and implications for infallen groups in clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Toloba, E.; Guhathakurta, P.; Boissier, S.; Boselli, A.; Den Brok, M.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Ry?, A.; Janz, J.; Lisker, T.; Laurikainen, E.; Salo, H.; Paudel, S.

    2014-03-10

    We present evidence for kinematically decoupled cores (KDCs) in two dwarf early-type (dE) galaxies in the Virgo cluster, VCC 1183 and VCC 1453, studied as part of the SMAKCED stellar absorption-line spectroscopy and imaging survey. These KDCs have radii of 1.''8 (0.14 kpc) and 4.''2 (0.33 kpc), respectively. Each of these KDCs is distinct from the main body of its host galaxy in two ways: (1) inverted sense of rotation and (2) younger (and possibly more metal-rich) stellar population. The observed stellar population differences are probably associated with the KDC, although we cannot rule out the possibility of intrinsic radial gradients in the host galaxy. We describe a statistical analysis method to detect, quantify the significance of, and characterize KDCs in long-slit rotation curve data. We apply this method to the two dE galaxies presented in this paper and to five other dEs for which KDCs have been reported in the literature. Among these seven dEs, there are four significant KDC detections, two marginal KDC detections, and one dE with an unusual central kinematic anomaly that may be an asymmetric KDC. The frequency of occurrence of KDCs and their properties provide important constraints on the formation history of their host galaxies. We discuss different formation scenarios for these KDCs in cluster environments and find that dwarf-dwarf wet mergers or gas accretion can explain the properties of these KDCs. Both of these mechanisms require that the progenitor had a close companion with a low relative velocity. This suggests that KDCs were formed in galaxy pairs residing in a poor group environment or in isolation whose subsequent infall into the cluster quenched star formation.

  17. A near-infrared census of the multicomponent stellar structure of early-type dwarf galaxies in the Virgo cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Janz, J.; Laurikainen, E.; Salo, H.; Lisker, T.; Hansson, K. S. A.; Meyer, H. T.; Paudel, S.; Peletier, R. F.; Den Brok, M.; Niemi, S.-M.; Toloba, E.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Ry?, A.

    2014-05-10

    The fraction of star-forming to quiescent dwarf galaxies varies from almost infinity in the field to zero in the centers of rich galaxy clusters. What is causing this pronounced morphology-density relation? What do quiescent dwarf galaxies look like when studied in detail, and what conclusions can be drawn about their formation mechanism? Here we study a nearly magnitude-complete sample (–19 < M{sub r} < –16 mag) of 121 Virgo cluster early types with deep near-infrared images from the SMAKCED project. We fit two-dimensional models with optional inner and outer components, as well as bar and lens components (in ?15% of the galaxies), to the galaxy images. While a single Sérsic function may approximate the overall galaxy structure, it does not entirely capture the light distribution of two-thirds of our galaxies, for which multicomponent models provide a better fit. This fraction of complex galaxies shows a strong dependence on luminosity, being larger for brighter objects. We analyze the global and component-specific photometric scaling relations of early-type dwarf galaxies and discuss similarities with bright early and late types. The dwarfs' global galaxy parameters show scaling relations that are similar to those of bright disk galaxies. The inner components are mostly fitted with Sérsic n values close to 1. At a given magnitude, they are systematically larger than the bulges of spirals, suggesting that they are not ordinary bulges. We argue that the multicomponent structures in early-type dwarfs are mostly a phenomenon inherent to the disks and may indeed stem from environmental processing.

  18. A Near-infrared Census of the Multicomponent Stellar Structure of Early-type Dwarf Galaxies in the Virgo Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janz, J.; Laurikainen, E.; Lisker, T.; Salo, H.; Peletier, R. F.; Niemi, S.-M.; Toloba, E.; Hensler, G.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Boselli, A.; den Brok, M.; Hansson, K. S. A.; Meyer, H. T.; Ry?, A.; Paudel, S.

    2014-05-01

    The fraction of star-forming to quiescent dwarf galaxies varies from almost infinity in the field to zero in the centers of rich galaxy clusters. What is causing this pronounced morphology-density relation? What do quiescent dwarf galaxies look like when studied in detail, and what conclusions can be drawn about their formation mechanism? Here we study a nearly magnitude-complete sample (-19 < Mr < -16 mag) of 121 Virgo cluster early types with deep near-infrared images from the SMAKCED project. We fit two-dimensional models with optional inner and outer components, as well as bar and lens components (in ~15% of the galaxies), to the galaxy images. While a single Sérsic function may approximate the overall galaxy structure, it does not entirely capture the light distribution of two-thirds of our galaxies, for which multicomponent models provide a better fit. This fraction of complex galaxies shows a strong dependence on luminosity, being larger for brighter objects. We analyze the global and component-specific photometric scaling relations of early-type dwarf galaxies and discuss similarities with bright early and late types. The dwarfs' global galaxy parameters show scaling relations that are similar to those of bright disk galaxies. The inner components are mostly fitted with Sérsic n values close to 1. At a given magnitude, they are systematically larger than the bulges of spirals, suggesting that they are not ordinary bulges. We argue that the multicomponent structures in early-type dwarfs are mostly a phenomenon inherent to the disks and may indeed stem from environmental processing. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile, under program IDs 064.N-0288 and 085.B-0919.

  19. Keck spectroscopy and NGVS photometry in the direction of the Virgo cluster: Globular cluster satellites of dwarf ellipticals, Milky Way halo substructure, and large-scale structure in the background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Meredith; Toloba, E.; Guhathakurta, P.; Yagati, S.; Chen, J.; Cote, P.; Dorman, C.; Ferrarese, L.; Peng, E. W.; Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Virgo cluster, the nearest large galaxy cluster, is a rich repository of dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxies. The formation mechanism of dE galaxies remains the subject of much debate. Dwarf galaxies in general are believed to be building blocks in the hierarchical growth of galaxies as per the “cold dark matter” model of structure formation. Globular cluster (GC) satellites serve as important tracers of dark matter in the outer regions of dEs (beyond 1 half-light radius). This project presents new spectroscopic data from Keck's DEIMOS, which specifically targeted low-luminosity (-17 < Mv < -15) dEs and GC satellites, in the Virgo cluster. These data are among the deepest spectroscopic data ever taken in this region. Secondary science targets - Milky Way foreground stars and galaxies in the background - are also discussed. All targets were chosen based on photometric data from the Next Generation Virgo Survey (NGVS) and the Advanced Camera for Surveys Virgo Cluster Survey (ACSVCS). Further, these two surveys were critical to the tomographic analysis of spectroscopic targets. From this analysis we were able to: identify 117 GCs associated with any one of the 21 dE targets in the Virgo cluster, identify Milky Way foreground stars as part of the Virgo Overdensity or Sagittarius streams, quantify the velocity structure of these ongoing cannibalism events, and identify two new superclusters of galaxies in the background using redshift distribution. This research was carried out under the auspices of UCSC's Science Internship Program. We thank the National Science Foundation for funding support. ET was supported by a Fulbright fellowship.

  20. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey-Infrared (NGVS-IR). I. A New Near-Ultraviolet, Optical, and Near-Infrared Globular Cluster Selection Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, Roberto P.; Puzia, Thomas H.; Lançon, Ariane; Peng, Eric W.; Côté, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Blakeslee, John P.; Mei, Simona; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Hudelot, Patrick; Courteau, Stéphane; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Balogh, Michael L.; Boselli, Alessandro; Bournaud, Frédéric; Carlberg, Raymond G.; Chapman, Scott C.; Durrell, Patrick; Eigenthaler, Paul; Emsellem, Eric; Gavazzi, Giuseppe; Gwyn, Stephen; Huertas-Company, Marc; Ilbert, Olivier; Jordán, Andrés; Läsker, Ronald; Licitra, Rossella; Liu, Chengze; MacArthur, Lauren; McConnachie, Alan; McCracken, Henry Joy; Mellier, Yannick; Peng, Chien Y.; Raichoor, Anand; Taylor, Matthew A.; Tonry, John L.; Tully, R. Brent; Zhang, Hongxin

    2014-01-01

    The NGVS-IR project (Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey-Infrared) is a contiguous, near-infrared imaging survey of the Virgo cluster of galaxies. It complements the optical wide-field survey of Virgo (NGVS). In its current state, NGVS-IR consists of Ks -band imaging of 4 deg2 centered on M87 and J- and Ks -band imaging of ~16 deg2 covering the region between M49 and M87. We present observations of the central 4 deg2 centered on Virgo's core region. The data were acquired with WIRCam on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, and the total integration time was 41 hr distributed over 34 contiguous tiles. A survey-specific strategy was designed to account for extended galaxies while still measuring accurate sky brightness within the survey area. The average 5? limiting magnitude is Ks = 24.4 AB mag, and the 50% completeness limit is Ks = 23.75 AB mag for point-source detections, when using only images with better than 0.''7 seeing (median seeing 0.''54). Star clusters are marginally resolved in these image stacks, and Virgo galaxies with \\mu _{K_s} \\simeq 24.4 AB mag arcsec-2 are detected. Combining the Ks data with optical and ultraviolet data, we build the uiKs color-color diagram, which allows a very clean color-based selection of globular clusters in Virgo. This diagnostic plot will provide reliable globular cluster candidates for spectroscopic follow-up campaigns, needed to continue the exploration of Virgo's photometric and kinematic substructures, and will help the design of future searches for globular clusters in extragalactic systems. We show that the new uiKs diagram displays significantly clearer substructure in the distribution of stars, globular clusters, and galaxies than the gzKs diagram—the NGVS + NGVS-IR equivalent of the BzK diagram that is widely used in cosmological surveys. Equipped with this powerful new tool, future NGVS-IR investigations based on the uiKs diagram will address the mapping and analysis of extended structures and compact stellar systems in and around Virgo galaxies. Based on observations obtained with WIRCam, a joint project of Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), Taiwan, Korea, Canada, France, and the CFHT, which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  1. The Virgo cD galaxy M87 and its environment as mapped by Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longobardi, Alessia

    2015-08-01

    Cosmological simulations predict the evolution of galaxy halos in cluster environments. Because of their low surface brightness, 1% of the night sky or lower, it is difficult to measure their spatial distribution and line-of-sight motions of the associated stars. Planetary nebulas (PNs) are very good tracers of their parent stellar populations, and we can use them to investigate these extended halos as consequence of their relatively strong [OIII] emission line. We have used PNs to study the outer halo of M87, the BCG at the center of the Virgo cluster. From the deepest and most extended narrow band survey done with Supruime Cam on Subaru, we carry out the spectroscopic follow up with FLMES at the VLT of more than 300 emission line objects in the halo of M87 out to ~150 kpc in radius. We confirm 254 PNs associated with the M87 halo and 44 with the intracluster light in the Virgo core. We show that the galaxy halo overlaps with the Virgo intracluster light (ICL) at all distance. Halo and ICL are dynamically distinct components, have different density profiles and parent stellar populations. The latter result shows that the halo of M87 is redder and more metal rich than the ICL population. Because of the excellent spectra resolution of our data, we identify a chevron structure in the projected phase space and identify the substructure in light associated to this dynamical sub-component. This accretion event account for a third of the light of the halo at 90 kpc distance from the center. It shows that at these distances the M87 halo is significantly lumpy and still growing by accretion of satellites.

  2. THE ONGOING ASSEMBLY OF A CENTRAL CLUSTER GALAXY: PHASE-SPACE SUBSTRUCTURES IN THE HALO OF M87

    SciTech Connect

    Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Brodie, Jean P.; Arnold, Jacob A.; Strader, Jay; Mihos, J. Christopher; Spitler, Lee R.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Foster, Caroline

    2012-03-20

    The halos of galaxies preserve unique records of their formation histories. We carry out the first combined observational and theoretical study of phase-space halo substructure in an early-type galaxy: M87, the central galaxy in the Virgo cluster. We analyze an unprecedented wide-field, high-precision photometric and spectroscopic data set for 488 globular clusters (GCs), which includes new, large-radius Subaru/Suprime-Cam and Keck/DEIMOS observations. We find signatures of two substructures in position-velocity phase space. One is a small, cold stream associated with a known stellar filament in the outer halo; the other is a large shell-like pattern in the inner halo that implies a massive, hitherto unrecognized accretion event. We perform extensive statistical tests and independent metallicity analyses to verify the presence and characterize the properties of these features, and to provide more general methodologies for future extragalactic studies of phase-space substructure. The cold outer stream is consistent with a dwarf galaxy accretion event, while for the inner shell there is tension between a low progenitor mass implied by the cold velocity dispersion, and a high mass from the large number of GCs, which might be resolved by a {approx}0.5 L* E/S0 progenitor. We also carry out proof-of-principle numerical simulations of the accretion of smaller galaxies in an M87-like gravitational potential. These produce analogous features to the observed substructures, which should have observable lifetimes of {approx}1 Gyr. The shell and stream GCs together support a scenario where the extended stellar envelope of M87 has been built up by a steady rain of material that continues until the present day. This phase-space method demonstrates unique potential for detailed tests of galaxy formation beyond the Local Group.

  3. The ongoing assembly of a central cluster galaxy: Phase-space substructures in the halo of M87

    E-print Network

    Romanowsky, Aaron J; Brodie, Jean P; Mihos, J Christopher; Spitler, Lee R; Forbes, Duncan A; Foster, Caroline; Arnold, Jacob A

    2011-01-01

    The halos of galaxies preserve unique records of their formation histories. We carry out the first combined observational and theoretical study of phase-space halo substructure in an early-type galaxy: M87, the central galaxy in the Virgo cluster. We analyze an unprecedented wide-field, high-precision photometric and spectroscopic data set for 488 globular clusters (GCs), which includes new, large-radius Subaru/Suprime-Cam and Keck/DEIMOS observations. We find signatures of two substructures in position-velocity phase-space. One is a small, cold stream associated with a known stellar filament in the outer halo; the other is a large shell-like pattern in the inner halo that implies a massive, hitherto unrecognized accretion event. We perform extensive statistical tests and independent metallicity analyses to verify the presence and characterize the properties of these features, and to provide more general methodologies for future extragalactic studies of phase-space substructure. The cold outer stream is consi...

  4. Planetary Nebulae and their parent stellar populations. Tracing the mass assembly of M87 and Intracluster light in the Virgo cluster core

    E-print Network

    Arnaboldi, Magda; Gerhard, Ortwin

    2015-01-01

    The diffuse extended outer regions of galaxies are hard to study because they are faint, with typical surface brightness of 1% of the dark night sky. We can tackle this problem by using resolved star tracers which remain visible at large distances from the galaxy centres. This article describes the use of Planetary Nebulae as tracers and the calibration of their properties as indicators of the star formation history, mean age and metallicity of the parent stars in the Milky Way and Local Group galaxies . We then report on the results from a deep, extended, planetary nebulae survey in a 0.5 sqdeg region centred on the brightest cluster galaxy NGC 4486 (M87) in the Virgo cluster core, carried out with SuprimeCam@Subaru and FLAMES-GIRAFFE@VLT. Two PN populations are identified out to 150 kpc distance from the centre of M87. One population is associated with the M87 halo and the second one with the intracluster light in the Virgo cluster core. They have different line-of-sight velocity and spatial distributions, ...

  5. Stellar Kinematics and Structural Properties of Virgo Cluster Dwarf Early-type Galaxies from the SMAKCED Project. II. The Survey and a Systematic Analysis of Kinematic Anomalies and Asymmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toloba, E.; Guhathakurta, P.; Peletier, R. F.; Boselli, A.; Lisker, T.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Simon, J. D.; van de Ven, G.; Paudel, S.; Emsellem, E.; Janz, J.; den Brok, M.; Gorgas, J.; Hensler, G.; Laurikainen, E.; Niemi, S.-M.; Ry?, A.; Salo, H.

    2014-12-01

    We present spatially resolved kinematics and global stellar populations and mass-to-light ratios for a sample of 39 dwarf early-type (dE) galaxies in the Virgo cluster studied as part of the SMAKCED stellar absorption-line spectroscopy and imaging survey. This sample is representative of the early-type population in the Virgo cluster in the absolute magnitude range -19.0 < Mr < -16.0 and of all morphological subclasses found in this galaxy population. For each dE, we measure the rotation curve and velocity dispersion profile and fit an analytic function to the rotation curve. We study the significance of the departure of the rotation curve from the best-fit analytic function (poorly fit) and of the difference between the approaching and receding sides of the rotation curve (asymmetry). Our sample includes two dEs with kinematically decoupled cores that have been previously reported. We find that 62 ± 8% (23 out of the 39) of the dEs have a significant anomaly in their rotation curve. Analysis of the images reveals photometric anomalies for most galaxies. However, there is no clear correlation between the significance of the photometric and kinematic anomalies. We measure age-sensitive (H? and H?A ) and metallicity sensitive (Fe4668 and Mgb) Lick spectral indices in the LIS-5 Å system. This population of galaxies exhibits a wide range of ages and metallicities; we also find that 4 dEs show clear evidence of emission partially filling in the Balmer absorption lines. Finally, we estimate the total masses and dark matter fractions of the dEs and plot them in the mass-size, the mass-velocity dispersion, and the fundamental plane scaling relations. The dEs seem to be the bridge between massive early-type galaxies and dSphs, and have a median total mass within the Re of log Me = 9.1 ± 0.2 and a median dark matter fraction within the Re of f DM = 46 ± 18%. Any formation model for the dE galaxy class must account for this diversity of kinematic and photometric anomalies and stellar populations.

  6. STELLAR KINEMATICS AND STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF VIRGO CLUSTER DWARF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES FROM THE SMAKCED PROJECT. II. THE SURVEY AND A SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS OF KINEMATIC ANOMALIES AND ASYMMETRIES

    SciTech Connect

    Toloba, E.; Guhathakurta, P.; Boselli, A.; Lisker, T.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Ry?, A.; Van de Ven, G.; Paudel, S.; Emsellem, E.; Janz, J.; Den Brok, M.; Gorgas, J.; Hensler, G.; Laurikainen, E.; Salo, H.; Niemi, S.-M.

    2015-01-01

    We present spatially resolved kinematics and global stellar populations and mass-to-light ratios for a sample of 39 dwarf early-type (dE) galaxies in the Virgo cluster studied as part of the SMAKCED stellar absorption-line spectroscopy and imaging survey. This sample is representative of the early-type population in the Virgo cluster in the absolute magnitude range –19.0 < M{sub r} < –16.0 and of all morphological subclasses found in this galaxy population. For each dE, we measure the rotation curve and velocity dispersion profile and fit an analytic function to the rotation curve. We study the significance of the departure of the rotation curve from the best-fit analytic function (poorly fit) and of the difference between the approaching and receding sides of the rotation curve (asymmetry). Our sample includes two dEs with kinematically decoupled cores that have been previously reported. We find that 62 ± 8% (23 out of the 39) of the dEs have a significant anomaly in their rotation curve. Analysis of the images reveals photometric anomalies for most galaxies. However, there is no clear correlation between the significance of the photometric and kinematic anomalies. We measure age-sensitive (H{sub ?} and H{sub ?A}) and metallicity sensitive (Fe4668 and Mgb) Lick spectral indices in the LIS-5 Å system. This population of galaxies exhibits a wide range of ages and metallicities; we also find that 4 dEs show clear evidence of emission partially filling in the Balmer absorption lines. Finally, we estimate the total masses and dark matter fractions of the dEs and plot them in the mass-size, the mass-velocity dispersion, and the fundamental plane scaling relations. The dEs seem to be the bridge between massive early-type galaxies and dSphs, and have a median total mass within the R{sub e} of log M{sub e} = 9.1 ± 0.2 and a median dark matter fraction within the R{sub e} of f {sub DM} = 46 ± 18%. Any formation model for the dE galaxy class must account for this diversity of kinematic and photometric anomalies and stellar populations.

  7. Advanced Virgo Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degallaix, J.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Agathos, M.; Allocca, A.; Astone, P.; Ballardin, G.; Barone, F.; Bejger, M.; Beker, M. G.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blom, M.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Boschi, V.; Bosi, L.; Bouhou, B.; Bradaschia, C.; Branchesi, M.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brisson, V.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Cagnoli, G.; Calloni, E.; Canuel, B.; Carbognani, F.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colacino, C. N.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Conte, A.; Coulon, J.-P.; Cuoco, E.; D'Antonio, S.; Dattilo, V.; Davier, M.; Day, R.; De Rosa, R.; Debreczeni, G.; Del Pozzo, W.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dietz, A.; Drago, M.; Endroczi, G.; Fafone, V.; Ferrante, I.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Flaminio, R.; Forte, L. A.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franc, J.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Galimberti, M.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garufi, F.; Gáspár, M. E.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Giazotto, A.; Gouaty, R.; Granata, M.; Guidi, G. M.; Heidmann, A.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Jaranowski, P.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Kasprzack, M.; Kowalska, I.; Królak, A.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Li, T. G. F.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Losurdo, G.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marque, J.; Martelli, F.; Masserot, A.; Meidam, J.; Michel, C.; Milano, L.; Minenkov, Y.; Mohan, M.; Morgado, N.; Mosca, S.; Mours, B.; Naticchioni, L.; Neri, I.; Nocera, F.; Palladino, L.; Palomba, C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoletti, R.; Parisi, M.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pinard, L.; Poggiani, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Rabeling, D. S.; Rácz, I.; Rapagnani, P.; Re, V.; Regimbau, T.; Ricci, F.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Romano, R.; Rosi?; ska, D.; Ruggi, P.; Saracco, E.; Sassolas, B.; Sentenac, D.; Sperandio, L.; Sturani, R.; Swinkels, B.; Tacca, M.; Taffarello, L.; ter Braack, A. P. M.; Toncelli, A.; Tonelli, M.; Torre, O.; Tournefier, E.; Travasso, F.; Vajente, G.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; van der Putten, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vavoulidis, M.; Vedovato, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vocca, H.; Ward, R. L.; Was, M.; Yvert, M.; Zadro?ny, A.; Zendri, J.-P.

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Virgo is the successor of the initial Virgo gravitational wave detector. This new interferometer will use the infrastructure of its predecessor but aims to be 10 times more sensitive. This presentation will give an overview of the Advanced Virgo design and the technical choices behind it. The different subsystem will be detailed as well as the challenges that can be expected. Finally the up-to-date installation progress and expected schedule will be given.

  8. Signatures of LCDM substructure in tidal debris

    E-print Network

    Jennifer M. Siegal-Gaskins; Monica Valluri

    2008-03-25

    In the past decade, surveys of the stellar component of the Galaxy have revealed a number of streams from tidally disrupted dwarf galaxies and globular clusters. Simulations of hierarchical structure formation in LCDM cosmologies predict that the dark matter halo of a galaxy like the Milky Way contains hundreds of subhalos with masses of ~10^8 solar masses and greater, and it has been suggested that the existence of coherent tidal streams is incompatible with the expected abundance of substructure. We investigate the effects of dark matter substructure on tidal streams by simulating the disruption of a self-gravitating satellite on a wide range of orbits in different host models both with and without substructure. We find that the halo shape and the specific orbital path more strongly determine the overall degree of disruption of the satellite than does the presence or absence of substructure, i.e., the changes in the large-scale properties of the tidal debris due to substructure are small compared to variations in the debris from different orbits in a smooth potential. Substructure typically leads to an increase in the degree of clumpiness of the tidal debris in sky projection, and in some cases a more compact distribution in line-of-sight velocity. Substructure also leads to differences in the location of sections of debris compared to the results of the smooth halo model, which may have important implications for the interpretation of observed tidal streams. A unique signature of the presence of substructure in the halo which may be detectable by upcoming surveys is identified. We conclude, however, that predicted levels of substructure are consistent with a detection of a coherent tidal stream from a dwarf galaxy.

  9. The Advanced Virgo detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acernese, F.; Adams, T.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Allocca, A.; Astone, P.; Ballardin, G.; Barone, F.; Barsuglia, M.; Basti, A.; Bauer, Th S.; Bavigadda, V.; Bejger, M.; Belczynski, C.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Bloemen, S.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Boschi, V.; Bosi, L.; Bradaschia, C.; Branchesi, M.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brisson, V.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Cagnoli, G.; Calloni, E.; Carbognani, F.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Chua, S.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Conte, A.; Coulon, J.-P.; Cuoco, E.; D'Antonio, S.; Dattilo, V.; Davier, M.; Day, R.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Dereli, H.; De Rosa, R.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dolique, V.; Drago, M.; Ducrot, M.; Endr?czi, G.; Fafone, V.; Farinon, S.; Ferrante, I.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Flaminio, R.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Ghosh, S.; Giazotto, A.; Gouaty, R.; Granata, M.; Greco, G.; Groot, P.; Guidi, G. M.; Harms, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hofman, D.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Kasprzack, M.; Kéfélian, F.; Królak, A.; Kutynia, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Lebigot, E.; Leonardi, M.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Losurdo, G.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mangano, V.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marque, J.; Martelli, F.; Martinelli, L.; Masserot, A.; Meacher, D.; Meidam, J.; Mezzani, F.; Michel, C.; Milano, L.; Minenkov, Y.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mours, B.; Nagy, M. F.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nelemans, G.; Neri, I.; Neri, M.; Nocera, F.; Palomba, C.; Paoletti, F.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Poggiani, R.; Prijatelj, M.; Prodi, G. A.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Rabeling, D. S.; Rácz, I.; Rapagnani, P.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Regimbau, T.; Ricci, F.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Romano, R.; Ruggi, P.; Sassolas, B.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Shah, S.; Siellez, K.; Straniero, N.; Swinkels, B.; Tacca, M.; Tonelli, M.; Travasso, F.; Vajente, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; van der Sluys, M. V.; van Heijningen, J.; Vasúth, M.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vocca, H.; Wei, L.-W.; Yvert, M.; Zadro?ny, A.; Zendri, J.-P.

    2015-05-01

    The Advanced Virgo interferometer is the upgraded version of the Virgo detector having the goal to extend by a factor 10 the observation horizon in the universe and consequently increase the detection rate by three orders of magnitude. Its installation is in progress and is expected to be completed in late 2015. In this proceeding we will present the scheme and the main challenging technical features of the detector and we will give an outline of the installation status and the foreseen time schedule which will bring Advanced Virgo to its full operation.

  10. Stellar Kinematics in the Complicated Inner Spheroid of M31: Discovery of Substructure Along the Southeastern Minor Axis and its Relationship to the Giant Southern Stream

    E-print Network

    Karoline M. Gilbert; Mark Fardal; Jasonjot S. Kalirai; Puragra Guhathakurta; Marla C. Geha; Jedidah Isler; Steven R. Majewski; James C. Ostheimer; Richard J. Patterson; David B. Reitzel; Evan Kirby; Michael C. Cooper

    2007-06-24

    We present the discovery of a kinematically-cold stellar population along the SE minor axis of the Andromeda galaxy (M31) that is likely the forward continuation of M31's giant southern stream. This discovery was made in the course of an on-going spectroscopic survey of red giant branch (RGB) stars in M31 using the DEIMOS instrument on the Keck II 10-m telescope. Stellar kinematics are investigated in eight fields located 9-30 kpc from M31's center (in projection). A likelihood method based on photometric and spectroscopic diagnostics is used to isolate confirmed M31 RGB stars from foreground Milky Way dwarf stars: for the first time, this is done without using radial velocity as a selection criterion, allowing an unbiased study of M31's stellar kinematics. The radial velocity distribution of the 1013 M31 RGB stars shows evidence for the presence of two components. The broad (hot) component has a velocity dispersion of 129 km/s and presumably represents M31's virialized spheroid. A significant fraction (19%) of the population is in a narrow (cold) component centered near M31's systemic velocity with a velocity dispersion that decreases with increasing radial distance, from 55.5 km/s at R_proj=12 kpc to 10.6 km/s at R_proj=18 kpc. The spatial and velocity distribution of the cold component matches that of the "Southeast shelf" predicted by the Fardal et al. (2007) orbital model of the progenitor of the giant southern stream. The metallicity distribution of the cold component matches that of the giant southern stream, but is about 0.2 dex more metal rich on average than that of the hot spheroidal component. We discuss the implications of our discovery on the interpretation of the intermediate-age spheroid population found in this region in recent ultra-deep HST imaging studies.

  11. Advanced Virgo: AN Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fafone, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in recent years on the development of gravitational wave detectors. Several km-scale interferometers have already operated at interesting sensitivity levels. In particular, the interferometric detector for gravitational waves Virgo completed its fourth science run in August 2011, when the upgrade toward the second-generation detector Advanced Virgo started. This major upgrade is planned to be completed by 2015. The expected final sensitivity of Advanced Virgo is about ten times better than the sensitivity reached by its predecessor. Many of the components of the detector will be changed to meet this goal, including new core optics, a more powerful laser, an improved vacuum system, the implementation of the signal-recycling technique. In this paper the description of the project and the expected schedule are presented.

  12. Jet substructure in ATLAS

    E-print Network

    Miller, David W

    2011-01-01

    Measurements are presented of the jet invariant mass and substructure in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV with the ATLAS detector using an integrated luminosity of 37 pb$^{-1}$. These results exercise the tools for distinguishing the signatures of new boosted massive particles in the hadronic final state. Two "fat" jet algorithms are used, along with the filtering jet grooming technique that was pioneered in ATLAS. New jet substructure observables are compared for the first time to data at the LHC. Finally, a sample of candidate boosted top quark events collected in the 2010 data is analyzed in detail for the jet substructure properties of hadronic "top-jets" in the final state. These measurements demonstrate not only our excellent understanding of QCD in a new energy regime but open the path to using complex jet substructure observables in the search for new physics.

  13. Status of the Virgo project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Antonucci, F.; Astone, P.; Ballardin, G.; Barone, F.; Barsuglia, M.; Basti, A.; Bauer, Th S.; Bebronne, M.; Beker, M. G.; Belletoile, A.; Birindelli, S.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blom, M.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Boschi, V.; Bosi, L.; Bouhou, B.; Braccini, S.; Bradaschia, C.; Branchesi, M.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brisson, V.; Budzy?ski, R.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Cagnoli, G.; Calloni, E.; Canuel, B.; Carbognani, F.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chaibi, O.; Chassande Mottin, E.; Chincarini, A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colacino, C. N.; Colas, J.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Corsi, A.; Coulon, J.-P.; Cuoco, E.; D'Antonio, S.; Dattilo, V.; Davier, M.; Day, R.; De Rosa, R.; Debreczeni, G.; Del Pozzo, W.; del Prete, M.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Emilio, M. Di Paolo; Di Virgilio, A.; Dietz, A.; Drago, M.; Fafone, V.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Flaminio, R.; Forte, L. A.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franc, J.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Galimberti, M.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garufi, F.; Gáspár, M. E.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Giazotto, A.; Gouaty, R.; Granata, M.; Greverie, C.; Guidi, G. M.; Hayau, J.-F.; Heidmann, A.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Huet, D.; Jaranowski, P.; Kowalska, I.; Królak, A.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Li, T. G. F.; Liguori, N.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Losurdo, G.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Man, N.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marque, J.; Martelli, F.; Masserot, A.; Michel, C.; Milano, L.; Minenkov, Y.; Mohan, M.; Morgado, N.; Morgia, A.; Mosca, S.; Moscatelli, V.; Mours, B.; Nocera, F.; Pagliaroli, G.; Palladino, L.; Palomba, C.; Paoletti, F.; Parisi, M.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Persichetti, G.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pietka, M.; Pinard, L.; Poggiani, R.; Prato, M.; Prodi, G. A.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Rabeling, D. S.; Rácz, I.; Rapagnani, P.; Re, V.; Regimbau, T.; Ricci, F.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Romano, R.; Rosi?ska, D.; Ruggi, P.; Sassolas, B.; Sentenac, D.; Sperandio, L.; Sturani, R.; Swinkels, B.; Tacca, M.; Taffarello, L.; Toncelli, A.; Tonelli, M.; Torre, O.; Tournefier, E.; Travasso, F.; Vajente, G.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; van der Putten, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vavoulidis, M.; Vedovato, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vocca, H.; Ward, R. L.; Was, M.; Yvert, M.; Zendri, J.-P.

    2011-06-01

    We describe the present state and future evolution of the Virgo gravitational wave detector, realized by the Virgo Collaboration at the European Gravitational Observatory, in Cascina near Pisa in Italy. We summarize basic principles of the operation and the design features of the Virgo detector. We present the sensitivity evolution due to a series of intermediate upgrades called Virgo+ which is being completed this year and includes new monolithic suspensions. We describe the present scientific potential of the detector. Finally we discuss the plans for the second generation of the detector, called Advanced Virgo, introducing its new features, the expected sensitivity evolution and the scientific potential.

  14. Jet Substructure Without Trees

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowiak, Martin; Larkoski, Andrew J.; /SLAC /Stanford U., ITP

    2011-08-19

    We present an alternative approach to identifying and characterizing jet substructure. An angular correlation function is introduced that can be used to extract angular and mass scales within a jet without reference to a clustering algorithm. This procedure gives rise to a number of useful jet observables. As an application, we construct a top quark tagging algorithm that is competitive with existing methods. In preparation for the LHC, the past several years have seen extensive work on various aspects of collider searches. With the excellent resolution of the ATLAS and CMS detectors as a catalyst, one area that has undergone significant development is jet substructure physics. The use of jet substructure techniques, which probe the fine-grained details of how energy is distributed in jets, has two broad goals. First, measuring more than just the bulk properties of jets allows for additional probes of QCD. For example, jet substructure measurements can be compared against precision perturbative QCD calculations or used to tune Monte Carlo event generators. Second, jet substructure allows for additional handles in event discrimination. These handles could play an important role at the LHC in discriminating between signal and background events in a wide variety of particle searches. For example, Monte Carlo studies indicate that jet substructure techniques allow for efficient reconstruction of boosted heavy objects such as the W{sup {+-}} and Z{sup 0} gauge bosons, the top quark, and the Higgs boson.

  15. Stellar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This eerie, dark structure, resembling an imaginary sea serpent's head, is a column of cool molecular hydrogen gas (two atoms of hydrogen in each molecule) and dust that is an incubator for new stars. The stars are embedded inside finger-like protrusions extending from the top of the nebula. Each 'fingertip' is somewhat larger than our own solar system. The pillar is slowly eroding away by the ultraviolet light from nearby hot stars, a process called 'photoevaporation.' As it does, small globules of especially dense gas buried within the cloud is uncovered. These globules have been dubbed 'EGGs' -- an acronym for 'Evaporating Gaseous Globules.' The shadows of the EGGs protect gas behind them, resulting in the finger-like structures at the top of the cloud. Forming inside at least some of the EGGs are embryonic stars -- stars that abruptly stop growing when the EGGs are uncovered and they are separated from the larger reservoir of gas from which they were drawing mass. Eventually the stars emerge, as the EGGs themselves succumb to photoevaporation. The stellar EGGS are found, appropriately enough, in the 'Eagle Nebula' (also called M16 -- the 16th object in Charles Messier's 18th century catalog of 'fuzzy' permanent objects in the sky), a nearby star-forming region 7,000 light-years away in the constellation Serpens. The picture was taken on April 1, 1995 with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. The color image is constructed from three separate images taken in the light of emission from different types of atoms. Red shows emission from singly-ionized sulfur atoms. Green shows emission from hydrogen. Blue shows light emitted by doubly-ionized oxygen atoms.

  16. THE NEXT GENERATION VIRGO CLUSTER SURVEY. IV. NGC 4216: A BOMBARDED SPIRAL IN THE VIRGO CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Paudel, Sanjaya; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Ferriere, Etienne; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Mihos, J. Christopher; Vollmer, Bernd; Balogh, Michael L.; Carlberg, Ray G.; Boissier, Samuel; Boselli, Alessandro; Durrell, Patrick R.; Emsellem, Eric; Michel-Dansac, Leo; Mei, Simona; Van Driel, Wim

    2013-04-20

    The final stages of mass assembly of present-day massive galaxies are expected to occur through the accretion of multiple satellites. Cosmological simulations thus predict a high frequency of stellar streams resulting from this mass accretion around the massive galaxies in the Local Volume. Such tidal streams are difficult to observe, especially in dense cluster environments, where they are readily destroyed. We present an investigation into the origins of a series of interlaced narrow filamentary stellar structures, loops and plumes in the vicinity of the Virgo Cluster, edge-on spiral galaxy, NGC 4216 that were previously identified by the Blackbird telescope. Using the deeper, higher-resolution, and precisely calibrated optical CFHT/MegaCam images obtained as part of the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS), we confirm the previously identified features and identify a few additional structures. The NGVS data allowed us to make a physical study of these low surface brightness features and investigate their origin. The likely progenitors of the structures were identified as either already cataloged Virgo Cluster Catalog dwarfs or newly discovered satellites caught in the act of being destroyed. They have the same g - i color index and likely contain similar stellar populations. The alignment of three dwarfs along an apparently single stream is intriguing, and we cannot totally exclude that these are second-generation dwarf galaxies being born inside the filament from the debris of an original dwarf. The observed complex structures, including in particular a stream apparently emanating from a satellite of a satellite, point to a high rate of ongoing dwarf destruction/accretion in the region of the Virgo Cluster where NGC 4216 is located. We discuss the age of the interactions and whether they occurred in a group that is just falling into the cluster and shows signs of the so-called pre-processing before it gets affected by the cluster environment, or in a group which already ventured toward the central regions of Virgo Cluster. In any case, compared to the other spiral galaxies in the Virgo Cluster, but also to those located in lower density environments, NGC 4216 seems to suffer an unusually heavy bombardment. Further studies will be needed to determine whether, given the surface brightness limit of our survey, about 29 mag arcsec{sup -2}, the number of observed streams around that galaxy is as predicted by cosmological simulations or conversely, whether the possible lack of similar structures in other galaxies poses a challenge to the merger-based model of galaxy mass assembly.

  17. Detection of a large-scale structure of intracluster globular clusters in the Virgo cluster.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myung Gyoon; Park, Hong Soo; Hwang, Ho Seong

    2010-04-16

    Globular clusters are usually found in galaxies, and they are excellent tracers of dark matter. Long ago it was suggested that intracluster globular clusters (IGCs) may exist that are bound to a galaxy cluster rather than to any single galaxy. Here we present a map showing the large-scale distribution of globular clusters over the entire Virgo cluster. It shows that IGCs are found out to 5 million light years from the Virgo center and that they are concentrated in several substructures that are much larger than galaxies. These objects might have been mostly stripped off from low-mass dwarf galaxies. PMID:20223950

  18. Jet Substructure Without Trees

    E-print Network

    Martin Jankowiak; Andrew J. Larkoski

    2011-06-30

    We present an alternative approach to identifying and characterizing jet substructure. An angular correlation function is introduced that can be used to extract angular and mass scales within a jet without reference to a clustering algorithm. This procedure gives rise to a number of useful jet observables. As an application, we construct a top quark tagging algorithm that is competitive with existing methods.

  19. Defining Spatial Extent of Sagittarius Dwarf Tidal Stream and the Virgo Overdensity with MilkyWay@home

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Jake; Newby, Matthew; Arsenault, Matthew; Bechtel, Torrin; Desell, Travis; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Thompson, Jeffery

    2015-01-01

    We refine and present tests of the statistical photometric parallax methods used to measure substructure of the halo stars with MilkyWay@home. This newer algorithm is showing promise for separating three substructure components, including the two parts of the bifurcated Sagittarius tidal stream and the Virgo Overdensity, while also fitting a smooth background component simultaneously. We show that the Sagittarius tidal streams and the Virgo Overdensity are much wider than previously imagined. We present the new results in the context of previous measurements of the properties of these halo substructures. This research was funded by NSF grant AST 10-09670, the Rensselaer Center for Open Source Software (RCOS), and crowd funding from the MilkyWay@home volunteers.

  20. Intracluster Planetary Nebulae in the Virgo Cluster I. Initial Results

    E-print Network

    John Feldmeier; Robin Ciardullo; George Jacoby

    1998-03-06

    We report the initial results of a survey for intracluster planetary nebulae in the Virgo Cluster. In two 16' x 16' fields, we identify 69 and 16 intracluster planetary nebula candidates, respectively. In a third 16' x 16' field near the central elliptical galaxy M87, we detect 75 planetary nebula candidates, of which a substantial fraction are intracluster in nature. By examining the number of the planetaries detected in each field and the shape of the planetary nebula luminosity function, we show that 1) the intracluster starlight of Virgo is distributed non-uniformly, and varies between subclumps A and B, 2) the Virgo Cluster core extends ~3 Mpc in front of M87, and thus is elongated along the line-of-sight, and 3) a minimum of 22% of Virgo's stellar luminosity resides between the galaxies in our fields, and that the true number may be considerably larger. We also use our planetary nebula data to argue that the intracluster stars in Virgo are likely derived from a population that is of moderate age and metallicity.

  1. The Virgo Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mould, Jeremy

    2013-02-01

    In the era of precision cosmology, the Virgo cluster takes on a new role in the cosmic distance scale. Its traditional role of testing the consistency of secondary distance indicators is replaced by an ensemble of distance measurements within the Local Supercluster, united by a velocity-field model obtained from a reconstruction based on redshift surveys. The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) leads us to see the Hubble constant as one of six parameters in a standard model of cosmology with considerable covariance among parameters. Independent experiments, such as WMAP, the Hubble Space Telescope Key Project on the Extragalactic Distance Scale, and their successors constrain these parameters.

  2. Galaxies at the Extremes: Ultra-diffuse Galaxies in the Virgo Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihos, J. Christopher; Durrell, Patrick R.; Ferrarese, Laura; Feldmeier, John J.; Côté, Patrick; Peng, Eric W.; Harding, Paul; Liu, Chengze; Gwyn, Stephen; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles

    2015-08-01

    We report the discovery of three large ({R}29 ? 1?) extremely low surface brightness (LSB; {? }V,0? 27.0) galaxies identified using our deep, wide-field imaging of the Virgo Cluster from the Burrell Schmidt telescope. Complementary data from the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey do not resolve red giant branch stars in these objects down to i = 24, yielding a lower distance limit of 2.5 Mpc. At the Virgo distance, these objects have half-light radii 3-10 kpc and luminosities {L}{{V}} = 2-9 × 107 {L}? . These galaxies are comparable in size but lower in surface brightness than the large ultradiffuse LSB galaxies recently identified in the Coma cluster, and are located well within Virgo’s virial radius; two are projected directly on the cluster core. One object appears to be a nucleated LSB in the process of being tidally stripped to form a new Virgo ultracompact dwarf galaxy. The others show no sign of tidal disruption, despite the fact that such objects should be most vulnerable to tidal destruction in the cluster environment. The relative proximity of Virgo makes these objects amenable to detailed studies of their structural properties and resolved stellar populations. They thus provide an important new window onto the connection between cluster environment and galaxy evolution at the extremes.

  3. The Purple Rose of Virgo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-03-01

    Until now NGC 5584 was just one galaxy among many others, located to the West of the Virgo Cluster. Known only as a number in galaxy surveys, its sheer beauty is now revealed in all its glory in a new VLT image. Since 1 March, this purple cosmic rose also holds the brightest stellar explosion of the year, known as SN 2007af. Located about 75 million light years away towards the constellation Virgo ('the Virgin'), NGC 5584 is a galaxy slightly smaller than the Milky Way. It belongs, however, to the same category: both are barred spirals. ESO PR Photo 16/07 ESO PR Photo 16/07 The Purple Rose of Virgo Spiral galaxies are composed of a 'bulge' and a flat disc. The bulge hosts old stars and usually a central supermassive black hole. Younger stars reside in the disc, forming the characteristic spiral structures from which the galaxies get their name. Barred spirals are crossed by a bright band of stars. In 2000, using ESO's Very Large Telescope, astronomers discovered the smallest, faintest, and most massive spirals (see ESO PR 12/00 and 25/00). In this amazing new image of NGC 5584 two dominant spiral arms are clearly visible, while the others are deformed, probably due to interactions with other galaxies. Luminous patches are spread all over the disc, indicating that stars are being formed in this gigantic rose at a frantic pace. Something even brighter, however, catches the eye in this picture. Any image taken before the end of February would not have shown the luminous spot located at the lower right of the galaxy's centre. As can be seen, the newly found object is much brighter than the centre of the galaxy itself. Its name? SN 2007af, the 32nd supernova discovered this year. Its presence signals the dramatic death of a star with a mass comparable to that of the Sun. SN 2007af, the brightest supernova of the year (so far), was discovered on 1 March by the Japanese supernova hunter Koichi Itagaki. He pointed his 60-centimetre telescope towards the Virgo constellation and discovered something that was not there before: SN 2007af. When it was discovered, its brightness (apparent visible magnitude of 15.4) was about seven times fainter than that of its host galaxy, NGC 5584. It has since brightened by the same factor of 7, reaching an apparent magnitude of 13.3 and making it observable by many amateur astronomers with smaller telescopes. Observations on 4 March with ESO's New Technology Telescope at La Silla revealed that this energetic explosion is a Type Ia supernova that was observed a few days before it reached its maximal luminosity. Matter from the doomed star is ejected with velocities above 15,000 km/s. Astronomers are observing SN2007af with ESO's VLT, with the aim of studying the geometry of the material ejected by the supernova, and thereby better understanding the explosion mechanism (see also ESO 44/06). A Type Ia supernova is thought to be the result of the explosion of a small and dense star - a white dwarf - inside a binary system. As its companion continuously spills matter onto the white dwarf, the white dwarf reaches a critical mass, leading to a fatal instability and the supernova. Type Ia supernovae are apparently quite similar to one another. This gives them a very useful role as 'standard candles' that can be used to measure cosmic distances. Their peak brightness rivals that of their parent galaxy, hence qualifying them as prime cosmic yardsticks. Astronomers have exploited this fortunate circumstance to study the expansion history of our Universe. However Type Ia supernovae are rare events: a galaxy like the Milky Way may host a Type Ia supernova on average only every 400 years. Even so, SN 2007af is not the only brilliant detonation recently recorded in NGC 5584. Furthermore, it seems that Japanese amateur astronomers have a special talent for catching supernova explosions in this purple spiral. Indeed, in 1996 Aoki Masakatsu identified SN 1996aq in NGC 5584, a difficult to classify supernova subject to a hot discussion due to its ambiguous nature.

  4. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey. IV. NGC 4216: A Bombarded Spiral in the Virgo Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paudel, Sanjaya; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Côté, Patrick; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Ferrarese, Laura; Ferriere, Etienne; Gwyn, Stephen D. J.; Mihos, J. Christopher; Vollmer, Bernd; Balogh, Michael L.; Carlberg, Ray G.; Boissier, Samuel; Boselli, Alessandro; Durrell, Patrick R.; Emsellem, Eric; MacArthur, Lauren A.; Mei, Simona; Michel-Dansac, Leo; van Driel, Wim

    2013-04-01

    The final stages of mass assembly of present-day massive galaxies are expected to occur through the accretion of multiple satellites. Cosmological simulations thus predict a high frequency of stellar streams resulting from this mass accretion around the massive galaxies in the Local Volume. Such tidal streams are difficult to observe, especially in dense cluster environments, where they are readily destroyed. We present an investigation into the origins of a series of interlaced narrow filamentary stellar structures, loops and plumes in the vicinity of the Virgo Cluster, edge-on spiral galaxy, NGC 4216 that were previously identified by the Blackbird telescope. Using the deeper, higher-resolution, and precisely calibrated optical CFHT/MegaCam images obtained as part of the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS), we confirm the previously identified features and identify a few additional structures. The NGVS data allowed us to make a physical study of these low surface brightness features and investigate their origin. The likely progenitors of the structures were identified as either already cataloged Virgo Cluster Catalog dwarfs or newly discovered satellites caught in the act of being destroyed. They have the same g - i color index and likely contain similar stellar populations. The alignment of three dwarfs along an apparently single stream is intriguing, and we cannot totally exclude that these are second-generation dwarf galaxies being born inside the filament from the debris of an original dwarf. The observed complex structures, including in particular a stream apparently emanating from a satellite of a satellite, point to a high rate of ongoing dwarf destruction/accretion in the region of the Virgo Cluster where NGC 4216 is located. We discuss the age of the interactions and whether they occurred in a group that is just falling into the cluster and shows signs of the so-called pre-processing before it gets affected by the cluster environment, or in a group which already ventured toward the central regions of Virgo Cluster. In any case, compared to the other spiral galaxies in the Virgo Cluster, but also to those located in lower density environments, NGC 4216 seems to suffer an unusually heavy bombardment. Further studies will be needed to determine whether, given the surface brightness limit of our survey, about 29 mag arcsec-2, the number of observed streams around that galaxy is as predicted by cosmological simulations or conversely, whether the possible lack of similar structures in other galaxies poses a challenge to the merger-based model of galaxy mass assembly. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) and CEA/DAPNIA, at the CFHT which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  5. The Extended Virgo Cluster Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, Soo-Chang

    2015-08-01

    We present a new catalog of galaxies in the wider region of the Virgo cluster, based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7. The Extended Virgo Cluster Catalog (EVCC) covers an area of 725 deg2 or 60.1 Mpc2. It is 5.2 times larger than the footprint of the classical Virgo Cluster Catalog (VCC) and reaches out to 3.5 times the virial radius of the Virgo cluster. We selected 1324 spectroscopically targeted galaxies with radial velocities less than 3000 km s-1. In addition, 265 galaxies that have been overlooked in the SDSS spectroscopic survey but have available redshifts in the NASA Extragalactic Database are also included. Our selection process secured a total of 1589 galaxies, 676 of which are not included in the VCC. The certain and possible cluster members are defined by means of redshift comparison with a cluster infall model. We employed two independent and complementary galaxy classification schemes: the traditional morphological classification based on the visual inspection of optical images and a characterization of galaxies from their spectroscopic features. SDSS u, g, r, i, and z passband photometry of all EVCC galaxies was performed using Source Extractor. We compare the EVCC galaxies with the VCC in terms of morphology, spatial distribution, and luminosity function. The EVCC defines a comprehensive galaxy sample covering a wider range in galaxy density that is significantly different from the inner region of the Virgo cluster. It will be the foundation for forthcoming galaxy evolution studies in the extended Virgo cluster region, complementing ongoing and planned Virgo cluster surveys at various wavelengths.

  6. THE EXTENDED VIRGO CLUSTER CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Suk; Rey, Soo-Chang; Lee, Youngdae; Chung, Jiwon; Pak, Mina; Yi, Wonhyeong; Lee, Woong; Jerjen, Helmut; Lisker, Thorsten; Sung, Eon-Chang

    2015-01-01

    We present a new catalog of galaxies in the wider region of the Virgo cluster, based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7. The Extended Virgo Cluster Catalog (EVCC) covers an area of 725 deg{sup 2} or 60.1 Mpc{sup 2}. It is 5.2 times larger than the footprint of the classical Virgo Cluster Catalog (VCC) and reaches out to 3.5 times the virial radius of the Virgo cluster. We selected 1324 spectroscopically targeted galaxies with radial velocities less than 3000 km s{sup –1}. In addition, 265 galaxies that have been overlooked in the SDSS spectroscopic survey but have available redshifts in the NASA Extragalactic Database are also included. Our selection process secured a total of 1589 galaxies, 676 of which are not included in the VCC. The certain and possible cluster members are defined by means of redshift comparison with a cluster infall model. We employed two independent and complementary galaxy classification schemes: the traditional morphological classification based on the visual inspection of optical images and a characterization of galaxies from their spectroscopic features. SDSS u, g, r, i, and z passband photometry of all EVCC galaxies was performed using Source Extractor. We compare the EVCC galaxies with the VCC in terms of morphology, spatial distribution, and luminosity function. The EVCC defines a comprehensive galaxy sample covering a wider range in galaxy density that is significantly different from the inner region of the Virgo cluster. It will be the foundation for forthcoming galaxy evolution studies in the extended Virgo cluster region, complementing ongoing and planned Virgo cluster surveys at various wavelengths.

  7. WARM GAS IN THE VIRGO CLUSTER. I. DISTRIBUTION OF Ly{alpha} ABSORBERS

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Joo Heon; Putman, Mary E.; Bryan, Greg L.; Thom, Christopher; Chen, Hsiao-Wen

    2012-08-01

    The first systematic study of the warm gas (T = 10{sup 4-5} K) distribution across a galaxy cluster is presented using multiple background QSOs in and around the Virgo Cluster. We detect 25 Ly{alpha} absorbers (N{sub HI} = 10{sup 13.1-15.4} cm{sup -2}) in the Virgo velocity range toward 9 of 12 QSO sightlines observed with the Cosmic Origin Spectrograph, with a cluster impact parameter range of 0.36-1.65 Mpc (0.23-1.05 R{sub vir}). Including 18 Ly{alpha} absorbers previously detected by STIS or GHRS toward 7 of 11 background QSOs in and around the Virgo Cluster, we establish a sample of 43 absorbers toward a total of 23 background probes for studying the incidence of Ly{alpha} absorbers in and around the Virgo Cluster. With these absorbers, we find (1) warm gas is predominantly in the outskirts of the cluster and avoids the X-ray-detected hot intracluster medium (ICM). Also, Ly{alpha} absorption strength increases with cluster impact parameter. (2) Ly{alpha}-absorbing warm gas traces cold H I-emitting gas in the substructures of the Virgo Cluster. (3) Including the absorbers associated with the surrounding substructures, the warm gas covering fraction (100% for N{sub HI} > 10{sup 13.1} cm{sup -2}) is in agreement with cosmological simulations. We speculate that the observed warm gas is part of large-scale gas flows feeding the cluster both in the ICM and galaxies.

  8. EXPLORING THE VARIABLE SKY WITH LINEAR. II. HALO STRUCTURE AND SUBSTRUCTURE TRACED BY RR LYRAE STARS TO 30 kpc

    SciTech Connect

    Sesar, Branimir; Ivezic, Zeljko; Morgan, Dylan M.; Becker, Andrew C.; Stuart, J. Scott; Sharma, Sanjib; Palaversa, Lovro; Juric, Mario; Wozniak, Przemyslaw; Oluseyi, Hakeem

    2013-08-01

    We present a sample of {approx}5000 RR Lyrae stars selected from the recalibrated LINEAR data set and detected at heliocentric distances between 5 kpc and 30 kpc over {approx}8000 deg{sup 2} of sky. The coordinates and light curve properties, such as period and Oosterhoff type, are made publicly available. We analyze in detail the light curve properties and Galactic distribution of the subset of {approx}4000 type ab RR Lyrae (RRab) stars, including a search for new halo substructures and the number density distribution as a function of Oosterhoff type. We find evidence for the Oosterhoff dichotomy among field RR Lyrae stars, with the ratio of the type II and I subsamples of about 1:4, but with a weaker separation than for globular cluster stars. The wide sky coverage and depth of this sample allow unique constraints for the number density distribution of halo RRab stars as a function of galactocentric distance: it can be described as an oblate ellipsoid with an axis ratio q = 0.63 and with either a single or a double power law with a power-law index in the range -2 to -3. Consistent with previous studies, we find that the Oosterhoff type II subsample has a steeper number density profile than the Oosterhoff type I subsample. Using the group-finding algorithm EnLink, we detected seven candidate halo groups, only one of which is statistically spurious. Three of these groups are near globular clusters (M53/NGC 5053, M3, M13), and one is near a known halo substructure (Virgo Stellar Stream); the remaining three groups do not seem to be near any known halo substructures or globular clusters and seem to have a higher ratio of Oosterhoff type II to Oosterhoff type I RRab stars than what is found in the halo. The extended morphology and the position (outside the tidal radius) of some of the groups near globular clusters are suggestive of tidal streams possibly originating from globular clusters. Spectroscopic follow-up of detected halo groups is encouraged.

  9. More evidence for an intracluster planetary nebulae population in the Virgo cluster

    E-print Network

    R. H. Mendez; M. A. Guerrero; K. C. Freeman; M. Arnaboldi; R. P. Kudritzki; U. Hopp; M. Capaccioli; H. Ford

    1997-10-16

    We surveyed a 50 sq arcmin region in the Virgo cluster core to search for intergalactic planetary nebulae, and found 11 candidates in the surveyed area. The measured fluxes of these unresolved sources are consistent with these objects being planetary nebulae from an intracluster population of stars. We compute the cumulative luminosity function of these 11 planetary nebula candidates. If we assume that they belong to the Virgo cluster, their cumulative luminosity function is in good agreement with planetary nebula luminosity function simulations. This comparison allows us to estimate the surface mass density of the intracluster stellar population at the surveyed field in the cluster core.

  10. Early Evolution of Stellar Clusters

    E-print Network

    Ian A. Bonnell

    1999-08-24

    Observations have revealed that most stars are born in clusters. These systems, containing from tens to thousands of stars and typically significant mass in gas in the youngest systems, evolve due to a combination of stellar and star-gas interactions. Simulations of pure stellar systems are used to investigate possible initial configurations including ellipticity, substructure and mass segregation. Simulations of gas-rich clusters investigate the effects of accretion on the cluster dynamics and on the individual masses that result in a stellar mass spectrum. Further stellar interactions, including binary destruction and eventually cluster dissolution are also discussed.

  11. Exploring Milky Way Halo Substructures with Large-Area Sky Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Over the last two decades, large-area photometric surveys have provided deep photometric catalogs of stars in the Milky Way. As a result, our understanding of the formation of the Galactic halo has evolved from a simple monolitic collapse model to a much more complex and dynamic structure. The stellar halo is now known to be inhabited by a variety of spatial and kinematic stellar substructures, ranging from stellar clouds and streams to dwarf galaxies, predicted by hierarchical Lambda-CDM models of galaxy formation. In my talk, I will present the latest discoveries of the halo substructures found in the Dark Energy Survey (DES). I will also discuss the spectroscopic follow-up observations of the stellar cloud candidates found in the Two Micron All Sky Survey and the dwarf galaxy candidates found in DES. These newly discovered features can provide a more complete census of our Galaxy's formation history.

  12. Chemical substructure analysis in toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Beauchamp, R.O. Jr.

    1990-12-31

    A preliminary examination of chemical-substructure analysis (CSA) demonstrates the effective use of the Chemical Abstracts compound connectivity file in conjunction with the bibliographic file for relating chemical structures to biological activity. The importance of considering the role of metabolic intermediates under a variety of conditions is illustrated, suggesting structures that should be examined that may exhibit potential activity. This CSA technique, which utilizes existing large files accessible with online personal computers, is recommended for use as another tool in examining chemicals in drugs. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Universal Substructure Distributions in LCDM halos: Can we find a Fossil Group?

    E-print Network

    E. D'Onghia; A. V. Maccio'; G. Lake; J. Stadel; B. Moore

    2007-04-19

    We use large cosmological N-body simulations to study the subhalo population in galaxy group sized halos. In particular, we look for fossil group candidates with typical masses ~10-25% of Virgo cluster but with an order of magnitude less substructure. We examine recent claims that the earliest systems to form are deficient enough in substructure to explain the luminosity function found in fossil groups. Although our simulations show a correlation between the halo formation time and the number of subhalos, the maximum suppression of subhalos is a factor of 2-2.5, whereas a factor of 6 is required to match fossil groups and galaxies. While the number of subhalos depends weakly on the formation time, the slope of the halo substructure velocity function does not. The satellite population within Cold Dark Matter (CDM) halos is self-similar at scales between galaxies and galaxy clusters regardless of mass, whereas current observations show a break in self-similarity at a mass scale corresponding to group of galaxies.

  14. Characterization of the Virgo Seismic Environment

    E-print Network

    The Virgo Collaboration; T. Accadia; F. Acernese; P. Astone; G. Ballardin; F. Barone; M. Barsuglia; A. Basti; Th. S. Bauer; M. Bebronne; M. G. Beker; A. Belletoile; M. Bitossi; M. A. Bizouard; M. Blom; F. Bondu; L. Bonelli; R. Bonnand; V. Boschi; L. Bosi; B. Bouhou; S. Braccini; C. Bradaschia; M. Branchesi; T. Briant; A. Brillet; V. Brisson; T. Bulik; H. J. Bulten; D. Buskulic; C. Buy; G. Cagnoli; E. Calloni; B. Canuel; F. Carbognani; F. Cavalier; R. Cavalieri; G. Cella; E. Cesarini; O. Chaibi; E. Chassande-Mottin; A. Chincarini; A. Chiummo; F. Cleva; E. Coccia; P. -F. Cohadon; C. N. Colacino; J. Colas; A. Colla; M. Colombini; A. Conte; M. Coughlin; J. -P. Coulon; E. Cuoco; S. DAntonio; V. Dattilo; M. Davier; R. Day; R. De Rosa; G. Debreczeni; W. Del Pozzo; M. del Prete; L. Di Fiore; A. Di Lieto; M. Di Paolo Emilio; A. Di Virgilio; A. Dietz; M. Drago; G. Endroczi; V. Fafone; I. Ferrante; F. Fidecaro; I. Fiori; R. Flaminio; L. A. Forte; J. -D. Fournier; J. Franc; S. Frasca; F. Frasconi; M. Galimberti; L. Gammaitoni; F. Garufi; M. E. Gaspar; G. Gemme; E. Genin; A. Gennai; A. Giazotto; R. Gouaty; M. Granata; C. Greverie; G. M. Guidi; J. -F. Hayau; A. Heidmann; H. Heitmann; P. Hello; P. Jaranowski; I. Kowalska; A. Krolak; N. Leroy; N. Letendre; T. G. F. Li; N. Liguori; M. Lorenzini; V. Loriette; G. Losurdo; E. Majorana; I. Maksimovic; N. Man; M. Mantovani; F. Marchesoni; F. Marion; J. Marque; F. Martelli; A. Masserot; C. Michel; L. Milano; Y. Minenkov; M. Mohan; N. Morgado; A. Morgia; S. Mosca; B. Mours; L. Naticchioni; F. Nocera; G. Pagliaroli; L. Palladino; C. Palomba; F. Paoletti; M. Parisi; A. Pasqualetti; R. Passaquieti; D. Passuello; G. Persichetti; F. Piergiovanni; M. Pietka; L. Pinard; R. Poggiani; M. Prato; G. A. Prodi; M. Punturo; P. Puppo; D. S. Rabeling; I. Racz; P. Rapagnani; V. Re; T. Regimbau; F. Ricci; F. Robinet; A. Rocchi; L. Rolland; R. Romano; D. Rosinska; P. Ruggi; B. Sassolas; D. Sentenac; L. Sperandio; R. Sturani; B. Swinkels; M. Tacca; L. Taffarello; A. Toncelli; M. Tonelli; O. Torre; E. Tournefier; F. Travasso; G. Vajente; J. F. J. van den Brand; C. Van Den Broeck; S. van der Putten; M. Vasuth; M. Vavoulidis; G. Vedovato; D. Verkindt; F. Vetrano; A. Vicere; J. -Y. Vinet; S. Vitale; H. Vocca; R. L. Ward; M. Was; M. Yvert; A. Zadrozny; J. -P. Zendri

    2011-08-08

    The Virgo gravitational wave detector is an interferometer (ITF) with 3km arms located in Pisa, Italy. From July to October 2010, Virgo performed its third science run (VSR3) in coincidence with the LIGO detectors. Despite several techniques adopted to isolate the interferometer from the environment, seismic noise remains an important issue for Virgo. Vibrations produced by the detector infrastructure (such as air conditioning units, water chillers/heaters, pumps) are found to affect Virgo's sensitivity, with the main coupling mechanisms being through beam jitter and scattered light processes. The Advanced Virgo (AdV) design seeks to reduce ITF couplings to environmental noise by having most vibration-sensitive components suspended and in-vacuum, as well as muffle and relocate loud machines. During the months of June and July 2010, a Guralp-3TD seismometer was stationed at various locations around the Virgo site hosting major infrastructure machines. Seismic data were examined using spectral and coherence analysis with seismic probes close to the detector. The primary aim of this study was to identify noisy machines which seismically affect the ITF environment and thus require mitigation attention. Analyzed machines are located at various distances from the experimental halls, ranging from 10m to 100m. An attempt is made to measure the attenuation of emitted noise at the ITF and correlate it to the distance from the source and to seismic attenuation models in soil.

  15. The Most Massive Ultra-Compact Dwarf Galaxy in the Virgo Cluster

    E-print Network

    Liu, Chengze; Toloba, Elisa; Mihos, J Christopher; Ferrarese, Laura; Alamo-Martínez, Karla; Zhang, Hong-Xin; Côté, Patrick; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Cunningham, Emily C; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Gwyn, Stephen; Herczeg, Gregory; Lim, Sungsoon; Puzia, Thomas H; Roediger, Joel; Sánchez-Janssen, Rubén; Yin, Jun

    2015-01-01

    We report on the properties of the most massive ultra-compact dwarf galaxy (UCD) in the nearby Virgo Cluster of galaxies using imaging from the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS) and spectroscopy from Keck/DEIMOS. This object (M59-UCD3) appears to be associated with the massive Virgo galaxy M59 (NGC 4621), has an integrated velocity dispersion of 78 km/s, a dynamical mass of $3.7\\times10^8 M_\\odot$, and an effective radius ($R_e$) of 25 pc. With an effective surface mass density of $9.4\\times10^{10} M_\\odot/kpc^2$, it is the densest galaxy in the local Universe discovered to date, surpassing the density of the luminous Virgo UCD, M60-UCD1. M59-UCD3 has a total luminosity of $M_{g'}=-14.2$ mag, and a spectral energy distribution consistent with an old (14 Gyr) stellar population with [Fe/H]=0.0 and [$\\alpha$/Fe]=+0.2. We also examine deep imaging around M59 and find a broad low surface brightness stream pointing towards M59-UCD3, which may represent a tidal remnant of the UCD progenitor. This UCD, alo...

  16. The Most Massive Ultra-compact Dwarf Galaxy in the Virgo Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chengze; Peng, Eric W.; Toloba, Elisa; Mihos, J. Christopher; Ferrarese, Laura; Alamo-Martínez, Karla; Zhang, Hong-Xin; Côté, Patrick; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Cunningham, Emily C.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Gwyn, Stephen; Herczeg, Gregory; Lim, Sungsoon; Puzia, Thomas H.; Roediger, Joel; Sánchez-Janssen, Rubén; Yin, Jun

    2015-10-01

    We report on the properties of the most massive ultra-compact dwarf galaxy (UCD) in the nearby Virgo Cluster of galaxies using imaging from the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey and spectroscopy from Keck/DEIMOS. This object (M59-UCD3) appears to be associated with the massive Virgo galaxy M59 (NGC 4621), has an integrated velocity dispersion of 78 {km} {{{s}}}-1, a dynamical mass of 3.7× {10}8{M}? , and an effective radius (Re) of 25 pc. With an effective surface mass density of 9.4× {10}10{M}? {{kpc}}-2, it is the densest galaxy in the local universe discovered to date, surpassing the density of the luminous Virgo UCD, M60-UCD1. M59-UCD3 has a total luminosity of {M}{g\\prime }=-14.2 mag, and a spectral energy distribution consistent with an old (14 Gyr) stellar population with [Fe/H] = 0.0 and [? /{Fe}]=+0.2. We also examine deep imaging around M59 and find a broad low surface brightness stream pointing toward M59-UCD3, which may represent a tidal remnant of the UCD progenitor. This UCD, along with similar objects like M60-UCD1 and M59cO, likely represents an extreme population of tidally stripped galaxies more akin to larger and more massive compact early-type galaxies than to nuclear star clusters in present-day dwarf galaxies.

  17. Fractal Substructure of a Nanopowder

    E-print Network

    Thomas Schwager; Dietrich E. Wolf; Thorsten Poeschel

    2008-02-25

    The structural evolution of a nano-powder by repeated dispersion and settling can lead to characteristic fractal substructures. This is shown by numerical simulations of a two-dimensional model agglomerate of adhesive rigid particles. The agglomerate is cut into fragments of a characteristic size l, which then are settling under gravity. Repeating this procedure converges to a loosely packed structure, the properties of which are investigated: a) The final packing density is independent of the initialization, b) the short-range correlation function is independent of the fragment size, c) the structure is fractal up to the fragmentation scale l with a fractal dimension close to 1.7, and d) the relaxation time increases linearly with l.

  18. Systematic Problems With Stellar Halo Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailin, Jeremy

    2012-05-01

    Stellar halos contain a small fraction of the stellar mass of a galaxy. The dynamic range required to model the substructure within this small component while simultaneously modeling the main galaxy is currently unobtainable, which has lead to the prevalence of stellar halo models that tag stellar content onto dark matter particles in pure dark matter simulations, making it computationally feasible (e.g. Bullock & Johnston 2005; Cooper et al. 2010). Using paired simulations with identical initial conditions, we estimate the magnitude of the systematic effects these simplifications have on the structure of the halos. We find that (1) "painting" and (2) neglecting baryonic processes each introduce factor-of-several changes to the amount of substructure predicted. We therefore urge caution when interpreting differences between models and observations that are at this level.

  19. Parallel Computational Environment for Substructure Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gendy, Atef S.; Patnaik, Surya N.; Hopkins, Dale A.; Berke, Laszlo

    1995-01-01

    Design optimization of large structural systems can be attempted through a substructure strategy when convergence difficulties are encountered. When this strategy is used, the large structure is divided into several smaller substructures and a subproblem is defined for each substructure. The solution of the large optimization problem can be obtained iteratively through repeated solutions of the modest subproblems. Substructure strategies, in sequential as well as in parallel computational modes on a Cray YMP multiprocessor computer, have been incorporated in the optimization test bed CometBoards. CometBoards is an acronym for Comparative Evaluation Test Bed of Optimization and Analysis Routines for Design of Structures. Three issues, intensive computation, convergence of the iterative process, and analytically superior optimum, were addressed in the implementation of substructure optimization into CometBoards. Coupling between subproblems as well as local and global constraint grouping are essential for convergence of the iterative process. The substructure strategy can produce an analytically superior optimum different from what can be obtained by regular optimization. For the problems solved, substructure optimization in a parallel computational mode made effective use of all assigned processors.

  20. SED Fitting of Virgo Cluster Galaxies and Evidence for Enhanced Star Formation due to Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulmer, Leah; Kenney, Jeffrey D.; Edwards, Louise O. V.

    2016-01-01

    Using UV through FIR data in matched apertures, we modeled the spectral energy distributions (SED) of 49 Virgo cluster spiral galaxies with the modeling program Magphys (daCunha+ 2008). We used the results from these models to explore the relationships between the stellar masses (M*), specific star formation rates (sSFR), and HI properties in our sample. The poster highlights one initial result from these comparisons: supportive evidence for gas accretion in the outskirts of the Virgo cluster. The galaxies with the highest sSFRs in the mass range 10^9-10^10 M_sun are all HI-rich, have extended irregular HI envelopes, and lie in the outskirts of the cluster. We propose that these galaxies are accreting gas onto their disks, a process which enhances their SFRs.

  1. The Effect of the Transformation of Spiral Galaxies in the Virgo Cluster on Broadband Color Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowl, Hugh H.; Chung, A.; Blanton, M. R.; Kenney, J. D. P.; van Gorkom, J. H.; Schiminovich, D.

    2009-01-01

    Galaxy evolution and the effect of environment on that evolution is one of the central questions of modern extragalactic astronomy. The nearby Virgo Cluster provides us with an ideal laboratory to study galaxy-galaxy and galaxy-cluster interactions at a level of detail impossible at higher redshift. In detailed, pan-chromatic surveys of Virgo, we have seen galaxies transformed by their interaction with the intra-cluster medium, with star-forming gas stripped from spiral galaxies. Using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we present the results of a study of the global broadband optical properties of 44 Virgo Cluster spiral galaxies from the VIVA galaxy survey. These results show that spiral galaxies actively being stripped maintain blue colors while stripping is ongoing. However, a comparison between the colors of stripped spirals and their HI content suggests that more completely stripped galaxies are, indeed, redder than those that are only modestly HI deficient. This suggests that, as galaxies become more completely stripped, their global colors become redder and that in a cluster more massive than Virgo, such stripping could effectively transform galaxies from blue to red. By comparing broadband colors to the stripping timescales derived from optical spectroscopy and stellar population synthesis, we determine that the broadband color evolution is complex, with dust and the age of the stellar population both playing a role. By comparing detailed studies of a nearby cluster with statistical results from the much larger SDSS sample, we are able to gain insights into the details of how environmentally-driven galaxy evolution affects global broadband colors.

  2. Stellarator hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Furth, H.P.; Ludescher, C.

    1984-08-01

    The present paper briefly reviews the subject of tokamak-stellarator and pinch-stellarator hybrids, and points to two interesting new possibilities: compact-torus-stellarators and mirror-stellarators.

  3. The Virgo Interferometer for Gravitational Wave Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Antonucci, F.; Astone, P.; Ballardin, G.; Barone, F.; Barsuglia, M.; Bauer, Th. S.; Beker, M. G.; Belletoile, A.; Birindelli, S.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blom, M.; Boccara, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Boschi, V.; Bosi, L.; Bouhou, B.; Braccini, S.; Bradaschia, C.; Brillet, A.; Brisson, V.; Budzy?ski, R.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Cagnoli, G.; Calloni, E.; Campagna, E.; Canuel, B.; Carbognani, F.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chincarini, A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Colacino, C. N.; Colas, J.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Corsi, A.; Coulon, J.-P.; Cuoco, E.; D'Antonio, S.; Dattilo, V.; Davier, M.; Day, R.; Rosa, R. De; Debreczeni, G.; Del Prete, M.; di Fiore, L.; di Lieto, A.; di Paolo Emilio, M.; di Virgilio, A.; Dietz, A.; Dietz, A.; Drago, M.; Fafone, V.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Flaminio, R.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franc, J.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Freise, A.; Galimberti, M.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garufi, F.; Gáspár, M. E.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Giazotto, A.; Gouaty, R.; Granata, M.; Greverie, C.; Guidi, G. M.; Hayau, J.-F.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hild, S.; Huet, D.; Jaranowski, P.; Kowalska, I.; Królak, A.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Li, T. G. F.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Losurdo, G.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Man, N.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marque, J.; Martelli, F.; Masserot, A.; Michel, C.; Milano, L.; Minenkov, Y.; Mohan, M.; Moreau, J.; Morgado, N.; Morgia, A.; Mosca, S.; Moscatelli, V.; Mours, B.; Neri, I.; Nocera, F.; Pagliaroli, G.; Palladino, L.; Palomba, C.; Paoletti, F.; Pardi, S.; Parisi, M.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Persichetti, G.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pietka, M.; Pinard, L.; Poggiani, R.; Prato, M.; Prodi, G. A.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Rabeling, D. S.; Rácz, I.; Rapagnani, P.; Re, V.; Regimbau, T.; Ricci, F.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Romano, R.; Rosi?ska, D.; Ruggi, P.; Sassolas, B.; Sentenac, D.; Sperandio, L.; Sturani, R.; Swinkels, B.; Toncelli, A.; Tonelli, M.; Torre, O.; Tournefier, E.; Travasso, F.; Vajente, G.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; van der Putten, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vavoulidis, M.; Vedovato, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vocca, H.; Was, M.; Yvert, M.

    The Virgo interferometer for gravitational wave detection is described. During the commissioning phase that followed the first scientific data taking run an unprecedented sensitivity was obtained in the range 10-60 Hz. Since then an upgrade program has begun, with the aim of increasing the sensitivity, mainly through the introduction of fused silica wires to suspend mirrors and by increasing the Finesse of the Fabry-Perot cavities. Plans until the shutdown for the construction of the Advanced Virgo detector are given as well as the status of the upgrade.

  4. Algebraic Sub-Structuring for Electromagnetic Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.; Gao, W.G.; Bai, Z.J.; Li, X.Y.S.; Lee, L.Q.; Husbands, P.; Ng, E.G.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Davis /SLAC

    2006-06-30

    Algebraic sub-structuring refers to the process of applying matrix reordering and partitioning algorithms to divide a large sparse matrix into smaller submatrices from which a subset of spectral components are extracted and combined to form approximate solutions to the original problem. In this paper, they show that algebraic sub-structuring can be effectively used to solve generalized eigenvalue problems arising from the finite element analysis of an accelerator structure.

  5. Algebraic sub-structuring for electromagnetic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Chao; Gao, Weiguo; Bai, Zhaojun; Li, Xiaoye; Lee, Lie-Quan; Husbands, Parry; Ng, Esmond G.

    2004-09-14

    Algebraic sub-structuring refers to the process of applying matrix reordering and partitioning algorithms to divide a large sparse matrix into smaller submatrices from which a subset of spectral components are extracted and combined to form approximate solutions to the original problem. In this paper, we show that algebraic sub-structuring can be effectively used to solve generalized eigenvalue problems arising from the finite element analysis of an accelerator structure.

  6. A structural design decomposition method utilizing substructuring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scotti, Stephen J.

    1994-01-01

    A new method of design decomposition for structural analysis and optimization is described. For this method, the structure is divided into substructures where each substructure has its structural response described by a structural-response subproblem, and its structural sizing determined from a structural-sizing subproblem. The structural responses of substructures that have rigid body modes when separated from the remainder of the structure are further decomposed into displacements that have no rigid body components, and a set of rigid body modes. The structural-response subproblems are linked together through forces determined within a structural-sizing coordination subproblem which also determines the magnitude of any rigid body displacements. Structural-sizing subproblems having constraints local to the substructures are linked together through penalty terms that are determined by a structural-sizing coordination subproblem. All the substructure structural-response subproblems are totally decoupled from each other, as are all the substructure structural-sizing subproblems, thus there is significant potential for use of parallel solution methods for these subproblems.

  7. Mid-IR Enhanced Galaxies in the Coma & Virgo Cluster: lenticulars with a high star formation rate

    E-print Network

    Riguccini, Laurie; Amblard, Alexandre; Fanelli, Michael; Brighenti, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    We explore the properties of early-type galaxies (ETGs), including ellipticals (E) and lenticulars (S0), in rich environments such as clusters of galaxies (Virgo and Coma). The L_24/L_K distribution of ETGs in both Virgo and Coma clusters shows that some S0s have a much larger L_24/L_K ratio (0.5 to ~2 dex) than the bulk of the ETG population. This could be interpreted as an enhanced star formation rate in these lenticulars. We compare the optical colors of galaxies in these two clusters and investigate the nature of these sources with a large L24/L_K ratio by looking at their spatial distribution within the cluster, by analyzing their optical spectra and by looking at their optical colors compared to late-types. We obtain 10 Coma and 3 Virgo early-type sources with larger L24/L_K ratios than the bulk of their population. We call these sources Mid-Infrared Enhanced Galaxies (MIEGs). In Coma, they are mostly located in the South-West part of the cluster where a substructure is falling onto the main cluster. MI...

  8. Virgo Galaxies with Long One-sided H I Tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Aeree; van Gorkom, J. H.; Kenney, Jeffrey D. P.; Vollmer, Bernd

    2007-04-01

    In a new H I imaging survey of Virgo galaxies (VIVA: VLA Imaging of Virgo galaxies in Atomic gas), we find seven spiral galaxies with long H I tails. The morphology varies, but all the tails are extended well beyond the optical radii on one side. These galaxies are found in intermediate- to low-density regions (0.6-1 Mpc in projection from M87). The tails are all pointing roughly away from M87, suggesting that these tails may have been created by a global cluster mechanism. While the tidal effects of the cluster potential are too small, a rough estimate suggests that simple ram pressure stripping could have indeed formed the tails in all but two cases. At least three systems show H I truncation to within the stellar disk, providing evidence of a gas-gas interaction. Although most of these galaxies do not appear disturbed optically, some have close neighbors, suggesting that tidal interactions may have moved gas outward, making it more susceptible to the intracluster medium ram pressure or viscosity. Indeed, a simulation study of one of the tail galaxies, NGC 4654, suggests that the galaxy is most likely affected by the combined effect of a gravitational interaction and ram pressure stripping. We conclude that these one-sided H I tail galaxies have recently arrived in the cluster, falling in on highly radial orbits. It appears that galaxies begin to lose their gas already at intermediate distances from the cluster center through ram pressure or turbulent viscous stripping and tidal interactions with their neighbors, or a combination of both.

  9. Virgo Galaxies with Long One-Sided HI Tails

    E-print Network

    Aeree Chung; J. H. van Gorkom; Jeffrey D. P. Kenney; Bernd Vollmer

    2007-04-03

    In a new HI imaging survey of Virgo galaxies (VIVA: VLA Imaging of Virgo galaxies in Atomic gas), we find 7 spiral galaxies with long HI tails. The morphology varies but all the tails are extended well beyond the optical radii on one side. These galaxies are found in intermediate-low density regions (0.6-1 Mpc in projection from M87). The tails are all pointing roughly away from M87, suggesting that these tails may have been created by a global cluster mechanism. While the tidal effects of the cluster potential are too small, a rough estimate suggests that simple ram-pressure stripping indeed could have formed the tails in all but two cases. At least three systems show HI truncation to within the stellar disk, providing evidence for a gas-gas interaction. Although most of these galaxies do not appear disturbed optically, some have close neighbors, suggesting that tidal interactions may have moved gas outwards making it more susceptible to the ICM ram-pressure or viscosity. Indeed, a simulation study of one of the tail galaxies, NGC 4654, suggests that the galaxy is most likely affected by the combined effect of a gravitational interaction and ram-pressure stripping. We conclude that these one-sided HI tail galaxies have recently arrived in the cluster, falling in on highly radial orbits. It appears that galaxies begin to lose their gas already at intermediate distances from the cluster center through ram-pressure or turbulent viscous stripping and tidal interactions with neighbours, or a combination of both.

  10. VIVA (VLA Imaging of Virgo in Atomic gas): H I Stripping in Virgo Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, A.; van Gorkom, J. H.; Crowl, H.; Kenney, J. D. P.; Vollmer, B.

    2008-08-01

    We present results of a new Very Large Array survey of 53 Virgo galaxies (48 spirals and 5 dwarf/irregular systems). The goal is to study how the H I gas properties are affected by the cluster environment. The survey covers galaxies in a wide range of densities from the center of the cluster to more than 3 Mpc from M 87. The gas is imaged down to a column-density sensitivity of a few times 1019cm-2. We find examples of gas stripping at all stages. Within ˜0.5 Mpc from M 87, most galaxies are severely H I stripped. The H I disks are truncated to well within the optical disks. While the H I looks asymmetric, the outer stellar disks look undisturbed. The fact that only the gas and not the stars has been stripped suggests that those galaxies have been affected by the hot and dense cluster gas. Interestingly we also find a few truncated disks at large projected distances from the center. Although some of these may have been stripped while crossing the cluster core, a detailed population-synthesis study of the outer disk of one of these shows that star formation was terminated recently. The time since stripping is too short for the galaxy to have traveled from the core to its current location. So at least one galaxy has lost its gas from the outer disk by another mechanism than ram-pressure stripping in the dense cluster core. At intermediate- to low-density regions (>0.6 Mpc) we find H I tails with various lengths. We find seven galaxies with long one-sided H I tails pointing away from M 87. The galaxies are at 0.6-1 Mpc from M 87. Since these galaxies are only mildly H I deficient and the tails point away from M 87, these galaxies are probably falling into the cluster for the first time on highly radial orbits. For all but two of the galaxies the estimated ram pressure at their location in the cluster would be sufficient to pull out the H I in the very outer disks. One galaxy also looks optically disturbed and a simulation suggests that a combination of ram pressure plus a tidal interaction has pulled out the tail. In the outskirts of the cluster we find several examples of tidally interacting galaxies. We possibly see evidence for some accretion of gas as well. Lastly, the merging of subclusters with Virgo can cause bulk motions of the ICM. We see one example of a galaxy far out that appears to be ram-pressure stripped by a dynamic ICM. In summary, our results show that galaxies are already affected in the low-density outer regions of the cluster through ram-pressure stripping and tidal interactions, or a combination of both.

  11. The Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey. XVIII. Star-forming dwarf galaxies in a cluster environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossi, M.; Hunt, L. K.; Madden, S. C.; Hughes, T. M.; Auld, R.; Baes, M.; Bendo, G. J.; Bianchi, S.; Bizzocchi, L.; Boquien, M.; Boselli, A.; Clemens, M.; Corbelli, E.; Cortese, L.; Davies, J.; De Looze, I.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Fritz, J.; Pappalardo, C.; Pierini, D.; Rémy-Ruyer, A.; Smith, M. W. L.; Verstappen, J.; Viaene, S.; Vlahakis, C.

    2015-02-01

    To assess the effects of the cluster environment on the different components of the interstellar medium, we analyse the far-infrared (FIR) and submillimetre (submm) properties of a sample of star-forming dwarf galaxies detected by the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey (HeViCS). We determine dust masses and dust temperatures by fitting a modified black body function to the spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Stellar and gas masses, star formation rates (SFRs), and metallicities are obtained from the analysis of a set of ancillary data. Dust is detected in 49 out of a total 140 optically identified dwarfs covered by the HeViCS field; considering only dwarfs brighter than mB = 18 mag, this gives a detection rate of 43%. After evaluating different emissivity indices, we find that the FIR-submm SEDs are best-fit by ? = 1.5, with a median dust temperature Td = 22.4 K. Assuming ? = 1.5, 67% of the 23 galaxies detected in all five Herschel bands show emission at 500 ?m in excess of the modified black-body model. The fraction of galaxies with a submillimetre excess decreases for lower values of ?, while a similarly high fraction (54%) is found if a ?-free SED modelling is applied. The excess is inversely correlated with SFR and stellar masses. To study the variations in the global properties of our sample that come from environmental effects, we compare the Virgo dwarfs to other Herschel surveys,such as the Key Insights into Nearby Galaxies: Far-Infrared Survey with Herschel (KINGFISH), the Dwarf Galaxy Survey (DGS), and the HeViCS Bright Galaxy Catalogue (BGC). We explore the relations between stellar mass and Hi fraction, specific star formation rate, dust fraction, gas-to-dust ratio over a wide range of stellar masses (from 107 to 1011 M?) for both dwarfs and spirals. Highly Hi-deficient Virgo dwarf galaxies are mostly characterised by quenched star formation activity and lower dust fractions giving hints for dust stripping in cluster dwarfs. However, to explain the large dust-to-gas mass ratios observed in these systems, we find that the fraction of dust removed has to be less than that of the Hi component. The cluster environment seems to mostly affect the gas component and star formation activity of the dwarfs. Since the Virgo star-forming dwarfs are likely to be crossing the cluster for the first time, a longer timescale might be necessary to strip the more centrally concentrated dust distribution. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  12. Comparison of LIGO/Virgo upper limits with predicted compact binary merger rates

    E-print Network

    Belczynski, K; Holz, D; O'Shaughnessy, R; Bulik, T; Berti, E; Fryer, C; Dominik, M

    2015-01-01

    We compare evolutionary predictions of double compact object merger rate densities with initial and forthcoming LIGO/Virgo upper limits. We find that: (i) Due to the cosmological reach of advanced detectors, current conversion methods of population synthesis predictions into merger rate densities are insufficient. (ii) Our optimistic models are a factor of 18 below the initial LIGO/Virgo upper limits for BH-BH systems, indicating that a modest increase in observational sensitivity (by a factor of 2.5) may bring the first detections or first gravitational wave constraints on binary evolution. (iii) Stellar-origin massive BH-BH mergers should dominate event rates in advanced LIGO/Virgo and can be detected out to redshift z=2 with templates including inspiral, merger, and ringdown. Normal stars (<150 Msun) can produce such mergers with total redshifted mass up to 400 Msun. (iv) High black hole natal kicks can severely limit the formation of massive BH-BH systems (both in isolated binary and in dynamical dense...

  13. SEXTANS' COLD SUBSTRUCTURES AS A DYNAMICAL JUDGE: CORE, CUSP, OR MOND?

    SciTech Connect

    Lora, V.; Grebel, E. K.; Just, A.; Sánchez-Salcedo, F. J.

    2013-11-01

    The cold dark matter model predicts cuspy dark matter (DM) halos. However, it has been found that in some low-mass galaxies, cored dark halos provide a better description of their internal dynamics. Here we give constraints on the dark halo profile in the Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy by studying the longevity of two cold kinematic substructures detected in this galaxy. We perform N-body simulations of a stellar clump in the Sextans dwarf galaxy, including a live DM halo and the main stellar component. We find that if the dark halo is cuspy, stellar clumps orbiting with semi-major axis ?400 pc are disrupted in ?5 Gyr, even if the clump is initially as compact stellar cluster with a radius of r{sub c} = 5 pc. Stellar clusters in an initial orbit with semi-major axis ?250 pc may survive to dissolution, but their orbits decay toward the center by dynamical friction. In contrast, the stellar clumps can persist for a Hubble time within a cored DM halo, even if the initial clump's radius is as extended as r{sub c} = 80 pc. We also study the evolution of the clump in the MONDian context. In this scenario, we find that even an extended stellar clump with radius r{sub c} = 80 pc survives for a Hubble time, but an unrealistic value for the stellar mass-to-light ratio of 9.2 is needed.

  14. Comparison of LIGO/Virgo upper limits with predicted compact binary merger rates

    E-print Network

    K. Belczynski; S. Repetto; D. Holz; R. O'Shaughnessy; T. Bulik; E. Berti; C. Fryer; M. Dominik

    2015-10-13

    We compare evolutionary predictions of double compact object merger rate densities with initial and forthcoming LIGO/Virgo upper limits. We find that: (i) Due to the cosmological reach of advanced detectors, current conversion methods of population synthesis predictions into merger rate densities are insufficient. (ii) Our optimistic models are a factor of 18 below the initial LIGO/Virgo upper limits for BH-BH systems, indicating that a modest increase in observational sensitivity (by a factor of 2.5) may bring the first detections or first gravitational wave constraints on binary evolution. (iii) Stellar-origin massive BH-BH mergers should dominate event rates in advanced LIGO/Virgo and can be detected out to redshift z=2 with templates including inspiral, merger, and ringdown. Normal stars (<150 Msun) can produce such mergers with total redshifted mass up to 400 Msun. (iv) High black hole natal kicks can severely limit the formation of massive BH-BH systems (both in isolated binary and in dynamical dense cluster evolution), and thus would eliminate detection of these systems even at full advanced LIGO/Virgo sensitivity. We find that low and high black hole natal kicks are allowed by current observational electromagnetic constraints. (v) The majority of our models yield detections of all types of mergers with advanced detectors. Numerous massive BH-BH merger detections will indicate small (if any) natal kicks for massive BHs. These systems would also shed light on the merger origin, possibly distinguishing mergers arising from field binary evolution (aligned spins) and dense clusters (misaligned spins).

  15. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey. IX. Estimating the Efficiency of Galaxy Formation on the Lowest-mass Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossauer, Jonathan; Taylor, James E.; Ferrarese, Laura; MacArthur, Lauren A.; Côté, Patrick; Roediger, Joel; Courteau, Stéphane; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Durrell, Patrick R.; Gwyn, S. D. J.; Jordán, Andrés; Mei, Simona; Peng, Eric W.

    2015-07-01

    The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey has recently determined the luminosity function of galaxies in the core of the Virgo cluster down to unprecedented magnitude and surface brightness limits. Comparing simulations of cluster formation to the derived central stellar mass function, we attempt to estimate the stellar-to-halo-mass ratio (SHMR) for dwarf galaxies, as it would have been before they fell into the cluster. This approach ignores several details and complications, e.g., the contribution of ongoing star formation to the present-day stellar mass of cluster members, and the effects of adiabatic contraction and/or violent feedback on the subhalo and cluster potentials. The final results are startlingly simple, however; we find that the trends in the SHMR determined previously for bright galaxies appear to extend down in a scale-invariant way to the faintest objects detected in the survey. These results extend measurements of the formation efficiency of field galaxies by two decades in halo mass or five decades in stellar mass, down to some of the least massive dwarf galaxies known, with stellar masses of ˜ {10}5 {M}? .

  16. The GALEX Ultraviolet Virgo Cluster Survey (GUViCS). VI. The UV luminosity function of the Virgo cluster and its surrounding regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boselli, A.; Boissier, S.; Voyer, E.; Ferrarese, L.; Consolandi, G.; Cortese, L.; Côté, P.; Cuillandre, J. C.; Gavazzi, G.; Gwyn, S.; Heinis, S.; Ilbert, O.; MacArthur, L.; Roehlly, Y.

    2016-01-01

    We use the GALEX data of the GUViCS survey to construct the near-ultraviolet (NUV) luminosity function of the Virgo cluster over ~300 deg2, an area covering the cluster and its surrounding regions up to ~1.8 virial radii. The NUV luminosity function is also determined for galaxies of different morphological types and NUV-i colours, and for the different substructures within the cluster. These luminosity functions are robust vs. statistical corrections since based on a sample of 833 galaxies mainly identified as cluster members with spectroscopic redshift (808) or high-quality optical scaling relations (10). We fit these luminosity functions with a Schechter function, and compare the fitted parameters with those determined for other nearby clusters and for the field. The faint end slope of the Virgo NUV luminosity function (? = -1.19), here sampled down to ~NUV = -11.5 mag, is significantly flatter than the value measured in other nearby clusters and similar to the field value. Similarly, M? = -17.56 is one to two magnitudes fainter than measured in Coma, A1367, the Shapley supercluster, and the field. These differences seem to be due to the quite uncertain statistical corrections and the small range in absolute magnitude sampled in these clusters. We do not observe strong systematic differences in the overall NUV luminosity function of the core of the cluster with respect to that of its periphery. We note, however, that the relative contribution of red and blue galaxies at the faint end is inverted, with red quiescent objects dominating the core of the cluster and star forming galaxies dominating beyond one virial radius. This observational evidence is discussed in the framework of galaxy evolution in dense environments.

  17. Damping models for flexible communications satellites by substructural damping synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, P. C.

    1985-01-01

    Most modern spacecraft are structurally flexible and, moreover, these spacecraft can naturally and profitably be analyzed as a collection of attached substructures (solar array panels, antennas, thermal radiators, etc.). Various models are combined for substructural energy dissipation so that an overall damping model for the spacecraft results. (Four such substructural damping models are discussed, two of which are shown to produce the same results.) Such a synthesis procedure proves valuable when substructural damping data is known, either from ground tests or detailed analysis.

  18. Optically Unseen HI Detections towards the Virgo Cluster detected in the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey

    E-print Network

    Kent, Brian R; Haynes, Martha P; Saintonge, Amelie; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Balonek, Thomas; Brosch, Noah; Catinella, Barbara; Koopmann, Rebecca A; Momjian, Emmanuel; Spekkens, Kristine

    2007-01-01

    We report the discovery by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey of eight HI features not coincident with stellar counterparts in the Virgo Cluster region. All of the HI clouds have cz < 3000 km/s and, if at the Virgo distance, HI masses between 1.9 x 10**7 and 1.1 x 10**9 solar masses. Four of the eight objects were reported or hinted at by previous studies and "rediscovered" by ALFALFA. While some clouds appear to be associated with optical galaxies in their vicinity, others show no clear association with a stellar counterpart. Two of them are embedded in relatively dense regions of the cluster and are associated with M49 and M86; they were previously known. The others are mostly located in peripheral regions of the cluster. Especially notable are a concentration of objects towards the so-called M cloud, 3 to 5 degrees to the NW of M87, and a complex of several clouds projected roughly halfway between M87 and M49. The object referred to as VIRGOHI21 and proposed to be a "dark galaxy" is also dete...

  19. Optically Unseen HI Detections towards the Virgo Cluster detected in the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey

    E-print Network

    Brian R. Kent; Riccardo Giovanelli; Martha P. Haynes; Amelie Saintonge; Sabrina Stierwalt; Thomas Balonek; Noah Brosch; Barbara Catinella; Rebecca A. Koopmann; Emmanuel Momjian; Kristine Spekkens

    2007-07-01

    We report the discovery by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey of eight HI features not coincident with stellar counterparts in the Virgo Cluster region. All of the HI clouds have cz < 3000 km/s and, if at the Virgo distance, HI masses between 1.9 x 10**7 and 1.1 x 10**9 solar masses. Four of the eight objects were reported or hinted at by previous studies and "rediscovered" by ALFALFA. While some clouds appear to be associated with optical galaxies in their vicinity, others show no clear association with a stellar counterpart. Two of them are embedded in relatively dense regions of the cluster and are associated with M49 and M86; they were previously known. The others are mostly located in peripheral regions of the cluster. Especially notable are a concentration of objects towards the so-called M cloud, 3 to 5 degrees to the NW of M87, and a complex of several clouds projected roughly halfway between M87 and M49. The object referred to as VIRGOHI21 and proposed to be a "dark galaxy" is also detected and shown to be a tidal feature associated with NGC 4254.

  20. The gamma-ray-flux PDF from galactic halo substructure

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Samuel K.; Ando, Shin'ichiro; Kamionkowski, Marc E-mail: ando@tapir.caltech.edu

    2009-07-01

    One of the targets of the recently launched Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is a diffuse gamma-ray background from dark-matter annihilation or decay in the Galactic halo. N-body simulations and theoretical arguments suggest that the dark matter in the Galactic halo may be clumped into substructure, rather than smoothly distributed. Here we propose the gamma-ray-flux probability distribution function (PDF) as a probe of substructure in the Galactic halo. We calculate this PDF for a phenomenological model of halo substructure and determine the regions of the substructure parameter space in which the PDF may be distinguished from the PDF for a smooth distribution of dark matter. In principle, the PDF allows a statistical detection of substructure, even if individual halos cannot be detected. It may also allow detection of substructure on the smallest microhalo mass scales, ? M{sub ?}, for weakly-interacting massive particles (WIMPs). Furthermore, it may also provide a method to measure the substructure mass function. However, an analysis that assumes a typical halo substructure model and a conservative estimate of the diffuse background suggests that the substructure PDF may not be detectable in the lifespan of Fermi in the specific case that the WIMP is a neutralino. Nevertheless, for a large range of substructure, WIMP annihilation, and diffuse background models, PDF analysis may provide a clear signature of substructure.

  1. A comparison of the near-infrared spectral features of early-type galaxies in the Coma Cluster, the Virgo cluster and the field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houdashelt, Mark L.; Frogel, Jay A.

    1993-01-01

    Earlier researchers derived the relative distance between the Coma and Virgo clusters from color-magnitude relations of the early-type galaxies in each cluster. They found that the derived distance was color-dependent and concluded that the galaxies of similar luminosity in the two clusters differ in their red stellar populations. More recently, the color-dependence of the Coma-Virgo distance modulus has been called into question. However, because these two clusters differ so dramatically in their morphologies and kinematics, it is plausible that the star formation histories of the member galaxies also differed. If the conclusions of earlier researchers are indeed correct, then some signature of the resulting stellar population differences should appear in the near-infrared and/or infrared light of the respective galaxies. We have collected near-infrared spectra of 17 Virgo and 10 Coma early-type galaxies; this sample spans about four magnitudes in luminosity in each cluster. Seven field E/S0 galaxies have been observed for comparison. Pseudo-equivalent widths have been measured for all of the field galaxies, all but one of the Virgo members, and five of the Coma galaxies. The features examined are sensitive to the temperature, metallicity, and surface gravity of the reddest stars. A preliminary analysis of these spectral features has been performed, and, with a few notable exceptions, the measured pseudo-equivalent widths agree well with previously published values.

  2. Galactic Stellar Populations in the Era of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Other Large Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivezi?, Željko; Beers, Timothy C.; Juri?, Mario

    2012-09-01

    Studies of stellar populations, understood to mean collections of stars with common spatial, kinematic, chemical, and/or age distributions, have been reinvigorated during the past decade by the advent of large-area sky surveys such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, the Two-Micron All Sky Survey, the Radial Velocity Experiment, and others. We review recent analyses of these data that, together with theoretical and modeling advances, are revolutionizing our understanding of the nature of the Milky Way and galaxy formation and evolution in general. The formation of galaxies like the Milky Way was long thought to be a steady process leading to a smooth distribution of stars. However, the abundance of substructure in the multidimensional space of various observables, such as position, kinematics, and metallicity, is now proven beyond doubt and demonstrates the importance of mergers in the growth of galaxies. Unlike smooth models that involve simple components, the new data reviewed here clearly exhibit many irregular structures, such as the Sagittarius dwarf tidal stream and the Virgo and Pisces overdensities in the halo and the Monoceros stream closer to the Galactic plane. These recent developments have made it clear that the Milky Way is a complex and dynamic structure, one that is still being shaped by the merging of neighboring smaller galaxies. We also briefly discuss the next generation of wide-field sky surveys, such as SkyMapper, Panoramic Survey Telescope & Rapid Response System, Global Astrometric Interferometer for Astrophysics, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, which will improve measurement precision manyfold and include billions of individual stars. The ultimate goal, development of a coherent and detailed story of the assembly and evolutionary history of the Milky Way and other large spirals like it, now appears well within reach.

  3. Substructure program for analysis of helicopter vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sopher, R.

    1981-01-01

    A substructure vibration analysis which was developed as a design tool for predicting helicopter vibrations is described. The substructure assembly method and the composition of the transformation matrix are analyzed. The procedure for obtaining solutions to the equations of motion is illustrated for the steady-state forced response solution mode, and rotor hub load excitation and impedance are analyzed. Calculation of the mass, damping, and stiffness matrices, as well as the forcing function vectors of physical components resident in the base program code, are discussed in detail. Refinement of the model is achieved by exercising modules which interface with the external program to represent rotor induced variable inflow and fuselage induced variable inflow at the rotor. The calculation of various flow fields is discussed, and base program applications are detailed.

  4. Substructure coupling in the frequency domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Frequency domain analysis was found to be a suitable method for determining the transient response of systems subjected to a wide variety of loads. However, since a large number of calculations are performed within the discrete frequency loop, the method loses it computational efficiency if the loads must be represented by a large number of discrete frequencies. It was also discovered that substructure coupling in the frequency domain work particularly well for analyzing structural system with a small number of interface and loaded degrees of freedom. It was discovered that substructure coupling in the frequency domain can lead to an efficient method of obtaining natural frequencies of undamped structures. It was also found that the damped natural frequencies of a system may be determined using frequency domain techniques.

  5. Stellar evolution.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, H.-Y. (editor); Muriel, A.

    1972-01-01

    Aspects of normal stellar evolution are discussed together with evolution near the main sequence, stellar evolution from main sequence to white dwarf or carbon ignition, the structure of massive main-sequence stars, and problems of stellar stability and stellar pulsation. Other subjects considered include variable stars, white dwarfs, close binaries, novae, early supernova luminosity, neutron stars, the photometry of field horizontal-branch stars, and stellar opacity. Transport mechanisms in stars are examined together with thermonuclear reactions and nucleosynthesis, the instability problem in nuclear burning shells, stellar coalescence, and intense magnetic fields in astrophysics. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  6. Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies in the Virgo Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillipps, S.; Parker, Q. A.; Schwartzenberg, J. M.; Jones, J. B.

    1998-02-01

    We present a study of the smallest and faintest galaxies found in a very deep photographic R-band survey of regions of the Virgo Cluster, totalling over 3 deg2, made with the UK Schmidt Telescope. The objects we detect have the same physical sizes and surface brightnesses as Local Group dwarf spheroidal galaxies. The luminosity function of these extremely low luminosity galaxies (down to MR~=-11 or about 5×10-5L*) is very steep, with a power-law slope ?~=-2, as would be expected in many theories of galaxy formation via hierarchical clustering, supporting previous observational evidence at somewhat higher luminosities in other clusters.

  7. Search for Extended Gamma-Ray Emission from the Virgo Galaxy Cluster with FERMI-LAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonino, R.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caputo, R.; Caragiulo, M.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; D’Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Desiante, R.; Digel, S. W.; Di Venere, L.; Drell, P. S.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Gomez-Vargas, G. A.; Grenier, I. A.; Guiriec, S.; Gustafsson, M.; Hewitt, J. W.; Hill, A. B.; Horan, D.; Jeltema, T. E.; Jogler, T.; Johnson, A. S.; Kuss, M.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Li, J.; Li, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Maldera, S.; Malyshev, D.; Manfreda, A.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Michelson, P. F.; Mizuno, T.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Petrosian, V.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Rainó, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Schulz, A.; Sgró, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Spada, F.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Storm, E.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Thayer, J. B.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Vianello, G.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Zaharijas, G.; Zimmer, S.; The Fermi-LAT Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Galaxy clusters are one of the prime sites to search for dark matter (DM) annihilation signals. Depending on the substructure of the DM halo of a galaxy cluster and the cross sections for DM annihilation channels, these signals might be detectable by the latest generation of ?-ray telescopes. Here we use three years of Fermi-Large Area Telescope data, which are the most suitable for searching for very extended emission in the vicinity of the nearby Virgo galaxy cluster. Our analysis reveals statistically significant extended emission which can be well characterized by a uniformly emitting disk profile with a radius of 3° that moreover is offset from the cluster center. We demonstrate that the significance of this extended emission strongly depends on the adopted interstellar emission model (IEM) and is most likely an artifact of our incomplete description of the IEM in this region. We also search for and find new point source candidates in the region. We then derive conservative upper limits on the velocity-averaged DM pair annihilation cross section from Virgo. We take into account the potential ?-ray flux enhancement due to DM sub-halos and its complex morphology as a merging cluster. For DM annihilating into b\\bar{b}, assuming a conservative sub-halo model setup, we find limits that are between 1 and 1.5 orders of magnitude above the expectation from the thermal cross section for mDM ? 100 GeV. In a more optimistic scenario, we exclude < ? v> ? 3× {10}-26 {{cm}}3 {{{s}}}-1 for mDM ? 40 GeV for the same channel. Finally, we derive upper limits on the ?-ray-flux produced by hadronic cosmic-ray interactions in the inter cluster medium. We find that the volume-averaged cosmic-ray-to-thermal pressure ratio is less than ?6%.

  8. Search for extended gamma-ray emission from the Virgo galaxy cluster with Fermi-LAT

    E-print Network

    M. Ackermann; M. Ajello; A. Albert; W. B. Atwood; L. Baldini; G. Barbiellini; D. Bastieri; K. Bechtol; R. Bellazzini; E. Bissaldi; E. D. Bloom; R. Bonino; E. Bottacini; T. J. Brandt; J. Bregeon; P. Bruel; R. Buehler; S. Buson; G. A. Caliandro; R. A. Cameron; R. Caputo; M. Caragiulo; P. A. Caraveo; J. M. Casandjian; E. Cavazzuti; C. Cecchi; E. Charles; A. Chekhtman; G. Chiaro; S. Ciprini; J. Cohen-Tanugi; J. Conrad; S. Cutini; F. D'Ammando; A. de Angelis; F. de Palma; R. Desiante; S. W. Digel; L. Di Venere; P. S. Drell; C. Favuzzi; S. J. Fegan; W. B. Focke; A. Franckowiak; Y. Fukazawa; S. Funk; P. Fusco; F. Gargano; D. Gasparrini; N. Giglietto; F. Giordano; M. Giroletti; T. Glanzman; G. Godfrey; G. A. Gomez-Vargas; I. A. Grenier; S. Guiriec; M. Gustafsson; J. W. Hewitt; A. B. Hill; D. Horan; T. E. Jeltema; T. Jogler; A. S. Johnson; M. Kuss; S. Larsson; L. Latronico; J. Li; L. Li; F. Longo; F. Loparco; M. N. Lovellette; P. Lubrano; S. Maldera; D. Malyshev; A. Manfreda; M. Mayer; M. N. Mazziotta; P. F. Michelson; T. Mizuno; M. E. Monzani; A. Morselli; I. V. Moskalenko; S. Murgia; E. Nuss; T. Ohsugi; M. Orienti; E. Orlando; J. F. Ormes; D. Paneque; J. S. Perkins; M. Pesce-Rollins; V. Petrosian; F. Piron; G. Pivato; T. A. Porter; S. Rainò; R. Rando; M. Razzano; A. Reimer; O. Reimer; M. Sánchez-Conde; A. Schulz; C. Sgró; E. J. Siskind; F. Spada; G. Spandre; P. Spinelli; E. Storm; H. Tajima; H. Takahashi; J. B. Thayer; D. F. Torres; G. Tosti; E. Troja; G. Vianello; K. S. Wood; M. Wood; G. Zaharijas; S. Zimmer; A. Pinzke

    2015-09-30

    Galaxy clusters are one of the prime sites to search for dark matter (DM) annihilation signals. Depending on the substructure of the DM halo of a galaxy cluster and the cross sections for DM annihilation channels, these signals might be detectable by the latest generation of $\\gamma$-ray telescopes. Here we use three years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data, which are the most suitable for searching for very extended emission in the vicinity of nearby Virgo galaxy cluster. Our analysis reveals statistically significant extended emission which can be well characterized by a uniformly emitting disk profile with a radius of 3\\deg that moreover is offset from the cluster center. We demonstrate that the significance of this extended emission strongly depends on the adopted interstellar emission model (IEM) and is most likely an artifact of our incomplete description of the IEM in this region. We also search for and find new point source candidates in the region. We then derive conservative upper limits on the velocity-averaged DM pair annihilation cross section from Virgo. We take into account the potential $\\gamma$-ray flux enhancement due to DM sub-halos and its complex morphology as a merging cluster. For DM annihilating into $b\\overline{b}$, assuming a conservative sub-halo model setup, we find limits that are between 1 and 1.5 orders of magnitude above the expectation from the thermal cross section for $m_{\\mathrm{DM}}\\lesssim100\\,\\mathrm{GeV}$. In a more optimistic scenario, we exclude $\\langle \\sigma v \\rangle\\sim3\\times10^{-26}\\,\\mathrm{cm^{3}\\,s^{-1}}$ for $m_{\\mathrm{DM}}\\lesssim40\\,\\mathrm{GeV}$ for the same channel. Finally, we derive upper limits on the $\\gamma$-ray-flux produced by hadronic cosmic-ray interactions in the inter cluster medium. We find that the volume-averaged cosmic-ray-to-thermal pressure ratio is less than $\\sim6\\%$.

  9. Composite Octet Searches with Jet Substructure

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Yang; Shelton, Jessie; /Yale U.

    2012-02-14

    Many new physics models with strongly interacting sectors predict a mass hierarchy between the lightest vector meson and the lightest pseudoscalar mesons. We examine the power of jet substructure tools to extend the 7 TeV LHC sensitivity to these new states for the case of QCD octet mesons, considering both two gluon and two b-jet decay modes for the pseudoscalar mesons. We develop both a simple dijet search using only the jet mass and a more sophisticated jet substructure analysis, both of which can discover the composite octets in a dijet-like signature. The reach depends on the mass hierarchy between the vector and pseudoscalar mesons. We find that for the pseudoscalar-to-vector meson mass ratio below approximately 0.2 the simple jet mass analysis provides the best discovery limit; for a ratio between 0.2 and the QCD-like value of 0.3, the sophisticated jet substructure analysis has the best discovery potential; for a ratio above approximately 0.3, the standard four-jet analysis is more suitable.

  10. Star formation and substructure in galaxy clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Seth A.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Wegner, Gary A.; Einasto, Maret; Vennik, Jaan

    2014-03-10

    We investigate the relationship between star formation (SF) and substructure in a sample of 107 nearby galaxy clusters using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Several past studies of individual galaxy clusters have suggested that cluster mergers enhance cluster SF, while others find no such relationship. The SF fraction in multi-component clusters (0.228 ± 0.007) is higher than that in single-component clusters (0.175 ± 0.016) for galaxies with M{sub r}{sup 0.1}substructure, we find weak, but in most cases significant at greater than 2?, correlations between substructure and SF fraction. These results could indicate that cluster mergers may cause weak but significant SF enhancement in clusters, or unrelaxed clusters exhibit slightly stronger SF due to their less evolved states relative to relaxed clusters.

  11. Precision Jet Substructure from Boosted Event Shapes

    E-print Network

    Ilya Feige; Matthew D. Schwartz; Iain W. Stewart; Jesse Thaler

    2012-09-17

    Jet substructure has emerged as a critical tool for LHC searches, but studies so far have relied heavily on shower Monte Carlo simulations, which formally approximate QCD at leading-log level. We demonstrate that systematic higher-order QCD computations of jet substructure can be carried out by boosting global event shapes by a large momentum Q, and accounting for effects due to finite jet size, initial-state radiation (ISR), and the underlying event (UE) as 1/Q corrections. In particular, we compute the 2-subjettiness substructure distribution for boosted Z -> q qbar events at the LHC at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-log order. The calculation is greatly simplified by recycling the known results for the thrust distribution in e+ e- collisions. The 2-subjettiness distribution quickly saturates, becoming Q independent for Q > 400 GeV. Crucially, the effects of jet contamination from ISR/UE can be subtracted out analytically at large Q, without knowing their detailed form. Amusingly, the Q=infinity and Q=0 distributions are related by a scaling by e, up to next-to-leading-log order.

  12. Efficient heuristics for maximum common substructure search.

    PubMed

    Englert, Péter; Kovács, Péter

    2015-05-26

    Maximum common substructure search is a computationally hard optimization problem with diverse applications in the field of cheminformatics, including similarity search, lead optimization, molecule alignment, and clustering. Most of these applications have strict constraints on running time, so heuristic methods are often preferred. However, the development of an algorithm that is both fast enough and accurate enough for most practical purposes is still a challenge. Moreover, in some applications, the quality of a common substructure depends not only on its size but also on various topological features of the one-to-one atom correspondence it defines. Two state-of-the-art heuristic algorithms for finding maximum common substructures have been implemented at ChemAxon Ltd., and effective heuristics have been developed to improve both their efficiency and the relevance of the atom mappings they provide. The implementations have been thoroughly evaluated and compared with existing solutions (KCOMBU and Indigo). The heuristics have been found to greatly improve the performance and applicability of the algorithms. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the applied methods and present the experimental results. PMID:25865959

  13. Design sensitivity analysis of boundary element substructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kane, James H.; Saigal, Sunil; Gallagher, Richard H.

    1989-01-01

    The ability to reduce or condense a three-dimensional model exactly, and then iterate on this reduced size model representing the parts of the design that are allowed to change in an optimization loop is discussed. The discussion presents the results obtained from an ongoing research effort to exploit the concept of substructuring within the structural shape optimization context using a Boundary Element Analysis (BEA) formulation. The first part contains a formulation for the exact condensation of portions of the overall boundary element model designated as substructures. The use of reduced boundary element models in shape optimization requires that structural sensitivity analysis can be performed. A reduced sensitivity analysis formulation is then presented that allows for the calculation of structural response sensitivities of both the substructured (reduced) and unsubstructured parts of the model. It is shown that this approach produces significant computational economy in the design sensitivity analysis and reanalysis process by facilitating the block triangular factorization and forward reduction and backward substitution of smaller matrices. The implementatior of this formulation is discussed and timings and accuracies of representative test cases presented.

  14. Effects of dynamical evolution on the distribution of substructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peñarrubia, Jorge; Benson, Andrew J.

    2005-12-01

    We develop a semi-analytical model that determines the evolution of the mass and position of dark matter substructures orbiting in dark matter haloes. We apply this model to the case of the Milky Way. We focus in particular on the effects of mass loss, dynamical friction and substructure-substructure interactions, the last of which has previously been ignored in analytic models of substructure evolution. Our semi-analytical treatment reproduces both the spatial distribution of substructures and their mass function as obtained from the most recent N-body cosmological calculations of Gao et al. We find that, if mass loss is taken into account, the present distribution of substructures is practically insensitive to dynamical friction and scatterings from other substructures. Implementing these phenomena leads to a slight increase (~=5 per cent) in the number of substructures at r < 0.25rvir, whereas their effects on the mass function are negligible. We find that mass-loss processes lead to the disruption of substructures before dynamical friction and gravitational scattering can significantly alter their orbits. Our results suggest that the present substructure distribution at r > 0.25rvir reflects the orbital properties at infall and is therefore purely determined by the dark matter environment around the host halo and has not been significantly altered by dynamical evolution.

  15. The substructure of the Galactic halo in the South Galactic Cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Cuihua; Gu, JIayin

    2015-08-01

    It is now generally believed that Galaxy was formed through repeated aggregation with dwarf galaxies and this merging process left behind many streams, satellites and substructure in the Galactic halo. The chemistry and kinematics of substructure in the halo preserve a detailed record of it's formation or the Galaxy's formation. Some large surveys such as SDSS and 2MASS provided astronomers an great opportunity to study thesubstructure of the Galaxy photometrically and spectroscopically. However, the limited number of spectra is far from enough to study the metallicity of vast range of the Galaxy. In the regard, we try to use photometric method to study the substructure in the South Galactic Cap. We confirmed that there are two separate overdensities, namely the Sagaittarius stream and Hercules-Aquila cloud. We find that the Sagaittarius stream has a wider metallicity distribution, and that its median metallicity is richer than that of the field halo stars.In addition, there exists two distinct metallicity-richer peaks. Our results also show the stellar metallicity distribution in Hercules-Aquila Cloud.

  16. Globular Clusters as Tracers of Dark Matter in Virgo Cluster Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Stephanie; Toloba, E.; Guhathakurta, P.; Chen, J.; Cote, P.; Ferrarese, L.; Peng, E. W.; NGVS Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxies outnumber any other galaxy class in galaxy clusters, but their formation is still debated. Their angular momentum and mass distribution contains valuable information about the physical processes they have experienced since their formation. Combining the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS) and the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey (ACSVCS), we have carried out a Keck/DEIMOS survey to estimate the dark matter mass and its distribution in dEs. We target globular cluster (GC) candidates as tracers of the potential well of a total of 21 dEs in the Virgo Cluster in the luminosity range -17 < Mv < -15. The sample comprises 117 GCs that are satellites of the 21 dEs and span out to ~7 half-light radii (Re). For each galaxy, we first compare the velocity distribution of the GCs against an escape velocity function for a pure stellar mass model, finding a moderate dark matter halo extending to ~7 Re. We then calculate the total mass within 1 Re with a dispersion-based estimator and the total mass to 7 Re with a projected mass estimator. We average our estimates to create a dE representative of our sample, finding mass-to-light ratios in solar units of ~4.5 for the inner regions and ~8-20 for the entire galaxy. This indicates that dEs are not dark matter dominated, neither in their inner nor in their outer regions. Our results represent the first estimate of dark matter content beyond ~2 Re for low-luminosity dEs. These mass estimates are consistent with the prevalent tidal stripping theory of dE formation, which explains the lack of a massive, extended dark matter halo. This research was carried out under UCSC’s Science Internship Program. We thank the National Science Foundation for funding support. ET was supported by a Fulbright fellowship.

  17. THE NEXT GENERATION VIRGO CLUSTER SURVEY (NGVS). I. INTRODUCTION TO THE SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrarese, Laura; Cote, Patrick; Gwyn, S. D. J.; MacArthur, Lauren A.; McConnachie, Alan W.; Blakeslee, John P.; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Peng, Eric W.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Mei, Simona; Erben, Thomas; Durrell, Patrick R.; Christopher Mihos, J.; Jordan, Andres; Puzia, Thomas H.; Lancon, Ariane; Emsellem, Eric; Balogh, Michael L.; Van Waerbeke, Ludovic; and others

    2012-05-01

    The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS) is a program that uses the 1 deg{sup 2} MegaCam instrument on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope to carry out a comprehensive optical imaging survey of the Virgo cluster, from its core to its virial radius-covering a total area of 104 deg{sup 2}-in the u*griz bandpasses. Thanks to a dedicated data acquisition strategy and processing pipeline, the NGVS reaches a point-source depth of g Almost-Equal-To 25.9 mag (10{sigma}) and a surface brightness limit of {mu}{sub g} {approx} 29 mag arcsec{sup -2} (2{sigma} above the mean sky level), thus superseding all previous optical studies of this benchmark galaxy cluster. In this paper, we give an overview of the technical aspects of the survey, such as areal coverage, field placement, choice of filters, limiting magnitudes, observing strategies, data processing and calibration pipelines, survey timeline, and data products. We also describe the primary scientific topics of the NGVS, which include: the galaxy luminosity and mass functions; the color-magnitude relation; galaxy scaling relations; compact stellar systems; galactic nuclei; the extragalactic distance scale; the large-scale environment of the cluster and its relationship to the Local Supercluster; diffuse light and the intracluster medium; galaxy interactions and evolutionary processes; and extragalactic star clusters. In addition, we describe a number of ancillary programs dealing with 'foreground' and 'background' science topics, including the study of high-inclination trans-Neptunian objects; the structure of the Galactic halo in the direction of the Virgo Overdensity and Sagittarius Stream; the measurement of cosmic shear, galaxy-galaxy, and cluster lensing; and the identification of distant galaxy clusters, and strong-lensing events.

  18. MAIN-SEQUENCE STAR POPULATIONS IN THE VIRGO OVERDENSITY REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Jerjen, H.; Da Costa, G. S.; Tisserand, P.; Willman, B.; Arimoto, N.; Okamoto, S.; Mateo, M.; Saviane, I.; Walsh, S.; Geha, M.; Jordan, A.; Zoccali, M.; Olszewski, E.; Walker, M.; Kroupa, P.

    2013-05-20

    We present deep color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) for two Subaru Suprime-Cam fields in the Virgo Stellar Stream (VSS)/Virgo Overdensity (VOD) and compare them to a field centered on the highest concentration of Sagittarius (Sgr) Tidal Stream stars in the leading arm, Branch A of the bifurcation. A prominent population of main-sequence stars is detected in all three fields and can be traced as faint as g Almost-Equal-To 24 mag. Using theoretical isochrone fitting, we derive an age of 9.1{sup +1.0}{sub -1.1} Gyr, a median abundance of [Fe/H] = -0.70{sup +0.15}{sub -0.20} dex, and a heliocentric distance of 30.9 {+-} 3.0 kpc for the main sequence of the Sgr Stream Branch A. The dominant main-sequence populations in the two VSS/VOD fields ({Lambda}{sub Sun} Almost-Equal-To 265 Degree-Sign , B{sub Sun} Almost-Equal-To 13 Degree-Sign ) are located at a mean distance of 23.3 {+-} 1.6 kpc and have an age of {approx}8.2 Gyr, and an abundance of [Fe/H] = -0.67{sup +0.16}{sub -0.12} dex, similar to the Sgr Stream stars. These statistically robust parameters, derived from the photometry of 260 main-sequence stars, are also in good agreement with the age of the main population in the Sgr dwarf galaxy (8.0 {+-} 1.5 Gyr). They also agree with the peak in the metallicity distribution of 2-3 Gyr old M giants, [Fe/H] Almost-Equal-To -0.6 dex, in the Sgr north leading arm. We then compare the results from the VSS/VOD fields with the Sgr Tidal Stream model by Law and Majewski based on a triaxial Galactic halo shape that is empirically calibrated with Sloan Digital Sky Survey Sgr A-branch and Two Micron All Sky Survey M-giant stars. We find that the most prominent feature in the CMDs, the main-sequence population at 23 kpc, is not explained by the model. Instead the model predicts in these directions a low-density filamentary structure of Sgr debris stars at {approx}9 kpc and a slightly higher concentration of Sgr stars spread over a heliocentric distance range of 42-53 kpc. At best there is only marginal evidence for the presence of these populations in our data. Our findings then suggest that while there are probably some Sgr debris stars present, the dominant stellar population in the VOD originates from a different halo structure that has an almost identical age and metallicity as some sections of the Sgr tidal stream.

  19. STELLAR POPULATION VARIATIONS IN THE MILKY WAY's STELLAR HALO

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Eric F.; Xue Xiangxiang; Rix, Hans-Walter; Ruhland, Christine; Hogg, David W.

    2010-12-15

    If the stellar halos of disk galaxies are built up from the disruption of dwarf galaxies, models predict highly structured variations in the stellar populations within these halos. We test this prediction by studying the ratio of blue horizontal branch stars (BHB stars; more abundant in old, metal-poor populations) to main-sequence turn-off stars (MSTO stars; a feature of all populations) in the stellar halo of the Milky Way using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We develop and apply an improved technique to select BHB stars using ugr color information alone, yielding a sample of {approx}9000 g < 18 candidates where {approx}70% of them are BHB stars. We map the BHB/MSTO ratio across {approx}1/4 of the sky at the distance resolution permitted by the absolute magnitude distribution of MSTO stars. We find large variations of the BHB/MSTO star ratio in the stellar halo. Previously identified, stream-like halo structures have distinctive BHB/MSTO ratios, indicating different ages/metallicities. Some halo features, e.g., the low-latitude structure, appear to be almost completely devoid of BHB stars, whereas other structures appear to be rich in BHB stars. The Sagittarius tidal stream shows an apparent variation in the BHB/MSTO ratio along its extent, which we interpret in terms of population gradients within the progenitor dwarf galaxy. Our detection of coherent stellar population variations between different stellar halo substructures provides yet more support to cosmologically motivated models for stellar halo growth.

  20. Studies of the Virgo cluster based on the Virgo Photometry Catalogue

    E-print Network

    C. K. Young

    1997-12-09

    The `Virgo Photometry Catalogue' (VPC) is the first independently calibrated general catalogue of galaxies to cover the Virgo cluster since the `Catalog of Galaxies and Clusters of Galaxies' of Zwicky et al. (1961,1963). It contains 1180 galaxies (including background objects) within a 23 square-degree region centred on the cluster's core. Photographic surface photometry is presented for 1067 galaxies in the U band, for 1020 galaxies in the B_J band and for 1020 galaxies in the R_C band. All total magnitudes and total colours are extrapolated according to a new system; denoted `t' to distinguish it from the `T' system already in use. This paper outlines: the scope of the VPC, the new extrapolation system, some recent findings based on the catalogue and further work in progress.

  1. Identification of Galaxy Cluster Substructures with the Caustic Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Heng; Serra, Ana Laura; Diaferio, Antonaldo; Baldi, Marco

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the power of the caustic technique for identifying substructures of galaxy clusters from optical redshift data alone. The caustic technique is designed to estimate the mass profile of galaxy clusters to radii well beyond the virial radius, where dynamical equilibrium does not hold. Two by-products of this technique are the identification of the cluster members and the identification of the cluster substructures. We test the caustic technique as a substructure detector on two samples of 150 mock redshift surveys of clusters; the clusters are extracted from a large cosmological N-body simulation of a ?CDM model and have masses of {M}200˜ {10}14{h}-1{M}? and {M}200˜ {10}15{h}-1{M}? in the two samples. We limit our analysis to substructures identified in the simulation with masses larger than {10}13{h}-1{M}? . With mock redshift surveys with 200 galaxies within 3R200, (1) the caustic technique recovers ˜30%-50% of the real substructures, and (2) ˜15%-20% of the substructures identified by the caustic technique correspond to real substructures of the central cluster, the remaining fraction being low-mass substructures, groups or substructures of clusters in the surrounding region, or chance alignments of unrelated galaxies. These encouraging results show that the caustic technique is a promising approach for investigating the complex dynamics of galaxy clusters.

  2. Spitzer Observations of Environomental Effects on Virgo Cluster Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenney, Jeffrey; Beck, Ranier; Helou, George; Makovoz, David; Murphy, Eric; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Schiminovich, David; Struck, Curtis; Vollmer, Bernd; van Gorkom, Jacqueline

    2006-05-01

    We propose Spitzer MIPS and IRAC observations for a carefully selected sample of 36 Virgo cluster spiral and peculiar galaxies. The detailed information that Spitzer provides on the interstellar medium, star formation, and stellar populations, when combined with our considerable data base and simulations, will greatly improve our understanding of interactions in clusters and the consequences for galaxy evolution. For this sample, we already have VLA HI and radio continuum images from the VIVA survey, optical BVRH-alpha imaging, GALEX UV images, and optical spectroscopy. Mapping the unobscured distributions of star formation at 24um will reveal the effects of interactions, such as tidally triggered central starbursts, and ram-pressure induced star formation at the outer edges of stripped gas disks. We will compare the observed distributions of star formation with predictions from simulations which are already tightly constrained by the optical and HI data. The Spitzer 8um PAH images show outer galaxy ISM with a combination of sensitivity and resolution better than optical and HI images. This outer galaxy dust is a powerful tracer of the types of interactions and their timescales. Comparisons with B-I ``dust extinction'' maps will constrain interaction models by clarifying the ISM geometry. The near-IR data from IRAC, together with GALEX UV, H-alpha, and optical spectroscopy, will provide spatially-resolved star formation histories. Analyzing the expected variations in the radio-to-FIR ratio in extraplanar regions will also provide strong constraints on the physical processes which generally link these two emissions so tightly in star-forming galaxies. These galaxies are different from galaxies outside of clusters, since most of them have been significantly modified by their environment. The science goals are distinct from SINGS, although complementary, and would use the SINGS data as a benchmark for comparison with non-cluster galaxies.

  3. Advanced Virgo: a second-generation interferometric gravitational wave detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acernese, F.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aisa, D.; Allemandou, N.; Allocca, A.; Amarni, J.; Astone, P.; Balestri, G.; Ballardin, G.; Barone, F.; Baronick, J.-P.; Barsuglia, M.; Basti, A.; Basti, F.; Bauer, Th S.; Bavigadda, V.; Bejger, M.; Beker, M. G.; Belczynski, C.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Bloemen, S.; Blom, M.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bondi, D.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Boschi, V.; Bosi, L.; Bouedo, T.; Bradaschia, C.; Branchesi, M.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brisson, V.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Cagnoli, G.; Calloni, E.; Campeggi, C.; Canuel, B.; Carbognani, F.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Chua, S.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Conte, A.; Coulon, J.-P.; Cuoco, E.; Dalmaz, A.; D'Antonio, S.; Dattilo, V.; Davier, M.; Day, R.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Dereli, H.; De Rosa, R.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Virgilio, A.; Doets, M.; Dolique, V.; Drago, M.; Ducrot, M.; Endr?czi, G.; Fafone, V.; Farinon, S.; Ferrante, I.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Flaminio, R.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garufi, F.; Gaspard, M.; Gatto, A.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Ghosh, S.; Giacobone, L.; Giazotto, A.; Gouaty, R.; Granata, M.; Greco, G.; Groot, P.; Guidi, G. M.; Harms, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hennes, E.; Hofman, D.; Jaranowski, P.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Kasprzack, M.; Kéfélian, F.; Kowalska, I.; Kraan, M.; Królak, A.; Kutynia, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leonardi, M.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Li, T. G. F.; Lieunard, B.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Losurdo, G.; Magazzù, C.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mangano, V.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marque, J.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Masserot, A.; Meacher, D.; Meidam, J.; Mezzani, F.; Michel, C.; Milano, L.; Minenkov, Y.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Montani, M.; Morgado, N.; Mours, B.; Mul, F.; Nagy, M. F.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nelemans, G.; Neri, I.; Neri, M.; Nocera, F.; Pacaud, E.; Palomba, C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Perciballi, M.; Petit, S.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pillant, G.; Piluso, A.; Pinard, L.; Poggiani, R.; Prijatelj, M.; Prodi, G. A.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Rabeling, D. S.; Rácz, I.; Rapagnani, P.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Regimbau, T.; Ricci, F.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Romano, R.; Rosi?ska, D.; Ruggi, P.; Saracco, E.; Sassolas, B.; Schimmel, F.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Shah, S.; Siellez, K.; Straniero, N.; Swinkels, B.; Tacca, M.; Tonelli, M.; Travasso, F.; Turconi, M.; Vajente, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; van der Sluys, M. V.; van Heijningen, J.; Vasúth, M.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Visser, G.; Vocca, H.; Ward, R.; Was, M.; Wei, L.-W.; Yvert, M.; Zadro ?ny, A.; Zendri, J.-P.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Virgo is the project to upgrade the Virgo interferometric detector of gravitational waves, with the aim of increasing the number of observable galaxies (and thus the detection rate) by three orders of magnitude. The project is now in an advanced construction phase and the assembly and integration will be completed by the end of 2015. Advanced Virgo will be part of a network, alongside the two Advanced LIGO detectors in the US and GEO HF in Germany, with the goal of contributing to the early detection of gravitational waves and to opening a new window of observation on the universe. In this paper we describe the main features of the Advanced Virgo detector and outline the status of the construction.

  4. Imaging and spectrophotometry of Virgo cluster irregular galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, J.S. III; Hunter, D.A.; Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, AZ; Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ; Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC )

    1989-09-01

    Large-aperture spectrophotometric observations and CCD images in the H-alpha and R bands have been obtained for Virgo cluster Magellanic, dwarf, and amorphous irregular galaxies. Although a small number of Virgo cluster irregulars have optical and H I properties consistent with recent gas loss, the rate of production of gas-poor irregulars is too low to account for the large population of Virgo cluster dE galaxies or to explain the deficiency in the number of irregulars relative to spirals. Radial brightness profiles reveal that only NGC 4641 follows the r exp 1/4 law of classical ellipticals, that four of the galaxies have exponential brightness distributions, and that one system has an indeterminant profile form. It is shown that the properties of Virgo cluster irregular galaxies can be best understood in terms of environmental modifications of normal systems in the circumcluster environment and in the cluster core. 78 refs.

  5. RADIAL VELOCITIES OF GALACTIC HALO STARS IN VIRGO

    SciTech Connect

    Brink, Thomas G.; Mateo, Mario; Martinez-Delgado, David E-mail: mmateo@umich.ed

    2010-11-15

    We present multi-slit radial velocity measurements for 111 stars in the direction of the Virgo Stellar Stream (VSS). The stars were photometrically selected to be probable main-sequence stars in the Galactic halo. When compared with the radial velocity distribution expected for the halo of the Milky Way, as well as the distribution seen in a control field, we observe a significant excess of negative velocity stars in the field, which can likely be attributed to the presence of a stellar stream. This kinematic excess peaks at a Galactic standard of rest radial velocity of -75 km s{sup -1}. A rough distance estimate suggests that this feature extends from {approx}15 kpc out to, and possibly beyond, the {approx}30 kpc limit of the study. The mean velocity of these stars is incompatible with those of the VSS itself (V{sub gsr} {approx} 130 km s{sup -1}), which we weakly detect, but it is consistent with radial velocity measurements of nearby 2MASS M-giants and SDSS+SEGUE K/M-giants and blue horizontal branch stars that constitute the leading tidal tail of the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Some oblate models for the shape of the Milky Way's dark matter halo predict that the leading arm of the Sagittarius Stream should pass through this volume, and have highly negative (V{sub gsr} {approx}< -200 km s{sup -1}) radial velocities, as it descends down from the northern Galactic hemisphere toward the Galactic plane. The kinematic feature observed in this study, if it is in fact Sagittarius debris, is not consistent with these predictions, and instead, like other leading stream radial velocity measurements, is consistent with a recently published triaxial halo model, or, if axisymmetry is imposed, favors a prolate shape for the Galactic halo potential. However, a rough distance estimate to the observed kinematic feature places it somewhat closer (D {approx} 15-30 kpc) than the Sagittarius models predict (D {approx} 35-45 kpc).

  6. Radial Velocities of Galactic Halo Stars in Virgo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brink, Thomas G.; Mateo, Mario; Martínez-Delgado, David

    2010-11-01

    We present multi-slit radial velocity measurements for 111 stars in the direction of the Virgo Stellar Stream (VSS). The stars were photometrically selected to be probable main-sequence stars in the Galactic halo. When compared with the radial velocity distribution expected for the halo of the Milky Way, as well as the distribution seen in a control field, we observe a significant excess of negative velocity stars in the field, which can likely be attributed to the presence of a stellar stream. This kinematic excess peaks at a Galactic standard of rest radial velocity of -75 km s-1. A rough distance estimate suggests that this feature extends from ~15 kpc out to, and possibly beyond, the ~30 kpc limit of the study. The mean velocity of these stars is incompatible with those of the VSS itself (Vgsr ~ 130 km s-1), which we weakly detect, but it is consistent with radial velocity measurements of nearby 2MASS M-giants and SDSS+SEGUE K/M-giants and blue horizontal branch stars that constitute the leading tidal tail of the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Some oblate models for the shape of the Milky Way's dark matter halo predict that the leading arm of the Sagittarius Stream should pass through this volume, and have highly negative (Vgsr <~ -200 km s-1) radial velocities, as it descends down from the northern Galactic hemisphere toward the Galactic plane. The kinematic feature observed in this study, if it is in fact Sagittarius debris, is not consistent with these predictions, and instead, like other leading stream radial velocity measurements, is consistent with a recently published triaxial halo model, or, if axisymmetry is imposed, favors a prolate shape for the Galactic halo potential. However, a rough distance estimate to the observed kinematic feature places it somewhat closer (D ~ 15-30 kpc) than the Sagittarius models predict (D ~ 35-45 kpc). This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  7. Search for extended gamma-ray emission from the Virgo galaxy cluster with Fermi-LAT

    E-print Network

    Ackermann, M; Albert, A; Atwood, W B; Baldini, L; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Bissaldi, E; Bloom, E D; Bonino, R; Bottacini, E; Brandt, T J; Bregeon, J; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caputo, R; Caragiulo, M; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cavazzuti, E; Cecchi, C; Charles, E; Chekhtman, A; Chiaro, G; Ciprini, S; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Conrad, J; Cutini, S; D'Ammando, F; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Desiante, R; Digel, S W; Di Venere, L; Drell, P S; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Focke, W B; Franckowiak, A; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Gomez-Vargas, G A; Grenier, I A; Guiriec, S; Gustafsson, M; Hewitt, J W; Hill, A B; Horan, D; Jeltema, T E; Jogler, T; Johnson, A S; Kuss, M; Larsson, S; Latronico, L; Li, J; Li, L; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Maldera, S; Malyshev, D; Manfreda, A; Mayer, M; Mazziotta, M N; Michelson, P F; Mizuno, T; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Orienti, M; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Perkins, J S; Pesce-Rollins, M; Petrosian, V; Piron, F; Pivato, G; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Sánchez-Conde, M; Schulz, A; Sgró, C; Siskind, E J; Spada, F; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Storm, E; Tajima, H; Takahashi, H; Thayer, J B; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Troja, E; Vianello, G; Wood, K S; Wood, M; Zaharijas, G; Zimmer, S; Pinzke, A

    2015-01-01

    Galaxy clusters are one of the prime sites to search for dark matter (DM) annihilation signals. Depending on the substructure of the DM halo of a galaxy cluster and the cross sections for DM annihilation channels, these signals might be detectable by the latest generation of $\\gamma$-ray telescopes. Here we use three years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data, which are the most suitable for searching for very extended emission in the vicinity of nearby Virgo galaxy cluster. Our analysis reveals statistically significant extended emission which can be well characterized by a uniformly emitting disk profile with a radius of 3\\deg that moreover is offset from the cluster center. We demonstrate that the significance of this extended emission strongly depends on the adopted interstellar emission model (IEM) and is most likely an artifact of our incomplete description of the IEM in this region. We also search for and find new point source candidates in the region. We then derive conservative upper limits on th...

  8. A state observer for the Virgo inverted pendulum.

    PubMed

    Accadia, T; Acernese, F; Astone, P; Ballardin, G; Barone, F; Barsuglia, M; Basti, A; Bauer, Th S; Bebronne, M; Beker, M G; Belletoile, A; Bitossi, M; Bizouard, M A; Blom, M; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bonnand, R; Boschi, V; Bosi, L; Bouhou, B; Braccini, S; Bradaschia, C; Branchesi, M; Briant, T; Brillet, A; Brisson, V; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Cagnoli, G; Calloni, E; Canuel, B; Carbognani, F; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cesarini, E; Chaibi, O; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P-F; Colacino, C N; Colas, J; Colla, A; Colombini, M; Conte, A; Corsi, A; Coulon, J-P; Cuoco, E; D' Antonio, S; Dattilo, V; Davier, M; Day, R; De Rosa, R; Debreczeni, G; Del Pozzo, W; del Prete, M; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Paolo Emilio, M; Di Virgilio, A; Dietz, A; Drago, M; Endroczi, G; Fafone, V; Ferrante, I; Fidecaro, F; Fiori, I; Flaminio, R; Forte, L A; Fournier, J-D; Franc, J; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Galimberti, M; Gammaitoni, L; Garufi, F; Gáspár, M E; Gemme, G; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Giazotto, A; Gouaty, R; Granata, M; Greverie, C; Guidi, G M; Hayau, J-F; Heidmann, A; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Jaranowski, P; Kowalska, I; Królak, A; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Li, T G F; Liguori, N; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Losurdo, G; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Man, N; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Marque, J; Martelli, F; Masserot, A; Michel, C; Milano, L; Minenkov, Y; Mohan, M; Morgado, N; Morgia, A; Mours, B; Naticchioni, L; Nocera, F; Pagliaroli, G; Palladino, L; Palomba, C; Paoletti, F; Parisi, M; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Persichetti, G; Piergiovanni, F; Pietka, M; Pinard, L; Poggiani, R; Prato, M; Prodi, G A; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Rabeling, D S; Rácz, I; Rapagnani, P; Re, V; Regimbau, T; Ricci, F; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rolland, L; Romano, R; Rosi?ska, D; Ruggi, P; Sassolas, B; Sentenac, D; Sperandio, L; Sturani, R; Swinkels, B; Tacca, M; Taffarello, L; Toncelli, A; Tonelli, M; Torre, O; Tournefier, E; Travasso, F; Vajente, G; van den Brand, J F J; Van den Broeck, C; van der Putten, S; Vasuth, M; Vavoulidis, M; Vedovato, G; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Vinet, J-Y; Vitale, S; Vocca, H; Ward, R L; Was, M; Yvert, M; Zadro?ny, A; Zendri, J-P

    2011-09-01

    We report an application of Kalman filtering to the inverted pendulum (IP) of the Virgo gravitational wave interferometer. Using subspace method system identification techniques, we calculated a linear mechanical model of Virgo IP from experimental transfer functions. We then developed a Kalman filter, based on the obtained state space representation, that estimates from open loop time domain data, the state variables of the system. This allows the observation (and eventually control) of every resonance mode of the IP mechanical structure independently. PMID:21974605

  9. A state observer for the Virgo inverted pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Astone, P.; Ballardin, G.; Barone, F.; Barsuglia, M.; Basti, A.; Bauer, Th. S.; Bebronne, M.; Beker, M. G.; Belletoile, A.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blom, M.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Boschi, V.; Bosi, L.; Bouhou, B.; Braccini, S.; Bradaschia, C.; Branchesi, M.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brisson, V.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Cagnoli, G.; Calloni, E.; Canuel, B.; Carbognani, F.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chaibi, O.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colacino, C. N.; Colas, J.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Conte, A.; Corsi, A.; Coulon, J.-P.; Cuoco, E.; D'Antonio, S.; Dattilo, V.; Davier, M.; Day, R.; De Rosa, R.; Debreczeni, G.; Del Pozzo, W.; del Prete, M.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Emilio, M. Di Paolo; Virgilio, A. Di; Dietz, A.; Drago, M.; Endr?czi, G.; Fafone, V.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Flaminio, R.; Forte, L. A.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franc, J.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Galimberti, M.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garufi, F.; Gáspár, M. E.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Giazotto, A.; Gouaty, R.; Granata, M.; Greverie, C.; Guidi, G. M.; Hayau, J.-F.; Heidmann, A.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Jaranowski, P.; Kowalska, I.; Królak, A.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Li, T. G. F.; Liguori, N.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Losurdo, G.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Man, N.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marque, J.; Martelli, F.; Masserot, A.; Michel, C.; Milano, L.; Minenkov, Y.; Mohan, M.; Morgado, N.; Morgia, A.; Mours, B.; Naticchioni, L.; Nocera, F.; Pagliaroli, G.; Palladino, L.; Palomba, C.; Paoletti, F.; Parisi, M.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Persichetti, G.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pietka, M.; Pinard, L.; Poggiani, R.; Prato, M.; Prodi, G. A.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Rabeling, D. S.; Rácz, I.; Rapagnani, P.; Re, V.; Regimbau, T.; Ricci, F.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Romano, R.; Rosi?ska, D.; Ruggi, P.; Sassolas, B.; Sentenac, D.; Sperandio, L.; Sturani, R.; Swinkels, B.; Tacca, M.; Taffarello, L.; Toncelli, A.; Tonelli, M.; Torre, O.; Tournefier, E.; Travasso, F.; Vajente, G.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; van der Putten, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vavoulidis, M.; Vedovato, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vocca, H.; Ward, R. L.; Was, M.; Yvert, M.; Zadro?ny, A.; Zendri, J.-P.

    2011-09-01

    We report an application of Kalman filtering to the inverted pendulum (IP) of the Virgo gravitational wave interferometer. Using subspace method system identification techniques, we calculated a linear mechanical model of Virgo IP from experimental transfer functions. We then developed a Kalman filter, based on the obtained state space representation, that estimates from open loop time domain data, the state variables of the system. This allows the observation (and eventually control) of every resonance mode of the IP mechanical structure independently.

  10. Jet substructures of boosted polarized hadronic tops

    E-print Network

    Kitadono, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    We study jet substructures of a boosted polarized top quark, which undergoes the hadronic decay $t\\to b u\\bar d$, in the perturbative QCD framework, focusing on the energy profile and the differential energy profile. These substructures are factorized into the convolution of a hard top-quark decay kernel with a bottom-quark jet function and a $W$-boson jet function, where the latter is further factorized into the convolution of a hard $W$-boson decay kernel with two light-quark jet functions. Computing the hard kernels to leading order in QCD and including the resummation effect in the jet functions, we show that the differential jet energy profile is a useful observable for differentiating the helicity of a boosted hadronic top quark: a right-handed top jet exhibits quick descent of the differential energy profile with the inner test cone radius $r$, which is attributed to the $\\mbox{V-A}$ structure of weak interaction and the dead-cone effect associated with the $W$-boson jet. The above helicity differentia...

  11. Orbital parameters of infalling dark matter substructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, A. J.

    2005-04-01

    We present distributions of the orbital parameters of dark matter substructures at the time of merging into their host halo. Accurate knowledge of the orbits of dark matter substructures is a crucial input to studies which aim to assess the effects of the cluster environment on galaxies, the heating of galaxy discs and many other topics. Orbits are measured for satellites in a large number of N-body simulations. We focus on the distribution of radial and tangential velocities, but consider also distributions of orbital eccentricity and semimajor axis. We show that the distribution of radial and tangential velocities has a simple form and provide a fitting formula for this distribution. We also search for possible correlations between the infall directions of pairs of satellites, finding evidence for positive correlation at small angular separations as expected if some infall occurs along filaments. We also find (weak) evidence for correlations between the direction of the infall and infall velocity and the spin of the host halo.

  12. General features of the evolution of deformation substructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khannanov, Sh. Kh.

    1985-07-01

    Some general features of the evolution and hierarchy of deformation structures are examined. It is shown that there exist two qualitatively distinct branches of deformation substructures characterized by different ratios of the scales of the dislocation path and of the microplastic deformation inhomogeneity. The possible types of instability occurring during the development of substructures are discussed.

  13. Detection of intergalactic red-giant-branch stars in the Virgo cluster

    E-print Network

    Henry C. Ferguson; Nial R. Tanvir; Ted von Hippel

    1998-01-23

    It has been suspected for nearly 50 years that clusters of galaxies contain a population of intergalactic stars, ripped from galaxies during cluster formation or when the galaxies' orbits take them through the cluster center. Support for the existence of such a population of free-floating stars comes from measurements of the diffuse light in clusters, and from recent detections of planetary nebulae with positions and/or velocities far removed from any observed cluster galaxy. But estimates for the mass of the diffuse population and its distribution relative to the galaxies are still highly uncertain. Here we report the direct detection of intergalactic stars in deep images of a blank field in the Virgo Cluster. The data suggest that approximately 10% of the stellar mass of the cluster is in intergalactic stars. We observe a relatively homogeneous distribution of stars, with evidence of a slight gradient toward M87.

  14. THE NORTHERN WRAPS OF THE SAGITTARIUS STREAM AS TRACED BY RED CLUMP STARS: DISTANCES, INTRINSIC WIDTHS, AND STELLAR DENSITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Correnti, M.; Ferraro, F. R.; Bellazzini, M.; Ibata, R. A.; Varghese, A.

    2010-09-20

    We trace the tidal Stream of the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy (Sgr dSph) using Red Clump (RC) stars from the catalog of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-Data Release 6, in the range 150{sup 0} {approx}< R.A. {approx}< 220{sup 0}, corresponding to the range of orbital azimuth 220{sup 0} {approx}< {Lambda} {approx}< 290{sup 0}. Substructures along the line of sight (los) are identified as significant peaks in the differential star count profiles (SCPs) of candidate RC stars. A proper modeling of the SCPs allows us to obtain (1) {<=}10% accurate, purely differential distances with respect to the main body of Sgr, (2) estimates of the FWHM along the los, and (3) estimates of the local density, for each detected substructure. In the range 255{sup 0} {approx}< {Lambda} {approx}< 290{sup 0} we cleanly and continuously trace various coherent structures that can be ascribed to the Stream, in particular: the well-known northern portion of the leading arm, running from d {approx_equal} 43 kpc at {Lambda} {approx_equal} 290{sup 0} to d {approx_equal} 30 kpc at {Lambda} {approx_equal} 255{sup 0}, and a more nearby coherent series of detections lying at a constant distance d {approx_equal} 25 kpc, that can be identified with a wrap of the trailing arm. The latter structure, predicted by several models of the disruption of Sgr dSph, was never traced before; comparison with existing models indicates that the difference in distance between these portions of the leading and trailing arms may provide a powerful tool to discriminate between theoretical models assuming different shapes of the Galactic potential. A further, more distant wrap in the same portion of the sky is detected only along a couple of los. For {Lambda} {approx}< 255{sup 0} the detected structures are more complex and less easily interpreted. We are confident of being able to trace the continuation of the leading arm down to {Lambda} {approx_equal} 220{sup 0} and d {approx_equal} 20 kpc; the trailing arm is seen up to {Lambda} {approx_equal} 240{sup 0} where it is replaced by more distant structures. Possible detections of more nearby wraps and of the Virgo Stellar Stream are also discussed. These measured properties provide a coherent set of observational constraints for the next generation of theoretical models of the disruption of Sgr.

  15. Stellarator symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewar, R. L.; Hudson, S. R.

    1998-01-01

    A simple and general definition of stellarator symmetry is presented and its relation to previous definitions discussed. It is shown that the field-line flow in systems possessing stellarator symmetry is time-reversal invariant if the the toroidal angle is regarded as “time”.

  16. Studying stellar halos with future facilities

    E-print Network

    Greggio, Laura; Uslenghi, Michela

    2015-01-01

    Stellar halos around galaxies retain fundamental evidence of the processes which lead to their build up. Sophisticated models of galaxy formation in a cosmological context yield quantitative predictions about various observable characteristics, including the amount of substructure, the slope of radial mass profiles and three dimensional shapes, and the properties of the stellar populations in the halos. The comparison of such models with the observations provides constraints on the general picture of galaxy formation in the hierarchical Universe, as well as on the physical processes taking place in the halos formation. With the current observing facilities, stellar halos can be effectively probed only for a limited number of nearby galaxies. In this paper we illustrate the progress that we expect in this field with the future ground based large aperture telescopes (E-ELT) and with space based facilities as JWST.

  17. The next generation Virgo cluster survey. VIII. The spatial distribution of globular clusters in the Virgo cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Durrell, Patrick R.; Accetta, Katharine; Côté, Patrick; Blakeslee, John P.; Ferrarese, Laura; McConnachie, Alan; Gwyn, Stephen; Peng, Eric W.; Zhang, Hongxin; Mihos, J. Christopher; Puzia, Thomas H.; Jordán, Andrés; Lançon, Ariane; Liu, Chengze; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Boissier, Samuel; Boselli, Alessandro; Courteau, Stéphane; Duc, Pierre-Alain; and others

    2014-10-20

    We report on a large-scale study of the distribution of globular clusters (GCs) throughout the Virgo cluster, based on photometry from the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS), a large imaging survey covering Virgo's primary subclusters (Virgo A = M87 and Virgo B = M49) out to their virial radii. Using the g{sub o}{sup ?}, (g' – i') {sub o} color-magnitude diagram of unresolved and marginally resolved sources within the NGVS, we have constructed two-dimensional maps of the (irregular) GC distribution over 100 deg{sup 2} to a depth of g{sub o}{sup ?} = 24. We present the clearest evidence to date showing the difference in concentration between red and blue GCs over the full extent of the cluster, where the red (more metal-rich) GCs are largely located around the massive early-type galaxies in Virgo, while the blue (metal-poor) GCs have a much more extended spatial distribution with significant populations still present beyond 83' (?215 kpc) along the major axes of both M49 and M87. A comparison of our GC maps to the diffuse light in the outermost regions of M49 and M87 show remarkable agreement in the shape, ellipticity, and boxiness of both luminous systems. We also find evidence for spatial enhancements of GCs surrounding M87 that may be indicative of recent interactions or an ongoing merger history. We compare the GC map to that of the locations of Virgo galaxies and the X-ray intracluster gas, and find generally good agreement between these various baryonic structures. We calculate the Virgo cluster contains a total population of N {sub GC} = 67, 300 ± 14, 400, of which 35% are located in M87 and M49 alone. For the first time, we compute a cluster-wide specific frequency S {sub N,} {sub CL} = 2.8 ± 0.7, after correcting for Virgo's diffuse light. We also find a GC-to-baryonic mass fraction ? {sub b} = 5.7 ± 1.1 × 10{sup –4} and a GC-to-total cluster mass formation efficiency ? {sub t} = 2.9 ± 0.5 × 10{sup –5}, the latter values slightly lower than but consistent with those derived for individual galactic halos. Taken as a whole, our results show that the production of the complex structures in the unrelaxed Virgo cluster core (including the production of the diffuse intracluster light) is an ongoing and continuing process.

  18. A case of poor substructure diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Thomas G.

    1992-01-01

    The NASTRAN Manuals in the substructuring area are all geared toward instant success, but the solution paths are fraught with many traps for human error. Thus, the probability of suffering a fatal abort is high. In such circumstances, the necessity for diagnostics that are user friendly is paramount. This paper is written in the spirit of improving the diagnostics as well as the documentation in one area where the author felt he was backed into a blind corner as a result of his having committed a data oversight. This topic is aired by referring to an analysis of a particular structure. The structure, under discussion, used a number of local coordinate systems that simplified the preparation of input data. The principle features of this problem are introduced by reference to a series of figures.

  19. Ram pressure stripping in the Virgo Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdugo, C.; Combes, F.; Dasyra, K.; Salomé, P.; Braine, J.

    2015-10-01

    Gas can be violently stripped from their galaxy disks in rich clusters, and be dispersed over 100 kpc-scale tails or plumes. Young stars have been observed in these tails, suggesting they are formed in situ. This will contribute to the intracluster light, in addition to tidal stripping of old stars. We want to quantify the efficiency of intracluster star formation. We present CO(1-0) and CO(2-1) observations, made with the IRAM-30 m telescope, towards the ram-pressure stripped tail northeast of NGC 4388 in Virgo. We selected HII regions found all along the tails, together with dust patches, as observing targets. We detect molecular gas in 4 positions along the tail, with masses between 7 × 105 to 2 × 106M?. Given the large distance from the NGC 4388 galaxy, the molecular clouds must have formed in situ, from the HI gas plume. We compute the relation between surface densities of star formation and molecular gas in these regions, and find that the star formation has very low efficiency. The corresponding depletion time of the molecular gas can be up to 500 Gyr and more. Since this value exceeds a by far Hubble time, this gas will not be converted into stars, and will stay in a gaseous phase to join the intracluster medium.

  20. Z-bursts from the Virgo cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringwald, Andreas; Weiler, Thomas J.; Wong, Yvonne Y.

    2005-08-01

    Resonant annihilation of ultrahigh energy cosmic neutrinos (UHEC?) on the cosmic neutrino background (C?B) into Z bosons—the Z-burst mechanism—and its associated absorption and emission phenomenology provide a unique, albeit indirect, probe of the C?B in its present state. In this paper, we examine the implications of gravitational clustering of the C?B in nearby galaxy clusters for the Z-burst phenomenology. In particular, we study the emission features of the Z-decay products originating from the Virgo cluster, and the potential of future cosmic ray experiments to observe clustering-enhanced Z-burst rates. We find that a detector with an exposure equivalent to three years of observations at the Extreme Universe Space Observatory (EUSO) will very likely measure these enhanced rates together with the associated UHEC? flux, provided that the latter saturates current observational limits and the neutrino masses are quasidegenerate, m?i?0.1 eV. In the case of UHEC? fluxes below the electromagnetic cascade limit, or a hierarchical neutrino mass spectrum, an experimental sensitivity exceeding that of EUSO by at least 2 orders of magnitude is required to detect the clustering enhancements with any certainty.

  1. Virgo data characterization and impact on gravitational wave searches

    E-print Network

    Aasi, J; Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M; Accadia, T; Acernese, F; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Ceron, E Amador; Amariutei, D; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Ast, S; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Atkinson, D; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Aylott, B E; Babak, S; Baker, P; Ballardin, G; Ballinger, T; Ballmer, S; Bao, Y; Barayoga, J C B; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Bastarrika, M; Basti, A; Batch, J; Bauchrowitz, J; Bauer, Th S; Bebronne, M; Beck, D; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Beker, M G; Bell, A S; Bell, C; Belopolski, I; Benacquista, M; Berliner, J M; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Beveridge, N; Beyersdorf, P T; Bhadbade, T; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Biswas, R; Bitossi, M; Bizouard, M A; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bland, B; Blom, M; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Bogan, C; Bond, C; Bondarescu, R; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bosi, L; Bouhou, B; Braccini, S; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Breyer, J; Briant, T; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Britzger, M; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Burguet--Castell, J; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cagnoli, G; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Campsie, P; Cannon, K; Canuel, B; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Carbognani, F; Carbone, L; Caride, S; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chalermsongsak, T; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, W; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Chow, J; Christensen, N; Chua, S S Y; Chung, C T Y; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, D E; Clark, J A; Clayton, J H; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colacino, C N; Colla, A; Colombini, M; Conte, A; Conte, R; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cordier, M; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M; Coulon, J -P; Couvares, P; Coward, D M; Cowart, M; Coyne, D C; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Cruise, A M; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Cutler, R M; Dahl, K; Damjanic, M; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dattilo, V; Daudert, B; Daveloza, H; Davier, M; Daw, E J; Day, R; Dayanga, T; De Rosa, R; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; Del Pozzo, W; Dent, T; Dergachev, V; DeRosa, R; Dhurandhar, S; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Palma, I; Emilio, M Di Paolo; Di Virgilio, A; Díaz, M; Dietz, A; Dietz, A; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Dorsher, S; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Dumas, J -C; Dwyer, S; Eberle, T; Edgar, M; Edwards, M; Effler, A; Ehrens, P; Endr?czi, G; Engel, R; Etzel, T; Evans, K; Evans, M; Evans, T; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Farr, B F; Favata, M; Fazi, D; Fehrmann, H; Feldbaum, D; Ferrante, I; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Foley, S; Forsi, E; Fotopoulos, N; Fournier, J -D; Franc, J; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, M A; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Friedrich, D; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fujimoto, M -K; Fulda, P J; Fyffe, M; Gair, J; Galimberti, M; Gammaitoni, L; Garcia, J; Garufi, F; Gáspár, M E; Gelencser, G; Gemme, G; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Gergely, L Á; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giampanis, S; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gil-Casanova, S; Gill, C; Gleason, J; Goetz, E; González, G; Gorodetsky, M L; Goßler, S; Gouaty, R; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gray, C; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Griffo, C; Grote, H; Grover, K; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guido, C; Gupta, R; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hallam, J M; Hammer, D; Hammond, G; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Hardt, A; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Harstad, E D; Hartman, M T; Haughian, K; Hayama, K; Hayau, J -F; Heefner, J; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hendry, M A; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A W; Herrera, V; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Holt, K; Holtrop, M; Hong, T; Hooper, S; Hough, J; Howell, E J; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh-Dinh, T; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isogai, T; Ivanov, A; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M; James, E; Jang, Y J; Jaranowski, P; Jesse, E; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Kasprzack, M; Kasturi, R; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, H; Kaufman, K; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kawazoe, F; Keitel, D; Kelley, D; Kells, W; Keppel, D G; Keresztes, Z; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khazanov, E A; Kim, B K; Kim, C; Kim, H; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, Y M; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kline, J; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Koranda, S; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Królak, A; Kuehn, G; Kumar, P; Kumar, R; Kurdyumov, R; Kwee, P

    2012-01-01

    Between 2007 and 2010 Virgo collected data in coincidence with the LIGO and GEO gravitational-wave (GW) detectors. These data have been searched for GWs emitted by cataclysmic phenomena in the universe, by non-axisymmetric rotating neutron stars or from a stochastic background in the frequency band of the detectors. The sensitivity of GW searches is limited by noise produced by the detector or its environment. It is therefore crucial to characterize the various noise sources in a GW detector. This paper reviews the Virgo detector noise sources, noise propagation, and conversion mechanisms which were identified in the three first Virgo observing runs. In many cases, these investigations allowed us to mitigate noise sources in the detector, or to selectively flag noise events and discard them from the data. We present examples from the joint LIGO-GEO-Virgo GW searches to show how well noise transients and narrow spectral lines have been identified and excluded from the Virgo data. We also discuss how detector c...

  2. Substructure System Identification for Finite Element Model Updating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, Roy R., Jr.; Blades, Eric L.

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes research conducted under a NASA grant on the topic 'Substructure System Identification for Finite Element Model Updating.' The research concerns ongoing development of the Substructure System Identification Algorithm (SSID Algorithm), a system identification algorithm that can be used to obtain mathematical models of substructures, like Space Shuttle payloads. In the present study, particular attention was given to the following topics: making the algorithm robust to noisy test data, extending the algorithm to accept experimental FRF data that covers a broad frequency bandwidth, and developing a test analytical model (TAM) for use in relating test data to reduced-order finite element models.

  3. Stellar chromospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsky, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Developments in the understanding and use of chromospheric diagnostics are discussed with emphasis on the following aspects: (1) trends emerging from semiempirical models of single stars; (2) the validity of claims that theoretical models of chromospheres are becoming realistic; (3) the correlation between the widths of Ca 2 H and K line emission cores and stellar absolute luminosity extending over 15 magnitudes (Wilson-Bappu relation); and (4) the existence of systematic flow patterns in stellar chromospheres.

  4. Surface brightness fluctuations and the distance to the Virgo Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tonry, John L.; Ajhar, Edward A.; Luppino, Gerard A.

    1989-01-01

    Preliminary results from a project to measure the fluxes of giant stars in M32, NGC 3379, and five Virgo Cluster galaxies are presented. Since the Virgo Cluster galaxies are approximately equidistant, variations in observed fluctuation amplitude from galaxy to galaxy can be ascribed to variations in absolute luminosity of the giant stars in the galaxies. Assuming a distance of 0.72 Mpc for M32 and correcting for the color effect in m-bar, the typical brightness of giant stars, distances of 9 Mpc for NGC 3379 and 14 Mpc for Virgo, accurate to about 10 percent, are derived. This is used to find a Hubble constant of 88 km/s/Mpc. The method can be used to measure m-bar in galaxies at least 40-50 Mpc distant.

  5. Weak lensing flexion as a probe of galaxy cluster substructure

    E-print Network

    Cain, Benjamin Martin

    2011-01-01

    Measuring galaxy cluster total masses and the amount of dark matter substructure within galaxy cluster haloes is a fundamental probe of the ACDM model of structure formation, as well as the interactions between baryonic ...

  6. 10. DETAIL OF BRIDGE SUBSTRUCTURE, SHOWING ORIGINAL CONNECTION WITH IRON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL OF BRIDGE SUBSTRUCTURE, SHOWING ORIGINAL CONNECTION WITH IRON PINS. VIEW LOOKING WEST FROM FACE OF EAST ABUTMENT. - Annisquam Bridge, Spanning Lobster Cove between Washington & River Streets, Gloucester, Essex County, MA

  7. 65. VIEW LOOKING UPSTREAM FROM FLUME SUBSTRUCTURE, SHOWING COLUMBIA IMPROVEMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. VIEW LOOKING UPSTREAM FROM FLUME SUBSTRUCTURE, SHOWING COLUMBIA IMPROVEMENT COMPANY'S NEISSON CREEK SAWMILL. Print No. 177, November 1903 - Electron Hydroelectric Project, Along Puyallup River, Electron, Pierce County, WA

  8. 13. VIEW OF SUBSTRUCTURE CONNECTIONS WITH TRUSS MEMBERS, SUSPENSION CABLES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF SUBSTRUCTURE CONNECTIONS WITH TRUSS MEMBERS, SUSPENSION CABLES AND 'I'-BEAMS, NORTHEAST SIDE OF BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST - San Rafael Bridge, Spanning San Rafael River near Buckhorn Wash, Castle Dale, Emery County, UT

  9. 7. LOOKING NORTHEAST AT THE CONNECTION DETAIL OF THE SUBSTRUCTURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. LOOKING NORTHEAST AT THE CONNECTION DETAIL OF THE SUBSTRUCTURE OF THE TRUSS SPAN AND THE SHARED PIER OF THE REINFORCED CONCRETE SPAN. - "S" Bridge, U.S. Route 40 spanning Little Wheeling Creek, Elm Grove, Ohio County, WV

  10. Detail view of Fanno Creek trestle, showing trestle substructure, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of Fanno Creek trestle, showing trestle substructure, view looking north - Oregon Electric Railroad, Fanno Creek Trestle, Garden Home to Wilsonville Segment, Milepost 34.7, Garden Home, Washington County, OR

  11. The Stellar Kinematics of Extragalactic Bulges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcón-Barroso, Jesús

    Galactic bulges are complex systems. Once thought to be small-scale versions of elliptical galaxies, advances in astronomical instrumentation (spectroscopy in particular) has revealed a wealth of photometric and kinematic substructure in otherwise simple-looking components. This review provides an overview of how our perspective on galactic bulges has changed over the years. While it is mainly focused on aspects related to the dynamical state of their stars, there will be natural connections to other properties (e.g. morphology, stellar populations) discussed in other reviews in this volume.

  12. Gravitational Waves Interferometers and the Virgo Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaddi, A.

    2002-11-01

    Radio, optical and X-rays telescopes are improving our knowledge of deep space. All these telescopes detect electromagnetic radiation at various frequencies. But a different kind of radiation is generated in the deeper space; it is the gravitational one. Gravitational waves change the space-time metric. As a consequence, GW telescopes should detect an extremely small strain (h < 10-21) of the geometry of a reference frame; if the frame has a reference dimension (L) of some kilometers, the deformation amplitude (?L = h × L) is limited to 10-16 meters. Laser interferometers are the most suitable devices to make precise measurements of distances. Their resolution is limited by the laser wavelength (? = 10-6 meters) and by the light wave-shift detection capability (? ?= 1 ppb). These theoretical limits are strongly degraded by different noise sources, which reduce the actual resolution by several orders of magnitude. Applied physicists and engineers are working together to overcome the technical problems that still keep the distance between theoretical and actual detectors' performances. Three large GW telescopes, based on the laser interferometric technology, are under commissioning in the USA (2) and Europe (1). They will become operatives in the next years, with sensitivity of the order of h = 10-21, in the range between 10 Hz and a few kHz. Among the others, two characteristics are peculiar of the VIRGO interferometer: the high performance of the mirrors' seismic isolation system and the huge ultra high vacuum volume, that will result in the biggest UHV apparatus ever built all over Europe.

  13. Noise from scattered light in Virgo's second science run data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Antonucci, F.; Astone, P.; Ballardin, G.; Barone, F.; Barsuglia, M.; Bauer, Th S.; Beker, M. G.; Belletoile, A.; Birindelli, S.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blom, M.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Boschi, V.; Bosi, L.; Bouhou, B.; Braccini, S.; Bradaschia, C.; Brillet, A.; Brisson, V.; Budzy?ski, R.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Cagnoli, G.; Calloni, E.; Campagna, E.; Canuel, B.; Carbognani, F.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chassande Mottin, E.; Chincarini, A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Colacino, C. N.; Colas, J.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Corsi, A.; Coulon, J.-P.; Cuoco, E.; D'Antonio, S.; Dattilo, V.; Davier, M.; Day, R.; De Rosa, R.; Debreczeni, G.; del Prete, M.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Emilio, M. Di Paolo; Di Virgilio, A.; Dietz, A.; Drago, M.; Fafone, V.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Flaminio, R.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franc, J.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Freise, A.; Galimberti, M.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garufi, F.; Gáspár, M. E.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Giazotto, A.; Gouaty, R.; Granata, M.; Greverie, C.; Guidi, G. M.; Hayau, J.-F.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hild, S.; Huet, D.; Jaranowski, P.; Kowalska, I.; Królak, A.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Li, T. G. F.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Losurdo, G.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Man, N.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marque, J.; Martelli, F.; Masserot, A.; Michel, C.; Milano, L.; Minenkov, Y.; Mohan, M.; Morgado, N.; Morgia, A.; Mosca, S.; Moscatelli, V.; Mours, B.; Neri, I.; Nocera, F.; Pagliaroli, G.; Palladino, L.; Palomba, C.; Paoletti, F.; Pardi, S.; Parisi, M.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Persichetti, G.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pietka, M.; Pinard, L.; Poggiani, R.; Prato, M.; Prodi, G. A.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Rabeling, D. S.; Rácz, I.; Rapagnani, P.; Re, V.; Regimbau, T.; Ricci, F.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Romano, R.; Rosi?ska, D.; Ruggi, P.; Sassolas, B.; Sentenac, D.; Sperandio, L.; Sturani, R.; Swinkels, B. L.; Toncelli, A.; Tonelli, M.; Torre, O.; Tournefier, E.; Travasso, F.; Vajente, G.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; van der Putten, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vavoulidis, M.; Vedovato, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vocca, H.; Was, M.; Yvert, M.

    2010-10-01

    Virgo is one of the large, ground-based interferometers aimed at detecting gravitational waves. One of the technical problems limiting its sensitivity is caused by light in the output beams which is backscattered by seismically excited surfaces and couples back into the main beam of the interferometer. The resulting noise was thoroughly studied, measured and mitigated before Virgo's second science run (VSR2). The residual noise during VSR2, which increases in periods with a large microseism activity, is accurately predicted by the theoretical model. The scattered light has been associated with transient events in the gravitational-wave signal of the interferometer.

  14. COLOR-MAGNITUDE RELATIONS OF EARLY-TYPE DWARF GALAXIES IN THE VIRGO CLUSTER: AN ULTRAVIOLET PERSPECTIVE

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Suk; Rey, Soo-Chang; Lisker, Thorsten; Sohn, Sangmo Tony E-mail: screy@cnu.ac.k

    2010-09-20

    We present ultraviolet (UV) color-magnitude relations (CMRs) of early-type dwarf galaxies in the Virgo cluster, based on Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) UV and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) optical imaging data. We find that dwarf lenticular galaxies (dS0s), including peculiar dwarf elliptical galaxies (dEs) with disk substructures and blue centers, show a surprisingly distinct and tight locus separated from that of ordinary dEs, which is not clearly seen in previous CMRs. The dS0s in UV CMRs follow a steeper sequence than dEs and show bluer UV-optical color at a given magnitude. We also find that the UV CMRs of dEs in the outer cluster region are slightly steeper than that of their counterparts in the inner region, due to the existence of faint, blue dEs in the outer region. We explore the observed CMRs with population models of a luminosity-dependent delayed exponential star formation history. We confirm that the feature of delayed star formation of early-type dwarf galaxies in the Virgo cluster is strongly correlated with their morphology and environment. The observed CMR of dS0s is well matched by models with relatively long delayed star formation. Our results suggest that dS0s are most likely transitional objects at the stage of subsequent transformation of late-type progenitors to ordinary red dEs in the cluster environment. In any case, UV photometry provides a powerful tool to disentangle the diverse subpopulations of early-type dwarf galaxies and uncover their evolutionary histories.

  15. Optical metrology tools for the Virgo projet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loriette, V.

    For more than thirty years the search for gravitationnal waves, predicted by Einstein's relativistic theory of gravitation, has been an intense research field in experimental as well as theoretical physics. Today, with the constant advance of technology in optics, lasers, data analysis and processing, ... a promising way of directly detecting gravitationnal waves with earth-based instruments is optical interferometry. Before the end of this century many experiments will be carried on in Australia, Europe, Japan and the United States to detect the passage of a gravitationnal wave through giant Michelson-type interferometers. The effects predicted are so small, (a gravitationnal wave changes the length of three kilometer long arms by one thousandth of a fermi) that the need for “perfect” optical components is a key to the success of these experiments. Still a few years ago it would have been impossible to make optical components that would satisfy the required specifications for such interferometric detectors. For nearly ten years constant R&D efforts in optical coating manufacturing, optical material fabrication and optical metrology, allow us today to make such components. This text is intended to describe the field of optical metrology as it is needed for the testing of optical parts having performances far beyond than everything previously made. The first chapter is an introduction to gravitationnal waves, their sources and their effects on detectors. Starting by newtonian mechanics we jump rapidly to the general theory of relativity and describe particular solutions of Einstein's equations in the case of weak gravitationnal fields, which are periodic perturbations of the space-time metric in the form of plane waves, the so-called gravitationnal waves. We present various candidate sources, terrestrial and extra-terrestrial and give a short description of the two families of detectors: resonnant bars and optical interferometers. The second part of this chapter is a description of the various optical components that have to be manufactured and tested for Virgo. The next sections are dedicated to the description of various metrology instruments. In chapter 2 we focus on absorption of light in multilayer coatings. The sensitivity of interferometric detectors is degraded by this loss process, not only because it decreases the laser beam power, but also and chiefly because thermo-elastic deformations and changes of the indexes of refraction modify the beam profile. Optical coatings have now reached an absorption level lower than at m. We present a method based on the mirage effect, i.e. the deflexion of light by an index of refraction gradient induced by non homogeneous heating. This “mirage bench” has a sensitivity better than 10^{-8}. We start by a discussion of the approximations that are useful to simplify the problem, we then derive the equation that give the signal amplitude versus the absorption factor. Afterwards we describe the instrument and give a few results with home made Virgo mirrors as well as commercial samples. In the following chapter we discuss the problem of measuring reflexion factors. We focus on two particular problems, the first one is common, it is to measure high (higher than 0.9999) reflexion factors by the use of Fabry-Perot cavities. We present various possible schemes and we detail a particular one which seems to be the easiest to implement. We use a pulsed laser source and measure the average reflexion factor of the two Fabry-Perot mirrors by studying the pulse shape modification after transmission by the cavity. We estimate the sensitivity of this intrument to 10^{-6}. The second problem is a less common one and is to evaluate the relative homogeneity of reflexion factors on large components. Because inhomogeneities of this parameter will degrade the sensitivity of Virgo by coupling various modes of the laser beam with the fundamental one, homogeneity higher than 1{-}10^{-4} is required. We propose a simple scheme and describe a bench built following this scheme. This bench, being

  16. Substructure of the outer dynein arm

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    The substructure of the outer dynein arm has been analyzed in quick- frozen deep-etch replicas of Tetrahymena and Chlamydomonas axonemes. Each arm is found to be composed of five morphologically discrete components: an elliptical head; two spherical feet; a slender stalk; and an interdynein linker. The feet make contact with the A microtubule of each doublet; the stalk contacts the B microtubule; the head lies between the feet and stalk; and the linker associates each arm with its neighbor. The spatial relationships between these five components are found to be distinctly different in rigor (ATP-depleted) versus relaxed (ATP- or vanadate plus ATP-treated) axonemes, and the stalk appears to alter its affinity for the B microtubule in the relaxed state. Images of living cilia attached to Tetrahymena cells show that the relaxed configuration is adopted in vivo. We relate our observations to morphological and experimental studies reported by others and propose several models that suggest how this newly described dynein morphology may relate to dynein function. PMID:6218174

  17. Substructure of the outer dynein arm.

    PubMed

    Goodenough, U W; Heuser, J E

    1982-12-01

    The substructure of the outer dynein arm has been analyzed in quick-frozen deep-etch replicas of Tetrahymena and Chlamydomonas axonemes. Each arm is found to be composed of five morphologically discrete components: an elliptical head; two spherical feet; a slender stalk; and an interdynein linker. The feet make contact with the A microtubule of each doublet; the stalk contacts the B microtubule; the head lies between the feet and stalk; and the linker associates each arm with its neighbor. The spatial relationships between these five components are found to be distinctly different in rigor (ATP-depleted) versus relaxed (ATP- or vanadate plus ATP-treated) axonemes, and the stalk appears to alter its affinity for the B microtubule in the relaxed state. Images of living cilia attached to Tetrahymena cells show that the relaxed configuration is adopted in vivo. We relate our observations to morphological and experimental studies reported by others and propose several models that suggest how this newly described dynein morphology may relate to dynein function. PMID:6218174

  18. Finding Nonoverlapping Substructures of a Sparse Matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Pinar, Ali; Vassilevska, Virginia

    2005-08-11

    Many applications of scientific computing rely on computations on sparse matrices. The design of efficient implementations of sparse matrix kernels is crucial for the overall efficiency of these applications. Due to the high compute-to-memory ratio and irregular memory access patterns, the performance of sparse matrix kernels is often far away from the peak performance on a modern processor. Alternative data structures have been proposed, which split the original matrix A into A{sub d} and A{sub s}, so that A{sub d} contains all dense blocks of a specified size in the matrix, and A{sub s} contains the remaining entries. This enables the use of dense matrix kernels on the entries of A{sub d} producing better memory performance. In this work, we study the problem of finding a maximum number of nonoverlapping dense blocks in a sparse matrix, which is previously not studied in the sparse matrix community. We show that the maximum nonoverlapping dense blocks problem is NP-complete by using a reduction from the maximum independent set problem on cubic planar graphs. We also propose a 2/3-approximation algorithm that runs in linear time in the number of nonzeros in the matrix. This extended abstract focuses on our results for 2x2 dense blocks. However we show that our results can be generalized to arbitrary sized dense blocks, and many other oriented substructures, which can be exploited to improve the memory performance of sparse matrix operations.

  19. Dislocation substructure in fatigued duplex stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Polak, J. . Lab. de Mecanique de Lille Inst. of Physical Metallurgy, Brno . Academy of Sciences); Degallaix, S. . Lab. de Mecanique de Lille); Kruml, T. . Academy of Sciences)

    1993-12-15

    Cyclic plastic straining of crystalline materials results in the formation of specific dislocation structures. Considerable progress in mapping and understanding internal dislocation structures has been achieved by studying single crystal behavior: however, most structural materials have a polycrystalline structure and investigations of polycrystals in comparison to single crystal behavior of simple metals prove to be very useful in understanding more complex materials. There are some classes of materials, however, with complicated structure which do not have a direct equivalent in single crystalline form. Moreover, the specific dimensions and shapes of individual crystallites play an important role both in the cyclic stress-strain response of these materials and in the formation of their interior structure in cyclic straining. Austenitic-ferritic duplex stainless steel, which is a kind of a natural composite, is a material of this type. The widespread interest in the application of duplex steels is caused by approximately doubled mechanical properties and equal corrosion properties, when compared with classical austenitic stainless steels. Fatigue resistance of these steels as well as the surface damage evolution in cyclic straining have been studied; however, much less is known about the internal substructure development in cyclic straining. In this study the dislocation arrangement in ferritic and austenitic grains of the austenitic-ferritic duplex steel alloyed with nitrogen and cyclically strained with two strain amplitudes, is reported and compared to the dislocation arrangement found in single and polycrystals of austenitic and ferritic materials of a similar composition and with the surface relief produced in cyclic plastic straining.

  20. Substructure Formation Induced by Gravitational Tides?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaud, F.; Theis, C.; Naab, T.; Boily, C. M.

    2010-06-01

    Physics lectures always refer to the tides as a disruptive effect. However, tides can also be compressive. When the potential of two galaxies overlap, as happens during a merger, fully compressive tides can develop and have a strong impact on the dynamics of substructures such as star clusters or tidal dwarf galaxies. Using N-body simulations of a large set of mergers, we noticed the importance of these tidal modes at cluster scale. With a model of the Antennae galaxies, we conclude that the positions and timescales of these tidal modes match the actual distribution of young clusters. A detailed study of the statistics of the compressive tides shows a stunning correlation between this purely gravitational effect and the observed properties of the star clusters. In this contribution, we introduce the concept of compressive tide and show its relevance in the special case of the Antennae galaxies. We extend our conclusions to a broad range of parameters and discuss their implications on several critical points such as infant mortality, multiple star formation epochs in clusters or the age distribution.

  1. The SLUGGS Survey: Globular cluster system kinematics and substructure in NGC 4365

    E-print Network

    Blom, Christina; Brodie, Jean P; Foster, Caroline; Romanowsky, Aaron J; Spitler, Lee R; Strader, Jay

    2012-01-01

    We present a kinematic analysis of the globular cluster (GC) system of the giant elliptical galaxy NGC 4365 and find several distinct kinematic substructures. This analysis is carried out using radial velocities for 269 GCs, obtained with the DEIMOS instrument on the Keck II telescope as part of the SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and Galaxies Survey (SLUGGS). We find that each of the three (formerly identified) GC colour subpopulations reveal distinct rotation properties. The rotation of the green GC subpopulation is consistent with the bulk of NGC 4365's stellar light, which `rolls' about the photometric major axis. The blue and red GC subpopulations show `normal' rotation about the minor axis. We also find that the red GC subpopulation is rotationally dominated beyond 2.5 arcmin (~17 kpc) and that the root mean squared velocity of the green subpopulation declines sharply with radius suggesting a possible bias towards radial orbits relative to the other GC subpopulations. Additionally, we find a population ...

  2. Chemical Abundances of Planetary Nebulae in the Substructures of M31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xuan; García-Benito, Rubén; Guerrero, Martín A.; Liu, Xiaowei; Yuan, Haibo; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Bing

    2015-12-01

    We present deep spectroscopy of planetary nebulae (PNe) that are associated with the substructures of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31). The spectra were obtained with the Optical System for Imaging and low-intermediate-Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy spectrograph on the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias. Seven targets were selected for the observations, three in the Northern Spur and four associated with the Giant Stream. The most distant target in our sample, with a rectified galactocentric distance ?slant 100 kpc, was the first PN discovered in the outer streams of M31. The [O iii] ?4363 auroral line is well detected in the spectra of all targets, enabling electron temperature determination. Ionic abundances are derived based on the [O iii] temperatures, and elemental abundances of helium, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, sulfur, and argon are estimated. The relatively low N/O and He/H ratios, as well as abundance ratios of ?-elements, indicate that our target PNe might belong to populations as old as ?2 Gyr. Our PN sample, including the current seven and the previous three observed by Fang et al., have rather homogeneous oxygen abundances. The study of abundances and the spatial and kinematical properties of our sample leads to the tempting conclusion that their progenitors might belong to the same stellar population, which hints at a possibility that the Northern Spur and the Giant Stream have the same origin. This may be explained by the stellar orbit proposed by Merrett et al. Judging from the position and kinematics, we emphasize that M32 might be responsible for the two substructures. Deep spectroscopy of PNe in M32 will help to assess this hypothesis. Based on observations made with the Gran Telescopio Canarias, installed at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, in the island of La Palma. These observations are associated with program No. GTC55-14B.

  3. Stellar Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth

    2007-02-01

    The Stellar Imager (SI) is one of NASA's "Vision Missions" - concepts for future, space-based, strategic missions that could enormously increase our capabilities for observing the Cosmos. SI is designed as a UV/Optical Interferometer which will enable 0.1 milli-arcsecond (mas) spectral imaging of stellar surfaces and, via asteroseismology, stellar interiors and of the Universe in general. The ultra-sharp images of the Stellar Imager will revolutionize our view of many dynamic astrophysical processes by transforming point sources into extended sources, and snapshots into evolving views. SI, with a characteristic angular resolution of 0.1 milli-arcseconds at 2000 Angstroms, represents an advance in image detail of several hundred times over that provided by the Hubble Space Telescope. The Stellar Imager will zoom in on what today-with few exceptions - we only know as point sources, revealing processes never before seen, thus providing a tool as fundamental to astrophysics as the microscope is to the study of life on Earth. SI's science focuses on the role of magnetism in the Universe, particularly on magnetic activity on the surfaces of stars like the Sun. It's prime goal is to enable long-term forecasting of solar activity and the space weather that it drives, in support of the Living With a Star program in the Exploration Era. SI will also revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planetary systems, of the habitability and climatology of distant planets, and of many magneto-hydrodynamically controlled processes in the Universe. Stellar Imager is included as a "Flagship and Landmark Discovery Mission" in the 2005 Sun Solar System Connection (SSSC) Roadmap and as a candidate for a "Pathways to Life Observatory" in the Exploration of the Universe Division (EUD) Roadmap (May, 2005) and as such is a candidate mission for the 2025-2030 timeframe. An artist's drawing of the current "baseline" concept for SI is presented.

  4. Stellar Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    The Stellar Imager (SI) is one of NASA's "Vision Missions" - concepts for future, space-based, strategic missions that could enormously increase our capabilities for observing the Cosmos. SI is designed as a UV/Optical Interferometer which will enable 0.1 milli-arcsecond (mas) spectral imaging of stellar surfaces and, via asteroseismology, stellar interiors and of the Universe in general. The ultra-sharp images of the Stellar Imager will revolutionize our view of many dynamic astrophysical processes by transforming point sources into extended sources, and snapshots into evolving views. SI, with a characteristic angular resolution of 0.1 milli-arcseconds at 2000 Angstroms, represents an advance in image detail of several hundred times over that provided by the Hubble Space Telescope. The Stellar Imager will zoom in on what today-with few exceptions - we only know as point sources, revealing processes never before seen, thus providing a tool as fundamental to astrophysics as the microscope is to the study of life on Earth. SI's science focuses on the role of magnetism in the Universe, particularly on magnetic activity on the surfaces of stars like the Sun. It's prime goal is to enable long-term forecasting of solar activity and the space weather that it drives, in support of the Living With a Star program in the Exploration Era. SI will also revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planetary systems, of the habitability and climatology of distant planets, and of many magneto-hydrodynamically controlled processes in the Universe. Stellar Imager is included as a "Flagship and Landmark Discovery Mission" in the 2005 Sun Solar System Connection (SSSC) Roadmap and as a candidate for a "Pathways to Life Observatory" in the Exploration of the Universe Division (EUD) Roadmap (May, 2005) and as such is a candidate mission for the 2025-2030 timeframe. An artist's drawing of the current "baseline" concept for SI is presented.

  5. Stellar Winds Geoffrey V. Bicknell Stellar Winds

    E-print Network

    Bicknell, Geoff

    Stellar Winds © Geoffrey V. Bicknell Stellar Winds vw Star #12;Astrophysical Gas Dynamics: Stellar Winds 2/66 1 Characteristics of stellar winds Solar wind Velocity at earth's orbit: (1) Density: (2: Stellar Winds 3/66 Mass flux (spherically symmetric wind): (5) Other stars Red giants: O&B type stars

  6. VLA Imaging of Virgo Spirals in Atomic Gas (VIVA). I. The Atlas and the H I Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Aeree; van Gorkom, J. H.; Kenney, Jeffrey D. P.; Crowl, Hugh; Vollmer, Bernd

    2009-12-01

    We present the results of a new VLA H I Imaging survey of Virgo galaxies, the VLA Imaging survey of Virgo galaxies in Atomic gas (VIVA). The survey includes high-resolution H I data of 53 carefully selected late type galaxies (48 spirals and five irregular systems). The goal is to study environmental effects on H I gas properties of cluster galaxies to understand which physical mechanisms affect galaxy evolution in different density regions, and to establish how far out the impact of the cluster reaches. As a dynamically young cluster, Virgo contains examples of galaxies experiencing a variety of environmental effects. Its nearness allows us to study each galaxy in great detail. We have selected Virgo galaxies with a range of star formation properties in low to high density regions (at projected distances from M87, d 87 = 0.3-3.3 Mpc). Contrary to previous studies, more than half of the galaxies in the sample (~60%) are fainter than 12 mag in BT . Overall, the selected galaxies represent the late type Virgo galaxies (S0/a to Sd/Irr) down to mp <~ 14.6 fairly well in morphological type, systemic velocity, subcluster membership, H I mass, and deficiency. The H I observations were done in C short (CS) configuration of the VLA radio telescope, with a typical spatial resolution of 15'' and a column density sensitivity of ?3-5 × 1019 cm-2 in 3? per 10 km s-1 channel. The survey was supplemented with data of comparable quality from the NRAO archive, taken in CS or C configuration. In this paper, we present H I channel maps, total intensity maps, velocity fields, velocity dispersions, global/radial profiles, position-velocity diagrams and overlays of H I/1.4 GHz continuum maps on the optical images. We also present H I properties such as total flux (S H I ), H I mass (M H I ), linewidths (W 20 and W 50), velocity (V H I ), deficiency (def H I ), and size (D eff H I and D iso H I ), and describe the H I morphology and kinematics of individual galaxies in detail. The survey has revealed details of H I features that were never seen before. In this paper, we briefly discuss differences in typical H I morphology for galaxies in regions of different galaxy densities. We confirm that galaxies near the cluster core (d 87 <~ 0.5 Mpc) have H I disks that are smaller compared to their stellar disks (D H I /D 25 < 0.5). Most of these galaxies in the core also show gas displaced from the disk, which is either currently being stripped or falling back after a stripping event. At intermediate distances (d 87 ~ 1 Mpc) from the center, we find a remarkable number of galaxies with long one-sided H I tails pointing away from M87. In a previous letter, we argue that these galaxies are recent arrivals, falling into the Virgo core for the first time. In the outskirts, we find many gas-rich galaxies, with gas disks extending far beyond their optical disks. Interestingly, we also find some galaxies with H I disks that are smaller compared to their stellar disks at large clustercentric distances.

  7. Stellar Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owocki, Stan

    A "stellar wind" is the continuous, supersonic outflow of matter from the surface layers of a star. Our sun has a solar wind, driven by the gas-pressure expansion of the hot (T > 106 K) solar corona. It can be studied through direct in situ measurement by interplanetary spacecraft; but analogous coronal winds in more distant solar-type stars are so tenuous and transparent that that they are difficult to detect directly. Many more luminous stars have winds that are dense enough to be opaque at certain wavelengths of the star's radiation, making it possible to study their wind outflows remotely through careful interpretation of the observed stellar spectra. Red giant stars show slow, dense winds that may be driven by the pressure from magnetohydrodyanmic waves. As stars with initial mass up to 8 M ? evolve toward the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB), a combination of stellar pulsations and radiative scattering off dust can culminate in "superwinds" that strip away the entire stellar envelope, leaving behind a hot white dwarf stellar core with less than the Chandrasekhar mass of ˜ ?? 1. 4M ?. The winds of hot, luminous, massive stars are driven by line-scattering of stellar radiation, but such massive stars can also exhibit superwind episodes, either as Red Supergiants or Luminous Blue Variable stars. The combined wind and superwind mass loss can strip the star's hydrogen envelope, leaving behind a Wolf-Rayet star composed of the products of earlier nuclear burning via the CNO cycle. In addition to such direct effects on a star's own evolution, stellar winds can be a substantial source of mass, momentum, and energy to the interstellar medium, blowing open large cavities or "bubbles" in this ISM, seeding it with nuclear processed material, and even helping trigger the formation of new stars, and influencing their eventual fate as white dwarves or core-collapse supernovae. This chapter reviews the properties of such stellar winds, with an emphasis on the various dynamical driving processes and what they imply for key wind parameters like the wind flow speed and mass loss rate.

  8. Technology in the Dialysis Clinic Copyright 2008 by Virgo Publishing.

    E-print Network

    Connelly, Kay

    Technology in the Dialysis Clinic Copyright 2008 by Virgo Publishing. http. For example, many dialysis units provide graduated water pitchers to help patients reduce fluid intake information icons in the intended manner? Could dialysis patients navigate within the PDA without getting lost

  9. VIRGO: Experiment for helioseismology and solar irradiance monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froehlich, Claus; Andersen, Bo N.

    1995-01-01

    The scientific objectives of the variability of solar irradiance and gravity oscillations (VIRGO) experiment are as follows: to determine the characteristics of pressure and internal gravity oscillations by observing irradiance and radiance variations; to measure the solar total and spectral irradiance, and to quantify their variability. Helioseismological methods can be applied to these data in order to probe the solar interior. Certain convection characteristics and their interaction with magnetic fields will be studied from the results of the irradiance monitoring and from the comparison of the amplitudes and phases of the oscillations as observed from the brightness by VIRGO and from velocity by the global oscillations at low frequency (GOLF) experiment. The VIRGO experiment contains two active-cavity radiometers that monitor the solar constant, two three-channel sunphotometers that measure the spectral irradiance, and a low resolution imager with 12 pixels that measures the radiance distribution over the solar disk at 500 nm. The scientific objectives of VIRGO are presented, the instruments and the data acquisition and control system are described, and their measured performances are given.

  10. VIRGO: Experiment for Helioseismology and Solar Irradiance Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröhlich, Claus; Romero, José; Roth, Hansjörg; Wehrli, Christoph; Andersen, Bo N.; Appourchaux, Thierry; Domingo, Vicente; Telljohann, Udo; Berthomieu, Gabrielle; Delache, Philippe; Provost, Janine; Toutain, Thierry; Crommelynck, Dominique A.; Chevalier, André; Fichot, Alain; Däppen, Werner; Gough, Douglas; Hoeksema, Todd; Jiménez, Antonio; Gómez, Maria F.; Herreros, José M.; Cortés, Teodoro Roca; Jones, Andrew R.; Pap, Judit M.; Willson, Richard C.

    1995-12-01

    The scientific objective of the VIRGO experiment (Variability of solar IRradiance and Gravity Oscillations) is to determine the characteristics of pressure and internal gravity oscillations by observing irradiance and radiance variations, to measure the solar total and spectral irradiance and to quantify their variability over periods of days to the duration of the mission. With these data helioseismological methods can be used to probe the solar interior. Certain characteristics of convection and its interaction with magnetic fields, related to, for example, activity, will be studied from the results of the irradiance monitoring and from the comparison of amplitudes and phases of the oscillations as manifest in brightness from VIRGO, in velocity from GOLF, and in both velocity and continuum intensity from SOI/MDI. The VIRGO experiment contains two different active-cavity radiometers for monitoring the solar ‘constant’, two three-channel sunphotometers (SPM) for the measurement of the spectral irradiance at 402, 500 and 862 nm, and a low-resolution imager (LOI) with 12 pixels, for the measurement of the radiance distribution over the solar disk at 500 um. In this paper the scientific objectives of VIRGO are presented, the instruments and the data acquisition and control system are described in detail, and their measured performance is given.

  11. Completing HI observations of galaxies in the Virgo cluster

    E-print Network

    G. Gavazzi; A. Boselli; W. van Driel; K. O'Neil

    2004-09-15

    High sensitivity (rms noise $\\sim 0.5$ mJy) 21-cm HI line observations were made of 33 galaxies in the Virgo cluster, using the refurbished Arecibo telescope, which resulted in the detection of 12 objects. These data, combined with the measurements available from the literature, provide the first set of HI data that is complete for all 355 late-type (Sa-Im-BCD) galaxies in the Virgo cluster with $m_p \\leq 18.0$ mag. The Virgo cluster HI mass function (HIMF) that was derived for this optically selected galaxy sample is in agreement with the HIMF derived for the Virgo cluster from the blind HIJASS HI survey and is inconsistent with the Field HIMF. This indicates that both in this rich cluster and in the general field, neutral hydrogen is primarily associated with late-type galaxies, with marginal contributions from early-type galaxies and isolated HI clouds. The inconsistency between the cluster and the field HIMF derives primarily from the difference in the optical luminosity function of late-type galaxies in the two environments, combined with the HI deficiency that is known to occur in galaxies in rich clusters.

  12. Baryon Dynamics, Dark Matter Substructure, and Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberg, David H.; Colombi, Stephane; Davé, Romeel; Katz, Neal

    2008-05-01

    By comparing a collisionless cosmological N-body simulation (DM) to a smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation (SPH) with the same initial conditions, we investigate the correspondence between dark matter subhalos produced by collisionless dynamics and galaxies produced by dissipative gas dynamics in a dark matter background. When galaxies in the SPH simulation fall into larger groups and become satellites, they retain local dark matter concentrations (SPH subhalos) whose mass is typically 5 times the galaxy baryonic mass (compared to the simulation's universal ratio ?dm/?b~7.5). The more massive subhalos of the SPH simulation generally have corresponding subhalos of similar mass and spatial position in the DM simulation; at lower masses, there is still fairly good correspondence, but some DM subhalos are in different spatial positions and some have suffered tidal stripping or disruption. The halo occupation statistics of DM subhalos-the mean number of subhalos, pairs, and triples as a function of host halo mass-are very similar to those of SPH subhalos and SPH galaxies. The gravity of the dissipative baryon component amplifies the density contrast of subhalos in the SPH simulation, making them more resistant to tidal disruption. Relative to SPH galaxies and SPH subhalos, the DM subhalo population is depleted in the densest regions of the most massive halos. The good agreement of halo occupation statistics between the DM subhalo and SPH galaxy populations leads to good agreement of their two-point correlation functions and higher order moments on large scales. The depletion of DM subhalos in dense regions depresses their clustering at R<1 h-1 Mpc. In these simulations, the ``conversation'' between dark matter and baryons is mostly one-way, with dark matter dynamics telling galaxies where to form and how to cluster, but the ``back talk'' of the baryons influences small-scale clustering by enhancing the survival of substructure in the densest environments.

  13. Seeking Counterparts to Advanced LIGO/Virgo Transients with Swift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanner, Jonah; Camp, Jordan; Racusin, Judith; Gehrels, Neil; White, Darren

    2012-01-01

    Binary neutron star (NS) mergers are among the most promising astrophysical sources of gravitational wave emission for Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo, expected to be operational in 2015 . Finding electromagnetic counterparts to these signals will be essential to placing them in an astronomical context. The Swift satellite carries a sensitive X-ray telescope (XRT), and can respond to target-of-opportunity requests within 1-2 hours, and so is uniquely poised to find the X-ray counterparts to LIGO / Virgo triggers. Assuming NS mergers are the progenitors of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), some percentage of LIGO/Virgo triggers will be accompanied by X-ray band afterglows that are brighter than 10(exp -12) ergs/s/sq cm in the XRT band one day after the trigger time. We find that a soft X-ray transient of this flux is bright enough to be extremely rare, and so could be confidently associated with even a moderately localized GW signal. We examine two possible search strategies with the Swift XRT to find bright transients in LIGO/Virgo error boxes. In the first strategy, XRT could search a volume of space with a approx.100 Mpc radius by observing approx 30 galaxies over the course of a day, with sufficient depth to observe the expected X-ray afterglow. For an extended LIGO / Virgo horizon distance, the XRT could employ very short 100 s exposures to cover an area of approx 35 square degrees in about a day, and still be sensitive enough to image GW discovered GRB afterglows. These strategies demonstrate that the high X-ray luminosity of short GRBs and the relatively low X-ray transient background combine to make high confidence discoveries of X-ray band counterparts to GW triggers possible, though challenging, with current satellite facilities.

  14. SEEKING COUNTERPARTS TO ADVANCED LIGO/Virgo TRANSIENTS WITH SWIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Kanner, Jonah; Camp, Jordan; Racusin, Judith; Gehrels, Neil; White, Darren

    2012-11-01

    Binary neutron star (NS) mergers are among the most promising astrophysical sources of gravitational wave (GW) emission for Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo, expected to be operational in 2015. Finding electromagnetic counterparts to these signals will be essential to placing them in an astronomical context. The Swift satellite carries a sensitive X-Ray Telescope (XRT), and can respond to target-of-opportunity requests within one to two hours, and so is uniquely poised to find the X-ray counterparts to LIGO/Virgo triggers. Assuming that NS mergers are the progenitors of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), some percentage of LIGO/Virgo triggers will be accompanied by X-ray band afterglows that are brighter than 10{sup -12} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} in the XRT band one day after the trigger time. We find that a soft X-ray transient of this flux is bright enough to be extremely rare, and so could be confidently associated with even a moderately localized GW signal. We examine two possible search strategies with the Swift XRT to find bright transients in LIGO/Virgo error boxes. In the first strategy, XRT could search a volume of space with a {approx}100 Mpc radius by observing {approx}30 galaxies over the course of a day, with sufficient depth to observe the expected X-ray afterglow. For an extended LIGO/Virgo horizon distance, the XRT could employ 100 s exposures to cover an area of {approx}35 deg{sup 2} in about a day and remain sensitive enough to image GW-discovered GRB afterglows. These strategies demonstrate that discovery of X-ray band counterparts to GW triggers will be possible, though challenging, with current facilities.

  15. Population Gradients in Stellar Halos from GHOSTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailin, Jeremy; Monachesi, Antonela; Bell, Eric F.; de Jong, Roelof S.; Ghosts Survey

    2015-01-01

    We report on recent results from the Galaxy Halos, Outer disks, Substructure, Thick disks, and Star clusters (GHOSTS) survey, an HST ACS+WFC3 imaging survey to study stellar populations in and around 16 nearby spiral galaxies. By using HST resolution to resolve the stellar halos into individual red giant branch (RGB) stars, we are able to detect distinct stellar populations at several points throughout the halo of the half dozen massive highly-inclined galaxies in the sample. In approximately half of these galaxies, we detect a gradient in the color of the RGB; which we interpret as a metallicity gradient. Stellar halo formation models predict a wide variety of metallicity gradients: those in which the halos are dominated by stars formed in situ predict stronger gradients than we observe, while accretion-dominated halo models predict weaker or nonexistent gradients. Our measurements therefore provide a useful discriminator between stellar halo models, and at first look appear most consistent with the accretion-based model of Cooper et al. (2010).

  16. Substructure location and size effects on decentralized model updating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xinjun; Zhu, Dapeng; Wang, Yang

    2015-04-01

    To improve the simulation accuracy of the finite-element (FE) model of an as-built structure, measurement data from the actual structure can be utilized for updating the model parameters, which is termed as FE model updating. During the past few decades, most efforts on FE model updating intend to update the entire structure model altogether, while using measurement data from sensors installed throughout the structure. When applied on large and complex structural models, the typical model updating approaches may fail due to computational challenges and convergence issues. In order to reduce the computational difficulty, this paper studies a decentralized FE model updating approach that intends to update one substructure at a time. The approach divides the entire structure into a substructure (currently being instrumented and updated) and the residual structure. The Craig-Bampton transform is adopted to condense the overall structural model. The optimization objective is formulated to minimize the modal dynamic residuals from the eigenvalue equations in structural dynamics involving natural frequencies and mode shapes. This paper investigates the effects of different substructure locations and sizes on updating performance. A space frame example, which is based on an actual pedestrian bridge on Georgia Tech campus, is used to study the substructure location and size effects. Keywords: substructure

  17. Gamma-ray probes of dark matter substructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Sheldon

    2014-06-01

    The substructure content of dark matter halos is interesting because it can be affected by complex galaxy physics and dark matter particle physics. However, observing the small scale structure of dark matter is a challenge. The subhalo abundance (mass function, minimum mass) and morphology (density profile, subhalo shape, subsubstructure) contain information about complex astrophysics (halo formation processes) and new exotic fundamental physics (dark matter interactions). Indirect detection of dark matter annihilation radiation (DMAR) in gamma rays may be the most direct method for observing small scale structure. I outline the ways in which gamma rays may probe halo substructure. If substructure is bountiful, it may be responsible for the eventual discovery of DMAR, for instance in galaxy clusters or the diffuse gamma-ray background. Otherwise, the observation of DMAR in places without much substructure, such as the Galactic center, would lead to strict limits on the properties of small scale structure. Properties of the gamma-ray angular power spectrum will also provide information or constraints on Milky Way halo substructure.

  18. Gamma-ray probes of dark matter substructure

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Sheldon

    2014-06-24

    The substructure content of dark matter halos is interesting because it can be affected by complex galaxy physics and dark matter particle physics. However, observing the small scale structure of dark matter is a challenge. The subhalo abundance (mass function, minimum mass) and morphology (density profile, subhalo shape, subsubstructure) contain information about complex astrophysics (halo formation processes) and new exotic fundamental physics (dark matter interactions). Indirect detection of dark matter annihilation radiation (DMAR) in gamma rays may be the most direct method for observing small scale structure. I outline the ways in which gamma rays may probe halo substructure. If substructure is bountiful, it may be responsible for the eventual discovery of DMAR, for instance in galaxy clusters or the diffuse gamma-ray background. Otherwise, the observation of DMAR in places without much substructure, such as the Galactic center, would lead to strict limits on the properties of small scale structure. Properties of the gamma-ray angular power spectrum will also provide information or constraints on Milky Way halo substructure.

  19. Quantifying the Significance of Substructure in Coronal Loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeough, K. B. D.; Kashyap, V.; McKillop, S.

    2014-12-01

    A method to infer the presence of small-scale substructure in SDO/AIA (Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on the Solar Dynamics Observatory) images of coronal loops is developed. We can classify visible loop structure based on this propensity to show substructure which puts constraints on contemporary solutions to the coronal heating problem. The method uses the Bayesian algorithm Low-count Image Reconstruction and Analysis (LIRA) to infer the multi-scale component of the loops which describes deviations from a smooth model. The increase in contrast of features in this multi-scale component is determined using a statistic that estimates the sharpness across the image. Regions with significant substructure are determined using p-value upper bounds. We are able to locate substructure visible in Hi-C (High-Resolution Coronal Imager) data that are not salient features in the corresponding AIA image. Looking at coronal loops at different regions of the Sun (e.g., low-lying structure and loops in the upper corona) we are able to map where detectable substructure exists and thus the influence of the nanoflare heating process. We acknowledge support from AIA under contract SP02H1701R from Lockheed-Martin to SAO.

  20. Kinematic and Spatial Substructure in NGC 2264

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, John J.; Hartmann, Lee; F?rész, Gabor; Hsu, Wen-Hsin; Mateo, Mario

    2015-04-01

    We present an expanded kinematic study of the young cluster NGC 2264 based upon optical radial velocities measured using multi-fiber echelle spectroscopy at the 6.5 m MMT and Magellan telescopes. We report radial velocities for 695 stars, of which approximately 407 stars are confirmed or very likely members. Our results more than double the number of members with radial velocities from F?rész et al., resulting in a much better defined kinematic relationship between the stellar population and the associated molecular gas. In particular, we find that there is a significant subset of stars that are systematically blueshifted with respect to the molecular (13CO) gas. The detection of Lithium absorption and/or infrared excesses in this blueshifted population suggests that at least some of these stars are cluster members; we suggest some speculative scenarios to explain their kinematics. Our results also more clearly define the redshifted population of stars in the northern end of the cluster; we suggest that the stellar and gas kinematics of this region are the result of a bubble driven by the wind from O7 star S Mon. Our results emphasize the complexity of the spatial and kinematic structure of NGC 2264, important for eventually building up a comprehensive picture of cluster formation. Observations reported here were obtained at the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the Smithsonian Institution and the University of Arizona. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  1. Shock induced deformation substructures in a copper bicrystal

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Fang; Beyerlein, Irene J; Cerreta, Ellen K; Trujillo, Carl P; Gray Ill, George T; Sencer, Bulent H

    2008-01-01

    Controlled shock recovery experiments have been conducted to assess the role of shock pressure and orientation dependence on the substructure evolution of a [100]/[01{ovr 1}] copper bicrystal. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were utilized to characterize orientation variation and substructure evolution of the post-shock specimens. Well defined dislocation cell structures were displayed in both grains and the average cell size was observed to decrease with increasing shock pressure. Twinning was occasionally observed in the 5 GPa shocked [100] grain and became the dominant substructure at higher shock pressure. The stress and directional dependence of twinning in the bicrystal was analyzed with consideration of the energetically favorable dissociation of dislocations into Shockley partials and the stress-orientation effect on the partial width. Moreover, a critical 'tear apart' stress is proposed and a good agreement is obtained between the calculated value and the experimental observations.

  2. Detecting dark matter substructures around the Milky Way with Gaia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldmann, Robert; Spolyar, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Cold dark matter (CDM) theory, a pillar of modern cosmology and astrophysics, predicts the existence of a large number of starless dark matter haloes surrounding the Milky Way (MW). However, clear observational evidence of these `dark' substructures remains elusive. Here, we present a detection method based on the small, but detectable, velocity changes that an orbiting substructure imposes on the stars in the MW disc. Using high-resolution numerical simulations we estimate that the new space telescope Gaia should detect the kinematic signatures of a few starless substructures provided the CDM paradigm holds. Such a measurement will provide unprecedented constraints on the primordial matter power spectrum at low-mass scales and potentially presents a new avenue to explore the particle physics properties of dark matter.

  3. Substructures of the (252) ferrous martensite and their crystallographic significance

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Shidao; Hei Zukun

    1999-04-23

    Many ferrous martensites have been found to possess a macroscopically invariant habit plane close to (252){sub f} and to exhibit complex and variable substructures that cannot be not only satisfactorily explained but also fully characterized so far. The present work attempts to examine the mechanism of occurrence of the complex substructures and their correlation to other crystallographic properties, esp. to the shape strain, on the basis of a new theory. The theory describes the atomic movements in the lattice change represented with the Bain distortion in the past.

  4. A substructure coupling procedure applicable to general linear time-invariant dynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howsman, T. G.; Craig, R. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A substructure synthesis procedure applicable to structural systems containing general nonconservative terms is presented. In their final form, the nonself-adjoint substructure equations of motion are cast in state vector form through the use of a variational principle. A reduced-order mode for each substructure is implemented by representing the substructure as a combination of a small number of Ritz vectors. For the method presented, the substructure Ritz vectors are identified as a truncated set of substructure eigenmodes, which are typically complex, along with a set of generalized real attachment modes. The formation of the generalized attachment modes does not require any knowledge of the substructure flexible modes; hence, only the eigenmodes used explicitly as Ritz vectors need to be extracted from the substructure eigenproblem. An example problem is presented to illustrate the method.

  5. An interface force measurements-based substructure identification and an analysis of the uncertainty propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kranjc, Tadej; Slavi?, Janko; Boltežar, Miha

    2015-05-01

    Substructure-decoupling techniques are used to identify a substructure as a stand-alone system while it is coupled to a complex structure. These techniques can be used for various applications, e.g., when the substructure cannot be measured separately from the complex structure, when modal testing methods are not appropriate due to the limits of the measurement equipment and for vibration-control techniques. The complex structure consists of the unknown substructure and the remaining structure. A drawback of the available substructure-decoupling techniques is that they require a model of the remaining substructure. However, when the model cannot be calculated or (experimentally) identified, the substructure-decoupling techniques cannot be used. In this paper a new approach is presented that does not require a model of the remaining substructure, but is based on an experimental identification of the interface forces. The sensitivity of the approach to experimental errors was researched. Numerical and experimental test cases are researched.

  6. Substructural Simple Type Theories for Separation and In-place Update 

    E-print Network

    Atkey, Robert

    This thesis studies two substructural simple type theories, extending the "separation" and "number-of-uses" readings of the basic substructural simply typed lambda-calculus with exchange. The first calculus, lambda_sep, ...

  7. Automatic Alignment system during the second science run of the Virgo interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Antonucci, F.; Astone, P.; Ballardin, G.; Barone, F.; Barsuglia, M.; Basti, A.; Bauer, Th. S.; Beker, M. G.; Belletoile, A.; Birindelli, S.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blom, M.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Boschi, V.; Bosi, L.; Bouhou, B.; Braccini, S.; Bradaschia, C.; Brillet, A.; Brisson, V.; Budzy?ski, R.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Cagnoli, G.; Calloni, E.; Campagna, E.; Canuel, B.; Carbognani, F.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chaibi, O.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chincarini, A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Colacino, C. N.; Colas, J.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Corsi, A.; Coulon, J.-P.; Cuoco, E.; D'Antonio, S.; Dattilo, V.; Davier, M.; Day, R.; de Rosa, R.; Debreczeni, G.; Del Prete, M.; di Fiore, L.; di Lieto, A.; di Paolo Emilio, M.; di Virgilio, A.; Dietz, A.; Drago, M.; Fafone, V.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Flaminio, R.; Forte, L. A.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franc, J.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Freise, A.; Galimberti, M.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garufi, F.; Gáspár, M. E.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Giazotto, A.; Gouaty, R.; Granata, M.; Greverie, C.; Guidi, G. M.; Hayau, J.-F.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hild, S.; Huet, D.; Jaranowski, P.; Kowalska, I.; Królak, A.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Li, T. G. F.; Liguori, N.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Losurdo, G.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Man, N.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marque, J.; Martelli, F.; Masserot, A.; Michel, C.; Milano, L.; Minenkov, Y.; Mohan, M.; Morgado, N.; Morgia, A.; Mosca, S.; Moscatelli, V.; Mours, B.; Neri, I.; Nocera, F.; Pagliaroli, G.; Palladino, L.; Palomba, C.; Paoletti, F.; Pardi, S.; Parisi, M.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Persichetti, G.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pietka, M.; Pinard, L.; Poggiani, R.; Prato, M.; Prodi, G. A.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Rabeling, D. S.; Rácz, I.; Rapagnani, P.; Re, V.; Regimbau, T.; Ricci, F.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Romano, R.; Rosi?ska, D.; Ruggi, P.; Sassolas, B.; Sentenac, D.; Sperandio, L.; Sturani, R.; Swinkels, B.; Toncelli, A.; Tonelli, M.; Torre, O.; Tournefier, E.; Travasso, F.; Vajente, G.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; van der Putten, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vavoulidis, M.; Vedovato, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vocca, H.; Ward, R. L.; Was, M.; Yvert, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the performances of the Automatic Alignment sensing and control system in the Virgo gravitational wave detector, during the second scientific run from July 7th 2009 to January 8th 2010, are described. The accuracy of the angular control loops fulfills the original Virgo requirements, reaching the accuracy of a few nano-radians for the most critical angular degrees of freedom, and the control noise is below the Virgo design sensitivity in the whole detection band.

  8. The spatial evolution of stellar structures in the LMC/SMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastian, Nate; Gieles, Mark; Ercolano, Barbara; Gutermuth, Robert

    2009-03-01

    We present an analysis of the spatial distribution of various stellar populations within the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. We use optically selected stellar samples with mean ages between ~9 and ~1000 Myr, and existing stellar cluster catalogues to investigate how stellar structures form and evolve within the LMC/SMC. We use two statistical techniques to study the evolution of structure within these galaxies, the Q-parameter and the two-point correlation function (TPCF). In both galaxies we find the stars are born with a high degree of substructure (i.e. are highly fractal) and that the stellar distribution approaches that of the “background” population on timescales similar to the crossing times of the galaxy (~ 80 Myr & ~ 150 Myr for the SMC/LMC respectively). By comparing our observations to simple models of structural evolution we find that “popping star clusters” do not significantly influence structural evolution in these galaxies. Instead we argue that general galactic dynamics are the main drivers, and that substructure will be erased in approximately the crossing time, regardless of spatial scale, from small clusters to whole galaxies. This can explain why many young Galactic clusters have high degrees of substructure, while others are smooth and centrally concentrated. We conclude with a general discussion on cluster “infant mortality”, in an attempt to clarify the time/spatial scales involved.

  9. Emission-line galaxies in the Virgo region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, X.-T.; Impey, C. D.

    1986-08-01

    Spectroscopic observations, obtained at 490-690 nm using a grism spectrograph with a 1.4-arcsec-wide slit and a CCD detector (dispersion 4 A/pixel at scale 0.68 arcsec/pixel) on the 88-inch University of Hawaii telescope on March 22-24, 1983, are reported for five emission-line galaxies identified in a search for quasars on UK Schmidt Telescope plates of the Virgo region (He et al., 1984). The data are presented in tables, spectra, and line-ratio plots and characterized. The systems are found to have M(V) from -19 to -14, strong narrow lines of large equivalent width, and no evidence of power-law excitation or broad line components, and are classified as compact metal-poor extragalactic H II regions or blue compact dwarf galaxies. Three of the galaxies (EG4, HII2, and OEG1) are shown to be members of the Virgo cluster.

  10. Rate and Followup of Advanced LIGO-Virgo Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsin-Yu; Holz, Daniel; LIGO

    2016-01-01

    Compact binary coalescences (CBCs) are the most promising gravitational wave sources for the LIGO/Virgo detectors. We predict the detectable rate of CBCs from short GRB observations, and constrain the GRB beaming angles from the non-detection of mergers in existing LIGO/Virgo data. The gravitational wave signals are almost impossible to obscure via dust absorption or other astrophysical processes, allowing us to derive the universal distribution of signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) for gravitational wave detection. This distribution guarantees the existence of high SNR events, and these provide the best constraints on source parameters such as sky locations. We discuss low-latency localization from these high SNR CBC detections, and optimizing EM follow-up of CBC sources.

  11. PubChem Substructure Fingerprint V1.3 http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

    E-print Network

    Levin, Judith G.

    PubChem Substructure Fingerprint V1.3 http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov Page 1 of 21 5/1/2009 7:21:06 AM The PubChem System generates a binary substructure fingerprint for chemical structures. These fingerprints are used by PubChem for similarity neighboring and similarity searching. A substructure

  12. Stellar streams around the Magellanic Clouds

    E-print Network

    Belokurov, Vasily

    2015-01-01

    Using Blue Horizontal Branch stars identified in the Dark Energy Survey Year 1 data, we report the detection of an extended and lumpy stellar debris distribution around the Magellanic Clouds. At the heliocentric distance of the Clouds, overdensities of BHBs are seen to reach at least to ~30 degrees, and perhaps as far as ~50 degrees from the LMC. In 3D, the stellar halo is traceable to between 25 and 50 kpc from the LMC. We catalogue the most significant of the stellar sub-structures revealed, and announce the discovery of a number of narrow streams and diffuse debris clouds. Two narrow streams appear approximately aligned with the Magellanic Clouds' proper motion. Moreover, one of these overlaps with the gaseous Magellanic Stream on the sky. Curiously, two diffuse BHB agglomerations seem coincident with several of the recently discovered DES satellites. Given the enormous size and the conspicuous lumpiness of the LMC's stellar halo, we speculate that the dwarf could easily have been more massive than previou...

  13. Status of the commissioning of the Virgo interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Antonucci, F.; Astone, P.; Ballardin, G.; Barone, F.; Barsuglia, M.; Basti, A.; Bauer, Th. S.; Bebronne, M.; Beker, M. G.; Belletoile, A.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blom, M.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Boschi, V.; Bosi, L.; Bouhou, B.; Braccini, S.; Bradaschia, C.; Branchesi, M.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brisson, V.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Cagnoli, G.; Calloni, E.; Canuel, B.; Carbognani, F.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chaibi, O.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colacino, C. N.; Colas, J.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Corsi, A.; Coulon, J.-P.; Cuoco, E.; D'Antonio, S.; Dattilo, V.; Davier, M.; Day, R.; De Rosa, R.; Debreczeni, G.; Del Pozzo, W.; del Prete, M.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Paolo Emilio, M.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dietz, A.; Drago, M.; Fafone, V.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Flaminio, R.; Forte, L. A.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franc, J.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Galimberti, M.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garufi, F.; Gáspár, M. E.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Giazotto, A.; Gouaty, R.; Granata, M.; Greverie, C.; Guidi, G. M.; Hayau, J.-F.; Heidmann, A.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Huet, D.; Jaranowski, P.; Kowalska, I.; Królak, A.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Li, T. G. F.; Liguori, N.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Losurdo, G.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Man, N.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marque, J.; Martelli, F.; Masserot, A.; Michel, C.; Milano, L.; Minenkov, Y.; Mohan, M.; Morgado, N.; Morgia, A.; Mosca, S.; Moscatelli, V.; Mours, B.; Nocera, F.; Pagliaroli, G.; Palladino, L.; Palomba, C.; Paoletti, F.; Parisi, M.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Persichetti, G.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pietka, M.; Pinard, L.; Poggiani, R.; Prato, M.; Prodi, G. A.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Rabeling, D. S.; Rácz, I.; Rapagnani, P.; Re, V.; Regimbau, T.; Ricci, F.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Romano, R.; Rosi?ska, D.; Ruggi, P.; Sassolas, B.; Sentenac, D.; Sperandio, L.; Sturani, R.; Swinkels, B.; Tacca, M.; Toncelli, A.; Tonelli, M.; Torre, O.; Tournefier, E.; Travasso, F.; Vajente, G.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; van der Putten, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vavoulidis, M.; Vedovato, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vocca, H.; Ward, R. L.; Was, M.; Yvert, M.

    2012-06-01

    Long baseline optical interferometry is a promising technique for the detection of gravitational waves [1], [2], [3], [4]. The French-Italian detector Virgo is a Michelson interferometer with 3 km arms, equipped with high storage time Fabry-Perot cavities. In this kind of detectors, the passage of gravitational waves would be sensed as a differential length variation of the arms. After the end of the second Virgo Science Run, lasting from July 2009 to the beginning of January 2010, some important upgrades have been carried out; in particular, the mirrors of the Fabry-Perot cavities, which act as test masses of the detector, have been replaced by new ones with an higher reflectivity, which should increase by three times the finesse of the cavities; moreover the mirrors are now suspended by silica fibers in a monolithic assembly expected to significantly lower the thermal noise. Finally, the digital signal processing electronics and the global control system have been largely improved. We will present the status of the commissioning of the Virgo interferometer.

  14. OPTICAL COLORS OF INTRACLUSTER LIGHT IN THE VIRGO CLUSTER CORE

    SciTech Connect

    Rudick, Craig S.; Mihos, J. Christopher; Harding, Paul; Morrison, Heather L.; Feldmeier, John J.; Janowiecki, Steven

    2010-09-01

    We continue our deep optical imaging survey of the Virgo cluster using the CWRU Burrell Schmidt telescope by presenting B-band surface photometry of the core of the Virgo cluster in order to study the cluster's intracluster light (ICL). We find ICL features down to {mu}{sub B} {approx}29 mag arcsec{sup -2}, confirming the results of Mihos et al., who saw a vast web of low surface brightness streams, arcs, plumes, and diffuse light in the Virgo cluster core using V-band imaging. By combining these two data sets, we are able to measure the optical colors of many of the cluster's low surface brightness features. While much of our imaging area is contaminated by galactic cirrus, the cluster core near the cD galaxy, M87, is unobscured. We trace the color profile of M87 out to over 2000'', and find a blueing trend with radius, continuing out to the largest radii. Moreover, we have measured the colors of several ICL features which extend beyond M87's outermost reaches and find that they have similar colors to the M87's halo itself, B - V {approx}0.8. The common colors of these features suggest that the extended outer envelopes of cD galaxies, such as M87, may be formed from similar streams, created by tidal interactions within the cluster, that have since dissolved into a smooth background in the cluster potential.

  15. SEISMIC SURFACE WAVE TESTING FOR TRACK SUBSTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT

    E-print Network

    SEISMIC SURFACE WAVE TESTING FOR TRACK SUBSTRUCTURE ASSESSMENT Timothy D. Stark and Thomas J Railroad Administration (FRA) sponsored research project on using seismic surface waves to evaluate track testing, results of field measurements, and numerical modeling of the seismic wave propagation

  16. Substructure in Clusters and Central Galaxy Peculiar Velocities

    E-print Network

    Christina M. Bird

    1994-02-23

    Formation theories for central dominant galaxies in clusters require them to be located at the minimum of the cluster gravitational potential. However, 32\\% (8 out of 25) of the clusters with more than 50 measured redshifts have central galaxies with significant velocity offsets (with respect to other cluster members). By studying their velocity distributions and correlations between velocity and position, I show that the presence of a large peculiar velocity is strongly correlated with the presence of substructure in these massive systems. About 85\\% (21 of 25) of all well-studied clusters show some evidence for substructure, in contrast to the 30-40\\% found when using only galaxy or gas distributions. The correlation between substructure and central galaxy location verifies the hypothesis of Merritt (1985) and Tremaine (1990) that high peculiar velocities are indicative of recent merger events between less-massive systems of galaxies. Dynamical friction should act quickly to pull the central galaxy, the most massive discrete object in a cluster, to the minimum of the potential. The less-massive galaxies retain information about their primordial subclusters for a longer period of time. I use an objective partitioning algorithm to assign cluster galaxies to their host subclumps. When galaxies are allocated in this fashion to their subclusters, 75\\% of the significant velocity offsets are eliminated. Only 2 out of the 25 clusters have central galaxies which are not centrally-located when substructure is considered in the analysis.

  17. Enhancing MAD F{sub A} data for substructure determination

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Hongliang

    2010-08-01

    A new statistical and computational procedure, which merges multiple F{sub A} estimates into an averaged data set, is used to further improve the quality of the estimated anomalous amplitudes for substructure determination. Heavy-atom substructure determination is a critical step in phasing an unknown macromolecular structure. Dual-space (Shake-and-Bake) recycling is a very effective procedure for locating the substructure (heavy) atoms using F{sub A} data estimated from multiple-wavelength anomalous diffraction. However, the estimated F{sub A} are susceptible to the accumulation of errors in the individual intensity measurements at several wavelengths and from inaccurate estimation of the anomalous atomic scattering corrections f? and f??. In this paper, a new statistical and computational procedure which merges multiple F{sub A} estimates into an averaged data set is used to further improve the quality of the estimated anomalous amplitudes. The results of 18 Se-atom substructure determinations provide convincing evidence in favor of using such a procedure to locate anomalous scatterers.

  18. Structural and Molecular Remodeling of Dendritic Spine Substructures

    E-print Network

    Sur, Mriganka

    Neuron Article Structural and Molecular Remodeling of Dendritic Spine Substructures during Long during long-term potentiation (LTP) at individual dendritic spines. Proteins translocated to the spine was rapidly remodeled while active cofilin was massively trans- ported to the spine. In the stabilization

  19. Trans-dimensional Bayesian inference for gravitational lens substructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Brendon J.; Huijser, David; Lewis, Geraint F.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a Bayesian solution to the problem of inferring the density profile of strong gravitational lenses when the lens galaxy may contain multiple dark or faint substructures. The source and lens models are based on a superposition of an unknown number of non-negative basis functions (or `blobs') whose form was chosen with speed as a primary criterion. The prior distribution for the blobs' properties is specified hierarchically, so the mass function of substructures is a natural output of the method. We use reversible jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo within Diffusive Nested Sampling to sample the posterior distribution and evaluate the marginal likelihood of the model, including the summation over the unknown number of blobs in the source and the lens. We demonstrate the method on two simulated data sets: one with a single substructure, and the other with 10. We also apply the method to the g-band image of the `Cosmic Horseshoe' system, and find evidence for more than zero substructures. However, these have large spatial extent and probably only point to misspecifications in the model (such as the shape of the smooth lens component or the point-spread function), which are difficult to guard against in full generality.

  20. Formation and evolution of CDM halos and their substructure

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Formation and evolution of CDM halos and their substructure 1) cold dark matter and structures on all scales 2) via lactea, z=0 results 3) subhalo evolution 4) DM annihilation and GLAST Jürg Diemand in the field -> they are stable against tides caused by the MW potential if the live more than about 3 kpc form

  1. A Frequency-Domain Substructure System Identification Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blades, Eric L.; Craig, Roy R., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    A new frequency-domain system identification algorithm is presented for system identification of substructures, such as payloads to be flown aboard the Space Shuttle. In the vibration test, all interface degrees of freedom where the substructure is connected to the carrier structure are either subjected to active excitation or are supported by a test stand with the reaction forces measured. The measured frequency-response data is used to obtain a linear, viscous-damped model with all interface-degree of freedom entries included. This model can then be used to validate analytical substructure models. This procedure makes it possible to obtain not only the fixed-interface modal data associated with a Craig-Bampton substructure model, but also the data associated with constraint modes. With this proposed algorithm, multiple-boundary-condition tests are not required, and test-stand dynamics is accounted for without requiring a separate modal test or finite element modeling of the test stand. Numerical simulations are used in examining the algorithm's ability to estimate valid reduced-order structural models. The algorithm's performance when frequency-response data covering narrow and broad frequency bandwidths is used as input is explored. Its performance when noise is added to the frequency-response data and the use of different least squares solution techniques are also examined. The identified reduced-order models are also compared for accuracy with other test-analysis models and a formulation for a Craig-Bampton test-analysis model is also presented.

  2. SUBARU SPECTROSCOPY OF THE GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN THE VIRGO GIANT ELLIPTICAL GALAXY M86

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Hong Soo; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Hwang, Ho Seong E-mail: mglee@astro.snu.ac.kr

    2012-10-01

    We present the first spectroscopic study of the globular clusters (GCs) in the giant elliptical galaxy (gE) M86 in the Virgo Cluster. Using spectra obtained in the Multi-Object Spectroscopy mode of the Faint Object Camera and Spectrograph on the Subaru telescope, we measure the radial velocities for 25 GCs in M86. The mean velocity of the GCs is derived to be v-bar{sub p} = -354{sub -79}{sup +81} km s{sup -1}, which is different from the velocity of the M86 nucleus (v{sub gal} = -234 {+-} 41 km s{sup -1}). We estimate the velocity dispersion of the GCs, {sigma}{sub p} = 292{sup +32}{sub -32} km s{sup -1}, and find a hint of rotation in the M86 GC system. A comparison of the observed velocity dispersion profiles of the GCs and stars with a prediction based on the stellar mass profile strongly suggests the existence of an extended dark matter halo in M86. We also estimate the metallicities and ages for 16 and 8 GCs, respectively. The metallicities of M86 GCs are in the range of -2.0 < [Fe/H] <-0.2 with a mean value of -1.13 {+-} 0.47. These GCs show a wide age distribution from 4 to 15 Gyr.

  3. Pre-peak ram pressure stripping in the Virgo cluster spiral galaxy NGC 4501

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, B.; Soida, M.; Chung, A.; van Gorkom, J. H.; Otmianowska-Mazur, K.; Beck, R.; Urbanik, M.; Kenney, J. D. P.

    2008-05-01

    VIVA Hi observations of the Virgo spiral galaxy NGC 4501 are presented. The Hi disk is sharply truncated to the southwest, well within the stellar disk. A region of low surface-density gas, which is more extended than the main Hi disk, is discovered northeast of the galaxy center. These data are compared to existing 6 cm polarized radio continuum emission, H?, and optical broad band images. We observe a coincidence between the western Hi and polarized emission edges, on the one hand, and a faint H? emission ridge, on the other. The polarized emission maxima are located within the gaps between the spiral arms and the faint H? ridge. Based on the comparison of these observations with a sample of dynamical simulations with different values for maximum ram pressure and different inclination angles between the disk and the orbital plane, we conclude that ram pressure stripping can account for the main observed characteristics. NGC 4501 is stripped nearly edge-on, is heading southwest, and is 200{-}300 Myr before peak ram pressure, i.e. its closest approach to M 87. The southwestern ridge of enhanced gas surface density and enhanced polarized radio-continuum emission is due to ram pressure compression. It is argued that the faint western H? emission ridge is induced by nearly edge-on ram pressure stripping. NGC 4501 represents an especially clear example of early stage ram pressure stripping of a large cluster-spiral galaxy.

  4. A Virgo high-resolution Halpha kinematical survey: I. NGC 4438

    E-print Network

    L. Chemin; V. Cayatte; C. Balkowski; P. Amram; C. Carignan; A. Boselli; C. Adami; M. Marcelin; O. Garrido; O. Hernandez; J. Boulesteix

    2005-03-07

    New Halpha emission-line observations of the Virgo cluster galaxy NGC 4438 are presented. Fabry-Perot interferometry data at an effective angular resolution of ~2" are used to map the kinematics of the ionized gas in the galaxy. For the first time we obtain a velocity field covering a large area in NGC 4438, much larger than that deduced from previous HI and CO maps. The kinematics of the extended, low surface brightness Halpha filaments to the West of the galactic disk is discussed. We report on the discovery of a northern Halpha structure which is clumpier than the other filaments. Evidence for multiple spectral components through the data-cube are presented in a nuclear shell and in the approaching half of the disk. The role of VCC 1040, a dwarf elliptical galaxy located to the South of NGC 4438, is presented to investigate the origin of a small-scale stellar tail of NGC 4438. It could be due to a minor tidal interaction between the two galaxies.

  5. Hubble Space Telescope photometry of the central regions of Virgo cluster elliptical galaxies. 2: Isophote shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosch, Frank C. Van Den; Ferrarese, Laura; Jaffe, Walter; Ford, Holland C.; O'Connell, Robert W.

    1994-01-01

    The isophotal shapes of a magnitude limited sample of Virgo ellipticals are presented. These are derived from high resolution Hubble Space Telescope (HST) photometry. The absence of atmospheric seeing and accurate knowledge of the Point Spread Function (PSF) allows us to perform an accurate deconvolution. Model galaxies were constructed to test the deconvolution algorithms used, and showed that we can accurately recover isophotal shape parameters down to 0.5 sec. From the isophotal parameters we can classify the galaxies in two subsamples: disky and non-disky galaxies. In three of these disky galaxies we found evidence for a nuclear stellar disk in the inner 1.5 sec. In addition these galaxies also have an outer disk, that seems to break up inside 2 sec - 3 sec. In the two galaxies for which there is kinematic evidence from the literature of a decoupled core, we found no indication for such subsystem from the isophotal shape analysis. In 80% of these early type galaxies there are indications for dust. For eight of these galaxies the dust has not been detected before.

  6. The Virgo Cluster of Galaxies in the Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-10-01

    VLT Observations of Planetary Nebulae Confirm the Dynamical Youth of Virgo [1] Summary An international team of astronomers [2] has succeeded in measuring with high precision the velocities of a large number of planetary nebulae [3] in the intergalactic space within the Virgo Cluster of galaxies. For this they used the highly efficient FLAMES spectrograph [4] on the ESO Very Large Telescope at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). These planetary nebulae stars free floating in the otherwise seemingly empty space between the galaxies of large clusters can be used as "probes" of the gravitational forces acting within these clusters. They trace the masses, visible as well as invisible, within these regions. This, in turn, allows astronomers to study the formation history of these large bound structures in the universe. The accurate velocity measurements of 40 of these stars confirm the view that Virgo is a highly non-uniform galaxy cluster, consisting of several subunits that have not yet had time to come to equilibrium. These new data clearly show that the Virgo Cluster of galaxies is still in its making. They also prove for the first time that one of the bright galaxies in the region scrutinized, Messier 87, has a very extended halo of stars, reaching out to at least 65 kpc. This is more than twice the size of our own galaxy, the Milky Way. PR Photo 29a/04: Velocity Measurements of Forty Intracluster Planetary Nebulae (FLAMES/VLT) PR Photo 29b/04: Intracluster Planetary Nebulae in the SUC field in the Virgo Cluster (Digital Sky Survey) A young cluster At a distance of approximately 50 million light-years, the Virgo Cluster is the nearest galaxy cluster. It is located in the zodiacal constellation Virgo (The Virgin) and contains many hundreds of galaxies, ranging from giant and massive elliptical galaxies and spirals like our own Milky Way, to dwarf galaxies, hundreds of times smaller than their big brethren. French astronomer Charles Messier entered 16 members of the Virgo cluster in his famous catalogue of nebulae. An image of the core of the cluster obtained with the Wide Field Imager camera at the ESO La Silla Observatory was published last year as PR Photo 04a/03. Clusters of galaxies are believed to have formed over a long period of time by the assembly of smaller entities, through the strong gravitational pull from dark and luminous matter. The Virgo cluster is considered to be a relatively young cluster because previous studies have revealed small "sub-clusters of galaxies" around the major galaxies Messier 87, Messier 86 and Messier 49. These sub-clusters have yet to merge to form a denser and smoother galaxy cluster. Recent observations have shown that the so-called "intracluster" space, the region between galaxies in a cluster, is permeated by a sparse "intracluster population of stars", which can be used to study in detail the structure of the cluster. Cosmic wanderers The first discoveries of intracluster stars in the Virgo cluster were made serendipitously by Italian astronomer, Magda Arnaboldi (Torino Observatory, Italy) and her colleagues, in 1996. In order to study the extended halos of galaxies in the Virgo cluster, with the ESO New Technology Telescope at La Silla, they searched for objects known as "planetary nebulae" [3]. Planetary nebulae (PNe) can be detected out to large distances from their strong emission lines. These narrow emission lines also allow for a precise measure of their radial velocities. Planetary Nebulae can thus serve to investigate the motions of stars in the halo regions of distant galaxies. In their study, the astronomers found several planetary nebulae apparently not related to any galaxies but moving in the gravity field of the whole cluster. These "wanderers" belonged to a newly discovered intracluster population of stars. Since these first observations, several hundreds of these wanderers have been discovered. They must represent the tip of the iceberg of a huge population of stars swarming among the galaxies in these enor

  7. Stellar substructures in the solar neighbourhood IV. Kinematic Group 1 in the Geneva-Copenhagen survey

    E-print Network

    Ženovien?, R; Nordström, B; Stonkut?, E; Barisevi?ius, G

    2015-01-01

    We determine detailed elemental abundances in stars belonging to the so-called Group 1 of the Geneva-Copenhagen survey (GCS) and compare the chemical composition with the Galactic thin- and thick-disc stars, with the GCS Group 2 and Group 3 stars, as well as with several kinematic streams of similar metallicities. The aim is to search for chemical signatures that might give information about the formation history of this kinematic group of stars. High-resolution spectra were obtained with the Fibre-fed Echelle Spectrograph (FIES) spectrograph at the Nordic Optical Telescope, La Palma, and were analysed with a differential model atmosphere method. Comparison stars were observed and analysed with the same method. The average value of [Fe/H] for the 37 stars of Group 1 is -0.20 +- 0.14 dex. Investigated Group 1 stars can be separated into three age subgroups. Along with the main 8- and 12-Gyr-old populations, a subgroup of stars younger than 5 Gyr can be separated as well. Abundances of oxygen, alpha-elements, a...

  8. The Environment Monitoring of the VIRGO antenna for gravitational wave detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasio, A.; Barone, F.; Eleuteri, A.; Garufi, F.; Milano, L.

    2000-06-01

    The Environment Monitoring System of the VIRGO antenna is a full modular system that can be easily adapted and extended to fulfil the present and future Virgo needs. This system already started data taking of temperature, pressure and acoustic noise for their identification. .

  9. Search for gravitational waves from low mass compact binary coalescence in LIGO’s sixth science run and Virgo’s science runs 2 and 3

    E-print Network

    Barsotti, Lisa

    We report on a search for gravitational waves from coalescing compact binaries using LIGO and Virgo observations between July 7, 2009, and October 20, 2010. We searched for signals from binaries with total mass between 2 ...

  10. The stability of stellar discs in Milky Way-sized dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurin, Denis; Springel, Volker

    2015-09-01

    We employ an improved methodology to insert live stellar discs into high-resolution dark matter simulations of Milky Way-sized haloes, allowing us to investigate the fate of thin stellar discs in the tumultuous environment of cold dark matter structures. We study a set of eight different haloes, drawn from the Aquarius simulation project, in which stellar discs are adiabatically grown with a prescribed structure, and then allowed to self-consistently evolve. The initial velocity distribution is set-up in very good equilibrium with the help of the GALIC code. We find that the residual triaxiality of the haloes leads to significant disc tumbling, qualitatively confirming earlier work. We show that the disc turning motion is unaffected by structural properties of the galaxies such as the presence or absence of a bulge or bar. In typical Milky Way-sized dark matter haloes, we expect an average turning of the discs by about 40°between z = 1 and 0, over the course of 7.6 Gyr. We also investigate the impact of the discs on substructures, and conversely, the disc heating rate caused by the dark matter halo substructures. The presence of discs reduces the central subhalo abundance by a about a factor of 2, due to an increased evaporation rate by gravitational shocks from disc passages. We find that substructures are important for heating the outer parts of stellar discs but do not appear to significantly affect their inner parts.

  11. Infall of nearby galaxies into the Virgo cluster as traced with Hubble space telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Karachentsev, Igor D.; Tully, R. Brent; Wu, Po-Feng; Shaya, Edward J.; Dolphin, Andrew E.

    2014-02-10

    We measured the tip of the red giant branch distances to nine galaxies in the direction to the Virgo cluster using the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope. These distances put seven galaxies (GR 34, UGC 7512, NGC 4517, IC 3583, NGC 4600, VCC 2037, and KDG 215) in front of Virgo and two galaxies (IC 3023 and KDG 177) likely inside the cluster. Distances and radial velocities of the galaxies situated between us and the Virgo core clearly exhibit the infall phenomenon toward the cluster. In the case of spherically symmetric radial infall, we estimate the radius of the 'zero-velocity surface' to be (7.2 ± 0.7) Mpc, which yields a total mass of the Virgo cluster of (8.0 ± 2.3) × 10{sup 14} M {sub ?}, in good agreement with its virial mass estimates. We conclude that the Virgo outskirts do not contain significant amounts of dark matter beyond their virial radius.

  12. Investigation of dwarf galaxies in the Virgo cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Bothun, G.D.; Mould, J.R.; Wirth, A.; Caldwell, N.

    1985-05-01

    We have obtained 21-cm H I observations of a sample of 32 dwarf irregular (dI) and 12 dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxies that are located in the Virgo cluster. Altogether, 18 of 32 DIs were detected in H I, but none of the dEs were detected at a sensitivity level of M/sub Htsi/ = 2--3 x 10/sup 6/ M/sub sun/. The detected dIs have M/sub Htsi/>3 x 10/sup 7/ M/sub sun/. This disparity in H I content between dIs and dEs effectively dispels the possibility that the dEs are presently in a stage of quiescence (hibernation), between bursts of star formation. In order to supplement the 21-cm data, we have acquired optical spectroscopy, CCD images, and infrared photometry for a limited subsample of these dwarfs. The most significant result provided by this additional data is that the dEs, although very H I poor, nevertheless have observed (J-K) colors which indicate somewhat high metallicity, implying some degree of enrichment due to multiple generations of star formation. In contrast, most of the dIs are quite H I rich (with some having fractional H I contents that exceed 30% by mass), yet they are apparently in a quiescent phase, judging by their low central surface brightnesses (<10% of sky) and lack of resolution into obvious regions of star formation. A small gas-poor contingent of dIs have been found but there is no apparent correlation between dI gas content and either their velocity with respect to the Virgo ICM or their position in the cluster. In general, the velocity distribution of the dIs is flat with only a weak peak that corresponds to the mean velocity of the brighter galaxies in Virgo.

  13. Detecting Planetary Transits Against Stellar Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, J. M.; Borucki, W. J.; Mena-Werth, J. L.

    1999-09-01

    The proposed Kepler Mission seeks to apply transit photometry to determine the frequency, sizes, and orbital characteristics of terrestrial- sized (and larger) planets around a variety of stellar types. As Earth-sized transits of solar-like stars are small ( ~ 10 ppm), the issue of stellar variability (as well as instrumental precision) is important. Here we combine the results of the Active Cavity Radiometer for Irradiance Monitoring (ACRIM 1) aboard the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite along with recent measurements by the DIARAD/VIRGO instrument aboard SOHO to estimate the impact of stellar variability on the detectability of transits by Earth-sized planets of solar-like stars. The Power Spectral Densities (PSDs) that are derived from these are then fitted to a parametric model allowing us to examine stellar variability for stars with activity levels and rotation periods different from that of the sun. The resulting PSDs are then combined with shot noise and expected instrumental noise to assess the detectability of transits against the total expected noise. 100,000 stars will be surveyed for transiting planets with periods from a few days to two years. This establishes a minimum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for a single transit of ~ 3.5 sigma for a planet exhibiting four transits to be detected 50% of the time, if the false alarm rate is set to be no more than one for the entire experiment. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to establish the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves for our detection algorithm. We present the results, which demonstrate that Kepler will be able to detect a large fraction of Earth-sized planets transiting solar-like stars in its field of view.

  14. Towards an Understanding of the Correlations in Jet Substructure

    E-print Network

    D. Adams; A. Arce; L. Asquith; M. Backovic; T. Barillari; P. Berta; D. Bertolini; A. Buckley; J. Butterworth; R. C. Camacho Toro; J. Caudron; Y. -T. Chien; J. Cogan; B. Cooper; D. Curtin; C. Debenedetti; J. Dolen; M. Eklund; S. El Hedri; S. D. Ellis; T. Embry; D. Ferencek; J. Ferrando; S. Fleischmann; M. Freytsis; M. Giulini; Z. Han; D. Hare; P. Harris; A. Hinzmann; R. Hoing; A. Hornig; M. Jankowiak; K. Johns; G. Kasieczka; R. Kogler; W. Lampl; A. J. Larkoski; C. Lee; R. Leone; P. Loch; D. Lopez Mateos; H. K. Lou; M. Low; P. Maksimovic; I. Marchesini; S. Marzani; L. Masetti; R. McCarthy; S. Menke; D. W. Miller; K. Mishra; B. Nachman; P. Nef; F. T. O'Grady; A. Ovcharova; A. Picazio; C. Pollard; B. Potter-Landua; C. Potter; S. Rappoccio; J. Rojo; J. Rutherfoord; G. P. Salam; R. M. Schabinger; A. Schwartzman; M. D. Schwartz; B. Shuve; P. Sinervo; D. Soper; D. E. Sosa Corral; M. Spannowsky; E. Strauss; M. Swiatlowski; J. Thaler; C. Thomas; E. Thompson; N. V. Tran; J. Tseng; E. Usai; L. Valery; J. Veatch; M. Vos; W. Waalewijn; J. Wacker; C. Young

    2015-08-19

    Over the past decade, a large number of jet substructure observables have been proposed in the literature, and explored at the LHC experiments. Such observables attempt to utilize the internal structure of jets in order to distinguish those initiated by quarks, gluons, or by boosted heavy objects, such as top quarks and W bosons. This report, originating from and motivated by the BOOST2013 workshop, presents original particle-level studies that aim to improve our understanding of the relationships between jet substructure observables, their complementarity, and their dependence on the underlying jet properties, particularly the jet radius and jet transverse momentum. This is explored in the context of quark/gluon discrimination, boosted W boson tagging and boosted top quark tagging.

  15. Towards an understanding of the correlations in jet substructure

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Adams, D.; Arce, A.; Asquith, L.; Backovic, M.; Barillari, T.; Berta, P.; Bertolini, D.; Buckley, A.; Butterworth, J.; Camacho Toro, R.  C.; et al

    2015-09-09

    Over the past decade, a large number of jet substructure observables have been proposed in the literature, and explored at the LHC experiments. Such observables attempt to utilize the internal structure of jets in order to distinguish those initiated by quarks, gluons, or by boosted heavy objects, such as top quarks and W bosons. This report, originating from and motivated by the BOOST2013 workshop, presents original particle-level studies that aim to improve our understanding of the relationships between jet substructure observables, their complementarity, and their dependence on the underlying jet properties, particularly the jet radius and jet transverse momentum. Thismore »is explored in the context of quark/gluon discrimination, boosted W boson tagging and boosted top quark tagging.« less

  16. Towards an understanding of the correlations in jet substructure

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.; Arce, A.; Asquith, L.; Backovic, M.; Barillari, T.; Berta, P.; Bertolini, D.; Buckley, A.; Butterworth, J.; Camacho Toro, R.  C.; Caudron, J.; Chien, Y. -T.; Cogan, J.; Cooper, B.; Curtin, D.; Debenedetti, C.; Dolen, J.; Eklund, M.; El Hedri, S.; Ellis, S.  D.; Embry, T.; Ferencek, D.; Ferrando, J.; Fleischmann, S.; Freytsis, M.; Giulini, M.; Han, Z.; Hare, D.; Harris, P.; Hinzmann, A.; Hoing, R.; Hornig, A.; Jankowiak, M.; Johns, K.; Kasieczka, G.; Kogler, R.; Lampl, W.; Larkoski, A.  J.; Lee, C.; Leone, R.; Loch, P.; Lopez Mateos, D.; Lou, H. K.; Low, M.; Maksimovic, P.; Marchesini, I.; Marzani, S.; Masetti, L.; McCarthy, R.; Menke, S.; Miller, D.  W.; Mishra, K.; Nachman, B.; Nef, P.; O’Grady, F.  T.; Ovcharova, A.; Picazio, A.; Pollard, C.; Potter-Landua, B.; Potter, C.; Rappoccio, S.; Rojo, J.; Rutherfoord, J.; Salam, G.  P.; Schabinger, R.  M.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwartz, M.  D.; Shuve, B.; Sinervo, P.; Soper, D.; Sosa Corral, D.  E.; Spannowsky, M.; Strauss, E.; Swiatlowski, M.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, C.; Thompson, E.; Tran, N.  V.; Tseng, J.; Usai, E.; Valery, L.; Veatch, J.; Vos, M.; Waalewijn, W.; Wacker, J.; Young, C.

    2015-09-09

    Over the past decade, a large number of jet substructure observables have been proposed in the literature, and explored at the LHC experiments. Such observables attempt to utilize the internal structure of jets in order to distinguish those initiated by quarks, gluons, or by boosted heavy objects, such as top quarks and W bosons. This report, originating from and motivated by the BOOST2013 workshop, presents original particle-level studies that aim to improve our understanding of the relationships between jet substructure observables, their complementarity, and their dependence on the underlying jet properties, particularly the jet radius and jet transverse momentum. This is explored in the context of quark/gluon discrimination, boosted W boson tagging and boosted top quark tagging.

  17. M31AGES: Studying the intermediate-aged populations in the satellites, smooth halo, and substructure of Andromeda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamren, Katherine; Beaton, Rachael; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Majewski, Steven R.; M31AGES Survey Team

    2016-01-01

    Recent large-scale surveys of M31 have enabled the study of its satellites, smooth halo, and substructure in exquisite detail. In particular, the Spectroscopic Landscape of Andromeda's Stellar Halo (SPLASH) survey has obtained moderate resolution optical spectra with the DEIMOS spectrograph on the Keck II/10-m telescope, and optical photometry from various ground-based telescopes. These data have been used to map the kinematics and metallicity distributions in the dSphs and dEs, detect and characterize substructure, and study the large-scale radial surface brightness and metallicity profiles of the "smooth" halo. Notwithstanding this progress [or] In spite of these advances, there are a number of outstanding questions that cannot be answered with these data alone, including the fraction of the halo that was formed in situ vs by accretion, and the degeneracy between massive early accretion events and less massiverecent accretion events. The M31 Asymptotic Giant Extended Survey (M31AGES) aims to address these questions by using NIR photometry to identify intermediate-age AGB stars in the satellites, streams, and smoothhalo of M31. We present the details of the observations (now completed), the plan for public release of data products, and preliminary results.

  18. Noise monitor tools and their application to Virgo data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Agathos, M.; Astone, P.; Ballardin, G.; Barone, F.; Barsuglia, M.; Basti, A.; Bauer, Th S.; Bebronne, M.; Bejger, M.; Beker, M. G.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blom, M.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Boschi, V.; Bosi, L.; Bouhou, B.; Braccini, S.; Bradaschia, C.; Branchesi, M.; Briant, Gabriel chardin T.; Brillet, A.; Brisson, V.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Calloni, E.; Canuel, B.; Carbognani, F.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chaibi, O.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colacino, C. N.; Colas, J.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Conte, A.; Coulon, J.-P.; Cuoco, E.; D'Antonio, S.; Dattilo, V.; Davier, M.; Day, R.; De Rosa, R.; Debreczeni, G.; Del Pozzo, W.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Emilio, M. Di Paolo; Di Virgilio, A.; Dietz, A.; Drago, M.; Endröczi, G.; Fafone, V.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Flaminio, R.; Forte, L. A.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franc, J.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Galimberti, M.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garufi, F.; Gáspár, M. E.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Giazotto, A.; Gouaty, R.; Granata, M.; Greverie, C.; Guidi, G. M.; Hayau, J.-F.; Heidmann, A.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Jaranowski, P.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Kasprzack, M.; Kowalska, I.; Królak, A.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Li, T. G. F.; Liguori, N.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Losurdo, G.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marque, J.; Martelli, F.; Masserot, A.; Michel, C.; Milano, L.; Minenkov, Y.; Mohan, M.; Morgado, N.; Morgia, A.; Mosca, S.; Mours, B.; Naticchioni, L.; Nocera, F.; Palladino, L.; Palomba, C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoletti, R.; Parisi, M.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Persichetti, G.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pietka, M.; Pinard, L.; Poggiani, R.; Prato, M.; Prodi, G. A.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Rabeling, D. S.; Racz, I.; Rapagnani, P.; Re, V.; Regimbau, T.; Ricci, F.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Romano, R.; Rosi?ska, D.; Ruggi, P.; Sassolas, B.; Sentenac, D.; Sperandio, L.; Sturani, R.; Swinkels, B.; Tacca, M.; Taffarello, L.; ter Braack, A. P. M.; Toncelli, A.; Tonelli, M.; Torre, O.; Tournefier, E.; Travasso, F.; Vajente, G.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; van der Putten, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vavoulidis, M.; Vedovato, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vocca, H.; Ward, R. L.; Was, M.; Yamamoto, K.; Yvert, M.; Zadro?ny, A.; Zendri, J.-P.

    2012-06-01

    The understanding of noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors is fundamental in terms of both enabling prompt reactions in the mitigation of noise disturbances and in the establishment of appropriate data-cleaning strategies. Monitoring tools to perform online and offline noise analysis in areas such as transient signal detection, line identification algorithms and coherence are used to characterise the Virgo detector noise. In this paper, we describe the framework into which these tools are integrated - the Noise Monitor Application Programming Interface (NMAPI) - and provide examples of its application.

  19. Substructure of the inner core of the Earth.

    PubMed Central

    Herndon, J M

    1996-01-01

    The rationale is disclosed for a substructure within the Earth's inner core, consisting of an actinide subcore at the center of the Earth, surrounded by a subshell composed of the products of nuclear fission and radioactive decay. Estimates are made as to possible densities, physical dimensions, and chemical compositions. The feasibility for self-sustaining nuclear fission within the subcore is demonstrated, and implications bearing on the structure and geodynamic activity of the inner core are discussed. PMID:11607625

  20. Trans-Dimensional Bayesian Inference for Gravitational Lens Substructures

    E-print Network

    Brewer, Brendon J; Lewis, Geraint F

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a Bayesian solution to the problem of inferring the density profile of strong gravitational lenses when the lens galaxy may contain multiple dark or faint substructures. The source and lens models are based on a superposition of an unknown number of non-negative basis functions (or "blobs") whose form was chosen with speed as a primary criterion. The prior distribution for the blobs' properties is specified hierarchically, so the mass function of substructures is a natural output of the method. We use reversible jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) within Diffusive Nested Sampling (DNS) to sample the posterior distribution and evaluate the marginal likelihood of the model, including the summation over the unknown number of blobs in the source and the lens. We demonstrate the method on a simulated data set with a single substructure, which is recovered well with moderate uncertainties. We also apply the method to the g-band image of the "Cosmic Horseshoe" system, and find some hints of potential s...

  1. Halo Substructure in the Hercules-Aquila Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Charles; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Willett, Benjamin A.; Yanny, Brian; Kent, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    We present the velocity substructure in the direction of the northern portion of the Hercules-Aquila Cloud using observations taken at Apache Point Observatory (APO), in conjunction with Data Release 10 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The Hercules Aquila Cloud is an overdensity of halo stars found at low Galactic latitudes in the direction of the Galactic center. Using Blue Horizontal Branch stars (BHBs), we identify several structures as overdensities in distance and velocity. The most prominent of these structures covers ~ 250 deg2 of the sky centered around (l,b)~(55°,45°) and ranges in distance from 16~27 kpc. This structure is found to be metal poor, [Fe/H] ~ -2.0, with a tight velocity distribution of -60 km/s < vgsr < -20 km/s. Although this halo substructure has about the same location and distance as the Hercules Aquila Cloud, the line-of-sight velocity differs by 220 km/s from the published velocity for this cloud. The other low metallicity substructures that appear to clump in distance and velocity have similarly large spatial distributions on the sky, which may point to additional ancient accretion events. This research is supported by the NSF through grants AST 09-37523 and AST 10-09670, as well as the NASA-NY Space Grant.

  2. Stellar ages from stellar rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angus, Ruth; Aigrain, Suzanne; Johnson, John A.; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Gyrochronology, the method of inferring stellar ages from rotation periods and masses, or mass proxies, has the potential to provide ages for thousands of stars observed by space photometry missions like Kepler, K2 and TESS. However, asteroseismic age measurements for solar-like oscillators observed by the Kepler spacecraft have revealed unexpected behaviour of stars at late ages: old stars appear to be rotating too rapidly given their age and mass. New gyrochronology models are required in order to explain this behaviour. Fundamental to the continued advancements of our understanding of gyrochronology is the inference of precise and accurate rotation periods for old, inactive and slowly rotating stars in the Kepler, K2 and TESS data sets. We have developed new methods for rotation period inference that are suited to detecting low-amplitude signals in noisy time-series as well as new gyrochronology models which describe the Kepler asteroseismic sample, allowing the age of a star to be inferred from its rotation period and mass proxy alone.

  3. The Evolution of H I Disks in the Virgo Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, A.; van Gorkom, J. H.; Kenney, J.; Crowl, H.; Vollmer, B.; Schiminovich, D.

    2008-10-01

    We present the result of a new VLA H I imaging survey of Virgo galaxies, VIVA (VLA Imaging of Virgo in Atomic gas). The goal is to investigate the influence of the cluster on H I gas disks in different density regions. In order to sample various processes at work, we have carefully selected 48 spirals and 5 dwarfs/irregulars showing a range of star formation properties throughout the cluster. Overall, we confirm that galaxies near the cluster core (d_{M 87}<0.5 Mpc) are severely H I stripped while gas rich galaxies with extended H I disks are always found in the cluster outskirts (d_{M87}>1.0 Mpc). At intermediate distances from the cluster center however, our high resolution, high sensitivity H I data have revealed a range of H I features that are likely to represent different stripping stages through various effects. In particular, we find evidence for H I stripping due to the surrounding cluster gas even at the distances where the approximated intra-cluster medium (ICM) density is not high enough to affect galaxies. It appears that in some cases a dynamic ICM or a combination of tidal forces and ram-pressure are responsible for gas stripping at those locations. The survey result clearly shows that the impact of the cluster reaches quite far out from the cluster center.

  4. Gravitational wave burst search in the Virgo C7 data

    E-print Network

    Acernese, F

    2008-01-01

    A search for gravitational wave burst events has been performed with the Virgo C7 commissioning run data that have been acquired in September 2005 over five days. It focused on un-modeled short duration signals in the frequency range 150 Hz to 2 kHz. A search aimed at detecting the GW emission from the merger and ringdown phases of binary black hole coalescences was also carried out. An extensive understanding of the data was required to be able to handle a burst search using the output of only one detector. A 90% confidence level upper limit on the number of expected events given the Virgo C7 sensitivity curve has been derived as a function of the signal strength, for un-modeled gravitational wave search. The sensitivity of the analysis presented is, in terms of the root sum square strain amplitude, $h_{rss} \\simeq 10^{-20} / \\sqrt{Hz}$. This can be interpreted in terms of a frequentist upper limit on the rate ${\\cal{R}}_{90%}$ of detectable gravitational wave bursts at the level of 1.1 events per day at 90%...

  5. Compact massive objects in Virgo galaxies: the black hole population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volonteri, Marta; Haardt, Francesco; Gültekin, Kayhan

    2008-03-01

    We investigate the distribution of massive black holes (MBHs) in the Virgo cluster. Observations suggest that active galactic nuclei activity is widespread in massive galaxies (M* >~ 1010Msolar), while at lower galaxy masses star clusters are more abundant, which might imply a limited presence of central black holes in these galaxy-mass regimes. We explore if this possible threshold in MBH hosting is linked to nature, nurture or a mixture of both. The nature scenario arises naturally in hierarchical cosmologies, as MBH formation mechanisms typically are efficient in biased systems, which would later evolve into massive galaxies. Nurture, in the guise of MBH ejections following MBH mergers, provides an additional mechanism that is more effective for low mass, satellite galaxies. The combination of inefficient formation, and lower retention of MBHs, leads to the natural explanation of the distribution of compact massive objects in Virgo galaxies. If MBHs arrive to the correlation with the host mass and velocity dispersion during merger-triggered accretion episodes, sustained tidal stripping of the host galaxies creates a population of MBHs which lie above the expected scaling between the holes and their host mass, suggesting a possible environmental dependence.

  6. Seismic Attenuation Technology for the Advanced Virgo Gravitational Wave Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beker, M. G.; Blom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Bulten, H. J.; Hennes, E.; Rabeling, D. S.

    The current interferometric gravitational wave detectors are being upgraded to what are termed 'second generation' devices. Sensitivities will be increased by an order of magnitude and these new instruments are expected to uncover the field of gravitational astronomy. A main challenge in this endeavor is the mitigation of noise induced by seismic motion. Detailed studies with Virgo show that seismic noise can be reinjected into the dark fringe signal. For example, laser beam jitter and backscattered light limit the sensitivity of the interferometer. Here, we focus on seismic attenuators based on compact inverted pendulums in combination with geometric anti-prings to obtain 40 dB of attenuation above 4 Hz in six degrees of freedom. Low frequency resonances (< 0.5 Hz) are damped by using a control system based on input from LVDTs and geophones. Such systems are under development for the seismic attenuation of optical benches operated both in air and vacuum. The design and realization of the seismic attenuation system for the Virgo external injection bench, including its control scheme, will be discussed and stand-alone performance presented.

  7. Compact massive objects in Virgo galaxies: the black hole population

    E-print Network

    Marta Volonteri; Francesco Haardt; Kayhan Gultekin

    2008-02-05

    We investigate the distribution of massive black holes (MBHs) in the Virgo cluster. Observations suggest that AGN activity is widespread in massive galaxies (M>1e10 solar masses), while at lower galaxy masses star clusters are more abundant, which might imply a limited presence of central black holes in these galaxy-mass regimes. We explore if this possible threshold in MBH hosting, is linked to nature, nurture, or a mixture of both. The nature scenario arises naturally in hierarchical cosmologies, as MBH formation mechanisms typically are efficient in biased systems, which would later evolve into massive galaxies. Nurture, in the guise of MBH ejections following MBH mergers, provides an additional mechanism that is more effective for low mass, satellite galaxies. The combination of inefficient formation, and lower retention of MBHs, leads to the natural explanation of the distribution of compact massive ob jects in Virgo galaxies. If MBHs arrive to the correlation with the host mass and velocity dispersion during merger-triggered accretion episodes, sustained tidal stripping of the host galaxies creates a population of MBHs which lie above the expected scaling between the holes and their host mass, suggesting a possible environmental dependence.

  8. Hubble space telescope imaging of decoupled dust clouds in the ram pressure stripped Virgo spirals NGC 4402 and NGC 4522

    SciTech Connect

    Abramson, Anne; Kenney, Jeffrey D. P. E-mail: jeff.kenney@yale.edu

    2014-03-01

    We present the highest-resolution study to date of the interstellar medium (ISM) in galaxies undergoing ram pressure stripping, using Hubble Space Telescope BVI imaging of NGC 4522 and NGC 4402, Virgo Cluster spirals that are well known to be experiencing intracluster medium (ICM) ram pressure. We find that throughout most of both galaxies, the main dust lane has a fairly well-defined edge, with a population of giant molecular cloud (GMC) sized (tens- to hundreds-of-pc scale), isolated, highly extincting dust clouds located up to ?1.5 kpc radially beyond it. Outside of these dense clouds, the area has little or no diffuse dust extinction, indicating that the clouds have decoupled from the lower-density ISM material that has already been stripped. Several of the dust clouds have elongated morphologies that indicate active ram pressure, including two large (kpc scale) filaments in NGC 4402 that are elongated in the projected ICM wind direction. We calculate a lower limit on the H I + H{sub 2} masses of these clouds based on their dust extinctions and find that a correction factor of ?10 gives cloud masses consistent with those measured in CO for clouds of similar diameters, probably due to the complicating factors of foreground light, cloud substructure, and resolution limitations. Assuming that the clouds' actual masses are consistent with those of GMCs of similar diameters (?10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} M {sub ?}), we estimate that only a small fraction (?1%-10%) of the original H I + H{sub 2} remains in the parts of the disks with decoupled clouds. Based on H? images, a similar fraction of star formation persists in these regions, 2%-3% of the estimated pre-stripping star formation rate. We find that the decoupled cloud lifetimes may be up to 150-200 Myr.

  9. Gamma rays from the neutralino dark matter annihilations in the Milky Way substructures

    E-print Network

    Xiao-Jun Bi

    2006-01-10

    High resolution simulations reveal that in the cold dark matter scenario the structures form hierarchically and a large number of substructures survive in the galactic halos. The substructures can be probed if they emit gamma rays via dark matter annihilation. We calculated the gamma ray fluxes from the dark matter annihilations in the substructures of our Galaxy within the frame of the minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model. The uncertainties of the prediction from both the low energy supersymmetry and especially from the density profiles of dark matter in the substructures are carefully investigated. The cumulative number of substructures emitting gamma rays above any given flux is calculated. Detectability of the gamma rays from the substructures is discussed. We propose the viability to detect these signals through the ground large field of view detectors.

  10. Stellar Metamorphosis:

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [TOP LEFT AND RIGHT] The Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 has captured images of the birth of two planetary nebulae as they emerge from wrappings of gas and dust, like butterflies breaking out of their cocoons. These images highlight a fleeting phase in the stellar burnout process, occurring just before dying stars are transformed into planetary nebulae. The left-hand image is the Cotton Candy nebula, IRAS 17150-3224; the right-hand image, the Silkworm nebula, IRAS 17441-2411. Called proto-planetary nebulae, these dying stars have been caught in a transition phase between a red giant and a planetary nebula. This phase is only about 1,000 years long, very short in comparison to the 1 billion-year lifetime of a star. These images provide the earliest snapshots of the transition process. Studying images of proto-planetary nebulae is important to understanding the process of star death. A star begins to die when it has exhausted its thermonuclear fuel - hydrogen and helium. The star then becomes bright and cool (red giant phase) and swells to several tens of times its normal size. It begins puffing thin shells of gas off into space. These shells become the star's cocoon. In the Hubble images, the shells are the concentric rings seen around each nebula. But the images also reveal the nebulae breaking out from those shells. The butterfly-like wings of gas and dust are a common shape of planetary nebulae. Such butterfly shapes are created by the 'interacting winds' process, in which a more recent 'fast wind' - material propelled by radiation from the hot central star - punches a hole in the cocoon, allowing the nebula to emerge. (This 'interacting wind' theory was first proposed by Dr. Sun Kwok to explain the origin of planetary nebulae, and has been subsequently proven successful in explaining their shapes.) The nebulae are being illuminated by light from the invisible central star, which is then reflected toward us. We are viewing the nebulae edge-on, where the direct starlight is blocked by the dusty cocoon. Otherwise, the starlight would overwhelm the nebular light, making it very difficult to see the butterfly-shaped nebula. In a few hundred years, intense ultraviolet radiation from the central star will energize the surrounding gas, causing it to glow brightly, and a planetary nebula is born. These observations were made with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 using three filters: yellow-green, blue, and near-infrared. The images were taken in 1997 by Sun Kwok and in 1996 by Matt Bobrowsky. Credits: Sun Kwok and Kate Su (University of Calgary), Bruce Hrivnak (Valparaiso University), and NASA ----------------- The Hubble Space Telescope Sees Remarkable Structure in the Heart of a Planetary Nebula [BOTTOM LEFT AND RIGHT] This Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 image of NGC 6818 shows two distinct layers of gas (with dust): a spherical outer region and a brighter, vase-shaped interior 'bubble.' Astronomers believe that a fast wind - material propelled by radiation from the hot central star - is creating the inner elongated shape. The central star of the planetary nebula appears as a tiny blue dot. The material in the wind is traveling so fast that it smashes through older, slower-moving stellar debris, causing a 'blowout' at both ends of the bubble (lower right and upper left). This nebula looks like a twin of NGC 3918, another planetary nebula that has been observed by the Hubble telescope. The structure of NGC 3918 is remarkably similar to that of NGC 6818. It has an outer spherical envelope and an inner, brighter, elongated bubble. A fast-moving wind also appears to have created an orifice at one end (bottom right-hand corner) of the inner bubble. There are even faint wisps of material that were probably blown out of this hole. In the opposite direction (top left-hand corner), there is a protrusion that seems on the verge of breaking through to form a hole. By finding and studying such similar objects, astronomers hope to learn crucial details about the evolutionary history of planetary nebulae

  11. VLA HI Observations of Gas Stripping in the Virgo Cluster Spiral NGC 4522

    E-print Network

    Jeffrey D. P. Kenney; J. H. van Gorkom; Bernd Vollmer

    2004-03-03

    We present VLA HI observations at ~20"=1.5 kpc resolution of the highly inclined, HI-deficient Virgo cluster spiral galaxy NGC 4522, which is one of the clearest and nearest cases of ongoing ICM-ISM stripping. HI is abundant and spatially coincident with the stellar disk in the center, but beyond R = 3 kpc the HI distribution in the disk is sharply truncated and the only HI is extraplanar, and all on the northwest side. The kinematics and the morphology of the HI appear more consistent with ongoing stripping, and less consistent with gas fall-back which may occur long after peak pressure. Much of the extraplanar gas exhibits a modest net blueshift with respect to the galaxy's disk rotational velocities, consistent with gas accelerated toward the mean cluster velocity. The SW side of the galaxy has less HI in the disk but more HI in the halo, suggesting more effective gas removal on the side of the galaxy which is rotating into the ICM wind. The galaxy is 3.3 degrees ~800 kpc from M87, somewhat outside the region of strongest cluster X-ray emission. The ram pressure may be significantly stronger than standard values, due to large bulk motions and local density enhancements of the ICM gas, which may occur in a dynamic, shock-filled ICM experiencing subcluster merging. The HI and H-alpha distributions are similar, implying that the star-forming molecular ISM has been effectively stripped from the outer disk of the galaxy along with the HI.

  12. GLAST And Dark Matter Substructure in the Milky Way

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhlen, Michael; Diemand, Jurg; Madau, Piero; /UC, Santa Cruz, Astron. Astrophys. /Garching, Max Planck Inst.

    2011-11-29

    We discuss the possibility of GLAST detecting gamma-rays from the annihilation of neutralino dark matter in the Galactic halo. We have used 'Via Lactea', currently the highest resolution simulation of cold dark matter substructure, to quantify the contribution of subhalos to the annihilation signal. We present a simulated allsky map of the expected gamma-ray counts from dark matter annihilation, assuming standard values of particle mass and cross section. In this case GLAST should be able to detect the Galactic center and several individual subhalos. One of the most exciting discoveries that the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) could make, is the detection of gamma-rays from the annihilation of dark matter (DM). Such a measurement would directly address one of the major physics problems of our time: the nature of the DM particle. Whether or not GLAST will actually detect a DM annihilation signal depends on both unknown particle physics and unknown astrophysics theory. Particle physics uncertainties include the type of particle (axion, neutralino, Kaluza-Klein particle, etc.), its mass, and its interaction cross section. From the astrophysical side it appears that DM is not smoothly distributed throughout the Galaxy halo, but instead exhibits abundant clumpy substructure, in the form of thousands of so-called subhalos. The observability of DM annihilation radiation originating in Galactic DM subhalos depends on their abundance, distribution, and internal properties. Numerical simulations have been used in the past to estimate the annihilation flux from DM substructure, but since the subhalo properties, especially their central density profile, which determines their annihilation luminosity, are very sensitive to numerical resolution, it makes sense to re-examine their contribution with higher resolution simulations.

  13. Simulating and Synthesizing Substructures Using Neural Network and Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Youhua; Kapania, Rakesh K.; VanLandingham, Hugh F.

    1997-01-01

    The feasibility of simulating and synthesizing substructures by computational neural network models is illustrated by investigating a statically indeterminate beam, using both a 1-D and a 2-D plane stress modelling. The beam can be decomposed into two cantilevers with free-end loads. By training neural networks to simulate the cantilever responses to different loads, the original beam problem can be solved as a match-up between two subsystems under compatible interface conditions. The genetic algorithms are successfully used to solve the match-up problem. Simulated results are found in good agreement with the analytical or FEM solutions.

  14. The construction of preconditioners for elliptic problems by substructuring, IV

    SciTech Connect

    Bramble, J.H.; Pasciak, J.E.; Schatz, A.H.

    1987-06-01

    We consider the problem of solving the algebraic system of equations which result from the discretization of elliptic boundary value problems defined on three dimensional Euclidean space. We develop preconditioners for such systems based on substructuring (also known as domain decomposition). The resulting algorithms are well suited to emerging parallel computing architectures. We describe two techniques for developing these precondictioners. A theory for the analysis of the condition number for the resulting preconditioned system is given and the results of supporting numerical experiments are presented. 16 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. The construction of preconditioners for elliptic problems by substructuring, IV

    SciTech Connect

    Bramble, J.H.; Pasciak, J.E.; Schatz, A.H.

    1989-07-01

    We consider the problem of solving the algebraic system of equations which result from the discretization of elliptic boundary value problems defined on three-dimensional Euclidean space. We develop preconditioners for such systems based on substructuring (also known as domain decomposition). The resulting algorithms are well suited to emerging parallel computing architectures. We describe two techniques for developing these preconditioners. A theory for the analysis of the condition number for the resulting preconditioned system is given and the results of supporting numerical experiments are presented.

  16. Hierarchically Parallelized Constrained Nonlinear Solvers with Automated Substructuring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padovan, Joe; Kwang, Abel

    1994-01-01

    This paper develops a parallelizable multilevel multiple constrained nonlinear equation solver. The substructuring process is automated to yield appropriately balanced partitioning of each succeeding level. Due to the generality of the procedure,_sequential, as well as partially and fully parallel environments can be handled. This includes both single and multiprocessor assignment per individual partition. Several benchmark examples are presented. These illustrate the robustness of the procedure as well as its capability to yield significant reductions in memory utilization and calculational effort due both to updating and inversion.

  17. A Megacam Survey of Outer Halo Satellites. IV. Two Foreground Populations Possibly Associated with the Monoceros Substructure in the Direction of NGC 2419 and Koposov 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carballo-Bello, Julio A.; Muñoz, Ricardo R.; Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Côté, Patrick; Geha, Marla; Simon, Joshua D.; Djorgovski, S. G.

    2015-05-01

    The origin of the Galactic halo stellar structure known as the Monoceros Ring is still under debate. In this work, we study this halo substructure using deep Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope wide-field photometry obtained for the globular clusters NGC 2419 and Koposov 2, where the presence of Monoceros becomes significant because of their coincident projected position. Using Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry and spectroscopy in the area surrounding these globulars and beyond, where the same Monoceros population is detected, we conclude that a second feature, which is not likely to be associated with Milky Way disk stars along the line of sight, is present as a foreground population. Our analysis suggests that the Monoceros Ring might be composed of an old stellar population of age t˜ 9 Gyr and a new component ˜4 Gyr younger at the same heliocentric distance. Alternatively, this detection might be associated with a second wrap of Monoceros in that direction of the sky and might also indicate a metallicity spread in the ring. The detection of such a low-density feature in other sections of this halo substructure will shed light on its nature. Based on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l’Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  18. {sup 12}CO(J = 1 - 0) ON-THE-FLY MAPPING SURVEY OF THE VIRGO CLUSTER SPIRALS. I. DATA AND ATLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, E. J.; Rhee, M.-H.; Kim, H.; Yun, Min S.; Heyer, M.; Young, J. S.

    2009-10-01

    We have performed an On-The-Fly (OTF) mapping survey of {sup 12}CO(J = 1-0) emission in 28 Virgo cluster spiral galaxies using the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory (FCRAO) 14 m telescope. This survey aims to characterize the CO distribution, kinematics, and luminosity of a large sample of galaxies covering the full extents of stellar disks, rather than sampling only the inner disks or the major axis as was done by many previous single dish and interferometric CO surveys. CO emission is detected in 20 galaxies among the 28 Virgo spirals observed. An atlas consisting of global measures, radial measures, and maps is presented for each detected galaxy. A note summarizing the CO data is also presented along with relevant information from the literature. The CO properties derived from our OTF observations are presented and compared with the results from the FCRAO Extragalactic CO Survey by Young et al. which utilized position-switching observations along the major axis and a model fitting method. We find that our OTF-derived CO properties agree well with the Young et al. results in many cases, but the Young et al. measurements are larger by a factor of 1.4-2.4 for seven (out of 18) cases. We will explore further the possible causes for the discrepancy in the analysis paper currently under preparation.

  19. Search for Gravitational Waves from Low Mass Compact Binary Coalescence in LIGO's Sixth Science Run and Virgo's Science Runs 2 and 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G. S.; Ceron, E. Amador; Amariutei, D.; Amin, R. S.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Arain, M. A.; Araya, M. C.; Blackburn, L.; Camp, J. B.; Cannizzo, J.

    2012-01-01

    We report on a search for gravitational waves from coalescing compact binaries using LIGO and Virgo observations between July 7, 2009, and October 20. 2010. We searched for signals from binaries with total mass between 2 and 25 Stellar Mass; this includes binary neutron stars, binary black holes, and binaries consisting of a black hole and neutron star. The detectors were sensitive to systems up to 40 Mpc distant for binary neutron stars, and further for higher mass systems. No gravitational-wave signals were detected. We report upper limits on the rate of compact binary coalescence as a function of total mass. including the results from previous LIGO and Virgo observations. The cumulative 90% confidence rate upper limits of the binary coalescence of binary neutron star, neutron star-black hole, and binary black hole systems are 1.3 x 10(exp -4), 3.1 x 10(exp -5), and 6.4 x 10(exp -6)/cu Mpc/yr, respectively. These upper limits are up to a factor 1.4 lower than previously derived limits. We also report on results from a blind injection challenge.

  20. On the Uncertainties of Stellar Mass Estimates via Colour Measurements

    E-print Network

    Roediger, Joel C

    2015-01-01

    Mass-to-light versus colour relations (MLCRs), derived from stellar population synthesis models, are widely used to estimate galaxy stellar masses (M$_*$) yet a detailed investigation of their inherent biases and limitations is still lacking. We quantify several potential sources of uncertainty, using optical and near-infrared (NIR) photometry for a representative sample of nearby galaxies from the Virgo cluster. Our method for combining multi-band photometry with MLCRs yields robust stellar masses, while errors in M$_*$ decrease as more bands are simultaneously considered. The prior assumptions in one's stellar population modelling dominate the error budget, creating a colour-dependent bias of up to 0.6 dex if NIR fluxes are used (0.3 dex otherwise). This matches the systematic errors associated with the method of spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting, indicating that MLCRs do not suffer from much additional bias. Moreover, MLCRs and SED fitting yield similar degrees of random error ($\\sim$0.1-0.14 dex)...

  1. Exploring the Stellar Halo of the Milky Way with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and PanSTARRS1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Eric F.; Slater, C. T.; Bailin, J.; Xue, X.; Ruhland, C.; Martin, N. F.; Pan-STARRS 1 Consortium

    2012-01-01

    The Lambda CDM paradigm predicts that the outer parts of galaxies should, in large part, consist of material tidally stripped off of smaller dwarf galaxies as they are incorporated into the potential of the larger galaxy. We present results from the exploration of the structure and stellar populations of the Milky Way stellar halo. To date, we have focused on understanding the structure of the stellar halo as probed by two key tracer stellar populations - main sequence turn-off stars (MSTO; a well-populated diagnostic of a wide range of stellar populations), and blue horizontal branch stars (BHB; a sparsely-sampled standard candle indicative of ancient metal-poor populations, but available to larger distances). We find that the stellar halo is richly substructured as traced by MSTO and BHB stars, in both 3D space and in velocity space. Furthermore, we find that the degree and type of substructure showed by both populations are different - the ratio of BHB to MSTO stars changes from place to place in the halo, with coherent values of BHB/MSTO star number in given clearly-recognizable structured (e.g., the Sagittarius stream, low-latitude stream, etc.) Where possible, we compare quantitatively with models of galaxy formation in a cosmological context. The quantitative predictions of such models do depend on the assumptions underlying the model, and we demonstrate in particular the importance of a disk potential in driving the character and structure of stellar halos in a cosmological context. We find a close quantitative correspondence between predictions of spatial and velocity substructure from the cosmologically-motivated models and the observations for both MSTO and BHB stars, giving weight to the notion that stellar halos, at least to first order, present an unparalleled opportunity to study the formation of individual galaxies in a cosmological context.

  2. Gravitational wave searches with Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo

    E-print Network

    C. Van Den Broeck; for the LIGO Scientific Collaboration; the Virgo Collaboration

    2015-05-18

    Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo are expected to make the first direct detections of gravitational waves (GW) in the next several years. Possible types of GW emission include short-duration bursts, signals from the coalescence of compact binaries consisting of neutron stars or black holes, continuous radiation from fast-spinning neutron stars, and stochastic background radiation of a primordial nature or resulting from the superposition of a large number of individually unresolvable sources. We describe the different approaches that have been developed to search for these different types of signals. In this paper we focus on the GW detection methods themselves; multi-messenger searches as well as further science enabled by detections are dealt with in separate contributions to this volume.

  3. Wave Front Detection for the Virgo Gravitational Wave Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Logan

    2011-01-01

    The use of phase cameras in gravitational wave detectors allows imaging the spatial phase and amplitude distribution at the laser carrier and modulation sideband frequencies. Moreover, it allows mapping their dependence on the dynamics of the interferometer operating condition. The goal of this experiment is to build, test, and verify the performance of a new phase camera for the Advance Virgo gravitational wave detector. This report describes the background, the experimental set up, and the development of the data acquisition and signal processing for our phase camera. This research was done on the part of a student international REU program, funded by the NSF, coordinated by the University of Florida and hosted at the NIKHEF institute.

  4. A search for intergalactic hydrogen in the virgo cluster.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, S J

    1966-01-01

    A fixed-horn antenna having a beam 10 degrees by 10 degrees , and a switched-load radiometer with traveling-wave-maser preamplifier were used to observe the 21-cm spectrum of the Virgo cluster of galaxies. An upper limit to the antenna temperature is 0.024 degrees K relative to regions outside the cluster with filters whose width is 2 Mc/sec. If the excitation temperature of the intergalactic hydrogen is enough greater than the background continuum radiation so that absorption can be ignored, and if the velocity spectrum is that defined by the galaxies, the density of optically thin neutral hydrogen in the cluster does not exceed that outside of the cluster by an amount that gives 5.6 x 10(12) solar masses in the cluster. PMID:17842090

  5. Dark matter and IMF normalization in Virgo dwarf early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tortora, C.; La Barbera, F.; Napolitano, N. R.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we analyse the dark matter (DM) fraction, fDM, and mass-to-light ratio mismatch parameter, ?IMF (computed with respect to a Milky Way-like initial mass function), for a sample of 39 dwarf early-type galaxies in the Virgo cluster. Both fDM and ?IMF are estimated within the central (one effective radius) galaxy regions, with a Jeans dynamical analysis that relies on galaxy velocity dispersions, structural parameters, and stellar mass-to-light ratios from the SMAKCED survey. In this first attempt to constrain, simultaneously, the initial mass function (IMF) normalization and the DM content, we explore the impact of different assumptions on the DM model profile. On average, for an Navarro, Frenk & White (NFW) profile, the ?IMF is consistent with a Chabrier-like normalization ({? _IMF}˜ 1), with {f_DM}˜ 0.35. One of the main results of this work is that for at least a few systems the ?IMF are heavier than the Milky Way-like value (i.e. either top- or bottom-heavy). When introducing tangential anisotropy, larger ?IMF and smaller fDM are derived. Adopting a steeper concentration-mass relation than that from simulations, we find lower ?IMF ( ? 1) and larger fDM. A constant M/L profile with null fDM gives the heaviest ?IMF (˜2). In the MONDian framework, we find consistent results to those for our reference NFW model. If confirmed, the large scatter of ?IMF for dEs would provide (further) evidence for a non-universal IMF in early-type systems. On average, our reference fDM estimates are consistent with those found for low-?e (˜ 100 km s^{-1}) early-type galaxies (ETGs). Furthermore, we find fDM consistent with values from the SMAKCED survey, and find a double-value behaviour of fDM with stellar mass, which mirrors the trend of dynamical M/L and global star formation efficiency (from abundance matching estimates) with mass.

  6. Gravitational wave burst search in the Virgo C7 data

    E-print Network

    The Virgo Collaboration; F. Acernese

    2008-12-29

    A search for gravitational wave burst events has been performed with the Virgo C7 commissioning run data that have been acquired in September 2005 over five days. It focused on un-modeled short duration signals in the frequency range 150 Hz to 2 kHz. A search aimed at detecting the GW emission from the merger and ringdown phases of binary black hole coalescences was also carried out. An extensive understanding of the data was required to be able to handle a burst search using the output of only one detector. A 90% confidence level upper limit on the number of expected events given the Virgo C7 sensitivity curve has been derived as a function of the signal strength, for un-modeled gravitational wave search. The sensitivity of the analysis presented is, in terms of the root sum square strain amplitude, $h_{rss} \\simeq 10^{-20} / \\sqrt{Hz}$. This can be interpreted in terms of a frequentist upper limit on the rate ${\\cal{R}}_{90%}$ of detectable gravitational wave bursts at the level of 1.1 events per day at 90% confidence level. From the binary black hole search, we obtained the distance reach at 50% and 90% efficiency as a function of the total mass of the final black hole. The maximal detection distance for non-spinning high and equal mass black hole binary system obtained by this analysis in C7 data is $\\simeq$ 2.9 $\\pm$ 0.1 Mpc for a detection efficiency of 50% for a binary of total mass $80 M_{\\odot}$.

  7. Compact Stellarator Development Plan

    E-print Network

    problems for MFE: · Steady state operation with minimal recirculating power. · Eliminating disruptions recirculation for current drive or rotation drive; reduced disruption risk; simpler control. Stellarator in industry. · Project delays have occurred due to supplier problems not specific to stellarators. Operation

  8. Unlocking Dark Matter Physics out of Galactic Substructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyr-Racine, Francis-Yan; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Keeton, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    Despite being ubiquitous throughout the Universe, the fundamental properties of dark matter remain a mystery. While dark matter physics plays little role in the current evolution of large-scale cosmic structures, it does have a major impact on small causal length scales. Studying the astrophysical structures that resulted from the gravitational collapse of fluctuations on these small scales can thus yield important clues about the physics of dark matter. Today, most of these structures are locked in deep inside the potential wells of galaxies, making the study of their properties difficult. Fortunately, due to fortuitous alignments between high-redshift bright sources and us, some of these galaxies act as spectacular strong gravitational lenses, allowing us to probe their inner structure. In this talk, we present a unified framework to extract information about the power spectrum of mass substructures inside lens galaxies. We determine which properties of mass substructures are most readily constrained by lensing data and forecast the constraining power of current and future observations.

  9. Fossil Group Origins VII. Galaxy substructures in fossil systems

    E-print Network

    Zarattini, S; Aguerri, J A L; Boschin, W; Barrena, R; del Burgo, C; Castro-Rodriguez, N; Corsini, E M; D'Onghia, E; Kundert, A; Méndez-Abreu, J; Sánchez-Janssen, R

    2015-01-01

    Fossil groups are expected to be the final product of galaxy merging within galaxy groups. In simulations, they are predicted to assemble their mass at high redshift. This early formation allows for the innermost $M^\\ast$ galaxies to merge into a massive central galaxy. Then, they are expected to maintain their fossil status because of the few interactions with the large-scale structure. In this context, the magnitude gap between the two brightest galaxies of the system is considered a good indicator of its dynamical status. As a consequence, the systems with the largest gaps should be dynamically relaxed. In order to examine the dynamical status of these systems, we systematically analyze, for the first time, the presence of galaxy substructures in a sample of 12 spectroscopically-confirmed fossil systems with redshift $z \\le 0.25$. We apply a number of tests in order to investigate the substructure in fossil systems in the two-dimensional space of projected positions out to $R_{200}$. Moreover, for a subsam...

  10. Galactic substructure and direct detection of dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kamionkowski, Marc; Koushiappas, Savvas M.

    2008-05-15

    We study the effects of substructure in the Galactic halo on direct detection of dark matter, on searches for energetic neutrinos from weakly interacting massive particles (WIMP) annihilation in the Sun and Earth, and on the enhancement in the WIMP annihilation rate in the halo. Our central result is a probability distribution function (PDF) P({rho}) for the local dark-matter density. This distribution must be taken into account when using null dark-matter searches to constrain the properties of dark-matter candidates. We take two approaches to calculating the PDF. The first is an analytic model that capitalizes on the scale-invariant nature of the structure-formation hierarchy in order to address early stages in the hierarchy (very small scales; high densities). Our second approach uses simulation-inspired results to describe the PDF that arises from lower-density larger-scale substructures which formed in more recent stages in the merger hierarchy. The distributions are skew positive, and they peak at densities lower than the mean density. The local dark-matter density may be as small as 1/10th the canonical value of {approx_equal}0.4 GeV cm{sup -3}, but it is probably no less than 0.2 GeV cm{sup -3}.

  11. Alignments of the galaxies in and around the Virgo cluster with the local velocity shear

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jounghun; Rey, Soo Chang; Kim, Suk

    2014-08-10

    Observational evidence is presented for the alignment between the cosmic sheet and the principal axis of the velocity shear field at the position of the Virgo cluster. The galaxies in and around the Virgo cluster from the Extended Virgo Cluster Catalog that was recently constructed by Kim et al. are used to determine the direction of the local sheet. The peculiar velocity field reconstructed from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 is analyzed to estimate the local velocity shear tensor at the Virgo center. Showing first that the minor principal axis of the local velocity shear tensor is almost parallel to the direction of the line of sight, we detect a clear signal of alignment between the positions of the Virgo satellites and the intermediate principal axis of the local velocity shear projected onto the plane of the sky. Furthermore, the dwarf satellites are found to appear more strongly aligned than their normal counterparts, which is interpreted as an indication of the following. (1) The normal satellites and the dwarf satellites fall in the Virgo cluster preferentially along the local filament and the local sheet, respectively. (2) The local filament is aligned with the minor principal axis of the local velocity shear while the local sheet is parallel to the plane spanned by the minor and intermediate principal axes. Our result is consistent with the recent numerical claim that the velocity shear is a good tracer of the cosmic web.

  12. The role of cold gas and environment on the stellar mass - metallicity relation of nearby galaxies

    E-print Network

    Hughes, T M; Boselli, A; Gavazzi, G; Davies, J I

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between stellar mass, metallicity and gas content for a magnitude- and volume-limited sample of 260 nearby late-type galaxies in different environments, from isolated galaxies to Virgo cluster members. We derive oxygen abundance estimates using new integrated, drift-scan optical spectroscopy and the base metallicity calibrations of Kewley & Ellison (2008). Combining these measurements with ultraviolet to near-infrared photometry and HI 21 cm line observations, we examine the relations between stellar mass, metallicity, gas mass fraction and star formation rate. We find that, at fixed stellar mass, galaxies with lower gas fractions typically also possess higher oxygen abundances. We also observe a relationship between gas fraction and metal content, whereby gas-poor galaxies are typically more metal-rich, and demonstrate that the removal of gas from the outskirts of spirals increases the observed average metallicity by approximately 0.1 dex. Although some cluster galaxies ar...

  13. Resolving the chemical substructure of Orion-KL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, S.; Beuther, H.; Henning, Th.; Semenov, D.; Palau, A.; Mills, E. A. C.

    2015-09-01

    Context. The Kleinmann-Low nebula in Orion (Orion-KL) is the nearest example of a high-mass star-forming environment. Studying the resolved chemical substructures of this complex region provides important insight into the chemistry of high-mass star-forming regions (HMSFRs), as it relates to their evolutionary states. Aims: The goal of this work is to resolve the molecular line emission from individual substructures of Orion-KL at high spectral and spatial resolution and to infer the chemical properties of the associated gas. Methods: We present a line survey of Orion-KL obtained from combined Submillimeter Array (SMA) interferometric and IRAM 30 m single-dish observations. Covering a 4 GHz bandwidth in total, this survey contains over 160 emission lines from 20 species (25 isotopologues), including 11 complex organic molecules (COMs). Spectra are extracted from individual substructures and the intensity-integrated distribution map for each species is provided. We then estimate the rotation temperature for each substructure, along with their molecular column densities and abundances. Results: For the first time, we complement 1.3 mm interferometric data with single-dish observations of the Orion-KL region and study small-scale chemical variations in this region. (1) We resolve continuum substructures on ~3'' angular scale. (2) We identify lines from the low-abundance COMs CH3COCH3 and CH3CH2OH, as well as tentatively detect CH3CHO and long carbon-chain molecules C6H and HC7N. (3) We find that while most COMs are segregated by type, peaking either towards the hotcore (e.g., nitrogen-bearing species) or the compact ridge (e.g., oxygen-bearing species like HCOOCH3 and CH3OCH3), the distributions of others do not follow this segregated structure (e.g., CH3CH2OH, CH3OH, CH3COCH3). (4) We find a second velocity component of HNCO, SO2, 34SO2, and SO lines, which may be associated with a strong shock event in the low-velocity outflow. (5) Temperatures and molecular abundances show large gradients between central condensations and the outflow regions, illustrating a transition between hot molecular core and shock-chemistry dominated regimes. Conclusions: Our observations of spatially resolved abundance variations in Orion-KL provide the nearest reference source for hot molecular core and outflow chemistry, which will be an important example for interpreting the chemistry of more distant HMSFRs. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgMerged maps (data cubes) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/581/A71

  14. PAndAS IN THE MIST: THE STELLAR AND GASEOUS MASS WITHIN THE HALOS OF M31 AND M33

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Geraint F.; Braun, Robert; McConnachie, Alan W.; Irwin, Michael J.; Chapman, Scott C.; Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Martin, Nicolas F.; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Fardal, Mark; Dubinski, John; Widrow, Larry; Mackey, A. Dougal; Babul, Arif; Tanvir, Nial R.; Rich, Michael

    2013-01-20

    Large-scale surveys of the prominent members of the Local Group have provided compelling evidence for the hierarchical formation of massive galaxies, revealing a wealth of substructure that is thought to be the debris from ancient and ongoing accretion events. In this paper, we compare two extant surveys of the M31-M33 subgroup of galaxies: the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey of the stellar structure, and a combination of observations of the H I gaseous content, detected at 21 cm. Our key finding is a marked lack of spatial correlation between these two components on all scales, with only a few potential overlaps between stars and gas. The paucity of spatial correlation significantly restricts the analysis of kinematic correlations, although there does appear to be H I kinematically associated with the Giant Stellar Stream where it passes the disk of M31. These results demonstrate that different processes must significantly influence the dynamical evolution of the stellar and H I components of substructures, such as ram pressure driving gas away from a purely gravitational path. Detailed modeling of the offset between the stellar and gaseous substructures will provide a determination of the properties of the gaseous halos of M31 and M33.

  15. Conserved Key Amino Acid Positions (CKAAPs) Derived From the Analysis of Common Substructures in Proteins

    E-print Network

    Bourne, Philip E.

    Conserved Key Amino Acid Positions (CKAAPs) Derived From the Analysis of Common Substructures; sequence homology; conserved key; amino acid positions; protein folding; protein struc- ture prediction in proteins (http://cl.sdsc.edu/ce.html). These substructures represent commonly identified folds, domains

  16. The Study of tidal stripping substructures around four metal-poor globular clusters in the Galactic bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Sang-Hyun; Kang, Minhee; Sohn, Young-Jong

    2014-06-01

    We have investigated the stellar spatial density distribution around four metal-poor globular clusters (NGC 6266, NGC 6626, NGC 6642, and NGC 6723) in the Galactic bulge region, by using 45’×45’ wide-field J, H, and K images obtained with WFCAM detector on the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope. In order to minimize the field star contamination and identify the cluster’s member candidate stars, we used a statistical filtering algorithm and then weighted the stars on the color-magnitude diagram. In two-dimensional stellar density maps, we found that the spatial density distribution of stars around four globular clusters is asymmetric and show tidal stripping features. The orientation of tidal substructure seems to associate with the effect of dynamical interaction with the Galaxy and the cluster’s space motion. Indeed, the radial surface density profile accurately describes this striping structure as a break in the slope of profile. We expect that our observational results could give us further constraints to understand the evolution of clusters as well as merging scenario of the formation of the Galaxy.

  17. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey. X. Properties of Ultra-compact Dwarfs in the M87, M49, and M60 Regions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chengze; Peng, Eric W.; Côté, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Jordán, Andrés; Mihos, J. Christopher; Zhang, Hong-Xin; Muñoz, Roberto P.; Puzia, Thomas H.; Lançon, Ariane; Gwyn, Stephen; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Blakeslee, John P.; Boselli, Alessandro; Durrell, Patrick R.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Guhathakurta, Puragra; MacArthur, Lauren A.; Mei, Simona; Sánchez-Janssen, Rubén; Xu, Haiguang

    2015-10-01

    We use imaging from the Next Generation Virgo cluster Survey (NGVS) to present a comparative study of ultra-compact dwarf (UCD) galaxies associated with three prominent Virgo sub-clusters: those centered on the massive red-sequence galaxies M87, M49, and M60. We show how UCDs can be selected with high completeness using a combination of half-light radius and location in color-color diagrams (u*iKs or u*gz). Although the central galaxies in each of these sub-clusters have nearly identical luminosities and stellar masses, we find large differences in the sizes of their UCD populations, with M87 containing ˜3.5 and 7.8 times more UCDs than M49 and M60, respectively. The relative abundance of UCDs in the three regions scales in proportion to sub-cluster mass, as traced by X-ray gas mass, total gravitating mass, number of globular clusters (GCs), and number of nearby galaxies. We find that the UCDs are predominantly blue in color, with ˜85% of the UCDs having colors similar to blue GCs and stellar nuclei of dwarf galaxies. We present evidence that UCDs surrounding M87 and M49 may follow a morphological sequence ordered by the prominence of their outer, low surface brightness envelope, ultimately merging with the sequence of nucleated low-mass galaxies, and that envelope prominence correlates with distance from either galaxy. Our analysis provides evidence that tidal stripping of nucleated galaxies is an important process in the formation of UCDs.

  18. INSIGHT INTO THE FORMATION OF THE MILKY WAY THROUGH COLD HALO SUBSTRUCTURE. II. THE ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCES OF ECHOS

    SciTech Connect

    Schlaufman, Kevin C.; Rockosi, Constance M.; Lee, Young Sun; Beers, Timothy C.; Allende Prieto, Carlos E-mail: crockosi@ucolick.org E-mail: beers@pa.msu.edu

    2011-06-10

    We determine the average metallicities of the elements of cold halo substructure (ECHOS) that we previously identified in the inner halo of the Milky Way within 17.5 kpc of the Sun. As a population, we find that stars kinematically associated with ECHOS are chemically distinct from the background kinematically smooth inner halo stellar population along the same Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE) line of sight. ECHOS are systematically more iron-rich, but less {alpha}-enhanced than the kinematically smooth component of the inner halo. ECHOS are also chemically distinct from other Milky Way components: more iron-poor than typical thick-disk stars and both more iron-poor and {alpha}-enhanced than typical thin-disk stars. In addition, the radial velocity dispersion distribution of ECHOS extends beyond {sigma} {approx} 20 km s{sup -1}. Globular clusters are unlikely ECHOS progenitors, as ECHOS have large velocity dispersions and are found in a region of the Galaxy in which iron-rich globular clusters are very rare. Likewise, the chemical composition of stars in ECHOS does not match predictions for stars formed in the Milky Way and subsequently scattered into the inner halo. Dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies are possible ECHOS progenitors, and if ECHOS are formed through the tidal disruption of one or more dSph galaxies, the typical ECHOS [Fe/H] {approx} - 1.0 and radial velocity dispersion {sigma} {approx} 20 km s{sup -1} implies a dSph with M{sub tot} {approx}> 10{sup 9} M{sub sun}. Our observations confirm the predictions of theoretical models of Milky Way halo formation that suggest that prominent substructures are likely to be metal-rich, and our result implies that the most likely metallicity for a recently accreted star currently in the inner halo is [Fe/H] {approx} - 1.0.

  19. Transformation of a Virgo Cluster Dwarf Irregular Galaxy by Ram Pressure Stripping: IC3418 and its Fireballs

    E-print Network

    Kenney, Jeffrey D P; Jachym, Pavel; Crowl, Hugh H; Dague, William; Chung, Aeree; van Gorkom, Jacqueline; Vollmer, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    We present optical imaging and spectroscopy and HI imaging of the Virgo Cluster galaxy IC 3418, which is likely a "smoking gun" example of the transformation of a dwarf irregular into a dwarf elliptical galaxy by ram pressure stripping. IC 3418 has a spectacular 17 kpc length UV-bright tail comprised of knots, head-tail, and linear stellar features. The only H-alpha emission arises from a few HII regions in the tail, the brightest of which are at the heads of head-tail UV sources whose tails point toward the galaxy ("fireballs"). Several of the elongated tail sources have H-alpha peaks outwardly offset by 80-150 pc from the UV peaks, suggesting that gas clumps continue to accelerate through ram pressure, leaving behind streams of newly formed stars which have decoupled from the gas. Absorption line strengths, measured from Keck DEIMOS spectra, together with UV colors, show star formation stopped 300+/-100 Myr ago in the main body, and a strong starburst occurred prior to quenching. While neither H-alpha nor H...

  20. First Hubble Space Telescope observations of the brightest stars in the Virgo galaxy M100 = NGC 4321

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Stetson, Peter B.; Hughes, Shaun M. G.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Mould, Jeremy R.; Trauger, John T.; Gallagher, John S., III; Ballester, Gilda E.; Burrows, Christopher J.

    1994-01-01

    As part of both the Early Release Observations from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the Key Project on the Extragalactic Distance Scale, we have obtained multiwavelength BVR Wide Field/Planetary Camera-2 (WFPC2) images for the face-on Virgo cluster spiral galaxy M100 = NGC 4321. We report here preliminary results from those observations, in the form of a color-magnitude diagram for approximately 11,500 stars down to V approximately 27 mag and a luminosity function for the brightest blue stars which is found to have a slope of 0.7, in excellent agreement with previous results obtained for significantly nearer galaxies. With the increased resolution now available using WFPC2, the number of galaxies in which we can directly measure Population I stars and thereby quantify the recent evolution, as well as test stellar evolution theory, has dramatically increased by at least a factor of 100. Finally, we find that the stars are present in M100 at the colors and luminosities expected for the brightest Cepheid variables in galaxies.

  1. THE ACS VIRGO CLUSTER SURVEY. XVII. THE SPATIAL ALIGNMENT OF GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS WITH EARLY-TYPE HOST GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Qiushi; Peng, Eric W.; Blakeslee, John P.; Cote, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Jordan, Andres; Mei, Simona; West, Michael J.

    2013-06-01

    We study the azimuthal distribution of globular clusters (GCs) in early-type galaxies and compare them to their host galaxies using data from the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey. We find that in host galaxies with visible elongation ({epsilon} > 0.2) and intermediate to high luminosities (M{sub z} < -19), the GCs are preferentially aligned along the major axis of the stellar light. The red (metal-rich) GC subpopulations show strong alignment with the major axis of the host galaxy, which supports the notion that these GCs are associated with metal-rich field stars. The metal-rich GCs in lenticular galaxies show signs of being more strongly associated with disks rather than bulges. Surprisingly, we also find that the blue (metal-poor) GCs can also show the same correlation. If the metal-poor GCs are part of the early formation of the halo and built up through mergers, then our results support a picture where halo formation and merging occur anisotropically, and that the present-day major axis is an indicator of the preferred merging axis.

  2. Evidence for Stellar Streaming in the Cores of Elliptical Galaxies: A Kinematic Signature of Mergers?

    PubMed

    Pierce; Berrington

    2000-03-10

    We present evidence for non-Gaussian velocity fields within the cores of luminous elliptical galaxies. This evidence is based on high signal-to-noise ratio, medium-resolution spectroscopy of the cores of early-type members of the Virgo and Coma Clusters obtained with the Wisconsin-Indiana-Yale-NOAO 3.5 m telescope. The Virgo data were acquired using an integral-field unit (DensePak), which allows the velocity field to be sampled over a variety of spatial scales. The Coma data were obtained through single 2&arcsec; diameter fibers. The cross-correlation profiles of luminous elliptical galaxies show considerable structure, often having several features with amplitudes as high as 10% that of the cross-correlation peak itself. This structure is most obvious within a radius of 1&farcs;5 (at Virgo), or stellar streaming" and suggest that these phenomena could be a relic signature of the merger history of luminous elliptical galaxies. PMID:10688762

  3. VIVA: VLA imaging of Virgo galaxies in atomic gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Aeree

    In this thesis I present high resolution HI maps and kinematics of 53 carefully selected galaxies in the Virgo cluster. The goal is to study details of the cluster environmental effect on galaxy evolution, i.e. in which density regions and by which processes do galaxies feel the impact of the cluster. Studying HI content is essential to achieve this goal as it is often a useful probe of both gas-gas and tidal interactions and also a reservoir of star formation. Virgo as a dynamically young and nearby cluster, it contains many candidates for various mechanisms at work (e.g. ram-pressure or turbulent/viscous stripping, thermal evaporation, and tidal interactions) and allows us to see the details. We have sampled 48 spirals and 5 irregular/dwarf systems which show a wide range of star formation properties from anemic to starburst. The galaxies in the sample are spread throughout the cluster from near the dense cluster core to the outskirts (0.3--3.3 Mpc in projection). The result has revealed a whole spectrum of gas stripping stages from severely HI stripped galaxies to the HI as it is leaving the disk. Most HI stripped but optically undisturbed galaxies are found within 0.5 Mpc radius in projection from the cluster center. These galaxies show signatures of ongoing interactions with the hot cluster gas. Galaxies with truncated HI disks are also found at lower density regions. Some of those might have gone through the cluster core a while ago and currently be in their way out. Some however show gas stripping epochs that is inconsistent with their locations within the cluster which requires more than a simple interaction with static cluster gas; such as tidal interactions with other galaxies or locally enhanced ram-pressure due to subclusters' falling in. Beyond this region, most galaxies show normal (.08 < or = [Special characters omitted.] < 1.2) to extended ([Special characters omitted.] > or = 1.2) HI disks. Especially, 7 galaxies were found with one-sided long Hi tails in intermediate to low density regions (0.6--1.0 Mpc in projection from the cluster center). Their HI distribution and kinematics are suggestive of current/recent stripping (within < 2 × 10 8 yrs before/after the peak pressure clue to the cluster gas). We argue that these galaxies are recent arrivals, falling into the cluster for the first time. It seems that galaxies already feel the cluster impact far out from the cluster center, by losing some gas in the outer disk through interactions with the cluster gas or tidal interactions with neighbors, or combinations of both.

  4. The WSRT Virgo Hi filament survey. II. Cross correlation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popping, A.; Braun, R.

    2011-04-01

    Context. The extended environment of galaxies contains a wealth of information about the formation and life cycle of galaxies which are regulated by accretion and feedback processes. Observations of neutral hydrogen are routinely used to image the high brightness disks of galaxies and to study their kinematics. Deeper observations will give more insight into the distribution of diffuse gas in the extended halo of the galaxies and the inter-galactic medium, where numerical simulations predict a cosmic web of extended structures and gaseous filaments. Aims: To observe the extended environment of galaxies, column density sensitivities have to be achieved that probe the regime of Lyman limit systems. H i observations are typically limited to a brightness sensitivity of NHI ~ 1019 cm-2, but this must be improved upon by ~2 orders of magnitude. Methods: In this paper we present the interferometric data of the Westerbork Virgo H i Filament Survey (WVFS) - the total power product of this survey has been published in an earlier paper. By observing at extreme hour angles, a filled aperture is simulated of 300 × 25 m in size, that has the typical collecting power and sensitivity of a single dish telescope, but the well defined bandpass characteristics of an interferometer. With the very good surface brightness sensitivity of the data, we hope to make new H i detections of diffuse systems with moderate angular resolution. Results: The survey maps 135 degrees in Right Ascension between 8 and 17 h and 11 degrees in Declination between - 1 and 10 degrees, including the galaxy filament connecting the Local Group with the Virgo Cluster. Only positive declinations could be completely processed and analysed due to projection effects. A typical flux sensitivity of 6 mJy beam-1 over 16 km s-1 is achieved, that corresponds to a brightness sensitivity of NHI ~ 1018 cm-2. An unbiased search has been done with a high significance threshold as well a search with a lower significance limit but requiring an optical counterpart. In total, 199 objects have been detected, of which 17 are new H i detections. Conclusions: By observing at extreme hour angles with the WSRT, a filled aperture can be simulated in projection, with a very good brightness sensitivity, comparable to that of a single dish telescope. Despite some technical challenges, the data provide valuable constraints on faint, circum-galactic H i features. Appendix is only available at electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  5. Substructure effects on the collapse of density perturbations

    E-print Network

    A. Del Popolo; M. Gambera

    1996-10-08

    We solve numerically the equations of motion for the collapse of a shell of baryonic matter, made of galaxies and substructure of $ 10^{6} M_{\\odot}- 10^{9} M_{\\odot}$, falling into the central regions of a cluster of galaxies taking account of dynamical friction. We calculate the evolution of the expansion parameter, a(t), of the perturbation using a coefficient of dynamical friction, $ \\eta_{0}$, calculated for a perturbation in which clustering is absent and a coefficient $ \\eta_{cl}$ obtained from a clustered one. The effect of the dynamical friction is to slow down the collapse (V. Antonuccio-Delogu \\& S. Colafrancesco 1994, hereafter AC) producing an observable variation of the parameter of expansion of the shell. The effect increases with increasing $ \\eta $ and with the increasing of clustering. Finally, we show how the collapse time depends on $ \\eta_{0}$ and $ \\eta_{cl}$. keywords: {cosmology: theory- galaxies: formation}

  6. Formation of spiral waves with substructure in a bursting media.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Huijun; Hou, Zhonghuai

    2015-12-01

    Formation of spiral waves in a bursting media is investigated. Due to the multiple timescale oscillation of the local dynamics, an interesting substructure of traveling wave (STW) is observed in the spiral arm. As a result of the special moving media formed by neurons in the spiral arm, STWs propagate from the spiral tip to far field with an increasing wave length and move faster along the front of the spiral arm than along the back, leading to the formation of fragments in STWs. Moreover, we find that a sharp change of stimulus current can lead to backfiring of STWs, which may break the spiral wave front and further result in the formation of a multi-spiral pattern. PMID:26723144

  7. Construction of preconditioners for elliptic problems by substructuring. I

    SciTech Connect

    Bramble, J.H.; Pasciak, J.E.; Schatz, A.H.

    1986-07-01

    We consider the problem of solving the algebraic system of equations which arise from the discretization of symmetric elliptic boundary value problems via finite element methods. A new class of preconditioners for the discrete system is developed based on substructuring (also known as domain decomposition). The resulting preconditioned algorithms are well suited to emerging parallel computing architectures. The proposed methods are applicable to problems on general domains involving differential operators with rather general coefficients. A basic theory for the analysis of the condition number of the preconditioned system (which determines the iterative convergence rate of the algorithm) is given. Techniques for applying the theory and algorithms to problems with irregular geometry are discussed and the results of extensive numerical experiments are reported.

  8. Dynamics of 10 clusters of galaxies with substructures

    SciTech Connect

    Lakhchaura, Kiran; Singh, K. P.

    2014-06-01

    We present a detailed Chandra study of a sample of 10 clusters of galaxies selected based on the presence of substructures in their optical images. The X-ray surface brightness maps of most of these clusters show anisotropic morphologies, especially in the central regions. A total of 22 well resolved significantly bright X-ray peaks (corresponding with high-density regions) are seen in the central parts (within r{sub c} /2) of the clusters. Multiple peaks are seen in central parts of six clusters. We found 11 peaks to have optical counterparts (10 coinciding with the brightest cluster galaxies of the 10 clusters and 1 coinciding with the second brightest galaxy in A539). For most of the clusters, the optical substructures detected in the previous studies are found to be outside the field of view of Chandra. In the spectroscopically produced two-dimensional temperature maps, significantly lower temperatures are seen at the locations of three peaks (two in A539 and one in A376). The centers of five clusters in our sample also host regions of higher temperature compared to the ambient medium, indicating the presence of galaxy scale mergers. The X-ray luminosity, gas mass, and central cooling time estimates for all the clusters are presented. The radial X-ray surface-brightness profiles of all but one of the clusters are found to be best-fitted with a double-? model, pointing toward the presence of double-phased central gas due to cool cores. The cooling time estimates of all the clusters, however, indicate that none of them hosts a strong cool core, although the possibility of weak cool cores cannot be ruled out.

  9. UPDATED ANALYSIS OF A 'DARK' GALAXY AND ITS BLUE COMPANION IN THE VIRGO CLOUD H I 1225 + 01

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuoka, Y.; Oyabu, S.; Ienaka, N.; Wada, K.; Takino, S.

    2012-12-01

    H I 1225+01 is an intergalactic gas cloud located on the outskirts of Virgo cluster. Its main components are two large clumps of comparable H I masses (M{sub Hi}{approx}10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }) separated by about 100 kpc. One of the clumps hosts a blue low-surface-brightness galaxy J1227+0136, while the other has no identified stellar emission and is sometimes referred to as a promising candidate of a 'dark galaxy', an optically invisible massive intergalactic system. We present a deep optical image covering the whole H I 1225+01 structure for the first time, as well as a collection of archival data from ultraviolet to far-infrared (IR) spectral region of the brightest knot 'R1' in J1227+0136. We find that R1 has a young stellar population 10-100 Myr in age and mass {approx}10{sup 6} M{sub Sun }, near-IR excess brightness which may point to the presence of hot dust with color temperature {approx}600 K, and relatively faint mid- to far-IR fluxes corresponding to the dust mass of up to {approx}100 M{sub Sun }. Overall, it seems to share the general properties with low-metallicity blue compact dwarf galaxies. On the other hand, no optical counterpart to the other clump is found in our deepest-ever image. Now the limiting surface brightness reaches down to R{sub AB} > 28 mag arcsec{sup -2} for any emission extended over 10'' (comparable to R1), which is more than one hundred times fainter than the brightest part of the companion galaxy J1227+0136.

  10. DISSECTING GALAXY FORMATION. II. COMPARING SUBSTRUCTURE IN PURE DARK MATTER AND BARYONIC MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Romano-Diaz, Emilio; Shlosman, Isaac; Heller, Clayton; Hoffman, Yehuda

    2010-06-20

    We compare the substructure evolution in pure dark matter (DM) halos with those in the presence of baryons, hereafter PDM and BDM models, respectively. The prime halos have been analyzed in the previous work. Models have been evolved from identical initial conditions which have been constructed by means of the constrained realization method. The BDM model includes star formation and feedback from stellar evolution onto the gas. A comprehensive catalog of subhalo populations has been compiled and individual and statistical properties of subhalos analyzed, including their orbital differences. We find that subhalo population mass functions in PDM and BDM are consistent with a single power law, M {sup {alpha}}{sub sbh}, for each of the models in the mass range of {approx}2 x 10{sup 8} M{sub sun}-2 x 10{sup 11} M{sub sun}. However, we detect a nonnegligible shift between these functions, the time-averaged {alpha} {approx} -0.86 for the PDM and -0.98 for the BDM models. Overall, {alpha} appears to be a nearly constant in time, with variations of {+-}15%. Second, we find that the radial mass distribution of subhalo populations can be approximated by a power law, R{sup {gamma}{sub sbh}} with a steepening that occurs at the radius of a maximal circular velocity, R{sub vmax}, in the prime halos. Here we find that {gamma}{sub sbh} {approx} -1.5 for the PDM and -1 for the BDM models, when averaged over time inside R{sub vmax}. The slope is steeper outside this region and approaches -3. We detect little spatial bias (less than 10%) between the subhalo populations and the DM distribution of the main halos. Also, the subhalo population exhibits much less triaxiality in the presence of baryons, in tandem with the shape of the prime halo. Finally, we find that, counter-intuitively, the BDM population is depleted at a faster rate than the PDM one within the central 30 kpc of the prime halo. The reason for this is that although the baryons provide a substantial glue to the subhalos, the main halo exhibits the same trend. This assures a more efficient tidal disruption of the BDM subhalo population. However, this effect can be reversed for a more efficient feedback from stellar evolution and the central supermassive black holes, which will expel baryons from the center and decrease the central concentration of the prime halo. We compare our results with via Lactea and Aquarius simulations and other published results.

  11. Virgo: a laser interferometer to detect gravitational waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Alshourbagy, M.; Amico, P.; Antonucci, F.; Aoudia, S.; Arnaud, N.; Arnault, C.; Arun, K. G.; Astone, P.; Avino, S.; Babusci, D.; Ballardin, G.; Barone, F.; Barrand, G.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Basti, A.; Bauer, Th S.; Beauville, F.; Bebronne, M.; Bejger, M.; Beker, M. G.; Bellachia, F.; Belletoile, A.; Beney, J. L.; Bernardini, M.; Bigotta, S.; Bilhaut, R.; Birindelli, S.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blom, M.; Boccara, C.; Boget, D.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Boschi, V.; Bosi, L.; Bouedo, T.; Bouhou, B.; Bozzi, A.; Bracci, L.; Braccini, S.; Bradaschia, C.; Branchesi, M.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brisson, V.; Brocco, L.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Cagnoli, G.; Calamai, G.; Calloni, E.; Campagna, E.; Canuel, B.; Carbognani, F.; Carbone, L.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cecchi, R.; Cella, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chatterji, S.; Chiche, R.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Christensen, N.; Clapson, A. C.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colacino, C. N.; Colas, J.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Conforto, G.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Cottone, F.; Coulon, J.-P.; Cuoco, E.; D'Antonio, S.; Daguin, G.; Dari, A.; Dattilo, V.; David, P. Y.; Davier, M.; Day, R.; Debreczeni, G.; De Carolis, G.; Dehamme, M.; Del Fabbro, R.; Del Pozzo, W.; del Prete, M.; Derome, L.; De Rosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dialinas, M.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Emilio, M. Di Paolo; Di Virgilio, A.; Dietz, A.; Doets, M.; Dominici, P.; Dominjon, A.; Drago, M.; Drezen, C.; Dujardin, B.; Dulach, B.; Eder, C.; Eleuteri, A.; Enard, D.; Evans, M.; Fabbroni, L.; Fafone, V.; Fang, H.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Flaminio, R.; Forest, D.; Forte, L. A.; Fournier, J.-D.; Fournier, L.; Franc, J.; Francois, O.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Freise, A.; Gaddi, A.; Galimberti, M.; Gammaitoni, L.; Ganau, P.; Garnier, C.; Garufi, F.; Gáspár, M. E.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Gennaro, G.; Giacobone, L.; Giazotto, A.; Giordano, G.; Giordano, L.; Girard, C.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Granata, M.; Granata, V.; Grave, X.; Greverie, C.; Groenstege, H.; Guidi, G. M.; Hamdani, S.; Hayau, J.-F.; Hebri, S.; Heidmann, A.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hennes, E.; Hermel, R.; Heusse, P.; Holloway, L.; Huet, D.; Iannarelli, M.; Jaranowski, P.; Jehanno, D.; Journet, L.; Karkar, S.; Ketel, T.; Voet, H.; Kovalik, J.; Kowalska, I.; Kreckelbergh, S.; Krolak, A.; Lacotte, J. C.; Lagrange, B.; La Penna, P.; Laval, M.; Le Marec, J. C.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Li, T. G. F.; Lieunard, B.; Liguori, N.; Lodygensky, O.; Lopez, B.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Losurdo, G.; Loupias, M.; Mackowski, J. M.; Maiani, T.; Majorana, E.; Magazzù, C.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mancini, S.; Mansoux, B.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marin, P.; Marque, J.; Martelli, F.; Masserot, A.; Massonnet, L.; Matone, G.; Matone, L.; Mazzoni, M.; Menzinger, F.; Michel, C.; Milano, L.; Minenkov, Y.; Mitra, S.; Mohan, M.; Montorio, J.-L.; Morand, R.; Moreau, F.; Moreau, J.; Morgado, N.; Morgia, A.; Mosca, S.; Moscatelli, V.; Mours, B.; Mugnier, P.; Mul, F.-A.; Naticchioni, L.; Neri, I.; Nocera, F.; Pacaud, E.; Pagliaroli, G.; Pai, A.; Palladino, L.; Palomba, C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoletti, R.; Paoli, A.; Pardi, S.; Parguez, G.; Parisi, M.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Perciballi, M.; Perniola, B.; Persichetti, G.; Petit, S.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pietka, M.; Pignard, R.; Pinard, L.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Pradier, T.; Prato, M.; Prodi, G. A.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Qipiani, K.; Rabaste, O.; Rabeling, D. S.; Rácz, I.; Raffaelli, F.; Rapagnani, P.; Rapisarda, S.; Re, V.; Reboux, A.; Regimbau, T.; Reita, V.; Remilleux, A.; Ricci, F.; Ricciardi, I.; Richard, F.; Ripepe, M.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Romano, R.; Rosi?ska, D.; Roudier, P.; Ruggi, P.; Russo, G.; Salconi, L.; Sannibale, V.; Sassolas, B.; Sentenac, D.; Solimeno, S.; Sottile, R.; Sperandio, L.; Stanga, R.; Sturani, R.; Swinkels, B.; Tacca, M.; Taddei, R.; Taffarello, L.; Tarallo, M.; Tissot, S.; Toncelli, A.; Tonelli, M.; Torre, O.; Tournefier, E.; Travasso, F.; Tremola, C.; Turri, E.; Vajente, G.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; van der Putten, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vavoulidis, M.; Vedovato, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Véziant, O.; Viceré, A.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vilalte, S.; Vitale, S.; Vocca, H.; Ward, R. L.; Was, M.; Yamamoto, K.; Yvert, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zhang, Z.

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents a complete description of Virgo, the French-Italian gravitational wave detector. The detector, built at Cascina, near Pisa (Italy), is a very large Michelson interferometer, with 3 km-long arms. In this paper, following a presentation of the physics requirements, leading to the specifications for the construction of the detector, a detailed description of all its different elements is given. These include civil engineering infrastructures, a huge ultra-high vacuum (UHV) chamber (about 6000 cubic metres), all of the optical components, including high quality mirrors and their seismic isolating suspensions, all of the electronics required to control the interferometer and for signal detection. The expected performances of these different elements are given, leading to an overall sensitivity curve as a function of the incoming gravitational wave frequency. This description represents the detector as built and used in the first data-taking runs. Improvements in different parts have been and continue to be performed, leading to better sensitivities. These will be detailed in a forthcoming paper.

  12. Environmental Effects on Gaseous Disks of the Virgo Spiral Galaxies

    E-print Network

    Hiroyuki Nakanishi; Nario Kuno; Yoshiaki Sofue; Naoko Sato; Naomasa Nakai; Yasuhiro Shioya; Tomoka Tosaki; Sachiko Onodera; Kazuo Sorai; Fumi Egusa; Akihiko Hirota

    2006-10-27

    We found high molecular fractions ($f_{\\rm mol}$; ratio of the molecular to total gas surface densities) in three of five Virgo spiral galaxies in spite of their low total gas column density, based on $^{12}$CO$(J=1-0)$ observations with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope equipped with a multi-beam receiver, BEARS. We interpret this as a result of environmental effects. Combining the CO data with HI data, the relationship between the surface density of the total gas (HI plus H$_2$) and $f_{\\rm mol}$ indicates that the three galaxies near the cluster center have larger $f_{\\rm mol}$ values than expected for field galaxies, while the others show normal $f_{\\rm mol}$. The large $f_{\\rm mol}$ is interpreted as being due either to effective HI gas stripping, even in the inner disks, or to large ISM pressure induced by the high ICM pressure and/or ram pressure, although the possibility of an unusually high metallicity cannot be ruled out.

  13. Warp Characteristics of Spiral Galaxies in the Virgo Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Hyun-Jin; Chung, A.; Kim, S. S.; Jozsa, G. I. G.; Yoon, S.

    2012-01-01

    We present the warp characteristics of 22 spiral galaxies in the Virgo cluster based on their VLA HI datacubes with unprecedented precision. The tilted-ring modeling method is used to examine kinematic properties of the HI disks including the inclination and position angle. The main results are as follows. First, 17 out of the 19 (89.5 %) successfully-modeled galaxies exhibit either weak or strong warps, indicating that the warps are very common not only galaxies in isolation but ones in dense environments. Second, the warp strength decreases with increasing dynamical mass, supporting the notion that the warps are primarily controlled by dark matter halos. Last, the warp characteristics in our sample are distinct from those of isolated galaxies, in that the warps in our sample varies a great deal in inclination, but little in position angle. This implies that in dense environments, the main driver of the disk warps is most likely the galactic tidal interaction, rather than other explanations such as the cosmic infall scenario.

  14. Origins of Stellar Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Kathryn V.

    2015-08-01

    This talk will review ideas about the formation of stellar halos. It will include discussion of the observational evidence for stellar populations formed "in situ" (meaning formed in orbits close to their current ones), "kicked-out" (meaning formed in the inner galaxy in orbits unlike their current ones) and "accreted" (meaning formed in a dark matter halo other than the one they currently occupy). The properties of these (and other) populations seen in simulations of stellar halo formation will also be examined.

  15. The first two years of electromagnetic follow-up with advanced LIGO and Virgo

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Leo P.; Price, Larry R.; Farr, Ben; Urban, Alex L.; Pankow, Chris; Downes, Tom; Vitale, Salvatore; Veitch, John; Farr, Will M.; Haster, Carl-Johan; Mandel, Ilya; Sidery, Trevor; Vecchio, Alberto; Hanna, Chad; Cannon, Kipp; Graff, Philip

    2014-11-10

    We anticipate the first direct detections of gravitational waves (GWs) with Advanced LIGO and Virgo later this decade. Though this groundbreaking technical achievement will be its own reward, a still greater prize could be observations of compact binary mergers in both gravitational and electromagnetic channels simultaneously. During Advanced LIGO and Virgo's first two years of operation, 2015 through 2016, we expect the global GW detector array to improve in sensitivity and livetime and expand from two to three detectors. We model the detection rate and the sky localization accuracy for binary neutron star (BNS) mergers across this transition. We have analyzed a large, astrophysically motivated source population using real-time detection and sky localization codes and higher-latency parameter estimation codes that have been expressly built for operation in the Advanced LIGO/Virgo era. We show that for most BNS events, the rapid sky localization, available about a minute after a detection, is as accurate as the full parameter estimation. We demonstrate that Advanced Virgo will play an important role in sky localization, even though it is anticipated to come online with only one-third as much sensitivity as the Advanced LIGO detectors. We find that the median 90% confidence region shrinks from ?500 deg{sup 2} in 2015 to ?200 deg{sup 2} in 2016. A few distinct scenarios for the first LIGO/Virgo detections emerge from our simulations.

  16. The characterization of Virgo data and its impact on gravitational-wave searches

    E-print Network

    J. Aasi; J. Abadie; B. P. Abbott; R. Abbott; T. D. Abbott; M. Abernathy; T. Accadia; F. Acernese; C. Adams; T. Adams; P. Addesso; R. Adhikari; C. Affeldt; M. Agathos; K. Agatsuma; P. Ajith; B. Allen; A. Allocca; E. Amador Ceron; D. Amariutei; S. B. Anderson; W. G. Anderson; K. Arai; M. C. Araya; S. Ast; S. M. Aston; P. Astone; D. Atkinson; P. Aufmuth; C. Aulbert; B. E. Aylott; S. Babak; P. Baker; G. Ballardin; T. Ballinger; S. Ballmer; Y. Bao; J. C. B. Barayoga; D. Barker; F. Barone; B. Barr; L. Barsotti; M. Barsuglia; M. A. Barton; I. Bartos; R. Bassiri; M. Bastarrika; A. Basti; J. Batch; J. Bauchrowitz; Th. S. Bauer; M. Bebronne; D. Beck; B. Behnke; M. Bejger; M. G. Beker; A. S. Bell; C. Bell; I. Belopolski; M. Benacquista; J. M. Berliner; A. Bertolini; J. Betzwieser; N. Beveridge; P. T. Beyersdorf; T. Bhadbade; I. A. Bilenko; G. Billingsley; J. Birch; R. Biswas; M. Bitossi; M. A. Bizouard; E. Black; J. K. Blackburn; L. Blackburn; D. Blair; B. Bland; M. Blom; O. Bock; T. P. Bodiya; C. Bogan; C. Bond; R. Bondarescu; F. Bondu; L. Bonelli; R. Bonnand; R. Bork; M. Born; V. Boschi; S. Bose; L. Bosi; B. Bouhou; S. Braccini; C. Bradaschia; P. R. Brady; V. B. Braginsky; M. Branchesi; J. E. Brau; J. Breyer; T. Briant; D. O. Bridges; A. Brillet; M. Brinkmann; V. Brisson; M. Britzger; A. F. Brooks; D. A. Brown; T. Bulik; H. J. Bulten; A. Buonanno; J. Burguet--Castell; D. Buskulic; C. Buy; R. L. Byer; L. Cadonati; G. Cagnoli; G. Cagnoli; E. Calloni; J. B. Camp; P. Campsie; K. Cannon; B. Canuel; J. Cao; C. D. Capano; F. Carbognani; L. Carbone; S. Caride; S. Caudill; M. Cavaglià; F. Cavalier; R. Cavalieri; G. Cella; C. Cepeda; E. Cesarini; T. Chalermsongsak; P. Charlton; E. Chassande-Mottin; W. Chen; X. Chen; Y. Chen; A. Chincarini; A. Chiummo; H. S. Cho; J. Chow; N. Christensen; S. S. Y. Chua; C. T. Y. Chung; S. Chung; G. Ciani; F. Clara; D. E. Clark; J. A. Clark; J. H. Clayton; F. Cleva; E. Coccia; P. -F. Cohadon; C. N. Colacino; A. Colla; M. Colombini; A. Conte; R. Conte; D. Cook; T. R. Corbitt; M. Cordier; N. Cornish; A. Corsi; C. A. Costa; M. Coughlin; J. -P. Coulon; P. Couvares; D. M. Coward; M. Cowart; D. C. Coyne; J. D. E. Creighton; T. D. Creighton; A. M. Cruise; A. Cumming; L. Cunningham; E. Cuoco; R. M. Cutler; K. Dahl; M. Damjanic; S. L. Danilishin; S. D'Antonio; K. Danzmann; V. Dattilo; B. Daudert; H. Daveloza; M. Davier; E. J. Daw; R. Day; T. Dayanga; R. De Rosa; D. DeBra; G. Debreczeni; J. Degallaix; W. Del Pozzo; T. Dent; V. Dergachev; R. DeRosa; S. Dhurandhar; L. Di Fiore; A. Di Lieto; I. Di Palma; M. Di Paolo Emilio; A. Di Virgilio; M. Díaz; A. Dietz; A. Dietz; F. Donovan; K. L. Dooley; S. Doravari; S. Dorsher; M. Drago; R. W. P. Drever; J. C. Driggers; Z. Du; J. -C. Dumas; S. Dwyer; T. Eberle; M. Edgar; M. Edwards; A. Effler; P. Ehrens; G. Endr?czi; R. Engel; T. Etzel; K. Evans; M. Evans; T. Evans; M. Factourovich; V. Fafone; S. Fairhurst; B. F. Farr; M. Favata; D. Fazi; H. Fehrmann; D. Feldbaum; I. Ferrante; F. Ferrini; F. Fidecaro; L. S. Finn; I. Fiori; R. P. Fisher; R. Flaminio; S. Foley; E. Forsi; N. Fotopoulos; J. -D. Fournier; J. Franc; S. Franco; S. Frasca; F. Frasconi; M. Frede; M. A. Frei; Z. Frei; A. Freise; R. Frey; T. T. Fricke; D. Friedrich; P. Fritschel; V. V. Frolov; M. -K. Fujimoto; P. J. Fulda; M. Fyffe; J. Gair; M. Galimberti; L. Gammaitoni; J. Garcia; F. Garufi; M. E. Gáspár; G. Gelencser; G. Gemme; E. Genin; A. Gennai; L. Á. Gergely; S. Ghosh; J. A. Giaime; S. Giampanis; K. D. Giardina; A. Giazotto; S. Gil-Casanova; C. Gill; J. Gleason; E. Goetz; G. González; M. L. Gorodetsky; S. Goßler; R. Gouaty; C. Graef; P. B. Graff; M. Granata; A. Grant; C. Gray; R. J. S. Greenhalgh; A. M. Gretarsson; C. Griffo; H. Grote; K. Grover; S. Grunewald; G. M. Guidi; C. Guido; R. Gupta; E. K. Gustafson; R. Gustafson; J. M. Hallam; D. Hammer; G. Hammond; J. Hanks; C. Hanna; J. Hanson; A. Hardt; J. Harms; G. M. Harry; I. W. Harry; E. D. Harstad; M. T. Hartman; K. Haughian; K. Hayama; J. -F. Hayau; J. Heefner; A. Heidmann; M. C. Heintze; H. Heitmann; P. Hello; M. A. Hendry; I. S. Heng; A. W. Heptonstall; V. Herrera; M. Heurs; M. Hewitson; S. Hild; D. Hoak; K. A. Hodge; K. Holt; M. Holtrop; T. Hong; S. Hooper; J. Hough; E. J. Howell; B. Hughey; S. Husa; S. H. Huttner; T. Huynh-Dinh; D. R. Ingram; R. Inta; T. Isogai; A. Ivanov; K. Izumi; M. Jacobson; E. James; Y. J. Jang; P. Jaranowski; E. Jesse; W. W. Johnson; D. I. Jones; R. Jones; R. J. G. Jonker; L. Ju; P. Kalmus; V. Kalogera; S. Kandhasamy; G. Kang; J. B. Kanner; M. Kasprzack; R. Kasturi; E. Katsavounidis; W. Katzman; H. Kaufer; K. Kaufman; K. Kawabe; S. Kawamura; F. Kawazoe; D. Keitel; D. Kelley; W. Kells; D. G. Keppel; Z. Keresztes; A. Khalaidovski; F. Y. Khalili; E. A. Khazanov; B. K. Kim; C. Kim; H. Kim; K. Kim; N. Kim; Y. M. Kim; P. J. King; D. L. Kinzel; J. S. Kissel; S. Klimenko; J. Kline; K. Kokeyama; V. Kondrashov

    2012-06-18

    Between 2007 and 2010 Virgo collected data in coincidence with the LIGO and GEO gravitational-wave (GW) detectors. These data have been searched for GWs emitted by cataclysmic phenomena in the universe, by non-axisymmetric rotating neutron stars or from a stochastic background in the frequency band of the detectors. The sensitivity of GW searches is limited by noise produced by the detector or its environment. It is therefore crucial to characterize the various noise sources in a GW detector. This paper reviews the Virgo detector noise sources, noise propagation, and conversion mechanisms which were identified in the three first Virgo observing runs. In many cases, these investigations allowed us to mitigate noise sources in the detector, or to selectively flag noise events and discard them from the data. We present examples from the joint LIGO-GEO-Virgo GW searches to show how well noise transients and narrow spectral lines have been identified and excluded from the Virgo data. We also discuss how detector characterization can improve the astrophysical reach of gravitational-wave searches.

  17. The Characterization of Virgo Data and Its Impact on Gravitational-Wave Searches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aasi, J.; Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Ceron, E. Amador; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Blackburn, L.; Buonanno, A.; Camp, J. B.; Capano, C.D.; Kanner, J. B.; Pan, Y.; Shawhan, P.; Yancey, C. C.

    2012-01-01

    Between 2007 and 2010 Virgo collected data in coincidence with the LIGO and GEO gravitational-wave (GW) detectors. These data have been searched for GWs emitted by cataclysmic phenomena in the universe, by non-axisymmetric rotating neutron stars or from a stochastic background in the frequency band of the detectors. The sensitivity of GW searches is limited by noise produced by the detector or its environment. It is therefore crucial to characterize the various noise sources in a GW detector. This paper reviews the Virgo detector noise sources, noise propagation, and conversion mechanisms which were identified in the three first Virgo observing runs. In many cases, these investigations allowed us to mitigate noise sources in the detector, or to selectively flag noise events and discard them from the data. We present examples from the joint LIGO-GEO-Virgo GW searches to show how well noise transients and narrow spectral lines have been identified and excluded from the Virgo data. We also discuss how detector characterization can improve the astrophysical reach of gravitational wave searches.

  18. The characterization of Virgo data and its impact on gravitational-wave searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aasi, J.; Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Amador Ceron, E.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Ast, S.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Atkinson, D.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P.; Ballardin, G.; Ballinger, T.; Ballmer, S.; Bao, Y.; Barayoga, J. C. B.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Bastarrika, M.; Basti, A.; Batch, J.; Bauchrowitz, J.; Bauer, Th S.; Bebronne, M.; Beck, D.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Beker, M. G.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C.; Belopolski, I.; Benacquista, M.; Berliner, J. M.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Beveridge, N.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bhadbade, T.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biswas, R.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bland, B.; Blom, M.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bogan, C.; Bond, C.; Bondarescu, R.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bosi, L.; Bouhou, B.; Braccini, S.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Breyer, J.; Briant, T.; Bridges, D. O.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Burguet–Castell, J.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Campsie, P.; Cannon, K.; Canuel, B.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Carbognani, F.; Carbone, L.; Caride, S.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cesarini, E.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, W.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Chow, J.; Christensen, N.; Y Chua, S. S.; Y Chung, C. T.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, D. E.; Clark, J. A.; Clayton, J. H.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colacino, C. N.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Conte, A.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordier, M.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M.; Coulon, J.-P.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M.; Coyne, D. C.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cruise, A. M.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Cutler, R. M.; Dahl, K.; Damjanic, M.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dattilo, V.; Daudert, B.; Daveloza, H.; Davier, M.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Dayanga, T.; De Rosa, R.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; Del Pozzo, W.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Emilio, M. Di Paolo; Di Virgilio, A.; Díaz, M.; Dietz, A.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dorsher, S.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edgar, M.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Ehrens, P.; Endr?czi, G.; Engel, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, K.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Farr, B. F.; Favata, M.; Fazi, D.; Fehrmann, H.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferrante, I.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Foley, S.; Forsi, E.; Forte, L. A.; Fotopoulos, N.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franc, J.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, M. A.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Friedrich, D.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fujimoto, M.-K.; Fulda, P. J.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J.; Galimberti, M.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garcia, J.; Garufi, F.; Gáspár, M. E.; Gelencser, G.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Gergely, L. Á.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gil-Casanova, S.; Gill, C.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; González, G.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Griffo, C.; Grote, H.; Grover, K.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C.; Gupta, R.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hallam, J. M.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Hardt, A.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Hartman, M. T.; Haughian, K.; Hayama, K.; Hayau, J.-F.; Heefner, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M. A.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Herrera, V.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hong, T.; Hooper, S.; Hough, J.; Howell, E. J.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isogai, T.; Ivanov, A.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; James, E.; Jang, Y. J.; Jaranowski, P.; Jesse, E.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.

    2012-08-01

    Between 2007 and 2010 Virgo collected data in coincidence with the LIGO and GEO gravitational-wave (GW) detectors. These data have been searched for GWs emitted by cataclysmic phenomena in the universe, by non-axisymmetric rotating neutron stars or from a stochastic background in the frequency band of the detectors. The sensitivity of GW searches is limited by noise produced by the detector or its environment. It is therefore crucial to characterize the various noise sources in a GW detector. This paper reviews the Virgo detector noise sources, noise propagation, and conversion mechanisms which were identified in the three first Virgo observing runs. In many cases, these investigations allowed us to mitigate noise sources in the detector, or to selectively flag noise events and discard them from the data. We present examples from the joint LIGO-GEO-Virgo GW searches to show how well noise transients and narrow spectral lines have been identified and excluded from the Virgo data. We also discuss how detector characterization can improve the astrophysical reach of GW searches.

  19. Three-dimensional deformation analysis of two-phase dislocation substructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Alan D.; Raj, S. V.; Walker, Kevin P.

    1992-01-01

    Three-dimensional deformation analysis of two-phase dislocation substructures was carried out, extending the Qian and Fan (1991) approach to 3D stress-strain fields by using the Budiansky and Wu (1962) criterion for strain compatibility between the 'hard' and 'soft' regions. The result is a rate-dependent viscoplastic theory, named the dislocation substructure viscoplasticity (DSV), which incorporates a self-consistent effect of dislocation substructure on material response. An algorithm developed for numerical implementation of the DSV theory is presented.

  20. Effect of load eccentricity and substructure deformation on ultimate strength of shuttle orbiter thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of load eccentricity and substructure deformation on the ultimate strength and stress displacement properties of the shuttle orbiter thermal protection system (TPS) was determined. The LI-900 Reusable Surface Insulation (RSI) tiles mounted on the .41 cm thick Strain Isolator Pad (SIP) were investigated. Substructure deformations reduce the ultimate strength of the SIP/tile TPS and increase the scatter in the ultimate strength data. Substructure deformations that occur unsymmetric to the tile can cause the tile to rotate when subjected to a uniform applied load. Load eccentricity reduces SIP/tile TPS ultimate strength and causes tile rotation.

  1. All-sky search for gravitational-wave bursts in the second joint LIGO-Virgo run

    E-print Network

    Barsotti, Lisa

    We present results from a search for gravitational-wave bursts in the data collected by the LIGO and Virgo detectors between July 7, 2009 and October 20, 2010: data are analyzed when at least two of the three LIGO-Virgo ...

  2. Ram pressure stripping of the multiphase ISM and star formation in the Virgo spiral galaxy NGC 4330

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, B.; Soida, M.; Braine, J.; Abramson, A.; Beck, R.; Chung, A.; Crowl, H. H.; Kenney, J. D. P.; van Gorkom, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that the Virgo spiral galaxy NGC 4330 shows signs of ongoing ram pressure stripping at multiple wavelengths. At the leading edge of the interaction, the H? and dust extinction curve sharply out of the disk. On the trailing side, a long H?/UV tail has been found which is located upwind of a long Hi tail. We complement the multiwavelength study with IRAM 30m HERA CO(2-1) and VLA 6 cm radio continuum observations of NGC 4330. The data are interpreted with the help of a dynamical model including ram pressure and, for the first time, star formation. Our best-fit model qualitatively reproduces the observed projected position, the radial velocity of the galaxy, the molecular and atomic gas distribution and velocity field, and the UV distribution in the region where a gas tail is present. However, the observed red UV color on the windward side is currently not reproduced by the model. On the basis of our model, the galaxy moves to the north and still approaches the cluster center with the closest approach occurring in ~100 Myr. In contrast to other Virgo spiral galaxies affected by ram pressure stripping, NGC 4330 does not show an asymmetric ridge of polarized radio continuum emission. We suggest that this is due to the relatively slow compression of the ISM and the particular projection of NGC 4330. The observed offset between the Hi and UV tails is well-reproduced by our model. Since collapsing and starforming gas clouds decouple from the ram pressure wind, the UV-emitting young stars have the angular momentum of the gas at the time of their creation. On the other hand, the gas is constantly pushed by ram pressure. We provide stellar age distributions within three radial bins in the galactic disk (R > 5 kpc). Deep optical spectra could be used to test the quenching times suggested by our analysis. The reaction (phase change, star formation) of the multiphase ISM (molecular, atomic, ionized) to ram pressure is discussed in the framework of our dynamical model.

  3. Distance to the Virgo Cluster Galaxy M100 from Hubble Space Telescope Observations of Cepheids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, W. L.; Madore, B. F.; Mould, J. R.; Hill, R.; Ferrarese, L.; Kennicutt, R. C., Jr.; Saha, A.; Stetson, P. B.; Graham, J. A.; Ford, H.; Hoessel, J. G.; Huchra, J.; Hughes, S. M.; Illingworth, G. D.

    1994-01-01

    Accurate distances to galaxies are critical to determining the present expansion rate of the Universe or Hubble Constant (H(sub 0)). An important step in resolving the current uncertainty in H(sub 0) is the measurement of the distance to the Virgo cluster of galaxies. New observations using the Hubble Space Telescope yield a distance of 17.1 +/- 1.8 Mpc to the Virgo cluster galaxy M100. This distance leads to a value of H(sub 0) = 17 km/sec/Mpc. A comparable value of H(sub 0) is also derived from the Coma cluster using independent estimates of its distance ratio relative to the Virgo cluster.

  4. Last stage control and mechanical transfer function measurement of the VIRGO suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozzi, A.; Bourgoin, C.; Cortese, S.; Errico, A.; Enard, D.; Mataguez, S.; Paoli, A.; Pasqualetti, A.; Popolizio, P.; Richard, F.; Teuler, J. M.; Zhang, Z.; Boccara, C.; Leliboux, M.; Loriette, V.; Reita, V.; Roger, J. P.; Ganau, P.; Lagrange, B.; Mackowski, J. M.; Michel, C.; Montorio, J. L.; Morgado, N.; Pinard, L.; Remillieux, A.; Bracci, L.; Calamai, G.; Cuoco, E.; Dominici, P.; Fabbroni, L.; Guidi, G.; Losurdo, G.; Martelli, F.; Mazzoni, M.; Ripepe, M.; Stanga, R.; Vetrano, F.; Acernese, F.; Barone, F.; Calloni, E.; Cavaliere, S.; De Rosa, M.; De Rosa, R.; Di Fiore, L.; Eleuteri, A.; Evangelista, G.; Garufi, F.; Maiorino, M.; Milano, L.; Qipiani, K.; Solimeno, S.; Varella, M.; Amico, P.; Cattuto, C.; Gammaitoni, L.; Marchesoni, F.; Punturo, M.; Vocca, H.; Ballardin, G.; Braccini, S.; Bradaschia, C.; Casciano, C.; Cavalieri, R.; Cecchi, R.; Cella, G.; Dattilo, V.; Di Virgilio, A.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Frasconi, F.; Gennaro, G.; Giazotto, A.; Holloway, L.; La Penna, P.; Lomtadze, T.; Nicolosi, L.; Paoletti, F.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Poggiani, R.; Taddei, R.; Vicere, A.; Frasca, S.; Majorana, E.; Palomba, C.; Perciballi, M.; Puppo, P.; Rapagnani, P.; Ricci, F.; Arnaud, N.; Arnault, C.; Barsuglia, M.; Beney, J. L.; Bilhaut, R.; Bizouard, M. A.; Brisson, V.; Canitrot, P.; Cavalier, F.; Chiche, R.; Cuzon, S.; Davier, M.; Dehamme, M.; Eder, C.; Gaspard, M.; Hello, P.; Heusse, P.; Jules, E.; Lodygenski, O.; Mansoux, B.; Marrucho, J. C.; Mencik, M.; Marin, P.; Pradier, T.; Reboux, A.; Rivoirard, P.; Taurigna, M.; Bellachia, F.; Boget, D.; Buskulic, D.; Caron, B.; Chollet, F.; David, P. Y.; Dufournaud, D.; Flaminio, R.; Fournier, L.; Giacobone, L.; Girard, C.; Hermel, R.; Lacotte, J. C.; Lieunard, B.; Marion, F.; Masserot, A.; Massonnet, L.; Mours, B.; Mugnier, P.; Ramonet, J.; Sottile, R.; Verkindt, D.; Veziant, O.; Yvert, M.; Babusci, D.; Fang, H.; Giordano, G.; Iannarelli, M.; Turri, E.; Bondu, F.; Brillet, A.; Cachenaut, J.; Cleva, F.; Cokelaer, T.; Coulon, J. P.; Fournier, J. D.; Heitmann, H.; Innocent, J. M.; Loupias, M.; Man, C. N.; Pacheco, J.; Regimbau, T.; Scheidecker, J. P.; Trinquet, H.; Tourrenc, P.; Vinet, J. Y.

    2002-05-01

    The automatic control of the suspended mirrors is a major task in operating an interferometric gravitational wave antenna. To reach the extreme sensitivity required for this kind of detector, an accurate alignment and a stable locking of the interferometer on its working point are crucial. The solution of this problem is particularly complex in the case of a multistage pendulum, such as the suspension system for seismic isolation adopted in VIRGO. A precise knowledge of the suspension mechanical transfer functions (TFs) for different forces applied in the control servo-loops represents essential information to reach the goal. In this article, we describe the apparatus we developed to measure the VIRGO suspension TF and we report the results thus obtained on full-scale suspensions at the VIRGO site. Preliminary results for the implemented control system of the last suspension stage are also presented.

  5. Population Substructure and Patterns of Quantitative Variation among the Gollas of Southern Andhra Pradesh, India

    E-print Network

    Reddy, B. Mohan; Pfeffer, Alexa; Crawford, Michael H.; Langstieh, Banrida T.

    2001-04-01

    Population substructure and biological differentiation was studied among the Golla, a pastoral caste living in the southern areas of Andhra Pradesh (AP) in India, using 11 anthropometric measurements and 20 quantitative dermatoglyphic variables...

  6. Education and Public Outreach at EGO/Virgo: past experiences and future projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razzano, Massimiliano

    2015-08-01

    We are approaching the new generation Gravitational Wave (GW) detector Era and in the next months a new exiting period for GW scientists will start enforcing collaboration and interactions among different scientific communities. We aim to reach a wider audience to spread this enthusiasm in the general public about our every day activities and let them know how it will change our understanding of the Universe, once revealed the Gravitational waves. In this talk, we will report about the activities of the last years and about the EGO/Virgo outreach plans for the future. The main goal of the Virgo/EGO outreach activity is to raise awareness and curiosity about the GW research projects. In the past years we informed the general public about science we do at EGO/Virgo site, trying to attract students in doing research, letting them know about the Virgo detector and involving them in small research activities. We run a regular program of site visits, and we often organized astronomical observations and science cafe' events which attracted a large number of people. Efforts were made also to involve kids in understanding our scientific job. We started a series of regular events in which art and science were fused.We are strengthening our outreach activities with common efforts in the Virgo laboratories which are spread all over in Europe.We plan to make available a scientific path within Virgo, where the public can do little experiences of science or for example tile, for a day, the activity of our researchers.

  7. GHOSTS | Bulges, Halos, and the Resolved Stellar Outskirts of Massive Disk Galaxies

    E-print Network

    Roelof S. de Jong; David J. Radburn-Smith; Jonathan N. Sick

    2007-10-29

    In hierarchical galaxy formation the stellar halos of galaxies are formed by the accretion of minor satellites and therefore contain valuable information about the (early) assembly process of galaxies. Our GHOSTS survey measures the stellar envelope properties of 14 nearby disk galaxies by imaging their resolved stellar populations with HST/ACS&WFPC2. Most of the massive galaxies in the sample (Vrot>200 km/s) have very extended stellar envelopes with mu(r) ~ r^{-2.5} power law profiles in the outer regions. For these massive galaxies there is some evidence that the stellar surface density of the profiles correlates with Hubble type and bulge-to-disk ratio, begging the question whether these envelopes are more related to bulges than to a Milky Way-type stellar halo. Smaller galaxies (Vrot 100 km/s) have much smaller stellar envelopes, but depending on geometry, they could still be more luminous than expected from satellite remnants in hierarchical galaxy formation models. Alternatively, they could be created by disk heating through the bombardment of small dark matter sub-halos. We find that galaxies show varying amounts of halo substructure.

  8. Gravitational Focusing and Substructure Effects on the Rate Modulation in Direct Dark Matter Searches

    E-print Network

    Eugenio Del Nobile; Graciela B. Gelmini; Samuel J. Witte

    2015-07-27

    We study how gravitational focusing (GF) of dark matter by the Sun affects the annual and biannual modulation of the expected signal in non-directional direct dark matter searches, in the presence of dark matter substructure in the local dark halo. We consider the Sagittarius stream and a possible dark disk, and show that GF suppresses some, but not all, of the distinguishing features that would characterize substructure of the dark halo were GF neglected.

  9. Gravitational focusing and substructure effects on the rate modulation in direct dark matter searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Nobile, Eugenio; Gelmini, Graciela B.; Witte, Samuel J.

    2015-08-01

    We study how gravitational focusing (GF) of dark matter by the Sun affects the annual and biannual modulation of the expected signal in non-directional direct dark matter searches, in the presence of dark matter substructure in the local dark halo. We consider the Sagittarius stream and a possible dark disk, and show that GF suppresses some, but not all, of the distinguishing features that would characterize substructure of the dark halo were GF neglected.

  10. Gravitational Focusing and Substructure Effects on the Rate Modulation in Direct Dark Matter Searches

    E-print Network

    Del Nobile, Eugenio; Witte, Samuel J

    2015-01-01

    We study how gravitational focusing (GF) of dark matter by the Sun affects the annual and biannual modulation of the expected signal in non-directional direct dark matter searches, in the presence of dark matter substructure in the local dark halo. We consider the Sagittarius stream and a possible dark disk, and show that GF suppresses some, but not all, of the distinguishing features that would characterize substructure of the dark halo were GF neglected.

  11. Chameleon f(R) gravity on the Virgo cluster scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, C. Corbett; Teyssier, R.; Li, B.

    2015-03-01

    Models of modified gravity offer promising alternatives to the concordance ? cold dark matter (?CDM) cosmology to explain the late-time acceleration of the universe. A popular such model is f(R) gravity, in which the Ricci scalar in the Einstein-Hilbert action is replaced by a general function of it. We study the f(R) model of Hu & Sawicki, which recovers standard general relativity in high-density regimes, while reproducing the desired late time acceleration at cosmological scales. We run a suite of high-resolution zoom simulations using the ECOSMOG code to examine the effect of f(R) gravity on the properties of a halo that is analogous to the Virgo cluster. We show that the velocity dispersion profiles can potentially discriminate between f(R) models and ?CDM, and provide complementary analysis of lensing signal profiles to explore the possibility to further distinguish the different f(R) models. Our results confirm the techniques explored by Cabré et al. to quantify the effect of environment in the behaviour of f(R) gravity, and we extend them to study halo satellites at various redshifts. We find that the modified gravity effects in our models are most observable at low redshifts, and that effects are generally stronger for satellites far from the centre of the main halo. We show that the screening properties of halo satellites trace very well that of dark matter particles, which means that low-resolution simulations in which subhaloes are not very well resolved can in principle be used to study satellite properties. We discuss observables, particularly for halo satellites, that can potentially be used to constrain the observational viability of f(R) gravity.

  12. Hubble constant from Pritchet and von den Bergh's nova distance to the Virgo cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Sandage, A.; Tammann, G.A.

    1988-05-01

    Two reasons are offered why the value for H(0) of 69 + or - 14 km/s/Mpc of Pritchet and van den Bergh (1987) is likely to be too high by about 20 percent even when their value of 6.8 + or - 0.4 for the M31-Virgo modulus difference is adopted. One reason concerns the free expansion velocity of the Virgo cluster core and the other concerns the apparent distance modulus of M31. Reasons for adopting a global H(0) value of 56 + or - 12 km/s/Mpc are discussed. 25 references.

  13. Recent Results from the SPLASH Survey: Chemical Abundances and Kinematics of Andromeda's Stellar Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Karoline

    2015-08-01

    Large scale surveys of Andromeda's resolved stellar populations have revolutionized our view of this galaxy over the past decade. The combination of large-scale, contiguous photometric surveys and pointed spectroscopic surveys has been particularly powerful for discovering and following up new substructures and disentangling the structural components of Andromeda. The SPLASH (Spectroscopic and Photometric Landscape of Andromeda's Stellar Halo) survey consists of broad- and narrow-band imaging and spectroscopy of red giant branch stars in lines of sight throughout the M31 system, ranging in distance from 3 kpc to more than 200 kpc from Andromeda's center. I will present recent results from the SPLASH survey on the structure of Andromeda's stellar halo and the origin of tidal debris features, including measurements of the kinematics and chemical abundances of Andromeda's halo stars.

  14. Unveiling the Secret of a Virgo Dwarf Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-05-01

    Dwarf galaxies may not be as impressive in appearance as their larger brethren, but they are at least as interesting from a scientific point of view. And sometimes they may have hidden properties that will only be found by means of careful observations, probing the signals of their stars at the faintest level. Such as the entirely unexpected, well developed spiral structure within an otherwise seemingly normal dwarf elliptical galaxy! This is the surprise result of a new study by a team of astronomers [1], headed by Helmut Jerjen from the Australian National University (Canberra) who obtained detailed observations with the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the dwarf galaxy IC 3328 in the Virgo Cluster of Galaxies, some 50 million light-years away. Dwarf galaxies Dwarf galaxies are present in all major clusters of galaxies and dominate by numbers in the universe. They may contain a few (tens of) millions of stars, as compared to galaxies of normal size with hundreds of billions of stars. About two dozen dwarf galaxies are known in the "Local Group" of galaxies of which the Milky Way galaxy in which we live is also a member. The Large and Small Magellanic Clouds are some of the best known dwarf galaxies - they are of the irregular type - while NGC 147 and NGC 205, two companions to the great Andromeda Galaxy, are of the elliptical type. Dwarf elliptical galaxies are characterized by their smooth appearance. From various studies, it is known that they are tri-axial ellipsoids of different degrees of elongation. Some are almost spherical while others are more pancake- or cigar-shaped. Like the elliptical galaxies of normal size, dwarf ellipticals are almost pure aggregates of stars. In contrast, spiral galaxies also contain clouds of gas and dust. The visible mass of spiral galaxies is in a rotating disk. Dwarf ellipticals generally keep their form because of the random motions of their stars. VLT observations of dwarf elliptical galaxies Using the FORS1 multi-mode instrument mounted at the first 8.2-m VLT Unit telescope, ANTU , the astronomers observed a series of dwarf elliptical galaxies in the Virgo Cluster of Galaxies, in the constellation of that name (The Virgin). The primary goal of the observations was to obtain carefully calibrated images of the galaxies in different colours. They can be used to study the distribution of light over the galaxy and thus its content of stars. The galaxies that are found to have smooth light distributions are of special interest, because it is then possible to measure their approximate distance by means of the so-called Surface Brightness Fluctuation method [2]. The distance to the Virgo Cluster is still not known with high accuracy, although it constitutes a most important step towards the universal distance ladder. Any additional determination of this distance would therefore be most valuable. A matter of a small difference ESO PR Photo 11/00 ESO PR Photo 11/00 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 252 pix - 67k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 504 pix - 224k] Caption : The deep R-band CCD image of IC3328 (left; rendered in "negative" with dark objects and a bright background), obtained with FORS1 at VLT ANTU, illustrates the overall morphology of this galaxy that was classified as a dwarf elliptical galaxy: a quite smooth radially waning light distribution with a central nucleus. The total integration time of this composite image is 20 min with a seeing of 0.6 arcsec. After removal of the axis-symmetrical part of the light from the galaxy by a special image processing algorithm, the "residual" image reveals a remarkable 2-armed spiral structure (right). The field is 4 x 4 arcmin 2 ; North is up and east is left. The central task of the Surface Brightness Fluctuation method is to determine the pixel-to-pixel fluctuations in the light distribution of the galaxy that is due to the finite number of unresolved stars. These fluctuations are obtained by subtracting a suitably smoothed galaxy model from the CCD image. In the case of the seemingly inconspicuous dwarf galaxy IC 3382 , th

  15. Stellar feedback efficiencies: supernovae versus stellar winds

    E-print Network

    Fierlinger, Katharina M; Ntormousi, Evangelia; Fierlinger, Peter; Schartmann, Marc; Ballone, Alessandro; Krause, Martin G H; Diehl, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Stellar winds and supernova (SN) explosions of massive stars ("stellar feedback") create bubbles in the interstellar medium (ISM) and insert newly produced heavy elements and kinetic energy into their surroundings, possibly driving turbulence. Most of this energy is thermalized and immediately removed from the ISM by radiative cooling. The rest is available for driving ISM dynamics. In this work we estimate the amount of feedback energy retained as kinetic energy when the bubble walls have decelerated to the sound speed of the ambient medium. We show that the feedback of the most massive star outweighs the feedback from less massive stars. For a giant molecular cloud (GMC) mass of 1e5 solar masses (as e.g. found in the Orion GMCs) and a star formation efficiency of 8% the initial mass function predicts a most massive star of approximately 60 solar masses. For this stellar evolution model we test the dependence of the retained kinetic energy of the cold GMC gas on the inclusion of stellar winds. In our model w...

  16. Theoretical and software considerations for general dynamic analysis using multilevel substructured models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, R. J.; Dodds, R. H., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamic analysis of complex structural systems using the finite element method and multilevel substructured models is presented. The fixed-interface method is selected for substructure reduction because of its efficiency, accuracy, and adaptability to restart and reanalysis. This method is extended to reduction of substructures which are themselves composed of reduced substructures. The implementation and performance of the method in a general purpose software system is emphasized. Solution algorithms consistent with the chosen data structures are presented. It is demonstrated that successful finite element software requires the use of software executives to supplement the algorithmic language. The complexity of the implementation of restart and reanalysis porcedures illustrates the need for executive systems to support the noncomputational aspects of the software. It is shown that significant computational efficiencies can be achieved through proper use of substructuring and reduction technbiques without sacrificing solution accuracy. The restart and reanalysis capabilities and the flexible procedures for multilevel substructured modeling gives economical yet accurate analyses of complex structural systems.

  17. The evolution substructure I: a new identification method

    E-print Network

    Gill, S P D; Gibson, B

    2004-01-01

    We describe our new "MLAPM-halo-finder" (MHF) which is based on the adaptive grid structure of the N-body code MLAPM. We then extend the MHF code in order to track the orbital evolution of gravitationally bound objects through any given cosmological N-body simulation - our so-called "MLAPM-halo-tracker" (MHT). The mode of operation of MHT is demonstrated using a series of eight high-resolution N-body simulations of galaxy clusters. Each of these halos hosts more than one million particles within their virial radii Rvir. We use MHT as well as MHF to follow the temporal evolution of hundreds of individual satellites, and show that the radial distribution of these substructure satellites follows a "universal" radial distribution irrespective of the host halo's environment and formation history. This in fact might pose another problem for simulations of CDM structure formation as there are recent findings by Taylor et al. (2003) that the Milky Way satellites are found preferentially closer to the galactic centre ...

  18. Jet substructure and probes of CP violation in Vh production

    E-print Network

    Rohini M. Godbole; David J. Miller; Kirtimaan A. Mohan; Christopher D. White

    2015-04-15

    We analyse the hVV (V = W, Z) vertex in a model independent way using Vh production. To that end, we consider possible corrections to the Standard Model Higgs Lagrangian, in the form of higher dimensional operators which parametrise the effects of new physics. In our analysis, we pay special attention to linear observables that can be used to probe CP violation in the same. By considering the associated production of a Higgs boson with a vector boson (W or Z), we use jet substructure methods to define angular observables which are sensitive to new physics effects, including an asymmetry which is linearly sensitive to the presence of CP odd effects. We demonstrate how to use these observables to place bounds on the presence of higher dimensional operators, and quantify these statements using a log likelihood analysis. Our approach allows one to probe separately the hZZ and hWW vertices, involving arbitrary combinations of BSM operators, at the Large Hadron Collider.

  19. Frontiers of stellar evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, David L. (editor)

    1991-01-01

    The present conference discusses theoretical and observational views of star formation, spectroscopic constraints on the evolution of massive stars, very low mass stars and brown dwarfs, asteroseismology, globular clusters as tests of stellar evolution, observational tests of stellar evolution, and mass loss from cool evolved giant stars. Also discussed are white dwarfs and hot subdwarfs, neutron stars and black holes, supernovae from single stars, close binaries with evolved components, accretion disks in interacting binaries, supernovae in binary systems, stellar evolution and galactic chemical evolution, and interacting binaries containing compact components.

  20. Nucleosynthesis in stellar flares

    E-print Network

    V. Tatischeff; J. -P. Thibaud; I. Ribas

    2008-01-11

    Nuclear interactions of ions accelerated at the surface of flaring stars can produce fresh isotopes in stellar atmospheres. Although this nucleosynthesis is not significant for the chemical evolution of the Galaxy, it can be important for a number of measurements of "anomalously" high 6-Li and 7-Li abundances. We discuss the possible role of stellar flares to explain the recent report of high 6-Li abundances in metal-poor halo stars and the well-established correlation between Li abundance and stellar activity in young open clusters. We then study the possibility of observing directly Li production during flares of nearby and active dwarfs of spectral type M.

  1. The GALEX Ultraviolet Virgo Cluster Survey (GUViCS). V. Ultraviolet diffuse emission and cirrus properties in the Virgo cluster direction

    E-print Network

    Boissier, S; Voyer, E; Bianchi, S; Pappalardo, C; Guhathakurta, P; Heinis, S; Cortese, L; Duc, P -A; Cuillandre, J -C; Davies, J I; Smith, M W L

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: The Virgo direction has been observed at many wavelengths in the recent years, in particular in the ultraviolet with GALEX. The far ultraviolet (FUV) diffuse light detected by GALEX bears interesting information on the large scale distribution of Galactic dust, owing to the GALEX FUV band sensitivity and resolution. AIMS: We aim to characterise the ultraviolet large scale distribution of diffuse emission in the Virgo direction. A map of this emission may become useful for various studies by identifying regions where dust affects observations by either scattering light or absorbing radiation. METHODS: We construct mosaics of the FUV and near ultraviolet diffuse emission over a large sky region (RA 12 to 13 hours, DEC 0 to 20 degrees) surrounding the Virgo cluster, using all the GALEX available data in the area. We test for the first time the utilisation of the FUV diffuse light as a Galactic extinction E(B-V) tracer. RESULTS: The FUV diffuse light scattered on cirrus reveals details in their geometry....

  2. HYPERCOMPACT STELLAR SYSTEMS AROUND RECOILING SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Merritt, David; Schnittman, Jeremy D.; Komossa, S.

    2009-07-10

    A supermassive black hole ejected from the center of a galaxy by gravitational-wave recoil carries a retinue of bound stars - a 'hypercompact stellar system' (HCSS). The numbers and properties of HCSSs contain information about the merger histories of galaxies, the late evolution of binary black holes, and the distribution of gravitational-wave kicks. We relate the structural properties (size, mass, density profile) of HCSSs to the properties of their host galaxies and to the size of the kick in two regimes: collisional (M {sub BH} {approx}< 10{sup 7} M {sub sun}), i.e., short nuclear relaxation times, and collisionless (M {sub BH} {approx}> 10{sup 7} M {sub sun}), i.e., long nuclear relaxation times. HCSSs are expected to be similar in size and luminosity to globular clusters, but in extreme cases (large galaxies, kicks just above escape velocity) their stellar mass can approach that of ultracompact dwarf galaxies. However, they differ from all other classes of compact stellar system in having very high internal velocities. We show that the kick velocity is encoded in the velocity dispersion of the bound stars. Given a large enough sample of HCSSs, the distribution of gravitational-wave kicks can therefore be empirically determined. We combine a hierarchical merger algorithm with stellar population models to compute the rate of production of HCSSs over time and the probability of observing HCSSs in the local universe as a function of their apparent magnitude, color, size, and velocity dispersion, under two different assumptions about the star formation history prior to the kick. We predict that {approx}10{sup 2} HCSSs should be detectable within 2 Mpc of the center of the Virgo cluster, and that many of these should be bright enough that their kick velocities (i.e., velocity dispersions) could be measured with reasonable exposure times. We discuss other strategies for detecting HCSSs and speculate on some exotic manifestations.

  3. MAPPING THE STELLAR STRUCTURE OF THE MILKY WAY THICK DISK AND HALO USING SEGUE PHOTOMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    De Jong, Jelte T. A.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Martin, Nicolas F.; Yanny, Brian; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Beers, Timothy C.

    2010-05-01

    We map the stellar structure of the Galactic thick disk and halo by applying color-magnitude diagram (CMD) fitting to photometric data from the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE) survey. The SEGUE imaging scans allow, for the first time, a comprehensive analysis of Milky Way structure at both high and low latitudes using uniform Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry. Incorporating photometry of all relevant stars simultaneously, CMD fitting bypasses the need to choose single tracer populations. Using old stellar populations of differing metallicities as templates, we obtain a sparse three-dimensional map of the stellar mass distribution at |Z|>1 kpc. Fitting a smooth Milky Way model comprising exponential thin and thick disks and an axisymmetric power-law halo allows us to constrain the structural parameters of the thick disk and halo. The thick-disk scale height and length are well constrained at 0.75 {+-} 0.07 kpc and 4.1 {+-} 0.4 kpc, respectively. We find a stellar halo flattening within {approx}25 kpc of c/a = 0.88 {+-} 0.03 and a power-law index of 2.75 {+-} 0.07 (for 7 kpc {approx_lt}R{sub GC} {approx_lt} 30 kpc). The model fits yield thick-disk and stellar halo densities at the solar location of {rho}{sub thick,sun} = 10{sup -2.3{+-}0.1} M{sub sun} pc{sup -3} and {rho}{sub halo,sun} = 10{sup -4.20{+-}0.05} M{sub sun} pc{sup -3}, averaging over any substructures. Our analysis provides the first clear in situ evidence for a radial metallicity gradient in the Milky Way's stellar halo: within R {approx_lt} 15 kpc the stellar halo has a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] {approx_equal} -1.6, which shifts to [Fe/H] {approx_equal} -2.2 at larger radii, in line with the two-component halo deduced by Carollo et al. from a local kinematic analysis. Subtraction of the best-fit smooth and symmetric model from the overall density maps reveals a wealth of substructures at all latitudes, some attributable to known streams and overdensities, and some new. A simple warp cannot account for the low latitude substructure, as overdensities occur simultaneously above and below the Galactic plane.

  4. KINEMATIC DISCOVERY OF A STELLAR STREAM LOCATED IN PISCES

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Charles; Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Grillmair, Carl

    2013-03-10

    We report the kinematic discovery of the Pisces Stellar Stream (PSS), at Galactic longitude l Almost-Equal-To 135 Degree-Sign and -39 Degree-Sign < b < -36 Degree-Sign . We originally identified this halo substructure from velocities of red giant branch stars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8, and confirmed its presence in turnoff stars from SDSS photometric data. The PSS is a narrow, kinematically cold tidal stream, with {sigma}{sub v,0} Almost-Equal-To 8 km s{sup -1}. Its metallicity is [Fe/H] Almost-Equal-To -2.2, with {approx}0.3 dex dispersion. The color-magnitude signature of the stream turnoff, combined with our measured metallicity, places the PSS at a distance of 35 {+-} 3 kpc. The PSS is the same as the previously announced ''Triangulum stream'' and part of the proposed ''stream a''. We rule out an association of the PSS with other previously known Milky Way substructures in the same region of the sky.

  5. Nuclear substructure reorganization during late stageerythropoiesis is selective and does not involve caspase cleavage ofmajor nuclear substructural proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, Sharon Wald; Lo, Annie J.; Short, Sarah A.; Koury, MarkJ.; Mohandas, Narla; Chasis, Joel Anne

    2005-04-06

    Enucleation, a rare feature of mammalian differentiation, occurs in three cell types: erythroblasts, lens epithelium and keratinocytes. Previous investigations suggest that caspase activation functions in lens epithelial and keratinocyte enucleation, as well as in early erythropoiesis encompassing BFU-E differentiation to proerythroblast. To determine whether caspase activation contributes to later erythropoiesis and whether nuclear substructures other than chromatin reorganize, we analyzed distributions of nuclear subcompartment proteins and assayed for caspase-induced cleavage of subcompartmental target proteins in mouse erythroblasts. We found that patterns of lamin B in the filamentous network interacting with both the nuclear envelope and DNA, nuclear matrix protein NuMA, and splicing factors Sm and SC35 persisted during nuclear condensation, consistent with effective transcription of genes expressed late in differentiation. Thus nuclear reorganization prior to enucleation is selective, allowing maintenance of critical transcriptional processes independent of extensive chromosomal reorganization. Consistent with these data, we found no evidence for caspase-induced cleavage of major nuclear subcompartment proteins during late erythropoiesis, in contrast to what has been observed in early erythropoiesis and in lens epithelial and keratinocyte differentiation. These findings imply that nuclear condensation and extrusion during terminal erythroid differentiation involve novel mechanisms that do not entail major activation of apoptotic machinery.

  6. Trends of Stellar Entropy along Stellar Evolution

    E-print Network

    de Avellar, Marcio G B; Horvath, Jorge E

    2015-01-01

    This paper is devoted to discuss the difference in the thermodynamic entropy budget {\\it per baryon} in each type of stellar object found in Universe. We track and discuss the actual {\\it decrease} of the stored baryonic thermodynamic entropy from the most primitive molecular cloud up to the final fate of matter in the black holes, passing through evolved states of matter as found in white dwarfs and neutron stars. We then discuss the case of actual stars of different masses throughout their {\\it evolution}, clarifying the role of virial equilibrium condition for the decrease of the entropy and related issues. Finally, we discuss how gravity ultimately drives composition, hence structural changes along the stellar evolution all the way until the ultimate collapse to black holes, which may increase dramatically their entropy because of the gravitational contribution itself.

  7. Multifrequency Observations of the Virgo Blazars 3C 273 and 3C 279 in

    E-print Network

    Collmar, Werner

    Multifrequency Observations of the Virgo Blazars 3C 273 and 3C 279 in CGRO Cycle 8 W. Collmar 1 , S 279 during CGRO Cycle 8. Because both blazars are known fl­ray sources, which have been detected by the CGRO experiments several times before, we proposed for simultaneous CGRO (OSSE, COMPTEL) and RXTE high

  8. Autocatalysis Before Enzymes: The Emergence of Prebiotic Chain Reactions Nathaniel Virgo, Takashi Ikegami

    E-print Network

    Ikegami, Takashi

    Autocatalysis Before Enzymes: The Emergence of Prebiotic Chain Reactions Nathaniel Virgo, Takashi autocatalytic cycles as a partial answer to this ques- tion, since such reactions exhibit the life-like property reactions. Catalytic effects nevertheless emerge as properties of the reaction network. This suggests

  9. Pre-processing of Galaxies in the Filaments around the Virgo Cluster

    E-print Network

    Bureau, Martin

    Pre-processing of Galaxies in the Filaments around the Virgo Cluster It has been suggested that galaxies can be "pre-processed" in the low-density outskirts of galaxy clusters galaxies while falling into the cluster as a group. However, no consensus has

  10. VIRGO: visualization of A-to-I RNA editing sites in genomic sequences

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background RNA Editing is a type of post-transcriptional modification that takes place in the eukaryotes. It alters the sequence of primary RNA transcripts by deleting, inserting or modifying residues. Several forms of RNA editing have been discovered including A-to-I, C-to-U, U-to-C and G-to-A. In recent years, the application of global approaches to the study of A-to-I editing, including high throughput sequencing, has led to important advances. However, in spite of enormous efforts, the real biological mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains unknown. Description In this work, we present VIRGO (http://atlas.dmi.unict.it/virgo/), a web-based tool that maps Ato-G mismatches between genomic and EST sequences as candidate A-to-I editing sites. VIRGO is built on top of a knowledge-base integrating information of genes from UCSC, EST of NCBI, SNPs, DARNED, and Next Generations Sequencing data. The tool is equipped with a user-friendly interface allowing users to analyze genomic sequences in order to identify candidate A-to-I editing sites. Conclusions VIRGO is a powerful tool allowing a systematic identification of putative A-to-I editing sites in genomic sequences. The integration of NGS data allows the computation of p-values and adjusted p-values to measure the mapped editing sites confidence. The whole knowledge base is available for download and will be continuously updated as new NGS data becomes available. PMID:23815474

  11. Stellar atmospheric structural patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. N.

    1983-01-01

    The thermodynamics of stellar atmospheres is discussed. Particular attention is given to the relation between theoretical modeling and empirical evidence. The characteristics of distinctive atmospheric regions and their radical structures are discussed.

  12. Stellar Populations Surface photometry

    E-print Network

    Kruit, Piet van der

    Outline Stellar Populations Surface photometry Luminosity distributions Component separation Surface photometry Luminosity distributions Component separation Photometric parameters Elliptical photometry Luminosity distributions Bulge luminosity laws Luminosity distributions in disks Component

  13. Stellar granulation and interferometry

    E-print Network

    Chiavassa, A

    2015-01-01

    Stars are not smooth. Their photosphere is covered by a granulation pattern associated with the heat transport by convection. The convection-related surface structures have different size, depth, and temporal variations with respect to the stellar type. The related activity (in addition to other phenomena such as magnetic spots, rotation, dust, etc.) potentially causes bias in stellar parameters determination, radial velocity, chemical abundances determinations, and exoplanet transit detections. The role of long-baseline interferometric observations in this astrophysical context is crucial to characterize the stellar surface dynamics and correct the potential biases. In this Chapter, we present how the granulation pattern is expected for different kind of stellar types ranging from main sequence to extremely evolved stars of different masses and how interferometric techniques help to study their photospheric dynamics.

  14. Environmental Effects of Dark Matter Halos: The Clustering-Substructure Relation of Group-Size Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espino-Briones, Néstor; Plionis, Manolis; Ragone-Figueroa, Cinthia

    2007-09-01

    We estimate the two-point correlation function of dark matter halos, with masses >=1013 h-1 Msolar, that have or do not have significant substructure. The halos are identified with a friends-of-friends algorithm in a large ?CDM simulation at two redshift snapshots (z=0.0 and 1.0), while halo substructure is determined using an observationally driven method. We find in both epochs a clear and significant signal by which halos with substructure are more clustered than those with no substructure. This is true for all the considered halo mass ranges, although for the highest halo masses the signal is noisy and present only out to ~20 h-1 Mpc. There is also a smooth increase of the halo correlation length with increasing amplitude of the halo substructure. We also find that substructured halos are typically located in high-density large-scale environments, while the opposite is true for nonsubstructured halos. If the halos found in high-density regions have a relatively earlier formation time, as suggested by recent works, then they do indeed have more time to cluster than halos of a similar mass, which form later in the low-density regions. In such a case, one would have naively expected that the former (earlier formed) halos would typically be dynamically more relaxed than the latter (later formed). However, the higher merging and interaction rate, expected in high-density regions, could disrupt their relatively relaxed dynamical state and thus be the cause for the higher fraction of halos with substructure found in such regions.

  15. Morphology parameters: substructure identification in X-ray galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parekh, Viral; van der Heyden, Kurt; Ferrari, Chiara; Angus, Garry; Holwerda, Benne

    2015-03-01

    Context. In recent years multi-wavelength observations have shown the presence of substructures related to merging events in a large proportion of galaxy clusters. Clusters can be roughly grouped into two categories - relaxed and non-relaxed - and a proper characterisation of the dynamical state of these systems is crucial for both astrophysical and cosmological studies. Aims: In this paper we investigate the use of a number of morphological parameters (Gini, M20, concentration, asymmetry, smoothness, ellipticity, and Gini of the second-order moment, GM) introduced to automatically classify clusters as relaxed or dynamically disturbed systems. Methods: We apply our method to a sample of clusters at different redshifts extracted from the Chandra archive and investigate possible correlations between morphological parameters and other X-ray gas properties. Results: We conclude that a combination of the adopted parameters is a very useful tool for properly characterising the X-ray cluster morphology. According to our results, three parameters - Gini, M20, and concentration - are very promising for identifying cluster mergers. The Gini coefficient is a particularly powerful tool, especially at high redshift, because it is independent of the choice of the position of the cluster centre. We find that high Gini (>0.65), high concentration (>1.55), and low M20 (<-2.0) values are associated with relaxed clusters, while low Gini (<0.4), low concentration (<1.0), and high M20 (>-1.4) characterise dynamically perturbed systems. We also estimate the X-ray cluster morphological parameters in the case of radio loud clusters. Since they are in excellent agreement with previous analyses we confirm that diffuse intracluster radio sources are associated with major mergers. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  16. The effects of varying cosmological parameters on halo substructure

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, Gregory A.; Griffen, Brendan F.; Ji, Alexander P.; Vogelsberger, Mark; Frebel, Anna; Zukin, Phillip; Hernquist, Lars E.

    2014-05-01

    We investigate how different cosmological parameters, such as those delivered by the WMAP and Planck missions, affect the nature and evolution of the dark matter halo substructure. We use a series of flat ? cold dark matter cosmological N-body simulations of structure formation, each with a different power spectrum but with the same initial white noise field. Our fiducial simulation is based on parameters from the WMAP seventh year cosmology. We then systematically vary the spectral index, n{sub s} ; matter density, ? {sub M}; and normalization of the power spectrum, ?{sub 8}, for seven unique simulations. Across these, we study variations in the subhalo mass function, mass fraction, maximum circular velocity function, spatial distribution, concentration, formation times, accretion times, and peak mass. We eliminate dependence of subhalo properties on host halo mass and average the values over many hosts to reduce variance. While the 'same' subhalos from identical initial overdensity peaks in higher ?{sub 8}, n{sub s} , and ? {sub m} simulations accrete earlier and end up less massive and closer to the halo center at z = 0, the process of continuous subhalo accretion and destruction leads to a steady state distribution of these properties across all subhalos in a given host. This steady state mechanism eliminates cosmological dependence on all of the properties listed above except for subhalo concentration and V {sub max}, which remain greater for higher ?{sub 8}, n{sub s} , and ? {sub m} simulations, and subhalo formation time, which remains earlier. We also find that the numerical technique for computing the scale radius and the halo finder that were used can significantly affect the concentration-mass relationship as computed for a simulation.

  17. Oscillations in stellar atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costa, A.; Ringuelet, A. E.; Fontenla, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Atmospheric excitation and propagation of oscillations are analyzed for typical pulsating stars. The linear, plane-parallel approach for the pulsating atmosphere gives a local description of the phenomenon. From the local analysis of oscillations, the minimum frequencies are obtained for radially propagating waves. The comparison of the minimum frequencies obtained for a variety of stellar types is in good agreement with the observed periods of the oscillations. The role of the atmosphere in the globar stellar pulsations is thus emphasized.

  18. Stellar Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Michael J.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen

    2008-02-01

    Preface; 1. A selective overview Jørgen Christensen-Dalsgaard and Michael J. Thompson; Part I. Stellar Convection and Oscillations: 2. On the diversity of stellar pulsations Wojciech A. Dziembowski; 3. Acoustic radiation and mode excitation by turbulent convection Günter Houdek; 4. Understanding roAp stars Margarida S. Cunha; 5. Waves in the magnetised solar atmosphere Colin S. Rosenthal; Part II. Stellar Rotation and Magnetic Fields: 6. Stellar rotation: a historical survey Leon Mestel; 7. The oscillations of rapidly rotating stars Michel Rieutord; 8. Solar tachocline dynamics: eddy viscosity, anti-friction, or something in between? Michael E. McIntyre; 9. Dynamics of the solar tachocline Pascale Garaud; 10. Dynamo processes: the interaction of turbulence and magnetic fields Michael Proctor; 11. Dynamos in planets Chris Jones; Part III. Physics and Structure of Stellar Interiors: 12. Solar constraints on the equation of state Werner Däppen; 13. 3He transport and the solar neutrino problem Chris Jordinson; 14. Mixing in stellar radiation zones Jean-Paul Zahn; 15. Element settling and rotation-induced mixing in slowly rotating stars Sylvie Vauclair; Part IV. Helio- and Asteroseismology: 16. Solar structure and the neutrino problem Hiromoto Shibahashi; 17. Helioseismic data analysis Jesper Schou; 18. Seismology of solar rotation Takashi Sekii; 19. Telechronohelioseismology Alexander Kosovichev; Part V. Large-Scale Numerical Experiments: 20. Bridges between helioseismology and models of convection zone dynamics Juri Toomre; 21. Numerical simulations of the solar convection zone Julian R. Elliott; 22. Modelling solar and stellar magnetoconvection Nigel Weiss; 23. Nonlinear magnetoconvection in the presence of a strong oblique field Keith Julien, Edgar Knobloch and Steven M. Tobias; 24. Simulations of astrophysical fluids Marcus Brüggen; Part VI. Dynamics: 25. A magic electromagnetic field Donald Lynden-Bell; 26. Continuum equations for stellar dynamics Edward A. Spiegel and Jean-Luc Thiffeault; 27. Formation of planetary systems Douglas N. C. Lin; 28. The solar-cycle global warming as inferred from sky brightness variation Wasaburo Unno and Hiromoto Shibahashi.

  19. Next Generation Virgo Survey Photometry and Keck/DEIMOS Spectroscopy of Globular Cluster Satellites of Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies in the Virgo Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guhathakurta, Puragra; Toloba, Elisa; Peng, Eric W.; Li, Biao; Gwyn, Stephen; Ferrarese, Laura; Cote, Patrick; Chu, Jason; Sparkman, Lea; Chen, Stephanie; Yagati, Samyukta; Muller, Meredith; Next Generation Virgo Survey Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    We present results from an ongoing study of globular cluster (GC) satellites of low-luminosity dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxies in the Virgo cluster. Our 21 dE targets and candidate GC satellites around them in the apparent magnitude range g ~ 20-24 were selected from the Next Generation Virgo Survey (NGVS) and followed up with medium-resolution Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy (resolving power: R ~ 2000; wavelength coverage: 4800-9500 Angstrom). In addition, the remaining space available on the nine DEIMOS multi-slit masks were populated with "filler" targets in the form of distant Milky Way halo star candidates in a comparable apparent magnitude range. A combination of radial velocity information (measured from the Keck/DEIMOS spectra), color-color information (from four-band NGVS photometry), and sky position information was used to sort the sample into the following categories: (1) GC satellites of dEs, (2) other non-satellite GCs in the Virgo cluster (we dub them "orphan" GCs), (3) foreground Milky Way stars that are members of the Sagittarius stream, the Virgo overdensity, or the field halo population, and (4) distant background galaxies. We stack the GC satellite population across all 21 host dEs and carry out dynamical modeling of the stacked sample in order to constrain the average mass of dark matter halos that these dEs are embedded in. We study rotation in the system of GC satellites of dEs in the handful of more populated systems in our sample - i.e., those that contain 10 or more GC satellites per dE. A companion AAS poster presented at this meeting (Chu, J. et al. 2015) presents chemical composition and age constraints for these GC satellites relative to the nuclei of the host dEs based on absorption line strengths in co-added spectra. The orphan GCs are likely to be intergalactic GCs within the Virgo cluster (or, equivalently, GCs in the remote outer envelope of the cluster's central galaxy, the giant elliptical M87).This project is funded in part by the National Science Foundation. Some of this research was conducted by high-school students working under the auspices of the Science Internship Program at the University of California Santa Cruz.

  20. Transformation of a Virgo Cluster dwarf irregular galaxy by ram pressure stripping: IC3418 and its fireballs

    SciTech Connect

    Kenney, Jeffrey D. P.; Geha, Marla; Jáchym, Pavel; Dague, William; Crowl, Hugh H.; Chung, Aeree; Van Gorkom, Jacqueline; Vollmer, Bernd

    2014-01-10

    We present optical imaging and spectroscopy and H I imaging of the Virgo Cluster galaxy IC 3418, which is likely a 'smoking gun' example of the transformation of a dwarf irregular into a dwarf elliptical galaxy by ram pressure stripping. IC 3418 has a spectacular 17 kpc length UV-bright tail comprised of knots, head-tail, and linear stellar features. The only H? emission arises from a few H II regions in the tail, the brightest of which are at the heads of head-tail UV sources whose tails point toward the galaxy ('fireballs'). Several of the elongated tail sources have H? peaks outwardly offset by ?80-150 pc from the UV peaks, suggesting that gas clumps continue to accelerate through ram pressure, leaving behind streams of newly formed stars which have decoupled from the gas. Absorption line strengths, measured from Keck DEIMOS spectra, together with UV colors, show star formation stopped 300 ± 100 Myr ago in the main body, and a strong starburst occurred prior to quenching. While neither H? nor H I emission are detected in the main body of the galaxy, we have detected 4 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ?} of H I from the tail with the Very Large Array. The velocities of tail H II regions, measured from Keck LRIS spectra, extend only a small fraction of the way to the cluster velocity, suggesting that star formation does not happen in more distant parts of the tail. Stars in the outer tail have velocities exceeding the escape speed, but some in the inner tail should fall back into the galaxy, forming halo streams.

  1. Simulations of Spheroidal Systems with Substructure: Trees in Fields

    E-print Network

    S. Vine; S. Sigurdsson

    1997-02-09

    We present a hybrid technique of N-body simulation to deal with collisionless stellar systems having an inhomogeneous global structure. We combine a treecode and a self-consistent field code such that each of the codes model a different component of the system being investigated. The treecode is suited to treatment of dynamically cold or clumpy systems which may undergo significant evolution within a dynamically hot system. The hot system is appropriately evolved by the self-consistent field code. This combined code is particularly suited to a number of problems in galactic dynamics. Applications of the code to these problems are briefly discussed.

  2. AN EXAMINATION OF THE OPTICAL SUBSTRUCTURE OF GALAXY CLUSTERS HOSTING RADIO SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Wing, Joshua D.; Blanton, Elizabeth L.

    2013-04-20

    Using radio sources from the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-cm survey, and optical counterparts in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we have identified a large number of galaxy clusters. The radio sources within these clusters are driven by active galactic nuclei, and our cluster samples include clusters with bent, and straight, double-lobed radio sources. We also included a single-radio-component comparison sample. We examine these galaxy clusters for evidence of optical substructure, testing the possibility that bent double-lobed radio sources are formed as a result of large-scale cluster mergers. We use a suite of substructure analysis tools to determine the location and extent of substructure visible in the optical distribution of cluster galaxies, and compare the rates of substructure in clusters with different types of radio sources. We found no preference for significant substructure in clusters hosting bent double-lobed radio sources compared to those with other types of radio sources.

  3. Metrics for diagnosing negative mass and stiffness when uncoupling experimental and analytical substructures.

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Matthew S.; Kammer, Daniel C.; Mayes, Randall Lee

    2010-10-01

    Recently, a new substructure coupling/uncoupling approach has been introduced, called Modal Constraints for Fixture and Subsystem (MCFS) [Allen, Mayes, & Bergman, Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol. 329, 2010]. This method reduces ill-conditioning by imposing constraints on substructure modal coordinates instead of the physical interface coordinates. The experimental substructure is tested in a free-free configuration, and the interface is exercised by attaching a flexible fixture. An analytical representation of the fixture is then used to subtract its effects in order to create an experimental model for the subcomponent of interest. However, it has been observed that indefinite mass and stiffness matrices can be obtained for the experimental substructure in some situations. This paper presents two simple metrics that can be used by the analyst to determine the cause of indefinite mass or stiffness matrices after substructure uncoupling. The metrics rank the experimental and fixture modes based upon their contribution to offending negative eigenvalues. Once the troublesome modes have been identified, they can be inspected and often reveal why the mass has become negative. Two examples are presented to demonstrate the metrics and to illustrate the physical phenomena that they reveal.

  4. Formulation of an experimental substructure model using a Craig-Bampton based transmission simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammer, Daniel C.; Allen, Mathew S.; Mayes, Randy L.

    2015-12-01

    Experimental-analytical substructuring is attractive when there is motivation to replace one or more system subcomponents with an experimental model. This experimentally derived substructure can then be coupled to finite element models of the rest of the structure to predict the system response. The transmission simulator method couples a fixture to the component of interest during a vibration test in order to improve the experimental model for the component. The transmission simulator is then subtracted from the tested system to produce the experimental component. The method reduces ill-conditioning by imposing a least squares fit of constraints between substructure modal coordinates to connect substructures, instead of directly connecting physical interface degrees of freedom. This paper presents an alternative means of deriving the experimental substructure model, in which a Craig-Bampton representation of the transmission simulator is created and subtracted from the experimental measurements. The corresponding modal basis of the transmission simulator is described by the fixed-interface modes, rather than free modes that were used in the original approach. These modes do a better job of representing the shape of the transmission simulator as it responds within the experimental system, leading to more accurate results using fewer modes. The new approach is demonstrated using a simple finite element model based example with a redundant interface.

  5. An algebraic sub-structuring method for large-scale eigenvaluecalculation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.; Gao, W.; Bai, Z.; Li, X.; Lee, L.; Husbands, P.; Ng, E.

    2004-05-26

    We examine sub-structuring methods for solving large-scalegeneralized eigenvalue problems from a purely algebraic point of view. Weuse the term "algebraic sub-structuring" to refer to the process ofapplying matrix reordering and partitioning algorithms to divide a largesparse matrix into smaller submatrices from which a subset of spectralcomponents are extracted and combined to provide approximate solutions tothe original problem. We are interested in the question of which spectralcomponentsone should extract from each sub-structure in order to producean approximate solution to the original problem with a desired level ofaccuracy. Error estimate for the approximation to the small esteigen pairis developed. The estimate leads to a simple heuristic for choosingspectral components (modes) from each sub-structure. The effectiveness ofsuch a heuristic is demonstrated with numerical examples. We show thatalgebraic sub-structuring can be effectively used to solve a generalizedeigenvalue problem arising from the simulation of an acceleratorstructure. One interesting characteristic of this application is that thestiffness matrix produced by a hierarchical vector finite elements schemecontains a null space of large dimension. We present an efficient schemeto deflate this null space in the algebraic sub-structuringprocess.

  6. DARK MATTER SUBSTRUCTURE DETECTION USING SPATIALLY RESOLVED SPECTROSCOPY OF LENSED DUSTY GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Hezaveh, Yashar; Holder, Gilbert; Dalal, Neal; Kuhlen, Michael; Marrone, Daniel; Murray, Norman; Vieira, Joaquin

    2013-04-10

    We investigate how strong lensing of dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) by foreground galaxies can be used as a probe of dark matter halo substructure. We find that spatially resolved spectroscopy of lensed sources allows dramatic improvements to measurements of lens parameters. In particular, we find that modeling of the full, three-dimensional (angular position and radial velocity) data can significantly facilitate substructure detection, increasing the sensitivity of observables to lower mass subhalos. We carry out simulations of lensed dusty sources observed by early ALMA (Cycle 1) and use a Fisher matrix analysis to study the parameter degeneracies and mass detection limits of this method. We find that even with conservative assumptions, it is possible to detect galactic dark matter subhalos of {approx}10{sup 8} M{sub Sun} with high significance in most lensed DSFGs. Specifically, we find that in typical DSFG lenses, there is a {approx}55% probability of detecting a substructure with M > 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun} with more than 5{sigma} detection significance in each lens, if the abundance of substructure is consistent with previous lensing results. The full ALMA array, with its significantly enhanced sensitivity and resolution, should improve these estimates considerably. Given the sample of {approx}100 lenses provided by surveys such as the South Pole Telescope, our understanding of dark matter substructure in typical galaxy halos is poised to improve dramatically over the next few years.

  7. Hadronic Calorimeter Shower Size: Challenges and Opportunities for Jet Substructure in the Superboosted Regime

    E-print Network

    Shikma Bressler; Thomas Flacke; Yevgeny Kats; Seung J. Lee; Gilad Perez

    2015-06-08

    Hadrons have finite interaction size with dense material, a basic feature common to known forms of hadronic calorimeters (HCAL). We argue that substructure variables cannot use HCAL information to access the microscopic nature of jets narrower than the hadronic shower size, which we call superboosted massive jets. It implies that roughly 15% of their transverse energy profile remains inaccessible due to the presence of long-lived neutral hadrons. This unreachable part of the jet substructure is also subject to order-one fluctuations. We demonstrate that the effects of the fluctuations are not reduced when a global correction to jet variables is applied. The above leads to fundamental limitations in the ability to extract intrinsic information from jets in the superboosted regime. The neutral fraction of a jet is correlated with its flavor. This leads to an interesting and possibly useful difference between superboosted W/Z/h/t jets and their corresponding backgrounds. The QCD jets that form the background to the signal superboosted jets might also be qualitatively different in their substructure as their mass might lie at or below the Sudakov mass peak. Finally, we introduce a set of zero-cone longitudinal jet substructure variables and show that while they carry information that might be useful in certain situations, they are not in general sensitive to the jet substructure.

  8. VEGAS: A VST Early-type GAlaxy Survey. I. Presentation, wide-field surface photometry, and substructures in NGC 4472

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capaccioli, Massimo; Spavone, Marilena; Grado, Aniello; Iodice, Enrichetta; Limatola, Luca; Napolitano, Nicola R.; Cantiello, Michele; Paolillo, Maurizio; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Puzia, Thomas H.; Raimondo, Gabriella; Schipani, Pietro

    2015-09-01

    Context. We present the VST Early-type GAlaxy Survey (VEGAS), which is designed to obtain deep multiband photometry in g,r,i, of about one hundred nearby galaxies down to 27.3, 26.8, and 26 mag/arcsec2 respectively, using the ESO facility VST/OmegaCAM. Aims: The goals of the survey are 1) to map the light distribution up to ten effective radii, re; 2) to trace color gradients and surface brightness fluctuation gradients out to a few re for stellar population characterization; and 3) to obtain a full census of the satellite systems (globular clusters and dwarf galaxies) out to 20% of the galaxy virial radius. The external regions of galaxies retain signatures of the formation and evolution mechanisms that shaped them, and the study of nearby objects enables a detailed analysis of their morphology and interaction features. To clarify the complex variety of formation mechanisms of early-type galaxies (ETGs), wide and deep photometry is the primary observational step, which at the moment has been pursued with only a few dedicated programs. The VEGAS survey has been designated to provide these data for a volume-limited sample with exceptional image quality. Methods: In this commissioning photometric paper we illustrate the capabilities of the survey using g- and i-band VST/OmegaCAM images of the nearby galaxy NGC 4472 and of smaller ETGs in the surrounding field. Results: Our surface brightness profiles reach rather faint levels and agree excellently well with previous literature. Genuine new results concern the detection of an intracluster light tail in NGC 4472 and of various substructures at increasing scales. We have also produced extended (g - i) color profiles. Conclusions: The VST/OmegaCAM data that we acquire in the context of the VEGAS survey provide a detailed view of substructures in the optical emission from extended galaxies, which can be as faint as a hundred times below the sky level. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  9. Substructure in the Globular Cluster System of the Milky Way

    E-print Network

    A. Burkert; G. Smith

    1996-10-23

    The kinematical and spatial properties of the metal-rich globular clusters in the Galaxy ([Fe/H] > -0.8) indicates that these objects do not comprise a homogeneous population. Three subsystems are identified. The highest-mass clusters exhibit a very slow net rotation with a speed of v_rot = 24 km/s and v_rot/sigma = 0.3, indicative of a centrally condensed, spheroidal subsystem. Roughly half of the lower-mass clusters appear to be located in an elongated bar-like structure which passes through the Galactic Center, and has similar properties to the central stellar bar of the Milky Way. The remaining lower-mass clusters exhibit very rapid net rotation, with a rotation speed of v_rot = 164 km/s and v_rot/sigma = 6. These clusters are located in the Galactic plane, within a ring of 4 to 6 kpc radial distance from the Galactic Center. The highest-mass clusters may have formed during relatively advanced stages of the dissipative evolution of the inner Galactic halo. The lower-mass bar clusters may be associated with the formation of the Galactic stellar bar or bulge. The lower-mass ring clusters appear to be real disk objects. They may represent a stage in cluster formation that was intermediate between that of the halo globular clusters and the oldest extant open clusters.

  10. All-sky search for gravitational-wave bursts in the first joint LIGO-GEO-Virgo run

    E-print Network

    Weiss, Rainer

    We present results from an all-sky search for unmodeled gravitational-wave bursts in the data collected by the LIGO, GEO 600 and Virgo detectors between November 2006 and October 2007. The search is performed by three ...

  11. Search for gravitational wave ringdowns from perturbed intermediate mass black holes in LIGO-Virgo data from 2005–2010

    E-print Network

    Aggarwal, Nancy

    We report results from a search for gravitational waves produced by perturbed intermediate mass black holes (IMBH) in data collected by LIGO and Virgo between 2005 and 2010. The search was sensitive to astrophysical sources ...

  12. Galaxy Populations and Evolution in Clusters IV Deep H 1 Observations of Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies in the Virgo Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conselice, Christopher J.; ONeil, Karen; Gallagher, John S.; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present deep Arecibo H I and WIYN optical observations of Virgo Cluster dwarf elliptical galaxies. Based on this data we argue that a significant fraction of low-mass galaxies in the Virgo Cluster recently underwent evolution. Our new observations consist of H I 21 cm line observations for 22 classified dE galaxies with optical radial velocities consistent with membership in the Virgo Cluster. Cluster members VCC 390 and VCC 1713 are detected with H 1 masses M H1= 6 x 10 sup 7 and 8 x 10 sup 7 M , respectively, while MH I values in the remaining 20 dE galaxies have upper limits as low as about 5 x 1O sup 5 M. We combine our results with those for 26 other Virgo Cluster dE galaxies with H 1 observations in the literature, seven of which have H I detection claims.

  13. THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEM OF THE VIRGO GIANT ELLIPTICAL GALAXY NGC 4636. II. KINEMATICS OF THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Myung Gyoon; Park, Hong Soo; Hwang, Ho Seong; Arimoto, Nobuo; Tamura, Naoyuki; Onodera, Masato E-mail: hspark@astro.snu.ac.k E-mail: masato.onodera@cea.f E-mail: naoyuki@subaru.naoj.or

    2010-02-01

    We present a kinematic analysis of the globular cluster (GC) system in the giant elliptical galaxy (gE) NGC 4636 in the Virgo cluster. Using the photometric and spectroscopic database of 238 GCs (108 blue GCs and 130 red GCs) at the galactocentric radius 0.'39 < R < 15.'43, we have investigated the kinematics of the GC system. The NGC 4636 GC system shows weak overall rotation, which is dominated by the red GCs. However, both the blue GCs and red GCs show some rotation in the inner region at R < 4.'3 (=2.9R{sub eff} = 18.5 kpc). The velocity dispersion for all the GCs is derived to be sigma{sub p} = 225{sup +12}{sub -9} km s{sup -1}. The velocity dispersion for the blue GCs (sigma{sub p} = 251{sup +18}{sub -12} km s{sup -1}) is slightly larger than that for the red GCs (sigma{sub p} = 205{sup +11}{sub -13} km s{sup -1}). The velocity dispersions for the blue GCs about the mean velocity and about the best-fit rotation curve have a significant variation depending on the galactocentric radius. Comparison of observed stellar and GC velocity dispersion profiles (VDPs) with the VDPs calculated from the stellar mass profile shows that the mass-to-light ratio should increase as the galactocentric distance increases, indicating the existence of an extended dark matter halo. From the comparison of the observed GC VDPs and the VDPs calculated for the X-ray mass profiles in the literature, we find that the orbit of the GC system is tangential, and that the orbit of the red GCs is slightly more tangential than that of the blue GCs. We compare the GC kinematics of NGC 4636 with those of other six gEs, finding that the kinematic properties of the GCs are diverse among gEs. We find several correlations between the kinematics of the GCs and the global parameters of their host galaxies. We discuss the implication of the results for the formation models of the GC system in gEs, and suggest a mixture scenario for the origin of the GCs in gEs.

  14. MODEST-1: Integrating Stellar Evolution and Stellar Dynamics

    E-print Network

    Piet Hut; Michael M. Shara; Sverre J. Aarseth; Ralf S. Klessen; James C. Lombardi Jr.; Junichiro Makino; Steve McMillan; Onno R. Pols; Peter J. Teuben; Ronald F. Webbink

    2002-11-01

    We summarize the main results from MODEST-1, the first workshop on MOdeling DEnse STellar systems. Our goal is to go beyond traditional population synthesis models, by introducing dynamical interactions between single stars, binaries, and multiple systems. The challenge is to define and develop a software framework to enable us to combine in one simulation existing computer codes in stellar evolution, stellar dynamics, and stellar hydrodynamics. With this objective, the workshop brought together experts in these three fields, as well as other interested astrophysicists and computer scientists. We report here our main conclusions, questions and suggestions for further steps toward integrating stellar evolution and stellar (hydro)dynamics.

  15. Theory and Simulations of Refractive Substructure in Resolved Scatter-broadened Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Michael D.; Gwinn, Carl R.

    2015-06-01

    At radio wavelengths, scattering in the interstellar medium distorts the appearance of astronomical sources. Averaged over a scattering ensemble, the result is a blurred image of the source. However, Narayan & Goodman and Goodman & Narayan showed that for an incomplete average, scattering introduces refractive substructure in the image of a point source that is both persistent and wideband. We show that this substructure is quenched but not smoothed by an extended source. As a result, when the scatter-broadening is comparable to or exceeds the unscattered source size, the scattering can introduce spurious compact features into images. In addition, we derive efficient strategies to numerically compute realistic scattered images, and we present characteristic examples from simulations. Our results show that refractive substructure is an important consideration for ongoing missions at the highest angular resolutions, and we discuss specific implications for RadioAstron and the Event Horizon Telescope.

  16. Recombination Algorithms and Jet Substructure: Pruning as a Tool for Heavy Particle Searches

    E-print Network

    Stephen D. Ellis; Christopher K. Vermilion; Jonathan R. Walsh

    2009-12-01

    We discuss jet substructure in recombination algorithms for QCD jets and single jets from heavy particle decays. We demonstrate that the jet algorithm can introduce significant systematic effects into the substructure. By characterizing these systematic effects and the substructure from QCD, splash-in, and heavy particle decays, we identify a technique, pruning, to better identify heavy particle decays into single jets and distinguish them from QCD jets. Pruning removes protojets typical of soft, wide angle radiation, improves the mass resolution of jets reconstructing a heavy particle decay, and decreases the QCD background. We show that pruning provides significant improvements over unpruned jets in identifying top quarks and W bosons and separating them from a QCD background, and may be useful in a search for heavy particles.

  17. Sensitivity to Gravitational Waves from Compact Binary Coalescences Achieved during LIGO's Fifth and Virgo's First Science Run

    E-print Network

    The LIGO Scientific Collaboration; the Virgo Collaboration; J. Abadie; B. P. Abbott; R. Abbott; M Abernathy; T. Accadia; F. Acernese; C. Adams; R. Adhikari; P. Ajith; B. Allen; G. Allen; E. Amador Ceron; R. S. Amin; S. B. Anderson; W. G. Anderson; F. Antonucci; S. Aoudia; M. A. Arain; M. Araya; M. Aronsson; K. G. Arun; Y. Aso; S. Aston; P. Astone; D. E. Atkinson; P. Aufmuth; C. Aulbert; S. Babak; P. Baker; G. Ballardin; S. Ballmer; D. Barker; S. Barnum; F. Barone; B. Barr; P. Barriga; L. Barsotti; M. Barsuglia; M. A. Barton; I. Bartos; R. Bassiri; M. Bastarrika; J. Bauchrowitz; Th. S. Bauer; B. Behnke; M. G. Beker; M. Benacquista; A. Bertolini; J. Betzwieser; N. Beveridge; P. T. Beyersdorf; S. Bigotta; I. A. Bilenko; G. Billingsley; J. Birch; S. Birindelli; R. Biswas; M. Bitossi; M. A. Bizouard; E. Black; J. K. Blackburn; L. Blackburn; D. Blair; B. Bland; M. Blom; C. Boccara; O. Bock; T. P. Bodiya; R. Bondarescu; F. Bondu; L. Bonelli; R. Bork; M. Born; S. Bose; L. Bosi; M. Boyle; S. Braccini; C. Bradaschia; P. R. Brady; V. B. Braginsky; J. E. Brau; J. Breyer; D. O. Bridges; A. Brillet; M. Brinkmann; V. Brisson; M. Britzger; A. F. Brooks; D. A. Brown; R. Budzy?ski; T. Bulik; H. J. Bulten; A. Buonanno; J. Burguet--Castell; O. Burmeister; D. Buskulic; R. L. Byer; L. Cadonati; G. Cagnoli; E. Calloni; J. B. Camp; E. Campagna; P. Campsie; J. Cannizzo; K. C. Cannon; B. Canuel; J. Cao; C. Capano; F. Carbognani; S. Caride; S. Caudill; M. Cavaglià; F. Cavalier; R. Cavalieri; G. Cella; C. Cepeda; E. Cesarini; T. Chalermsongsak; E. Chalkley; P. Charlton; E. Chassande-Mottin; S. Chelkowski; Y. Chen; A. Chincarini; N. Christensen; S. S. Y. Chua; C. T. Y. Chung; D. Clark; J. Clark; J. H. Clayton; F. Cleva; E. Coccia; C. N. Colacino; J. Colas; A. Colla; M. Colombini; R. Conte; D. Cook; T. R. Corbitt; C. Corda; N. Cornish; A. Corsi; C. A. Costa; J. -P. Coulon; D. Coward; D. C. Coyne; J. D. E. Creighton; T. D. Creighton; A. M. Cruise; R. M. Culter; A. Cumming; L. Cunningham; E. Cuoco; K. Dahl; S. L. Danilishin; R. Dannenberg; S. D'Antonio; K. Danzmann; A. Dari; K. Das; V. Dattilo; B. Daudert; M. Davier; G. Davies; A. Davis; E. J. Daw; R. Day; T. Dayanga; R. De Rosa; D. DeBra; J. Degallaix; M. del Prete; V. Dergachev; R. DeRosa; R. DeSalvo; P. Devanka; S. Dhurandhar; L. Di Fiore; A. Di Lieto; I. Di Palma; M. Di Paolo Emilio; A. Di Virgilio; M. Díaz; A. Dietz; F. Donovan; K. L. Dooley; E. E. Doomes; S. Dorsher; E. S. D. Douglas; M. Drago; R. W. P. Drever; J. C. Driggers; J. Dueck; J. -C. Dumas; T. Eberle; M. Edgar; M. Edwards; A. Effler; P. Ehrens; R. Engel; T. Etzel; M. Evans; T. Evans; V. Fafone; S. Fairhurst; Y. Fan; B. F. Farr; D. Fazi; H. Fehrmann; D. Feldbaum; I. Ferrante; F. Fidecaro; L. S. Finn; I. Fiori; R. Flaminio; M. Flanigan; K. Flasch; S. Foley; C. Forrest; E. Forsi; N. Fotopoulos; J. -D. Fournier; J. Franc; S. Frasca; F. Frasconi; M. Frede; M. Frei; Z. Frei; A. Freise; R. Frey; T. T. Fricke; D. Friedrich; P. Fritschel; V. V. Frolov; P. Fulda; M. Fyffe; L. Gammaitoni; J. A. Garofoli; F. Garufi; G. Gemme; E. Genin; A. Gennai; I. Gholami; S. Ghosh; J. A. Giaime; S. Giampanis; K. D. Giardina; A. Giazotto; C. Gill; E. Goetz; L. M. Goggin; G. González; M. L. Gorodetsky; S. Goßler; R. Gouaty; C. Graef; M. Granata; A. Grant; S. Gras; C. Gray; R. J. S. Greenhalgh; A. M. Gretarsson; C. Greverie; R. Grosso; H. Grote; S. Grunewald; G. M. Guidi; E. K. Gustafson; R. Gustafson; B. Hage; P. Hall; J. M. Hallam; D. Hammer; G. Hammond; J. Hanks; C. Hanna; J. Hanson; J. Harms; G. M. Harry; I. W. Harry; E. D. Harstad; K. Haughian; K. Hayama; J. Heefner; H. Heitmann; P. Hello; I. S. Heng; A. Heptonstall; M. Hewitson; S. Hild; E. Hirose; D. Hoak; K. A. Hodge; K. Holt; D. J. Hosken; J. Hough; E. Howell; D. Hoyland; D. Huet; B. Hughey; S. Husa; S. H. Huttner; T. Huynh--Dinh; D. R. Ingram; R. Inta; T. Isogai; A. Ivanov; P. Jaranowski; W. W. Johnson; D. I. Jones; G. Jones; R. Jones; L. Ju; P. Kalmus; V. Kalogera; S. Kandhasamy; J. Kanner; E. Katsavounidis; K. Kawabe; S. Kawamura; F. Kawazoe; W. Kells; D. G. Keppel; A. Khalaidovski; F. Y. Khalili; E. A. Khazanov; C. Kim; H. Kim; P. J. King; D. L. Kinzel; J. S. Kissel; S. Klimenko; V. Kondrashov; R. Kopparapu; S. Koranda; I. Kowalska; D. Kozak; T. Krause; V. Kringel; S. Krishnamurthy; B. Krishnan; A. Królak; G. Kuehn; J. Kullman; R. Kumar; P. Kwee; M. Landry; M. Lang; B. Lantz; N. Lastzka; A. Lazzarini; P. Leaci; J. Leong; I. Leonor; N. Leroy; N. Letendre; J. Li; T. G. F. Li; H. Lin; P. E. Lindquist; N. A. Lockerbie; D. Lodhia; M. Lorenzini; V. Loriette; M. Lormand; G. Losurdo; P. Lu; J. Luan; M. Lubinski; A. Lucianetti; H. Lück; A. Lundgren; B. Machenschalk; M. MacInnis; J. M. Mackowski; M. Mageswaran; K. Mailand; E. Majorana; C. Mak; N. Man; I. Mandel; V. Mandic; M. Mantovani; F. Marchesoni; F. Marion; S. Márka; Z. Márka; E. Maros; J. Marque; F. Martelli

    2010-06-01

    We summarize the sensitivity achieved by the LIGO and Virgo gravitational wave detectors for compact binary coalescence (CBC) searches during LIGO's fifth science run and Virgo's first science run. We present noise spectral density curves for each of the four detectors that operated during these science runs which are representative of the typical performance achieved by the detectors for CBC searches. These spectra are intended for release to the public as a summary of detector performance for CBC searches during these science runs.

  18. Effect of temperature on the formation of creep substructure in sodium chloride single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, Sai V.; Pharr, George M.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the substructure morphology and the cell and subgrain size was investigated experimentally in NaCl single crystals under creep in the temperature range 573-873 K. It is found that the effect of temperature on the cell and subgrain sizes is weak in comparison with the effect of stress. However, there was a qualitative change in the substructure morphology with temperature, with the cells and subgrains better defined at higher temperatures. The volume fraction of the cell boundaries decreased with increasing temperature, thereby indicating a refinement of the microstructure at higher temperatures.

  19. Substructure based modeling of nickel single crystals cycled at low plastic strain amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Dong

    In this dissertation a meso-scale, substructure-based, composite single crystal model is fully developed from the simple uniaxial model to the 3-D finite element method (FEM) model with explicit substructures and further with substructure evolution parameters, to simulate the completely reversed, strain controlled, low plastic strain amplitude cyclic deformation of nickel single crystals. Rate-dependent viscoplasticity and Armstrong-Frederick type kinematic hardening rules are applied to substructures on slip systems in the model to describe the kinematic hardening behavior of crystals. Three explicit substructure components are assumed in the composite single crystal model, namely "loop patches" and "channels" which are aligned in parallel in a "vein matrix," and persistent slip bands (PSBs) connected in series with the vein matrix. A magnetic domain rotation model is presented to describe the reverse magnetostriction of single crystal nickel. Kinematic hardening parameters are obtained by fitting responses to experimental data in the uniaxial model, and the validity of uniaxial assumption is verified in the 3-D FEM model with explicit substructures. With information gathered from experiments, all control parameters in the model including hardening parameters, volume fraction of loop patches and PSBs, and variation of Young's modulus etc. are correlated to cumulative plastic strain and/or plastic strain amplitude; and the whole cyclic deformation history of single crystal nickel at low plastic strain amplitudes is simulated in the uniaxial model. Then these parameters are implanted in the 3-D FEM model to simulate the formation of PSB bands. A resolved shear stress criterion is set to trigger the formation of PSBs, and stress perturbation in the specimen is obtained by several elements assigned with PSB material properties a priori. Displacement increment, plastic strain amplitude control and overall stress-strain monitor and output are carried out in the user subroutine DISP and URDFIL of ABAQUS, respectively, while constitutive formulations of the FEM model are coded and implemented in UMAT. The results of the simulations are compared to experiments. This model verified the validity of Winter's two-phase model and Taylor's uniform stress assumption, explored substructure evolution and "intrinsic" behavior in substructures and successfully simulated the process of PSB band formation and propagation.

  20. Study of Jet Substructure in the ATLAS Experiment using Distributed Analysis within Spanish Tier-2 Infrastructures

    E-print Network

    Oliver García, Elena; González de la Hoz, Santiago

    The first study of jet substructure on LHC data was performed by the ATLAS experiment. The jet algorithm chosen was AntiKt with R-parameter=1.0. This study has been important to check the working of the substructure variables which allow to distinguish boosted objects from background. In this study, the computing part has had a great importance because the work done into the ATLAS Spanish Tier-2 federation on understanding its performance and its operations. This has allowed the access of hundred of million of events to obtain the results using Grid technologies for Distributed Analysis. Also, this activity helped in other physics studies of ATLAS experiment.

  1. Substructure procedure for including tile flexibility in stress analysis of shuttle thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, G. L.

    1980-01-01

    A substructure procedure to include the flexibility of the tile in the stress analysis of the shuttle thermal protection system (TPS) is described. In this procedure, the TPS is divided into substructures of (1) the tile which is modeled by linear finite elements and (2) the SIP which is modeled as a nonlinear continuum. This procedure was applied for loading cases of uniform pressure, uniform moment, and an aerodynamic shock on various tile thicknesses. The ratios of through-the-thickness stresses in the SIP which were calculated using a flexible tile compared to using a rigid tile were found to be less than 1.05 for the cases considered.

  2. The GALEX Ultraviolet Virgo Cluster Survey (GUViCS). V. Ultraviolet diffuse emission and cirrus properties in the Virgo cluster direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boissier, S.; Boselli, A.; Voyer, E.; Bianchi, S.; Pappalardo, C.; Guhathakurta, P.; Heinis, S.; Cortese, L.; Duc, P.-A.; Cuillandre, J.-C.; Davies, J. I.; Smith, M. W. L.

    2015-07-01

    Context. The Virgo direction has been observed at many wavelengths in recent years, in particular in the ultraviolet with GALEX. The far ultraviolet (FUV) diffuse light detected by GALEX offers interesting information on the large scale distribution of Galactic dust, owing to the GALEX FUV band sensitivity and resolution. Aims: We aim to characterise the ultraviolet large scale distribution of diffuse emission in the Virgo direction. A map of this emission may become useful for various studies by identifying regions where dust affects observations by either scattering light or absorbing radiation. Methods: We constructed mosaics of the FUV and near ultraviolet (NUV) diffuse emission over a large sky region (RA 12 to 13 h, Dec 0 to 20 deg) surrounding the Virgo cluster, using all the GALEX available data in the area. We tested for the first time the utilisation of the FUV diffuse light as a Galactic extinction E(B - V) tracer. Results: The FUV diffuse light scattered on cirrus reveals details about their geometry. Despite large dispersion, the FUV diffuse light correlates roughly with other Galactic dust tracers (coming from IRAS, Herschel, Planck), offering an opportunity to use the FUV emission to locate them in future studies with a better resolution (about 5 arcsec native resolution, 20 arcsec pixels maps presented in this paper) than for several usual tracers. Estimating the Galactic dust extinction on the basis of this emission allows us to find a smaller dispersion in the NUV - i colour of background galaxies at a given E(B - V) than with other tracers. The diffuse light mosaics obtained in this work are made publicly available. The diffuse light mosaics as FITS files are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/579/A29

  3. The rising stellar velocity dispersion of M87 from integrated starlight

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Jeremy D.; Gebhardt, Karl; Cradit, Mason

    2014-04-20

    We have measured the line-of-sight velocity distribution from integrated stellar light at two points in the outer halo of M87 (NGC 4486), the second-rank galaxy in the Virgo Cluster. The data were taken at R = 480'' (?41.5 kpc) and R = 526'' (?45.5 kpc) along the SE major axis. The second moment for a non-parametric estimate of the full velocity distribution is 420 ± 23 km s{sup –1} and 577 ± 35 km s{sup –1}, respectively. There is intriguing evidence in the velocity profiles for two kinematically distinct stellar components at the position of our pointing. Under this assumption, we employ a two-Gaussian decomposition and find the primary Gaussian having rest velocities equal to M87 (consistent with zero rotation) and second moments of 383 ± 32 km s{sup –1} and 446 ± 43 km s{sup –1}, respectively. The asymmetry seen in the velocity profiles suggests that the stellar halo of M87 is not in a relaxed state and confuses a clean dynamical interpretation. That said, either measurement (full or two component model) shows a rising velocity dispersion at large radii, consistent with previous integrated light measurements, yet significantly higher than globular cluster measurements at comparable radial positions. These integrated light measurements at large radii, and the stark contrast they make to the measurements of other kinematic tracers, highlight the rich kinematic complexity of environments like the center of the Virgo Cluster and the need for caution when interpreting kinematic measurements from various dynamical tracers.

  4. STELLAR POPULATIONS IN THE OUTER HALO OF THE MASSIVE ELLIPTICAL M49

    SciTech Connect

    Mihos, J. Christopher; Harding, Paul; Rudick, Craig S.; Feldmeier, John J. E-mail: paul.harding@case.edu E-mail: jjfeldmeier@ysu.edu

    2013-02-20

    We use deep surface photometry of the giant elliptical M49 (NGC 4472), obtained as part of our survey for diffuse light in the Virgo Cluster, to study the stellar populations in its outer halo. Our data trace M49's stellar halo out to {approx}100 kpc (7r{sub e}), where we find that the shallow color gradient seen in the inner regions becomes dramatically steeper. The outer regions of the galaxy are quite blue (B - V {approx} 0.7); if this is purely a metallicity effect, it argues for extremely metal-poor stellar populations with [Fe/H] < -1. We also find that the extended accretion shells around M49 are distinctly redder than the galaxy's surrounding halo, suggesting that we are likely witnessing the buildup of both the stellar mass and metallicity in M49's outer halo due to late time accretion. While such growth of galaxy halos is predicted by models of hierarchical accretion, this growth is thought to be driven by more massive accretion events which have correspondingly higher mean metallicity than inferred for M49's halo. Thus the extremely metal-poor nature of M49's extended halo provides some tension against current models for elliptical galaxy formation.

  5. PREFACE: A Stellar Journey A Stellar Journey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asplund, M.

    2008-10-01

    The conference A Stellar Journey was held in Uppsala, Sweden, 23 27June 2008, in honour of Professor Bengt Gustafsson's 65th birthday. The choice of Uppsala as the location for this event was obvious given Bengt's long-standing association with the city stemming back to his school days. With the exception of a two-year postdoc stint in Copenhagen, five years as professor at Stockholm University and two years as director of the Sigtuna foundation, Bengt has forged his illustrious professional career at Uppsala University. The symposium venue was Museum Gustavianum, once the main building of the oldest university in Scandinavia. The title of the symposium is a paraphrasing of Bengt's popular astronomy book Kosmisk Resa (in English: Cosmic Journey) written in the early eighties. I think this aptly symbolizes his career that has been an astronomical voyage from near to far, from the distant past to the present. The original book title was modified slightly to reflect that most of his work to date has dealt with stars in one way or another. In addition it also gives credit to Bengt's important role as a guiding light for a very large number of students, colleagues and collaborators, indeed for several generations of astronomers. For me personally, the book Kosmisk Resa bears particular significance as it has shaped my life rather profoundly. Although I had already decided to become an astronomer, when I first read the book as a 14-year-old I made up my mind then and there that I would study under Bengt Gustafsson and work on stars. Indeed I have remained true to this somewhat audacious resolution. I suspect that a great number of us have similar stories how Bengt has had a major influence on our lives, whether on the professional or personal level. Perhaps Bengt's most outstanding characteristic is his enthralling enthusiasm. This is equally true whether he is pondering some scientific conundrum, supervising students or performing in front of an audience, be it an astronomical talk, student lecture, musical concert or theatre play. Another attribute of Bengt is his boundless optimism, which not the least has helped many of his students overcome the unavoidable moments of despair (this is only true as long as one is aware of the well-known BG factor: multiply any of Bengt's estimates for the time required to complete a task by at least a factor of three). His personal traits make working with Bengt always very enjoyable as well as highly educating. Bengt's work also extends well beyond the domain of astronomy, including music, literature, theatre, religion, research ethics, science policy and science popularization. Bengt is an excellent role model for a successful scientist with a rich and rewarding life outside of academia. The symposium A Stellar Journey was divided into five sessions covering basically the main research areas Bengt has worked on: Stellar atmospheres, Solar/stellar spectroscopy, Stellar parameters, Stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis and Stellar populations. In addition, one afternoon was devoted to a session entitled Anything but astronomy (see the symposium program), which tried to showcase Bengt's diverse interests outside of astronomy with talks ranging from religion and history of science over science popularization and future studies to literature and music. My task, as chair of the Scientific Organizing Committee, to put together an exciting scientific program of invited reviews and talks was made considerably easier thanks to the excellent suggestions by the other SOC members: Ann Boesgaard, Sofia Feltzing, John Lattanzio, Andre Maeder, Bertrand Plez and Monique Spite. I believe in the end we were successful in achieving our charge, an impression corroborated by the many encouraging comments from various participants during and after the conference. I am particularly grateful to Nils Bergvall, Bengt Edvardsson and Bertrand Plez for their time-consuming efforts in arranging the extraordinary and greatly appreciated non-astronomical session on Tuesday afternoon; Sigbritt Ernald provided a rich sourc

  6. The radial profile and flattening of the Milky Way's stellar halo to $\\rm 80~$kpc from the SEGUE K-giant Survey

    E-print Network

    Xue, Xiang-Xiang; Ma, Zhibo; Morrison, Heather; Bovy, Jo; Sesar, Branimir; Janesh, William

    2015-01-01

    We characterise the radial density, metallicity and flattening profile of the Milky Way's stellar halo, based on the large sample of 1757 spectroscopically confirmed giant stars from SDSS/SEGUE-2 after excising stars that were algorithmically attributed to apparent halo substructure (including the Sagittarius stream). Compared to BHB stars or RR Lyrae, giants are more readily understood tracers of the overall halo star population, with less bias in age or metallicity. The well-characterized selection function of the sample enables forward modelling of those data, based on ellipsoidal stellar density models, $\

  7. Calibration and sensitivity of the Virgo detector during its second science run

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Antonucci, F.; Astone, P.; Ballardin, G.; Barone, F.; Barsuglia, M.; Basti, A.; Bauer, Th S.; Beker, M. G.; Belletoile, A.; Birindelli, S.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blom, M.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Boschi, V.; Bosi, L.; Bouhou, B.; Braccini, S.; Bradaschia, C.; Brillet, A.; Brisson, V.; Budzy?ski, R.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Cagnoli, G.; Calloni, E.; Campagna, E.; Canuel, B.; Carbognani, F.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chaibi, O.; Chassande Mottin, E.; Chincarini, A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Colacino, C. N.; Colas, J.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Corsi, A.; Coulon, J.-P.; Cuoco, E.; D'Antonio, S.; Dattilo, V.; Davier, M.; Day, R.; De Rosa, R.; Debreczeni, G.; del Prete, M.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Emilio, M. Di Paolo; Di Virgilio, A.; Dietz, A.; Drago, M.; Fafone, V.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Flaminio, R.; Forte, L. A.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franc, J.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Freise, A.; Galimberti, M.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garufi, F.; Gáspár, M. E.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Giazotto, A.; Gouaty, R.; Granata, M.; Greverie, C.; Guidi, G. M.; Hayau, J.-F.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hild, S.; Huet, D.; Jaranowski, P.; Kowalska, I.; Królak, A.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Li, T. G. F.; Liguori, N.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Losurdo, G.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Man, N.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marque, J.; Martelli, F.; Masserot, A.; Michel, C.; Milano, L.; Minenkov, Y.; Mohan, M.; Morgado, N.; Morgia, A.; Mosca, S.; Moscatelli, V.; Mours, B.; Neri, I.; Nocera, F.; Pagliaroli, G.; Palladino, L.; Palomba, C.; Paoletti, F.; Pardi, S.; Parisi, M.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Persichetti, G.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pietka, M.; Pinard, L.; Poggiani, R.; Prato, M.; Prodi, G. A.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Rabeling, D. S.; Rácz, I.; Rapagnani, P.; Re, V.; Regimbau, T.; Ricci, F.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Romano, R.; Rosi?ska, D.; Ruggi, P.; Sassolas, B.; Sentenac, D.; Sperandio, L.; Sturani, R.; Swinkels, B.; Tacca, M.; Toncelli, A.; Tonelli, M.; Torre, O.; Tournefier, E.; Travasso, F.; Vajente, G.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; van der Putten, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vavoulidis, M.; Vedovato, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vocca, H.; Ward, R. L.; Was, M.; Yvert, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Virgo detector is a kilometer-length interferometer for gravitational wave detection located near Pisa (Italy). During its second science run (VSR2) in 2009, 6 months of data were accumulated with a sensitivity close to its design. In this paper, the methods used to determine the parameters for sensitivity estimation and gravitational wave reconstruction are described. The main quantities to be calibrated are the frequency response of the mirror actuation and the sensing of the output power. Focus is also put on their absolute timing. The monitoring of the calibration data and the parameter estimation with independent techniques are discussed to provide an estimation of the calibration uncertainties. Finally, the estimation of the Virgo sensitivity in the frequency domain is described and typical sensitivities measured during VSR2 are shown.

  8. Performance of "G-Pisa" ring laser gyro at the Virgo site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belfi, Jacopo; Beverini, Nicolò; Bosi, Filippo; Carelli, Giorgio; Di Virgilio, Angela; Kolker, Dmitri; Maccioni, Enrico; Ortolan, Antonello; Passaquieti, Roberto; Stefani, Fabio

    2012-10-01

    The ring laser gyroscope "G-Pisa" has been taking data inside the Virgo interferometer central area with the aim of performing high sensitivity measurements of rotations in the vertical as well as in the horizontal orientation. We discuss the main characteristics of the instrument, describing its mechanical design and presenting the measured sensitivity limit. By applying a simple effective model for the laser gyroscope, we show that the stability of the sensor above 10 s of integration time is mainly limited by backscattering effects. The horizontal rotation rate signal is also compared with the signals recorded by the Virgo environmental monitoring system and by a biaxial mechanical tiltmeter rigidly fixed on top of the gyrolaser mounting frame.

  9. Initial OSSE Sky Survey Observation: Deep Survey in the Virgo Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Robert

    2000-01-01

    The OSSE Virgo survey covered about 1% of the sky, using eight weeks of observing time on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, and was performed in conjunction with the EGRET and COMPTEL instruments on CGRO. A fundamental aspect of the survey was the development of data reduction techniques for the scanning data from the OSSE detectors. A direct algebraic approach for spatially deconvolving the data was developed. For the survey work, no background observations isolated from the survey region were acquired, unlike normal discrete source observations. The survey, reduction method covers the mapped region with a grid of pixels, and estimates the flux from each pixel by least-squares agreement with the data, assuming positivity constraints. This technique has led to the detection of compact sources at hard X-ray energies within the Virgo region, and the OSSE survey studies have been extended to the south galactic pole and north Ecliptic pole, with similar analysis techniques.

  10. Parametric studies of stitching effectiveness for preventing substructure disbond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanagan, Gerry; Furrow, Keith

    1995-01-01

    A methodology is desired that will allow a designer to select appropriate amounts of through-thickness reinforcement needed to meet design requirements. The goal is to use a relatively simple analysis to minimize the amount of testing that needs to be performed, and to make test results from simple configurations applicable to more general structures. Using this methodology one should be able to optimize the selection of stitching materials, the weight of the yarn, and the stitching density. The analysis approach is to treat substructure disbond as a crack propagation problem. In this approach, the stitches have little influence until a delamination begins to grow. Once the delamination reaches, or extends beyond a stitch, the stitch serves to reduce the strain-energy-release-rate (G) at the crack tip for a given applied load. The reduced G can then be compared to the unstitched materials toughness to predict the load required to further extend the crack. The current model treats the stitch as a simple spring which responds to displacements in the vertical (through-thickness) direction. In concept, this approach is similar to that proposed by other authors. Test results indicate that the model should be refined to include the shearing stiffness of the stitch. The strain-energy-release-rate calculations are performed using a code which uses interconnected higher-order plates to model built-up composite cross-sections. When plates are stacked vertically, the interfacial tractions between the plates can be computed. The plate differential equations are solved in closed-form. The code, called SUBLAM, was developed as part of this section in one dimension. Because of this limitation, rows of stitches are treated as a two-dimensional sheet. The spring stiffness of a row of stitches can be estimated from the stitch material, weight, and density. As a practical and conservative approach, we can assume that the stitch is bonded until a crack passes the stitch location. After the crack passes, it is fully bonded. A series of tests were performed to exercise this methodology and incorporated an attached flange such that the sudden change in thickness initiated a delamination. The analysis was used to estimate the materials' critical G from that of the unstitched specimens. With this data, a prediction was made for the load required to delaminate the stitched specimens. Using the methodology, design charts have been created for simplified geometries. These charts give stitch force, along with G(sub 1) and G(sub 2) as as function of the stitch spring stiffness. Using the charts, it should be possible to determine the stitch spring stiffness and strength required to reduce the G to a desired level. From these parameters, the actual stitching material, weight, and density can be computed.

  11. A Stellar Demonstrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ros, Rosa M.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of the stellar demonstrator is to help explain the movement of stars. In particular, students have difficulties understanding why, if they are living in the Northern Hemisphere, they may observe starts in the Southern Hemisphere, or why circumpolar stars are not the same in different parts of Europe. Using the demonstrator, these…

  12. Stellar Ontogeny: From Dust...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the process of star formation. Infrared and radio astronomy, particularly microwave astronomy is used to provide information on different stages of stellar formation. The role of dust and gas which swirl through the interstellar regions of a galaxy and the collapse of a cloud in star formation are also presented. (HM)

  13. Progress Toward Attractive Stellarators

    SciTech Connect

    Neilson, G H; Brown, T G; Gates, D A; Lu, K P; Zarnstorff, M C; Boozer, A H; Harris, J H; Meneghini, O; Mynick, H E; Pomphrey, N; Reiman, A H

    2011-01-05

    The quasi-axisymmetric stellarator (QAS) concept offers a promising path to a more compact stellarator reactor, closer in linear dimensions to tokamak reactors than previous stellarator designs. Concept improvements are needed, however, to make it more maintainable and more compatible with high plant availability. Using the ARIES-CS design as a starting point, compact stellarator designs with improved maintenance characteristics have been developed. While the ARIES-CS features a through-the-port maintenance scheme, we have investigated configuration changes to enable a sector-maintenance approach, as envisioned for example in ARIES AT. Three approaches are reported. The first is to make tradeoffs within the QAS design space, giving greater emphasis to maintainability criteria. The second approach is to improve the optimization tools to more accurately and efficiently target the physics properties of importance. The third is to employ a hybrid coil topology, so that the plasma shaping functions of the main coils are shared more optimally, either with passive conductors made of high-temperature superconductor or with local compensation coils, allowing the main coils to become simpler. Optimization tools are being improved to test these approaches.

  14. STELLAR ABUNDANCESTELLAR ABUNDANCE OBSERVATIONSOBSERVATIONS

    E-print Network

    Cowan, John

    is dark energy? 3. How were the heavy elements from iron to uranium made?3. How were the heavy elements SynthesisHeavy Element Synthesis About ½ of nuclei above iron formed in theAbout ½ of nuclei above ironSTELLAR ABUNDANCESTELLAR ABUNDANCE OBSERVATIONSOBSERVATIONS ANDAND HEAVY ELEMENT FORMATIONHEAVY

  15. Resolving the stellar halos of six massive disk galaxies beyond the Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monachesi, Antonela; Bell, Eric F.; Radburn-Smith, David J.; de Jong, Roelof S.; Bailin, Jeremy; Holwerda, Benne W.; Streich, David

    2015-08-01

    Models of galaxy formation in a hierarchical universe predict substantial scatter in the halo-to-halo stellar properties, owing to stochasticity in galaxies' merger histories. Currently, only few detailed observations of stellar halos are available, mainly for the Milky Way and M31. Therefore, a systematic enlargement of this sample is needed to understand the range of possible halo properties, what a 'typical' halo looks like, and how similar the Milky Way halo is to other halos beyond the Local Group. The Galaxy Halos, Outer disks, Substructure, Thick disks and Star clusters (GHOSTS) HST survey is the largest study to date of the resolved stellar populations in the outskirts of disk galaxies and its observations offer a direct test of model predictions. In this talk, I will present the stellar halo color/metallicity and density profiles of red giant branch stars out to ~70 kpc along the minor axis of six Milky Way-mass galaxies from the GHOSTS survey. I will also directly compare our results with simulated maps of red giant branch stars from models of stellar halo formation in a cosmological context.

  16. Stellar ages from asteroseismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebreton, Yveline; Montalbán, Josefina

    2009-06-01

    Asteroseismology has been recognized for a long time as a very powerful mean to probe stellar interiors. The oscillations frequencies are closely related to stellar internal structure properties via the density and the sound speed profiles. Since these properties are in turn tightly linked with the mass and evolutionary state, we can expect to determine the age and mass of a star from the comparison of its oscillation spectrum with the predictions of stellar models. Such a comparison will of course suffer both from the problems we face when modeling a particular star (for instance the uncertainties on its global parameters and chemical composition) and from our general misunderstanding of the physical processes at work in stellar interiors (for instance the various transport processes that may lead to core mixing and affect the ages predicted by models). However for stars where observations have provided very precise and numerous oscillation frequencies together with accurate global parameters and additional information (as the radius or the mass of the star if it is member of a binary system, the radius if it observable in interferometry or the mean density if the star is an exoplanet host), we can also expect to better constrain the physical description of the stellar structure and transport processes and to finally get a more reliable age estimation. After a brief survey of stellar pulsations, we present some general seismic diagnostics that can be used to infer the age of a pulsating star as well as their limitations. We then illustrate the ability of asteroseismology to scrutinize stellar interiors on the basis of a few examples. In the years to come, extended very precise asteroseismic observations are expected, either in photometry or in spectroscopy, from present and future ground-based (HARPS, CORALIE, ELODIE, UVES, UCLES, SIAMOIS, SONG) or spatial devices (MOST, CoRoT, WIRE, Kepler, PLATO). This will considerably enlarge the sample of stars eligible to asteroseismic age determination and should allow to estimate the age of individual stars with a 10-20% accuracy.

  17. Performance of the Virgo interferometer longitudinal control system during the second science run

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Antonucci, F.; Astone, P.; Ballardin, G.; Barone, F.; Barsuglia, M.; Basti, A.; Bauer, Th. S.; Beker, M. G.; Belletoile, A.; Birindelli, S.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blom, M.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Boschi, V.; Bosi, L.; Bouhou, B.; Braccini, S.; Bradaschia, C.; Brillet, A.; Brisson, V.; Budzy?ski, R.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Cagnoli, G.; Calloni, E.; Campagna, E.; Canuel, B.; Carbognani, F.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chaibi, O.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chincarini, A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Colacino, C. N.; Colas, J.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Corsi, A.; Coulon, J.-P.; Cuoco, E.; D'Antonio, S.; Dattilo, V.; Davier, M.; Day, R.; de Rosa, R.; Debreczeni, G.; Del Prete, M.; di Fiore, L.; di Lieto, A.; di Paolo Emilio, M.; di Virgilio, A.; Dietz, A.; Drago, M.; Fafone, V.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Flaminio, R.; Forte, L. A.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franc, J.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Freise, A.; Galimberti, M.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garufi, F.; Gáspár, M. E.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Giazotto, A.; Gouaty, R.; Granata, M.; Greverie, C.; Guidi, G. M.; Hayau, J.-F.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hild, S.; Huet, D.; Jaranowski, P.; Kowalska, I.; Królak, A.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Li, T. G. F.; Liguori, N.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Losurdo, G.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Man, N.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marque, J.; Martelli, F.; Masserot, A.; Michel, C.; Milano, L.; Minenkov, Y.; Mohan, M.; Morgado, N.; Morgia, A.; Mosca, S.; Moscatelli, V.; Mours, B.; Neri, I.; Nocera, F.; Pagliaroli, G.; Palladino, L.; Palomba, C.; Paoletti, F.; Pardi, S.; Parisi, M.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Persichetti, G.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pietka, M.; Pinard, L.; Poggiani, R.; Prato, M.; Prodi, G. A.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Rabeling, D. S.; Rácz, I.; Rapagnani, P.; Re, V.; Regimbau, T.; Ricci, F.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Romano, R.; Rosi?ska, D.; Ruggi, P.; Sassolas, B.; Sentenac, D.; Sperandio, L.; Sturani, R.; Swinkels, B.; Toncelli, A.; Tonelli, M.; Torre, O.; Tournefier, E.; Travasso, F.; Vajente, G.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; van der Putten, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vavoulidis, M.; Vedovato, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vocca, H.; Ward, R. L.; Was, M.; Yvert, M.; Tacca, M.; Chiummo, A.

    2011-02-01

    The second science run of the Virgo gravitational wave interferometer took place between July 2009 and January 2010. This paper describes the performance of the interferometer longitudinal control system in terms of duty cycle, stability and control noise. A science data taking duty cycle of about 80% was obtained over the six month run. Control noise was not limiting the detector sensitivity at any frequency. A discussion of observed thermal effects in the detector operation is also included.

  18. A 500 kpc HI Tail of the Virgo Pair NGC4532/DDO137 Detected by ALFALFA

    E-print Network

    Rebecca A. Koopmann

    2007-07-22

    HI observations of the Virgo Cluster pair NGC 4532/DDO 137, conducted as part of the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey (ALFALFA), reveal an HI feature extending ~500 kpc to the southwest. The structure has a total mass of up to 7 x 10^8 solar masses, equivalent to 10% of the pair HI mass. Optical R imaging reveals no counterparts to a level of 26.5 magnitudes per square arcsec. The structure is likely the result of galaxy harassment.

  19. X-RAY TRANSIENTS IN THE ADVANCED LIGO/VIRGO HORIZON

    SciTech Connect

    Kanner, Jonah; Baker, John; Blackburn, Lindy; Camp, Jordan; Mooley, Kunal; Mushotzky, Richard; Ptak, Andy

    2013-09-01

    Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo will be all-sky monitors for merging compact objects within a few hundred megaparsecs. Finding the electromagnetic counterparts to these events will require an understanding of the transient sky at low redshift (z < 0.1). We performed a systematic search for extragalactic, low redshift, transient events in the XMM-Newton Slew Survey. In a flux limited sample, we found that highly variable objects comprised 10% of the sample, and that of these, 10% were spatially coincident with cataloged optical galaxies. This led to 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} transients per square degree above a flux threshold of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} (0.2-2 keV) which might be confused with LIGO/Virgo counterparts. This represents the first extragalactic measurement of the soft X-ray transient rate within the Advanced LIGO/Virgo horizon. Our search revealed six objects that were spatially coincident with previously cataloged galaxies, lacked evidence for optical active galactic nuclei, displayed high luminosities {approx}10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1}, and varied in flux by more than a factor of 10 when compared with the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. At least four of these displayed properties consistent with previously observed tidal disruption events.

  20. CLOUDS TOWARD THE VIRGO CLUSTER PERIPHERY: GAS-RICH OPTICALLY INERT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, Brian R.

    2010-12-20

    Aperture synthesis observations of two H I cloud complexes located in the periphery of the Virgo galaxy cluster are presented. These low H I-mass clouds (M{sub H{sub I}}< 10{sup 9} M{sub sun}) are seen projected on the M region of the western Virgo cluster, where the galaxy population is thought to lie behind the main A cluster surrounding M87. The kinematic measurements of both unresolved Arecibo and resolved Very Large Array (VLA)-C observations are in good agreement. The H I detections cannot be identified with any optical, IR, or UV emission from available archival imaging. They are inert at these wavelengths. The H I masses of the individual VLA detections range from 7.28 {<=} log(M{sub H{sub I}}/M{sub sun}){<=} 7.85. The total dynamical mass estimates are several times their H I content, ranging from 7.00 {<=} log(M{sub dyn}/M{sub sun}){<=} 9.07, with the assumption that the clouds are self-gravitating and in dynamical equilibrium. We report the observed parameters derived from the VLA observations. One of these H I clouds appears to be the most isolated optically inert detection observed in the outer reaches of Virgo.

  1. LIGO-VIRGO Triggered Follow-Up with NASA High Energy Photon Survey Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, Jordan

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the proposed use of LIGO-VIRGO S6 triggers from comparatively loud events to search for both prompt and afterglow EM counterparts with RXTE, SWIFT and FERMI. Using a 2 or 3-fold coincident trigger from the two LIGO and one VIRGO detectors to provide sky position information, we can search the data from these missions within a limited time window and a constrained portion of their respective FOVs, allowing us to look at a level below the threshold normally used to publicly indicate an event. Since we propose to use these missions in their survey mode, no re-pointing of the missions is envisioned. The search for a coincidence between the data from LIGO-VIRGO and the EM survey missions can then be analyzed off-line; if a coincident EM signal is found it would have a significant effect in establishing the validity of the GW trigger. We discuss some relevant aspects of the NASA missions and give some preliminary estimates of thresholds and coincident background rates.

  2. Soft X-ray morphology of the Virgo, Coma, and Perseus clusters of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malina, R.; Lampton, M.; Bowyer, S.

    1976-01-01

    Soft X-ray emission profiles of the Virgo, Coma, and Perseus clusters of galaxies with 9.2-arcmin resolution are presented for the energy band from 0.5 to 3 keV. For Virgo, a profile is also given for the band from 0.1 to 0.28 keV. The profiles are compared with various models including extended and point sources, particularly a model with an extended source involving thermal bremsstrahlung from a hot gas located in the gravitational potential well of the cluster. It is found that the soft X-ray emission from Virgo is extended, symmetric, and centered on M87; that the emission from Coma is not dominated by any single galaxy; and that the emission from Perseus is centered within 3 arcmin of NGC 1275 and is narrower along a north-south axis than along the east-west axis containing the line of bright galaxies. Limits are set on the strength of possible point sources.

  3. X-ray Transients in the Advanced LIGO/Virgo Horizon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanner, Jonah; Baker, John G.; Blackburn, Lindy L.; Camp, Jordan B.; Mooley, Kunal; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Ptak, Andrew Francis

    2013-01-01

    Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo will be all-sky monitors for merging compact objects within a few hundred megaparsecs. Finding the electromagnetic counterparts to these events will require an understanding of the transient sky at low redshift (z < 0.1). We performed a systematic search for extragalactic, low redshift, transient events in the XMM-Newton Slew Survey. In a flux limited sample, we found that highly variable objects comprised 10% of the sample, and that of these, 10% were spatially coincident with cataloged optical galaxies. This led to 4 × 10(exp -4) transients per square degree above a flux threshold of 3×10(exp -12) erg/sq cm/s (0.2-2 keV) which might be confused with LIGO/Virgo counterparts. This represents the first extragalactic measurement of the soft X-ray transient rate within the Advanced LIGO/Virgo horizon. Our search revealed six objects that were spatially coincident with previously cataloged galaxies, lacked evidence for optical active galactic nuclei, displayed high luminosities approx. 10(exp 43) erg/s, and varied in flux by more than a factor of 10 when compared with the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. At least four of these displayed properties consistent with previously observed tidal disruption events.

  4. The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey: VI. Second HI Source Catalog of the Virgo Cluster Region

    E-print Network

    Brian R. Kent; Riccardo Giovanelli; Martha P. Haynes; Ann M. Martin; Amélie Saintonge; Sabrina Stierwalt; Thomas J. Balonek; Noah Brosch; Rebecca A. Koopmann

    2008-06-19

    We present the third installment of HI sources extracted from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA extragalactic survey. This dataset continues the work of the Virgo ALFALFA catalog. The catalogs and spectra published here consist of data obtained during the 2005 and 2006 observing sessions of the survey. The catalog consists of 578 HI detections within the range 11h 36m 6.5; (b) high velocity clouds in the Milky Way or its periphery; and (c) signals of lower S/N which coincide spatially with an optical object and known redshift. 75% of the sources are newly published HI detections. Of particular note is a complex of HI clouds projected between M87 and M49 that do not coincide with any optical counterparts. Candidate objects without optical counterparts are few. The median redshift for this sample is 6500 km/s and the cz distribution exhibits the local large scale structure consisting of Virgo and the background void and the A1367-Coma supercluster regime at cz_sun ~7000 km/s. Position corrections for telescope pointing errors are applied to the dataset by comparing ALFALFA continuum centroid with those cataloged in the NRAO VLA Sky Survey. The uncorrected positional accuracy averages 27 arcsec ~(21 arcsec ~median) for all sources with S/N > 6.5 and is of order ~21 arcsec ~(16 arcsec ~median) for signals with S/N > 12. Uncertainties in distances toward the Virgo cluster can affect the calculated HI mass distribution.

  5. Prospects for US Stellarator Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Jeffrey; US Stellarator Community Collaboration

    2014-10-01

    Stellarators ensure plasma confinement using flux surfaces generated by external coils. The confinement properties of a stellarator are entirely determined by its complex 3D magnetic configuration. A suitably designed stellarator reactor thus offers the prospect of steady-state, ignited, disruption-free operation with minimal active control. The challenge for stellarator research is to develop techniques that allow optimization and confident extrapolation of configuration designs to reactor-scale devices. US researchers have made significant contributions to stellarator analysis and optimization which are in use around the world, but the US domestic stellarator program is small, and operates only two university-scale stellarator facilities: HSX (University of Wisconsin) and CTH (Auburn University). To increase its role in stellarator development in the next ten years, the US stellarator community is leveraging its expertise in national collaborative efforts on the large, superconducting stellarator devices W7-X (Germany) and LHD (Japan), with a particular focus on 3D divertor physics. Progress on these large experiments will set the stage for a new US stellarator experiment to explore the physics of quasi-symmetric stellarator confinement. Supported by USDOE, under Contract No. DE-AC05-OOOR22725 with UT-Battelle, LLC.

  6. Design of chemical space networks using a Tanimoto similarity variant based upon maximum common substructures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bijun; Vogt, Martin; Maggiora, Gerald M; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2015-10-01

    Chemical space networks (CSNs) have recently been introduced as an alternative to other coordinate-free and coordinate-based chemical space representations. In CSNs, nodes represent compounds and edges pairwise similarity relationships. In addition, nodes are annotated with compound property information such as biological activity. CSNs have been applied to view biologically relevant chemical space in comparison to random chemical space samples and found to display well-resolved topologies at low edge density levels. The way in which molecular similarity relationships are assessed is an important determinant of CSN topology. Previous CSN versions were based on numerical similarity functions or the assessment of substructure-based similarity. Herein, we report a new CSN design that is based upon combined numerical and substructure similarity evaluation. This has been facilitated by calculating numerical similarity values on the basis of maximum common substructures (MCSs) of compounds, leading to the introduction of MCS-based CSNs (MCS-CSNs). This CSN design combines advantages of continuous numerical similarity functions with a robust and chemically intuitive substructure-based assessment. Compared to earlier version of CSNs, MCS-CSNs are characterized by a further improved organization of local compound communities as exemplified by the delineation of drug-like subspaces in regions of biologically relevant chemical space. PMID:26419860

  7. Towards optimization of the linker substructure common to transthyretin amyloidogenesis inhibitors using biochemical and structural studies

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Steven M.; Connelly, Stephen; Wilson, Ian A.; Kelly, Jeffery W.

    2008-01-01

    To develop potent and highly selective transthyretin (TTR) amyloidogenesis inhibitors, it is useful to systematically optimize the three substructural elements that compose a typical TTR kinetic stabilizer: the two aryl rings and the linker joining them. Herein, we evaluated 40 bisaryl molecules based on 10 unique linker substructures to determine how these linkages influence inhibitor potency and selectivity. These linkers connect one unsubstituted aromatic ring to either a 3,5-X2 or a 3,5-X2-4-OH phenyl substructure (X=Br or CH3). Co-consideration of amyloid inhibition and ex vivo plasma TTR binding selectivity data reveal that direct connection of the two aryls, or linkage through non-polar E-olefin or –CH2CH2– substructures generates the most potent and selective TTR amyloidogenesis inhibitors exhibiting minimal undesirable binding to the thyroid hormone nuclear receptor or the COX-1 enzyme. Five high-resolution TTR•inhibitor crystal structures (1.4?1.8 Å) provide insight into why such linkers afford inhibitors with greater potency and selectivity. PMID:18811132

  8. Toward Optimization of the Linker Substructure Common to Transthyretin Amyloidogenesis Inhibitors Using Biochemical And Structural Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, S.M.; Connelly, S.; Wilson, I.A.; Kelly, J.W.

    2009-05-18

    To develop potent and highly selective transthyretin (TTR) amyloidogenesis inhibitors, it is useful to systematically optimize the three substructural elements that compose a typical TTR kinetic stabilizer: the two aryl rings and the linker joining them. Herein, we evaluated 40 bisaryl molecules based on 10 unique linker substructures to determine how these linkages influence inhibitor potency and selectivity. These linkers connect one unsubstituted aromatic ring to either a 3,5-X{sub 2} or a 3,5-X{sub 2}-4-OH phenyl substructure (X = Br or CH{sub 3}). Coconsideration of amyloid inhibition and ex vivo plasma TTR binding selectivity data reveal that direct connection of the two aryls or linkage through nonpolar E-olefin or -CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}- substructures generates the most potent and selective TTR amyloidogenesis inhibitors exhibiting minimal undesirable binding to the thyroid hormone nuclear receptor or the COX-1 enzyme. Five high-resolution TTR.inhibitor crystal structures (1.4-1.8 {angstrom}) provide insight into why such linkers afford inhibitors with greater potency and selectivity.

  9. MoSS: A Program for Molecular Substructure Mining Christian Borgelt

    E-print Network

    Borgelt, Christian

    of these algorithms can be transferred to molecular substructure mining, even though the fact that the input consists of graphs instead of sets poses some problems. Ex- amples of algorithms developed in this way are Subdue [5Fa (Molecular Fragment miner). The Java program presented here, however, is called MoSS (Molecular Sub

  10. MoSS: A Program for Molecular Substructure Mining Christian Borgelt

    E-print Network

    Borgelt, Christian

    of these algorithms can be transferred to molecular substructure mining, even though the fact that the input consists of graphs instead of sets poses some problems. Ex­ amples of algorithms developed in this way are Subdue [5Fa (Molecular Fragment miner). The Java program presented here, however, is called MoSS (Molecular Sub

  11. MS2Analyzer: A Software for Small Molecule Substructure Annotations from Accurate Tandem Mass Spectra

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Systematic analysis and interpretation of the large number of tandem mass spectra (MS/MS) obtained in metabolomics experiments is a bottleneck in discovery-driven research. MS/MS mass spectral libraries are small compared to all known small molecule structures and are often not freely available. MS2Analyzer was therefore developed to enable user-defined searches of thousands of spectra for mass spectral features such as neutral losses, m/z differences, and product and precursor ions from MS/MS spectra in MSP/MGF files. The software is freely available at http://fiehnlab.ucdavis.edu/projects/MS2Analyzer/. As the reference query set, 147 literature-reported neutral losses and their corresponding substructures were collected. This set was tested for accuracy of linking neutral loss analysis to substructure annotations using 19?329 accurate mass tandem mass spectra of structurally known compounds from the NIST11 MS/MS library. Validation studies showed that 92.1 ± 6.4% of 13 typical neutral losses such as acetylations, cysteine conjugates, or glycosylations are correct annotating the associated substructures, while the absence of mass spectra features does not necessarily imply the absence of such substructures. Use of this tool has been successfully demonstrated for complex lipids in microalgae. PMID:25263576

  12. Inverse dynamic substructuring using the direct hybrid assembly in the frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ambrogio, Walter; Fregolent, Annalisa

    2014-04-01

    The paper deals with the identification of the dynamic behaviour of a structural subsystem, starting from the known dynamic behaviour of both the coupled system and the remaining part of the structural system (residual subsystem). This topic is also known as decoupling problem, subsystem subtraction or inverse dynamic substructuring. Whenever it is necessary to combine numerical models (e.g. FEM) and test models (e.g. FRFs), one speaks of experimental dynamic substructuring. Substructure decoupling techniques can be classified as inverse coupling or direct decoupling techniques. In inverse coupling, the equations describing the coupling problem are rearranged to isolate the unknown substructure instead of the coupled structure. On the contrary, direct decoupling consists in adding to the coupled system a fictitious subsystem that is the negative of the residual subsystem. Starting from a reduced version of the 3-field formulation (dynamic equilibrium using FRFs, compatibility and equilibrium of interface forces), a direct hybrid assembly is developed by requiring that both compatibility and equilibrium conditions are satisfied exactly, either at coupling DoFs only, or at additional internal DoFs of the residual subsystem. Equilibrium and compatibility DoFs might not be the same: this generates the so-called non-collocated approach. The technique is applied using experimental data from an assembled system made by a plate and a rigid mass.

  13. Substructure Evolution in Energetic-Driven Spherically Shock-Loaded Copper

    SciTech Connect

    Sinitsyna, L. M.; Novikov, S. A.; Gray, G. T. III; Cerreta, E.; Henrie, B.; Lopez, M.; Yablinsky, C.

    2006-07-28

    Post-shock-recovered metallurgical analysis of solid metal spheres shock loaded via spherical energetic(HE) loading provides a unique opportunity to quantify the substructure evolution in a material subjected to converging Taylor-wave (triangular-shock pulse) loading. In this paper detailed quantitative metallographic, orientation-imaging microscopy (OIM), and texture analysis is presented characterizing the gradient in substructure generated in Cu subjected to a spherical HE shock loading pulse at VNIIEF. The substructure in the recovered sphere is seen to include: 1) a spherical cavity generated in the center of the sphere due to shock-wave convergence and release, displaying ductile dimpled failure and no evidence of melting, 2) a gradient in deformation (slip and deformation twins) from the center outward to the surface, and 3) numerous shear cracks and/or spall planes. The substructure evolution is discussed relative to that previously observed in Cu shock prestrained via either 1-D triangular-shaped shockwave loading or 1-D square-topped pulse shock loading.

  14. Substructure and halo density profiles in a Warm Dark Matter scenario

    E-print Network

    P. Colin; V. Avila-Reese; O. Valenzuela

    2000-09-20

    High-resolution cosmological N-body simulations were performed in order to study the substructure of Milky Way-like galactic halos and the density profiles of halos in a warm dark matter scenario. The results favor this scenario with respect to the cold dark matter one.

  15. Analysis of substructural variation in families of enzymatic proteins with applications to protein function

    E-print Network

    Kavraki, Lydia E.

    Analysis of substructural variation in families of enzymatic proteins with applications to protein1,4,5 1Department of Computer Science, Rice University, Houston, TX, USA 2Center for ComputationalDepartment of Statistics, Rice University, Houston, TX, USA 4Department of Bioengineering, Rice University

  16. Property Graph vs RDF Triple Store: A Comparison on Glycan Substructure Search.

    PubMed

    Alocci, Davide; Mariethoz, Julien; Horlacher, Oliver; Bolleman, Jerven T; Campbell, Matthew P; Lisacek, Frederique

    2015-01-01

    Resource description framework (RDF) and Property Graph databases are emerging technologies that are used for storing graph-structured data. We compare these technologies through a molecular biology use case: glycan substructure search. Glycans are branched tree-like molecules composed of building blocks linked together by chemical bonds. The molecular structure of a glycan can be encoded into a direct acyclic graph where each node represents a building block and each edge serves as a chemical linkage between two building blocks. In this context, Graph databases are possible software solutions for storing glycan structures and Graph query languages, such as SPARQL and Cypher, can be used to perform a substructure search. Glycan substructure searching is an important feature for querying structure and experimental glycan databases and retrieving biologically meaningful data. This applies for example to identifying a region of the glycan recognised by a glycan binding protein (GBP). In this study, 19,404 glycan structures were selected from GlycomeDB (www.glycome-db.org) and modelled for being stored into a RDF triple store and a Property Graph. We then performed two different sets of searches and compared the query response times and the results from both technologies to assess performance and accuracy. The two implementations produced the same results, but interestingly we noted a difference in the query response times. Qualitative measures such as portability were also used to define further criteria for choosing the technology adapted to solving glycan substructure search and other comparable issues. PMID:26656740

  17. Approximate Substructure Search in a Database of 3D Graphs \\Lambda

    E-print Network

    Wang, Xiong "Shawn"

    Approximate Substructure Search in a Database of 3D Graphs \\Lambda Xiong Wang and Jason T. L. Wang, NJ 07102, USA Abstract Given a database D of three dimensional (3D) graphs and a query graph Q search operation in scientific databases. This paper extends the search operation to find those graphs D

  18. Substructure Evolution in Energetic-Driven Spherically Shock-Loaded Copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinitsyna, L. M.; Novikov, S. A.; Gray, G. T.; Cerreta, E.; Henrie, B.; Lopez, M.; Yablinsky, C.

    2006-07-01

    Post-shock-recovered metallurgical analysis of solid metal spheres shock loaded via spherical energetic(HE) loading provides a unique opportunity to quantify the substructure evolution in a material subjected to converging Taylor-wave (triangular-shock pulse) loading. In this paper detailed quantitative metallographic, orientation-imaging microscopy (OIM), and texture analysis is presented characterizing the gradient in substructure generated in Cu subjected to a spherical HE shock loading pulse at VNIIEF. The substructure in the recovered sphere is seen to include: 1) a spherical cavity generated in the center of the sphere due to shock-wave convergence and release, displaying ductile dimpled failure and no evidence of melting, 2) a gradient in deformation (slip and deformation twins) from the center outward to the surface, and 3) numerous shear cracks and/or spall planes. The substructure evolution is discussed relative to that previously observed in Cu shock prestrained via either 1-D triangular-shaped shockwave loading or 1-D square-topped pulse shock loading.

  19. Modelling and control issues of dynamically substructured systems: adaptive forward prediction taken as an example.

    PubMed

    Tu, Jia-Ying; Hsiao, Wei-De; Chen, Chih-Ying

    2014-08-01

    Testing techniques of dynamically substructured systems dissects an entire engineering system into parts. Components can be tested via numerical simulation or physical experiments and run synchronously. Additional actuator systems, which interface numerical and physical parts, are required within the physical substructure. A high-quality controller, which is designed to cancel unwanted dynamics introduced by the actuators, is important in order to synchronize the numerical and physical outputs and ensure successful tests. An adaptive forward prediction (AFP) algorithm based on delay compensation concepts has been proposed to deal with substructuring control issues. Although the settling performance and numerical conditions of the AFP controller are improved using new direct-compensation and singular value decomposition methods, the experimental results show that a linear dynamics-based controller still outperforms the AFP controller. Based on experimental observations, the least-squares fitting technique, effectiveness of the AFP compensation and differences between delay and ordinary differential equations are discussed herein, in order to reflect the fundamental issues of actuator modelling in relevant literature and, more specifically, to show that the actuator and numerical substructure are heterogeneous dynamic components and should not be collectively modelled as a homogeneous delay differential equation. PMID:25104902

  20. Property Graph vs RDF Triple Store: A Comparison on Glycan Substructure Search

    PubMed Central

    Alocci, Davide; Mariethoz, Julien; Horlacher, Oliver; Bolleman, Jerven T.; Campbell, Matthew P.; Lisacek, Frederique

    2015-01-01

    Resource description framework (RDF) and Property Graph databases are emerging technologies that are used for storing graph-structured data. We compare these technologies through a molecular biology use case: glycan substructure search. Glycans are branched tree-like molecules composed of building blocks linked together by chemical bonds. The molecular structure of a glycan can be encoded into a direct acyclic graph where each node represents a building block and each edge serves as a chemical linkage between two building blocks. In this context, Graph databases are possible software solutions for storing glycan structures and Graph query languages, such as SPARQL and Cypher, can be used to perform a substructure search. Glycan substructure searching is an important feature for querying structure and experimental glycan databases and retrieving biologically meaningful data. This applies for example to identifying a region of the glycan recognised by a glycan binding protein (GBP). In this study, 19,404 glycan structures were selected from GlycomeDB (www.glycome-db.org) and modelled for being stored into a RDF triple store and a Property Graph. We then performed two different sets of searches and compared the query response times and the results from both technologies to assess performance and accuracy. The two implementations produced the same results, but interestingly we noted a difference in the query response times. Qualitative measures such as portability were also used to define further criteria for choosing the technology adapted to solving glycan substructure search and other comparable issues. PMID:26656740

  1. Rutherford and Compton scattering in QCD Substructure dependence of jet cross sections at HERA

    E-print Network

    Rutherford and Compton scattering in QCD Substructure dependence of jet cross sections at HERA in the scattering of # particles by metal sheets led to the discovery of the atomic nucleus. The model of Rutherford as 1/(1 ± cos # # ) 2 when # # # 0 or #, similar to Rutherford scattering. In contrast, the angular

  2. GLOBAL PROPERTIES OF M31'S STELLAR HALO FROM THE SPLASH SURVEY. I. SURFACE BRIGHTNESS PROFILE

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, Karoline M.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Bullock, James; Tollerud, Erik J.; Geha, Marla C.; Kalirai, Jason S.; Kirby, Evan N.; Tanaka, Mikito; Chiba, Masashi

    2012-11-20

    We present the surface brightness profile of M31's stellar halo out to a projected radius of 175 kpc. The surface brightness estimates are based on confirmed samples of M31 red giant branch stars derived from Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopic observations. A set of empirical spectroscopic and photometric M31 membership diagnostics is used to identify and reject foreground and background contaminants. This enables us to trace the stellar halo of M31 to larger projected distances and fainter surface brightnesses than previous photometric studies. The surface brightness profile of M31's halo follows a power law with index -2.2 {+-} 0.2 and extends to a projected distance of at least {approx}175 kpc ({approx}2/3 of M31's virial radius), with no evidence of a downward break at large radii. The best-fit elliptical isophotes have b/a = 0.94 with the major axis of the halo aligned along the minor axis of M31's disk, consistent with a prolate halo, although the data are also consistent with M31's halo having spherical symmetry. The fact that tidal debris features are kinematically cold is used to identify substructure in the spectroscopic fields out to projected radii of 90 kpc and investigate the effect of this substructure on the surface brightness profile. The scatter in the surface brightness profile is reduced when kinematically identified tidal debris features in M31 are statistically subtracted; the remaining profile indicates that a comparatively diffuse stellar component to M31's stellar halo exists to large distances. Beyond 90 kpc, kinematically cold tidal debris features cannot be identified due to small number statistics; nevertheless, the significant field-to-field variation in surface brightness beyond 90 kpc suggests that the outermost region of M31's halo is also comprised to a significant degree of stars stripped from accreted objects.

  3. The simultaneous formation of massive stars and stellar clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Rowan J.; Longmore, Steven; Bonnell, Ian

    2009-12-01

    We show that massive stars and stellar clusters are formed simultaneously, the global evolution of the forming cluster is what allows the central stars to become massive. We predict that massive star-forming clumps, such as those observed in Motte et al., contract and grow in mass leading to the formation of massive stars. This occurs as mass is continually channelled from large radii on to the central protostars, which can become massive through accretion. Using smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations of massive star-forming clumps in a giant molecular cloud, we show that clumps are initially diffuse and filamentary, and become more concentrated as they collapse. Simulated interferometry observations of our data provide an explanation as to why young massive star-forming regions show more substructure than older ones. The most massive stars in our model are found within the most bound cluster. Most of the mass accreted by the massive stars was originally distributed throughout the clump at low densities and was later funnelled to the star due to global infall. Even with radiative feedback no massive pre-stellar cores are formed. The original cores are of intermediate mass and gain their additional mass in the protostellar stage. We also find that cores which form low-mass stars exist within the volume from which the high-mass stars accrete, but are largely unaffected by this process.

  4. The evolution of stellar structures in dwarf galaxies

    E-print Network

    Bastian, N; Skillman, E D; McQuinn, K B W; Dolphin, A E; Gutermuth, R A; Cannon, J M; Ercolano, B; Gieles, M; Kennicutt, R C; Walter, F

    2010-01-01

    We present a study of the variation of spatial structure of stellar populations within dwarf galaxies as a function of the population age. We use deep Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging of nearby dwarf galaxies in order to resolve individual stars and create composite colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) for each galaxy. Using the obtained CMDs, we select Blue Helium Burning stars (BHeBs), which can be unambiguously age-dated by comparing the absolute magnitude of individual stars with stellar isochrones. Additionally, we select a very young (<10 Myr) population of OB stars for a subset of the galaxies based on the tip of the young main-sequence. By selecting stars in different age ranges we can then study how the spatial distribution of these stars evolves with time. We find, in agreement with previous studies, that stars are born within galaxies with a high degree of substructure which is made up of a continuous distribution of clusters, groups and associations from parsec to hundreds...

  5. Exploring Halo Substructure with Giant Stars: II. Mapping the Extended Structure of the Carina Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    E-print Network

    S. R. Majewski; J. C. Ostheimer; R. J. Patterson; W. E. Kunkel; K. V. Johnston; D. Geisler

    1999-11-10

    As part of our survey for substructure in the Milky Way halo as traced by giant stars, and to look for tidal stellar debris in the halo viable for measurement of the Galactic mass potential with SIM, we explore the distribution of stars beyond the nominal tidal radius of, but still associated with, the Carina dwarf spheroidal galaxy. We make use of a photometric technique described in Majewski et al. (1999) to identify giant star candidates at the distance and metallicity of Carina across the entire extent of the photometric survey covering some 2.2 deg^2 on and around Carina. These Carina-associated giant candidates are identified by a combination of (1) their M-DDO51 colors, and (2) by locations in the color-magnitude diagram commensurate with the Carina RGB in the core of the galaxy. The density distribution of the extratidal giant candidates is similar to that found from previous statistical star-counting approaches. However, we are now able to pinpoint actual, remotely-situated Carina stars individually. Because we can exclude foreground dwarf stars, our approach allows greater sensitivity and the ability to map the detailed two-dimensional distribution of extended Carina populations to much larger radii, with smaller aperture telescopes, than other techniques. Moreover, we identify candidate lists of widely displaced Carina-associated stars bright enough for spectroscopic studies of large-scale dynamical and metallicity properties of the system, and for astrometric study by SIM. We obtained spectroscopy for three such ``extratidal'' stars and from their radial velocities conclude that all three are associated with Carina.

  6. MASSCLEAN Multiple Stellar Populations Models of Stellar Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Bogdan; Hanson, Margaret M.

    2015-08-01

    The age and mass of unresolved or partially resolved stellar clusters can only be estimated using their integrated-light properties of magnitude and colors. Traditional Simple Stellar Population (SSP) models interpret these integrated properties assuming an infinite mass limit. This can lead to catastrophic failures in both age and mass determination when applied to real stellar clusters, particularly with total mass below 104 Msun. New, more sophisticated mass-dependent SSP models provide more accurate age and mass estimates, in better agreement with cluster age determinations using deep photometry Color-Magnitude Diagrams (CMD). But even these modern, mass-dependent SSP models can fail to estimate age and mass if the cluster contains a second stellar population. Our newest mass-dependent Multiple Stellar Populations (MSP) models show the influence of a second population of stars on the integrated light of these complex stellar clusters and their age estimates shows stronger agreement with CMD-derived stellar cluster ages.

  7. Substructure in Tidal Streams; Tributaries in the Anticenter Ring

    E-print Network

    C. J. Grillmair

    2006-09-15

    We report on the detection in Sloan Digital Sky Survey data of at least three, roughly parallel components in a 65 degree-long stellar stream complex previously identified with the Anticenter or Monoceros Ring. The three-stream complex varies in width from 4 to 6 degrees along its length and appears to be made up of two or more narrow substreams as well as a broader, diffuse component. The width and complexity of the stream indicate that the progenitor was likely a dwarf galaxy of significant size and mass. The stream is 8.9 kpc distant and is oriented almost perpendicularly to our line of sight. The visible portion of the stream does not pass near any known dwarf galaxies and a preliminary orbit does not point to any viable progenitor candidates. Orbits for the narrower substreams can be modeled with velocity offsets from the broad component of about 8 km/s. We suggest that the broad component is likely to be the remains of a dwarf galaxy, while the narrower streams constitute the remnants of dynamically distinct components which may have included a native population of globular clusters. While the color of the main sequence turn-off is not unlike that for the Monoceros Ring, neither the visible stream nor any reasonable projection of its orbit passes through Monoceros or Canis Major, and we conclude that this stream is probably unrelated to the overdensities found in these regions.

  8. Identification of population substructure among Jews using STR markers and dependence on reference populations included

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Detecting population substructure is a critical issue for association studies of health behaviors and other traits. Whether inherent in the population or an artifact of marker choice, determining aspects of a population's genetic history as potential sources of substructure can aid in design of future genetic studies. Jewish populations, among which association studies are often conducted, have a known history of migrations. As a necessary step in understanding population structure to conduct valid association studies of health behaviors among Israeli Jews, we investigated genetic signatures of this history and quantified substructure to facilitate future investigations of these phenotypes in this population. Results Using 32 autosomal STR markers and the program STRUCTURE, we differentiated between Ashkenazi (AJ, N = 135) and non-Ashkenazi (NAJ, N = 226) Jewish populations in the form of Northern and Southern geographic genetic components (AJ north 73%, south 23%, NAJ north 33%, south 60%). The ability to detect substructure within these closely related populations using a small STR panel was contingent on including additional samples representing major continental populations in the analyses. Conclusions Although clustering programs such as STRUCTURE are designed to assign proportions of ancestry to individuals without reference population information, when Jewish samples were analyzed in the absence of proxy parental populations, substructure within Jews was not detected. Generally, for samples with a given grandparental country of birth, STRUCTURE assignment values to Northern, Southern, African and Asian clusters agreed with mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosomal data from previous studies as well as historical records of migration and intermarriage. PMID:20546593

  9. More missing stellar opacity?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, Richard B.; Chin, Chao-Wen

    1994-01-01

    Observational data for Population I stars have shown that blue loops on the Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram form for stellar masses as low as approximately 4 solar mass. However, current state-of-the-art stellar models, unlike the older ones that were based on smaller opacities, fail to loop out of the red-giant region during core helium burning for masses less than 7 solar mass. A possible explanation is that the currently used Livermore opacities need to be further increased, by at least 70%, at temperatures characteristic of the base of the outer convection zone, around 1 x 10(exp 6) K. Indeed, no other suggested remedy seems to yield a blue loop at the lowest observed loop luminosities.

  10. Boosted objects and jet substructure at the LHC: Report of BOOST2012, held at IFIC Valencia, 23rd-27th of July 2012

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Altheimer, A.

    2014-03-21

    This report of the BOOST2012 workshop presents the results of four working groups that studied key aspects of jet substructure. We discuss the potential of first-principle QCD calculations to yield a precise description of the substructure of jets and study the accuracy of state-of-the-art Monte Carlo tools. Limitations of the experiments’ ability to resolve substructure are evaluated, with a focus on the impact of additional (pile-up) proton proton collisions on jet substructure performance in future LHC operating scenarios. The final section summarizes the lessons learnt from jet substructure analyses in searches for new physics in the production of boosted topmore »quarks.« less

  11. Boosted objects and jet substructure at the LHC. Report of BOOST2012, held at IFIC Valencia, 23rd-27th of July 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Altheimer, A.

    2014-03-21

    This report of the BOOST2012 workshop presents the results of four working groups that studied key aspects of jet substructure. We discuss the potential of first-principle QCD calculations to yield a precise description of the substructure of jets and study the accuracy of state-of-the-art Monte Carlo tools. Limitations of the experiments’ ability to resolve substructure are evaluated, with a focus on the impact of additional (pile-up) proton proton collisions on jet substructure performance in future LHC operating scenarios. A final section summarizes the lessons learnt from jet substructure analyses in searches for new physics in the production of boosted top quarks.

  12. Molecules in stellar atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masseron, T.

    2015-12-01

    In order to analyse "warm" stars (G-type, K or M) spectra -mostly optical-, astronomers need specific and accurate molecular lists, which include, at least, their wavelengths and loggf. A non-negligible number of laboratory data and tools already exist in literature, but it is necessary to convert into format useful for stellar spectroscopists. After addressing the recent progress in the field and illustrating them with astronomical applications, I also mention the remaining needs.

  13. Ion transport in stellarators

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, D.D.M.; Kulsrud, R.M.

    1985-09-01

    Stellarator ion transport in the low-collisionality regime with a radial electric field is calculated by a systematic expansion of the drift-Boltzmann equation. The shape of the helical well is taken into account in this calculation. It is found that the barely trapped ions with three to four times the thermal energy give the dominant contribution to the diffusion. Expressions for the ion particle and energy fluxes are derived.

  14. A Receding Halo Sub-structure Towards Norma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Sukanya

    2016-01-01

    We present results from follow-up spectroscopic observations of clustered Cepheid candidates identified from K-band light curves towards the Norma constellation (Chakrabarti et al. 2015), as well as others that we have found more recently. The average radial velocity of these stars is ~ 200 km/s, which is large and distinct from that of the Galaxy's stellar disk. These objects at l ~ -27 and b ~ -1 are therefore halo stars; using the period-luminosity relation of Type I Cepheids, they are at ~ 90 kpc. While the spectra do not have sufficient S/N to independently determine the metallicity and spectral type of the stars, there is a clear correspondence between the observed Brackett series lines in these observations and in known Type I Cepheids. Distances determined from the K-band period-luminosity relation (Matsunaga et al. 2013) and the 3.6 ?m period-luminosity relation (Scowcroft et al. 2011) agree closely, and I-band observations have confirmed the periods of these sources. The extinction corrected J - Ks colors of these sources are comparable to known Type I Cepheids (Persson et al. 2004). The observed radial velocity of these stars agrees with predictions from dynamical models (Chakrabarti & Blitz 2009). If these stars are indeed members of the predicted dark-matter dominated dwarf galaxy that perturbed the outer HI disk of the Milky Way, this would represent the first application of Galactoseismology. These observations also challenge models of the Galactic halo. Young Cepheid variables are unexpected in models of the Galactic halo, though star formation due to infall of gas-rich dwarf galaxies may well produce a small population of yet undiscovered Cepheids in the outer halo.

  15. Chaos and stellar streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Valluri, Monica; Pearson, Sarah; Kupper, Andreas Hans Wilhelm; Hogg, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Cosmological simulations predict that dark matter halos around galaxies should be triaxial in shape with universal density profiles. A significant number of orbits in such systems are chaotic, though it is commonly assumed that chaos is not dynamically relevant for galaxy halos because the timescales over which chaos is computed to be important are generally long relative to the dynamical time. In recent work, we showed that even when chaos is not important for restructuring the global structure of a galaxy, chaos can greatly enhance the density evolution and alter the morphologies of stellar streams over just a few orbital times by causing streams to 'fan out.' This occurs because the orbits of the stars in stellar streams have small distributions of fundamental frequencies and are therefore sensitive to mild chaos that modulates the frequencies on small-scales over much faster timescales. This suggests that the morphology of tidal streams alone can be used to estimate the significance of chaos along the orbits of the progenitor systems, thereby placing constraints on the global properties of the gravitational potential. I will explain our theoretical understanding of this phenomenon and discuss implications for a recently discovered stellar stream (the Ophiuchus stream) that may be on a chaotic orbit in the inner Milky Way due to the influence of the time-dependent, triaxial potential of the Galactic bar.

  16. Stellarators close to quasisymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, Iván; Parra, Felix I.; Velasco, José Luis; Alonso, J. Arturo

    2013-12-01

    Rotation is favorable for confinement, but a stellarator can rotate at high speeds if and only if it is sufficiently close to quasisymmetry. This article investigates how close it needs to be. For a magnetic field B = B0 + ?B1, where B0 is quasisymmetric, ?B1 is a deviation from quasisymmetry, and ? ? 1, the stellarator can rotate at high velocities if ? < ?1/2, with ? the ion Larmor radius over the characteristic variation length of B0. The cases in which this result may break down are discussed. If the stellarator is sufficiently quasisymmetric in the above sense, the rotation profile, and equivalently, the long-wavelength radial electric field, are not set neoclassically; instead, they can be affected by turbulent transport. Their computation requires the O(?2) pieces of both the turbulent and the long-wavelength components of the distribution function. This article contains the first step towards a formulation to calculate the rotation profile by providing the equations determining the long-wavelength components of the O(?2) pieces.

  17. The VIRGO study: nevirapine, didanosine and stavudine combination therapy in antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected adults.

    PubMed

    Raffi, F; Reliquet, V; Ferré, V; Arvieux, C; Hascoet, C; Bellein, V; Besnier, J M; Breux, J P; Garré, M; May, T; Molina, J M; Perré, P; Raguin, G; Rozenbaum, W; Zucman, D

    2000-12-01

    The virological and immunological efficacy of the triple regimen containing nevirapine (once or twice daily), didanosine (once daily) and stavudine, in antiretroviral-naive patients infected with HIV-1, was evaluated in an open-label, prospective, non-randomized, multi-centre, 52-week study. The first 60 patients (VIRGO I) received nevirapine as the standard dose, 200 mg twice daily; the subsequent 40 patients (VIRGO II) received nevirapine at a dose of 400 mg once daily. All patients received 400 mg of didanosine once daily and 40 mg of stavudine twice daily, adjusted for body weight. At baseline, the median CD4 cell count and plasma viral load (pVL) were 414 cells/mm3 and 4.59 log10 copies/ml in VIRGO I, and 412 cells/mm3 and 4.87 log10 copies/ml in VIRGO II. Using an intent-to-treat, 'non-completer equals failure', analysis, 78% (95% CI, 68-88%) of patients in VIRGO I and 68% (95% CI, 53-83%) of those in VIRGO II had a pVL <500 copies/ml at 24 weeks; the proportions achieving a pVL of <50 copies/ml were 62% (95% CI, 50-74%) and 50% (95% CI, 35-65%), respectively. The week 24 median CD4 cell count increase was 168 cells/mm3 (VIRGO I) and 139 cells/mm3 (VIRGO II). At week 52, 39/45 (87%) of VIRGO I patients had pVL <500 copies/ml and 30/45 (67%) <50 copies/ml. Of the 100 patients, 44 experienced grade 2 to 4 adverse events; 20 permanently discontinued study medication because of an adverse event. Combination therapy with the three reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors stavudine, once-daily didanosine and either once- or twice-daily nevirapine could be considered as an alternative option for first-line antiretroviral therapy. PMID:11142621

  18. Analysis of structures with rotating, flexible substructures applied to rotorcraft aeroelasticity in GRASP. [General Rotorcraft Aeromechanical Stability Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, Dewey H.; Hopkins, A. Stewart; Kunz, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    Application to the General Rotorcraft Aeromechanical Stability Program (GRASP) of new methodology for structural dynamic analysis, including substructuring, frames of reference, nodes, finite elements, and constraints, is discussed. The structure is decomposed into a hierarchy of substructures, and discrete relative motion between substructures is analyzed exactly. The finite element method is used to treat deformation of continua, and the library of finite elements includes a nonlinear beam element incorporating aeroelastic effects. Analytical bases for the aeroelastic beam element and the screw constraint are considered, and the important role of geometric stiffness in the formulation is shown.

  19. Stellar Vampires Unmasked

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-10-01

    Astronomers have found possible proofs of stellar vampirism in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae. Using ESO's Very Large Telescope, they found that some hot, bright, and apparently young stars in the cluster present less carbon and oxygen than the majority of their sisters. This indicates that these few stars likely formed by taking their material from another star. "This is the first detection of a chemical signature clearly pointing to a specific scenario to form so-called 'Blue straggler stars' in a globular cluster", said Francesco Ferraro, from the Astronomy Department of Bologna University (Italy) and lead-author of the paper presenting the results. Blue stragglers are unexpectedly young-looking stars found in stellar aggregates, such as globular clusters, which are known to be made up of old stars. These enigmatic objects are thought to be created in either direct stellar collisions or through the evolution and coalescence of a binary star system in which one star 'sucks' material off the other, rejuvenating itself. As such, they provide interesting constraints on both binary stellar evolution and star cluster dynamics. To date, the unambiguous signatures of either stellar traffic accidents or stellar vampirism have not been observed, and the formation mechanisms of Blue stragglers are still a mystery. The astronomers used ESO's Very Large Telescope to measure the abundance of chemical elements at the surface of 43 Blue straggler stars in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae [1]. They discovered that six of these Blue straggler stars contain less carbon and oxygen than the majority of these peculiar objects. Such an anomaly indicates that the material at the surface of the blue stragglers comes from the deep interiors of a parent star [2]. Such deep material can reach the surface of the blue straggler only during the mass transfer process occurring between two stars in a binary system. Numerical simulations indeed show that the coalescence of stars should not result in anomalous abundances. ESO PR Photo 37/06 ESO PR Photo 37/06 Abundances in Blue Straggler Stars In the core of a globular cluster, stars are packed extremely close to each other: more than 4000 stars are found in the innermost light-year-sized cube of 47 Tucanae. Thus, stellar collisions are thought to be very frequent and the collision channel for the formation of blue stragglers should be extremely efficient. The chemical signature detected by these observations demonstrates that also the binary mass-transfer scenario is fully active even in a high-density cluster like 47 Tuc. "Our discovery is therefore a fundamental step toward the solution of the long-standing mystery of blue straggler formation in globular clusters," said Ferraro. Measurements of so many faint stars are only possible since the advent of 8-m class telescopes equipped with multiplexing capability spectrographs. In this case, the astronomers used the FLAMES/Giraffe instrument that allows the simultaneous observation of up to 130 targets at a time, making it ideally suited for surveying individual stars in closely populated fields.

  20. Kinematically-Decoupled Cores in Dwarf Ellipticals in the Virgo Cluster: Implications for Infallen Groups in Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toloba, Elisa; Guhathakurta, P.; van de Ven, G.; Boselli, A.; Lisker, T.; Peletier, R.; SMAKCED Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    A small fraction 8%) of elliptical galaxies contain kinematically-decoupled cores (KDCs), where the kinematical properties of the central region of the galaxy are distinct from those of the main body of the galaxy. KDCs are difficult to detect in dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxies because of their low central surface brightnesses. There was only one statistically robust detection of a KDC in a dE prior to our study. We present spectroscopic evidence for KDCs in two Virgo cluster dEs, VCC 1183 and VCC 1453, that were studied as part of the SMAKCED project. These KDCs have radii of 1.8$''$ (0.14 kpc) and 4.2$''$ (0.33 kpc), respectively. They are distinct from the main body of the galaxy is three ways: (1) inverted sense of rotation; (2) younger and more metal-rich stellar population; and (3) rounder isophotal shape. The frequency of occurence of KDCs and their properties provide important constraints on the formation history of their host galaxies. We discuss different formation scenarios for these KDCs and for dEs in general. The fact that dEs represent the most common galaxy class in clusters and have never been seen in isolation suggests that they are products of environmental processes that transformed their progenitors. However, it is unclear which types of galaxies are dE progenitors and which environmental processes are the most important. These KDCs provide new clues. Dwarf-dwarf wet mergers and gas accretion are argued to be the only mechanisms that can simultaneously explain all of the properties of these KDCs. Both of these mechanisms require that the progenitor had a close companion with a small relative velocity. Thus, we conclude that KDCs in cluster dEs were formed in galaxy pairs residing in poor groups or in isolation whose subsequent infall into the cluster quenched their star formation. This research was supported by a Fulbright fellowship and by a grant from the National Science Foundation.

  1. CLASH-VLT: INSIGHTS ON THE MASS SUBSTRUCTURES IN THE FRONTIER FIELDS CLUSTER MACS J0416.1–2403 THROUGH ACCURATE STRONG LENS MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    Grillo, C.; Suyu, S. H.; Umetsu, K.; Rosati, P.; Caminha, G. B.; Mercurio, A.; Balestra, I.; Munari, E.; Nonino, M.; De Lucia, G.; Borgani, S.; Biviano, A.; Girardi, M.; Lombardi, M.; Gobat, R.; Zitrin, A.; Halkola, A. and others

    2015-02-10

    We present a detailed mass reconstruction and a novel study on the substructure properties in the core of the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) and Frontier Fields galaxy cluster MACS J0416.1–2403. We show and employ our extensive spectroscopic data set taken with the VIsible Multi-Object Spectrograph instrument as part of our CLASH-VLT program, to confirm spectroscopically 10 strong lensing systems and to select a sample of 175 plausible cluster members to a limiting stellar mass of log (M {sub *}/M {sub ?}) ? 8.6. We reproduce the measured positions of a set of 30 multiple images with a remarkable median offset of only 0.''3 by means of a comprehensive strong lensing model comprised of two cluster dark-matter halos, represented by cored elliptical pseudo-isothermal mass distributions, and the cluster member components, parameterized with dual pseudo-isothermal total mass profiles. The latter have total mass-to-light ratios increasing with the galaxy HST/WFC3 near-IR (F160W) luminosities. The measurement of the total enclosed mass within the Einstein radius is accurate to ?5%, including the systematic uncertainties estimated from six distinct mass models. We emphasize that the use of multiple-image systems with spectroscopic redshifts and knowledge of cluster membership based on extensive spectroscopic information is key to constructing robust high-resolution mass maps. We also produce magnification maps over the central area that is covered with HST observations. We investigate the galaxy contribution, both in terms of total and stellar mass, to the total mass budget of the cluster. When compared with the outcomes of cosmological N-body simulations, our results point to a lack of massive subhalos in the inner regions of simulated clusters with total masses similar to that of MACS J0416.1–2403. Our findings of the location and shape of the cluster dark-matter halo density profiles and on the cluster substructures provide intriguing tests of the assumed collisionless, cold nature of dark matter and of the role played by baryons in the process of structure formation.

  2. CLASH-VLT: Insights on the Mass Substructures in the Frontier Fields Cluster MACS J0416.1-2403 through Accurate Strong Lens Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grillo, C.; Suyu, S. H.; Rosati, P.; Mercurio, A.; Balestra, I.; Munari, E.; Nonino, M.; Caminha, G. B.; Lombardi, M.; De Lucia, G.; Borgani, S.; Gobat, R.; Biviano, A.; Girardi, M.; Umetsu, K.; Coe, D.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Postman, M.; Zitrin, A.; Halkola, A.; Broadhurst, T.; Sartoris, B.; Presotto, V.; Annunziatella, M.; Maier, C.; Fritz, A.; Vanzella, E.; Frye, B.

    2015-02-01

    We present a detailed mass reconstruction and a novel study on the substructure properties in the core of the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) and Frontier Fields galaxy cluster MACS J0416.1-2403. We show and employ our extensive spectroscopic data set taken with the VIsible Multi-Object Spectrograph instrument as part of our CLASH-VLT program, to confirm spectroscopically 10 strong lensing systems and to select a sample of 175 plausible cluster members to a limiting stellar mass of log (M */M ?) ~= 8.6. We reproduce the measured positions of a set of 30 multiple images with a remarkable median offset of only 0.''3 by means of a comprehensive strong lensing model comprised of two cluster dark-matter halos, represented by cored elliptical pseudo-isothermal mass distributions, and the cluster member components, parameterized with dual pseudo-isothermal total mass profiles. The latter have total mass-to-light ratios increasing with the galaxy HST/WFC3 near-IR (F160W) luminosities. The measurement of the total enclosed mass within the Einstein radius is accurate to ~5%, including the systematic uncertainties estimated from six distinct mass models. We emphasize that the use of multiple-image systems with spectroscopic redshifts and knowledge of cluster membership based on extensive spectroscopic information is key to constructing robust high-resolution mass maps. We also produce magnification maps over the central area that is covered with HST observations. We investigate the galaxy contribution, both in terms of total and stellar mass, to the total mass budget of the cluster. When compared with the outcomes of cosmological N-body simulations, our results point to a lack of massive subhalos in the inner regions of simulated clusters with total masses similar to that of MACS J0416.1-2403. Our findings of the location and shape of the cluster dark-matter halo density profiles and on the cluster substructures provide intriguing tests of the assumed collisionless, cold nature of dark matter and of the role played by baryons in the process of structure formation. This work is based in large part on data collected at ESO VLT (prog. ID 186.A-0798) and NASA HST.

  3. Improving corrosion resistance of post-tensioned substructures emphasizing high performance grouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schokker, Andrea Jeanne

    The use of post-tensioning in bridges can provide durability and structural benefits to the system while expediting the construction process. When post-tensioning is combined with precast elements, traffic interference can be greatly reduced through rapid construction. Post-tensioned concrete substructure elements such as bridge piers, hammerhead bents, and straddle bents have become more prevalent in recent years. Chloride induced corrosion of steel in concrete is one of the most costly forms of corrosion each year. Coastal substructure elements are exposed to seawater by immersion or spray, and inland bridges may also be at risk due to the application of deicing salts. Corrosion protection of the post-tensioning system is vital to the integrity of the structure because loss of post-tensioning can result in catastrophic failure. Documentation for durability design of the grout, ducts, and anchorage systems is very limited. The objective of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of corrosion protection measures for post-tensioned concrete substructures by designing and testing specimens representative of typical substructure elements using state-of-the-art practices in aggressive chloride exposure environments. This was accomplished through exposure testing of twenty-seven large-scale beam specimens and ten large-scale column specimens. High performance grout for post-tensioning tendon injection was also developed through a series of fresh property tests, accelerated exposure tests, and a large-scale pumping test to simulate field conditions. A high performance fly ash grout was developed for applications with small vertical rises, and a high performance anti-bleed grout was developed for applications involving large vertical rises such as tall bridge piers. Long-term exposure testing of the beam and column specimens is ongoing, but preliminary findings indicate increased corrosion protection with increasing levels of post-tensioning, although traditional fully prestressed sections may not give as high a benefit to cost ratio as partially prestressed sections with high percentages of prestressing steel. Specimens with low permeable concrete are showing better corrosion protection than specimens with the standard concrete for bridge substructures used by the Texas Department of Transportation. Recommendations and guidelines for durable design of post-tensioned bridge substructures were developed from the findings to date, and supplementary information will be provided after final autopsy of all specimens.

  4. HIERARCHICAL STELLAR STRUCTURES IN THE LOCAL GROUP DWARF GALAXY NGC 6822

    SciTech Connect

    Gouliermis, Dimitrios A.; Walter, Fabian; Schmeja, Stefan; Klessen, Ralf S.; De Blok, W. J. G. E-mail: walter@mpia-hd.mpg.d E-mail: rklessen@ita.uni-heidelberg.d

    2010-12-20

    We present a comprehensive study of the star cluster population and the hierarchical structure in the clustering of blue stars with ages {approx}<500 Myr in the Local Group dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 6822. Our observational material comprises the most complete optical stellar catalog of the galaxy from imaging with the Suprime-Cam at the 8.2 m Subaru Telescope. We identify 47 distinct star clusters with the application of the nearest-neighbor density method to this catalog for a detection threshold of 3{sigma} above the average stellar density. The size distribution of the detected clusters can be very well approximated by a Gaussian with a peak at {approx}68 pc. The total stellar masses of the clusters are estimated by extrapolating the cumulative observed stellar mass function of all clusters to be in the range 10{sup 3}-10{sup 4} M{sub sun}. Their number distribution is fitted very well by a power law with index {alpha} {approx} 1.5 {+-} 0.7, which is consistent with the cluster mass functions of other Local Group galaxies and the cluster initial mass function. In addition to the detected star clusters of the galaxy, the application of the nearest-neighbor density method for various density thresholds, other than 3{sigma}, enabled the identification of stellar concentrations in various lengthscales. The stellar density maps constructed with this technique provide a direct proof of hierarchically structured stellar concentrations in NGC 6822, in the sense that smaller dense stellar concentrations are located inside larger and looser ones. We illustrate this hierarchy by the so-called dendrogram, or structure tree of the detected stellar structures, which demonstrates that most of the detected structures split up into several substructures over at least three levels. We quantify the hierarchy of these structures with the use of the minimum spanning tree method. We find that structures detected at 1, 2, and 3{sigma} density thresholds are hierarchically constructed with a fractal dimension of D {approx} 1.8. Some of the larger stellar concentrations, particularly in the northern part of the central star-forming portion of the galaxy, coincide with IR-bright complexes previously identified with Spitzer and associated with high column density neutral gas, indicating structures that currently form stars. The morphological hierarchy in stellar clustering, which we observe in NGC 6822, resembles that of the turbulent interstellar matter, suggesting that turbulence on pc and kpc scales has been probably the major agent that regulated clustered star formation in NGC 6822.

  5. Stellar Spectroscopy during Exoplanet Transits: Revealing structures across stellar surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dravins, Dainis; Ludwig, Hans-Günter; Dahlén, Erik

    2015-08-01

    Exoplanet transits permit to study stellar surface portions that successively become hidden behind the planet. Differential spectroscopy between various transit phases reveals spectra of those stellar surface segments that were hidden. The deduced center-to-limb behavior of stellar spectral line shapes, asymmetries and wavelength shifts enables detailed tests of 3-dimensional hydrodynamic models of stellar atmospheres, such that are required for any precise determination of abundances or seismic properties. Such models can now be computed for widely different classes of stars (including metal-poor ones and white dwarfs), but have been feasible to test and verify only for the Sun with its resolved surface structure. Exoplanet transits may also occur across features such as starspots, whose magnetic signatures will be retrieved from spectra of sufficient fidelity.Knowing the precise background stellar spectra, also properties of exoplanet atmospheres are better constrained: e.g., the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect becomes resolved as not only a simple change of stellar wavelength, but as a variation of the full line profiles and their asymmetries.Such studies are challenging since exoplanets cover only a tiny fraction of the stellar disk. Current work, analyzing sequences of high-fidelity ESO UVES spectra, demonstrate that such spatially resolved stellar spectra can already be (marginally) retrieved in a few cases with the brightest host stars. Already in a near future, ongoing exoplanet surveys are likely to find further bright hosts that will enable such studies for various stellar types. http://arxiv.org/abs/1408.1402

  6. Stellar populations of stellar halos: Results from the Illustris Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Benjamin Arthur; Conroy, Charlie; Pillepich, Annalisa; Hernquist, Lars

    2015-08-01

    The properties of stellar populations in galactic stellar halos represent a key link in uncovering the evolutionary histories of their central galaxies. We analyze the stellar halo properties of a statistically representative sample of galaxies over a wide mass range from the Illustris simulation. Illustris’ large cosmological volume and self-consistent treatment of elemental enrichment and gas dynamics at kpc resolution make it a novel laboratory to study the information content of galactic stellar halos. We measure metallicity and age profiles, as well as the metallicity distribution function of stellar particles, in the halos of Illustris galaxies ranging in stellar mass from 10^10 to 10^12 solar masses. We study the dependence of these properties on galactic stellar mass and morphological type, finding that metallicity gradients become flatter in more massive galaxies, in qualitative agreement with observations. We connect properties of the stellar halo to the accretion history of the galaxy in order to aid in the interpretation of ongoing surveys of stellar halos in the nearby universe.

  7. Search for gravitational waves from compact binary coalescence in LIGO and Virgo data from S5 and VSR1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G.; Amador Ceron, E.; Amin, R. S.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Antonucci, F.; Arain, M. A.; Araya, M.; Aronsson, M.; Arun, K. G.; Aso, Y.; Aston, S.; Astone, P.; Atkinson, D. E.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Baker, P.; Ballardin, G.; Ballinger, T.; Ballmer, S.; Barker, D.; Barnum, S.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barriga, P.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Bastarrika, M.; Bauchrowitz, J.; Bauer, Th. S.; Behnke, B.; Beker, M. G.; Belletoile, A.; Benacquista, M.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Beveridge, N.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bigotta, S.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birindelli, S.; Biswas, R.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bland, B.; Blom, M.; Boccara, C.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bondarescu, R.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Bose, S.; Bosi, L.; Bouhou, B.; Boyle, M.; Braccini, S.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Breyer, J.; Bridges, D. O.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Budzy?ski, R.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Burguet–Castell, J.; Burmeister, O.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cain, J.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Campagna, E.; Campsie, P.; Cannizzo, J.; Cannon, K. C.; Canuel, B.; Cao, J.; Capano, C.; Carbognani, F.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cesarini, E.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chalkley, E.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chelkowski, S.; Chen, Y.; Chincarini, A.; Christensen, N.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, C. T. Y.; Clark, D.; Clark, J.; Clayton, J. H.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Colacino, C. N.; Colas, J.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coulon, J.-P.; Coward, D.; Coyne, D. C.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cruise, A. M.; Culter, R. M.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dahl, K.; Danilishin, S. L.; Dannenberg, R.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Das, K.; Dattilo, V.; Daudert, B.; Davier, M.; Davies, G.; Davis, A.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Dayanga, T.; de Rosa, R.; Debra, D.; Degallaix, J.; Del Prete, M.; Dergachev, V.; Derosa, R.; Desalvo, R.; Devanka, P.; Dhurandhar, S.; di Fiore, L.; di Lieto, A.; di Palma, I.; di Paolo Emilio, M.; di Virgilio, A.; Díaz, M.; Dietz, A.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doomes, E. E.; Dorsher, S.; Douglas, E. S. D.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Dueck, J.; Dumas, J.-C.; Eberle, T.; Edgar, M.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Ehrens, P.; Ely, G.; Engel, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, Y.; Farr, B. F.; Fazi, D.; Fehrmann, H.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Flaminio, R.; Flanigan, M.; Flasch, K.; Foley, S.; Forrest, C.; Forsi, E.; Fotopoulos, N.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franc, J.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Friedrich, D.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Galimberti, M.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garofoli, J. A.; Garufi, F.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, C.; Goetz, E.; Goggin, L. M.; González, G.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Greverie, C.; Grosso, R.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hage, B.; Hall, P.; Hallam, J. M.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Haughian, K.; Hayama, K.; Hayau, J.-F.; Hayler, T.; Heefner, J.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hirose, E.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Howell, E.; Hoyland, D.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh–Dinh, T.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isogai, T.; Ivanov, A.; Jaranowski, P.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kanner, J.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kawazoe, F.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kim, H.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kopparapu, R.; Koranda, S.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D.; Krause, T.; Kringel, V.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kullman, J.; Kumar, R.; Kwee, P.; Landry, M.; Lang, M.; Lantz, B.; Lastzka, N.; Lazzarini, A.; Leaci, P.; Leong, J.; Leonor, I.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Li, J.

    2010-11-01

    We report the results of the first search for gravitational waves from compact binary coalescence using data from the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory and Virgo detectors. Five months of data were collected during the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory’s S5 and Virgo’s VSR1 science runs. The search focused on signals from binary mergers with a total mass between 2 and 35M?. No gravitational waves are identified. The cumulative 90%-confidence upper limits on the rate of compact binary coalescence are calculated for nonspinning binary neutron stars, black hole-neutron star systems, and binary black holes to be 8.7×10-3yr-1L10-1, 2.2×10-3yr-1L10-1, and 4.4×10-4yr-1L10-1, respectively, where L10 is 1010 times the blue solar luminosity. These upper limits are compared with astrophysical expectations.

  8. Using modern stellar observables to constrain stellar parameters and the physics of the stellar interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Saders, Jennifer L.

    2014-05-01

    The current state and future evolution of a star is, in principle, specified by a only a few physical quantities: the mass, age, hydrogen, helium, and metal abundance. These same fundamental quantities are crucial for reconstructing the history of stellar systems ranging in scale from planetary systems to galaxies. However, the fundamental parameters are rarely directly observable, and we are forced to use proxies that are not always sensitive or unique functions of the stellar parameters we wish to determine. Imprecise or inaccurate determinations of the fundamental parameters often limit our ability to draw inferences about a given system. As new technologies, instruments, and observing techniques become available, the list of viable stellar observables increases, and we can explore new links between the observables and fundamental quantities in an effort to better characterize stellar systems. In the era of missions such as Kepler, time-domain observables such as the stellar rotation period and stellar oscillations are now available for an unprecedented number of stars, and future missions promise to further expand the sample. Furthermore, despite the successes of stellar evolution models, the processes and detailed structure of the deep stellar interior remains uncertain. Even in the case of well-measured, well understood stellar observables, the link to the underlying parameters contains uncertainties due to our imperfect understanding of stellar interiors. Model uncertainties arise from sources such as the treatment of turbulent convection, transport of angular momentum and mixing, and assumptions about the physical conditions of stellar matter. By carefully examining the sensitivity of stellar observables to physical processes operating within the star and model assumptions, we can design observational tests for the theory of stellar interiors. I propose a series of tools based on new or revisited stellar observables that can be used both to constrain stellar parameters and the physics of the interior. I examine how the acoustic signature of the location of the base of stellar convective envelopes can be used as an absolute abundance indicator, and describe a novel 3He-burning instability in low mass stars along with the observational signatures of such a process. Finally, I examine the manner in which stellar rotation, observed in a population of objects, can be used as a means to distinguish between different evolutionary states, masses, and ages. I emphasize that rotation periods can be used as age indicators (as often discussed in the literature), but that the interpretation of rotation periods must be made within the context of the full stellar population to arrive at accurate results.

  9. Population sub-structure and patterns of quantitative variation among the Gollas of Southern Andhra Pradesh, India

    E-print Network

    Reddy, B. Mohan; Pfeffer, Alexa; Crawford, Michael H.; Langstieh, Banrida T.

    2001-08-01

    Population substructure and biological differentiation was studied among the Golla, a pastoral caste living in the southern areas of Andhra Pradesh (AP) in India, using 11 anthropometric measurements and 20 quantitative dermatoglyphic variables...

  10. Stellar figure sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, W. N.

    1973-01-01

    A compilation of analytical and experimental data is presented concerning the stellar figure sensor. The sensor is an interferometric device which is located in the focal plane of an orbiting large space telescope (LST). The device was designed to perform interferometry on the optical wavefront of a single star after it has propagated through the LST. An analytical model of the device was developed and its accuracy was verified by an operating laboratory breadboard. A series of linear independent control equations were derived which define the operations required for utilizing a focal plane figure sensor in the control loop for the secondary mirror position and for active control of the primary mirror.

  11. Variation in Recovery: Role of Gender on Outcomes of Young AMI Patients (VIRGO) Study Design

    PubMed Central

    Lichtman, Judith H.; Lorenze, Nancy P.; D’Onofrio, Gail; Spertus, John A.; Lindau, Stacy T.; Morgan, Thomas M.; Herrin, Jeph; Bueno, Héctor; Mattera, Jennifer A.; Ridker, Paul M.; Krumholz, Harlan M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Among individuals with ischemic heart disease, young women with an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) represent an extreme phenotype associated with an excess mortality risk. While women younger than 55 years of age account for less than 5% of hospitalized AMI events, almost 16,000 deaths are reported annually in this group, making heart disease a leading killer of young women. Despite a higher risk of mortality compared with similarly aged men, young women have been the subject of few studies. Methods Variation in Recovery: Role of Gender on Outcomes of Young AMI Patients (VIRGO) is a large, observational study of the presentation, treatment and outcomes of young women and men with AMI. VIRGO will enroll 2,000 women, 18–55 years of age, with AMI and a comparison cohort of 1,000 men with AMI from more than 100 participating hospitals. The aims of the study are: to determine sex differences in the distribution and prognostic importance of biological, demographic, clinical, and psychosocial risk factors; determine whether there are sex differences in the quality of care received by young AMI patients; and determine how these factors contribute to sex differences in outcomes (including mortality, hospitalization and health status). Blood serum and DNA for consenting participants will be stored for future studies. Conclusions VIRGO will seek to identify novel and prognostic factors that contribute to outcomes in this young AMI population. Results from the study will be used to develop clinically useful risk-stratification models for young AMI patients, explain sex differences in outcomes and identify targets for intervention. PMID:21081748

  12. Characterization Method for 3D Substructure of Nuclear Cell Based on Orthogonal Phase Images

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Ying; Liang, Minjie; Hua, Tingting; Xu, Yuanyuan; Xin, Zhiduo; Wang, Yawei

    2015-01-01

    A set of optical models associated with blood cells are introduced in this paper. All of these models are made up of different parts possessing symmetries. The wrapped phase images as well as the unwrapped ones from two orthogonal directions related to some of these models are obtained by simulation technique. Because the phase mutation occurs on the boundary between nucleus and cytoplasm as well as on the boundary between cytoplasm and environment medium, the equation of inflexion curve is introduced to describe the size, morphology, and substructure of the nuclear cell based on the analysis of the phase features of the model. Furthermore, a mononuclear cell model is discussed as an example to verify this method. The simulation result shows that characterization with inflexion curve based on orthogonal phase images could describe the substructure of the cells availably, which may provide a new way to identify the typical biological cells quickly without scanning. PMID:26355740

  13. The Aspen Framework for Dark Matter Substructure Inference from Strong Gravitational Lensing Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Cyr-Racine, Francis-Yan; Keeton, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    The properties of the dark matter particle or particles lead to different small scale halo populations, distributions, and evolution over cosmic time. We introduce a new method for characterizing the properties of substructure within galaxies through the power spectrum of potential fluctuations, and demonstrate how complete sets of multiwavelength imaging and time domain observations can be processed directly to infer all facets of the strong gravitational lensing components and source properties, including the dark matter substructure power spectrum constraints. We are able to take advantage of analysis parallels with cosmic background radiation techniques, and furthermore demonstrate how this technique, dubbed The Aspen Framework, reduces to the long-standing approach of working with reduced or derived observable quantities in lensing.

  14. Performance of large-R jets and jet substructure reconstruction with the ATLAS detector

    E-print Network

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the application of techniques to study jet substructure. The performance of modified jet algorithms for a variety of jet types and event topologies is investigated. Properties of jets subjected to the mass-drop filtering, trimming and pruning algorithms are found to have a reduced sensitivity to multiple proton-proton interactions and exhibit improved stability at high luminosity. Monte Carlo studies of the signal-background discrimination with jet grooming in new physics searches based on jet invariant mass and jet substructure properties are also presented. The application of jet trimming is shown to improve the robustness of large-R jet measurements, reduce sensitivity to the superfluous effects due to the intense environment of the high luminosity LHC, and improve the physics potential of searches for heavy boosted objects. The analyses presented in this note use the full 2011 ATLAS dataset, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.7 \\pm 0.2 fb?1 .

  15. On the application of generic BE substructuring algorithm to analyze three-dimensional composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    De Araujo, Francisco Celio

    2007-01-01

    A generic 3-D boundary-element substructuring algorithm, based on iterative solvers, is applied to solve problems involving composite materials. The substructuring technique is optimal regarding memory requirements for storing the resulting sparse matrices, and its efficiency is increased by implementing structured matrix-vector products in the built-in Krylov solver. Moreover, special integration techniques are employed to effect the modeling of thin-walled parts of the composites, such as thin layers or reinforcing elements. To test the performance of the algorithm, effective mechanical properties of carbon-nanotube-reinforced composites are estimated by analyzing representative volume elements. The advantages of the coupling algorithm for developing parallel BE codes are also highlighted.

  16. Interference substructure of above-threshold ionization peaks in the stabilization regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyota, Koudai; Tolstikhin, Oleg I.; Morishita, Toru; Watanabe, Shinichi

    2008-09-01

    The photoelectron spectra produced in the photodetachment of H- (treated in the single-active-electron approximation) by strong high-frequency laser pulses with adequately chosen laser parameters in the stabilization regime are theoretically studied for elliptic polarization over an extended parameter range. An oscillating substructure in the above-threshold ionization peaks is observed, which confirms similar findings in the one-dimensional (1D) [K. Toyota , Phys. Rev. A 76, 043418 (2007)] and 3D calculations for linear polarization [O. I. Tolstikhin, Phys. Rev. A 77, 032712 (2008)]. The mechanism is an interference between the photoelectron wave packets created in the rising and falling parts of the pulse which is specific to the stabilization regime. We thus conclude that this interference substructure is robust for any polarization and over a wide range of the laser parameters, and hence should be observable experimentally.

  17. Kinematics, Substructure and Luminosity-weighted Dynamics of Six Nearby Galaxy Groups

    E-print Network

    P. Firth; E. Evstigneeva; J. B. Jones; M. J. Drinkwater; S. Phillipps; M. D. Gregg

    2006-08-28

    We have redefined group membership of six southern galaxy groups in the local universe (mean cz acquired Anglo-Australian Telescope 2dF spectra. For each group, we investigate member galaxy kinematics, substructure, luminosity functions and luminosity-weighted dynamics. Our calculations confirm that the group sizes, virial masses and luminosities cover the range expected for galaxy groups, except that the luminosity of NGC 4038 is boosted by the central starburst merger pair. We find that a combination of kinematical, substructural and dynamical techniques can reliably distinguish loose, unvirialised groups from compact, dynamically relaxed groups. Applying these techniques, we find that Dorado, NGC 4038 and NGC 4697 are unvirialised, whereas NGC 681, NGC 1400 and NGC 5084 are dynamically relaxed.

  18. Kinematics, Substructure and Luminosity-weighted Dynamics of Six Nearby Galaxy Groups

    E-print Network

    Firth, P; Jones, J B; Drinkwater, M J; Phillipps, S; Gregg, M D

    2006-01-01

    We have redefined group membership of six southern galaxy groups in the local universe (mean cz acquired Anglo-Australian Telescope 2dF spectra. For each group, we investigate member galaxy kinematics, substructure, luminosity functions and luminosity-weighted dynamics. Our calculations confirm that the group sizes, virial masses and luminosities cover the range expected for galaxy groups, except that the luminosity of NGC 4038 is boosted by the central starburst merger pair. We find that a combination of kinematical, substructural and dynamical techniques can reliably distinguish loose, unvirialised groups from compact, dynamically relaxed groups. Applying these techniques, we find that Dorado, NGC 4038 and NGC 4697 are unvirialised, whereas NGC 681, NGC 1400 and NGC 5084 are dynamically relaxed.

  19. Mechanical properties of the hierarchical honeycombs with stochastic Voronoi sub-structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yinghong; Pugno, Nicola; Gong, Baoming; Wang, Dongpo; Sun, Yongtao; Ding, Qian

    2015-09-01

    The introduction of hierarchy into structures has been credited with changing mechanical properties. In this study, periodically hierarchical honeycomb with irregular sub-structure cells has been designed based on the Voronoi tessellation algorithm. Numerical investigation has been performed to determine the influence of structural hierarchy and irregularity on the in-plane elastic properties. Irregular hierarchical honeycombs can be up to 3 times stiffer than regular hexagonal honeycombs on an equal density basis. Both the stiffness and Poisson's ratio of the hierarchical honeycomb are insensitive to the degree of regularity, and depend on the cell-wall thickness-to-length ratio of the super-structure. Increasing the relative lengths of the super- and sub-structures results in the increment of Young's modulus, whereas Poisson's ratio almost remains constant varying from 1.0 to 0.7.

  20. Substructure in the Hubble Frontier Fields clusters from weak lensing flexion measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rexroth, Markus

    2015-08-01

    Flexion is the second order weak gravitational lensing effect which is responsible for the arclike appearance of lensed sources. Its strong signal in the intermediate regime and the orthogonality to the shear field make flexion an ideal complement to today's strong and weak lensing measurements. Furthermore, its high sensitivity to local density peaks makes it a great tool for detecting substructure and increasing the resolution of mass maps. The strength of the Hubble Frontier Fields clusters and the high quality of the data make these objects a prime target for flexion measurements. We present an automated measurement pipeline and substructure constraints from its application to the clusters MACSJ0416.1-2403 and Abell 2744.

  1. A Deep Tech Pan Survey of Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies in Virgo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Quentin A.; Phillipps, Steven

    We have made a very deep photographic R band survey of a region of the Virgo Cluster by utilising digital stacking of scans of Tech Pan films taken on the U.K. Schmidt Telescope. The objects we detect have the same physical sizes and surface brightnesses as Local Group dwarf spheroidal galaxies. The luminosity function of these extremely low luminosity galaxies (down to MR ? -11 or about 5 times 10-5 Lstar) is very steep, with a power law slope ? ? -2, supporting previous observational evidence at somewhat higher luminosities in other clusters.

  2. Measuring the Hubble constant and our Virgo-infall velocity independently

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Nanyao Y.; Salpeter, E. E.; Hoffman, G. Lyle

    1994-01-01

    A sample of spiral galaxies with B(sub T) less than 14.5 located in two local volumes, one in the direction of, but behind, the Virgo Cluster (behind-Virgo volume (BV)) and the other in the opposite direction (anti-Virgo volume (AV)), were used via a Tully-Fisher (TF) relation to derive the following two parameters: H(sub AB), the mean Hubble ratio between AV and BV, and delta v(sub parallel), the peculiar velocity of the Local Group in the direction of the Virgo Cluster (VC) with respect to a uniformly expanding reference system defined by our AV and BV sub-samples. The two sampled volumes, separated by a velocity interval of 5600 km/s, form an antipodal pair. This particular geometry not only allows us to derive the two parameters independently but also reduces the dynamical effect of the Local Supercluster on H(sub AB) without increasing the Malmquist bias. By limiting our sample to spiral galaxies having large velocity widths W(sub R), we effectively reduce the TF scatter and Malmquist bias in our sample. The TF zero point and dispersion were then determined by further correcting for the small residual Malmquist bias. An additional sample of fainter galaxies was used to test for a non-Gaussian tail to the TF disperison. We found no evidence for such a tail and formally give an upper limit of about 18% for the fractional contribution of an unseen tail. The average intrinsic TF dispersion for the dominant Gaussian component is sigma(sub TF)(sup 0) approximately 0.33 mag for W(sub R) approximately equal to or greater than 180 km/s. Our numerical results are delta v(sub parallel) approximately equals 414 +/- 82 km/s and H(sub AB) approximately equals (84.0 +/- 2.4)(1 + epsilon) km/s Mpc, where (1 + epsilon) accounts for any systematic error between the calibrators and the sample galaxies. Various dynamical models were tested to explore the effect on H(sub AB) of the uncertainties in the local velocity field. Constrained by our observed delta v(sub parallel) as well as other observational quantities, we found that the rms deviation from unity of H(sub AB)/H(sub 0) (where H(sub 0) is the Hubble constant for each model) is 5%, making H(sub AB) a good indicator for H(sub 0). Taking this variation as an additional error, our formal estimate for the Hubble constant is H(sub 0) approximately equals (84 +/- 5)(1 + epsilon) km/s Mpc.

  3. The importance of the cosmic web and halo substructure for power spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, Francesco; Manera, Marc; Bacon, David J.; Crittenden, Robert; Percival, Will J.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we study the relevance of the cosmic web and substructures on the matter and lensing power spectra measured from halo mock catalogues extracted from the N-body simulations. Since N-body simulations are computationally expensive, it is common to use faster methods that approximate the dark matter field as a set of haloes. In this approximation, we replace mass concentrations in N-body simulations by a spherically symmetric Navarro-Frenk-White halo density profile. We also consider the full mass field as the sum of two distinct fields: dark matter haloes (M > 9 × 1012 M? h-1) and particles not included into haloes. Mock haloes reproduce well the matter power spectrum, but underestimate the lensing power spectrum on large and small scales. For sources at zs = 1 the lensing power spectrum is underestimated by up to 40 per cent at ? ? 104 with respect to the simulated haloes. The large-scale effect can be alleviated by combining the mock catalogue with the dark matter distribution outside the haloes. In addition, to evaluate the contribution of substructures we have smeared out the intrahalo substructures in an N-body simulation while keeping the halo density profiles unchanged. For the matter power spectrum the effect of this smoothing is only of the order of 5 per cent, but for lensing substructures and ellipticity are much more important: for ? ? 104 modifications to the internal structure contribute to 30 per cent of the total spectrum. These findings have important implications in the way mock catalogues have to be created, suggesting that some approximate methods currently used for galaxy surveys will be inadequate for future weak lensing surveys.

  4. Modeling the Role of Dislocation Substructure During Class M and Exponential Creep. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, S. V.; Iskovitz, Ilana Seiden; Freed, A. D.

    1995-01-01

    The different substructures that form in the power-law and exponential creep regimes for single phase crystalline materials under various conditions of stress, temperature and strain are reviewed. The microstructure is correlated both qualitatively and quantitatively with power-law and exponential creep as well as with steady state and non-steady state deformation behavior. These observations suggest that creep is influenced by a complex interaction between several elements of the microstructure, such as dislocations, cells and subgrains. The stability of the creep substructure is examined in both of these creep regimes during stress and temperature change experiments. These observations are rationalized on the basis of a phenomenological model, where normal primary creep is interpreted as a series of constant structure exponential creep rate-stress relationships. The implications of this viewpoint on the magnitude of the stress exponent and steady state behavior are discussed. A theory is developed to predict the macroscopic creep behavior of a single phase material using quantitative microstructural data. In this technique the thermally activated deformation mechanisms proposed by dislocation physics are interlinked with a previously developed multiphase, three-dimensional. dislocation substructure creep model. This procedure leads to several coupled differential equations interrelating macroscopic creep plasticity with microstructural evolution.

  5. Mitochondrial haplotypes reveal olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) population substructure in the Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    van Asch, Barbara; Pereira-Castro, Isabel; Rei, Fernando; da Costa, Luís Teixeira

    2012-06-01

    The olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) is the most important olive tree (Olea europaea) pest. In the Mediterranean basin, where 98 % of its main hosts are concentrated, it causes major agricultural losses, due to its negative effect on production and quality of both olive and olive oil. Previous phylogeographic analyses have established that Mediterranean olive fly populations are distinct from other Old World populations, but did not agree on the specific population substructure within this region. In order to achieve a higher resolution of the diversity of olive fly populations, particularly in Central and Western Mediterranean (home to 70 % of the world production), we comparatively analyzed a set of samples from Portugal in the context of published mitochondrial sequences across the species' worldwide range. Strong evidence of population substructure was found in the Central and Western Mediterranean area, with two clearly separate phylogenetic branches. Together with previously published data, our results strongly support the existence of at least three distinct Mediterranean populations of the olive fly, raise the possibility of additional regional substructure and suggest specific avenues for future research. This knowledge can be instrumental in the development of better management and control strategies for a major pest of Mediterranean agriculture. PMID:22825843

  6. RAG-3D: a search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    PubMed Central

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    To address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding. PMID:26304547

  7. Constraining dark matter sub-structure with the dynamics of astrophysical systems

    SciTech Connect

    González-Morales, Alma X.; Valenzuela, Octavio; Aguilar, Luis A. E-mail: octavio@astro.unam.mx

    2013-03-01

    The accuracy of the measurements of some astrophysical dynamical systems allows to constrain the existence of incredibly small gravitational perturbations. In particular, the internal Solar System dynamics (planets, Earth-Moon) opens up the possibility, for the first time, to prove the abundance, mass and size, of dark sub-structures at the Earth vicinity. We find that adopting the standard dark matter density, its local distribution can be composed by sub-solar mass halos with no currently measurable dynamical consequences, regardless of the mini-halo fraction. On the other hand, it is possible to exclude the presence of dark streams with linear mass densities higher than ?{sub st} > 10{sup ?10}M{sub ?}/AU (about the Earth mass spread along the diameter of the SS up to the Kuiper belt). In addition, we review the dynamics of wide binaries inside the dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the Milky Way. The dynamics of such kind of binaries seem to be compatible with the presence of a huge fraction of dark sub-structure, thus their existence is not a sharp discriminant of the dark matter hypothesis as been claimed before. However, there are regimes where the constraints from different astrophysical systems may reveal the sub-structure mass function cut-off scale.

  8. DISCOVERY OF SUBSTRUCTURE IN THE SCATTER-BROADENED IMAGE OF SGR A*

    SciTech Connect

    Gwinn, C. R.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Soglasnov, V. A.

    2014-10-10

    We have detected substructure within the smooth scattering disk of the celebrated Galactic center radio source Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*). We observed this structure at 1.3 cm wavelength with the Very Long Baseline Array together with the Green Bank Telescope, on baselines of up to 3000 km, long enough to completely resolve the average scattering disk. Such structure is predicted theoretically as a consequence of refraction by large-scale plasma fluctuations in the interstellar medium. Along with the much-studied ?{sub d}??{sup 2} scaling of angular broadening ?{sub d} with observing wavelength ?, our observations indicate that the spectrum of interstellar turbulence is shallow with an inner scale larger than 300 km. The substructure is consistent with an intrinsic size of about 1 mas at 1.3 cm wavelength, as inferred from deconvolution of the average scattering. Further observations of the substructure can set stronger constraints on the properties of scattering material and on the intrinsic size of Sgr A*. These constraints will guide our understanding of the effects of scatter broadening and the emission physics near the black hole in images with the Event Horizon Telescope at millimeter wavelengths.

  9. Automatic identification of mobile and rigid substructures in molecular dynamics simulations and fractional structural fluctuation analysis.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of structural mobility in molecular dynamics plays a key role in data interpretation, particularly in the simulation of biomolecules. The most common mobility measures computed from simulations are the Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD) and Root Mean Square Fluctuations (RMSF) of the structures. These are computed after the alignment of atomic coordinates in each trajectory step to a reference structure. This rigid-body alignment is not robust, in the sense that if a small portion of the structure is highly mobile, the RMSD and RMSF increase for all atoms, resulting possibly in poor quantification of the structural fluctuations and, often, to overlooking important fluctuations associated to biological function. The motivation of this work is to provide a robust measure of structural mobility that is practical, and easy to interpret. We propose a Low-Order-Value-Optimization (LOVO) strategy for the robust alignment of the least mobile substructures in a simulation. These substructures are automatically identified by the method. The algorithm consists of the iterative superposition of the fraction of structure displaying the smallest displacements. Therefore, the least mobile substructures are identified, providing a clearer picture of the overall structural fluctuations. Examples are given to illustrate the interpretative advantages of this strategy. The software for performing the alignments was named MDLovoFit and it is available as free-software at: http://leandro.iqm.unicamp.br/mdlovofit. PMID:25816325

  10. Stellar populations of stellar halos: Results from the Illustris simulation

    E-print Network

    Cook, B A; Pillepich, A; Hernquist, L

    2015-01-01

    The influence of both major and minor mergers is expected to significantly affect gradients of stellar ages and metallicities in the outskirts of galaxies. Measurements of observed gradients are beginning to reach large radii in galaxies, but a theoretical framework for connecting the findings to a picture of galactic build-up is still in its infancy. We analyze stellar populations of a statistically representative sample of quiescent galaxies over a wide mass range from the Illustris simulation. We measure metallicity and age profiles in the stellar halos of quiescent Illustris galaxies ranging in stellar mass from $10^{10}$ to $10^{12} M_\\odot$, accounting for observational projection and luminosity-weighting effects. We find wide variance in stellar population gradients between galaxies of similar mass, with typical gradients agreeing with observed galaxies. We show that, at fixed mass, the fraction of stars born in-situ within galaxies is correlated with the metallicity gradient in the halo, confirming th...

  11. The spatial evolution of stellar structures in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastian, Nate; Gieles, Mark; Ercolano, Barbara; Gutermuth, Rob

    2009-01-01

    We present an analysis of the spatial distribution of various stellar populations within the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We combine mid-infrared selected young stellar objects, optically selected samples with mean ages between ~9 and ~1000 Myr and existing stellar cluster catalogues to investigate how stellar structures form and evolve within the LMC. For the analysis we use Fractured Minimum Spanning Trees, the statistical Q parameter and the two-point correlation function. Restricting our analysis to young massive (OB) stars, we confirm our results obtained for M33, namely that the luminosity function of the groups is well described by a power law with index -2, and that there is no characteristic length-scale of star-forming regions. We find that stars in the LMC are born with a large amount of substructure, consistent with a two-dimensional fractal distribution with dimension and evolve towards a uniform distribution on a time-scale of ~175 Myr. This is comparable to the crossing time of the galaxy, and we suggest that stellar structure, regardless of spatial scale, will be eliminated in a crossing time. This may explain the smooth distribution of stars in massive/dense young clusters in the Galaxy, while other, less massive, clusters still display large amounts of structure at similar ages. By comparing the stellar and star cluster distributions and evolving time-scales, we show that infant mortality of clusters (or `popping clusters') has a negligible influence on the galactic structure. Finally, we quantify the influence of the elongation, differential extinction and contamination of a population on the measured Q value.

  12. COROT - Stellar seismology from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, E.

    1998-11-01

    COROT is a high-precision, wide field stellar photometry experiment from space, funded in the framework of the CNES ``Petites Missions'' program. The scientific objectives are stellar seismology and the search for telluric exoplanets and the spacecraft consists of an off-axis telescope with a 27 cm aperture that will be placed in a near-earth polar orbit.

  13. The Dartmouth Stellar Evolution Database

    E-print Network

    Aaron Dotter; Brian Chaboyer; Darko Jevremovic; Veselin Kostov; E. Baron; J. W. Ferguson

    2008-04-28

    The ever-expanding depth and quality of photometric and spectroscopic observations of stellar populations increase the need for theoretical models in regions of age-composition parameter space that are largely unexplored at present. Stellar evolution models that employ the most advanced physics and cover a wide range of compositions are needed to extract the most information from current observations of both resolved and unresolved stellar populations. The Dartmouth Stellar Evolution Database is a collection of stellar evolution tracks and isochrones that spans a range of [Fe/H] from -2.5 to +0.5, [alpha/Fe] from -0.2 to +0.8 (for [Fe/H] 0), and initial He mass fractions from Y=0.245 to 0.40. Stellar evolution tracks were computed for masses between 0.1 and 4 Msun, allowing isochrones to be generated for ages as young as 250 Myr. For the range in masses where the core He flash occurs, separate He-burning tracks were computed starting from the zero age horizontal branch. The tracks and isochrones have been transformed to the observational plane in a variety of photometric systems including standard UBV(RI)c, Stromgren uvby, SDSS ugriz, 2MASS JHKs, and HST ACS-WFC and WFPC2. The Dartmouth Stellar Evolution Database is accessible through a website at http://stellar.dartmouth.edu/~models/ where all tracks, isochrones, and additional files can be downloaded.

  14. Radioactive elements in stellar atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Gopka, Vira; Yushchenko, Alexander; Goriely, Stephane; Shavrina, Angelina; Kang, Young Woon

    2006-07-12

    The identification of lines of radioactive elements (Tc, Pm and elements with 83stellar atmospheres, contamination of stellar atmosphere by recent SN explosion, and spallation reactions.

  15. Molecular gas and star formation in the centers of Virgo spirals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canzian, Blaise

    1990-01-01

    The CO and H alpha flux distributions for a sample of Virgo spirals were mapped out in an attempt to understand the coupling between gas dynamics and star formation in spiral galaxies. A broad range of morphological types were observed (types Sab through Scd) under the hypothesis that the gas dynamics is most influential in determining the overall appearance of a spiral galaxy. Only non-barred spirals were considered so that the well-studied but complicated properties of bars and their role in inducing star formation would not be a factor. All galaxies were chosen from the Virgo cluster to eliminate uncertainties due to distance errors. Since the dynamical seat of a spiral is at its center, it was expected that the dynamics of the central region would influence global properties of the rest of the disk. This could happen through the existence or absence of an inner Lindblad resonance (according to the degree of central concentration of mass) to modulate swing amplification of spiral waves, or the persistence of an oval distortion to initiate an instability which leads to spiral structure.

  16. Virgo calibration and reconstruction of the gravitational wave strain during VSR1

    E-print Network

    The Virgo collaboration; T. Accadia; F. Acernese; F. Antonucci; S. Aoudia; K. G. Arun; P. Astone; G. Ballardin; F. Barone; M. Barsuglia; Th. S. Bauer; M. G. Beker; A. Belletoile; S. Bigotta; S. Birindelli; M. Bitossi; M. A. Bizouard; M. Blom; C. Boccara; F. Bondu; L. Bonelli; R. Bonnand; L. Bosi; S. Braccini; C. Bradaschia; A. Brillet; V. Brisson; R. Budzynski; T. Bulik; H. J. Bulten; D. Buskulic; C. Buy; G. Cagnoli; E. Calloni; E. Campagna; B. Canuel; F. Carbognani; F. Cavalier; R. Cavalieri; G. Cella; E. Cesarini; E. Chassande-Mottin; A. Chincarini; F. Cleva; E. Coccia; C. N. Colacino; J. Colas; A. Colla; M. Colombini; A. Corsi; J. -P. Coulon; E. Cuoco; S. D'Antonio; A. Dari; V. Dattilo; M. Davier; R. Day; R. De Rosa; M. del Prete; L. Di Fiore; A. Di Lieto; M. Di Paolo Emilio; A. Di Virgilio; A. Dietz; M. Drago; V. Fafone; I. Ferrante; F. Fidecaro; I. Fiori; R. Flaminio; J. -D. Fournier; J. Franc; S. Frasca; F. Frasconi; A. Freise; M. Galimberti; L. Gammaitoni; F. Garufi; G. Gemme; E. Genin; A. Gennai; A. Giazotto; R. Gouaty; M. Granata; C. Greverie; G. M. Guidi; H. Heitmann; P. Hello; S. Hild; D. Huet; P. Jaranowski; I. Kowalska; A. Krolak; N. Leroy; N. Letendre; T. G. F. Li; M. Lorenzini; V. Loriette; G. Losurdo; J. M. Mackowski; E. Majorana; I. Maksimovic; N. Man; M. Mantovani; F. Marchesoni; F. Marion; J. Marque; F. Martelli; A. Masserot; C. Michel; L. Milano; Y. Minenkov; M. Mohan; J. Moreau; N. Morgado; A. Morgia; S. Mosca; V. Moscatelli; B. Mours; I. Neri; F. Nocera; G. Pagliaroli; L. Palladino; C. Palomba; F. Paoletti; S. Pardi; M. Parisi; A. Pasqualetti; R. Passaquieti; D. Passuello; G. Persichetti; M. Pichot; F. Piergiovanni; M. Pietka; L. Pinard; R. Poggiani; M. Prato; G. A. Prodi; M. Punturo; P. Puppo; O. Rabaste; D. S. Rabeling; P. Rapagnani; V. Re; T. Regimbau; F. Ricci; F. Robinet; A. Rocchi; L. Rolland; R. Romano; D. Rosinska; P. Ruggi; B. Sassolas; D. Sentenac; R. Sturani; B. Swinkels; A. Toncelli; M. Tonelli; O. Torre; E. Tournefier; F. Travasso; J. Trummer; G. Vajente; J. F. J. van den Brand; S. van der Putten; M. Vavoulidis; G. Vedovato; D. Verkindt; F. Vetrano; A. Vicere; J. -Y. Vinet; H. Vocca; M. Was; M. Yvert

    2010-02-19

    Virgo is a kilometer-length interferometer for gravitational waves detection located near Pisa. Its first science run, VSR1, occured from May to October 2007. The aims of the calibration are to measure the detector sensitivity and to reconstruct the time series of the gravitational wave strain h(t). The absolute length calibration is based on an original non-linear reconstruction of the differential arm length variations in free swinging Michelson configurations. It uses the laser wavelength as length standard. This method is used to calibrate the frequency dependent response of the Virgo mirror actuators and derive the detector in-loop response and sensitivity within ~5%. The principle of the strain reconstruction is highlighted and the h(t) systematic errors are estimated. A photon calibrator is used to check the sign of h(t). The reconstructed h(t) during VSR1 is valid from 10 Hz up to 10 kHz with systematic errors estimated to 6% in amplitude. The phase error is estimated to be 70 mrad below 1.9 kHz and 6 micro-seconds above.

  17. Probing the Low Surface Brightness Dwarf Galaxy Population of the Virgo Cluster

    E-print Network

    Davies, J I; Keenan, O C

    2015-01-01

    We have used public data from the Next Generation Virgo Survey (NGVS) to investigate the dwarf galaxy population of the Virgo cluster beyond what has previously been discovered. We initially mask and smooth the data, and then use the object detection algorithm Sextractor to make our initial dwarf galaxy selection. All candidates are then visually inspected to remove artefacts and duplicates. We derive Sextractor parameters to best select low surface brightness galaxies using g band central surface brightness values of 22.5 to 26.0 mag sq arc sec and exponential scale lengths of 3.0 - 10.0 arc sec to identify 443 cluster dwarf galaxies - 303 of which are new detections. These new detections have a surface density that decreases with radius from the cluster centre. We also apply our selection algorithm to 'background', non-cluster, fields and find zero detections. In combination, this leads us to believe that we have isolated a cluster dwarf galaxy population. The range of objects we are able to detect is limit...

  18. An RXTE Study of M87 and the Core of the Virgo Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Christopher S.; Heinz, Sebastian; Fabian, Andrew C.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    1998-01-01

    We present hard X-ray observations of the nearby radio galaxy M87 and the core of the Virgo cluster using the Rossi X-ray 7Tming Explorer. These are the first hard X-ray observations of M87 not affected by contamination from the nearby Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 4388. Thermal emission from Virgo's intracluster medium is clearly detected and has a spectrum indicative of kT is approximately equal to 2.5 keV plasma with approximately 25% cosmic abundances. No non-thermal (power-law) emission from M87 is detected in the hard X-ray band, with fluctuations in the Cosmic X-ray Background being the limiting factor. Combining with ROSAT data, we infer that the X-ray spectrum of the M87 core and jet must be steep (Gamma (sub core) > 1.90 and Gamma (sub jet) > 1.75), and we discuss the implications of this result. In particular, these results are consistent with M87 being a mis-aligned BL-Lac object.

  19. First low-latency LIGO+Virgo search for binary inspirals and their electromagnetic counterparts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Amador Ceron, E.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Arain, M. A.; Araya, M. C.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Atkinson, D.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S.; Barayoga, J. C. B.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Bastarrika, M.; Basti, A.; Batch, J.; Bauchrowitz, J.; Bauer, Th. S.; Bebronne, M.; Beck, D.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Beker, M. G.; Bell, A. S.; Belletoile, A.; Belopolski, I.; Benacquista, M.; Berliner, J. M.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Beveridge, N.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biswas, R.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bland, B.; Blom, M.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bogan, C.; Bondarescu, R.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bosi, L.; Bouhou, B.; Braccini, S.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Breyer, J.; Briant, T.; Bridges, D. O.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Campsie, P.; Cannizzo, J.; Cannon, K.; Canuel, B.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Carbognani, F.; Carbone, L.; Caride, S.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cesarini, E.; Chaibi, O.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chelkowski, S.; Chen, W.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Chow, J.; Christensen, N.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, C. T. Y.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, D. E.; Clark, J.; Clayton, J. H.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colacino, C. N.; Colas, J.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Conte, A.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordier, M.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M.; Coulon, J.-P.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M.; Coyne, D. C.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cruise, A. M.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Cutler, R. M.; Dahl, K.; Danilishin, S. L.; Dannenberg, R.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dattilo, V.; Daudert, B.; Daveloza, H.; Davier, M.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Dayanga, T.; De Rosa, R.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Del Pozzo, W.; del Prete, M.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Emilio, M. Di Paolo; Di Virgilio, A.; Díaz, M.; Dietz, A.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edgar, M.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Ehrens, P.; Endr?czi, G.; Engel, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, K.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, Y.; Farr, B. F.; Fazi, D.; Fehrmann, H.; Feldbaum, D.; Feroz, F.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Flanigan, M.; Foley, S.; Forsi, E.; Forte, L. A.; Fotopoulos, N.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franc, J.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Friedrich, D.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fujimoto, M.-K.; Fulda, P. J.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J.; Galimberti, M.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garcia, J.; Garufi, F.; Gáspár, M. E.; Gemme, G.; Geng, R.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Gergely, L. Á.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gil-Casanova, S.; Gill, C.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goggin, L. M.; González, G.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Gray, N.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Greverie, C.; Grosso, R.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C.; Gupta, R.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Ha, T.; Hallam, J. M.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Hartman, M. T.; Haughian, K.; Hayama, K.; Hayau, J.-F.; Heefner, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hendry, M. A.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Herrera, V.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hong, T.; Hooper, S.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Howell, E. J.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isogai, T.; Ivanov, A.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; James, E.; Jang, Y. J.; Jaranowski, P.; Jesse, E.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.

    2012-05-01

    Aims: The detection and measurement of gravitational-waves from coalescing neutron-star binary systems is an important science goal for ground-based gravitational-wave detectors. In addition to emitting gravitational-waves at frequencies that span the most sensitive bands of the LIGO and Virgo detectors, these sources are also amongst the most likely to produce an electromagnetic counterpart to the gravitational-wave emission. A joint detection of the gravitational-wave and electromagnetic signals would provide a powerful new probe for astronomy. Methods: During the period between September 19 and October 20, 2010, the first low-latency search for gravitational-waves from binary inspirals in LIGO and Virgo data was conducted. The resulting triggers were sent to electromagnetic observatories for followup. We describe the generation and processing of the low-latency gravitational-wave triggers. The results of the electromagnetic image analysis will be described elsewhere. Results: Over the course of the science run, three gravitational-wave triggers passed all of the low-latency selection cuts. Of these, one was followed up by several of our observational partners. Analysis of the gravitational-wave data leads to an estimated false alarm rate of once every 6.4 days, falling far short of the requirement for a detection based solely on gravitational-wave data.

  20. The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey: III. HI Source Catalog of the Northern Virgo Cluster Region

    E-print Network

    Giovanelli, R; Kent, B R; Saintonge, A; Stierwalt, S; Altaf, A; Balonek, T; Brosch, N; Brown, S; Catinella, B; Furniss, A; Goldstein, J; Hoffman, G L; Koopmann, R A; Kornreich, D A; Mahmood, B; Martin, A M; Masters, K L; Mitschang, A; Momjian, E; Nair, P H; Rosenberg, J L; Walsh, B

    2007-01-01

    We present the first installment of HI sources extracted from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) extragalactic survey, initiated in 2005. Sources have been extracted from 3-D spectral data cubes and then examined interactively to yield global HI parameters. A total of 730 HI detections are catalogued within the solid angle 11h44m 6.5; (b) high velocity clouds in the Milky Way or its periphery; and (c) signals of lower S/N (to ~ 4.5) which coincide spatially with an optical object of known similar redshift. Although this region of the sky has been heavily surveyed by previous targeted observations based on optical flux-- or size-- limited samples, 69% of the extracted sources are newly reported HI detections. The resultant positional accuracy of HI sources is 20" (median). The median redshift of the sample is ~7000 \\kms and its distribution reflects the known local large scale structure including the Virgo cluster. Several extended HI features are found in the vicinity of the Virgo cluster. A small percen...

  1. The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey: VI. Second HI Source Catalog of the Virgo Cluster Region

    E-print Network

    Kent, Brian R; Haynes, Martha P; Martin, Ann M; Saintonge, Amélie; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Balonek, Thomas J; Brosch, Noah; Koopmann, Rebecca A

    2008-01-01

    We present the third installment of HI sources extracted from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA extragalactic survey. This dataset continues the work of the Virgo ALFALFA catalog. The catalogs and spectra published here consist of data obtained during the 2005 and 2006 observing sessions of the survey. The catalog consists of 578 HI detections within the range 11h 36m 6.5; (b) high velocity clouds in the Milky Way or its periphery; and (c) signals of lower S/N which coincide spatially with an optical object and known redshift. 75% of the sources are newly published HI detections. Of particular note is a complex of HI clouds projected between M87 and M49 that do not coincide with any optical counterparts. Candidate objects without optical counterparts are few. The median redshift for this sample is 6500 km/s and the cz distribution exhibits the local large scale structure consisting of Virgo and the background void and the A1367-Coma supercluster regime at cz_sun ~7000 km/s. Position corrections for telescope poin...

  2. The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey: III. HI Source Catalog of the Northern Virgo Cluster Region

    E-print Network

    R. Giovanelli; M. P. Haynes; B. R. Kent; A. Saintonge; S. Stierwalt; A. Altaf; T. Balonek; N. Brosch; S. Brown; B. Catinella; A. Furniss; J. Goldstein; G. L. Hoffman; R. A. Koopmann; D. A. Kornreich; B. Mahmood; A. M. Martin; K. L. Masters; A. Mitschang; E. Momjian; P. H. Nair; J. L. Rosenberg; B. Walsh

    2007-02-12

    We present the first installment of HI sources extracted from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) extragalactic survey, initiated in 2005. Sources have been extracted from 3-D spectral data cubes and then examined interactively to yield global HI parameters. A total of 730 HI detections are catalogued within the solid angle 11h44m 6.5; (b) high velocity clouds in the Milky Way or its periphery; and (c) signals of lower S/N (to ~ 4.5) which coincide spatially with an optical object of known similar redshift. Although this region of the sky has been heavily surveyed by previous targeted observations based on optical flux-- or size-- limited samples, 69% of the extracted sources are newly reported HI detections. The resultant positional accuracy of HI sources is 20" (median). The median redshift of the sample is ~7000 \\kms and its distribution reflects the known local large scale structure including the Virgo cluster. Several extended HI features are found in the vicinity of the Virgo cluster. A small percentage (6%) of HI detections have no identifiable optical counterpart, more than half of which are high velocity clouds in the Milky Way vicinity; the remaining 17 objects do not appear connected to or associated with any known galaxy.

  3. Are the HI deficient galaxies on the outskirts of Virgo recent arrivals?

    E-print Network

    Teresa Sanchis; Jose M. Solanes; Eduard Salvador-Sole; Pascal Fouque; Alberto Manrique

    2002-07-16

    The presence on the Virgo cluster outskirts of spiral galaxies with gas deficiencies as strong as those of the inner galaxies stripped by the intracluster medium has led us to explore the possibility that some of these peripheral objects are not newcomers. A dynamical model for the collapse and rebound of spherical shells under the point mass and radial flow approximations has been developed to account for the amplitude of the motions in the Virgo I cluster (VIC) region. According to our analysis, it is not unfeasible that galaxies far from the cluster, including those in a gas-deficient group well to its background, went through its core a few Gyr ago. The implications would be: (1) that the majority of the HI-deficient spirals in the VIC region might have been deprived of their neutral hydrogen by interactions with the hot intracluster medium; and (2) that objects spending a long time outside the cluster cores might keep the gas deficient status without altering their morphology.

  4. The Solar-Stellar Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, A. S.; García, R. A.; Houdek, G.; Nandy, D.; Pinsonneault, M.

    2015-12-01

    We discuss how recent advances in observations, theory and numerical simulations have allowed the stellar community to progress in its understanding of stellar convection, rotation and magnetism and to assess the degree to which the Sun and other stars share similar dynamical properties. Ensemble asteroseismology has become a reality with the advent of large time domain studies, especially from space missions. This new capability has provided improved constraints on stellar rotation and activity, over and above that obtained via traditional techniques such as spectropolarimetry or CaII H&K observations. New data and surveys covering large mass and age ranges have provided a wide parameter space to confront theories of stellar magnetism. These new empirical databases are complemented by theoretical advances and improved multi-D simulations of stellar dynamos. We trace these pathways through which a lucid and more detailed picture of magnetohydrodynamics of solar-like stars is beginning to emerge and discuss future prospects.

  5. Early stellar evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahler, Steven W.

    1994-01-01

    Research into the formation and early evolution of stars is currently an area of great interest and activity. The theoretical and observational foundations for this development are reviewed in this paper. By now, the basic physics governing cloud collapse is well understood, as is the structure of the resulting protostars. However, the theory predicts protostellar luminosities that are greater than those of most infrared sources. Observationally, it is thought that protostars emit powerful winds that push away remnant cloud gas, but both the origin of these winds and the nature of their interaction with ambient gas are controversial. Finally, the theory of pre-main-sequence stars has been modified to incorporate more realistic initial conditions. This improvement helps to explain the distribution of such stars in the H-R diagram. Many important issues, such as the origin of binary stars and stellar clusters, remain as challenges for future research.

  6. Nucleosynthesis in stellar explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Woosley, S.E.; Axelrod, T.S.; Weaver, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    The final evolution and explosion of stars from 10 M/sub solar/ to 10/sup 6/ M/sub solar/ are reviewed with emphasis on factors affecting the expected nucleosynthesis. We order our paper in a sequence of decreasing mass. If, as many suspect, the stellar birth function was peaked towards larger masses at earlier times (see e.g., Silk 1977; but also see Palla, Salpeter, and Stahler 1983), this sequence of masses might also be regarded as a temporal sequence. At each stage of Galactic chemical evolution stars form from the ashes of preceding generations which typically had greater mass. A wide variety of Type I supernova models, most based upon accreting white dwarf stars, are also explored using the expected light curves, spectra, and nucleosynthesis as diagnostics. No clearly favored Type I model emerges that is capable of simultaneously satisfying all three constraints.

  7. Probing the evolution of stellar Andreas Zezas

    E-print Network

    Wolfe, Patrick J.

    Probing the evolution of stellar systems Andreas Zezas Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Branch #12;CMDs : Simple cases #12;The tools : Stellar Tracks (| age, Mass, Z, stellar evolution) #12

  8. Alaska Athabascan stellar astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, Christopher M.

    Stellar astronomy is a fundamental component of Alaska Athabascan cultures that facilitates time-reckoning, navigation, weather forecasting, and cosmology. Evidence from the linguistic record suggests that a group of stars corresponding to the Big Dipper is the only widely attested constellation across the Northern Athabascan languages. However, instruction from expert Athabascan consultants shows that the correlation of these names with the Big Dipper is only partial. In Alaska Gwich'in, Ahtna, and Upper Tanana languages the Big Dipper is identified as one part of a much larger circumpolar humanoid constellation that spans more than 133 degrees across the sky. The Big Dipper is identified as a tail, while the other remaining asterisms within the humanoid constellation are named using other body part terms. The concept of a whole-sky humanoid constellation provides a single unifying system for mapping the night sky, and the reliance on body-part metaphors renders the system highly mnemonic. By recognizing one part of the constellation the stargazer is immediately able to identify the remaining parts based on an existing mental map of the human body. The circumpolar position of a whole-sky constellation yields a highly functional system that facilitates both navigation and time-reckoning in the subarctic. Northern Athabascan astronomy is not only much richer than previously described; it also provides evidence for a completely novel and previously undocumented way of conceptualizing the sky---one that is unique to the subarctic and uniquely adapted to northern cultures. The concept of a large humanoid constellation may be widespread across the entire subarctic and have great antiquity. In addition, the use of cognate body part terms describing asterisms within humanoid constellations is similarly found in Navajo, suggesting a common ancestor from which Northern and Southern Athabascan stellar naming strategies derived.

  9. Asteroseismic stellar activity relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanno, A.; Corsaro, E.; Karoff, C.

    2014-11-01

    Context. In asteroseismology an important diagnostic of the evolutionary status of a star is the small frequency separation which is sensitive to the gradient of the mean molecular weight in the stellar interior. It is thus interesting to discuss the classical age-activity relations in terms of this quantity. Moreover, as the photospheric magnetic field tends to suppress the amplitudes of acoustic oscillations, it is important to quantify the importance of this effect by considering various activity indicators. Aims: We propose a new class of age-activity relations that connects the Mt. Wilson S index and the average scatter in the light curve with the small frequency separation and the amplitude of the p-mode oscillations. Methods: We used a Bayesian inference to compute the posterior probability of various empirical laws for a sample of 19 solar-like active stars observed by the Kepler telescope. Results: We demonstrate the presence of a clear correlation between the Mt. Wilson S index and the relative age of the stars as indicated by the small frequency separation, as well as an anti-correlation between the S index and the oscillation amplitudes. We argue that the average activity level of the stars shows a stronger correlation with the small frequency separation than with the absolute age that is often considered in the literature. Conclusions: The phenomenological laws discovered in this paper have the potential to become new important diagnostics to link stellar evolution theory with the dynamics of global magnetic fields. In particular we argue that the relation between the Mt. Wilson S index and the oscillation amplitudes is in good agreement with the findings of direct numerical simulations of magneto-convection.

  10. Narrow-band search of continuous gravitational-wave signals from Crab and Vela pulsars in Virgo VSR4 data

    E-print Network

    Aasi, J.

    In this paper we present the results of a coherent narrow-band search for continuous gravitational-wave signals from the Crab and Vela pulsars conducted on Virgo VSR4 data. In order to take into account a possible small ...

  11. Hubble Space Telescope First Observations of the Brightest Stars in the Virgo Galaxy M100 = NGC 4321

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, W. L.; Madore, B. F.; Stetson, P. B.; Hughes, S. M. G.; Holtzman, J. A.; Mould, J. R.; Trauger, J. T.; Gallagher, J. S., III; Ballester, G. E.; Burrows, C. J.; Casertano, S.; Clarke, J. T; Crisp, D.; Ferrarese, L.; Ford, H.; Graham, J. A.; Griffiths, R. E.; Hester, J. J.; Hill, R.; Hoessel, J. G.; Huchra, J.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Scowen, P. A.; Sparks, B.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.

    1994-01-01

    As part of both the Early Release Observations fromthe Hubble Space Telescope and the Key PRoject on the Extragalctic Distance Scale, we have obtained multi-wavelength BVR WFPC2 images for the face-on Virgo cluster spiral galaxy M11 = NGC 4321.

  12. Structural sandwich construction is used in many air and space vehicles, cargo containers, boats and ships. Connection of the sandwich construction component to a framework or substructure

    E-print Network

    Vel, Senthil

    , boats and ships. Connection of the sandwich construction component to a framework or substructure vehicles, ships, boats, cargo containers and residential construction. Sandwich construction provide

  13. Stellar Snowflake Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Stellar Snowflake Cluster Combined Image [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2 Infrared Array CameraFigure 3 Multiband Imaging Photometer

    Newborn stars, hidden behind thick dust, are revealed in this image of a section of the Christmas Tree cluster from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, created in joint effort between Spitzer's infrared array camera and multiband imaging photometer instruments.

    The newly revealed infant stars appear as pink and red specks toward the center of the combined image (fig. 1). The stars appear to have formed in regularly spaced intervals along linear structures in a configuration that resembles the spokes of a wheel or the pattern of a snowflake. Hence, astronomers have nicknamed this the 'Snowflake' cluster.

    Star-forming clouds like this one are dynamic and evolving structures. Since the stars trace the straight line pattern of spokes of a wheel, scientists believe that these are newborn stars, or 'protostars.' At a mere 100,000 years old, these infant structures have yet to 'crawl' away from their location of birth. Over time, the natural drifting motions of each star will break this order, and the snowflake design will be no more.

    While most of the visible-light stars that give the Christmas Tree cluster its name and triangular shape do not shine brightly in Spitzer's infrared eyes, all of the stars forming from this dusty cloud are considered part of the cluster.

    Like a dusty cosmic finger pointing up to the newborn clusters, Spitzer also illuminates the optically dark and dense Cone nebula, the tip of which can be seen towards the bottom left corner of each image.

    This combined image shows the presence of organic molecules mixed with dust as wisps of green, which have been illuminated by nearby star formation. The larger yellowish dots neighboring the baby red stars in the Snowflake Cluster are massive stellar infants forming from the same cloud. The blue dots sprinkled across the image represent older Milky Way stars at various distances along this line of sight. This image is a five-channel, false-color composite, showing emission from wavelengths of 3.6 and 4.5 microns (blue), 5.8 microns (cyan), 8 microns (green), and 24 microns (red).

    The top right (fig. 2) image from the infrared array camera show that the nebula is still actively forming stars. The wisps of red (represented as green in the combined image) are organic molecules mixed with dust, which has been illuminated by nearby star formation. The infrared array camera picture is a four-channel, false-color composite, showing emission from wavelengths of 3.6 microns (blue), 4.5 microns (green), 5.8 microns (orange) and 8.0 microns (red).

    The bottom right image (fig. 3) from the multiband imaging photometer shows the colder dust of the nebula and unwraps the youngest stellar babies from their dusty covering. This is a false-color image showing emission at 24 microns (red).

  14. The Hibernating Stellar Magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-09-01

    First Optically Active Magnetar-Candidate Discovered Astronomers have discovered a most bizarre celestial object that emitted 40 visible-light flashes before disappearing again. It is most likely to be a missing link in the family of neutron stars, the first case of an object with an amazingly powerful magnetic field that showed some brief, strong visible-light activity. Hibernating Stellar Magnet ESO PR Photo 31/08 The Hibernating Stellar Magnet This weird object initially misled its discoverers as it showed up as a gamma-ray burst, suggesting the death of a star in the distant Universe. But soon afterwards, it exhibited some unique behaviour that indicates its origin is much closer to us. After the initial gamma-ray pulse, there was a three-day period of activity during which 40 visible-light flares were observed, followed by a brief near-infrared flaring episode 11 days later, which was recorded by ESO's Very Large Telescope. Then the source became dormant again. "We are dealing with an object that has been hibernating for decades before entering a brief period of activity", explains Alberto J. Castro-Tirado, lead author of a paper in this week's issue of Nature. The most likely candidate for this mystery object is a 'magnetar' located in our own Milky Way galaxy, about 15 000 light-years away towards the constellation of Vulpecula, the Fox. Magnetars are young neutron stars with an ultra-strong magnetic field a billion billion times stronger than that of the Earth. "A magnetar would wipe the information from all credit cards on Earth from a distance halfway to the Moon," says co-author Antonio de Ugarte Postigo. "Magnetars remain quiescent for decades. It is likely that there is a considerable population in the Milky Way, although only about a dozen have been identified." Some scientists have noted that magnetars should be evolving towards a pleasant retirement as their magnetic fields decay, but no suitable source had been identified up to now as evidence for this evolutionary scheme. The newly discovered object, known as SWIFT J195509+261406 and showing up initially as a gamma-ray burst (GRB 070610), is the first candidate. The magnetar hypothesis for this object is reinforced by another analysis, based on another set of data, appearing in the same issue of Nature.

  15. The ATLAS3D Project - XXX. Star formation histories and stellar population scaling relations of early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDermid, Richard M.; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnovi?, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    2015-04-01

    We present the stellar population content of early-type galaxies from the ATLAS3D survey. Using spectra integrated within apertures covering up to one effective radius, we apply two methods: one based on measuring line-strength indices and applying single stellar population (SSP) models to derive SSP-equivalent values of stellar age, metallicity, and alpha enhancement; and one based on spectral fitting to derive non-parametric star formation histories, mass-weighted average values of age, metallicity, and half-mass formation time-scales. Using homogeneously derived effective radii and dynamically determined galaxy masses, we present the distribution of stellar population parameters on the Mass Plane (MJAM, ?e, R^maj_e), showing that at fixed mass, compact early-type galaxies are on average older, more metal-rich, and more alpha-enhanced than their larger counterparts. From non-parametric star formation histories, we find that the duration of star formation is systematically more extended in lower mass objects. Assuming that our sample represents most of the stellar content of today's local Universe, approximately 50 per cent of all stars formed within the first 2 Gyr following the big bang. Most of these stars reside today in the most massive galaxies (>1010.5 M?), which themselves formed 90 per cent of their stars by z ˜ 2. The lower mass objects, in contrast, have formed barely half their stars in this time interval. Stellar population properties are independent of environment over two orders of magnitude in local density, varying only with galaxy mass. In the highest density regions of our volume (dominated by the Virgo cluster), galaxies are older, alpha-enhanced, and have shorter star formation histories with respect to lower density regions.

  16. Ultraviolet astronomy and stellar atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhibullin, N.

    2008-12-01

    This paper is an attempt to answer the question: "Does ultraviolet astronomy have a future?" In the first part we discuss the modern progress in stellar atmosphere modeling. It is shown that some computing codes produce stellar atmosphere models which do not agree to each other. Hopefully UV ob- servations will remove some of these discrepancies. In the second part we review several observational problems that require UV observations. A short review of investigations on irradiated atmospheres is also given. Finally we describe those possibilities of Kazan scientific group that could can help to analyse UV stellar spectra.

  17. KAT-7 science verification: cold gas, star formation, and substructure in the nearby Antlia Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Kelley M.; Jarrett, T. H.; Carignan, Claude; Passmoor, Sean S.; Goedhart, Sharmila

    2015-09-01

    The Antlia Cluster is a nearby, dynamically young structure, and its proximity provides a valuable opportunity for detailed study of galaxy and group accretion on to clusters. We present a deep H I mosaic completed as part of spectral line commissioning of the Karoo Array Telescope (KAT-7), and identify infrared counterparts from the Widefield Infrared Survey Explorer extended source catalogue to study neutral atomic gas content and star formation within the cluster. We detect 37 cluster members out to a radius of ˜0.9 Mpc with M_{H I}>5× 10^7 M?. Of these, 35 are new H I detections, 27 do not have previous spectroscopic redshift measurements, and one is the Compton thick Seyfert II, NGC 3281, which we detect in H I absorption. The H I galaxies lie beyond the X-ray-emitting region 200 kpc from the cluster centre and have experienced ram pressure stripping out to at least 600 kpc. At larger radii, they are distributed asymmetrically suggesting accretion from surrounding filaments. Combining H I with optical redshifts, we perform a detailed dynamical analysis of the internal substructure, identify large infalling groups, and present the first compilation of the large-scale distribution of H I and star-forming galaxies within the cluster. We find that elliptical galaxy NGC 3268 is at the centre of the oldest substructure and argue that NGC 3258 and its companion population are more recent arrivals. Through the presence of H I and ongoing star formation, we rank substructures with respect to their relative time since accretion on to Antlia.

  18. SI: The Stellar Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Karovska, Margarita

    2006-01-01

    The ultra-sharp images of the Stellar Imager (SI) will revolutionize our view of many dynamic astrophysical processes: The 0.1 milliarcsec resolution of this deep-space telescope will transform point sources into extended sources, and simple snapshots into spellbinding evolving views. SI s science focuses on the role of magnetism in the Universe, particularly on magnetic activity on the surfaces of stars like the Sun. SI s prime goal is to enable long-term forecasting of solar activity and the space weather that it drives in support of the Living With a Star program in the Exploration Era by imaging a sample of magnetically active stars with enough resolution to map their evolving dynamo patterns and their internal flows. By exploring the Universe at ultra-high resolution, SI will also revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planetary systems, of the habitability and climatology of distant planets, and of many magnetohydrodynamically controlled structures and processes in the Universe.

  19. Stellar Presentations (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, D.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) The AAVSO is in the process of expanding its education, outreach and speakers bureau program. powerpoint presentations prepared for specific target audiences such as AAVSO members, educators, students, the general public, and Science Olympiad teams, coaches, event supervisors, and state directors will be available online for members to use. The presentations range from specific and general content relating to stellar evolution and variable stars to specific activities for a workshop environment. A presentation—even with a general topic—that works for high school students will not work for educators, Science Olympiad teams, or the general public. Each audience is unique and requires a different approach. The current environment necessitates presentations that are captivating for a younger generation that is embedded in a highly visual and sound-bite world of social media, twitter and U-Tube, and mobile devices. For educators, presentations and workshops for themselves and their students must support the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), the Common Core Content Standards, and the Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) initiative. Current best practices for developing relevant and engaging powerpoint presentations to deliver information to a variety of targeted audiences will be presented along with several examples.

  20. Ultraviolet stellar astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henize, K. G.; Wray, J. D.; Kondo, Y.; Ocallaghan, F. (principal investigators)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. During all three Skylab missions, prism-on observations were obtained in 188 starfields and prism-off observations in 31 starfields. In general, the fields are concentrated in the Milky Way where the frequency of hot stars is highest. These fields cover an area approximately 3660 degrees and include roughly 24 percent of a band 30 deg wide centered on the plane of the Milky Way. A census of stars in the prism-on fields shows that nearly 6,000 stars have measurable flux data at a wavelength of 2600A, that 1,600 have measurable data at 2000A, and that 400 show useful data at 1500A. Obvious absorption or emission features shortward of 2000A are visible in approximately 120 stars. This represents a bonanza of data useful for statistical studies of stellar classification and of interstellar reddening as well as for studies of various types of peculiar stars.

  1. TemplateTagger v1.0.0: A Template Matching Tool for Jet Substructure

    E-print Network

    Mihailo Backovi?; Jose Juknevich

    2013-05-31

    TemplateTagger is a C++ package for jet substructure analysis with Template Overlap Method. The code operates with arbitrary models within fixed-order perturbation theory and arbitrary kinematics. Specialized template generation classes allow the user to implement any model for a decay of a boosted heavy object. In addition to template overlap, the code provides ability to calculate other template shape and energy flow observables. We describe in detail the structure of the package, as well as provide examples of its usage.

  2. Spectroscopic Observations of an Evolving Flare Ribbon Substructure Suggesting Origin in Current Sheet Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brannon, S. R.; Longcope, D. W.; Qiu, J.

    2015-09-01

    We present imaging and spectroscopic observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph of the evolution of the flare ribbon in the SOL2014-04-18T13:03 M-class flare event, at high spatial resolution and time cadence. These observations reveal small-scale substructure within the ribbon, which manifests as coherent quasi-periodic oscillations in both position and Doppler velocities. We consider various alternative explanations for these oscillations, including modulation of chromospheric evaporation flows. Among these, we find the best support for some form of wave localized to the coronal current sheet, such as a tearing mode or Kelvin-Helmholtz instability.

  3. Seismic qualification of gloveboxes and contained safety-class components through substructure and sequential analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Estochen, E.G.

    1993-09-01

    For safety-class gloveboxes not having a primary confinement function, structural integrity of the safety system supporting structure and not leak tightness is the main concern when evaluating seismic loading efforts. The following discussion provides an efficient organized approach to using a single finite element model to assure structural integrity, in response to design basis loads, for both the glovebox and its contained safety systems through sub-structuring and sequential analysis. Rather than present specific numerical results, a discussion of the approach currently being implemented at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be given.

  4. The Search for Milky Way Halo Substructure WIMP Annihilations Using the GLAST LAT

    SciTech Connect

    Wai, Larry; /SLAC

    2007-02-05

    The GLAST LAT Collaboration is one among several experimental groups, covering a wide range of approaches, pursuing the search for the nature of dark matter. The GLAST LAT has the unique ability to find new sources of high energy gamma radiation emanating directly from WIMP annihilations in situ in the universe. Using it's wide band spectral and full sky spatial capabilities, the GLAST LAT can form ''images'' in high energy gamma-rays of dark matter substructures in the gamma-ray sky. We describe a preliminary feasibility study for indirect detection of milky way dark matter satellites using the GLAST LAT.

  5. The search for Milky Way halo substructure WIMP annihilations using the GLAST LAT

    E-print Network

    Lawrence Wai; GLAST LAT Collaboration

    2007-01-31

    The GLAST LAT Collaboration is one among several experimental groups, covering a wide range of approaches, pursuing the search for the nature of dark matter. The GLAST LAT has the unique ability to find new sources of high energy gamma radiation emanating directly from WIMP annihilations in situ in the universe. Using it's wide band spectral and full sky spatial capabilities, the GLAST LAT can form "images" in high energy gamma-rays of dark matter substructures in the gamma-ray sky. We describe a preliminary feasibility study for indirect detection of Milky Way dark matter satellites using the GLAST LAT.

  6. An early neutrino experiment: how we missed quark substructure in 1963

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, D. H.

    2013-12-01

    Some 50 years after the event seems to be an appropriate time at which to take a long look back at one of the early neutrino experiments at CERN. This report is principally about a failure in a 1963 bubble chamber experiment to detect substructure in the nucleon, a year before the quark concept was invented by Gell-Mann and Zweig, and some five years before the existence of quarks as real dynamical objects was definitely established in deep inelastic electron scattering experiments at Stanford.

  7. Exclusive processes: Tests of coherent QCD phenomena and nucleon substructure at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1994-07-01

    Measurements of exclusive processes such as electroproduction, photoproduction, and Compton scattering are among the most sensitive probes of proton structure and coherent phenomena in quantum chromodynamics. The continuous electron beam at CEBAF, upgraded in laboratory energy to 10--12 GeV, will allow a systematic study of exclusive, semi-inclusive, and inclusive reactions in a kinematic range well-tuned to the study of fundamental nucleon and nuclear substructure. I also discuss the potential at CEBAF for studying novel QCD phenomena at the charm production threshold, including the possible production of nuclear-bound quarkonium.

  8. Exploring Halo Substructure with Giant Stars. II. Mapping the Extended Structure of the Carina Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewski, Steven R.; Ostheimer, James C.; Patterson, Richard J.; Kunkel, William E.; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Geisler, Doug

    2000-02-01

    As part of our survey for substructure in the Milky Way halo as traced by giant stars and to look for tidal stellar debris in the halo viable for measurement of the Galactic mass potential with the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM), we explore the distribution of stars beyond the nominal tidal radius of, but still associated with, the Carina dwarf spheroidal galaxy. We make use of the photometric technique described in the first contribution to this series to identify giant star candidates at the distance and metallicity of the Carina dwarf spheroidal across the entire extent of a photometric survey covering some 2.2 deg2 on and around Carina. These Carina-associated giant candidates are identified by a combination of (1) their M-DDO51 colors, which are a measure of both surface gravity and metallicity at given M-T2 colors, and (2) by locations in the color-magnitude diagram commensurate with the Carina red giant branch in the core of the galaxy. The density distribution of the extratidal giant candidates bears resemblance to the outer isopleths of Carina presented by Irwin & Hatzidimitriou. However, in contrast to previous statistical star-counting approaches, we can pinpoint actual, remotely situated Carina stars individually. Because we can exclude the foreground veil of dwarf stars, our approach allows greater sensitivity and the ability to map the detailed two-dimensional distribution of extended Carina populations to much larger radii, while utilizing smaller aperture telescopes, than other techniques. Moreover, we identify candidate lists of widely displaced Carina-associated stars bright enough for spectroscopic studies of large-scale dynamical and metallicity properties of the system and for astrometric study by SIM. We obtained spectroscopy for three such ``extratidal'' stars and from their radial velocities conclude that all three are associated with Carina. While a single King profile matches our derived Carina core density profile, we confirm previous claims for a break in the density falloff at about 20'. Beyond this radius, a more gradual falloff as r-?, with 1=80' is found. If the existence of density profile breaks is a signature of the predominance of unbound stars, and if we adopt the nominal tidal radius of 28' previously found for Carina, then it would appear that we have identified a substantial extratidal population from Carina. If these r>~20' stars are truly now unbound from the galaxy, we estimate from the relative stellar density distribution a fractional destruction rate for Carina from tidal stripping of order df/dt=0.27 Gyr-1. This is among the highest rates expected for the Milky Way dwarf spheroidals apart from Sagittarius. The existence of such extended populations of Carina-associated stars may have important implications for the existence of large dark matter contents in dwarf spheroidals, as well as for the evolution of the Milky Way halo. Finally, we find that the ``background density'' of what are likely to be predominantly random, metal-poor halo field giants maintains a rather flat count-magnitude relation out to the distance of Carina, in keeping with R-3 density laws for the Galactic halo.

  9. GHOSTS: the age and structure of stellar halos around nearby disk galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, Roelof S.; Bailin, Jeremy; Bell, Eric; Holwerda, Benne Willem; Monachesi, Antonela; Streich, David

    2015-08-01

    The stars in the halos around galaxies are thought to be for a significant fraction the result of tidally disrupted infalling smaller galaxies, an important process in the mass build up of galaxies. However, in recent year the realization has grown that a fraction of halo stars may have formed in situ or in the disk of the host galaxy.To understand the nature of stellar halos, the GHOSTS project has used the Hubble Space Telescope to observe the resolved stellar populations in the outskirts of 18 nearby massive galaxies, with a range of masses and seen from face-on to edge-on. From two filter observations (F814W and F606W) with both WFC3 and ACS, we map the different giant populations in these haloes: typically Asymptotic, Red, and He-burning Giants (AGB, RGB and HeB). By studying the distribution of these stellar populations, the GHOSTS project aims to characterize on a statistical basis the size, shape, age, amount of sub-structure, and chemical composition of stellar halos, thereby allowing us to constrain models of the hierarchical galaxy formation process.In this presentation we will in particular show the structural parameters of the observed stellar halos out to 70 kpc and present the rather small range in color gradients present in the RGB population indicative in small metallicity gradients in these halos. We also present the discovery of a surprisingly large population of AGB stars with ages <2 Gyr seen to ~20 kpc above the disks of many edge-on galaxies and speculations on the origin of these young populations at a location where no current star formation is seen.

  10. 15 Stellar Winds Stan Owocki

    E-print Network

    Owocki, Stanley P.

    15 Stellar Winds Stan Owocki Bartol Research Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 740 2.1 Solar Corona and Wind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 740 2.2 Spectral Signatures of Dense Winds from Hot and Cool Stars

  11. Optimizing Stellarators for Turbulent Transport

    SciTech Connect

    H.E. Mynick, N.Pomphrey, and P. Xanthopoulos

    2010-05-27

    Up to now, the term "transport-optimized" stellarators has meant optimized to minimize neoclassical transport, while the task of also mitigating turbulent transport, usually the dominant transport channel in such designs, has not been addressed, due to the complexity of plasma turbulence in stellarators. Here, we demonstrate that stellarators can also be designed to mitigate their turbulent transport, by making use of two powerful numerical tools not available until recently, namely gyrokinetic codes valid for 3D nonlinear simulations, and stellarator optimization codes. A first proof-of-principle configuration is obtained, reducing the level of ion temperature gradient turbulent transport from the NCSX baseline design by a factor of about 2.5.

  12. Stellar winds of hot stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stee, Ph.; Chesneau, O.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we summarize the basic properties of radiative stellar winds from the theoretical and observational point of views. We illustrate two examples of a radiative code applied to stellar physics: the SIMECA code successfully used to constrain the physics of the circumstellar environment of the Be star ? Arae constrained by VLTI-AMBER spectrally resolved measurements and the CMFGEN code applied to the BA supergiants Deneb and Rigel constrained by CHARA-VEGA measurements.

  13. Solar and stellar coronal plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, L.

    1985-01-01

    Progress made in describing and interpreting coronal plasma processes and the relationship between the solar corona and its stellar counterparts is reported. Topics covered include: stellar X-ray emission, HEAO 2 X-ray survey of the Pleiades, closed coronal structures, X-ray survey of main-sequence stars with shallow convection zones, implications of the 1400 MHz flare emission, and magnetic field stochasticity.

  14. Multimessenger search for sources of gravitational waves and high-energy neutrinos: Initial results for LIGO-Virgo and IceCube

    E-print Network

    Aartsen, M.?G.

    We report the results of a multimessenger search for coincident signals from the LIGO and Virgo gravitational-wave observatories and the partially completed IceCube high-energy neutrino detector, including periods of joint ...

  15. Search for gravitational radiation from intermediate mass black hole binaries in data from the second LIGO-Virgo joint science run

    E-print Network

    Aggarwal, Nancy

    This paper reports on an unmodeled, all-sky search for gravitational waves from merging intermediate mass black hole binaries (IMBHB). The search was performed on data from the second joint science run of the LIGO and Virgo ...

  16. Constraints on cosmic strings from the LIGO-Virgo gravitational-wave detectors

    E-print Network

    J. Aasi; J. Abadie; B. P. Abbott; R. Abbott; T. Abbott; M. R. Abernathy; T. Accadia; F. Acernese; C. Adams; T. Adams; R. X. Adhikari; C. Affeldt; M. Agathos; N. Aggarwal; O. D. Aguiar; P. Ajith; B. Allen; A. Allocca; E. Amador Ceron; D. Amariutei; R. A. Anderson; S. B. Anderson; W. G. Anderson; K. Arai; M. C. Araya; C. Arceneaux; J. Areeda; S. Ast; S. M. Aston; P. Astone; P. Aufmuth; C. Aulbert; L. Austin; B. E. Aylott; S. Babak; P. T. Baker; G. Ballardin; S. W. Ballmer; J. C. Barayoga; D. Barker; S. H. Barnum; F. Barone; B. Barr; L. Barsotti; M. Barsuglia; M. A. Barton; I. Bartos; R. Bassiri; A. Basti; J. Batch; J. Bauchrowitz; Th. S. Bauer; M. Bebronne; B. Behnke; M. Bejger; M. G. Beker; A. S. Bell; C. Bell; I. Belopolski; G. Bergmann; J. M. Berliner; D. Bersanetti; A. Bertolini; D. Bessis; J. Betzwieser; P. T. Beyersdorf; T. Bhadbhade; I. A. Bilenko; G. Billingsley; J. Birch; M. Bitossi; M. A. Bizouard; E. Black; J. K. Blackburn; L. Blackburn; D. Blair; M. Blom; O. Bock; T. P. Bodiya; M. Boer; C. Bogan; C. Bond; F. Bondu; L. Bonelli; R. Bonnand; R. Bork; M. Born; V. Boschi; S. Bose; L. Bosi; J. Bowers; C. Bradaschia; P. R. Brady; V. B. Braginsky; M. Branchesi; C. A. Brannen; J. E. Brau; J. Breyer; T. Briant; D. O. Bridges; A. Brillet; M. Brinkmann; V. Brisson; M. Britzger; A. F. Brooks; D. A. Brown; D. D. Brown; F. Brückner; T. Bulik; H. J. Bulten; A. Buonanno; D. Buskulic; C. Buy; R. L. Byer; L. Cadonati; G. Cagnoli; J. Calderón Bustillo; E. Calloni; J. B. Camp; P. Campsie; K. C. Cannon; B. Canuel; J. Cao; C. D. Capano; F. Carbognani; L. Carbone; S. Caride; A. Castiglia; S. Caudill; M. Cavagliá; F. Cavalier; R. Cavalieri; G. Cella; C. Cepeda; E. Cesarini; R. Chakraborty; T. Chalermsongsak; S. Chao; P. Charlton; E. Chassande-Mottin; X. Chen; Y. Chen; A. Chincarini; A. Chiummo; H. S. Cho; J. Chow; N. Christensen; Q. Chu; S. S. Y. Chua; S. Chung; G. Ciani; F. Clara; D. E. Clark; J. A. Clark; F. Cleva; E. Coccia; P. -F. Cohadon; A. Colla; M. Colombini; M. Constancio Jr.; A. Conte; R. Conte; D. Cook; T. R. Corbitt; M. Cordier; N. Cornish; A. Corsi; C. A. Costa; M. W. Coughlin; J. -P. Coulon; S. Countryman; P. Couvares; D. M. Coward; M. Cowart; D. C. Coyne; K. Craig; J. D. E. Creighton; T. D. Creighton; S. G. Crowder; A. Cumming; L. Cunningham; E. Cuoco; K. Dahl; T. Dal Canton; M. Damjanic; S. L. Danilishin; S. D'Antonio; K. Danzmann; V. Dattilo; B. Daudert; H. Daveloza; M. Davier; G. S. Davies; E. J. Daw; R. Day; T. Dayanga; R. De Rosa; G. Debreczeni; J. Degallaix; W. Del Pozzo; E. Deleeuw; S. Deléglise; T. Denker; T. Dent; H. Dereli; V. Dergachev; R. DeRosa; R. DeSalvo; S. Dhurandhar; L. Di Fiore; A. Di Lieto; I. Di Palma; A. Di Virgilio; M. Díaz; A. Dietz; K. Dmitry; F. Donovan; K. L. Dooley; S. Doravari; M. Drago; R. W. P. Drever; J. C. Driggers; Z. Du; J. -C. Dumas; S. Dwyer; T. Eberle; M. Edwards; A. Effler; P. Ehrens; J. Eichholz; S. S. Eikenberry; G. Endröczi; R. Essick; T. Etzel; K. Evans; M. Evans; T. Evans; M. Factourovich; V. Fafone; S. Fairhurst; Q. Fang; S. Farinon; B. Farr; W. Farr; M. Favata; D. Fazi; H. Fehrmann; D. Feldbaum; I. Ferrante; F. Ferrini; F. Fidecaro; L. S. Finn; I. Fiori; R. Fisher; R. Flaminio; E. Foley; S. Foley; E. Forsi; N. Fotopoulos; J. -D. Fournier; S. Franco; S. Frasca; F. Frasconi; M. Frede; M. Frei; Z. Frei; A. Freise; R. Frey; T. T. Fricke; P. Fritschel; V. V. Frolov; M. -K. Fujimoto; P. Fulda; M. Fyffe; J. Gair; L. Gammaitoni; J. Garcia; F. Garufi; N. Gehrels; G. Gemme; E. Genin; A. Gennai; L. Gergely; S. Ghosh; J. A. Giaime; S. Giampanis; K. D. Giardina; A. Giazotto; S. Gil-Casanova; C. Gill; J. Gleason; E. Goetz; R. Goetz; L. Gondan; G. González; N. Gordon; M. L. Gorodetsky; S. Gossan; S. Goßler; R. Gouaty; C. Graef; P. B. Graff; M. Granata; A. Grant; S. Gras; C. Gray; R. J. S. Greenhalgh; A. M. Gretarsson; C. Griffo; P. Groot; H. Grote; K. Grover; S. Grunewald; G. M. Guidi; C. Guido; K. E. Gushwa; E. K. Gustafson; R. Gustafson; B. Hall; E. Hall; D. Hammer; G. Hammond; M. Hanke; J. Hanks; C. Hanna; J. Hanson; J. Harms; G. M. Harry; I. W. Harry; E. D. Harstad; M. T. Hartman; K. Haughian; K. Hayama; J. Heefner; A. Heidmann; M. Heintze; H. Heitmann; P. Hello; G. Hemming; M. Hendry; I. S. Heng; A. W. Heptonstall; M. Heurs; S. Hild; D. Hoak; K. A. Hodge; K. Holt; M. Holtrop; T. Hong; S. Hooper; T. Horrom; D. J. Hosken; J. Hough; E. J. Howell; Y. Hu; Z. Hua; V. Huang; E. A. Huerta; B. Hughey; S. Husa; S. H. Huttner; M. Huynh; T. Huynh-Dinh; J. Iafrate; D. R. Ingram; R. Inta; T. Isogai; A. Ivanov; B. R. Iyer; K. Izumi; M. Jacobson; E. James; H. Jang; Y. J. Jang; P. Jaranowski; F. Jiménez-Forteza; W. W. Johnson; D. Jones; D. I. Jones; R. Jones; R. J. G. Jonker; L. Ju; Haris K; P. Kalmus; V. Kalogera; S. Kandhasamy; G. Kang; J. B. Kanner; M. Kasprzack; R. Kasturi; E. Katsavounidis; W. Katzman; H. Kaufer; K. Kaufman; K. Kawabe; S. Kawamura; F. Kawazoe

    2014-04-07

    Cosmic strings can give rise to a large variety of interesting astrophysical phenomena. Among them, powerful bursts of gravitational waves (GWs) produced by cusps are a promising observational signature. In this Letter we present a search for GWs from cosmic string cusps in data collected by the LIGO and Virgo gravitational wave detectors between 2005 and 2010, with over 625 days of live time. We find no evidence of GW signals from cosmic strings. From this result, we derive new constraints on cosmic string parameters, which complement and improve existing limits from previous searches for a stochastic background of GWs from cosmic microwave background measurements and pulsar timing data. In particular, if the size of loops is given by the gravitational backreaction scale, we place upper limits on the string tension $G\\mu$ below $10^{-8}$ in some regions of the cosmic string parameter space.

  17. Clouds Toward the Virgo Cluster Periphery: Gas-rich Optically Inert Galaxies

    E-print Network

    Kent, Brian R

    2010-01-01

    Aperture synthesis observations of two HI cloud complexes located in the periphery of the Virgo galaxy cluster are presented. These low HI-mass clouds ($M_{HI}imaging. They are inert at these wavelengths. The HI masses of the individual VLA detections range from 7.28 $\\leq$ log($M_{HI}) \\leq $ 7.85. The total dynamical mass estimates are several times their HI content, ranging from 7.00 $\\leq$ log($M_{dyn}) \\leq $ 9.07, with the assumption that the clouds are self-gravitating and in dynamical equilibrium. We report the observed parameters derived from the VLA observations. One of these HI clouds appears to be the most isolated optically ...

  18. Constraints on cosmic strings from the LIGO-Virgo gravitational-wave detectors.

    PubMed

    Aasi, J; Abadie, J; Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T; Abernathy, M R; Accadia, T; Acernese, F; Adams, C; Adams, T; Adhikari, R X; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Amador Ceron, E; Amariutei, D; Anderson, R A; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C; Areeda, J; Ast, S; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Austin, L; Aylott, B E; Babak, S; Baker, P T; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barker, D; Barnum, S H; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J; Bauchrowitz, J; Bauer, Th S; Bebronne, M; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Beker, M G; Bell, A S; Bell, C; Belopolski, I; Bergmann, G; Berliner, J M; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Bessis, D; Betzwieser, J; Beyersdorf, P T; Bhadbhade, T; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Bitossi, M; Bizouard, M A; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Blom, M; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Boer, M; Bogan, C; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bosi, L; Bowers, J; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brannen, C A; Brau, J E; Breyer, J; Briant, T; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Britzger, M; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brückner, F; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Calderón Bustillo, J; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Campsie, P; Cannon, K C; Canuel, B; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Carbognani, F; Carbone, L; Caride, S; Castiglia, A; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chakraborty, R; Chalermsongsak, T; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Chow, J; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S S Y; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, D E; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P-F; Colla, A; Colombini, M; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Conte, R; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cordier, M; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coulon, J-P; Countryman, S; Couvares, P; Coward, D M; Cowart, M; Coyne, D C; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Dahl, K; Dal Canton, T; Damjanic, M; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dattilo, V; Daudert, B; Daveloza, H; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; Dayanga, T; De Rosa, R; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; Del Pozzo, W; Deleeuw, E; Deléglise, S; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dereli, H; Dergachev, V; DeRosa, R; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Díaz, M; Dietz, A; Dmitry, K; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Dumas, J-C; Dwyer, S; Eberle, T; Edwards, M; Effler, A; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Endr?czi, G; Essick, R; Etzel, T; Evans, K; Evans, M; Evans, T; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W; Favata, M; Fazi, D; Fehrmann, H; Feldbaum, D; Ferrante, I; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Fisher, R; Flaminio, R; Foley, E; Foley, S; Forsi, E; Fotopoulos, N; Fournier, J-D; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, M; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fujimoto, M-K; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gair, J; Gammaitoni, L; Garcia, J; Garufi, F; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Gergely, L; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giampanis, S; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gil-Casanova, S; Gill, C; Gleason, J; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; González, G; Gordon, N; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S; Goßler, S; Gouaty, R; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Griffo, C; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grover, K; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guido, C; Gushwa, K E; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hall, B; Hall, E; Hammer, D; Hammond, G; Hanke, M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Harstad, E D; Hartman, M T; Haughian, K; Hayama, K; Heefner, J; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Holt, K; Holtrop, M; Hong, T; Hooper, S; Horrom, T; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Howell, E J; Hu, Y; Hua, Z; Huang, V; Huerta, E A; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh, M; Huynh-Dinh, T; Iafrate, J; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isogai, T; Ivanov, A; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M; James, E; Jang, H; Jang, Y J; Jaranowski, P; Jiménez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Jones, D; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; K, Haris; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Kasprzack, M; Kasturi, R; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, H; Kaufman, K; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kawazoe, F; Kéfélian, F; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Keppel, D G; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khazanov, E A; Kim, B K; Kim, C

    2014-04-01

    Cosmic strings can give rise to a large variety of interesting astrophysical phenomena. Among them, powerful bursts of gravitational waves (GWs) produced by cusps are a promising observational signature. In this Letter we present a search for GWs from cosmic string cusps in data collected by the LIGO and Virgo gravitational wave detectors between 2005 and 2010, with over 625 days of live time. We find no evidence of GW signals from cosmic strings. From this result, we derive new constraints on cosmic string parameters, which complement and improve existing limits from previous searches for a stochastic background of GWs from cosmic microwave background measurements and pulsar timing data. In particular, if the size of loops is given by the gravitational backreaction scale, we place upper limits on the string tension G? below 10(-8) in some regions of the cosmic string parameter space. PMID:24745400

  19. Advanced Virgo Interferometer: a Second Generation Detector for Gravitational Waves Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Agathos, M.; Allocca, A.; Astone, P.; Ballardin, G.; Barone, F.; Barsuglia, M.; Basti, A.; Bauer, Th. S.; Bejger, M.; Beker, M. G.; Belczynski, C.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blom, M.; Boer, M.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Boschi, V.; Bosi, L.; Bradaschia, C.; Branchesi, M.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brisson, V.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Cagnoli, G.; Calloni, E.; Canuel, B.; Carbognani, F.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Conte, A.; Coulon, J.-P.; Cuoco, E.; D'Antonio, S.; Dattilo, V.; Davier, M.; Day, R.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Dereli, H.; De Rosa, R.; di Fiore, L.; di Lieto, A.; di Virgilio, A.; Drago, M.; Endr?czi, G.; Fafone, V.; Farinon, S.; Ferrante, I.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Flaminio, R.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garufi, F.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Giazotto, A.; Gouaty, R.; Granata, M.; Groot, P.; Guidi, G. M.; Heidmann, A.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Jaranowski, P.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Kasprzack, M.; Kéfélian, F.; Kowalska, I.; Królak, A.; Kutynia, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leonardi, M.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Li, T. G. F.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Losurdo, G.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mangano, V.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marque, J.; Martelli, F.; Martinelli, L.; Masserot, A.;