Science.gov

Sample records for virtual petrological microscope

  1. A Virtual Petrological Microscope for All Apollo 11 Lunar Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pillnger, C. T.; Tindle, A. G.; Kelley, S. P.; Quick, K.; Scott, P.; Gibson, E. K.; Zeigler, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    A means of viewing, over the Internet, polished thin sections of every rock in the Apollo lunar sample collections via software, duplicaing many of the functions of a petrological microscope, is described.

  2. Assessment of Petrological Microscopes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathison, Charter Innes

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a set of procedures designed to check the design, ergonomics, illumination, function, optics, accessory equipment, and image quality of a microscope being considered for purchase. Functions for use in a petrology or mineralogy laboratory are stressed. (CW)

  3. The virtual microscope.

    PubMed

    Catalyürek, Umit; Beynon, Michael D; Chang, Chialin; Kurc, Tahsin; Sussman, Alan; Saltz, Joel

    2003-12-01

    We present the design and implementation of the Virtual Microscope, a software system employing a client/server architecture to provide a realistic emulation of a high power light microscope. The system provides a form of completely digital telepathology, allowing simultaneous access to archived digital slide images by multiple clients. The main problem the system targets is storing and processing the extremely large quantities of data required to represent a collection of slides. The Virtual Microscope client software runs on the end user's PC or workstation, while database software for storing, retrieving and processing the microscope image data runs on a parallel computer or on a set of workstations at one or more potentially remote sites. We have designed and implemented two versions of the data server software. One implementation is a customization of a database system framework that is optimized for a tightly coupled parallel machine with attached local disks. The second implementation is component-based, and has been designed to accommodate access to and processing of data in a distributed, heterogeneous environment. We also have developed caching client software, implemented in Java, to achieve good response time and portability across different computer platforms. The performance results presented show that the Virtual Microscope systems scales well, so that many clients can be adequately serviced by an appropriately configured data server. PMID:15000350

  4. Virtual pinhole confocal microscope

    SciTech Connect

    George, J.S.; Rector, D.M.; Ranken, D.M.; Peterson, B.; Kesteron, J.

    1999-06-01

    Scanned confocal microscopes enhance imaging capabilities, providing improved contrast and image resolution in 3-D, but existing systems have significant technical shortcomings and are expensive. Researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory have developed a novel approach--virtual pinhole confocal microscopy--that uses state of the art illumination, detection, and data processing technologies to produce an imager with a number of advantages: reduced cost, faster imaging, improved efficiency and sensitivity, improved reliability and much greater flexibility. Work at Los Alamos demonstrated proof of principle; prototype hardware and software have been used to demonstrate technical feasibility of several implementation strategies. The system uses high performance illumination, patterned in time and space. The authors have built functional confocal imagers using video display technologies (LCD or DLP) and novel scanner based on a micro-lens array. They have developed a prototype system for high performance data acquisition and processing, designed to support realtime confocal imaging. They have developed algorithms to reconstruct confocal images from a time series of spatially sub-sampled images; software development remains an area of active development. These advances allow the collection of high quality confocal images (in fluorescence, reflectance and transmission modes) with equipment that can inexpensively retrofit to existing microscopes. Planned future extensions to these technologies will significantly enhance capabilities for microscopic imaging in a variety of applications, including confocal endoscopy, and confocal spectral imaging.

  5. Inquiry based learning with a virtual microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, S. P.; Sharples, M.; Tindle, A.; Villasclaras-Fernández, E.

    2012-12-01

    As part of newly funded initiative, the Wolfson OpenScience Laboratory, we are linking a tool for inquiry based learning, nQuire (http://www.nquire.org.uk) with the virtual microscope for Earth science (http://www.virtualmicroscope.co.uk) to allow students to undertake projects and gain from inquiry based study thin sections of rocks without the need for a laboratory with expensive petrological microscopes. The Virtual Microscope (VM) was developed for undergraduate teaching of petrology and geoscience, allowing students to explore rock hand specimens and thin sections in a browser window. The system is based on HTML5 application and allows students to scan and zoom the rocks in a browser window, view in ppl and xpl conditions, and rotate specific areas to view birefringence and pleochroism. Importantly the VM allows students to gain access to rare specimens such as Moon rocks that might be too precious to suffer loss or damage. Experimentation with such specimens can inspire the learners' interest in science and allows them to investigate relevant science questions. Yet it is challenging for learners to engage in scientific processes, as they may lack scientific investigation skills or have problems in planning their activities; for teachers, managing inquiry activities is a demanding task (Quintana et al., 2004). To facilitate the realization of inquiry activities, the VM is being integrated with the nQuire tool. nQuire is a web tool that guides and supports students through the inquiry process (Mulholland et al., 2011). Learners are encouraged to construct their own personally relevant hypothesis, pose scientific questions, and plan the method to answer them. Then, the system enables users to collect and analyze data, and share their conclusions. Teachers can monitor their students' progress through inquiries, and give them access to new parts of inquiries as they advance. By means of the integration of nQuire and the VM, inquiries that involve collecting data through a microscope can be created and supported. To illustrate the possibilities of these tools, we have designed two inquiries that engage learners in the study of Moon rock samples under the microscope, starting from general questions such as comparison of Moon rocks or determining the origin of meteorites. One is aimed at undergraduate Geology students; the second has been conceived for the general public. Science teachers can reuse these inquiries, adapt them as they need, or create completely new inquiries using nQuire's authoring tool. We will report progress and demonstrate the combination of these two on-line tools to create an open educational resource allowing educators to design and run science inquiries for Earth and planetary science in a range of settings from schools to universities. Quintana, C., Reiser, B. J., Davis, E. A., Krajcik, J., Fretz, E., Duncan, R. G., Kyza, E., et al. (2004). A scaffolding design framework for software to support science inquiry. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 13(3), 337-386. Mulholland, P., Anastopoulou, S., Collins, T., FeiBt, M., Gaved, M., Kerawalla, L., Paxton, M., et al. (2011). nQuire: Technological support for personal inquiry learning. IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies. First published online, December 5, 2011, http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/TLT.2011.32.

  6. Virtual laboratory manual for microscopic anatomy.

    PubMed

    Michaels, John E; Allred, Kelly; Bruns, Christina; Lim, Wan; Lowrie, D J; Hedgren, Wade

    2005-05-01

    Using digital technology, we have assembled a virtual laboratory manual (VLM) that is a Web-based copy of our traditional laboratory manual. The VLM is used to enhance traditional laboratory instruction in histology. For each reference in the VLM to either a histological slide or an electron micrograph (EM), hyperlinks are included that download digital images derived from the students' glass slide sets or scanned EMs. The VLM serves as an atlas of digital images for concurrent study of similar sections by light microscopy during laboratory sessions. In addition, students can review the images from the VLM at remote locations. We have encouraged continued use of light microscopes in laboratories by basing the majority of practical examination identifications on analysis of marked histological slides that require students to use their own microscopes. The VLM provides the convenience of a Web-based resource with high-quality images, yet allows retention of the many excellent traditional aspects of our course. An example of a VLM laboratory on epithelium is available online (http://users.von.uc.edu/michaeje/VLM-Epithelium/exLab4.pdf). PMID:15898084

  7. Virtual Microscope Views of the Apollo 11 and 12 Lunar Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, E. K.; Tindle, A. G.; Kelley, S. P.; Pillinger, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    The Apollo virtual microscope is a means of viewing, over the Internet, polished thin sections of every rock in the Apollo lunar sample collections via software, duplicating many of the functions of a petrological microscope, is described. Images from the Apollo 11 and 12 missions may be viewed at: www.virtualmicroscope.org/content/apollo. Introduction: During the six NASA missions to the Moon from 1969-72 a total of 382 kilograms of rocks and soils, often referred to as "the legacy of Apollo", were collected and returned to Earth. A unique collection of polished thin sections (PTSs) was made from over 400 rocks by the Lunar Sample Curatorial Facility at the Johnson Spacecraft Center (JSC), Houston. These materials have been available for loan to approved PIs but of course they can't be simultaneously investigated by several researchers unless they are co-located or the sample is passed back and forward between them by mail/hand carrying which is inefficient and very risky for irreplaceable material. When The Open University (OU), the world's largest Distance Learning Higher Education Establishment found itself facing a comparable problem (how to supply thousands of undergraduate students with an interactive petrological microscope and a personal set of thin sections), it decided to develop a software tool called the Virtual Microscope (VM). As a result it is now able to make the unique and precious collection of Apollo specimens universally available as a resource for concurrent study by anybody in the world's Earth and Planetary Sciences community. Herein, we describe the first steps of a collaborative project between OU and the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Curatorial Facility to record a PTS for every lunar rock, beginning with those collected by the Apollo 11 and 12 missions. Method: Production of a virtual microscope dedicated to a particular theme divides into four main parts - photography, image processing, building and assembly of virtual microscope components, and publication on a website. Two large research quality microscopes are used to collect all the images required for a virtual microscope. The first is part of an integrated package that utilizes Leica PowerMosaic software and a motorised XYZ stage to generate large area mosaics. It includes a fast acquisition camera and depending on the PTS size normally is used to produce seamless mosaic images consisting of 100-500 individual photographs. If the sample is suitable, three mosaics of each sample are recorded - plane polarised light, between crossed polars and reflected light. In order for the VM to be a true petrological microscope it is necessary to recreate the features of a rotating stage and perform observations using filters to produce polarised light. Thus the petrological VM includes the capability of seeing changes in optical properties (pleochroism and birefringence) during rotation allowing mineral identification. The second microscope in the system provides the functions of the rotating stage. To this microscope we have added a robotically controlled motor to acquire seventy-two images (5 degree intervals) in plane polarised light and between crossed polars. To process the images acquired from the two microscopes involves a combination of proprietary software (Photoshop) and our own in-house code. The final stage involves assembling all the components in an HTML5 environment. Pathfinder investigations: We have undertaken a number of pilot studies to demonstrate the efficacy of the petrological microscope with lunar samples. The first was to make available on-line images collected from the Educational Package of Apollo samples provided by NASA to the UK STFC (Science and Technical Facilities Council) for loan as educational material e.g. for schools. The real PTSs of the samples are now no longer sent out to schools removing the risks associated with transport, accidental breakage and eliminating the possibility of loss. The availability of lunar sample VM-related material was further extended to include twenty-eight specimens from all of the Apollo missions. Some of these samples were made more generally available through an ibook entitled "Moon Rocks: an introduction to the Geology of the Moon," free from the Apple Bookstore. Research possibilities: Although the Virtual Microscope was originally conceived as a teaching aid and was later recognised as a means of public outreach and engagement, we now realize that it also has enormous potential as a high level research tool. Following discussions with the JSC Curators we have received Curation and Analysis Planning Team for Extraterrestrial Materials (CAPTEM) permission to embark on a programme of digitizing the entire lunar sample PTS collection for all three of the above purposes. By the time of the 47th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (LPSC) we will have completed 81 rocks collected during the Apollo 11 and 12 missions and the data, with cross-links to the Lunar Sample Compendium will go live on the Web at the 47th LPSC. The VM images of the Apollo 11 (41 VM images) and 12 (40 VM images) missions can be viewed at: http:/www.virtualmicroscope.org/content/apollo. The lunar sample VM will enable large numbers of skilled/unskilled microscopists (professional and amateur researchers, educators and students, enthusiasts and the simply curious non-scientists) to share the information from a single sample. It will mean that all the PTSs already cut, even historical ones, could be available for new joint investigations or private study. The scientific return from the collection will increase exponentially as a result of further debate and discussion. Simultaneously the VM will remove the need for making unnecessary multiple samplings, avoid consignment of delicate/breakable specimens (all of which are priceless) to insecure mail/courier services and reduce direct labour and indirect costs, travel budgets and unproductive travelling time necessary for co-location of collaborating researchers. For the future we have already recognized further potential for virtual technology. There is nothing that a petrologist likes more than to see the original rock as a hand specimen. It is entirely possible to recreate virtual hand specimens with 3-D hard and software, already developed for viewing fossils, located within the Curatorial Facility, http://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/lunar/lsc/index.cfm.

  8. The Role of the Virtual Microscope in Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalley, Peter; Kelley, Simon; Tindle, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Screen-based microscopes allow for a shared visualisation and task-directed conversations that offer significant pedagogic advantages for the science disciplines involving observation of natural samples such as the geosciences and biosciences, and particularly for distance education in these disciplines. The role and development of a virtual…

  9. Using a modified standard microscope to generate virtual slides.

    PubMed

    Romer, David J; Yearsley, Kurtis H; Ayers, Leona W

    2003-05-01

    A standard microscope was reconfigured as a virtual slide generator by adding a Prior Scientific H101 robotic stage with H29 controller and 0.1 microm linear scales and a Hitachi HV-C20 3CCD camera. Media Cybernetics Image Pro Plus version 4 (IP4) software controlled stage movement in the X-, Y-, and Z-axis, whereas a Media Cybernetics Pro-Series Capture Kit captured images at 640 x 480 pixels. Stage calibration, scanning algorithms, storage requirements, and viewing modes were standardized. IP4 was used to montage the captured images into a large virtual slide image that was subsequently saved in TIF or JPEG format. Virtual slides were viewed at the workstation using the IP4 viewer as well as Adobe Photoshop and Kodak Imaging. MGI Zoom Server delivered the virtual slides to the Internet, and MicroBrightField's Neuroinformatica viewing software provided a browser-based virtual microscope interface together with labeling tools for annotating virtual slides. The images were served from a Windows 2000 platform with 2 GB RAM, 500 GB of disk storage, and a 1.0 GHz P4 processor. To conserve disk space on the image server, TIF files were converted to the FlashPix (FPX) file format using a compression ratio of 10:1. By using 4x, 10x, 20x, and 40x objectives, very large gigapixel images of tissue whole-mounts and tissue arrays with high quality and morphologic detail are now being generated for teaching, publication, research, and morphometric analysis. Technical details and a demonstration of our system can be found on the Web at http://virtualmicroscope.osu.edu. PMID:12731075

  10. Construction of a Virtual Scanning Electron Microscope (VSEM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fried, Glenn; Grosser, Benjamin

    2004-01-01

    The Imaging Technology Group (ITG) proposed to develop a Virtual SEM (VSEM) application and supporting materials as the first installed instrument in NASA s Virtual Laboratory Project. The instrument was to be a simulator modeled after an existing SEM, and was to mimic that real instrument as closely as possible. Virtual samples would be developed and provided along with the instrument, which would be written in Java.

  11. Enhancing Learning Objectives by Use of Simple Virtual Microscopic Slides in Cellular Physiology and Histology: Impact and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyanwu, Godson Emeka; Agu, Augustine Uchechukwu; Anyaehie, Ugochukwu Bond

    2012-01-01

    The impact and perception of students on the use of a simple, low technology-driven version of a virtual microscope in teaching and assessments in cellular physiology and histology were studied. Its impact on the time and resources of the faculty were also assessed. Simple virtual slides and conventional microscopes were used to conduct the same…

  12. Enhancing Learning Objectives by Use of Simple Virtual Microscopic Slides in Cellular Physiology and Histology: Impact and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyanwu, Godson Emeka; Agu, Augustine Uchechukwu; Anyaehie, Ugochukwu Bond

    2012-01-01

    The impact and perception of students on the use of a simple, low technology-driven version of a virtual microscope in teaching and assessments in cellular physiology and histology were studied. Its impact on the time and resources of the faculty were also assessed. Simple virtual slides and conventional microscopes were used to conduct the same…

  13. Beagle I and II Voyages: Charles Darwin's rocks and the quest for Mars rock; the Open University's virtual microscope has both

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwenzer, S. P.; Tindle, A. G.; Anand, M.; Gibson, E. K.; Pearson, V. K.; Pemberton, D.; Pillinger, C.; Smith, C. L.; Whalley, P.; Kelley, S. P.

    2011-12-01

    Exploration is in itself a fascinating subject, and a strong draw to engaging the public in understanding science. Nearly two hundred years ago Charles Darwin took part in an exploration of the Earth, and more recently we have begun to explore the solar system and in particular the surface of Mars. The engagement is made easier if an element of exploration is involved in the public engagement, using modern internet and even mobile technologies. The Open University combines all those aspects in a series of virtual microscopes for Earth science that are freely available on the web, installed in museums, or built into its teaching material. The basis of the virtual microscope is a mosaic of several hundred microscopic images of each thin section taken in plane polarised light, between crossed polars and in reflected light, which are then assembled into three high resolution images. Rotation movies for selected points in the thin section illustrate changing optical properties such as birefringence. The user is able to pan and zoom around to explore the section, studying the mineralogy and rock texture, and view the rotation movies linked to points in the section to see the changing birefringence colours. We have created several collections of terrestrial rocks, mainly for teaching purposes, and outreach directly linked to exploration: Charles Darwin returned from the Voyage of the Beagle with a large variety of rock samples, and although thin sections were not being made at that time, they were created from his rocks in the late 19th century. The historic material is part of the "Darwin the Geologist" exhibition at the Sedgwick Museum in Cambridge. Our Darwin virtual microscope includes hand specimen illustrations and thin sections together with documentation and an interactive map allow internet users and museum visitors alike to have a close look at Darwin's rocks and study the petrology of them. Charles Darwin explored distant horizons on Earth in the 19th century; in the 20th century the Apollo astronauts set foot on the Moon, returning valuable rock samples to Earth. Through collaboration between NASA and the OU it became possible to show lunar samples as virtual thin sections. The Beagle II mission represented a new voyage, following Charles Darwin's footsteps, to horizons well beyond the Earth - on a journey to investigate the planet Mars. Although no samples have yet been returned from the red planet, we do have access to Martian meteorites. Like Moon rock samples, these meteorites are rare and very valuable. So, one way to make them accessible to the general public is via the internet using our virtual microscope technology. Within the framework of the EUROPLANET project, and in collaboration with the Natural History Museum in London we are making such meteorites freely available to all. We plan to extend this collection and make it openly accessible for teaching and outreach activities anywhere and any time. Our current microscopes are located at http://microscope.open.ac.uk.

  14. Sedimentary petrology

    SciTech Connect

    Blatt, H.

    1982-01-01

    This is an introductory book to sedimentary petrology and covers the origin, occurrence, mineral composition and texture of sedimentary rocks. The description and interpretation of sedimentary structures, environments and facies are briefly discussed. Chapters cover: the occurrence of sedimentary rocks, formation of sediment, mudrock, conglomerates and sandstones, limestones dolomites, evaporites, cherts, iron-rich, rocks, phosphorites, coal, development of research project and the practice of sedimentary petrology. One chapter has been abstracted separately.

  15. UNIT, PETROLOGY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.

    THIS TEACHER'S GUIDE FOR A UNIT ON PETROLOGY IS SUITABLE FOR ADAPTATION AT EITHER THE UPPER ELEMENTARY OR THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL LEVELS. THE UNIT BEGINS WITH A STORY THAT INTRODUCES VOLCANIC ACTION AND IGNEOUS ROCK FORMATION. SELECTED CONCEPTS ARE LISTED FOLLOWED BY SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES. A BIBLIOGRAPHY, FILM LIST, VOCABULARY LIST, AND QUESTION AND…

  16. The Nanomanipulator: a Virtual-Reality Interface to a Scanning Tunneling Microscope.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Russell Morton, II

    We have developed a virtual-reality interface to a scanning tunneling microscope (STM); the resulting system is called the Nanomanipulator. The user interface comprises a stereoscopic color head-mounted display, a force-feedback remote manipulator master station, and a high-performance graphics computer. It provides the illusion of a surface floating in space in front of the user. The user's hand gestures are translated into commands that are sent to the STM in real time; the returned video and haptic signals allow the user to see and feel the surface topography and to control the timing and location of voltage pulses applied between the tip of the STM probe and the sample under study. My thesis is that a virtual-reality interface is a powerful and effective user interface to an STM--allowing qualitatively different types of experiments to be performed. The success of our investigations using this system demonstrates the validity of the thesis. We have used the Nanomanipulator to examine various surfaces and to perform surface modification experiments. This investigation has led to new insight into the meaning of certain surface features and into the mechanisms by which voltage pulses change the tip and sample. These insights were the direct results of the real-time visualization and the more interactive nature of our system compared to standard methods. The key to the success of the Nanomanipulator system is that it provides an intuitive two-way interface to the instrument. Raw data from an STM is not in a format easily understood by a scientist, and the Etch-a-Sketch type of controls required for positioning an STM tip are neither natural nor familiar to a user. The Nanomanipulator system acts as a translator between the instrument and the scientist, allowing the scientist to concentrate on interacting with the surface under study rather than on the computer interface or the STM itself. This system seeks to put the scientists on the surface, in control, while the experiment is happening--thus turning the STM from a remote, batch surface modifier into a real-time, user-guided surface modifier.

  17. A Digital Approach to Learning Petrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, M. R.

    2011-12-01

    In the undergraduate igneous and metamorphic petrology course at Northern Arizona University, we are employing petrographic microscopes equipped with relatively inexpensive ( $200) digital cameras that are linked to pen-tablet computers. The camera-tablet systems can assist student learning in a variety of ways. Images provided by the tablet computers can be used for helping students filter the visually complex specimens they examine. Instructors and students can simultaneously view the same petrographic features captured by the cameras and exchange information about them by pointing to salient features using the tablet pen. These images can become part of a virtual mineral/rock/texture portfolio tailored to individual student's needs. Captured digital illustrations can be annotated with digital ink or computer graphics tools; this activity emulates essential features of more traditional line drawings (visualizing an appropriate feature and selecting a representative image of it, internalizing the feature through studying and annotating it) while minimizing the frustration that many students feel about drawing. In these ways, we aim to help a student progress more efficiently from novice to expert. A number of our petrology laboratory exercises involve use of the camera-tablet systems for collaborative learning. Observational responsibilities are distributed among individual members of teams in order to increase interdependence and accountability, and to encourage efficiency. Annotated digital images are used to share students' findings and arrive at an understanding of an entire rock suite. This interdependence increases the individual's sense of responsibility for their work, and reporting out encourages students to practice use of technical vocabulary and to defend their observations. Pre- and post-course student interest in the camera-tablet systems has been assessed. In a post-course survey, the majority of students reported that, if available, they would use camera-tablet systems to capture microscope images (77%) and to make notes on images (71%). An informal focus group recommended introducing the cameras as soon as possible and having them available for making personal mineralogy/petrology portfolios. Because the stakes are perceived as high, use of the camera-tablet systems for peer-peer learning has been progressively modified to bolster student confidence in their collaborative efforts.

  18. Concurrent access to a virtual microscope using a web service oriented architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corredor, Germán.; Iregui, Marcela; Arias, Viviana; Romero, Eduardo

    2013-11-01

    Virtual microscopy (VM) facilitates visualization and deployment of histopathological virtual slides (VS), a useful tool for education, research and diagnosis. In recent years, it has become popular, yet its use is still limited basically because of the very large sizes of VS, typically of the order of gigabytes. Such volume of data requires efficacious and efficient strategies to access the VS content. In an educative or research scenario, several users may require to access and interact with VS at the same time, so, due to large data size, a very expensive and powerful infrastructure is usually required. This article introduces a novel JPEG2000-based service oriented architecture for streaming and visualizing very large images under scalable strategies, which in addition need not require very specialized infrastructure. Results suggest that the proposed architecture enables transmission and simultaneous visualization of large images, while it is efficient using resources and offering users proper response times.

  19. Virtualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Vikas

    2012-11-01

    The main aim of the research was to get the knowledge of present trends and technologies used in it field. Virtualization Allows multiple applications to run in isolation within virtual machines on the same physical machine. Virtualization provides direct access to the hardware resources to give you much greater performance than software emulation. VMware provides hardware virtualization that presents a complete x86 platform to the virtual machine. By doing this project we get an opportunity to learn about an emerging field of IT Sector. They also gave us the details of project like 'Storage Vmmotioní on which HP is currently working.

  20. Development and preliminary evaluation of the VPS ReplaySuite: a virtual double-headed microscope for pathology

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Dan J; Costello, Sean P; Dervan, Peter A; O'Shea, Daniel G

    2005-01-01

    Background Advances in computing and telecommunications have resulted in the availability of a range of online tools for use in pathology training and quality assurance. The majority focus on either enabling pathologists to examine and diagnose cases, or providing image archives that serve as reference material. Limited emphasis has been placed on analysing the diagnostic process used by pathologists to reach a diagnosis and using this as a resource for improving diagnostic performance. Methods The ReplaySuite is an online pathology software tool that presents archived virtual slide examinations to pathologists in an accessible video-like format, similar to observing examinations with a double-headed microscope. Delivered through a customised web browser, it utilises PHP (Hypertext PreProcessor) to interact with a remote database and retrieve data describing virtual slide examinations, performed using the Virtual Pathology Slide (VPS). To demonstrate the technology and conduct a preliminary evaluation of pathologists opinions on its potential application in pathology training and quality assurance, 70 pathologists were invited to use the application to review their own and other pathologists examinations of 10 needle-core breast biopsies and complete an electronic survey. 9 pathologists participated, and all subsequently completed an exit survey. Results Of those who replayed an examination by another pathologist, 83.3% (5/6) agreed that replays provided an insight into the examining pathologists diagnosis and 33.3% (2/6) reconsidered their own diagnosis for at least one case. Of those who reconsidered their original diagnosis, all re-classified either concordant with group consensus or original glass slide diagnosis. 77.7% (7/9) of all participants, and all 3 participants who replayed more than 10 examinations stated the ReplaySuite to be of some or great benefit in pathology training and quality assurance. Conclusion Participants conclude the ReplaySuite to be of some or of great potential benefit to pathology training and quality assurance and consider the ReplaySuite to be beneficial in evaluating the diagnostic trace of an examination. The ReplaySuite removes temporal and spatial issues that surround the use of double-headed microscopes by allowing examinations to be reviewed at different times and in different locations to the original examination. While the evaluation set was limited and potentially subject to bias, the response of participants was favourable. Further work is planned to determine whether use of the ReplaySuite can result in improved diagnostic ability. PMID:15845147

  1. Virtualities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Brockenbrough S.

    1991-01-01

    Describes virtual realities as environments in which visual, aural, or other stimuli generate in the mind of the user a sense of navigable, frameless, three-dimensional space, and predicts that the availability of computer technology to create real-time, three-dimensional graphics will bring radical changes in the educational use of visualization…

  2. The Beginnings of Experimental Petrology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eugster, Hans P.

    1971-01-01

    An account of Van't Hoff's change from theoretical chemistry to petrology provides data on the European intellectual climate of the early 1900's and shows how his work laid the foundation for experimental petrology of hard rocks." (AL)

  3. Irreversible thermodynamics in petrology

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, G.W.; Lasaga, A.C.

    1981-01-01

    The formulation of reaction rates and transport rates from the point of view of entropy production can help elucidate petrologic processes. The theory of irreversible thermodynamics relates fluxes of heat or mass linearly to thermodynamic forces (temperature gradients or chemical potential gradients) near equilibrium. A consequence of the general theory of irreversible thermodynamics is that each flux may be influenced by any of the thermodynamic forces. This type of coupling leads to such effects as thermal diffusion, the Soret effect, and uphill diffusion. The theory, however, constrains the number and size of the coupling phenomenological coefficients. Estimates of the coupling phenomenological coefficients enable a calculation of the importance of these coupling effects. The linear theory of irreversible thermodynamics relates the rates of reactions to the free energy difference of the reaction. This relation can be used along with experimental data to obtain the individual rates of reactions in petrology. The behavior of systems far from equilibrium is shown to be different from that near equilibrium. In particular, the formation of spatial patterns so common in petrology, is intimately related to the action of a system, when far from equilibrium. The analysis of Liesegang type models as well as the spatial patterns arising from autocatalytic effects can provide useful insights into the formation of differentiated layering in petrology. (JMT)

  4. Petrology of Anomalous Eucrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Peng, Z. X.; Ross, D. K.

    2015-01-01

    Most mafic achondrites can be broadly categorized as being "eucritic", that is, they are composed of a ferroan low-Ca clinopyroxene, high-Ca plagioclase and a silica phase. They are petrologically distinct from angritic basalts, which are composed of high-Ca, Al-Ti-rich clinopyroxene, Carich olivine, nearly pure anorthite and kirschsteinite, or from what might be called brachinitic basalts, which are composed of ferroan orthopyroxene and high-Ca clinopyroxene, intermediate-Ca plagioclase and ferroan olivine. Because of their similar mineralogy and composition, eucrite-like mafic achondrites formed on compositionally similar asteroids under similar conditions of temperature, pressure and oxygen fugacity. Some of them have distinctive isotopic compositions and petrologic characteristics that demonstrate formation on asteroids different from the parent of the HED clan (e.g., Ibitira, Northwest Africa (NWA) 011). Others show smaller oxygen isotopic distinctions but are otherwise petrologically and compositionally indistinguishable from basaltic eucrites (e.g., Pasamonte, Pecora Escarpment (PCA) 91007). The degree of uniformity in delta O-17 of eucrites and diogenites is one piece of evidence considered to favor of a magma-ocean scenario for their petrogenesis. Given that the O isotopic differences separating Pasamonte and PCA 91007 from other eucrites are small, and that there is an absence of other distinguishing characteristics, a legitimate question is: Did the HED parent asteroid fail to homogenize via a magma-ocean stage, thus explaining outliers like Pasamonte? We are initiating a program of study of anomalous eucrite-like achondrites as one part of our effort to seek a resolution of this issue. Here we present preliminary petrologic information on Asuka (A-) 881394, Elephant Moraine (EET) 87520 and EET 87542. We will have studied several more by conference time.

  5. Carbon petrology in cometary dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.

    1992-01-01

    Chondritic porous (CP) interplanetary dust particles (IDP's) are collected in the Earth's stratosphere. There exists an extensive database on major and minor element chemistry, stable isotopes, noble gas abundances and mineralogy of many CP IDP's, as well as infrared and Raman spectroscopic properties. For details on the mineralogy, chemistry and physical properties of IDP's, I refer to the reviews by Mackinnon and Rietmeijer (1987), Bradley et al. (1988) and Sandford (1987). Texture, mineralogy (Mackinnon and Rietmeijer, 1987) and chemistry (Schramm et al., 1989; Flynn and Sutton, 1991) support the notion that CP IDP's are a unique group of ultrafine-grained extraterrestiral materials that are distinct from any known meteorite class. Their fluffy, or porous, morphology suggests that CP IDP's probably endured minimal alteration by protoplanetary processes since their formation. It is generally accepted that CP IDP's are solid debris from short-period comets. The evidence is mostly circumstantial but this notion gained significant support based on the comet Halley dust data (Brownlee, 1990). In this paper, I will accept that CP IDP's are indeed cometary dust. The C/Si ratio in CP IDP's is 3.3 times higher than in CI carbonaceous chondrites (Schramm et al. 1989). The intraparticle carbon distribution is heteorogeneous (Rietmeijer and McKay, 1986). Carbon occurs both in oxidized and reduced forms. Analytical electron microscope (AEM) and Raman spectroscopic analyses have shown the presence of several carbon forms in CP IDP's but the data are scattered in the literature. Carbons in cometary CP IDP's are among the most pristine Solar System carbons available for laboratory study. Similar to a recently developed petrological model for the diversity of layer silicates in CP IDP's (Zolensky, 1991) that is useful to constrain in situ aqueous alteration in comets (Rietmeijer and Mackinnon, 1987a), I here present the first effort to develop a petrological concept of carbons in CP IDP's. This concept is useful to constrain comet evolution. I also present the philosophical constraint facing Earth Scientists in studies of protoplanets that require a new approach to cometary dust studies.

  6. Europa's petrological thermal history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransford, G. A.; Finnerty, A. A.; Collerson, K. D.

    1981-01-01

    A path of geophysical development which takes into account the petrological sequence is presented to describe the thermal evolution of Europa. On the basis of considerations of the likely temperature-pressure conditions in the Europa zone of the circumjovian nebula during the condensation of the satellite on the one hand and of the early thermal evolution on the other, it is argued that most of the water of Europa can be in the form of hydrated silicates in a thick convective boundary layer or throughout the body of the satellite. Such silicates would include the minerals chlorite and/or serpentine, and brucite, and could be maintained in hydrated states by solid state convection within the body. The model predicts that the ice layer on the surface of Europa is considerably thinner than the 150 km that had been estimated before the Voyager mission.

  7. Lunar Global Petrologic Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussey, D. B. J.; Spudis, P. D.; Gillis, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    An initial attempt at producing petrologic province maps of the lunar highlands combined orbital and sample geochemical data in variation diagrams.Three different variation diagrams were produced: Mg* (= 100 Mg/Mg+Fe) vs. [(Th/Ti)c, Al vs. Mg*/(Th/Ti)c, and Fe vs. (Th/Ti)c. ([Th/Ti]c is the ratio of Th to Ti, normalized to the chrondritic ratio for these elements.] Later work applied a ternary diagram approach to look at global lunar petrologic variations. This work used the Fe-(Th/Ti)c technique as this had the most spatial coverage with the available data and also appeared to be adequate at distinguishing between different rock types. In the ternary diagram, the apexes were assigned the average Fe and (Th/Ti), values of ferroan anorthosite, mare basalt, and KREEP rocks. Each apex was assigned a primary color while the center of the triangle was represented by gray. Each point on the lunar surface, covered by the Apollo geochemical instruments, was then assigned a color depending on where in the ternary their composition placed them. The resultant petrologic classification map shows how the petrologic units vary spatially. The main results from this work were as follows: (1) The highlands contain large areas of relatively pure ferroan anorthosite; (2) KREEP/Mg suite rocks represent a small percentage of the upper lunar crust; (3) farside outcrops of KREEP/ Mg suite rocks are associated with areas of crustal thinning, particularly on the floor of South Pole Aitken Basin; (4) the average composition of the highlands is richer in Fe than ferroan anorthosite, which supports the magma ocean hypothesis of crystal formation; and (5) regions of the eastern limb and farside highlands are relatively more mafic than average highlands. These areas have a high density of dark halo craters, supporting the idea that mare volcanism occurred in this region before the end of the heavy bombardment. This earlier work utilized the Apollo gamma and X-ray orbital datasets. These data provided limited coverage of the lunar surface (mostly confined to the equatorial latitudes). The gamma ray instrument covered approximately 19% of the lunar surface while the X-ray only covered 9%. With the Clementine and Lunar Prospector datasets, we now have global maps of Fe, Ti, and Th. Apart from global coverage, another important advantage of the new datasets is higher spatial resolution. The resolution of the Apollo instruments was 15 km for the X-ray and 100 km for the gamma ray. The Fe and Ti maps are derived from the full-resolution Clementine UV-VIS data, i.e., about 250 m/pixel. The resolution of the Th data, obtained by Lunar Prospector's neutron spectrometer, is currently about 150 km, but will be available in the future with a spatial resolution of 60 km. The other improvement provided by the recent lunar missions is the error associated with the data. The errors associated with the Fe, Ti, and Th values obtained by Apollo were 10-25 wt%. The error of the Clementine-derived Fe and Ti values is about 1% while the Th data have an error of about 1 ppm. We intend to investigate the petrologic variations on the Moon at a global scale using the new Clementine and Lunar Prospector elemental maps for Fe, Ti, and Th. We shall use the technique described in Davis and Spudis. An initial study has been undertaken that looks at some regions that were covered by the Apollo geochemistry data. Two mare regions, one in Imbrium and the other in Procellarum, match well with the results using the Apollo data. The highland terrain appears problematic. The calibration of the Th data is based on the assumption of a constant background. This is a valid assumption where Th counts are well above background limits, but as count rates decrease variations in Th concentration are more sensitive to background fluctuations. Eventually we will circumvent this problem by using the lower-altitude (i.e., higher resolution) Prospector data and a calibration derived from deconvolution of the gamma ray spectra with proper attention to background variations. The Th/Ti vs. Fe technique p

  8. Petrology of metamorphic rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Suk, M.

    1983-01-01

    ''Petrology of Metamorphic Rocks'' reviews Central European opinions about the origin and formation of metamorphic rocks and their genetic systems, confronting the works of such distinguished European scientists as Rosenbusch, Becke, Niggli, Sander, Eskola, Barth and others with present-day knowledge and the results of Soviet and American investigations. The initial chapters discuss the processes that give rise to metamorphic rocks, and the main differences between regional metamorphism and other types of alterations, the emphasis being laid on the material characteristic of the processes of metamorphism, metasomatism and ultrametamorphism. Further chapters give a brief characterization of research methods, together with a detailed genetic classification based on the division of primary rocks into igneous rocks, sediments and ore materials. The effects of metamorphic alterations and those of the properties of the primary rocks are analyzed on the basis of examples taken chiefly from the Bohemian Massif, the West Carpathians, other parts of the European Variscides, from the crystalline Scandinavian Shelf in Norway and Finland, and from the Alps. Typical examples are documented by a number of charts, photographs and petrographical - particularly petrochemical - data.

  9. Semantically Enabling Knowledge Representation of Metamorphic Petrology Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, P.; Fox, P. A.; Spear, F. S.; Adali, S.; Nguyen, C.; Hallett, B. W.; Horkley, L. K.

    2012-12-01

    More and more metamorphic petrology data is being collected around the world, and is now being organized together into different virtual data portals by means of virtual organizations. For example, there is the virtual data portal Petrological Database (PetDB, http://www.petdb.org) of the Ocean Floor that is organizing scientific information about geochemical data of ocean floor igneous and metamorphic rocks; and also The Metamorphic Petrology Database (MetPetDB, http://metpetdb.rpi.edu) that is being created by a global community of metamorphic petrologists in collaboration with software engineers and data managers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. The current focus is to provide the ability for scientists and researchers to register their data and search the databases for information regarding sample collections. What we present here is the next step in evolution of the MetPetDB portal, utilizing semantically enabled features such as discovery, data casting, faceted search, knowledge representation, and linked data as well as organizing information about the community and collaboration within the virtual community itself. We take the information that is currently represented in a relational database and make it available through web services, SPARQL endpoints, semantic and triple-stores where inferencing is enabled. We will be leveraging research that has taken place in virtual observatories, such as the Virtual Solar Terrestrial Observatory (VSTO) and the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO); vocabulary work done in various communities such as Observations and Measurements (ISO 19156), FOAF (Friend of a Friend), Bibo (Bibliography Ontology), and domain specific ontologies; enabling provenance traces of samples and subsamples using the different provenance ontologies; and providing the much needed linking of data from the various research organizations into a common, collaborative virtual observatory. In addition to better representing and presenting the actual data, we also look to organize and represent the knowledge information and expertise behind the data. Domain experts hold a lot of knowledge in their minds, in their presentations and publications, and elsewhere. Not only is this a technical issue, this is also a social issue in that we need to be able to encourage the domain experts to share their knowledge in a way that can be searched and queried over. With this additional focus in MetPetDB the site can be used more efficiently by other domain experts, but can also be utilized by non-specialists as well in order to educate people of the importance of the work being done as well as enable future domain experts.

  10. Virtual slit scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Fiolka, Reto; Stemmer, Andreas; Belyaev, Yury

    2007-12-01

    We present a novel slit scanning confocal microscope with a CCD camera image sensor and a virtual slit aperture for descanning that can be adjusted during post-processing. A very efficient data structure and mathematical criteria for aligning the virtual aperture guarantee the ease of use. We further introduce a method to reduce the anisotropic lateral resolution of slit scanning microscopes. System performance is evaluated against a spinning disk confocal microscope on identical specimens. The virtual slit scanning microscope works as the spinning disk type and outperforms on thick specimens. PMID:17891411

  11. Petrology and classification of the Garraf, Spain chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, K.; Conrad, G. H.; King, E. A.; San Miguel, A.

    1986-01-01

    Microscopic and electron microprobe studies indicate that the Garraf meteorite is a highly-recrystallized chondrite of petrologic type 6. Olivine (Fa24.7; PMD 1.1) and low-Ca pyroxene (Fs20.9; PMD 1.1) compositions indicate that it belongs to the L-group. Based on contents of noble gases, pervasive fracturing of silicates, common undulose extinction of olivine and plagioclase, and the lack of melt pockets and maskelynite, Garraf is placed into shock facies b. It is concluded that Garraf is a highly recrystallized L6b chondrite that, after recrystallization, was cataclased and comminuted by shock.

  12. Theoretical petrology. [of igneous and metamorphic rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolper, E.

    1979-01-01

    In the present paper, some areas of growing interest in the American efforts in petrology during the 1975-1978 quadrennium are reviewed. In igneous petrology, studies of structures and thermodynamic properties of silicate melts and of kinetics of igneous processes are in a period of rapid growth. Plate tectonic concepts have had (and will no doubt continue to have) an important influence by focusing interest on specific problems and by providing a framework for the understanding of petrogenesis. An understanding of mantle processes and evolution through the integration of petrological, geophysical, and geochemical constraints has been developed over the past 20 years, and will undoubtedly provide direction for future petrological studies.

  13. Microscopic Hematuria

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Microscopic Hematuria Overview What is microscopic hematuria? "Microscopic" means something is so small that it can only be ... will usually go away in 24 hours) Diagnosis & Tests How will my doctor check for microscopic hematuria? ...

  14. Lunar breccias, petrology, and earth planetary structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridley, W. I.

    1978-01-01

    Topics covered include: (1) petrologic studies of poikiloblastic textured rocks; (2) petrology of aluminous mare basalts in breccia 14063; (3) petrology of Apollo 15 breccia 15459; (4) high-alumina mare basalts; (5) some petrological aspects of imbrium stratigraphy; (6) petrology of lunar rocks and implication to lunar evolution; (7) the crystallization trends of spinels in Tertiary basalts from Rhum and Muck and their petrogenetic significance; (8) the geology and evolution of the Cayman Trench; (9) The petrochemistry of igneous rocks from the Cayman Trench and the Captains Bay Pluton, Unalaska Island and their relation to tectonic processes at plate margins; and (10) the oxide and silicate mineral chemistry of a Kimberlite from the Premier Mine with implications for the evolution of kimberlitic magma.

  15. Petrology of the igneous rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccallum, I. S.

    1987-01-01

    Papers published during the 1983-1986 period on the petrology and geochemistry of igneous rocks are discussed, with emphasis on tectonic environment. Consideration is given to oceanic rocks, subdivided into divergent margin suites (mid-ocean ridge basalts, ridge-related seamounts, and back-arc basin basalts) and intraplate suites (oceanic island basalts and nonridge seamounts), and to igneous rocks formed at convergent margins (island arc and continental arc suites), subdivided into volcanic associations and plutonic associations. Other rock groups discussed include continental flood basalts, layered mafic intrusions, continental alkalic associations, komatiites, ophiolites, ash-flow tuffs, anorthosites, and mantle xenoliths.

  16. Sedimentary petrology. 2nd edition

    SciTech Connect

    Blatt, H.

    1992-01-01

    The second edition of Sedimentary Petrology is extensively revised and updated; much effort has been expended to strengthen the weaknesses of the earlier edition, and much of this effort has been successful. It consists of sixteen chapters. Following two introductory chapters (occurrence of sedimentary rocks; weathering and soils), eleven chapters cover the various sedimentary rock types. Coverage is allocated in proportion to their relative abundance and relative ease of study -- three chapters on conglomerates and sandstones (textures and structures, composition, and diagenesis); one on mud rocks; three on carbonates (limestone textures, structures, and environments; limestone mineralogy and diagenesis; and dolostones); and one each on evaporites, cherts, iron-rich rocks, and phosphorites. A novel and useful chapter on paleogeothermometry rounds out the discussion of rocks, followed by chapters on The Development of a Research Project'' and common laboratory methods.

  17. Petrological studies on lunar rock samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushiro, I.

    1974-01-01

    Petrological studies were made on Apollo 14, 15, 16, and 17 lunar samples. High-pressure melting experiments were conducted, along with electron microprobe analyses. The composition of the samples is reported.

  18. Petrology of Anomalous Eucrite QUE 94484

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Peng, Z. X.

    2015-01-01

    Most mafic achondrites are broadly "eucritic", being composed of ferroan low-Ca clinopyroxene, high-Ca plagioclase, a silica phase, ilmenite and accessory phases. Their characteristics indicate that eucrite-like basalts formed on asteroids of similar composition under similar petrologic conditions (T, P, fO2). Some eucrite-like basalts have isotopic compositions and petrologic characteristics consistent with formation on different parent asteroids (e.g., Ibitira, NWA 011). Others show small isotopic differences but no distinguishing petrological characteristics (e.g., Caldera, Pasamonte). We have begun a study of anomalous eucrite-like achondrites in an effort to seek resolution to the issues: Did the eucrite parent asteroid fail to homogenize via a magma-ocean stage, thus explaining outliers like Pasamonte? How many parent asteroids are represented by these basalts? Here we present preliminary petrologic information on anomalous basaltic eucrite QUE 94484.

  19. Studies of Brazilian meteorites. XIV - Mineralogy, petrology, and chemistry of the Conquista, Minas Gerais, chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, K.; Kirchner, E.; Gomes, C. B.; Jarosewich, E.; Murta, R. L. L.

    1978-01-01

    The Conquista chondrite is described and classified as an H4. The mineral composition is reported. H-group classification is based on described microscopic, electron microprobe, and bulk chemical studies. The evidence for petrologic type 4 classification includes the pronounced well-developed chondritic texture; the slight compositional variations in constituent phases; the high Ca contents of pyroxene and the presence of pigeonite; glassy to microcrystalline interstitial material rich in alkalis and SiO2; and twinned low-Ca clinopyroxene.

  20. APPLICATIONS OF CATHODOLUMINESCENCE OF QUARTZ AND FELDSPAR TO SEDIMENTARY PETROLOGY.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppert, Leslie F.

    1987-01-01

    Cathodoluminescence (CL), the emission of visible light during electron bombardment, was first used in sandstone petrology in the mid-1960's. CL techniques are especially useful for determining the origin and source of quartz and feldspar, two of the most common constituents in clastic rocks. CL properties of both minerals are dependent on their temperature of crystallization, duration of cooling, and/or history of deformation. Detrital quartz and feldspar are typically derived from igneous and metamorphic sources and luminesce in the visible range whereas authigenic quartz and feldspar form at low temperatures and do not luminesce. Quantification of luminescent and non-luminescent quartz and feldspar with the scanning electron microscope, electron microprobe, or a commercial CL device can allow for the determination of origin, diagenesis, and source of clastic rocks when used in conjunction with field and other petrographic analyses.

  1. Chemistry and Petrology of Chondrules from the Mokoia CV Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. H.; Schilk, A. J.

    2000-01-01

    Bulk chemical compositions of 94 chondrules from Mokoia have been obtained by INAA. Elemental abundances are correlated with petrology. Chemical and petrological properties are very similar to chondrules from Allende and do not show strong alteration signatures.

  2. Petrologic Characteristics of the Lunar Surface.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianmin; Pedrycz, Witold

    2015-01-01

    Petrologic analysis of the lunar surface is critical for determining lunar formation and evolution. Here, we report the first global petrologic map that includes the five most important lunar lithological units: the Ferroan Anorthositic (FAN) Unit, the Magnesian Suite (MS) Unit, the Alkali Suite (AS) Unit, the KREEP Basalt (KB) Unit and the Mare Basalt (MB) Unit. Based on the petrologic map and focusing on four long-debated and important issues related to lunar formation and evolution, we draw the following conclusions from the new insights into the global distribution of the five petrologic units: (1) there may be no petrogenetic relationship between MS rocks and KB; (2) there may be no petrogenetic link between MS and AS rocks; (3) the exposure of the KREEP component on the lunar surface is likely not a result of MB volcanism but is instead mainly associated with the combined action of plutonic intrusion, KREEP volcanism and celestial collision; (4) the impact size of the South Pole-Aitken basin is constrained, i.e., the basin has been excavated through the whole crust to exhume a vast majority of lower-crustal material and a very limited mantle components to the lunar surface. PMID:26611148

  3. Petrologic Characteristics of the Lunar Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianmin; Pedrycz, Witold

    2015-11-01

    Petrologic analysis of the lunar surface is critical for determining lunar formation and evolution. Here, we report the first global petrologic map that includes the five most important lunar lithological units: the Ferroan Anorthositic (FAN) Unit, the Magnesian Suite (MS) Unit, the Alkali Suite (AS) Unit, the KREEP Basalt (KB) Unit and the Mare Basalt (MB) Unit. Based on the petrologic map and focusing on four long-debated and important issues related to lunar formation and evolution, we draw the following conclusions from the new insights into the global distribution of the five petrologic units: (1) there may be no petrogenetic relationship between MS rocks and KB; (2) there may be no petrogenetic link between MS and AS rocks; (3) the exposure of the KREEP component on the lunar surface is likely not a result of MB volcanism but is instead mainly associated with the combined action of plutonic intrusion, KREEP volcanism and celestial collision; (4) the impact size of the South Pole-Aitken basin is constrained, i.e., the basin has been excavated through the whole crust to exhume a vast majority of lower-crustal material and a very limited mantle components to the lunar surface.

  4. Petrologic Characteristics of the Lunar Surface

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xianmin; Pedrycz, Witold

    2015-01-01

    Petrologic analysis of the lunar surface is critical for determining lunar formation and evolution. Here, we report the first global petrologic map that includes the five most important lunar lithological units: the Ferroan Anorthositic (FAN) Unit, the Magnesian Suite (MS) Unit, the Alkali Suite (AS) Unit, the KREEP Basalt (KB) Unit and the Mare Basalt (MB) Unit. Based on the petrologic map and focusing on four long-debated and important issues related to lunar formation and evolution, we draw the following conclusions from the new insights into the global distribution of the five petrologic units: (1) there may be no petrogenetic relationship between MS rocks and KB; (2) there may be no petrogenetic link between MS and AS rocks; (3) the exposure of the KREEP component on the lunar surface is likely not a result of MB volcanism but is instead mainly associated with the combined action of plutonic intrusion, KREEP volcanism and celestial collision; (4) the impact size of the South Pole-Aitken basin is constrained, i.e., the basin has been excavated through the whole crust to exhume a vast majority of lower-crustal material and a very limited mantle components to the lunar surface. PMID:26611148

  5. Athena microscopic Imager investigation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herkenhoff, K. E.; Squyres, S. W.; Bell, J.F., III; Maki, J.N.; Arneson, H.M.; Bertelsen, P.; Brown, D.I.; Collins, S.A.; Dingizian, A.; Elliott, S.T.; Goetz, W.; Hagerott, E.C.; Hayes, A.G.; Johnson, M.J.; Kirk, R.L.; McLennan, S.; Morris, R.V.; Scherr, L.M.; Schwochert, M.A.; Shiraishi, L.R.; Smith, G.H.; Soderblom, L.A.; Sohl-Dickstein, J. N.; Wadsworth, M.V.

    2003-01-01

    The Athena science payload on the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) includes the Microscopic Imager (MI). The MI is a fixed-focus camera mounted on the end of an extendable instrument arm, the Instrument Deployment Device (IDD). The MI was designed to acquire images at a spatial resolution of 30 microns/pixel over a broad spectral range (400-700 nm). The MI uses the same electronics design as the other MER cameras but has optics that yield a field of view of 31 ?? 31 mm across a 1024 ?? 1024 pixel CCD image. The MI acquires images using only solar or skylight illumination of the target surface. A contact sensor is used to place the MI slightly closer to the target surface than its best focus distance (about 66 mm), allowing concave surfaces to be imaged in good focus. Coarse focusing (???2 mm precision) is achieved by moving the IDD away from a rock target after the contact sensor has been activated. The MI optics are protected from the Martian environment by a retractable dust cover. The dust cover includes a Kapton window that is tinted orange to restrict the spectral bandpass to 500-700 nm, allowing color information to be obtained by taking images with the dust cover open and closed. MI data will be used to place other MER instrument data in context and to aid in petrologic and geologic interpretations of rocks and soils on Mars. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Microscopic thymoma.

    PubMed

    Chalabreysse, Lara; Orsini, Alessandro; Vial, Christophe; Tronc, François

    2007-02-01

    Microscopic thymoma was first described in 1976 and remains in the latest WHO classification (2004). It defines an epithelial proliferation, with <1 mm in diameter, usually multifocal, that preferentially occurs in patients suffering from myasthenia gravis without a macroscopically evident tumour. A series of 87 thymectomies realised in myasthenic patients between 1992 and 2005 was reviewed. We describe three cases of microscopic thymoma: two male and one female with an average age of 41.6 years. All patients suffered from myasthenia gravis positive for acetylcholine receptor antibodies without any tumour detectable on chest tomodensitometric examination. Thymectomy was performed in all cases, enlarged to the mediastinal fat in one. Microscopic examination revealed three type-A microscopic thymoma, one multifocal, associated with lymphoid hyperplasia in two cases. After surgery, all patients had clinically improved. In summary, chest computed tomography is unable to detect microscopic thymoma. Histological examination of the entire specimen is indicated after thymectomy in myasthenic patients even if the thymus appears normal on radiographic examination. The role of microscopic thymoma as a predictor of clinical thymoma has not been proven. PMID:17669792

  7. A tutorial for sandstone petrology: architecture and development of an interactive program for teaching highly visual material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choh, Suk-Joo; Milliken, Kitty L.; McBride, Earle F.

    2003-11-01

    We have developed an interactive computer-based tutorial in sandstone petrology for undergraduate-level students. The goal of this tutorial is to provide students exposure to the highly visual subject matter of petrography outside the confines of organized laboratory exercises. This paper describes the architecture and development procedures of the current version of the sandstone petrography tutorial, and offers a possible model for similar development approaches in other fields of petrography or in any other field that utilizes large quantities of visual material such as remote sensing image interpretation or seismic interpretation. The tutorial is an interactive photomicrograph archive with sufficient content and flexible architecture that functions as a virtual laboratory instructor as well as a stand-alone reference. The current tutorial was programmed using Macromedia Authorware v.6.0 and supports both Windows-based and MacOS personal computers. The tutorial is constructed around the Folk sandstone classification scheme (quartzarenite, arkose, and litharenite), and an additional section addresses grains other than quartz, feldspar, and lithic fragments and sandstones dominated by these grains. The user interface is designed to take minimal portion of the screen area so that the screen can closely mimic the type of view seen by a student peering down a microscope. Each photomicrograph in the tutorial is basically unadorned until the user actively calls up information that is temporarily displayed over the image, inducing the user to search for information and actively "ask" to be informed with a mouse click. The structure of the tutorial permits multiple strategies of program use, as a linear tutorial, tutorial driven by thumbnail browser, and as a searchable reference.

  8. Magmas and magmatic rocks: An introduction to igneous petrology

    SciTech Connect

    Middlemost, E.A.K.

    1986-01-01

    This book melds traditional igneous petrology with the emerging science of planetary petrology to provide an account of current ideas on active magmatic and volcanic processes, drawing examples from all igneous provinces of the world as well as from the moon and planets. It reviews the history and development of concepts fundamental to modern igneous petrology and includes indepth sections on magmas, magnetic differentiation and volcanology.

  9. Petrological Mapping of the Crater Boguslawsky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wöhler, C.; Evdokimova, N. A.; Feoktistova, E. A.; Grumpe, A.; Kapoor, K.; Berezhnoy, A. A.; Shevchenko, V. V.

    2015-10-01

    An analysis of orbital spectral data of the crater Boguslawsky, the intended target region of the Russian Luna-Glob mission, is performed. We have constructed a high- resolution DEM of the crater Boguslawsky, based on which the temperature regime on the surface is investigated. The depth of the OH absorption feature is analysed.The content of the main elements is estimated, and a petrologic map is constructed accordingly.

  10. Microscopic Polyangiitis

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sharon A.; Seo, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis In 1923, Friedrich Wohlwill described two patients with a “microscopic form of periarteritis nodosa”, which was distinct from classical polyarteritis nodosa. This disease, now known as microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), is a primary systemic vasculitis characterized by inflammation of the small-caliber blood vessels and the presence of circulating antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA). Typically, microscopic polyangiitis presents with glomerulonephritis and pulmonary capillaritis, although involvement of the skin, nerves, and gastrointestinal tract is not uncommon. Treatment of MPA generally requires use of a cytotoxic agent (such as cyclophosphamide) in addition to high-dose glucocorticoids. Recent research has focused on identifying alternate treatment strategies that minimize or eliminate exposure to cytotoxic agents. This article will review the history, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and treatment of MPA. PMID:20688249

  11. Martian Microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The microscopic imager (circular device in center) is in clear view above the surface at Meridiani Planum, Mars, in this approximate true-color image taken by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The image was taken on the 9th sol of the rover's journey. The microscopic imager is located on the rover's instrument deployment device, or arm. The arrow is pointing to the lens of the instrument. Note the dust cover, which flips out to the left of the lens, is open. This approximated color image was created using the camera's violet and infrared filters as blue and red.

  12. Microscopic colitis

    PubMed Central

    Ianiro, Gianluca; Cammarota, Giovanni; Valerio, Luca; Annicchiarico, Brigida Eleonora; Milani, Alessandro; Siciliano, Massimo; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Microscopic colitis may be defined as a clinical syndrome, of unknown etiology, consisting of chronic watery diarrhea, with no alterations in the large bowel at the endoscopic and radiologic evaluation. Therefore, a definitive diagnosis is only possible by histological analysis. The epidemiological impact of this disease has become increasingly clear in the last years, with most data coming from Western countries. Microscopic colitis includes two histological subtypes [collagenous colitis (CC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC)] with no differences in clinical presentation and management. Collagenous colitis is characterized by a thickening of the subepithelial collagen layer that is absent in LC. The main feature of LC is an increase of the density of intra-epithelial lymphocytes in the surface epithelium. A number of pathogenetic theories have been proposed over the years, involving the role of luminal agents, autoimmunity, eosinophils, genetics (human leukocyte antigen), biliary acids, infections, alterations of pericryptal fibroblasts, and drug intake; drugs like ticlopidine, carbamazepine or ranitidine are especially associated with the development of LC, while CC is more frequently linked to cimetidine, non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs and lansoprazole. Microscopic colitis typically presents as chronic or intermittent watery diarrhea, that may be accompanied by symptoms such as abdominal pain, weight loss and incontinence. Recent evidence has added new pharmacological options for the treatment of microscopic colitis: the role of steroidal therapy, especially oral budesonide, has gained relevance, as well as immunosuppressive agents such as azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine. The use of anti-tumor necrosis factor-α agents, infliximab and adalimumab, constitutes a new, interesting tool for the treatment of microscopic colitis, but larger, adequately designed studies are needed to confirm existing data. PMID:23180940

  13. In vivo virtual intraoperative surgical photoacoustic microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Seunghoon Kim, Sehui Kim, Jeehyun E-mail: chulhong@postech.edu; Lee, Changho Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Chulhong E-mail: chulhong@postech.edu; Department of Biomedical Engineering, The State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14221

    2013-11-11

    We developed a virtual intraoperative surgical photoacoustic microscopy system by combining with a commercial surgical microscope and photoacoustic microscope (PAM). By sharing the common optical path in the microscope and PAM system, we could acquire the PAM and microscope images simultaneously. Moreover, by employing a beam projector to back-project 2D PAM images onto the microscope view plane as augmented reality, the conventional microscopic and 2D cross-sectional PAM images are concurrently mapped on the plane via an ocular lens of the microscope in real-time. Further, we guided needle insertion into phantom ex vivo and mice skins in vivo.

  14. Rethinking how Undergraduate ``Hard Rock'' Petrology is Taught

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, M. R.

    2010-12-01

    A course in "hard rock" petrology forms a core component of undergraduate training in the geosciences. In most cases, the subjects of igneous and metamorphic petrology are combined in a single course and the course is traditionally structured so that the two subjects are covered in series. This approach enables students to focus on each subject separately, with knowledge of igneous rocks helping students to understand metamorphic rock protoliths. Student assessment shows, however, that this approach tends to compartmentalize learning and the two main subjects might just as well be taught in separate courses. In practical applications such as fieldwork, students must be able to access their understanding of igneous and metamorphic rocks virtually simultaneously. To better integrate student learning, I developed a spiral learning approach to teaching petrology (e.g., Bruner, 1990; Dyar et al., 2004) so that commonalities could be revisited several times over the course of a semester and, in so doing, students' grasp of the fundamental insights provided by igneous and metamorphic rocks could be scaffolded into greater understanding. The course initially focuses on the dynamics of the environments in which igneous and metamorphic rocks form: heat flow, fluid flow, and plate tectonics. Several subsequent weeks explore topics relevant to identifying and understanding igneous and metamorphic rocks in the field: crystal nucleation and growth, the roles of pressure and heat, and field classification. Laboratory exercises parallel this structure, also emphasizing observations that are valuable in the field: the relationship between minerals and rocks, textural observations, and general rock classification. The final portion of the course explores “hard rocks” in more detail with a greater emphasis on the interplay between chemistry and mineralogy. A variety of learner-centered activities in the course help students bridge the gap between novice and expert and include more explicit emphasis on visualization and on helping students become comfortable with interpreting data numerically and graphically. Pen tablet computers are used extensively in the laboratory for visualization, photomicrograph capture, and annotation. Cooperative learning activities developed for this course make use of learning methods such as pair share, round-robin, small group explorations case studies, and jigsaw exercises (sometimes as introduction to, sometimes as review of material), and Jeopardy-style review sessions. On an assessment questionnaire at the end of the semester students ranked the in-class cooperative learning activities as on par with lectures and homework exercises in facilitating their learning. Students reported satisfactory attainment of three major goals identified for the course even though they were not explicitly reminded of these goals at the time of assessment. References cited: Bruner, J., 1990. Acts of Meaning. Harvard University Press.; Dyar, M.D., Gunter, M.E., Davis, J.C., and Odell, M.R., 2004. Integration of new methods into teaching mineralogy; Huba, M.E. and Freed, J.E., 2000. Learner-centered Assessment on College Campus: Shifting the Focus from Teaching to Learning. Allyn and Bacon.

  15. [Petrological Analysis of Astrophysical Dust Analog Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.

    1997-01-01

    This project "Petrological analysis of astrophysical dust analog evolution" was initiated to try to understand the vapor phase condensation, and the nature of the reaction products, in circumstellar environments, such as the solar nebula 4,500 Myrs ago, and in the interstellar medium. Telescope-based infrared [IR] spectroscopy offers a broad-scale inventory of the various types of dust in these environments but no details on small-scale variations in terms of chemistry and morphology and petrological phase relationships. Vapor phase condensation in these environments is almost certainly a non-equilibrium process. The main challenge to this research was to document the nature of this process that, based on astrophysical observations, seems to yield compositionally consistent materials. This observation may suggest a predictable character during non-equilibrium condensation. These astrophysical environments include two chemically distinct, that is, oxygen-rich and carbon-rich environments. The former is characterized by silicates the latter by carbon-bearing solids. According to cosmological models of stellar evolution circumstellar dust accreted into protoplanets wherein thermal and/or aqueous processes will alter the dust under initially, non-equilibrium conditions.

  16. Microscope and method of use

    SciTech Connect

    Bongianni, Wayne L.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for electronically focusing and electronically scanning microscopic specimens are given. In the invention, visual images of even moving, living, opaque specimens can be acoustically obtained and viewed with virtually no time needed for processing (i.e., real time processing is used). And planar samples are not required. The specimens (if planar) need not be moved during scanning, although it will be desirable and possible to move or rotate nonplanar specimens (e.g., laser fusion targets) against the lens of the apparatus. No coupling fluid is needed, so specimens need not be wetted. A phase acoustic microscope is also made from the basic microscope components together with electronic mixers.

  17. Microscope and method of use

    SciTech Connect

    Bongianni, W.L.

    1981-08-18

    A method and apparatus for electronically focusing and electronically scanning microscopic specimens are given. In the invention, visual images of even moving, living, opaque specimens can be acoustically obtained and viewed with virtually no time needed for processing (i.e., real time processing is used). And planar samples are not required. The specimens (if planar) need not be moved during scanning, although it will be desirable and possible to move or rotate nonplanar specimens (e.g., laser fusion targets) against the lens of the apparatus. No coupling fluid is needed, so specimens need not be wetted. A phase acoustic microscope is also made from the basic microscope components together with electronic mixers.

  18. Microscope and method of use

    SciTech Connect

    Bongianni, W.L.

    1984-04-17

    A method and apparatus for electronically focusing and electronically scanning microscopic specimens are given. In the invention, visual images of even moving, living, opaque specimens can be acoustically obtained and viewed with virtually no time needed for processing (i.e., real time processing is used). And planar samples are not required. The specimens (if planar) need not be moved during scanning, although it will be desirable and possible to move or rotate nonplanar specimens (e.g., laser fusion targets) against the lens of the apparatus. No coupling fluid is needed, so specimens need not be wetted. A phase acoustic microscope is also made from the basic microscope components together with electronic mixers. 7 figs.

  19. Modeling petrological geodynamics in the Earth's mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirone, M.; Ganguly, J.; Morgan, J. P.

    2009-04-01

    We have developed an approach that combines principles of fluid dynamics and chemical thermodynamics into a fully coupled scheme to model geodynamic and petrological evolution of the Earth's mantle. Transport equations involving pressure, temperature, velocities, and bulk chemical composition are solved for one or more dynamic phases and interfaced with the thermodynamic solutions for equilibrium mineralogical assemblages and compositions. The mineralogical assemblage and composition are computed on a space-time grid, assuming that local thermodynamic equilibrium is effectively achieved. This approach allows us to simultaneously compute geophysical, geochemical, and petrological properties that can be compared with a large mass of observational data to gain insights into a variety of solid Earth problems and melting phenomena. We describe the salient features of our numerical scheme and the underlying mathematical principles and discuss a few selected applications to petrological and geophysical problems. First, it is shown that during the initial stage of passive spreading of plates, the composition of the melt near Earth's surface is in reasonable agreement with the average major element composition of worldwide flood basalts. Only the silica content from our model is slightly higher that in observational data. The amount of melt produced is somewhat lower than the estimated volumes for extrusive and upper crustal intrusive igneous rocks from large igneous provinces suggesting that an active upwelling of a larger mantle region should be considered in the process. Second, we have modeled a plume upwelling under a moving plate incorporating the effects of mineralogy on the density structure and viscous dissipation on the heat transport equation. The results show how these effects promote mantle instability at the base of the lithosphere. Third, we have considered a mantle convection model with viscosity and density directly related to the local equilibrium mineralogical assemblage. Interesting lateral variations and significant differences in the viscosity structure of the upper and lower mantle are revealed from our model results. The averaged viscosity variations with depth retrieved from our numerical simulations seem to reproduce the main features of the mantle viscosity structure under the Pacific ocean obtained from recent studies based on inversion of seismic data.

  20. Petrology, Geochemistry and Genesis of Ureilites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Hudon, Pierre; Galindo, Charles, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Ureilites are enigmatic achondrites that have some characteristics resulting from high temperature igneous processing, yet retain other characteristics inherited from the solar nebula. They are basalt-depleted ultramafic rocks containing 7-66 mg/g elemental C. They are rich in noble gases and display a correlation between mg# and Delta (17)O. This mishmash of properties has engendered various models for ureilite genesis, from those in which nebular processes dominate to those in which parent body igneous processes dominate. Characterization of new ureilites, especially of new subtypes, is an important part of attempts to unravel the history of the ureilite parent body or bodies. Here we report on the petrology and geochemistry of a suite of ureilites, mostly from Antarctica, and use these data to discuss ureilite petrogenesis. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  1. Petrology and Composition of HED Polymict Breccias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Herrin, J. S.; Mertzman, S. A.; Mertzman, K. R.

    2010-01-01

    The howardite, eucrite and diogenite (HED) clan of meteorites forms the largest suite of achondrites with over 900 named members. The HEDs are igneous rocks and breccias of igneous rocks from a differentiated asteroid [1]. The consensus view is that these rocks hail from the asteroid 4 Vesta, which will be the first target of NASA's Dawn mission. When Dawn arrives at Vesta, she will begin remote imagery and spectroscopy of the surface. The surface she will observe will be dominated by rocks and soils mixed through impact gardening. To help with the interpretation of the remotely sensed data, we have begun a project on the petrologic and compositional study of a suite of HED polymict breccias. Here we report on the preliminary findings of this project.

  2. Petrology of brecciated ferroan noritic anorthosite 67215

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, James J.

    1988-01-01

    A petrologic study of breccia 67215 is presented, showing that the rock has the bulk composition of a ferroan noritic anorthosite and is a polymict breccia containing several lithic clast types within a crushed, cataclastic matrix. The dominant lithic clasts contained in breccia 67215 are found to be igneous and metamorphic low- and high- Ca pyroxenes and olivine. Other clasts include granulated and sheared clasts, coarse-grained anorthosite with relatively Fe-rich augite, aphanitic, feldspathic microporphyritic melt breccias, and an impact-melt rock with strongly zoned relatively Mg-rich pyroxene. It is concluded that this rock type is relatively common in the highlands regolith excavated by the North Ray Crater.

  3. Virtual Colonoscopy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a virtual colonoscopy as a screening test for colon cancer. Screening is testing for diseases when people have ... gastroenterologists use a virtual colonoscopy to screen for colon cancer, not enough evidence exists to fully assess its ...

  4. Altering petrology through microbial dissimilatory phosphite oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, H.; Figueroa, I.; Coates, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) takes advantage of various microbial metabolisms to increase hydrocarbon and energy yield by improving oil flow and flood water sweep in a reservoir during tertiary recovery. Wormholing at the injection well is believed to be the result of the large drop in pressure when water exits the injection well and enters the unconsolidated reservoir matrix. One possible means of prevent this event is to consolidate the rock matrix immediately around the injection well to create a permeable zone of stable petrology. Many microbial processes are known to result in the precipitation of ionic components into their environment creating solid-phase minerals. Such processes could be judiciously applied to bind unconsolidated matrices in order to form a permeable concreted rock matrix, which would minimize wormholing events and thus improve floodwater sweep. However, to date, apart from the application of urea oxidation creating calcium carbonate precipitation, there has been little investigation of the applicability of these precipitated bioconcretions to MEOR strategies and none to control wormholing events. Here we present a novel approach to altering rock petrology to concrete unconsolidated matrices in the near well environment by the biogenesis of authigenic minerals through microbial dissimilatory phosphite oxidation. Desulfotignum phosphitoxidans, strain FiPS-3 is currently the only isolated organism capable of using phosphite (HPO32-) as an electron donor for growth. This process, known as dissimilatory phosphite oxidation (DPO), can be coupled to either sulfate reduction or homoacetogenesis and leads to the accumulation of inorganic phosphate in the medium. The resulting insoluble mineral phases can coat the rock environment resulting in a concretion binding the unconsolidated matrix particles into a single phase. In this study we demonstrate that DPO can effectively produce calcium or magnesium phosphate minerals in packed glass bead mini-columns and could potentially be applied to create a concretion binding the unconsolidated matrix particles into a single phase.

  5. Using quantitative phase petrology to understand metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Quantitative phase petrology has become one of the mainstay methods for interpreting metamorphic rocks and processes. Its increased utility has been driven by improvements to end-member thermodynamics, activity-composition relationships and computer programs to undertake calculations. Such improvements now allow us to undertake calculations in increasingly complex chemical systems that more closely reflect those of rocks. Recent progress in activity-composition (a-x) relationships is aimed at developing suites of a-x relationships in large chemical systems that are calibrated together, which will allow a more direct application of the method to metamorphic rocks. In addition, considerable progress has been made in how quantitative phase diagrams can be used to understand features, including chemical potential diagrams for reaction textures, methods for fractionating bulk compositions and methods for modelling open system processes. One feature of calculated phase diagrams is that they present us with a great amount of information, such as mineral assemblages, mineral proportions, phase compositions, volume or density etc. An important aspect to using this information is to understand the potential uncertainties associated with these, which are significant. These uncertainties require that calculated phase diagrams be used with caution to interpret observed features in rocks. Features such as mineral zoning and reaction textures should still be interpreted in a semi-quantitative way, even if based on a fully quantitative diagram. Exercises such as the interpretation of reaction overstepping based on relating phase diagrams to observed mineral core compositions are likely to give spurious results given the infelicities in existing a-x models. Despite these limitations, quantitative phase petrology remains the most useful approach to interpreting the metamorphic history of rocks in that it provides a theoretical framework in which to interpret observed features rather than a literal truth

  6. Petrology and radiogeology of the Stripa pluton

    SciTech Connect

    Wollenberg, Harold; Flexser, Steve; Andersson, Lennart

    1980-12-01

    To better define the character of the rock encompassing the thermomechanical and hydrological experiments at the Stripa mine in central Sweden, and to help determine the size of the Stripa pluton, detailed studies were conducted of the petrology and radiogeology of the quartz monzonite and adjacent rocks. Petrologic studies emphasized optical petrography, with supplementary X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and microprobe analyses. Radiogeologic investigations were based primarily on surface and underground gamma-ray spectrometric measurements of uranium, thorium and potassium, supplemented by laboratory gamma spectrometric analyses and fission-track radiographic determinations of the locations and abundance of uranium in the rock matrix. Both the quartz monzonite and the metavolcanic leptite which it intruded are strongly fractured. Two stages of fracture filling are evident; an earlier stage encompassing quartz, sericite, feldspar, epidote, and chlorite, and a later stage dominated by carbonate minerals. The Stripa quartz monzonite is chemically and mineralogically distinct from other plutons in the region. Muscovite is the predominant mica in the quartz monzonite; biotite has been altered to chlorite, hornblende is absent, and accessory minerals are scarce. In contrast, in other plutons in the Stripa region biotite and hornblende are prominent mafic minerals and accessory minerals are abundant. The Stripa quartz monzonite is also considerably more radioactive than the leptite and other plutons in the region. Uranium and thorium abundances are both- 30 ppm, considerably higher than in "normal" granitic rocks where the thorium-to-uranium ratio generally exceeds 2. Potassium-argon dating of muscovite from the Stripa quartz monzonite indicates that this rock may be older, at 1691 million years than granitic rock of the neighboring Gusselby and Kloten massifs, whose ages, based on K-Ar dating of biotite, are respectively 1604 and 1640 m.y. Heat flow and heat productivity considerations show that although Stripa quartz monzonite contains high abundances of radioelements, the pluton has little effect on the regional heat flow. If it occurs in a layered plutonic setting, it is not more than 1.5 km thick; otherwise it may comprise a stock, dike, or border phase that is relatively small compared with the large granitic plutons exposed in the region.

  7. Magnetic petrology of eastern North America diabases. I - Olivine-normative dikes from western South Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Richard D.; Wasilewski, Peter J.

    1990-01-01

    The oxide mineralogy and the magnetic behavior of 15 olivine-normative samples obtained from South-Caroline diabase dikes were investigated using electron microprobe and SEM analyses and measurements of natural remanence magnetization (NRM), saturation isothermal remanence magnetization (SIRM), and anhysteritic remanence magnetization. It was found that chromite (which for these olivine-normative diabases is a sensitive petrologic indicator) constitutes up to 0.5 vol pct and that its abundance and composition correlate with bulk rock Cr. Microscopic analyses showed that titanomagnetite compositions were mostly between 0.4 and 0.55. The values of NRM and the NRM/SIRM ratios varied between 4 and 0.01 A sq m/kg and 0.0019 and 0.032, respectively. These properties inversely correlate with Cr content and demonstrably contrast Cr-rich and Cr-poor samples.

  8. Electronic Blending in Virtual Microscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maybury, Terrence S.; Farah, Camile S.

    2010-01-01

    Virtual microscopy (VM) is a relatively new technology that transforms the computer into a microscope. In essence, VM allows for the scanning and transfer of glass slides from light microscopy technology to the digital environment of the computer. This transition is also a function of the change from print knowledge to electronic knowledge, or as…

  9. Petrology and In Situ Trace Element Chemistry of a Suite of R Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Peng, Z. X.; Torrano, Z. A.

    2015-07-01

    Your eyes are not deceiving you: Duck has submitted an abstract to a chondrite session. We will present the results of our petrological and compositional studies of R chondrites of diverse petrological type.

  10. Cratonization: a thermal and petrological perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, H.N.

    1985-01-01

    The long term thermal and tectonic history of the continental lithosphere derives from the processes that lead to crationization. Cratons are characterized by mechanical stability, buoyancy and freeboard, a paucity of magmatism, and deep roots. The process is not slow and gradual, extending over aeons, but rather is relatively rapid, being accomplished in a period on the order of 300-500 Ma; cratonic nuclei existed by the end of the Archean. The essential process is devolatilization of the upper mantle, in associations with major orogenic events, to a depth of about 300 km. Devolatilization has the following effects: 1) it elevates the solidus of the affected lithosphere, making it less vulnerable to subsequent melting, 2) it augments the mechanical strength and stiffness of the region by increasing the activation energy, thereby 3) enhancing the structural stability of the lithosphere, thickening it, and extending to greater depths the region in which conduction is the principal mode of heat transfer, thereby 4) maintaining freeboard by the thermal expansion of the extended lithosphere because of the higher temperatures of the conductive thermal regime, and 5) enhancement of buoyancy by thermal expansion and petrological differentiation. The process of cratonization can be reversed by reintroduction of volatiles for the deeper mantle, or by raising the temperature sufficiently to reach the volatile-free refractory solidus. Mantle metasomatic processes probably promote destabilization by recharging the thick need lithosphere with both volatiles and heat producing isotopes.

  11. The lunar regolith - Chemistry, mineralogy, and petrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papike, J. J.; Simon, S. B.; Laul, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    The data base on the lunar regolith is surveyed to form a synthesis of the lunar regolith chemistry, mineralogy, and petrology. The data were derived from samples collected by the Apollo missions 11-17 and the Luna 16, 20, and 24 probes. The missions were sent to sample formations and areas which typified the common observed features of the lunar surface. Drive tubes were used to extract samples from beneath the surface in order to study the relationship between the regolith and the bedrock, as well as to identify the processes that formed the regolith, which is regarded as the prime source of raw materials for early lunar industrial activities. Regolith origins are now understood to be destructive processes of comminution and constructional processes of agglutinate formation. Mixing occurs on the local scale, although lateral transport is inefficient on the moon. The usual contents of the fraction of regolith less than 10 microns in diameter are Al2O3, CaO, Na2O, K2O, light REE, and Th.

  12. Virtual Laboratories and Virtual Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hut, Piet

    2008-05-01

    Since we cannot put stars in a laboratory, astrophysicists had to wait till the invention of computers before becoming laboratory scientists. For half a century now, we have been conducting experiments in our virtual laboratories. However, we ourselves have remained behind the keyboard, with the screen of the monitor separating us from the world we are simulating. Recently, 3D on-line technology, developed first for games but now deployed in virtual worlds like Second Life, is beginning to make it possible for astrophysicists to enter their virtual labs themselves, in virtual form as avatars. This has several advantages, from new possibilities to explore the results of the simulations to a shared presence in a virtual lab with remote collaborators on different continents. I will report my experiences with the use of Qwaq Forums, a virtual world developed by a new company (see http://www.qwaq.com).

  13. Virtual Labs and Virtual Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehler, Ted

    2006-12-01

    Virtual Labs and Virtual Worlds Coastline Community College has under development several virtual lab simulations and activities that range from biology, to language labs, to virtual discussion environments. Imagine a virtual world that students enter online, by logging onto their computer from home or anywhere they have web access. Upon entering this world they select a personalized identity represented by a digitized character (avatar) that can freely move about, interact with the environment, and communicate with other characters. In these virtual worlds, buildings, gathering places, conference rooms, labs, science rooms, and a variety of other “real world” elements are evident. When characters move about and encounter other people (players) they may freely communicate. They can examine things, manipulate objects, read signs, watch video clips, hear sounds, and jump to other locations. Goals of critical thinking, social interaction, peer collaboration, group support, and enhanced learning can be achieved in surprising new ways with this innovative approach to peer-to-peer communication in a virtual discussion world. In this presentation, short demos will be given of several online learning environments including a virtual biology lab, a marine science module, a Spanish lab, and a virtual discussion world. Coastline College has been a leader in the development of distance learning and media-based education for nearly 30 years and currently offers courses through PDA, Internet, DVD, CD-ROM, TV, and Videoconferencing technologies. Its distance learning program serves over 20,000 students every year. sponsor Jerry Meisner

  14. Virtually Possible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellon, Ericka

    2011-01-01

    Diane Lewis began building her popular virtual education program in a storage closet. The drab room, just big enough to squeeze in a tiny table, was her office at the headquarters of Seminole County (Florida) Public Schools. She had a computer and a small staff of temporary workers. Lewis, who managed to open two successful virtual schools for…

  15. Virtually Possible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellon, Ericka

    2011-01-01

    Diane Lewis began building her popular virtual education program in a storage closet. The drab room, just big enough to squeeze in a tiny table, was her office at the headquarters of Seminole County (Florida) Public Schools. She had a computer and a small staff of temporary workers. Lewis, who managed to open two successful virtual schools for…

  16. The petrographic microscope: Evolution of a mineralogical research instrument

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kile, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    The petrographic microscope, designed to observe and measure the optical properties of minerals as a means of identifying them, has provided a foundation for mineralogical and petrological research for more than 120 years. Much of what is known today in these fields is attributable to this instrument, the development of which paralleled an evolution of fundamental optical theory and its correlation with mineral structure and composition. This instrument and its related accessories have evolved through a range of models and designs, which are in themselves distinctive for their scientific function and elegant construction, and are today prized by collectors of scientific instruments.

  17. On the Basic Principles of Igneous Petrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    How and why Differentiation occurs has dominated Igneous Petrology since its beginning (~1880) even though many of the problems associated with it have been thoroughly solved. Rediscovery of the proverbial wheel with new techniques impedes progress. As soon as thin section petrography was combined with rock and mineral chemistry, rock diversity, compositional suites, and petrographic provinces all became obvious. The masterful 1902 CIPW norm in a real sense solved the chemical mystery of differentiation: rocks are related by the addition and subtraction of minerals in the anciently appreciated process of fractional crystallization. Yet few believed this, even after phase equilibria arrived. Assimilation, gas transfer, magma mixing, Soret diffusion, immiscibility, and other processes had strong adherents, even though by 1897 Becker conclusively showed the ineffectiveness of molecular diffusion in large-scale processes. The enormity of heat to molecular diffusion (today's Lewis no.) should have been convincing; but few paid attention. Bowen did, and he refined and restated the result; few still paid attention. And in spite of his truly masterful command of experiment and field relations in promoting fractional crystallization, Fenner and others fought him with odd arguments. The beauty of phase equilibria eventually dominated at the expense of knowing the physical side of differentiation. Bowen himself saw and struggled with the connection between physical and chemical processes. Progress has come from new concepts in heat transfer, kinetics, and slurry dynamics. The key approach is understanding the dynamic competition between spatial rates of solidification and all other processes. The lesson is clear: Scholarship and combined field, laboratory and technical expertise are critical to understanding magmatic processes. Magma is a limitlessly enchanting and challenging material wherein physical processes buttressed by chemistry govern.

  18. Origin of Anorthosites: Petrological and Tectonic Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashwal, L. D.

    2004-05-01

    After more than a century of anorthosite research, it may be time to take stock of where we are, and where we should go. The debate over compositions and sources of parental magmas that seemingly reached consensus in the 1980s and 1990s has now been re-opened: basalt vs. "jotunite"; mantle vs. crust. Although it seems clear from isotopes that a crustal component is a common, if not ubiquitous feature of massif-type anorthosites, opinion is divided as to whether crust represents the principal source (i.e. lower crustal gabbro), or whether it represents a silicic contaminant to mantle-derived (i.e. basaltic) magma. Derivation of anorthosite parental magmas from lower crustal gabbros was based on experimental data on inferred liquid compositions (chilled margin samples, etc., Longhi et al. 1999, J. Petrol.). Whether or not these samples represent genuine, uncontaminated liquid compositions parental to anorthosites is far from clear, however, and Morse (this session) provides additional arguments against lower crustal derivation of anorthosite parental magmas. This issue must be resolved before progress can be made, because a mantle vs. lower crustal source for anorthosites is as much a tectonic question as a petrological one. Many anorthositologists have been persuaded toward a continental rift setting by the chemical bimodality of coeval anorthositic and granitoid suites, and other circumstantial evidence. However, an Andean-type margin setting is also appealing in that it allows delivery of large volumes of basaltic magma to the base of continental crust over a substantial time. The geometry and scale are appropriate to account for the long, linear belts of anorthosite, and eventual Tibetan-style collision would account for reactivation of pre-existing anorthosite-bearing terranes. Good examples include the Grenville Province, the Eastern Ghats of India and the Stanovoi Ridge of Eastern Siberia. The fundamental unanswered question about anorthosites relates to the tectonic environment of their origin- we should focus on that.

  19. Virtual Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammrs, Stephan R.

    2008-01-01

    Virtual Satellite (VirtualSat) is a computer program that creates an environment that facilitates the development, verification, and validation of flight software for a single spacecraft or for multiple spacecraft flying in formation. In this environment, enhanced functionality and autonomy of navigation, guidance, and control systems of a spacecraft are provided by a virtual satellite that is, a computational model that simulates the dynamic behavior of the spacecraft. Within this environment, it is possible to execute any associated software, the development of which could benefit from knowledge of, and possible interaction (typically, exchange of data) with, the virtual satellite. Examples of associated software include programs for simulating spacecraft power and thermal- management systems. This environment is independent of the flight hardware that will eventually host the flight software, making it possible to develop the software simultaneously with, or even before, the hardware is delivered. Optionally, by use of interfaces included in VirtualSat, hardware can be used instead of simulated. The flight software, coded in the C or C++ programming language, is compilable and loadable into VirtualSat without any special modifications. Thus, VirtualSat can serve as a relatively inexpensive software test-bed for development test, integration, and post-launch maintenance of spacecraft flight software.

  20. Virtual cockpits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatino, Anthony E.; Flegal, Tim

    2002-08-01

    A virtual cockpit provides aircraft crew members with a seamless, three dimensional perspective of the environment outside the aircraft, along with presentation of information for primary flight, navigation, flight and vehicle management, mission management, targeting, and other situational information. The benefit of integrating a virtual cockpit within an aircraft is that safety of flight and mission success rates are improved in the presence of poor visibility, poor weather, air traffic, and threats. This paper describes a virtual cockpit implementation using video sensor arrays and tiled displays along with other avionics and external systems.

  1. Petrological cycles and caldera-forming events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, O.; Deering, C. D.

    2012-12-01

    Many caldera-forming events can be framed within broad petrological cycles; volcanic stratigraphy typically defines a trend from mafic to more silicic magmas with time, culminating in the catastrophic evacuation of an upper crustal reservoir filled with the silicic magma, followed by a return to the eruption of more mafic magmas shortly after caldera collapse. Understanding how such cycles develop has clear implications for characterizing the current state of an active system. Here, we focus on a detailed examination of the well-exposed Quaternary Kos-Nisyros eruptive sequence (eastern Aegean arc) to frame a potential model for such cycles. On the basis of zircon U/Th/Pb ages, building the upper crustal magma chamber large enough to induce caldera collapse required at least a few hundred thousand years. This timeframe is necessary not only for the accumulation of large amounts of viscous, gas-rich silicic magma, but also to heat the upper crust sufficiently to allow the developing reservoir to be maintained above the solidus. In the Kos-Nisyros volcanic center, small eruptions precede the caldera-forming event and mark this period of thermal maturation as the system transitions from intermediate to silicic magma, reaching the most-evolved state only shortly prior to the caldera-forming event, the Kos Plateau Tuff (> 60 km3 of volatile-rich, high-silica rhyolite). The Kos Plateau Tuff was then followed by small-volume eruptions of more mafic magma (basaltic andesite, andesite, and dacites) that are characterized by a drier mineral assemblage. With time, the system transitioned back to cold, wet, high-SiO2 rhyolite. We suggest that the changes in magma composition and mineralogy following the caldera-forming event are due to a near-complete crystallization of the non-erupted mush in the upper crustal reservoir as it is abruptly decompressed during eruption. This rapid crystallization (1) leads to the formation of a porphyritic texture in the crystalline residual - a feature frequently observed in shallow intrusions and (2) allows new inputs of more mafic magmas to reach the surface. With time, these recharge events re-establish an evolved upper crustal reservoir, starting a new cycle. This study shows that detailed spatial and temporal evaluations of the geochemical variations from volcanic complexes have the ability to provide valuable information on the 'state' of a particular magmatic system. In turn, this can assist in selecting which volcanic complexes are most worthy of installing expensive, dense seismic arrays to improve our imaging of the subsurface and better determining the volume of eruptible magmas beneath them.

  2. Petrology and geochemistry of Antarctic micrometeorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurat, Gero; Koeberl, Christian; Presper, Thomas; Brandstätter, Franz; Maurette, Michel

    1994-09-01

    The petrology and geochemistry of twentythree chondritic dust particles with masses of 1-47 ?g (sizes 100-400 ?m) were recovered from blue ice near Cap Prudhomme, Antarctica, and studied by INAA, ASEM, EMPA, and optical microscopy. Sample selection criteria were irregular shape and (for a subsample) black color, with the aim of studying as many unmelted micrometeorites (MMs) as possible. Of thirteen unmelted MMs, six were phyllosilicate-dominated MMs, and seven were coarsegrained crystalline MMs consisting mainly of olivine and pyroxene. The remaining ten particles were largely melted and consisted of a foamy melt with variable amounts of relic phases (scoriaceous MMs). Thus, of the black particles selected, an astonishing portion, 40% (by number), consisted of largely unmelted MMs. Although unmelted, most phyllosilicate MMs have been thermally metamorphosed to a degree that most of the phyllosilicates were destroyed, but not melted. The original preterrestrial mineralogy is occasionally preserved and consists of serpentine-like phyllosilicates with variable amounts of cronstedtite, tochilinite-like oxides, olivine, and pyroxene. The crystalline MMs consist of olivine, low-Ca pyroxene, tochilinite-like oxides, and occasional Ni-poor metal. Relics in scoriaceous MMs consist of the same phases. Mineral compositions and the coexistence of phyllosilicates with anhydrous phases are typical of CM and CR-type carbonaceous chondrites. However, the olivine/pyroxene ratio (~ 1) and the lack of carbonates, sulfates, and of very Fe-poor, refractory element-rich olivines and pyroxenes sets the MMs apart from CM and CR chondrites. The bulk chemistry of the phyllosilicate MMs is similar to that of CM chondrites. However, several elements are either depleted (Ca, Ni, S, less commonly Na, Mg, and Mn) or enriched (K, Fe, As, Br, Rb, Sb, and Au) in MMs as compared to CM chondrites. Similar depletions and enrichments are also found in the scoriaceous MMs. We suggest that the depletions are probably due to terrestrial leaching of sulfates and carbonates from unmelted MMs. The overabundance of some elements may also be due to processes acting during atmospheric passage such as the recondensation of meteoric vapors in the high atmosphere. Most MMs are coated by magnetite of platy or octahedral habit, which is rich in Mg, Al, Si, Mn, and Ni. We interpret the magnetites to be products of recondensation processes in the high (>90 km) atmosphere, which are, therefore, probably the first refractory aerominerals identified.

  3. Virtual Worlds for Virtual Organizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhoten, Diana; Lutters, Wayne

    The members and resources of a virtual organization are dispersed across time and space, yet they function as a coherent entity through the use of technologies, networks, and alliances. As virtual organizations proliferate and become increasingly important in society, many may exploit the technical architecture s of virtual worlds, which are the confluence of computer-mediated communication, telepresence, and virtual reality originally created for gaming. A brief socio-technical history describes their early origins and the waves of progress followed by stasis that brought us to the current period of renewed enthusiasm. Examination of contemporary examples demonstrates how three genres of virtual worlds have enabled new arenas for virtual organizing: developer-defined closed worlds, user-modifiable quasi-open worlds, and user-generated open worlds. Among expected future trends are an increase in collaboration born virtually rather than imported from existing organizations, a tension between high-fidelity recreations of the physical world and hyper-stylized imaginations of fantasy worlds, and the growth of specialized worlds optimized for particular sectors, companies, or cultures.

  4. Virtual memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    Virtual memory was conceived as a way to automate overlaying of program segments. Modern computers have very large main memories, but need automatic solutions to the relocation and protection problems. Virtual memory serves this need as well and is thus useful in computers of all sizes. The history of the idea is traced, showing how it has become a widespread, little noticed feature of computers today.

  5. Mineralogy and Petrology of New Antarctic Nakhlite MIL 03346

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, G.; Schwandt, C.

    2005-01-01

    Among the approx.1300 meteorites returned from Antarctica by the 2003-2004 ANSMET expedition was a 715g nakhlite, MIL 03346, recovered from the Miller Range. Samples of this meteorite were distributed to investigators on December 16, 2004. We were allocated PTS MIL 03346,63,100. This abstract is our preliminary report on the mineralogy and petrology of this important new sample.

  6. The Mineralogy and Petrology of Anomalous Eucrite Emmaville

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, T. J.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Ross, D. K.; Greenwood, R. C.; Anand, M.; Franchi, I. A.; Grady, M. M.; Charlier, B. L. A.

    2015-01-01

    It has long been known that certain basaltic achondrites share similarities with eucrites. These eucrite-like achondrites have distinct isotopic compositions and petrologic characteristics indicative of formation on a separate parent body from the howardite-eucrite-diogenite (HED) clan (e.g., Ibitira, Northwest Africa (NWA) 011). Others show smaller isotopic variations but are otherwise petrologically and compositionally indistinguishable from basaltic eucrites (e.g., Pasamonte, Pecora Escarpment (PCA) 91007). The Emmaville eucrite has a delta O-17 value of -0.137 plus or minus 0.024 per mille (1 sigma), which is substantially different from the eucrite mean of -0.246 plus or minus 0.014 per mille (2 sigma), but similar to those of A-881394 and Bunburra Rockhole (BR). Currently little data exist for Emmaville in terms of petrology or bulk composition. Studying anomalous eucrites allows us to more completely understand the numbers of asteroids represented by eucrite- like basalts and thus constrain the heterogeneity of the HED suite. In this study, we present our preliminary petrological and mineral composition results for Emmaville.

  7. A Simulated Research Problem for Undergraduate Metamorphic Petrology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amenta, Roddy V.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a laboratory problem in metamorphic petrology designed to simulate a research experience. The problem deals with data on scales ranging from a geologic map to hand specimens to thin sections. Student analysis includes identifying metamorphic index minerals, locating their isograds on the map, and determining the folding sequence. (BC)

  8. Virtual Specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paor, D. G.

    2009-12-01

    Virtual Field Trips have been around almost as long as the Worldwide Web itself yet virtual explorers do not generally return to their desktops with folders full of virtual hand specimens. Collection of real specimens on fields trips for later analysis in the lab (or at least in the pub) has been an important part of classical field geoscience education and research for generations but concern for the landscape and for preservation of key outcrops from wanton destruction has lead to many restrictions. One of the author’s favorite outcrops was recently vandalized presumably by a geologist who felt the need to bash some of the world’s most spectacular buckle folds with a rock sledge. It is not surprising, therefore, that geologists sometimes leave fragile localities out of field trip itineraries. Once analyzed, most specimens repose in drawers or bins, never to be seen again. Some end up in teaching collections but recent pedagogical research shows that undergraduate students have difficulty relating specimens both to their collection location and ultimate provenance in the lithosphere. Virtual specimens can be created using 3D modeling software and imported into virtual globes such as Google Earth (GE) where, they may be linked to virtual field trip stops or restored to their source localities on the paleo-globe. Sensitive localities may be protected by placemark approximation. The GE application program interface (API) has a distinct advantage over the stand-alone GE application when it comes to viewing and manipulating virtual specimens. When instances of the virtual globe are embedded in web pages using the GE plug-in, Collada models of specimens can be manipulated with javascript controls residing in the enclosing HTML, permitting specimens to be magnified, rotated in 3D, and sliced. Associated analytical data may be linked into javascript and localities for comparison at various points on the globe referenced by ‘fetching’ KML. Virtual specimens open up new possibilities for distance learning, where design of effective lab exercises has long been an issue, and they permit independent evaluation of published field research by reviewers who do not have access to the physical field area. Although their creation can be labor intensive, the benefits of virtual specimens for education and research are potentially great. Interactive 3D Specimen of Sierra Granodiorite at Outcrop Location

  9. Virtual microscopy in virtual tumor banking.

    PubMed

    Isabelle, M; Teodorovic, I; Oosterhuis, J W; Riegman, P H J; Passioukov, A; Lejeune, S; Therasse, P; Dinjens, W N M; Lam, K H; Oomen, M H A; Spatz, A; Ratcliffe, C; Knox, K; Mager, R; Kerr, D; Pezzella, F; Van Damme, B; Van de Vijver, M; Van Boven, H; Morente, M M; Alonso, S; Kerjaschki, D; Pammer, J; López-Guerrero, J A; Llombart-Bosch, A; Carbone, A; Gloghini, A; Van Veen, E B

    2006-01-01

    Many systems have already been designed and successfully used for sharing histology images over large distances, without transfer of the original glass slides. Rapid evolution was seen when digital images could be transferred over the Internet. Nowadays, sophisticated virtual microscope systems can be acquired, with the capability to quickly scan large batches of glass slides at high magnification and compress and store the large images on disc, which subsequently can be consulted through the Internet. The images are stored on an image server, which can give simple, easy to transfer pictures to the user specifying a certain magnification on any position in the scan. This offers new opportunities in histology review, overcoming the necessity of the dynamic telepathology systems to have compatible software systems and microscopes and in addition, an adequate connection of sufficient bandwidth. Consulting the images now only requires an Internet connection and a computer with a high quality monitor. A system of complete pathology review supporting biorepositories is described, based on the implementation of this technique in the European Human Frozen Tumor Tissue Bank (TuBaFrost). PMID:17163157

  10. Virtual Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terzopoulos, Demetri; Qureshi, Faisal Z.

    Computer vision and sensor networks researchers are increasingly motivated to investigate complex multi-camera sensing and control issues that arise in the automatic visual surveillance of extensive, highly populated public spaces such as airports and train stations. However, they often encounter serious impediments to deploying and experimenting with large-scale physical camera networks in such real-world environments. We propose an alternative approach called "Virtual Vision", which facilitates this type of research through the virtual reality simulation of populated urban spaces, camera sensor networks, and computer vision on commodity computers. We demonstrate the usefulness of our approach by developing two highly automated surveillance systems comprising passive and active pan/tilt/zoom cameras that are deployed in a virtual train station environment populated by autonomous, lifelike virtual pedestrians. The easily reconfigurable virtual cameras distributed in this environment generate synthetic video feeds that emulate those acquired by real surveillance cameras monitoring public spaces. The novel multi-camera control strategies that we describe enable the cameras to collaborate in persistently observing pedestrians of interest and in acquiring close-up videos of pedestrians in designated areas.

  11. TEAM Electron Microscope Animation

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    The TEAM Electron Microscope, a device that enables atomic-scale imaging in 3-D, has a rotating stage that can hold and position samples inside electron microscopes with unprecedented stability, position-control accuracy, and range of motion.The TEAM Stage makes one of the world's most powerful electron microscopes even better, and enables previously impossible experiments.

  12. Virtual Tower

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne, R.A.

    1997-08-01

    The primary responsibility of an intrusion detection system (IDS) operator is to monitor the system, assess alarms, and summon and coordinate the response team when a threat is acknowledged. The tools currently provided to the operator are somewhat limited: monitors must be switched, keystrokes must be entered to call up intrusion sensor data, and communication with the response force must be maintained. The Virtual tower is an operator interface assembled from low-cost commercial-off-the-shelf hardware and software; it enables large amounts of data to be displayed in a virtual manner that provides instant recognition for the operator and increases assessment accuracy in alarm annunciator and control systems. This is accomplished by correlating and fusing the data into a 360-degree visual representation that employs color, auxiliary attributes, video, and directional audio to prompt the operator. The Virtual Tower would be a valuable low-cost enhancement to existing systems.

  13. Data-driven Science in Geochemistry & Petrology: Vision & Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, K. A.; Ghiorso, M. S.; Spear, F. S.

    2013-12-01

    Science in many fields is increasingly ';data-driven'. Though referred to as a ';new' Fourth Paradigm (Hey, 2009), data-driven science is not new, and examples are cited in the Geochemical Society's data policy, including the compilation of Dziewonski & Anderson (1981) that led to PREM, and Zindler & Hart (1986), who compiled mantle isotope data to present for the first time a comprehensive view of the Earth's mantle. Today, rapidly growing data volumes, ubiquity of data access, and new computational and information management technologies enable data-driven science at a radically advanced scale of speed, extent, flexibility, and inclusiveness, with the ability to seamlessly synthesize observations, experiments, theory, and computation, and to statistically mine data across disciplines, leading to more comprehensive, well informed, and high impact scientific advances. Are geochemists, petrologists, and volcanologists ready to participate in this revolution of the scientific process? In the past year, researchers from the VGP community and related disciplines have come together at several cyberinfrastructure related workshops, in part prompted by the EarthCube initiative of the US NSF, to evaluate the status of cyberinfrastructure in their field, to put forth key scientific challenges, and identify primary data and software needs to address these. Science scenarios developed by workshop participants that range from non-equilibrium experiments focusing on mass transport, chemical reactions, and phase transformations (J. Hammer) to defining the abundance of elements and isotopes in every voxel in the Earth (W. McDonough), demonstrate the potential of cyberinfrastructure enabled science, and define the vision of how data access, visualization, analysis, computation, and cross-domain interoperability can and should support future research in VGP. The primary obstacle for data-driven science in VGP remains the dearth of accessible, integrated data from lab and sensor measurements, experiments, and models, both from past and from present studies, and their poor discoverability, interoperability, and standardization. Other deficiencies include the lack of widespread sample curation and online sample catalogs, and broad community support and enforcement of open data sharing policies and a strategy for sustained funding and operation of the cyberinfrastructure. In order to achieve true data-driven science in geochemistry and petrology, one of the primary requirements is to change the way data and models are managed and shared to dramatically improve their access and re-usability. Adoption of new data publication practices, new ways of citing data that ensure attribution and credit to authors, tools that help investigators to seamlessly manage their data throughout the data life cycle, from the point of acquisition to upload to repositories, and population of databases with historical data are among the most urgent needs. The community, especially early career scientists, must work together to produce the cultural shift within the discipline toward sharing of data and knowledge, virtual collaboration, and social networking. Dziewonski, A M, & Anderson, D L: Physics of the Earth and Planet Interiors 25 (4), 297 (1981) Hey, T, Tansley, S, Tolle, K (Eds.): Redmond, VA: Microsoft Research (2009) Zindler, A, & Hart, S R: Ann. Rev. Earth Plan. Sci. 14, 493 (1986)

  14. Virtual sound for virtual reality

    SciTech Connect

    Blattner, M.M. Cancer Center, Houston, TX . Dept. of Biomathematics Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA California Univ., Davis, CA ); Papp, A.L. III Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA )

    1993-02-01

    The computational limitations of real-time interactive computing do not meet our requirements for producing realistic images for virtual reality in a convincing manner. Regardless of the real-time restrictions on virtual reality interfaces, the representations can be no better than the graphics. Computer graphics is still limited in its ability to generate complex objects such as landscapes and humans. Nevertheless, useful and convincing visualizations are made through a variety of techniques. The central theme of this article is that a similar situation is true with sound for virtual reality. It is beyond our abilityto create interactive soundscapes that create a faithful reproduction of real world sounds, however, by choosing one's application carefully and using sound to enhance a display rather than only mimic real-world scenes, a very effective use of sound can be made.

  15. Virtual sound for virtual reality

    SciTech Connect

    Blattner, M.M. ||; Papp, A.L. III |

    1993-02-01

    The computational limitations of real-time interactive computing do not meet our requirements for producing realistic images for virtual reality in a convincing manner. Regardless of the real-time restrictions on virtual reality interfaces, the representations can be no better than the graphics. Computer graphics is still limited in its ability to generate complex objects such as landscapes and humans. Nevertheless, useful and convincing visualizations are made through a variety of techniques. The central theme of this article is that a similar situation is true with sound for virtual reality. It is beyond our abilityto create interactive soundscapes that create a faithful reproduction of real world sounds, however, by choosing one`s application carefully and using sound to enhance a display rather than only mimic real-world scenes, a very effective use of sound can be made.

  16. Virtual time and virtual space

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xining ); Cleary, J.; Unger, B. )

    1992-04-01

    Simulation models involve the concepts of time and space. In designing a distribution simulation programming system, introducing a temporal construct result in a specification language for describing a changing multiple, simultaneous, nondetermine activities. In this paper, we present a new distributed logic programming model and discuss its implementation. A distributed program is represented by a virtual space-a set of process which are logical representations of system objects, and is evaluated with respect to virtual time-a temporal coordinate which is used to measure computational progress and specify synchronization. The major focus of the implementation is the ability to accomplish global backtracking. The proposed implementation collects global knowledge through interprocess communication, controls global backtracking distributedly according to virtual time and dependeny relations, an capture heuristics in the earlier synchronizations may make subsequent synchronizations more likely to succeed. As compared with other distributed logic programming systems, our system provides a simple syntax, well-defined semantics, and an efficient implementation.

  17. Virtualize Me!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2009-01-01

    John Abdelmalak, director of technology for the School District of the Chathams, was pretty sure it was time to jump on the virtualization bandwagon last year when he invited Dell to conduct a readiness assessment of his district's servers. When he saw just how little of their capacity was being used, he lost all doubt. Abdelmalak is one of many…

  18. Virtual Academy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Claire

    2001-01-01

    The Virtual Academy at the Great Oaks Institute of Technology and Career Development is a tool for remediation and acceleration. Benefits of the program include providing flexibility to students, helping students develop habits and skills for the information age, and allowing students to gain credits so they can graduate on time. (JOW)

  19. VIRTUAL GROWER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouses are complex systems. One management decision invariably influences another in often unexpected or unforeseen ways. Trial and error and “rules of thumb” are not a consistently profitable manner to make management decisions. A new computer-based management tool called Virtual Grower was...

  20. Petrology and pairing of mesosiderites from Victoria Land, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewins, Roger H.

    1988-01-01

    Petrological data on mesosiderites from Reckling Peak (RKP) and Allan Hills (ALH), Antarctica, are presented. The results suggest that the Allan Hills mesosiderites A77219, A81059, and A81098 are probably paired (being of similar texture, modes, and mineral composition), and ALHA 81208 is, most likely, a clast from one of these mesosiderites. RKPA 80258 is a weakly poikilitic plagioclase-poor mesosiderite, completely different from ALHA 77219, 81059, and 81098. On the other hand, RKPA 79015, 80229, 80246, and 80263 are very similar, belonging to subgroup C diogenitic mesosiderites. These mesosiderites contain orthopyroxene and recrystallized orthopyroxenite clasts in a metal-troilite matrix. The silicate fraction of mesosiderites ranged from diogenitic (RKPA 79015) to analogous to polymict eurcrite (Dyarrl Island). On the basis of petrologic data, the mesosiderite subdivision scheme was amended, making it possible to classify the formerly 'anomalous' RKPA 79015.

  1. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Martian Meteorites: Petrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Martian Meteorites: Petrology: included the following reports:Volatile Behavior in Lunar and Terrestrial Basalts During Shock: Implications for Martian Magmas; Problems with a Low-Pressure Tholeiitic Magmatic History for the Chassigny Dunite; Fast Cooling History of the Chassigny Martian Meteorite; Rehomogenized Interstitial and Inclusion Melts in Lherzolitic Shergottite ALH 77005: Petrologic Significance; Compositional Controls on the Formation of Kaersutite Amphibole in Shergottite Meteorites; Chemical Characteristics of an Olivine-Phyric Shergottite, Yamato 980459; Pb-Hf-Sr-Nd Isotopic Systematics and Age of Nakhlite NWA 998; Noble Gases in Two Samples of EETA 79001 (Lith. A); Experimental Constraints on the Iron Content of the Martian Mantle; and Mars as the Parent Body for the CI Carbonaceous Chondrites: New Data.

  2. Petrologic and Chemical Characterization of a Suite of Antarctic Diogenites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Mertzman, S. A.; Peng, Z. X.; Mertzman, K. R.

    2013-01-01

    The origin of diogenites, ultramafic cumulates related to eucrites, is an unresolved problem [1]. Most diogenites are orthopyroxenites, a few are harzburgites [2], and some are transitional to cumulate eucrites [1, 3]. Cumulate eucrites are gabbros formed by crystal fractionation from basaltic eucrites [4]. The consensus view is that basaltic eucrites are residual melts from global-magma-ocean crystallization on their parent asteroid [4] which is plausibly Vesta [5]. However, the petrologic and compositional characteristics of diogenites seem to preclude a magma ocean origin [1, 4]. We are doing a petrologic and chemical study of new or unusual diogenites with the ultimate goals of constraining their genesis, and the geologic evolution of Vesta.

  3. Biological marker geochemistry and organic petrology of Chattanooga shale

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.P.; Kruge, M.A.; Bensley, D.F. )

    1989-08-01

    The Upper Devonian Chattanooga Shale is an extremely organic-rich unit containing up to 13% organic carbon, thus making it an important potential oil shale and/or petroleum source rock. Samples of the Chattanooga Shale from the periphery of the Nashville dome in central Tennessee and south-central Kentucky have been examined and grouped by maturity and organofacies, using biological marker geochemistry of extractable bitumen and organic petrology.

  4. The petrology of the Apollo 12 pigeonite basalt suite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldridge, W. S.; Beaty, D. W.; Hill, S. M. R.; Albee, A. L.

    1979-01-01

    A study of the petrology of the Apollo 12 pigeonite basalt samples 12011, 12043, and 12007 is presented. In this suite, the abundances of olivine and Cr-spinel decrease with increasing grain size, while the abundances of plagioclase and ilmenite increase. The petrochemical and textural variations indicate that the pigeonite basalts were derived from the olivine basalts, but the compositional gap between the olivine and pigeonite basalts indicates that they could not have crystallized together from a single, initially homogeneous magma body.

  5. Petrology of impactites from Lake St. Martin structure, Manitoba

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonds, C. H.; Mcgee, P. E.

    1979-01-01

    The 23-km Lake St. Martin crater was produced 200 to 250 million years ago in Archean granitic to amphibolic gneiss, overlain by 400 to 500 m of Ordovician to Devonian limestone and dolomite. In the present paper, a schematic model of the field geology, petrology, and geochemistry is presented. The scenario is built in part on the calculations of Kieffer and Simonds and observations made on the Lake St. Martin structure.

  6. Exploration petrology of Sunoco Felda trend of south Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell-Tapping, H.

    1986-09-01

    The Sunoco Felda oil trend of the South Florida basin has been a prolific oil producer. All the oil is produced from the Cretaceous Sunniland formation, a leached limestone bioherm. Although the producing section has been considered reefal in the literature, petrographic and biostratigraphic analyses of various cores in producing fields have determined that these deposits are composed of particles of fragmented rudist and other fauna deposited in a tidal shoal. Atop this debris an algae and gastropod section has been deposited, typical of a mound deposited on a tidal mud flat. This model is exemplified in the Sunoco Felda and West Sunoco fields and was used in exploring the Sunoco Felda trend. From the petrological analysis of these two fields and from knowledge of other wells in the basin, biostratigraphic and lithologic trends can be determined and extended offshore into the eastern Gulf of Mexico. The author stresses petrology in exploring the Sunniland formation because correlating like responses on electric logs does not always result in correlating the same depositional facies - in fact, correlating like electric log responses in the Sunniland formation often results in correlating different facies. This study endeavors to analyze the Felda trend based on the petrological and petrophysical information obtained from the cores and logs. The author will show that the potential of the Sunniland formation may be greater than expected and that it may be the site of future major discoveries.

  7. Petrological evidence for secular cooling in mantle plumes.

    PubMed

    Herzberg, Claude; Gazel, Esteban

    2009-04-01

    Geological mapping and geochronological studies have shown much lower eruption rates for ocean island basalts (OIBs) in comparison with those of lavas from large igneous provinces (LIPs) such as oceanic plateaux and continental flood provinces. However, a quantitative petrological comparison has never been made between mantle source temperature and the extent of melting for OIB and LIP sources. Here we show that the MgO and FeO contents of Galapagos-related lavas and their primary magmas have decreased since the Cretaceous period. From petrological modelling, we infer that these changes reflect a cooling of the Galapagos mantle plume from a potential temperature of 1,560-1,620 degrees C in the Cretaceous to 1,500 degrees C at present. Iceland also exhibits secular cooling, in agreement with previous studies. Our work provides quantitative petrological evidence that, in general, mantle plumes for LIPs with Palaeocene-Permian ages were hotter and melted more extensively than plumes of more modern ocean islands. We interpret this to reflect episodic flow from lower-mantle domains that are lithologically and geochemically heterogeneous. PMID:19340079

  8. Chemistry and petrology of Apollo 12 drive tube 12027

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. R.; Laul, J. C.; Simon, S. B.; Papike, J. J.

    1985-02-01

    Papike et al. (1982) have provided a summary of previous petrologic and chemical studies of the lunar regolith, taking into account samples from all of the Apollo and Luna sites. On the basis of these studies, an understanding is obtained of the processes which form and characterize the lunar regolith. It is found that comminution of local lithologies by meteorite impact and soil mixing are the most important regolith-forming processes. On the basis of grain size studies of Apollo 14 surface, trench, and drive tube soils, Simin et al. (1982) and Laul et al. (1982) concluded that comminution of local lithologies and vertical soil mixing processes are most important in the formation of the soils at that site. In the present investigation, this study of chemistry and petrology of lunar soils is extended to the Apollo 12 drive tube 12027. This drive tube provides an opportunity to study lunar soil from a depositional environment involving a location at the rim of a crater. The chemical and petrologic data are found to be consistent and suggest three stratigraphic units in the 12027 core.

  9. The Athena Microscopic Imager Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herkenhoff, K. E.; Aquyres, S. W.; Bell, J. F., III; Maki, J. N.; Arneson, H. M.; Brown, D. I.; Collins, S. A.; Dingizian, A.; Elliot, S. T.; Geotz, W.

    2003-01-01

    The Athena science payload on the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) includes the Microscopic Imager (MI) [1]. The MI is a fixed-focus camera mounted on the end of an extendable instrument arm, the Instrument Deployment Device (IDD; see Figure 1).The MI was designed to acquire images at a spatial resolution of 30 microns/pixel over a broad spectral range (400 - 700 nm; see Table 1). Technically, the microscopic imager is not a microscope: it has a fixed magnification of 0.4 and is intended to produce images that simulate a geologist s view through a common hand lens. In photographers parlance, the system makes use of a macro lens. The MI uses the same electronics design as the other MER cameras [2, 3] but has optics that yield a field of view of 31 31 mm across a 1024 1024 pixel CCD image (Figure 2). The MI acquires images using only solar or skylightillumination of the target surface. A contact sensor is used to place the MI slightly closer to the target surface than its best focus distance (about 66 mm), allowing concave surfaces to be imaged in good focus. Because the MI has a relatively small depth of field (3 mm), a single MI image of a rough surface will contain both focused and unfocused areas. Coarse focusing will be achieved by moving the IDD away from a rock target after the contact sensor is activated. Multiple images taken at various distances will be acquired to ensure good focus on all parts of rough surfaces. By combining a set of images acquired in this way, a completely focused image can be assembled. Stereoscopic observations can be obtained by moving the MI laterally relative to its boresight. Estimates of the position and orientation of the MI for each acquired image will be stored in the rover computer and returned to Earth with the image data. The MI optics will be protected from the Martian environment by a retractable dust cover. The dust cover includes a Kapton window that is tinted orange to restrict the spectral bandpass to 500-700 nm, allowing color information to be obtained by taking images with the dust cover open and closed. The MI will image the same materials measured by other Athena instruments (including surfaces prepared by the Rock Abrasion Tool), as well as rock and soil targets of opportunity. Subsets of the full image array can be selected and/or pixels can be binned to reduce data volume. Image compression will be used to maximize the information contained in the data returned to Earth. The resulting MI data will place other MER instrument data in context and aid in petrologic and geologic interpretations of rocks and soils on Mars.

  10. Cryogenic immersion microscope

    DOEpatents

    Le Gros, Mark (Berkeley, CA); Larabell, Carolyn A. (Berkeley, CA)

    2010-12-14

    A cryogenic immersion microscope whose objective lens is at least partially in contact with a liquid reservoir of a cryogenic liquid, in which reservoir a sample of interest is immersed is disclosed. When the cryogenic liquid has an index of refraction that reduces refraction at interfaces between the lens and the sample, overall resolution and image quality are improved. A combination of an immersion microscope and x-ray microscope, suitable for imaging at cryogenic temperatures is also disclosed.

  11. Recurrence tracking microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Saif, Farhan

    2006-03-15

    In order to probe nanostructures on a surface we present a microscope based on the quantum recurrence phenomena. A cloud of atoms bounces off an atomic mirror connected to a cantilever and exhibits quantum recurrences. The times at which the recurrences occur depend on the initial height of the bouncing atoms above the atomic mirror, and vary following the structures on the surface under investigation. The microscope has inherent advantages over existing techniques of scanning tunneling microscope and atomic force microscope. Presently available experimental technology makes it possible to develop the device in the laboratory.

  12. Thermal-Wave Microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert E.; Kramarchuk, Ihor; Williams, Wallace D.; Pouch, John J.; Gilbert, Percy

    1989-01-01

    Computer-controlled thermal-wave microscope developed to investigate III-V compound semiconductor devices and materials. Is nondestructive technique providing information on subsurface thermal features of solid samples. Furthermore, because this is subsurface technique, three-dimensional imaging also possible. Microscope uses intensity-modulated electron beam of modified scanning electron microscope to generate thermal waves in sample. Acoustic waves generated by thermal waves received by transducer and processed in computer to form images displayed on video display of microscope or recorded on magnetic disk.

  13. Petrology, geochemistry and paleomagnetism of the earliest magmatic rocks of Deccan Volcanic Province, Kutch, Northwest India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Dalim K.; Ray, Arijit; Das, Brindaban; Patil, Shiva K.; Biswas, Sanjib K.

    2008-04-01

    Tholeiites and alkali basalts occurring in the southern coastal belt of Kutch rift basin, Gujarat are the northernmost on-land exposure of Deccan Traps. Further north, mafic dykes, sill and a differentiated alkaline plutonic complex occur along deep-seated rift-related faults. The major rift-related faults provided the channel ways for the emplacement of the magmas to the surface. These magmatic rocks have been classified into three Groups on the basis of spatial distribution, mode of occurrence and petrochemistry. Petrological, geochemical and paleomagnetic data for the representative samples of the volcanic and intrusive rocks from Kutch region are presented. The alkali basalts are enriched in LILE and LREE compared to the Deccan tholeiitic basalts. Paleomagnetic investigations of thirty magmatic bodies of Kutch yield a Virtual Geomagnetic Pole (VGP) at 33.7°N and 81.2°W (dp/dm = 5.81/9.18). This obtained pole is statistically concordant with that of the Deccan Super Pole (36.9°N:78.7°W). The magmatic rocks of the Kutch basin are broadly contemporaneous straddling 30N-29R-29N chrons. It is suggested that the magmatic rocks of Kutch were generated by the impact of the Réunion plume on the Kutch lithosphere under extensional setting.

  14. Application of Automated SEM-EDS Based Mineral Identification Systems to Problems in Metamorphic Petrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairhurst, Robert; Barrow, Wendy; Rollinson, Gavyn

    2010-05-01

    Automated scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS) based mineral identification systems such as QEMSCAN have been in development for over 20 years, primarily as a tool to understand mineral liberation and element distribution in metal mining industry. This powerful technique is now being used in non mining applications such as metamorphic petrology where accurate mineral identification and metamorphic fabrics are key to deciphering the metamorphic history of samples. The QEMSCAN was developed by CSIRO for application in the mining industry where it is used to understand mineralogy, texture, mineral associations, the presence of gangue minerals and deleterious elements that may potentially interfere with mineral processing and planning, and the overall impact of mineralogy on grinding and flotation processes. It is capable of identifying most rock-forming minerals in milliseconds from their characteristic x-ray spectra. The collected x-ray spectra are compared to entries in a database containing the species identification profiles (SIPs) and are assigned a label accordingly. QEMSCAN is capable of searching large sample areas at high resolution resulting in the accurate and precise determination of all minerals present. Reports that were originally developed for the mining geologist can be equally useful to the petrologist, e.g. phase/mineral maps, modal mineral abundances and mineral association reports. Identification of key minerals is of great importance to determining the petrologic history of a sample. These key minerals may be few in number and present as small microinclusions (less than 100 μm) making them difficult to identify, if at all, with the petrographic microscope. Therefore, imaging by electron-microprobe or scanning electron microscope are the methods traditionally used. However, because of the small field of view available on these instruments at a magnification necessary to resolve micron sized relicts and textures, the search for a few microinclusions may be extremely time consuming, tedious and costly. QEMSCAN with its ability to provide large quantitative data sets and search large sample areas at high resolution means that whole thin sections can have their mineralogy accurately and precisely determined in hours. For instance in metamorphic petrology once relict minerals of earlier metamorphic assemblages are located; thermobarometry and geochronology can then be applied; resulting in a wealth of information on previous segments of the pressure-temperature-time-deformation path. The relict mineral textures and their relationship to the fabric of the entire thin section can be easily seen in the phase/mineral map yielding important textural information. We have developed a SIP database to be used to study metamorphic samples from the Central Metamorphic terrane (CMt) of the eastern Klamath Mountains, northern California. The CMt was chosen because recent work has resulted in the discovery of relict rutile grains and ilmenite-plagioclase-amphibole symplectites textures interpreted as the decomposition of either garnet or omphacite during exhumation from eclogite facies conditions. The QEMSCAN is being used primarily to search for these relict garnet and omphacite grains. Although only a few samples have been run, no garnet or omphacite have been located thus far. However, in a very short period of time the modal mineral abundances and overall fabric have been determined to a degree never previously achieved.

  15. Virtual anthropology.

    PubMed

    Weber, Gerhard W

    2015-02-01

    Comparative morphology, dealing with the diversity of form and shape, and functional morphology, the study of the relationship between the structure and the function of an organism's parts, are both important subdisciplines in biological research. Virtual anthropology (VA) contributes to comparative morphology by taking advantage of technological innovations, and it also offers new opportunities for functional analyses. It exploits digital technologies and pools experts from different domains such as anthropology, primatology, medicine, paleontology, mathematics, statistics, computer science, and engineering. VA as a technical term was coined in the late 1990s from the perspective of anthropologists with the intent of being mostly applied to biological questions concerning recent and fossil hominoids. More generally, however, there are advanced methods to study shape and size or to manipulate data digitally suitable for application to all kinds of primates, mammals, other vertebrates, and invertebrates or to issues regarding plants, tools, or other objects. In this sense, we could also call the field "virtual morphology." The approach yields permanently available virtual copies of specimens and data that comprehensively quantify geometry, including previously neglected anatomical regions. It applies advanced statistical methods, supports the reconstruction of specimens based on reproducible manipulations, and promotes the acquisition of larger samples by data sharing via electronic archives. Finally, it can help identify new, hidden traits, which is particularly important in paleoanthropology, where the scarcity of material demands extracting information from fragmentary remains. This contribution presents a current view of the six main work steps of VA: digitize, expose, compare, reconstruct, materialize, and share. The VA machinery has also been successfully used in biomechanical studies which simulate the stress and strains appearing in structures. Although methodological issues remain to be solved before results from the two domains can be fully integrated, the various overlaps and cross-fertilizations suggest the widespread appearance of a "virtual functional morphology" in the near future. PMID:25418603

  16. Virtual impactor

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi (Albuquerque, NM); Chen, Bean T. (Albuquerque, NM); Cheng, Yung-Sung (Albuquerque, NM); Newton, George J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1988-08-30

    A virtual impactor having improved efficiency and low wall losses in which a core of clean air is inserted into the aerosol flow while aerosol flow is maintained adjacent inner wall surfaces of the focusing portion of the impactor. The flow rate of the core and the length of the throat of the impactor's collection probe, as well as the dimensional relationships of other components of the impactor adjacent the separation region of the impactor, are selected to optimize separation efficiency.

  17. Surface imaging microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogala, Eric W.; Bankman, Isaac N.

    2008-04-01

    The three-dimensional shapes of microscopic objects are becoming increasingly important for battlespace CBRNE sensing. Potential applications of microscopic 3D shape observations include characterization of biological weapon particles and manufacturing of micromechanical components. Aerosol signatures of stand-off lidar systems, using elastic backscatter or polarization, are dictated by the aerosol particle shapes and sizes that must be well characterized in the lab. A low-cost, fast instrument for 3D surface shape microscopy will be a valuable point sensor for biological particle sensing applications. Both the cost and imaging durations of traditional techniques such as confocal microscopes, atomic force microscopes, and electron scanning microscopes are too high. We investigated the feasibility of a low-cost, fast interferometric technique for imaging the 3D surface shape of microscopic objects at frame rates limited only by the camera in the system. The system operates at two laser wavelengths producing two fringe images collected simultaneously by a digital camera, and a specialized algorithm we developed reconstructs the surface map of the microscopic object. The current implementation assembled to test the concept and develop the new 3D reconstruction algorithm has 0.25 micron resolution in the x and y directions, and about 0.1 micron accuracy in the z direction, as tested on a microscopic glass test object manufactured with etching techniques. We describe the interferometric instrument, present the reconstruction algorithm, and discuss further development.

  18. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    SEM (Scanning electron Microscope) image of a vesicular ash particle erupted by Augustine volcano on January 13, 2006. The ash sample was collected during the ashfall in Homer, Alaska by John Paskievitch, AVO. The image was acquired by Pavel Izbekov using ISI-40 Scanning Electron Microscope at the A...

  19. The Light Microscope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, W. L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the function of the various parts of the microscope and their integration in the formation of an optical image. Presents a procedure for setting up a microscope to obtain maximum resolution and contrast for each objective lens at all magnifications. (JRH)

  20. Mailing microscope slides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many insects feed agriculturally important crops, trees, and ornamental plants and cause millions of dollars of damage annually. Identification for some of these require the preparation of a microscope slide for examination. There are times when a microscope slide may need to be sent away to a speci...

  1. Photography through the Microscope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    Describes how to illuminate and optically stain slides for microscope use and how to interface a 35mm camera with a microscope using an adaptor. Provides equipment descriptions and sources, details about illumination, image formation, darkfield adaptors, centerable filter adaptors, darkfield stops, rheinburg filters, and choosing specimens to…

  2. Virtual histology.

    PubMed

    Kiesslich, Ralf; Goetz, Martin; Neurath, Markus F

    2008-01-01

    Confocal laser endomicroscopy enables in vivo microscopy of the mucosal layer of the GI-tract with subcellular resolution during ongoing endoscopy. Endomicroscopy opens a new door for immediate tissue and vessel analysis. Different types of diseases can be diagnosed with optical surface and subsurface analysis. Analysis of the in vivo microarchitecture can be used for targeting biopsies to relevant areas. Furthermore, subsurface imaging can unmask microscopic diseases - (microscopic colitis) or bacterial infection (Helicobacter pylori), for example. Molecular imaging is becoming feasible, and this will shortly open the door to new indications in gastrointestinal endoscopy. This chapter reviews the currently rapidly expanding clinical data about endomicroscopy and gives a look into future research. PMID:18790437

  3. Petrological Investigations of CAIs from Efremovka and NWA 3118 CV3 Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, M. A.; Lorenz, C. A.; Korochantseva, E. V.; MacPherson, G. J.

    2010-03-01

    Several new big CAIs were extracted from the Efremovka and NWA 3118 CV3 chondrites to analyze petrology, chemistry and isotopic compositions. Here we report preliminary results on mineralogy, petrology and bulk chemistry of two CAIs, of Type B1 and of Type A.

  4. Optical microscopic imaging based on VRML language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuedian; Zhang, Zhenyi; Sun, Jun

    2009-11-01

    As so-called VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language), is a kind of language used to establish a model of the real world or a colorful world made by people. As in international standard, VRML is the main kind of program language based on the "www" net building, which is defined by ISO, the kind of MIME is x-world or x-VRML. The most important is that it has no relationship with the operating system. Otherwise, because of the birth of VRML 2.0, its ability of describing the dynamic condition gets better, and the interaction of the internet evolved too. The use of VRML will bring a revolutionary change of confocal microscope. For example, we could send different kinds of swatch in virtual 3D style to the net. On the other hand, scientists in different countries could use the same microscope in the same time to watch the same samples by the internet. The mode of sending original data in the model of text has many advantages, such as: the faster transporting, the fewer data, the more convenient updating and fewer errors. In the following words we shall discuss the basic elements of using VRML in the field of Optical Microscopic imaging.

  5. Virtual impactor

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, H.C.; Chen, B.T.; Cheng, Y.S.; Newton, G.J.

    1988-08-30

    A virtual impactor is described having improved efficiency and low wall losses in which a core of clean air is inserted into the aerosol flow while aerosol flow is maintained adjacent to the inner wall surfaces of the focusing portion of the impactor. The flow rate of the core and the length of the throat of the impactor's collection probe, as well as the dimensional relationships of other components of the impactor adjacent the separation region of the impactor, are selected to optimize separation efficiency. 4 figs.

  6. Virtual Education: Where Are We?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veitch, James; Tu, Pikuei

    2001-01-01

    Discusses development of virtual education, including potential and caveats. Describes three virtual school programs: Massachusetts Virtual Education Space, Florida Virtual School, and Star Schools, a federal program. (PKP)

  7. Fluorescence spectroscopy: A promising tool for carbonate petrology

    SciTech Connect

    Vice, M.A.; Bensley, D.F.; Utgaard, J.E. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Responses of depositional and diagenetic components in samples of the Mission Canyon Limestone to blue-light excitation vary most noticeably with mineralogy and crystal size. The finely crystalline micrites, dolomicrites and argillaceous carbonates fluoresce more intensely than the more coarsely crystalline sparry calcite cements, dolospar cements and coarsely crystalline dolomites. Low intensity spectral analysis of cherts, anhydrites, and the carbonate phases provides an objective manner for quantifying fluorescence responses and for comparing them statistically. Nineteen of the optical parameters used in organic petrology are evaluated for their utility in carbonate petrology. Results of the discriminant function analysis suggest that red-weighted fluorescence chromaticity indices and yellow-weighted ones are more useful for mineral identification than the blue-weighted or equal-energy chromaticity indices. Statistical analysis of the optical data, mineralogy, and minor element compositions suggests correlations between the fluorescence responses and major minerals, carbonate diagenetic components, and the minor element geochemistry of carbonate components. Although no single element is identified as an activator of fluorescence in this study, the complex correlations of optical indices with Fe suggest that it does act to quench fluorescence. The four fluorescence cy chromaticity indices correlate significantly and positively with mineralogy and negatively with MgCo[sub 3]. In organic petrology, these indices are related to maceral content. The positive correlations of the four fluorescence cx chromaticity indices with Fe and Mn likely reflect fluorescence response to changes in compositions of pore fluids during diagenesis. This trend parallels the increase in cx indices with increasing maturation of organic materials.

  8. Mars Life? - Microscopic Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In the center of this electron microscope image of a small chip from a meteorite are several tiny structures that are possible microscopic fossils of primitive, bacteria-like organisms that may have lived on Mars more than 3.6 billion years ago. A two-year investigation by a NASA research team found organic molecules, mineral features characteristic of biological activity and possible microscopic fossils such as these inside of an ancient Martian rock that fell to Earth as a meteorite. The largest possible fossils are less than 1/100th the diameter of a human hair in size while most are ten times smaller.

  9. Mineralogic and petrologic studies of meteorites and lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    During a 13 year period beginning in 1971, the Extraterrestrial Petrology Group examined lunar soils from all 6 Apollo missions and those returned by the Soviet Luna 16, Luna 20, and Luna 24 missions. In addition, the properties and apparent origin of the carbonaceous chondrites were examined. Chondrules, calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAI) and the fine grained matrix materials that accompany chondrules and CAI's in primitive meteorites were investigated. The effects of planetary hydrothermal alteration of matrix materials in the C1 chondrite was also investigated. Full length papers and extended abstracts published during the grant are listed chronologically.

  10. Mineralogy and Petrology of COMET WILD2 Nucleus Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael; Bland, Phil; Bradley, John; Brearley, Adrian; Brennan, Sean; Bridges, John; Brownlee, Donald; Butterworth, Anna; Dai, Zurong; Ebel, Denton

    2006-01-01

    The sample return capsule of the Stardust spacecraft will be recovered in northern Utah on January 15, 2006, and under nominal conditions it will be delivered to the new Stardust Curation Laboratory at the Johnson Space Center two days later. Within the first week we plan to begin the harvesting of aerogel cells, and the comet nucleus samples they contain for detailed analysis. By the time of the LPSC meeting we will have been analyzing selected removed grains for more than one month. This presentation will present the first results from the mineralogical and petrological analyses that will have been performed.

  11. Petrology of Two Itokawa Particles: Comparison with Equilibrated LL Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komatsu, M.; Mikouchi, T.; Arai, T.; Fagan, T. J.; Zolensky, M.; Hagiya, K.; Ohsumi, K.; Karouji, Y.

    2015-01-01

    A strong link between Itokawa particles and LL chondrites was confirmed by preliminary examinations of Hayabusa particles [e.g., 1, 2]. Both poorly equilibrated and highly equilibrated particles have been found among the grains returned from Itokawa [1], and it is suggested that they correspond to LL4 and LL5-6, respectively. Here we report the petrography of two Itokawa particles and TEM study of one, and compare them to Antarctic LL chondrites with variable petrologic types (LL4-LL7) in order to understand the metamorphic history of asteroid Itokawa.

  12. Virtual microscopy for learning and assessment in pathology.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh K; Velan, Gary M; Korell, Sami O; Kandara, Madan; Dee, Fred R; Wakefield, Denis

    2004-12-01

    Virtual slides are high-magnification digital images of tissue sections, stored in a multi-resolution file format. Using appropriate software, these slides can be viewed in a web browser in a manner that closely simulates examination of glass slides with a real microscope. We describe the successful implementation of teaching microscopic pathology with virtual slides and, for the first time, their use in summative assessment. Both students and teaching staff readily adapted to the use of virtual microscopy. Questionnaire feedback from students strongly indicated that virtual slides solved a number of problems in their learning, while providing good to excellent image quality. A deliberate policy of allocating two students per workstation promoted collaboration and helped to maintain interest in microscopic pathology. The use of a secure browser facilitated assessment using virtual slides, with no technical or security issues arising despite high peak demand. The new Medicine programme at the University of New South Wales will exclusively utilize virtual microscopy for the study of both histology and histopathology. We believe that the use of high-quality learning resources such as virtual slides can ensure that microscopic examination of tissues remains both meaningful and interesting. PMID:15470688

  13. Development of MRI Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachiya, Mahiro; Arimura, Kyohei; Ueno, Tomohiro; Matsubara, Akira

    2010-02-01

    We have been developing an ultra high spatial resolution MRI, “MRI Microscope”, especially for 3He physics at ultra low temperature. The ultimate goal of our MRI Microscope is to achieve 1 μm×1 μm two dimensional spatial resolution comparable to optical microscopes. We constructed the MRI Microscope using a magnetic field of 7.2 T, with tri-axial magnetic field gradients of 2.0 T/m. We visualized the pure liquid 3He in a 230 μm diameter tube to study the effect of nonlinearity on the MRI Microscope at low temperature and in high magnetic fields. An MRI image was obtained at 0.22 MPa, 1 K with 1.8 μm×1.8 μm pixel size. At 65 mK, the MRI image became more blurred. We speculate that it was caused by large spin diffusion and nonlinearity.

  14. Pharmacotherapy for microscopic colitis.

    PubMed

    Wall, Geoffrey C; Schirmer, Lori L; Page, Michael J

    2007-03-01

    Microscopic colitis is a common cause of chronic watery diarrhea. Its etiology is unknown, but use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, aspirin, and lansoprazole may be risk factors for developing the disorder. Therapy is directed primarily at resolving the symptoms of microscopic colitis; bismuth subsalicylate, aminosalicylates, traditional corticosteroids, and budesonide have been evaluated. Compared with other therapies, budesonide has the strongest evidence for effectiveness in decreasing the volume and frequency of stools and improving the quality of life; it is, however, a costly drug. We reviewed all available primary English-language literature accounts of treatment of microscopic colitis. We performed searches of MEDLINE and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, as well as reviewing the bibliographies from key articles, to procure pertinent reports. Microscopic colitis can be successfully treated with pharmacotherapy. Based on cost and adverse-effect profiles, antidiarrheals and bismuth subsalicylate are reasonable first options, but many patients may require budesonide to achieve remission. PMID:17316153

  15. Microscope collision protection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    DeNure, Charles R. (Pocatello, ID)

    2001-10-23

    A microscope collision protection apparatus for a remote control microscope which protects the optical and associated components from damage in the event of an uncontrolled collision with a specimen, regardless of the specimen size or shape. In a preferred embodiment, the apparatus includes a counterbalanced slide for mounting the microscope's optical components. This slide replaces the rigid mounts on conventional upright microscopes with a precision ball bearing slide. As the specimen contacts an optical component, the contacting force will move the slide and the optical components mounted thereon. This movement will protect the optical and associated components from damage as the movement causes a limit switch to be actuated, thereby stopping all motors responsible for the collision.

  16. Infrared microscope inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Forman, S.E.; Caunt, J.W.

    1985-02-26

    Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface. 4 figs.

  17. Microscopic Theory of Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younes, W.; Gogny, D.

    2008-04-01

    In recent years, the microscopic method has been applied to the notoriously difficult problem of nuclear fission with unprecedented success. In this paper, we discuss some of the achievements and promise of the microscopic method, as embodied in the Hartree-Fock method using the Gogny finite-range effective interaction, and beyond-mean-field extensions to the theory. The nascent program to describe induced fission observables using this approach at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is presented.

  18. Hypoxia in Microscopic Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Feng; O’Donoghue, Joseph A

    2008-01-01

    Tumor hypoxia has been commonly observed in a broad spectrum of primary solid malignancies. Hypoxia is associated with tumor progression, increased aggressiveness, enhanced metastatic potential and poor prognosis. Hypoxic tumor cells are resistant to radiotherapy and some forms of chemotherapy. Using an animal model, we recently showed that microscopic tumors less than 1 mm diameter were severely hypoxic. In this review, models and techniques for the study of hypoxia in microscopic tumors are discussed. PMID:18384940

  19. Infrared microscope inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Forman, Steven E. (Framingham, MA); Caunt, James W. (Concord, MA)

    1985-02-26

    Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface.

  20. Microscopic Theory of Fission

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W.; Gogny, D.

    2008-04-17

    In recent years, the microscopic method has been applied to the notoriously difficult problem of nuclear fission with unprecedented success. In this paper, we discuss some of the achievements and promise of the microscopic method, as embodied in the Hartree-Fock method using the Gogny finite-range effective interaction, and beyond-mean-field extensions to the theory. The nascent program to describe induced fission observables using this approach at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is presented.

  1. A Virtual Microscope for Academic Medical Education: The Pate Project

    PubMed Central

    Hundt, Christian; Schmitt, Volker H; Schömer, Elmar; Kirkpatrick, C James

    2015-01-01

    Background Whole-slide imaging (WSI) has become more prominent and continues to gain in importance in student teaching. Applications with different scope have been developed. Many of these applications have either technical or design shortcomings. Objective To design a survey to determine student expectations of WSI applications for teaching histological and pathological diagnosis. To develop a new WSI application based on the findings of the survey. Methods A total of 216 students were questioned about their experiences and expectations of WSI applications, as well as favorable and undesired features. The survey included 14 multiple choice and two essay questions. Based on the survey, we developed a new WSI application called Pate utilizing open source technologies. Results The survey sample included 216 students—62.0% (134) women and 36.1% (78) men. Out of 216 students, 4 (1.9%) did not disclose their gender. The best-known preexisting WSI applications included Mainzer Histo Maps (199/216, 92.1%), Histoweb Tübingen (16/216, 7.4%), and Histonet Ulm (8/216, 3.7%). Desired features for the students were latitude in the slides (190/216, 88.0%), histological (191/216, 88.4%) and pathological (186/216, 86.1%) annotations, points of interest (181/216, 83.8%), background information (146/216, 67.6%), and auxiliary informational texts (113/216, 52.3%). By contrast, a discussion forum was far less important (9/216, 4.2%) for the students. Conclusions The survey revealed that the students appreciate a rich feature set, including WSI functionality, points of interest, auxiliary informational texts, and annotations. The development of Pate was significantly influenced by the findings of the survey. Although Pate currently has some issues with the Zoomify file format, it could be shown that Web technologies are capable of providing a high-performance WSI experience, as well as a rich feature set. PMID:25963527

  2. Igneous and metamorphic petrology in the field: a problem-based, writing-intensive alternative to traditional classroom petrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBari, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Geology Department at Western Washington University (~100 geology majors) offers field and classroom versions of its undergraduate petrology course. This is a one-quarter course (igneous and metamorphic petrology) with mineralogy as a prerequisite. The field version of the course is offered during the three weeks prior to fall quarter and the classroom version is offered in spring quarter. We take 15-20 students around the state of Washington, camping at different outcrop sites where students integrate observational skills, petrologic knowledge, and writing. Petrogenetic associations in various tectonic settings provide the theme of the course. We compare ophiolites vs. arc sequences (volcanic, plutonic, and metamorphic rocks), S- vs. I-type granitoids (plutonic rocks and associated metamorphic rocks), Barrovian vs. Buchan vs. subduction zone metamorphism of different protoliths, and flood-basalt vs. active-arc volcanism. Some basics are covered in the first day at WWU, followed by 17 days of field instruction. Lecture is integrated with outcrop study in the field. For example, students will listen to a lecture about magma differentiation processes as they examine cumulate rocks in the Mt. Stuart batholith, and a lecture about metamorphic facies as they study blueschist facies rocks in the San Juan Islands. Students study multiple outcrops around a site for 1-4 days. They then use their observations (sketches and written descriptions of mineral assemblages, rock types, rock textures, etc.) and analysis techniques (e.g. geochemical data plotting, metamorphic protolith analysis) to write papers in which the data are interpreted in terms of a larger tectonic problem. In advance of the writing process, students use group discussion techniques such as whiteboarding to share their observational evidence and explore interpretations. Student evaluations indicate that despite the intense pace of the course, they enjoy it more. Students also feel that they retain more material for future classes. The undivided attention, immediate writing/reflection, and repetition of skills in different settings reinforce material. Because of students' higher level of engagement, more of them pursue advanced classes or independent studies. A corollary benefit is that students form strong bonds with their cohort group, providing mutual support as they continue through the program and ultimately improving their field camp experience. Final exam scores are equal to or better than in the traditional class, and some basic skills, such the ability to make observations at a variety of scales in sketches and writing, are better. Students can also better distinguish between observation and inference in report writing. Finally, students can apply their theoretical understanding of petrologic processes (e.g. magma differentiation, metamorphic facies progressions) to real rocks in a more sophisticated way using evidence.

  3. A portable laser photostimulation and imaging microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolenko, Volodymyr; Peterka, Darcy S.; Yuste, Rafael

    2010-08-01

    We describe a compact microscope that uses a spatial light modulator (SLM) to control the excitation laser light. The flexibility of SLMs, which can mimic virtually any optical transfer function, enables the experimenter to create, in software, arbitrary spatio-temporal light patterns, including focusing and beam scanning, simply by calculating the appropriate phase mask. Our prototype, a scan-less device with no moving parts, can be used for laser imaging or photostimulation, supplanting the need for an elaborate optical setup. As a proof of principle, we generate complex excitation patterns on fluorescent samples and also perform functional imaging of neuronal activity in living brain slices.

  4. Using virtual menus in a virtual environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacoby, Richard H.; Ellis, Stephen R.

    1992-01-01

    Virtual environment interfaces to computer programs in several diverse application areas are currently being developed. The users of virtual environments will require many different methods to interact with the environments and the objects in them. This paper reports on our use of virtual menus as a method of interacting with virtual environments. Several aspects of virtual environments make menu interactions different from interactions with conventional menus. We review the relevant aspects of conventional menus and virtual environments, in order to provide a frame of reference for the design of virtual menus. We discuss the features and interaction methodologies of two different versions of virtual menus which have been developed and used in our lab. We also examine the problems associated with our original version, and the enhancements incorporated into our current version.

  5. Petrology, chemistry, and origin of Apollo 15 regolith breccias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, S. B.; Papike, J. J.; Gosselin, D. C.; Laul, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    Variations in modal petrology, mineral compositions, and bulk compositions were determined for ten Apollo 15 regolith breccias for comparison with local soils and assessment of the intrasite petrologic variability of the Apollo 15 regolith. Based on the above criteria the breccias are of local origin and mimic the soils from the corresponding sampling stations, with the exception of station 2 breccia 15205. This sample formed from an anomalous regolith, and although not considered exotic to the site is not representative of the soil at the site. KREEP basalt and green glass components vary from trace amounts to dominant in the breccias, evidence that these materials entered the regolith prior to formation of the breccias. Breccias from the edge of Hadley Rille are modally richer in highland fragments than the soils, whereas at the base of Hadley Delta the reverse is true. This is explained by the loss of material into the Rille to be replaced by basalt-derived material, making the soils more basalt-rich. At the base of Hadley Delta highland material is accumulating and the soils are becoming more highland-rich. Over billions of years these processes have developed differences between the present day, evolving soils, and 'fossil' nonevolving soils represented by the regolith breccias. This shows that there has been little change in the geology and the morphology of the Apollo 15 site, probably since the eruption of mare basalts at the site (about 3.3 b.y.).

  6. The geology and petrology of the Apollo 11 landing site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaty, D. W.; Albee, A. L.

    1980-01-01

    Geochemical and petrologic data indicate that the 73 Apollo 11 basalts thus far identified can be divided into five petrologic groups (A, B1, B2, B3, D) which must represent at least five separate igneous cooling units. These five igneous bodies range in age from 3.90 b.y. to 3.60 b.y. Photogeologic studies indicate that three mare units are present, and that the lunar module set down on the oldest of the three. The exposure age data suggest that the high-K flow is the surficial rock type at the landing area, and is, therefore, probably the oldest of the three mare units. By examining the size frequency distribution and the inferred cooling rates of the individual samples, it is possible to calculate the formation thicknesses within the 30-m-deep West Crater. This suggests that A = 9 m, B1 = 2 m (and may be an ejecta blanket), B2 is equal to or greater than 8 m, and B3 = 6 m.

  7. Geochemistry of Martian Meteorites and the Petrologic Evolution of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.

    2002-01-01

    Mafic igneous rocks serve as probes of the interiors of their parent bodies - the compositions of the magmas contain an imprint of the source region composition and mineralogy, the melting and crystallization processes, and mixing and assimilation. Although complicated by their multifarious history, it is possible to constrain the petrologic evolution of an igneous province through compositional study of the rocks. Incompatible trace elements provide one means of doing this. I will use incompatible element ratios of martian meteorites to constrain the early petrologic evolution of Mars. Incompatible elements are strongly partitioned into the melt phase during igneous processes. The degree of incompatibility will differ depending on the mineral phases in equilibrium with the melt. Most martian meteorites contain some cumulus grains, but nevertheless, incompatible element ratios of bulk meteorites will be close to those of their parent magmas. ALH 84001 is an exception, and it will not be discussed. The martian meteorites will be considered in two groups; a 1.3 Ga group composed of the clinopyroxenites and dunite, and a younger group composed of all others.

  8. Virtual Reality and the Virtual Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheim, Charles

    1993-01-01

    Explains virtual reality, including proper and improper uses of the term, and suggests ways that libraries might be affected by it. Highlights include elements of virtual reality systems; possible virtual reality applications, including architecture, the chemical industry, transport planning, armed forces, and entertainment; and the virtual…

  9. Integrated elastic microscope device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, W. M.; Wright, D.; Watkins, R.; Cen, Zi

    2015-03-01

    The growing power of imaging and computing power of smartphones is creating the possibility of converting your smartphone into a high power pocket microscopy system. High quality miniature microscopy lenses attached to smartphone are typically made with glass or plastics that can only be produce at low cost with high volume. To revise the paradigm of microscope lenses, we devised a simple droplet lens fabrication technique that which produces low cost and high performance lens. Each lens is integrated into thin 3-D printed holder with complimentary light emitted diode (LEDs) that clips onto majority of smartphones. The integrated device converts a smartphone into a high power optical microscope/dermatoscope at around $2. This low cost device has wide application in a multitude of practical uses such as material inspection, dermascope and educational microscope.

  10. Petrology and Geochemistry of D'Orbigny, Geochemistry of Sahara 99555, and the Origin of Angrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Killgore, Marvin; Lee, Michael T.

    2001-01-01

    We have done detailed petrologic study of the angrite, D'Orbigny, and geochemical study of it and Sahara 99555. D'Orbigny is an igneous-textured rock composed of Ca-rich olivine, Al-Ti-diopside-hedenbergite, subcalcic kirschsteinite, two generations of hercynitic spinel and anorthite, with the mesostasis phases ulv6spinel, Ca-phosphate, a silicophosphate phase and Fe-sulfide. We report an unknown Fe-Ca-Al-Ti-silicate phase in the mesostasis not previously found in angrites. One hercynitic spinel is a large, rounded homogeneous grain of a different composition than the euhedral and zoned grains. We believe the former is a xenocryst, the first such described from angrites. The mafic phases are highly zoned; mg# of cores for olivine are approx.64, and for clinopyroxene approx.58, and both are zoned to Mg-free rims. The Ca content of olivine increases with decreasing mg#, until olivine with approx.20 mole% Ca is overgrown by subcalcic kirschsteinite with Ca approx.30-35 mole%. Detailed zoning sequences in olivine-subcalcic kirschsteinite and clinopyroxene show slight compositional reversals. There is no mineralogic control that can explain these reversals, and we believe they were likely caused by local additions of more primitive melt during crystallization of D'Orbigny. D'Orbigny is the most ferroan angrite with a bulk rock mg# of 32. Compositionally, it is virtually identical to Sahara 99555; the first set of compositionally identical angrites. Comparison with the other angrites shows that there is no simple petrogenetic sequence, partial melting with or without fractional crystallization, that can explain the angrite suite. Angra dos Reis remains a very anomalous angrite. Angrites show no evidence for the brecciation, shock, or impact or thermal metamorphism that affected the HED suite and ordinary chondrites. This suggests the angrite parent body may have followed a fundamentally different evolutionary path than did these other parent bodies.

  11. Oman Ophiolite: Petrological and Geochemical Investigation of Fast-Spreading Crust Formation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, T.; Koepke, J.; Garbe-Schoenberg, C. D.; Schuth, S.; Wolff, P. E.

    2014-12-01

    We undertook a detailed field campaign in the Wadi Gideah, which is located in the Wadi-Tayin Massif in the southern part of the Oman Ophiolite, to sample a complete section of fast-spreading oceanic crust. Our concept of performing different analytical and structural investigations on the same samples enabled us to create a coherent data set. The thickness of the layered and virtually undeformed oceanic crust, containing pillow lavas and sheeted dikes as well as varitextured, foliated and layered gabbros resting on a relatively thin MOHO transition zone, was recalculated to approximately 6km. Here we present our data focusing on the petrological and geochemical logs obtained. Samples from the layered gabbro sequence show modal compositions of ~50 vol% plagioclase, ~40 vol% clinopyroxene and ~10 vol% olivine in average. The samples from the foliated gabbro sequence display a slightly higher amount of plagioclase. In very few samples up to 20 vol% of orthopyroxene is present. The layered gabbro sequence display Mg# 71-82 for olivine, Mg# 75-83 for clinopyroxene and An% in plagioclase of 71-93 mol%. The foliated gabbro sequence display Mg# 67-79 for olivine, Mg# 76-85 for clinopyroxene and An% in plagioclase of 58-85 mol%. The varitextured gabbro sequence display Mg# 74-80 for clinopyroxene and An% 59-86 in plagioclase mol%. The generally evolving trends in mineral major element composition from bottom to top of the profile are also observed for bulk rock major and trace element data. The average Sr87/Sr86 ratio is 0.7033 ± 0.0002 for the entire foliated and layered gabbro with significantly higher values for samples from fault zones cutting the gabbros at all crustal level which here are interpreted as possible hydrothermal pathways for cooling of the deep crust. We calculated the Wadi Gideah bulk crust composition and modeled possible fractionation paths, implying significant crystallization in the deep crust.

  12. Electron microscope studies

    SciTech Connect

    Crewe, A.V.; Kapp, O.H.

    1992-07-01

    This is a report covering the research performed in the Crewe laboratory between 1964 and 1992. Because of limitations of space we have provided relatively brief summaries of the major research directions of the facility during these years. A complete bibliography has been included and we have referenced groups of pertinent publications at the beginning of each section. This report summarizes our efforts to develop better electron microscopes and chronicles many of the experimental programs, in materials science and biology, that acted both as a stimulus to better microscope design and also as a testing ground for many instrumental innovations.

  13. A Magnetic Petrology Database for Satellite Magnetic Anomaly Interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarova, K.; Wasilewski, P.; Didenko, A.; Genshaft, Y.; Pashkevich, I.

    2002-05-01

    A Magnetic Petrology Database (MPDB) is now being compiled at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center in cooperation with Russian and Ukrainian Institutions. The purpose of this database is to provide the geomagnetic community with a comprehensive and user-friendly method of accessing magnetic petrology data via Internet for more realistic interpretation of satellite magnetic anomalies. Magnetic Petrology Data had been accumulated in NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, United Institute of Physics of the Earth (Russia) and Institute of Geophysics (Ukraine) over several decades and now consists of many thousands of records of data in our archives. The MPDB was, and continues to be in big demand especially since recent launching in near Earth orbit of the mini-constellation of three satellites - Oersted (in 1999), Champ (in 2000), and SAC-C (in 2000) which will provide lithospheric magnetic maps with better spatial and amplitude resolution (about 1 nT). The MPDB is focused on lower crustal and upper mantle rocks and will include data on mantle xenoliths, serpentinized ultramafic rocks, granulites, iron quartzites and rocks from Archean-Proterozoic metamorphic sequences from all around the world. A substantial amount of data is coming from the area of unique Kursk Magnetic Anomaly and Kola Deep Borehole (which recovered 12 km of continental crust). A prototype MPDB can be found on the Geodynamics Branch web server of Goddard Space Flight Center at http://core2.gsfc.nasa.gov/terr_mag/magnpetr.html. The MPDB employs a searchable relational design and consists of 7 interrelated tables. The schema of database is shown at http://core2.gsfc.nasa.gov/terr_mag/doc.html. MySQL database server was utilized to implement MPDB. The SQL (Structured Query Language) is used to query the database. To present the results of queries on WEB and for WEB programming we utilized PHP scripting language and CGI scripts. The prototype MPDB is designed to search database by major satellite magnetic anomaly, tectonic structure, geographical location, rock type, magnetic properties, chemistry and reference, see http://core2.gsfc.nasa.gov/terr_mag/query1.html. The output of database is HTML structured table, text file, and downloadable file. This database will be very useful for studies of lithospheric satellite magnetic anomalies on the Earth and other terrestrial planets.

  14. Teaching Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology Through Guided Inquiry Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, N. J.

    2003-12-01

    Undergraduate Petrology at New Mexico State University (GEOL 399) has been taught using three, 5-6 week long projects in place of lectures, lab, and exams for the last six years. Reasons for changing from the traditional format include: 1) to move the focus from identification and memorization to petrologic thinking; 2) the need for undergraduate students to apply basic chemical, structural, and field concepts to igneous and metamorphic rocks; 3) student boredom in the traditional mode by the topic that has captivated my professional life, in spite of my best efforts to offer thrilling lectures, problems, and labs. The course has three guided inquiry projects: volcanic, plutonic, and pelitic dynamothermal. Two of the rock suites are investigated during field trips. Each project provides hand samples and thin sections; the igneous projects also include whole-rock major and trace element data. Students write a scientific paper that classifies and describes the rocks, describes the data (mineralogical and geochemical), and uses data to interpret parameters such as tectonic setting, igneous processes, relationship to phase diagrams, geologic history, metamorphic grade, metamorphic facies, and polymetamorphic history. Students use the text as a major resource for self-learning; mini-lectures on pertinent topics are presented when needed by the majority of students. Project scores include evaluation of small parts of the paper due each Friday and participation in peer review as well as the final report. I have found that petrology is much more fun, although more difficult, to teach using this method. It is challenging to be totally prepared for class because students are working at different speeds on different levels on different aspects of the project. Students enjoy the course, especially the opportunity to engage in scientific investigation and debate. A significant flaw in this course is that students see fewer rocks and have less experience in rock classification. This is partially remedied by four field trips and two supplemental assignments (igneous and metamorphic) in which students identify hand samples of a wide variety of rock types. The project-based approach enhances critical thinking, math, reading, and writing skills at the expense of hand sample identification and the benefits of review of material prior to testing.

  15. Rethinking Virtual School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schomburg, Gary; Rippeth, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Virtual schooling has been touted as one of the best ways to meet the needs of at-risk students, but what happens when a district's virtual education program is unsuccessful? That was the problem in Eastern Local School District, a small rural district in Beaver, Ohio. The district contracted virtual school services and used the virtual school for…

  16. Rethinking Virtual School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schomburg, Gary; Rippeth, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Virtual schooling has been touted as one of the best ways to meet the needs of at-risk students, but what happens when a district's virtual education program is unsuccessful? That was the problem in Eastern Local School District, a small rural district in Beaver, Ohio. The district contracted virtual school services and used the virtual school for…

  17. Virtual courseware for geoscience education: Virtual Earthquake and Virtual Dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Gary A.

    1999-05-01

    Virtual courseware developed for introductory-level, on-line geology labs is an interactive teaching/learning model that has an enormous pedagogical potential for making Web sites places where students learn by doing. Virtual Earthquake and Virtual Dating are modest examples of the `virtual courseware' paradigm. Virtual Earthquake helps students explore the techniques of how an earthquake's epicenter is located and how its Richter magnitude is determined. Virtual Dating models the theory and techniques of the radiometric age determination of rocks and minerals. Virtual courseware applications offer several advantages over traditional floppy disk or CD ROM-based courseware, the most significant being the ease of dissemination. The author's experience with bringing these two virtual applications on-line suggests that there is a need for interactive geology labs on-line and that the approach will be received with enthusiasm by the educational community. The widespread implementation and adoption of virtual courseware can bring meaningful educational content and interactivity for the geosciences that goes beyond multimedia on the World-Wide-Web.

  18. Virtual button interface

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jake S.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and method of issuing commands to a computer by a user interfacing with a virtual reality environment. To issue a command, the user directs gaze at a virtual button within the virtual reality environment, causing a perceptible change in the virtual button, which then sends a command corresponding to the virtual button to the computer, optionally after a confirming action is performed by the user, such as depressing a thumb switch.

  19. Virtual button interface

    DOEpatents

    Jones, J.S.

    1999-01-12

    An apparatus and method of issuing commands to a computer by a user interfacing with a virtual reality environment are disclosed. To issue a command, the user directs gaze at a virtual button within the virtual reality environment, causing a perceptible change in the virtual button, which then sends a command corresponding to the virtual button to the computer, optionally after a confirming action is performed by the user, such as depressing a thumb switch. 4 figs.

  20. Virtual PCR

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, S N; Clague, D S; Vandersall, J A; Hon, G; Williams, P L

    2006-02-23

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) stands among the keystone technologies for analysis of biological sequence data. PCR is used to amplify DNA, to generate many copies from as little as a single template. This is essential, for example, in processing forensic DNA samples, pathogen detection in clinical or biothreat surveillance applications, and medical genotyping for diagnosis and treatment of disease. It is used in virtually every laboratory doing molecular, cellular, genetic, ecologic, forensic, or medical research. Despite its ubiquity, we lack the precise predictive capability that would enable detailed optimization of PCR reaction dynamics. In this LDRD, we proposed to develop Virtual PCR (VPCR) software, a computational method to model the kinetic, thermodynamic, and biological processes of PCR reactions. Given a successful completion, these tools will allow us to predict both the sequences and concentrations of all species that are amplified during PCR. The ability to answer the following questions will allow us both to optimize the PCR process and interpret the PCR results: What products are amplified when sequence mixtures are present, containing multiple, closely related targets and multiplexed primers, which may hybridize with sequence mismatches? What are the effects of time, temperature, and DNA concentrations on the concentrations of products? A better understanding of these issues will improve the design and interpretation of PCR reactions. The status of the VPCR project after 1.5 years of funding is consistent with the goals of the overall project which was scoped for 3 years of funding. At half way through the projected timeline of the project we have an early beta version of the VPCR code. We have begun investigating means to improve the robustness of the code, performed preliminary experiments to test the code and begun drafting manuscripts for publication. Although an experimental protocol for testing the code was developed, the preliminary experiments were tainted by contaminated products received from the manufacturer. Much knowledge has been gained in the development of the code thus far, but without final debugging, increasing its robustness and verifying it against experimental results, the papers which we have drafted to share our findings still require the final data necessary for publication. The following sections summarize our final progress on VPCR as it stands after 1.5 years of effort on an ambitious project scoped for a 3 year period. We have additional details of the methods than are provided here, but would like to have legal protection in place before releasing them. The result of this project, a suite of programs that predict PCR products as a function of reaction conditions and sequences, will be used to address outstanding questions in pathogen detection and forensics at LLNL. VPCR should enable scientists to optimize PCR protocols in terms of time, temperature, ion concentration, and primer sequences and concentrations, and to estimate products and error rates in advance of performing experiments. Our proposed capabilities are well ahead of all currently available technologies, which do not model non-equilibrium kinetics, polymerase extension, or predict multiple or undesired PCR products. We are currently seeking DHS funding to complete the project, at which time licensing opportunities will be explored, an updated patent application will be prepared, and a publication will be submitted. A provisional and a full patent application have already been filed (1).

  1. Petrological Explanations for the Magnetic Anomalies Detected on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weitz, C. M.; Rutherford, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    The discovery of crustal magnetization in some locations on Mars, particularly the southern highlands, has major implications for the early evolution of Mars. The east-west-trending linear features in the southern highlands with alternating polarity may be the result of an early seafloor spreading process similar to that seen on Earth today. The larger magnetization of the martian crust compared to the Earth can be attributed to its higher Fe content and the proposed minerals associated with this magnetization are multidomain hematite and pyrrhotite. In this study, we discuss the petrological evolution of basalts on Earth and Mars and suggest processes that may enhance crystallization of magnetic minerals in the martian rocks, thereby accounting for their intense magnetic properties.

  2. Petrology, chemistry, age and irradiation history of Luna 24 samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasserburg, G. J.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Mcculloch, M. T.; Huneke, J. C.; Dymek, R. F.; Depaolo, D. J.; Chodos, A. A.; Albee, A. L.; Radicati Di Brozolo, F.

    1978-01-01

    The results of petrological, chemical, isotopic age determination and irradiation studies of sample 24170 from the 170 cm depth of the regolith core returned from Mare Crisium by Luna 24 are presented. The sample is found to be comprised of fragments from a single igneous rock, with mineralogical evidence indicating it to be a mare basalt. The crystallization age is determined by Sm-Nd and Ar(40)-Ar(39) ages to be 3.30 AE, establishing the presence of relatively young flows. All soil samples show low trace element compositions with minimum contamination by KREEPUTh-rich materials. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd relations reflect the absence of significant fractionation at ages younger than 4.5 AE. One soil sample shows extremely large neutron capture effects, imposing a new lower limit to the neutron production rate in the regolith and requiring the addition of irradiated materials from depth.

  3. Millimeter petrology and kilometer mineralogical exploration of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, C. M.; Taylor, G. J.

    1989-01-01

    Coordinated petrologic and spectroscopic analyses were undertaken for a specially prepared 1-cm chip of regolith breccia 60019. The mafic minerals of each large clast were readily identified from spectral reflectance measurements of the same clasts, and mineral abundance was shown to be directly related to absorption strength. Although most clasts of 60019 are noritic in composition, the presence of abundant olivine and/or high-Ca pyroxene in several clasts is easily noted spectroscopically. The origin of an unusual absorption feature near 0.6 micron in an anorthositic clast was determined by petrographic analysis to be due to very fine-grained translucent ilmenite. The 60019 matrix is dark and glassy, and although a variety of clasts occur on all scales, particulate powders of 60019 are all very similar and have spectral properties that indicate a noritic breccia bulk composition.

  4. Lunar basalt meteorite EET 87521: Petrology of the clast population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semenova, A. S.; Nazarov, M. A.; Kononkova, N. N.

    1993-01-01

    The Elephant Moraine meteorite EET 87521 was classified as a lunar mare basalt breccia which is composed mainly of VLT basalt clasts. Here we report on our petrological study of lithic clasts and monomineralic fragments in the thin sections EET 87521,54 and EET 87521,47,1, which were prepared from the meteorite. The results of the study show that EET 87521 consists mainly of Al-rich ferrobasalt clasts and olivine pyroxenite clasts. The bulk composition of the meteorite can be well modelled by the mixing of these lithic components which appear to be differentiates of the Luna 25 basalt melt. KREEP and Mg-rich gabbro components are minor constituents of EET 87521.

  5. Lunar ferroan anorthosite 60025 - Petrology and chemistry of mafic lithologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, O. B.; Mcgee, J. J.; Lindstrom, M. M.

    1991-01-01

    Eleven splits from the mafic-mineral-rich part of anorthosite 60025 were studied in order to establish the exact nature and causes of compositional variations in the minerals of lunar ferroan anorthosites. All splits were analyzed by INAA, and five were studied intensively by petrologic techniques. All splits were found to have similar cataclastic textures and show textural evidence of at least two episodes of deformation. The whole-rock split contains mafic minerals having a wide range of compositions and is probably polymict. It is suggested that the rare-earth patterns for all splits can be duplicated safactorily, assuming that the equilibrium liquids had flat, or nearly flat, chondrite-normalized rare-earth patterns. The plagioclases in all splits were found to be identical. Data obtained indicate that in ferroan anorthosites An content in plagioclase and mg' of associated mafic minerals are not strongly correlated.

  6. Mineralogy and Petrology of Unbrecciated Lunar Basaltic Meteorite LAP 02205

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, K.; Brandon, A. D.; Norman, M. D.

    2004-01-01

    LAP 02205 is a 1.2 kg unbrecciated basalt found in the LaPaz icefield of Antarctica during the 2002-2003 ANSMET season [1]. It has been classified as a lunar basalt on the basis of pyroxene Fe/Mn ratios (approx. 60) and oxygen isotopes [1]; both are within previously defined compositional ranges for the Moon [2]. We have initiated a comprehensive study of the mineralogy, petrology and geochemistry of this new and unique meteorite. The results reported here will allow the comparison of this sample both to the other lunar basaltic meteorites (NWA 032, A881757, Y793169, Dho287A), as well as to lunar basalts in the Apollo and Luna collections.

  7. Apollo 15 yellow impact glasses: Chemistry, petrology, and exotic origin

    SciTech Connect

    Delano, J.W.; Lindsley, D.H.; Ma, M.; Schmitt, R.A.

    1982-11-15

    The Apollo 15 yellow impact glasses are characterized by moderate TiO/sub 2/ (approx.4.8%) and high abundances of the large ion lithophile elements (e.g., K, P, Hf, Th, REE). Since the chemistry of these glasses cannot be duplicated by any combination of local components presently known to occur at the Apollo 15 landing site, these yellow glasses seem to be exotic to that area. Chemical and petrologic constraints suggest that these samples were produced by impact melting of an immature mare regolith developed upon an unusual variety of mare basalt. We speculate that the target basalt were the youngest lava flows known to exist on the moon (i.e., Eratosphenian-age lavas in Oceanus Procellarum and Mare Imbrium). Specific tests are proposed for evaluating this provocative hypothesis.

  8. Linking petrology and seismology at an active volcano.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Kate; Blundy, Jon; Dohmen, Ralf; Cashman, Kathy

    2012-05-25

    Many active volcanoes exhibit changes in seismicity, ground deformation, and gas emissions, which in some instances arise from magma movement in the crust before eruption. An enduring challenge in volcano monitoring is interpreting signs of unrest in terms of the causal subterranean magmatic processes. We examined over 300 zoned orthopyroxene crystals from the 1980-1986 eruption of Mount St. Helens that record pulsatory intrusions of new magma and volatiles into an existing larger reservoir before the eruption occurred. Diffusion chronometry applied to orthopyroxene crystal rims shows that episodes of magma intrusion correlate temporally with recorded seismicity, providing evidence that some seismic events are related to magma intrusion. These time scales are commensurate with monitoring signals at restless volcanoes, thus improving our ability to forecast volcanic eruptions by using petrology. PMID:22628652

  9. Petrology and geochemistry of alkali gabbronorites from lunar breccia 67975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Odette B.; Flohr, Marta K.; Lindstrom, Marilyn M.

    1987-01-01

    Detailed results of petrologic and compositional studies of three clasts found in thin sections of the Apollo 16 lunar breccia 67975 and of four clasts extracted from the breccia (for instrumental neutron activation analysis) prior to thin sectioning are reported. The alkali gabbronorites of the breccia form two distinct subgroups, magnesian and ferroan. The magnesian gabbronorites are composed of bytownitic plagioclase, hypersthene, augite, a silica mineral, and trace Ba-rich K-feldspar. The ferroan gabbronorites are composed of ternary plagioclase, pigeonite, augite, Ba-rich K-feldspar, and a silica mineral. Trace minerals in both subgroups are apatite, REE-rich whitlockite, and zircon. The magnesian and ferroan alkali gabbronorites appear to have formed by progressive differentiation of the same, or closely related, parent REE-rich magmas.

  10. Microscopic plasma Hamiltonian

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, Y.-K. M.

    1974-01-01

    A Hamiltonian for the microscopic plasma model is derived from the Low Lagrangian after the dual roles of the generalized variables are taken into account. The resulting Hamilton equations are shown to agree with the Euler-Lagrange equations of the Low Lagrangian.

  11. Making Art with Microscopes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedis-Grab, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Interdisciplinary teaching is a great way to focus on overarching concepts and help students make connections across disciplines. Historically, art and science have been connected disciplines. The botanical prints of the 18th and 19th centuries and early work with microscopes are two examples of a need for strong artistic skills in the science…

  12. Microscope on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken at Meridiani Planum, Mars by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover's microscopic imager (circular device in center), located on its instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The image was acquired on the ninth martian day or sol of the rover's mission.

  13. Making Art with Microscopes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedis-Grab, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Interdisciplinary teaching is a great way to focus on overarching concepts and help students make connections across disciplines. Historically, art and science have been connected disciplines. The botanical prints of the 18th and 19th centuries and early work with microscopes are two examples of a need for strong artistic skills in the science…

  14. Virtual Goods Recommendations in Virtual Worlds

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kuan-Yu; Liao, Hsiu-Yu; Chen, Jyun-Hung; Liu, Duen-Ren

    2015-01-01

    Virtual worlds (VWs) are computer-simulated environments which allow users to create their own virtual character as an avatar. With the rapidly growing user volume in VWs, platform providers launch virtual goods in haste and stampede users to increase sales revenue. However, the rapidity of development incurs virtual unrelated items which will be difficult to remarket. It not only wastes virtual global companies' intelligence resources, but also makes it difficult for users to find suitable virtual goods fit for their virtual home in daily virtual life. In the VWs, users decorate their houses, visit others' homes, create families, host parties, and so forth. Users establish their social life circles through these activities. This research proposes a novel virtual goods recommendation method based on these social interactions. The contact strength and contact influence result from interactions with social neighbors and influence users' buying intention. Our research highlights the importance of social interactions in virtual goods recommendation. The experiment's data were retrieved from an online VW platform, and the results show that the proposed method, considering social interactions and social life circle, has better performance than existing recommendation methods. PMID:25834837

  15. Virtual goods recommendations in virtual worlds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuan-Yu; Liao, Hsiu-Yu; Chen, Jyun-Hung; Liu, Duen-Ren

    2015-01-01

    Virtual worlds (VWs) are computer-simulated environments which allow users to create their own virtual character as an avatar. With the rapidly growing user volume in VWs, platform providers launch virtual goods in haste and stampede users to increase sales revenue. However, the rapidity of development incurs virtual unrelated items which will be difficult to remarket. It not only wastes virtual global companies' intelligence resources, but also makes it difficult for users to find suitable virtual goods fit for their virtual home in daily virtual life. In the VWs, users decorate their houses, visit others' homes, create families, host parties, and so forth. Users establish their social life circles through these activities. This research proposes a novel virtual goods recommendation method based on these social interactions. The contact strength and contact influence result from interactions with social neighbors and influence users' buying intention. Our research highlights the importance of social interactions in virtual goods recommendation. The experiment's data were retrieved from an online VW platform, and the results show that the proposed method, considering social interactions and social life circle, has better performance than existing recommendation methods. PMID:25834837

  16. Petrologic and In Situ Geochemical Constraints on Diogenite Genesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Peng, Z. X.

    2013-01-01

    Diogenites, members of the howardite, eucrite and diogenite (HED) clan, are orthopyroxenite, harzburgite and dunite meteorites [1-3]. Most are breccias, but remnant textures indicate they were originally coarse-grained rocks, with grain sizes of order of cm. Their petrography and compositions support an origin as crustal cumulates from a differentiated asteroid. Astronomical observations, and surface mineralogy and composition of Vesta determined by the Dawn spacecraft suggest that asteroid (4) Vesta is the parent object for HED meteorites [4-6]. The origin of diogenites is an unsettled issue. It is difficult to fit their bulk compositional characteristics into global magma ocean models that successfully describe the compositions of basaltic and cumulate eucrites [7]. Compositional analyses of acid-leached bulk samples have led to the hypothesis that many diogenites were formed late by interaction of their parent melts with a eucritic crust [8]. Those observations may alternatively be explained by subsolidus equilibration of trace elements between orthopyroxene and minor/ accessory phases in the rocks such as plagioclase and phosphate [7]. These competing hypotheses can be tested through in situ measurements of trace and minor elements in orthopyroxene. Our new petrologic observations and in situ minor and trace element data for a suite of diogenites are used to discuss the petrologic evolution of diogenites. Our preliminary data on two diogenites are consistent with the hypothesis that subsolidus element mobilization processes caused unusual trace element signatures seen in some diogenites [7]. We cannot stress strongly enough, however, that the sample set is too small and that additional data are required before definitive conclusions can be made.

  17. Petrological Characteristic of Recent Eruption Events at Galeras Volcano, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakada, S.; Noguchi, S.; Cortes, G. P.; Calvache, M. L.

    2007-12-01

    On-going volcanic activity at Galeras began in 1988, and major explosive eruption events occurred in 1993. Long- period seismic events had occurred before these events. In late 2004, explosive eruptive events resumed and intermittently continued by the present. Long-period events similar to those before the 1993 explosive eruptive events have been observed since early 2006. Evaluating potential of more explosive future eruptions becomes very important to minimize volcanic disasters in cities and towns around this volcano, including the city of Pasto. Investigation of temporal changes in petrological characteristics of eruption products makes us possible to understand the magma system undergone at Galeras. Whether has it changed (or developed) from the 1993 explosive events or not? Ballistics and scoria of vulcanian explosions during 2004-2006 and of the 1991 eruption were investigated in this paper. Rocks are two pyroxene andesite with various crystallinity in groundmass. Small amount of hornblende and olivine microphenocrsyts are involved. The whole rock chemistry hardly changed with time. Lines of petrological evidence suggest that magma mixing occurred throughout the eruption products during 1991-2006; 1) bimodal populations in core compositions of plagioclase phenocrysts, 2) plagioclase microlites with the composition between the two polulations, 3) plagioclase phenocrysts rims more enriched in Fe, and 4) reverse zoning of pyroxene phenocrysts that rather show single chemical population. Melt inclusions in pyroxene phenocrysts are slightly less evolved than the groundmass glass, suggesting that most pyroxenes were derived from felsic magma. These suggest mixing of low-temperature hydrous felsic magma with high-temperature anhydrous (pyroxene-free) mafic magma. Similarity in the petrographical characteristics and temperatures with the pyroxene geothermometry among all the samples shows that nearly constant mixing processes has been operated throughout the recent eruption events, including the 1991 eruption.

  18. Petrologic Type of CV3 Chondrites as Revealed by Raman Spectroscopy of Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonal, L.; Quirico, E.; Bourot-Denise, M.

    2004-03-01

    Maturation grade of the organic matter, determined by Raman spectrometry and diffusion of iron, evaluated by the zonation of olivines were considered to assign petrologic type of CV3: Allende, Axtell, Mokoia, Grosnaja, Vigarano, Kaba, Leoville, Efremovka.

  19. Petrology of Chondrules and a Diopside-Rich Inclusion in the MAC 88136 EL3 Chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisberg, M. K.; Ebel, D. S.; Kimura, M.

    2012-09-01

    MAC 88136 (EL3) contains densely-packed enstatite-rich chondrules, metal-rich nodules intergrown with silicate and an unusual large, diopside-rich chondrule-like object. Petrologic and chemical features suggest hot accretion for its components.

  20. Learning Activities for an Undergraduate Mineralogy/Petrology Course-"I Am/We Are."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodell, Philip C.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces an entry level mineralogy/igneous petrology course designed for undergraduate students and presents a series of learning activities based on individual and cooperative learning. Includes 18 references. (Author/YDS)

  1. Petrology, Mineralogy and Mineral Chemistry of Antarctic Monomict Eucrites CMS 04049 and QUE 97053

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righter, M.; Lapen, T. J.

    2010-03-01

    We report petrology and mineral chemistry data including trace element abundances in minerals of two monomict eucrites, CMS 04049 and QUE 97053 to understand igneous and post-crystallization history of eucrite.

  2. Petrologic constraints on the pressure, temperature, time and composition of the Martian interior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, John R.

    1988-01-01

    Petrologic analysis of surface samples has been used to deduce pressure and temperature conditions existing in the crust and upper mantle at specific times in the Earth's history, as well as to estimate the chemical and mineralogical composition of the crust and upper mantle. The same techniques can be applied to samples of the Martian surface to provide P, T, time and composition constraints of the Martian interior. Estimates of P and T conditions existing at a given time would, in turn, provide strong constraints on the thermal evolution of Mars. Knowledge of the chemical and mineralogical composition of the Martian interior is of fundamental importance in assessing the early history of the solar system. A general petrological approach is outlined, describing the kinds of sample required, summarizing current understanding of the Martian interior based on experimental petrology, and outlining some of the important experiments needed to allow a full petrologic interpretation of Martian samples.

  3. Igneous, Sedimentary, and Metamorphic Petrology on Mars: We're Making Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSween, H. Y.

    2014-07-01

    Full petrologic characterization of martian rocks is challenging, but data from martian meteorites and surface rovers provide new insights into the petrogenesis of igneous, sedimentary, and even metamorphic rocks.

  4. Teaching Petrology in the 21st Century: A Workshop Report and Call to Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogk, D.; Davidson, C.; Manduca, C.; Braday, J.

    2003-12-01

    Petrology plays an important role in the upper division geology curriculum, introducing students to the skills needed to investigate and interpret igneous and metamorphic rocks that form the bulk of the earth's interior. Central concepts in petrology courses typically include chemical differentiation of Earth, the role of igneous and metamorphic processes in the Earth system, and the occurrences and distribution of rocks and in a variety of tectonic settings. Seventy-nine geoscientists who teach (or plan to teach) petrology in the undergraduate curriculum gathered for a week at Montana State University this past summer to discuss best practices and how petrology should be integrated into the geology curriculum of the 21st century. The first three days of the workshop were devoted to visiting some of the classic geological field locations in Montana and Wyoming to discuss the role of fieldwork in teaching petrologic concepts. The following four days were spent on the MSU campus in a mixture of large group discussions, smaller topical working group meetings, and demonstration sessions where faculty presented exercises, laboratory activities, or moderated small group discussions on pedagogy and assessment. One of the main outcomes of the workshop was the development of a web site for sharing teaching materials (http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/petrology03). This site contains a complete record of workshop activities. A collection of over 200 digital resources that support teaching petrology is now available, including over 30 new instructional activities contributed by workshop participants. Each activity contains 1) a brief introduction to the activity; 2) the activity itself along with supporting documents such as teaching notes and an answer key; and 3) a place for comments by users to give feedback to the author and to those who might be interested in using the activity. A formal review process of these resources will be initiated in the coming year. Another important outcome of the workshop was the formation of working groups around five areas: development of rock suites, modeling and databases, experiments in petrology, phase equilibria, and geodynamic petrology. These working groups began the process of organizing existing resources for dissemination, identifying important gaps in coverage, and developing plans to create new resources in these areas for educators. Overall, workshop participants advocated the need to establish stronger ties between petrology and the larger geology curriculum, to better articulate the contributions of petrology in understanding the Earth system, and to develop better activities and strategies to motivate students to learn petrology. The goal of the workshop and of this session is to learn from each other the best practices in teaching petrology, to expand the participation in these activities, and to call for help in the development of new resources and methods for teaching petrology throughout the geoscience curriculum. Contributions to the Teaching Petrology website and participation in the working groups is strongly encouraged and open to everyone in the community. This workshop is part of the NAGT On The Cutting Edge workshop series, and was supported by funds from the NSF CCLI-ND program.

  5. Femtosecond scanning tunneling microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A.J.; Donati, G.P.; Rodriguez, G.; Gosnell, T.R.; Trugman, S.A.; Some, D.I.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). By combining scanning tunneling microscopy with ultrafast optical techniques we have developed a novel tool to probe phenomena on atomic time and length scales. We have built and characterized an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope in terms of temporal resolution, sensitivity and dynamic range. Using a novel photoconductive low-temperature-grown GaAs tip, we have achieved a temporal resolution of 1.5 picoseconds and a spatial resolution of 10 nanometers. This scanning tunneling microscope has both cryogenic and ultra-high vacuum capabilities, enabling the study of a wide range of important scientific problems.

  6. Acoustic imaging microscope

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A.; Telschow, Kenneth L.

    2006-10-17

    An imaging system includes: an object wavefront source and an optical microscope objective all positioned to direct an object wavefront onto an area of a vibrating subject surface encompassed by a field of view of the microscope objective, and to direct a modulated object wavefront reflected from the encompassed surface area through a photorefractive material; and a reference wavefront source and at least one phase modulator all positioned to direct a reference wavefront through the phase modulator and to direct a modulated reference wavefront from the phase modulator through the photorefractive material to interfere with the modulated object wavefront. The photorefractive material has a composition and a position such that interference of the modulated object wavefront and modulated reference wavefront occurs within the photorefractive material, providing a full-field, real-time image signal of the encompassed surface area.

  7. Ion photon emission microscope

    DOEpatents

    Doyle, Barney L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-04-22

    An ion beam analysis system that creates microscopic multidimensional image maps of the effects of high energy ions from an unfocussed source upon a sample by correlating the exact entry point of an ion into a sample by projection imaging of the ion-induced photons emitted at that point with a signal from a detector that measures the interaction of that ion within the sample. The emitted photons are collected in the lens system of a conventional optical microscope, and projected on the image plane of a high resolution single photon position sensitive detector. Position signals from this photon detector are then correlated in time with electrical effects, including the malfunction of digital circuits, detected within the sample that were caused by the individual ion that created these photons initially.

  8. Microscopic enteritis: Bucharest consensus

    PubMed Central

    Rostami, Kamran; Aldulaimi, David; Holmes, Geoffrey; Johnson, Matt W; Robert, Marie; Srivastava, Amitabh; Fléjou, Jean-François; Sanders, David S; Volta, Umberto; Derakhshan, Mohammad H; Going, James J; Becheanu, Gabriel; Catassi, Carlo; Danciu, Mihai; Materacki, Luke; Ghafarzadegan, Kamran; Ishaq, Sauid; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Peña, A Salvador; Bassotti, Gabrio; Marsh, Michael N; Villanacci, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Microscopic enteritis (ME) is an inflammatory condition of the small bowel that leads to gastrointestinal symptoms, nutrient and micronutrient deficiency. It is characterised by microscopic or sub-microscopic abnormalities such as microvillus changes and enterocytic alterations in the absence of definite macroscopic changes using standard modern endoscopy. This work recognises a need to characterize disorders with microscopic and submicroscopic features, currently regarded as functional or non-specific entities, to obtain further understanding of their clinical relevance. The consensus working party reviewed statements about the aetiology, diagnosis and symptoms associated with ME and proposes an algorithm for its investigation and treatment. Following the 5th International Course in Digestive Pathology in Bucharest in November 2012, an international group of 21 interested pathologists and gastroenterologists formed a working party with a view to formulating a consensus statement on ME. A five-step agreement scale (from strong agreement to strong disagreement) was used to score 21 statements, independently. There was strong agreement on all statements about ME histology (95%-100%). Statements concerning diagnosis achieved 85% to 100% agreement. A statement on the management of ME elicited agreement from the lowest rate (60%) up to 100%. The remaining two categories showed general agreement between experts on clinical presentation (75%-95%) and pathogenesis (80%-90%) of ME. There was strong agreement on the histological definition of ME. Weaker agreement on management indicates a need for further investigations, better definitions and clinical trials to produce quality guidelines for management. This ME consensus is a step toward greater recognition of a significant entity affecting symptomatic patients previously labelled as non-specific or functional enteropathy. PMID:25759526

  9. Color Laser Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awamura, D.; Ode, T.; Yonezawa, M.

    1987-04-01

    A color laser microscope utilizing a new color laser imaging system has been developed for the visual inspection of semiconductors. The light source, produced by three lasers (Red; He-Ne, Green; Ar, Blue; He-Cd), is deflected horizontally by an AOD (Acoustic Optical Deflector) and vertically by a vibration mirror. The laser beam is focused in a small spot which is scanned over the sample at high speed. The light reflected back from the sample is reformed to contain linear information by returning to the original vibration mirror. The linear light is guided to the CCD image sensor where it is converted into a video signal. Individual CCD image sensors are used for each of the three R, G, or B color image signals. The confocal optical system with its laser light source yields a color TV monitor image with no flaring and a much sharper resolution than that of the conventional optical microscope. The AOD makes possible a high speed laser scan and a NTSC or PAL TV video signal is produced in real time without any video memory. Since the light source is composed of R, G, and B laser beams, color separation superior to that of white light illumination is achieved. Because of the photometric linearity of the image detector, the R, G, and B outputs of the system are most suitably used for hue analysis. The CCD linear image sensors in the optical system produce no geometrical distortion, and good color registration is available principally. The output signal can be used for high accuracy line width measuring. The many features of the color laser microscope make it ideally suited for the visual inspection of semiconductor processing. A number of these systems have already been installed in such a capacity. The Color Laser Microscope can also be a very useful tool for the fields of material engineering and biotechnology.

  10. Microscopic Image Inside 'Endurance'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This magnified view of a rock surface inside 'Endurance Crater' combines four frames taken by the microscopic imager on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity during the rover's 142nd martian day, or sol, on June 17, 2004. This patch of rock is in a region of contact between a layer of rock corresponding to bedrock that Opportunity examined earlier at 'Eagle Crater' and the next-lower layer. The area imaged is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) on each side.

  11. Microscopic enteritis: Bucharest consensus.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Kamran; Aldulaimi, David; Holmes, Geoffrey; Johnson, Matt W; Robert, Marie; Srivastava, Amitabh; Fléjou, Jean-François; Sanders, David S; Volta, Umberto; Derakhshan, Mohammad H; Going, James J; Becheanu, Gabriel; Catassi, Carlo; Danciu, Mihai; Materacki, Luke; Ghafarzadegan, Kamran; Ishaq, Sauid; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Peña, A Salvador; Bassotti, Gabrio; Marsh, Michael N; Villanacci, Vincenzo

    2015-03-01

    Microscopic enteritis (ME) is an inflammatory condition of the small bowel that leads to gastrointestinal symptoms, nutrient and micronutrient deficiency. It is characterised by microscopic or sub-microscopic abnormalities such as microvillus changes and enterocytic alterations in the absence of definite macroscopic changes using standard modern endoscopy. This work recognises a need to characterize disorders with microscopic and submicroscopic features, currently regarded as functional or non-specific entities, to obtain further understanding of their clinical relevance. The consensus working party reviewed statements about the aetiology, diagnosis and symptoms associated with ME and proposes an algorithm for its investigation and treatment. Following the 5(th) International Course in Digestive Pathology in Bucharest in November 2012, an international group of 21 interested pathologists and gastroenterologists formed a working party with a view to formulating a consensus statement on ME. A five-step agreement scale (from strong agreement to strong disagreement) was used to score 21 statements, independently. There was strong agreement on all statements about ME histology (95%-100%). Statements concerning diagnosis achieved 85% to 100% agreement. A statement on the management of ME elicited agreement from the lowest rate (60%) up to 100%. The remaining two categories showed general agreement between experts on clinical presentation (75%-95%) and pathogenesis (80%-90%) of ME. There was strong agreement on the histological definition of ME. Weaker agreement on management indicates a need for further investigations, better definitions and clinical trials to produce quality guidelines for management. This ME consensus is a step toward greater recognition of a significant entity affecting symptomatic patients previously labelled as non-specific or functional enteropathy. PMID:25759526

  12. Electron microscope aperture system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinemann, K. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An electron microscope including an electron source, a condenser lens having either a circular aperture for focusing a solid cone of electrons onto a specimen or an annular aperture for focusing a hollow cone of electrons onto the specimen, and an objective lens having an annular objective aperture, for focusing electrons passing through the specimen onto an image plane are described. The invention also entails a method of making the annular objective aperture using electron imaging, electrolytic deposition and ion etching techniques.

  13. Nanolithography with electron microscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The use of a Philips Scanning Electron Microscope (PSEM) 500 in making ultra small devices is described. The PSEM 500 is equipped with a pattern generator. Accurate adjustment of the beam is essential for good results. To overcome the poor signal to noise ratio in secondary electron detection mode, a solid state transmission detector is used which requires a thin membrane. Both astigmatism and focus can be adjusted accurately and minimum feature sizes as small as 25 nm are readily obtained.

  14. Microscopic and macroscopic dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, W.G.; Hoover, C.G.; De Groot, A.J.; Pierce, T.G.

    1993-06-01

    Atomistic Molecular Dynamics and Lagrangian Continuum Mechanics can be very similarly adapted to massively-parallel computers. Millions of degrees of freedom can be treated. The two complementary approaches, microscopic and macroscopic, are being applied to increasingly realistic flows of fluids and solids. The two approaches can also be combined in a hybrid simulation scheme. Hybrids combine the fundamental constitutive advantage of atoms with the size advantage of the continuum picture.

  15. Focusing the surgical microscope.

    PubMed

    Socea, Sergiu D; Barak, Yoreh; Blumenthal, Eytan Z

    2015-01-01

    A well-focused operating microscope addresses several needs that are all secondary to the surgeon's need to see clearly at all times. These needs include: the assistant; the sharpness of the video and monitor; as well as field of view, asthenopia, and focusing issues related to zoom, accommodation, and presbyopia. We provide a practical approach to achieve optimal focus that we call the sloping paper calibration method. PMID:25891029

  16. Virtual intraoperative surgical photoacoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Changho; Lee, Donghyun; Zhou, Qifa; Kim, Jeehyun; Kim, Chulhong

    2015-07-01

    A virtual intraoperative surgical photoacoustic microscopy at 1064 nm wavelength (VISPAM) system was designed and fabricated by integrating a commercial type surgical microscope and laser scanning photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) with a 1064 nm pulsed laser. Based on simple augmented reality device, VISPAM could simultaneously provide 2D depth-resolved photoacoustic and magnified microscope images of surgery regions on the same vision of surgeon via an eyepiece of the microscope. The invisible 1064 nm laser removed the interruption of surgical sight due to visible laser scanning of previous report, and decreased the danger of tissue damage caused by over irradiated laser. In addition, to approach the real practical surgery application, a needle-type transducer was utilized without a water bath for PA signal coupling. In order to verify our system's performance, we conducted needle guiding as ex vivo phantom study and needle guiding and injection of carbon particles mixtures into a melanoma tumor region as in vivo study. We expect that VISPAM can be essential tool of brain and ophthalmic microsurgery.

  17. Thermal Lens Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, Kenji; Hibara, Akihide; Kimura, Hiroko; Sawada, Tsuguo; Kitamori, Takehiko

    2000-09-01

    We developed a novel laser microscope based on the thermal lens effect induced by a coaxial beam comprised of excitation and probe beams. The signal generation mechanism was confirmed to be an authentic thermal lens effect from the measurement of signal and phase dependences on optical configurations between the sample and the probe beam focus, and therefore, the thermal lens effect theory could be applied. Two-point spatial resolution was determined by the spot size of the excitation beam, not by the thermal diffusion length. Sensitivity was quite high, and the detection ability, evaluated using a submicron microparticle containing dye molecules, was 0.8 zmol/μm2, hence a distribution image of trace chemical species could be obtained quantitatively. In addition, analytes are not restricted to fluorescent species, therefore, the thermal lens microscope is a promising analytical microscope. A two-dimensional image of a histamine molecule distribution, which was produced in mast cells at the femtomole level in a human nasal mucous polyp, was obtained.

  18. Slide2Go: A virtual slide collection for pathology education.

    PubMed

    Conran, Richard; Fontelo, Paul; Liu, Fang; Fontelo, Marie; White, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Slide2Go is a collection of digitized glass slides on the Web from a pathology departments slide set for second year medical students. The virtual slide collection can be accessed anywhere using any Web browser with Adobe Flash Player. It simulates the experience of viewing a glass slide under an optical microscope. Rare and unusual cases can be preserved and shared worldwide. Medical education can be enhanced by virtual slides. PMID:18694018

  19. Virtual rheoscopic fluids for flow visualization.

    PubMed

    Barth, William; Burns, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Physics-based flow visualization techniques seek to mimic laboratory flow visualization methods with virtual analogues. In this work we describe the rendering of a virtual rheoscopic fluid to produce images with results strikingly similar to laboratory experiments with real-world rheoscopic fluids using products such as Kalliroscope. These fluid additives consist of microscopic, anisotropic particles which, when suspended in the flow, align with both the flow velocity and the local shear to produce high-quality depictions of complex flow structures. Our virtual rheoscopic fluid is produced by defining a closed-form formula for the orientation of shear layers in the flow and using this orientation to volume render the flow as a material with anisotropic reflectance and transparency. Examples are presented for natural convection, thermocapillary convection, and Taylor-Couette flow simulations. The latter agree well with photographs of experimental results of Taylor-Couette flows from the literature. PMID:17968134

  20. Isotopic Petrology: The Curious Case of the Shergottite Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J. H.

    2009-05-01

    The shergottites comprise a diverse suite of martian basalts and basaltic cumulates. As of 1985, there were three proposed igneous ages for this group of basaltic rocks: (i) 4-4.5 b.y. [1; Caltech]; (ii) 1.3 b.y. [2; JSC]; and (iii) 360 m.y. [3; Mainz]. At that time I proffered that petrographic observations demanded that the shergottites were only 180 m.y. old [4]. By 1985, all the above geochronology groups had presented evidence of a young 200 m.y. age, but interpreted that as a metamorphic resetting. My observation was considered extremely controversial. However, John Longhi was instrumental, perhaps pivotal, in causing this new, controversial interpretation to be accepted, at least among petrologists. John then used this newfound knowledge to infer the Nd isotopic composition of the martian crust [5]. This new interpretation of shergottite chronology has led to petrologic insights that would not otherwise have been possible: (I) There were melt extraction events in the shergottite mantle immediately(?) preceding shergottite formation; and (II) the variation in enriched vs. depleted characteristics of the shergottites is best explained by assimilation of ancient, enriched crust by young magmas from a depleted source region. I. Internal, mineral isochrons of the shergottites (15 years later) vary from 165 m.y. to 575 m.y. [6]. Without exception, the Sm/Nd ratios of the shergottites themselves are larger than the time-integrated Sm/Nd ratio of their source regions [7]. This means that there has been a LREE-enriched phase that has fractionated from the shergottites. There are no solid phases in the martian mantle that are capable of this. This implies that LREE-enriched magmas escaped the shergottite source regions just prior to shergottite petrogenesis. II. Therefore, the shergottites can be characterized in terms of three Sm-Nd components: (i) a primitive shergottite magma from a depleted source region; (ii) an enriched crust; and (iii) a missing LREE-enriched melt. Interestingly, the 180 m.y. shergottites require only two Sm-Nd components, because they fall along a two-component mixing line. This implies that these shergottites were derived from a single magma, that was generated from a single, LREE-melt-extracted source region, which subsequently assimilated various amounts of enriched crust. Otherwise, the amount of assimilated crust for each shergottite would be required to be linked to the amount of missing, LREE-enriched magma, in such a way that a two-component linear array is generated. Since LREE melt extraction had to occur before depleted-shergottite petrogenesis and since crustal assimilation must have occurred after, these two physical processes have little chance of being coupled. In addition, this linear shergottite mixing array must be of sufficient quality that it could initially be interpreted as an isochron [2]. This interpretation of 180 m.y. shergottite petrogenesis reinforces Longhi's inference of the Nd isotopic composition of the martian crust [5], at least in one particular martian terrain. Bottom line: In order to understand martian chronology, you have to understand martian petrology. And in order to understand martian petrology, you have to understand martian chronology. This is an aphorism that (I think) John would endorse. [1] Chen and Wassserburg (1986) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 50, 955-968. [2] Shih et al. (1982 Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 46, 2323-2344. [3] Jagoutz and Wanke (1986) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 50, 939-953. [4] Jones (1986) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 50, 969-977. [5] Longhi (1991) Proc. Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf. 21st, 695-709. [6] Nyquist et al. (2001) In Chronology and Evolution of Mars 96, pp. 105-164. [7] Borg (2003) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 67, 3519-3536.

  1. Q: How do Microscopes Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimov, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    Microscopes allow scientists to examine everyday objects in extraordinary ways. They provide high-resolution images that show objects in fine detail. This brief article describes the many types of microscopes and how they are used in different scientific venues.

  2. Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS) is enabling the integration of design, training, and operations capabilities into an intelligent virtual station for the International Space Station (ISS). A viewgraph of the IVS Remote Server is presented.

  3. [Application of data fusion of microscopic spectral imaging in reservoir characterization].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Zha, Ming; Guo, Yuan-Ling; Chen, Yong

    2011-10-01

    In recent years, spectral imaging technique has been applied widely in mineralogy and petrology. The technique combines the spectral technique with imaging technique. The samples can be analyzed and recognized both in spectra and space by using the technique. However, the problem is how to acquire the needful information from a large number of data of spectral imaging, and how to enhance the needful information. In the present paper, the experimental data were processed by using the technique of data fusion of microscopic spectral imaging. The space distribution map of chemical composition and physical parameters of samples were obtained. The result showed that the distribution of different hydrocarbon in the reservoirs, pore connectivity, etc. were revealed well. The technique of data fusion of microscopic spectral imaging provided a new method for reservoir characterization. PMID:22250524

  4. Linking Petrology and Seismology at an Active Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, K.; Blundy, J.; Dohmen, R.; Cashman, K.

    2012-12-01

    Many active volcanoes are continuously monitored through a variety of techniques including seismicity and gas emissions looking for signs of unrest that may signal an impending eruption. One of the enduring challenges is to link the monitored signal to the actual magmatic processes. This is complicated as a magma sample can only be obtained through a subsequent volcanic eruption. Crystals grown within the sub-volcanic plumbing system have the potential to preserve a record of the evolving magma within their crystal structure from nucleation to eruption. Perturbations within the magma system, such as change in temperature, water content or magma mixing causes renewed crystal growth of a different composition creating zoned crystals. Chemical fingerprinting of individual crystal zones allow us to decipher the magmatic processes that created the zonation. Importantly, diffusion chronometry (relaxation of elements across compositional interfaces) enables us to calculate timescales of magmatic perturbations within the magma chamber prior to eruption. Applying these techniques to recent well-characterised eruptions with well-known eruption dates for samples enables us to calculate a petrological time series that can be correlated with geophysical constrained time series form the same eruption to ascertain links to pre-eruptive processes. Mount St. Helens produced a series of well-studied eruptions and characterised eruptions between 1980-1986. From nine of these eruptions, over 500 orthopyroxene crystals were interrogated through a combination of high-resolution imaging and chemical fingering by scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalyser respectively. Multiple crystal populations were observed of both unzoned and zoned orthopyroxene with no distinct chemical heterogeneities between these two populations. Zoned crystals were further subdivided into: (1) normally zoned crystals (Fe-rich rims); (2) reversed zoned crystals (Mg-rich rims); (3) multiple zoned crystals and; (4) patchy zoned crystals. Diffusion chronometry indicates both Fe-rich and Mg-rich rims grew simultaneously and generally within two years prior to eruption. Peaks in crystallisation are correlative with peaks in seismicity and gas emissions. Establishing that important but elusive evidence that clearly shows a relationship between seismicity and magma movement and shows that geophysical monitoring techniques do record an accurate arrival of magma pulses. Such a correlation as shown in this study strongly suggests that petrologic time series from ancient or recently re-active volcanic centres where monitoring is limited can provide fundamental insights in pass volcanic activity and can be used to help with mitigation for future eruptions.

  5. Petrologic predictions regarding future eruptive activity at Mount Hood, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, A. J.; Koleszar, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    Mount Hood, Oregon, represents a volcano that has a significant chance of erupting within the next few decades, but that has experienced no observed eruptions that provide direct geophysical or other constraints on eruption mechanisms and dynamics. In this case, petrological studies provide important insights into the potential nature of future eruptions, and these can be used to consider the geophysical and other signals that might accompany any renewed activity, and the timescales over which these might occur. In this contribution we present a summary of recent petrological work at Mount Hood and highlight data that provide insight into the likely nature of future eruptions. One of the most important features of Mount Hood lavas is the widespread evidence for magma mixing and mafic recharge. Andesites and low silica dacites from previous eruptive phases formed via mixing and hybridization between hotter ascending mafic magma and a long-lived crystal rich silicic magma or mush stored at shallow depths beneath the volcano. Mineral zoning studies show that mixing only occurs immediately prior to eruption, and we infer recharge of mafic magma into a shallow crustal magma storage zone is the predominant means by which eruptions of Mount Hood are initiated. Ascent of mafic magma and recharge would likely be accompanied by seismic, deformation and other detectable geophysical signals. Mineral barometry shows that amphiboles associated with shallow silicic magma formed at ~3-6 km, which we interpret to represent the depth of shallow silicic magma storage, and the depth at which recharge and mixing occurs. Amphiboles crystallized from mafic magma formed at ~10-16 km depth during magma ascent. Thus deeper earthquakes might accompany initial movement of mafic magma and more shallow seismic activity may occur during the convective overturn associated with recharge, mixing and final ascent of the hybridized magma. High-SiO2 melt inclusions in erupted lavas also contain low sulfur contents, thus mafic recharge and mixing should also be accompanied by the release of significant amounts of SO2 derived from mafic magma. Diffusion modeling based in mineral rim compositions suggests that the period between mafic recharge and eventual eruption and quenching is quite short - weeks to a few months at most, consistent with studies of other andesitic volcanoes. This provides an estimate of the potential time period that might elapse between detection of geophysical and other data indicative of recharge and mixing and magma reaching the surface.

  6. Virtual Worlds? "Outlook Good"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelton, AJ

    2008-01-01

    Many people believed that virtual worlds would end up like the eight-track audiotape: a memory of something no longer used (or useful). Yet today there are hundreds of higher education institutions represented in three-dimensional (3D) virtual worlds such as Active Worlds and Second Life. The movement toward the virtual realm as a viable teaching…

  7. Virtual Reality: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franchi, Jorge

    1994-01-01

    Highlights of this overview of virtual reality include optics; interface devices; virtual worlds; potential applications, including medicine and archaeology; problems, including costs; current research and development; future possibilities; and a listing of vendors and suppliers of virtual reality products. (Contains 11 references.) (LRW)

  8. Solid state optical microscope

    DOEpatents

    Young, Ian T. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1983-01-01

    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

  9. Solid state optical microscope

    DOEpatents

    Young, I.T.

    1983-08-09

    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal. 2 figs.

  10. Low frequency acoustic microscope

    DOEpatents

    Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T.

    1986-11-04

    A scanning acoustic microscope is disclosed for the detection and location of near surface flaws, inclusions or voids in a solid sample material. A focused beam of acoustic energy is directed at the sample with its focal plane at the subsurface flaw, inclusion or void location. The sample is scanned with the beam. Detected acoustic energy specularly reflected and mode converted at the surface of the sample and acoustic energy reflected by subsurface flaws, inclusions or voids at the focal plane are used for generating an interference signal which is processed and forms a signal indicative of the subsurface flaws, inclusions or voids.

  11. Adirondack Under the Microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image was taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit front hazard-identification camera after the rover's first post-egress drive on Mars Sunday, Jan. 15, 2004. Engineers drove the rover approximately 3 meters (10 feet) from the Columbia Memorial Station toward the first rock target, seen in the foreground. The football-sized rock was dubbed Adirondack because of its mountain-shaped appearance. Scientists have begun using the microscopic imager instrument at the end of the rover's robotic arm to examine the rock and understand how it formed.

  12. Atomic Force Microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Day, R.D.; Russell, P.E.

    1988-12-01

    The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) is a recently developed instrument that has achieved atomic resolution imaging of both conducting and non- conducting surfaces. Because the AFM is in the early stages of development, and because of the difficulty of building the instrument, it is currently in use in fewer than ten laboratories worldwide. It promises to be a valuable tool for obtaining information about engineering surfaces and aiding the .study of precision fabrication processes. This paper gives an overview of AFM technology and presents plans to build an instrument designed to look at engineering surfaces.

  13. Petrology of four clasts from consortium breccia 73215

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, O. B.; Hammarstrom, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    One felsite ('granite') and three ANT-suite anorthositic gabbro clasts extracted from breccia 73215 are described. The felsite clast has two components - fragments of crystalline felsite and veins and patches of felsic glass. The crystalline felsite, which consists largely of a vermicular intergrowth of quartz and Ba-K-feldspar, crystallized from a highly differentiated melt between 3.90 and 4.05 b.y. The felsic glass component consists of crystallized brown and colorless glasses and uncrystallized colorless glass which are all K and Si rich. The relation of glass features to past heating and the breccia-forming event is considered. In the three anorthositic gabbros, which have similar mineralogies and gradational textures, plagioclase is dominant, and olivine and orthopyroxene are the major mafic minerals. The petrologic data suggest that the gabbros formed as heated, partly melted, and/or recrystallized polymict breccias. It is possible that the approximately 4.25 b.y. age obtained for the three rocks is the date of the melting/recrystallization event.

  14. Petrology of New Stannern-trend Eucrites and Eucrite Genesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, K. G.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.

    2004-01-01

    Eucrites are basaltic meteorites of the howardite-eucrite-diogenite (HED) suite that originated on a differentiated asteroid, possibly 4 Vesta. Basaltic eucrites are divided into three subgroups based on composition: main group, Stannern-trend, and Nuevo Laredo-trend. The main group and Nuevo Laredo-trend define a sequence formed by fractional crystallization of pigeonite and plagioclase from primitive parent melts [2, 3]. The Stannern-trend cannot be explained this way, but may rather represent a partial-melt sequence of their parent body. However, this model seems inadequate to explain eucrite siderophile element contents, and it is difficult to develop a single unifying model for petrogenesis of all eucrites. Until recently, there were only four Stannern- trend eucrites. One is an anomalous partial cumulate. There is little geochemical variation among these meteorites, so the Stannern-trend was poorly defined. Geochemical studies have identified four additional eucrites as members of the Stannern-trend; one extends the Stannern-trend closer to the main group [5]. No detailed descriptions of these rocks have been published. In order to better integrate these eucrites into the suite, we have done petrologic study of them. They are: LEW 88010, PCA 82501, PCA 91006 and PCA 91179.

  15. Isotopic, petrologic and biogeochemical investigations of banded iron-formations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, J. M.; Kaufman, A. J.; Klein, C.; Studley, S. A.; Baur, M. E.; Walter, M. R.

    1986-01-01

    It is recognized that the first occurrence of banded iron-formations (BIFs) clearly predates biological oxygenation of the atmosphere-hydrosphere system and that their last occurrences extend beyond plausible dates of pervasive biological oxygenation. For this reason, and because enormous quantities of oxidizing power have been sequestered in them, it is widely thought that these massive, but enigmatic, sediments must encode information about the mechanism and timing of the rise of atmospheric O2. By coupling isotopic analyses of iron-formation carbonates with biogeochemical and petrologic investigations, we are studying (1) the mechanism of initial sedimentation of iron; (2) the role of iron in microbially mediated diagenetic processes in fresh iron-formation sediments; and (3) the logical integration of mechanisms of deposition with observed levels of banding. Thus far, it has been shown that (1) carbonates in BIFs of the Hamersley Group of Western Australia are isotopically inhomogenous; (2) the nature and pattern of isotopic ordering is not consistent with a metamorphic origin for the overall depletion of C-13 observed in the carbonates; (3) if biological, the origin of the C-13 depleted carbonate could be either respiratory or fermentative; (4) iron may have been precipitate d as Fe(3+), then reduced to Fe(2+) within the sediment; and (5) sedimentary biogeochemical systems may have been at least partially closed to mass transport of carbonate species.

  16. Microscopic Tribotactic Walkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steimel, Joshua; Aragones, Juan; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo

    2014-03-01

    The translational motion of a rotating object near a surface is strongly dependent on the friction between the object and the surface. The process of friction is inherently directional and the friction coefficient can be anisotropic even in the absence of a net friction coefficient gradient. This is macroscopically observed in the ordering motif of some animal hair or scales and a microscopic analog can be imagined where the friction coefficient is determined by the strength and density of reversible bonds between a rotating object and the substrate. For high friction coefficients most of the rotational motion is converted into translational motion; conversely for low friction coefficients the object primarily rotates in place. We exploited this property to design and test a new class of motile system that displays tribotaxis, which is the process by which an object detects differences in the local friction coefficient and moves accordingly either to regions of higher or lower friction. These synthetic tribotactic microscopic walkers, composed of a pair of functionalized superparamagnetic beads, detect gradients in the spatial friction coefficient and migrate towards high friction areas when actuated in a random fashion. The effective friction between the walkers and the substrate is controlled by the local density of active receptors in the substrate. The tribotactic walkers also displayed trapping in high friction areas where the density of free receptors is higher.

  17. Scanning Electron Microscope Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This image shows a scanning electron microscope (SEM). This instrument uses a highly-focused beam of electrons to provide visual images of the surface of materials at magnifications up to 20,000X or more. These high magnification images allow the researcher to identify details about the material's microstructure, such as the types and sizes of microscopic particles present. The beam of electrons can also be used to examine volumes (as small as 1 micrometer in diameter) of the material being analyzed to provide information about the chemistry. This information can be used to determine chemical variations as a function of location within the material's microstructure, as well as the chemical composition of individual particles. In addition, the SEM is equipped with sophisticated instrumentation that can determine the crystal structure of individual grains and how each grain is oriented with respect to neighboring grains within the material. The chemistry and crystal structure information can be related to fracture behavior and used to modify the manufacturing processes used to produce the material in order to improve its properties.

  18. Forensic Scanning Electron Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeley, R. H.

    1983-03-01

    The scanning electron microscope equipped with an x-ray spectrometer is a versatile instrument which has many uses in the investigation of crime and preparation of scientific evidence for the courts. Major applications include microscopy and analysis of very small fragments of paint, glass and other materials which may link an individual with a scene of crime, identification of firearms residues and examination of questioned documents. Although simultaneous observation and chemical analysis of the sample is the most important feature of the instrument, other modes of operation such as cathodoluminescence spectrometry, backscattered electron imaging and direct x-ray excitation are also exploited. Marks on two bullets or cartridge cases can be compared directly by sequential scanning with a single beam or electronic linkage of two instruments. Particles of primer residue deposited on the skin and clothing when a gun is fired can be collected on adhesive tape and identified by their morphology and elemental composition. It is also possible to differentiate between the primer residues of different types of ammunition. Bullets may be identified from the small fragments left behind as they pass through the body tissues. In the examination of questioned documents the scanning electron microscope is used to establish the order in which two intersecting ink lines were written and to detect traces of chemical markers added to the security inks on official documents.

  19. Electron microscope phase enhancement

    DOEpatents

    Jin, Jian; Glaeser, Robert M.

    2010-06-15

    A microfabricated electron phase shift element is used for modifying the phase characteristics of an electron beam passing though its center aperture, while not affecting the more divergent portion of an incident beam to selectively provide a ninety-degree phase shift to the unscattered beam in the back focal plan of the objective lens, in order to realize Zernike-type, in-focus phase contrast in an electron microscope. One application of the element is to increase the contrast of an electron microscope for viewing weakly scattering samples while in focus. Typical weakly scattering samples include biological samples such as macromolecules, or perhaps cells. Preliminary experimental images demonstrate that these devices do apply a ninety degree phase shift as expected. Electrostatic calculations have been used to determine that fringing fields in the region of the scattered electron beams will cause a negligible phase shift as long as the ratio of electrode length to the transverse feature-size aperture is about 5:1. Calculations are underway to determine the feasibility of aspect smaller aspect ratios of about 3:1 and about 2:1.

  20. Microscopic Rayleigh Droplet Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doak, R. B.

    2005-11-01

    A periodically triggered Rayleigh Droplet Beam (RDB) delivers a perfectly linear and periodic stream of identical, monoenergetic droplets that are phase-locked to the trigger signal. The droplet diameter and spacing are easily adjusted of choice of nozzle diameter and trigger frequency. Any liquid of low viscosity may be emloyed as the beam fluid. Although the field of nanofluidics is expanding rapidly, little effort has yet been devoted to ``external flows'' such as RDB's. At ASU we have generated RDB's of water and methanol down to 2 microns in droplet diameter. Nozzle clogging is the sole impediment to smaller droplets. Microscopic Rayleigh droplet beams offer tremendous potential for fundamental physical measurements, fluid dynamics research, and nanofabrication. This talk will describe the apparatus and techniques used at ASU to generate RDB's (surprisingly simple and inexpensive), discuss the triboelectric phenomena that play a role (surprisingly significant), present some initial experimental fluid dynamics measurements, and briefly survey RDB applications. Our particular interest in RDB's is as microscopic transport systems to deliver hydrated, undenatured proteins into vacuum for structure determination via serial diffraction of x-rays or electrons. This may offer the first general method for structure determination of non-crystallizable proteins.

  1. Virtual facebow technique.

    PubMed

    Solaberrieta, Eneko; Garmendia, Asier; Minguez, Rikardo; Brizuela, Aritza; Pradies, Guillermo

    2015-12-01

    This article describes a virtual technique for transferring the location of a digitized cast from the patient to a virtual articulator (virtual facebow transfer). Using a virtual procedure, the maxillary digital cast is transferred to a virtual articulator by means of reverse engineering devices. The following devices necessary to carry out this protocol are available in many contemporary practices: an intraoral scanner, a digital camera, and specific software. Results prove the viability of integrating different tools and software and of completely integrating this procedure into a dental digital workflow. PMID:26372628

  2. Petrologic trends in a Mid-Cretaceous forearc basin: Valle Formation, Cedros Island, Baja California, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.P.; Busby-Spera, C.J.

    1987-05-01

    A study of petrologic variability in Albian to Turonian-age deep marine sandstone specimens from the Valle Formation on Cedros Island indicates that one episode of magmatic-arc unroofing is recorded in these forearc basin deposits. Previous studies of similarly aged rocks on the adjacent Vizcaino Peninsula suggest that two separate episodes are recorded there. This apparent disparity makes correlation of the Valle Formation from those two locations difficult. Uplift and unroofing of the Peninsular Ranges batholith in middle Cretaceous time apparently controlled the petrologic trends in the Valle Formation on Cedros Island. Normalized petrologic parameters that increase with stratigraphic height include total quartzose grains, potassium feldspar, and detrital mica. The proportion of polycrystalline quartz grains increases upsection at the expense of volcanic lithic fragments within the rock fragment subpopulation. The continuity of petrologic trends across previously defined formational boundaries on Cedros Island lends evidence that one mid-Cretaceous-age formation exists on Cedros Island (Valle Formation) rather than three (Lower Valle or Los Chapunes, Upper Valle, and Morro Redondo Formations). Petrologic variation in post-Albian samples of the fine-grained or lower member of the Valle Formation appears to parallel variation in the coarse-grained or upper member, suggesting that the two members were adjacent lithofacies that coexisted from Cenomanian through Turonian time. Their field data indicate that coarse-grained sediments were deposited in the axis of a fault-controlled submarine canyon, while fine-grained sediments accumulated contemporaneously on the shoulder of the graben structure.

  3. Petrology of igneous clasts in Northwest Africa 7034: Implications for the petrologic diversity of the martian crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Alison R.; Agee, Carl B.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Shearer, Charles K.; Burger, Paul V.; Tartèse, Romain; Anand, Mahesh

    2015-05-01

    The martian meteorite Northwest Africa (NWA) 7034 was examined both petrographically and geochemically using several micro-beam techniques including electron probe microanalysis and secondary ion mass spectrometry. We have identified various clast types of igneous, sedimentary, and impact origin that occur within the breccia, and we define a classification scheme for these materials based on our observations, although our primary focus here is on the petrology of the igneous clasts. A number of different igneous clasts are present in this meteorite, and our study revealed the presence of at least four different igneous lithologies (basalt, basaltic andesite, trachyandesite, and an Fe, Ti, and P (FTP) rich lithology). These lithologies do not appear to be related by simple igneous processes such as fractional crystallization, indicating NWA 7034 is a polymict breccia that contains samples from several different igneous sources. The basalt lithologies are a good match for measured rock compositions from the martian surface, however more exotic lithologies (e.g., trachyandesite and FTP lithologies) show this meteorite contains previously unsampled rock types from Mars. These new rock types provide evidence for a much greater variety of igneous rocks within the martian crust than previously revealed by martian meteorites, and supports recent rover observations of lithologic diversity across the martian surface. Furthermore, the ancient ages for the lithologic components in NWA 7034 indicate Mars developed this lithologic diversity in the early stages of crust formation.

  4. Asymptomatic Microscopic Hematuria Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Livingstone, Verity

    1985-01-01

    The literature states that asymptomatic microscopic hematuria (AMH) is a sensitive indicator of underlying pathology and deserves investigation. However, studies to date have been done on urological outpatients and, because of referral and sampling bias, the findings may not be applicable to a family practice population. The positive predictive value of AMH may be very low in a family practice. The recommended investigations are invasive, expensive, and cause morbidity and mortality. Further studies must examine the significance of AMH in the general population. Such studies would help to identify at risk patients and, perhaps, allow investigations to be tailored to these patients, while the physician maintains a high degree of suspicion and keeps a watchful eye on the others. PMID:21274136

  5. Mars Under the Microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This magnified look at the martian soil near the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's landing site, Meridiani Planum, shows coarse grains sprinkled over a fine layer of sand. The image was captured by the rover's microscopic imager on the 10th day, or sol, of its mission. Scientists are intrigued by the spherical rocks, which can be formed by a variety of geologic processes, including cooling of molten lava droplets and accretion of concentric layers of material around a particle or 'seed.'

    The examined patch of soil is 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across. The circular grain in the lower left corner is approximately 3 millimeters (.12 inches) across, or about the size of a sunflower seed.

  6. Imaging arrangement and microscope

    DOEpatents

    Pertsinidis, Alexandros; Chu, Steven

    2015-12-15

    An embodiment of the present invention is an imaging arrangement that includes imaging optics, a fiducial light source, and a control system. In operation, the imaging optics separate light into first and second tight by wavelength and project the first and second light onto first and second areas within first and second detector regions, respectively. The imaging optics separate fiducial light from the fiducial light source into first and second fiducial light and project the first and second fiducial light onto third and fourth areas within the first and second detector regions, respectively. The control system adjusts alignment of the imaging optics so that the first and second fiducial light projected onto the first and second detector regions maintain relatively constant positions within the first and second detector regions, respectively. Another embodiment of the present invention is a microscope that includes the imaging arrangement.

  7. Atomic Force Microscope Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation (large file)

    This animation is a scientific illustration of the operation of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Atomic Force Microscope, or AFM. The AFM is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer, or MECA.

    The AFM is used to image the smallest Martian particles using a very sharp tip at the end of one of eight beams.

    The beam of the AFM is set into vibration and brought up to the surface of a micromachined silicon substrate. The substrate has etched in it a series of pits, 5 micrometers deep, designed to hold the Martian dust particles.

    The microscope then maps the shape of particles in three dimensions by scanning them with the tip.

    At the end of the animation is a 3D representation of the AFM image of a particle that was part of a sample informally called 'Sorceress.' The sample was delivered to the AFM on the 38th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (July 2, 2008).

    The image shows four round pits, only 5 microns in depth, that were micromachined into the silicon substrate.

    A Martian particle only one micrometer, or one millionth of a meter, across is held in the upper left pit.

    The rounded particle shown at the highest magnification ever seen from another world is a particle of the dust that cloaks Mars. Such dust particles color the Martian sky pink, feed storms that regularly envelop the planet and produce Mars' distinctive red soil.

    The AFM was developed by a Swiss-led consortium, with Imperial College London producing the silicon substrate that holds sampled particles.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. Petrology of the Crystalline Rocks Hosting the Santa Fe Impact Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, C. M.; Cohen, B. A.

    2010-01-01

    We collected samples from within the area of shatter cone occurrence and for approximately 8 kilometers (map distance) along the roadway. Our primary goal is to date the impact. Our secondary goal is to use the petrology and Ar systematics to provide further insight into size and scale of the impact. Our approach is to: Conduct a detailed petrology study to identify lithologies that share petrologic characteristics and tectonic histories but with differing degrees of shock. Obtain micro-cores of K-bearing minerals from multiple samples for Ar-40/Ar-39 analysis. Examine the Ar diffusion patterns for multiple minerals in multiple shocked and control samples. This will help us to better understand outcrop and regional scale relationships among rocks and their responses to the impact event.

  9. Petrology and In Situ Trace Element Chemistry of a Suite of R Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Peng, Z. X.; Torrano, Z. A.

    2015-01-01

    Rumuruti (R) chondrites are characterized by low chondrule/matrix modal ratios, high oxidation state, small mean chondrule size, abundant sulfides and low metal contents, and are of petrologic types 3 to 6 [1, 2]. LAP 04840 (R5, [3]) and MIL 11207 (R6), contain the high-T hydrous phases amphibole and mica [3, 4]; not all equilibrated R chondrites contain these [2]. R chondrites thus can provide evidence on whether there are compositional effects caused by high-T, high-fluid metamorphism of nebular materials. We are investigating a suite of R chondrites of diverse petrologic grades to further understand the nature of the metamorphic processes that engendered them [5]. We report on our petrological studies, plus preliminary in situ analyses of trace elements in amphibole-bearing R chondrites.

  10. Virtual Laboratory in the Role of Dynamic Visualisation for Better Understanding of Chemistry in Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herga, Nataša Rizman; Cagran, Branka; Dinevski, Dejan

    2016-01-01

    Understanding chemistry includes the ability to think on three levels: the macroscopic level, the symbolic level, and the level of particles--sub-microscopic level. Pupils have the most difficulty when trying to understand the sub-microscopic level because it is outside their range of experience. A virtual laboratory enables a simultaneous…

  11. Petrological variability in recent magmatism at Axial Seamount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreyer, B. M.; Clague, D. A.; Gill, J. B.

    2011-12-01

    Axial Seamount is known for its compositional homogeneity. We report on petrological variability in lavas from the summit caldera and rims of Axial Seamount during the last ~1.2ka and its implications for shallow crustal magma dynamics. AUVs have mapped the summit at ~1 m resolution, and ROVs have collected numerous lavas and volcaniclastic cores. Geospatial, superpositional, compositional, and age constraint data were used to outline flow units and construct geologic maps. Nearly 200 glasses from summit lavas were analyzed for major elements. A subset of ~20 samples were analyzed for selected trace elements, Pb-, U-, and Th- isotope ratios, and 226Ra and 210Pb. The results a) confirm a high degree compositional homogeneity, b) demonstrate a more restricted range in Pb-isotope ratios than previous data, c) indicate uniform compositional source component(s) genetically linked to that of the Cobb-Eickelberg seamount chain, and d) expand the dataset of distinctly-low 230Th/232Th lavas and subdivide them into geospatial groups. Hundreds of volcaniclastic grains collected from subsurface depths of up to several tens of cm analyzed for major elements extend the record of summit magmatism beyond what is exposed. Summit lava glasses are compositionally N-MORB. Summit volcaniclastics range to higher MgO (+1%); thus, magmatism likely included more mafic episodes than is recorded in the flows as yet sampled or that volcaniclastics preferentially sample higher temperature lavas. Negative correlation of CaO/Al2O3 with MgO in all glasses suggests fractionation from parental melt(s) of plag ± ol but not cpx. K2O/TiO2 ranges are typical for much of the JdFR. Summit lavas range from aphyric to ~35% plag phyric ± a few % ol. Plag-phyric summit lavas tend to have greater MgO (>7.5%), lower CaO/Al2O3 (<0.80), and lower K2O/TiO2 (<0.10) compared to aphyric lavas. For ~18 caldera flows with absolute or relative age control, plag-phyric lavas are older than aphyric lavas, the oldest of which is ~1.2ka. Aphyric lavas dominate the southern and far northern caldera, and plag-phyric lavas are restricted to the older (>0.6-0.9ka) central caldera. Supporting evidence for similar petrological variances in magmas erupted on the flanks exists, but age control is sparser and delineation of individual flows more challenging. Lavas collected from outcrops from the SW flank, some of which are draped with up to 1.4 m of volcaniclastic sediment, are aphyric, as is a nearby flow from the rim that observation confirms erupted post-caldera. The eastern flank hosts plag-phyric and aphyric lavas, and volcaniclastic deposits range from several cm to ~2m. At these MgO-contents, continuous crystallization processes should not appreciably perturb K/Ti nor be responsible for monotonic differences in K2O contents. Thus, Axial summit lavas may be products of multiple source compositions that differ in K2O content or extended periods of shallow magmatic pooling/segregation may have fostered parallel fractionation trends. Detailed crystallization models will be presented. With existing data and samples collected in 2011, we will explore whether these trends are cyclic, and if so, their periodicity, controls, and relation to eruption recurrence.

  12. Why do magmas stall? Insights from petrologic and geodetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, M. M.; Plank, T.; Freymueller, J.; Hauri, E. H.; Larsen, J. F.; Nye, C. J.

    2007-12-01

    Magmas stall at various depths in the crust due to their internal properties (magma viscosity, buoyancy) and external crustal controls (local stress regime, wallrock strength). Annen et al. (JPet 2006) propose a petrological model in which buoyant magma ascends through the crust until the depth of water saturation, after which it crystallizes catastrophically and stalls due to the large increase in magma viscosity. Magmas may erupt from this storage region, or viscous death may result in pluton formation. In order to test this model, and constrain magma storage depths, we combine petrological and geodetic data for several active volcanoes along the Aleutian-Alaska arc. We analyzed glassy, primarily olivine-hosted melt inclusions by SIMS in tephra samples for their pre-eruptive volatile contents, which can be related to the depth of entrapment via pressure-dependent H2O-CO2 solubility models (e.g., VolatileCalc). Melt inclusions are not in equilibrium with pure water vapor (all will contain S and C species), but >50% of the inclusion population are in equilibrium with a vapor containing >85% H2O. Geodetic data (InSAR, GPS) record surface deformation related to volcano inflation/deflation, and can be inverted to solve for the depths of volume change (magma storage) in the crust. In the Aleutians, we find that the maximum melt inclusion trapping depths and geodetic depths correlate, suggesting both techniques record crustal magma storage and crystallization. Melt inclusions from the 1997 Okmok eruption are trapped at ?3 km; deformation during the eruption and subsequent inflation occurred at 3±0.5 km (Miyagi et al., EPSL 2004; Lu & Masterlark, JGR 2005). At Akutan, melt inclusions and GPS data indicate magma storage at ~5-7 km. Inclusions from flank cones of Makushin yield depths of 7 km, similar to inflation observed beneath the main edifice (6.8 km, Lu et al., JGR 2002). Pleistocene inclusions from Augustine volcano indicate magma storage at 10-18 km, in accord with a deep magma source proposed for the 2006 eruption. Melt inclusions from Shishaldin are trapped at depths up to 4 km, coincident with the base of the conduit (Vergnoille & Caplan Auerbach, BVolc 2006). Other volcanoes record similar depths of melt inclusion entrapment and deformation, including Mt. St. Helens, Irazú, Soufriere Hills, Vesuvius, and Etna. Clearly, crystallization will occur where magmas stall, cool, and degas, so it may not be surprising that the depths of deformation correlate with the depths of melt inclusion entrapment. But the question of why magmas stall at various depths remains. In the Aleutians, maximum H2O contents of melt inclusions (from 2 wt% at Shishaldin to 7 wt% at Augustine) negatively correlate with measures of the degree of mantle melting (Ti6.0 and Y6.0), which is expected if water drives mantle melting beneath arcs (e.g. Kelley et al. JGR 2006; Portnyagin et al EPSL 2007). Thus, if magmas stall near the depths where they reach H2O-saturation, as predicted by Annen et al. and observed here, then magma chamber and pluton depths may ultimately be controlled by the primary magmatic water contents set in the mantle.

  13. Microscopic Colitis: Collagenous Colitis and Lymphocytic Colitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... How is microscopic colitis treated? Eating, Diet, and Nutrition How can microscopic colitis be prevented? Does microscopic colitis increase the risk ... Medications are almost always effective in treating microscopic colitis. The ... nutrition changes. In rare cases, the gastroenterologist may recommend ...

  14. Petrologic Regime Diagrams: Parameterizing Kinetic Controls on Vesiculation and Crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cashman, K. V.

    2014-12-01

    Regime diagrams are commonly employed in geophysical fluid dynamics to classify experimental results and, ideally, to define non-dimensional parameters that allow those results to be applied to natural systems. Petrologic experiments, in contrast, are typically run to mimic a specific natural system, and to infer conditions of magma storage, cooling or decompression. This approach has produced important insight into specific volcanoes, but the results are difficult to generalize. Additionally, very few experimental studies evaluate the vesiculation, crystallization and degassing histories of the same sample suite, an omission that is understandable given the time-consuming nature of the experiments and analysis, but which leaves important gaps in our general understanding of the interplay between gas exsolution, crystal formation and eruption dynamics. One way to bridge these gaps is to construct a regime diagram for conditions of vesiculation and crystallization. As both are controlled by the effective supercooling experienced by the magma during cooling or decompression, one key parameter is supersaturation, although in practice, decompression rate (cooling rate) are commonly used as proxies for supersaturation. Vesiculation and crystallization are also modulated by diffusion (dependent on individual species and melt viscosity), which can be simply approximated by melt composition. Using these parameters and published data for water-saturated decompression experiments, the following fields can be (partially) defined: (1) non-equilibrium volatile exsolution, (2) equilibrium volatile exsolution, and (3) exsolution accompanied by crystallization. Melt compositions, volatile contents and crystal textures of natural samples can be measured, and thus related (crudely) to the regime diagram. Additional information required for fully linking experiments and volcanic pyroclasts includes phase proportions (crystallization efficiency), pyroclast textures (phase change conditions) and gas loss (closed- or open-system degassing). Although simplified, this approach helps to provide a kinetic framework for predicting threshold behaviors (such as transitions from explosive to effusive, or steady to pulsatory) that characterize volcanic activity.

  15. Characterization and Petrological Constraints of the Midlithospheric Discontinuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rader, Erika; Emry, Erica; Schmerr, Nicholas; Frost, Daniel; Cheng, Cheng; Menard, Julie; Yu, Chun-Quan; Geist, Dennis

    2015-10-01

    Within continental lithosphere, widespread seismic evidence suggests a sharp discontinuous downward decrease in seismic velocity at 60-160 km depth. This midlithospheric discontinuity (MLD) may be due to anisotropy, melt, hydration, and/or mantle metasomatism. We survey global seismologic observations of the MLD, including observed depths, velocity contrasts, gradients, and locales across multiple seismic techniques. The MLD is primarily found in regions of thick continental lithosphere and is a decrease in seismic shear velocity (2-7% over 10-20 km) at 60-160 km depth, the majority of observations clustering at 80-100 km. Of xenoliths in online databases, 25% of amphibole-bearing xenoliths, 90% of phlogopite-bearing xenoliths, and none of carbonate-bearing xenoliths were formed at pressures associated with these depth (2-5 GPa). We used Perple_X modeling to evaluate the elastic moduli and densities of multiple petrologies to test if the MLD is a layer of crystallized melt. The fractional addition of 5-10% phlogopite, 10-15% carbonate, or 45-100% pyroxenite produce a 2-7% velocity decrease. We postulate this layer of crystallized melt would originate at active margins of continents and crystallize in place as the lithosphere cools. The concentration of mildly incompatible elements (Y, Ho, Er, Yb, and Lu) in xenoliths near the MLD is consistent with higher degrees of melting. Thus, we postulate that the MLD is the seismological signature of a chemical interface related to the paleointersection of a volatile-rich solidus and progressively cooling lithosphere. Furthermore, the MLD may represent a remnant chemical tracer of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) from when the lithosphere was active and young.

  16. Petrologic evidence for collisional heating of chondritic asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Alan E.

    1995-01-01

    The identification of the mechanism(s) responsible for heating asteroids is among the major problems in planetary science. Because of difficulties with models of electromagnetic induction and the decay of short-lived radionuclides, it is worthwhile to evaluate the evidence for collisional heating. New evidence for localized impact heating comes from the high proportion of relict type-6 material among impact-melt-bearing ordinary chondrites (OC). This relict material was probably metamorphosed by residual heat within large craters. Olivine aggregates composed of faceted crystals with 120 deg triple junctions occur within the melted regions of the Chico and Rose City OC melt rocks; the olivine aggregates formed from shocked, mosaicized olivine grains that underwent contact metamorphism. Large-scale collisional heating is supoorted by the correlation in OC between petrologic type and shock stage; no other heating mechanism can readily account for this correlation. The occurrence of impact-melt-rock clasts in OC that have been metamorphosed along with their whole rocks indicates that some impact events preceded or accompanied thermal metamorphism. Such impacts events, occurring during or shortly after accretion, are probably responsible for substantially melting approximately 0.5% of OC. These events must have heated a larger percentage of OC to subsolidus temperatures sufficient to have caused significant metamorphism. If collisional heating is viable, then OC parent asteroids must have been large; large OC asteroids in the main belt may include those of the S(IV) spectral subtype. Collisional heating is inconsistent with layered ('onion-shell') structures in OC asteroids (wherein the degree of metamorphism increases with depth), but the evidence for such structures is weak. It seems likely that collisional heating played an important role in metamorphosing chondritic asteroids.

  17. Petrology and Cosmochemistry of a Suite of R Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torrano, Z. A.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Peng, Z. X.

    2015-01-01

    Chondrites are among the most primitive surviving materials from the early solar system. They are divided into groups based on chemical types defined by mineralogy, bulk composition, and oxygen isotope compositions. Chondrites range in petrographic grade from type 1 to type 7. Type 3 chondrites are the most primitive and are little changed from the nebular solids accreted to form asteroids. They are composed of chondrules, fine-grained matrix, metal and sulfide, plus or minus Ca-Al-rich inclusions. With increasing aqueous alteration at low temperatures, members of some chondrite classes transformed from type 3 towards type 1. With increasing thermal metamorphism and low fluid content, members of other classes changed from type 3 towards type 7. Rumuruti (R) chondrites are a rare group (0.1% of falls) similar to ordinary chondrites in some properties but different in others. They are characterized by low chondrule/matrix modal abundance ratios, high oxidation state, small mean chondrule size, abundant sulfides and low metal contents. R chondrites vary in petrologic type from 3 to 6. They are important objects to study because some of them have undergone metamorphism at high temperatures in the presence of aqueous fluids. In contrast, CM and CI chondrites were heated to low temperatures in the presence of aqueous fluids leading to alteration; they contain low-T hydrous phases (phyllosilicates) and little or no remaining metal. Ordinary chondrites were heated to high temperatures in a low-fluid environment resulting in anhydrous metamorphic rocks. R6 chondrites are highly metamorphosed and some contain the high-T hydrous phases mica and amphibole. R chondrites are thus unique and give us an opportunity to examine whether there are compositional effects caused by high-T, highfluid metamorphism of nebular materials.

  18. Femtosecond photoelectron point projection microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Quinonez, Erik; Handali, Jonathan; Barwick, Brett

    2013-10-15

    By utilizing a nanometer ultrafast electron source in a point projection microscope we demonstrate that images of nanoparticles with spatial resolutions of the order of 100 nanometers can be obtained. The duration of the emission process of the photoemitted electrons used to make images is shown to be of the order of 100 fs using an autocorrelation technique. The compact geometry of this photoelectron point projection microscope does not preclude its use as a simple ultrafast electron microscope, and we use simple analytic models to estimate temporal resolutions that can be expected when using it as a pump-probe ultrafast electron microscope. These models show a significant increase in temporal resolution when comparing to ultrafast electron microscopes based on conventional designs. We also model the microscopes spectroscopic abilities to capture ultrafast phenomena such as the photon induced near field effect.

  19. Petrology and Geochemistry of Acapulco- and Lodran-like Achondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, S. W.; Lindstrom, M. M.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.

    1993-07-01

    Primitive achondrites are meteorites that have mineral and bulk compositions similar to chondrites, but have non-chondritic textures. These achondrites were metamorphosed at high temperatures, perhaps up to that of the Fe-FeS eutectic or chondrite silicate solidus [1]. We have initiated geochemical and petrologic study of several Acapulco- and Lodran-like achondrites in order to test petrogenetic models based largely on petrologic arguments. We have studied the following meteorites: ALHA81187 and ALHA81261 (Acapulco-like), LEW88280 and MAC88177 (Lodran-like) and EET84302 (transitional) [1]. Of our Acapulco-like achondrites, we have finished petrologic characterization only on ALHA81187. Our thin section is distinct from that studied by [1] in that orthopyroxene is the dominant silicate, and we found no plagioclase. The low plagioclase content is like that of Lodran-like achondrites, but our INM data (below) suggest that the thin section is unrepresentative. LEW88280 and MAC88177 are medium-grained, granular rocks with metal and troilite occurring as inclusions in silicates, as thin veins cutting silicates and as discrete grains of intergrown kamacite and troilite. Our thin section of EET84302 is metal, sulfide, and chromite. Clinopyroxene and plagioclase occur in minor amounts. Orthopyroxene grains contain abundant metal inclusions in linear trains. The texture is similar to cumulate sulfide textures found in some terrestrial igneous rocks. Acapulco-like achondrites have been suggested to be high grade metamorphic rocks in which partial melting of Fe-FeS and phosphates occurred [2], although the melts may not have left the parent rock. Our and literature [3-6] INAA data generally agree with this interpretation: Sm/Sc ratios of Acapulco-like achondrites are between 0.8-2 times H chondrites, and Na/Sc ratios are between ~0.7-1.2 times H chondrites indicating that neither silicate nor "phosphate" partial melts were lost from the rocks. Siderophile and chalcophile elements are fractionated. Y-74063 has high Se/Co and low Ir/Ni ratios [6], while ALHA81187 has low Se/Co and high Ir/Ni ratios. This variation is consistent with either fractionation by partial melting in the Fe-Ni-S system, or with heterogeneous distribution of metal and troilite in these achondrites. This can be tested through additional analyses of the meteorites. If the samples of Y-74063 and ALHA81187 are representative of these achondrites, then the results suggest that mobilization of Fe-FeS eutectic melts occurred. The Lodran-like achondrites are believed to be partial melting residues [7]. The trace lithophile element data on Lodran [8], LEW88280, and MAC 88177 are compatible with this interpretation. Highly incompatible elements are depleted relative to more compatible elements such as Sc: Sm/Sc ratios are ~0.1-0.5 times, Na/Sc ratios are 0.05-0.1 time, and Eu/Sc ratios are 0.05-0.4 times H chondrites. EET84302 is classified as a Lodran-like achondrite, but is recognized as being transitional to the Acapulco-like achondrites [1]. Our INAA data show that EET84302 has not lost a silicate partial melt: ratios of Sm/Sc and Na/Sc are ~1 time H chondrites, and Eu/Sc is about 1.8 times H chondrites. In lithophile trace element contents, EET84302 is identical to the Acapulco-like achondrites. Our sample of EET84302 was metal-rich (~40% metal) and chromite-rich (~3% based on INAA and EMPA data), and in this regard is distinct from Acapulco-like achondrites. These modal differences will have no effect on lithophile element ratios, however. References: [1] McCoy et al. (1993) LPS XXIV, 945. [2] McCoy et al. (1992) Meteoritics, 27, 361. [3] Palme et al. (1981) GCA, 45, 727. [4] Schultz et al. (1982) EPSL, 61, 23. [5] Kallemeyn and Wasson (1985) GCA, 49, 261. [6] Kimura et al. (1992) Proc. NIPR Sym. Ant. Met., 5, 165. [7] Bild and Wasson (1976) Min. Mag., 40, 721. [8] Fukuoka et al. (1978) LPS IX, 356.

  20. Geophysical, petrological and mineral physics constraints on Earth's surface topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerri, Mattia; Cammarano, Fabio; Tackley, Paul J.

    2015-04-01

    Earth's surface topography is controlled by isostatically compensated density variations within the lithosphere, but dynamic topography - i.e. the topography due to adjustment of surface to mantle convection - is an important component, specially at a global scale. In order to separate these two components it is fundamental to estimate crustal and mantle density structure and rheological properties. Usually, crustal density is constrained from interpretation of available seismic data (mostly VP profiles) based on empirical relationships such those in Brocher [2005]. Mantle density structure is inferred from seismic tomography models. Constant coefficients are used to interpret seismic velocity anomalies in density anomalies. These simplified methods are unable to model the effects that pressure and temperature variations have on mineralogical assemblage and physical properties. Our approach is based on a multidisciplinary method that involves geophysical observables, mineral physics constraints, and petrological data. Mantle density is based on the thermal interpretation of global seismic tomography models assuming various compositional structures, as in Cammarano et al. [2011]. We further constrain the top 150 km by including heat-flow data and considering the thermal evolution of the oceanic lithosphere. Crustal density is calculated as in Guerri and Cammarano [2015] performing thermodynamic modeling of various average chemical compositions proposed for the crust. The modeling, performed with the code PerpleX [Connolly, 2005], relies on the thermodynamic dataset from Holland and Powell [1998]. Compressional waves velocity and crustal layers thickness from the model CRUST 1.0 [Laske et al., 2013] offer additional constrains. The resulting lithospheric density models are tested against gravity (GOCE) data. Various crustal and mantle density models have been tested in order to ascertain the effects that uncertainties in the estimate of those features have on the modeled topography. We also test several viscosity models, either radially symmetric, the V1 profile from Mitrovica and Forte [2004], or more complex laterally varying structures. All the property fields are expanded in spherical harmonics, until degree 24, and implemented in the code StagYY [Tackley, 2008] to perform mantle instantaneous flow modeling and compute surface topography and gravitational field. Our results show the importance of constraining the crustal and mantle density structure relying on a multidisciplinary approach that involves experimentally robust thermodynamic datasets. Crustal density field has a strong effect on the isostatic component of topography. The models that we test, CRUST 1.0 and those in Guerri and Cammarano [2015], produce strong differences in the computed isostatic topography, in the range ±600 m. For the lithospheric mantle, relying on experimentally robust material properties constraints is necessary to infer a reliable density model that takes into account chemical heterogeneities. This approach is also fundamental to correctly interpret seismic models in temperature, a crucial parameter, necessary to determine the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, where static effects on topography leave place to dynamic ones. The comparison between results obtained with different viscosity fields, either radially symmetric or vertically and laterally varying, shows how lateral viscosity variations affect the results, in particular the modeled geoid, at different wavelengths. References: Brocher, T. M. (2005), Empirical Relations between Elastic Wavespeeds and Density in the Earth's Crust, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 95(6), 2081-2092. Cammarano, F., P. J. Tackley, and L. Boschi (2011), Seismic, petrological and geodynamical constraints on thermal and compositional structure of the upper mantle: global thermochemical models, Geophys. J. Int. Connolly, J. A. D. (2005), Computation of phase equilibria by linear programming: A tool for geodynamic modeling and its application to subduction zone decarbonation, Earth and Planetary Science Letters (236), 524-541. Guerri, M., and F. Cammarano (2015), On the effects of chemical composition, water and temperature on physical properties of the Earth's continental crust, submitted to Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystem. Holland, T. J. B., and R. Powell (1998), An internally consistent thermodynamic data set for phases of petrological interest, J. metamorphic Geol., 16(309-343). Laske, G., G. Masters, Z. Ma, and M. E. Pasyanos (2013), CRUST1.0: An updated global model of Earth's crust, in EGU General Assembly 2013, edited, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vienna. Mitrovica, J. X., and A. M. Forte (2004), A new inference of mantle viscosity based upon joint inversion of convection and glacial isostatic adjustment data, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 225, 177-189. Tackley, P. J. (2008), Modelling compressible mantle convection with large viscosity contrasts in a three-dimensional spherical shell using the yin-yang grid, Phys. Earth Planet. Int.

  1. Proper alignment of the microscope.

    PubMed

    Rottenfusser, Rudi

    2013-01-01

    The light microscope is merely the first element of an imaging system in a research facility. Such a system may include high-speed and/or high-resolution image acquisition capabilities, confocal technologies, and super-resolution methods of various types. Yet more than ever, the proverb "garbage in-garbage out" remains a fact. Image manipulations may be used to conceal a suboptimal microscope setup, but an artifact-free image can only be obtained when the microscope is optimally aligned, both mechanically and optically. Something else is often overlooked in the quest to get the best image out of the microscope: Proper sample preparation! The microscope optics can only do its job when its design criteria are matched to the specimen or vice versa. The specimen itself, the mounting medium, the cover slip, and the type of immersion medium (if applicable) are all part of the total optical makeup. To get the best results out of a microscope, understanding the functions of all of its variable components is important. Only then one knows how to optimize these components for the intended application. Different approaches might be chosen to discuss all of the microscope's components. We decided to follow the light path which starts with the light source and ends at the camera or the eyepieces. To add more transparency to this sequence, the section up to the microscope stage was called the "Illuminating Section", to be followed by the "Imaging Section" which starts with the microscope objective. After understanding the various components, we can start "working with the microscope." To get the best resolution and contrast from the microscope, the practice of "Koehler Illumination" should be understood and followed by every serious microscopist. Step-by-step instructions as well as illustrations of the beam path in an upright and inverted microscope are included in this chapter. A few practical considerations are listed in Section 3. PMID:23931502

  2. Transmission electron microscope CCD camera

    DOEpatents

    Downing, Kenneth H. (Lafayette, CA)

    1999-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of a CCD camera on a high voltage electron microscope, an electron decelerator is inserted between the microscope column and the CCD. This arrangement optimizes the interaction of the electron beam with the scintillator of the CCD camera while retaining optimization of the microscope optics and of the interaction of the beam with the specimen. Changing the electron beam energy between the specimen and camera allows both to be optimized.

  3. Apollo 12 feldspathic basalts 12031, 12038 and 12072 - Petrology, comparison and interpretations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaty, D. W.; Hill, S. M. R.; Albee, A. L.; Baldridge, W. S.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents the petrology of Apollo 12 feldspathic basalts. Modal and chemical data indicate that basalts 12072, 12038, and 12031 cannot be related to the other Apollo rock types; 12072 contains phenocrysts of olivine and pigeonite, 12038 is a multiply saturated equigranular basalt, and 12031 is a coarse-grained rock with granular to graphic intergrowths of pyroxene and plagioclase. The bulk compositions indicate that these basalts could not have been derived from the Apollo 12 olivine or ilmenite basalts by crystal-liquid fractionation, and their petrologic similarities suggest that they were produced in the same or similar source regions.

  4. Constraints on chondrule origin from petrology of isotopically characterized chondrules in the Allende meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSween, H. Y., Jr.

    1985-09-01

    The petrologic and chemical properties of the ferromagnesian chondrules in the Allende carbonaceous chondrite were examined in terms of the isotopic composition and the correlations between isotopic patterns. Areas of thin sections were studied with a SEM and bulk chemical fractions of 12 constituents were quantified to calculate correlations with petrologic features. A possible correlation between (CaO + Al2O2)/MgO and oxygen isotopes imply the formation of oxygen isotopic compositions in the chondrules by exchanges between isotopically heavy nebular gases and O-16 enriched solids. Different rates of gaseous exchange occurred with the various types of chondrules. Factors which may have controlled the exchanges are discussed.

  5. Virtual Campus in the Context of an Educational Virtual City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fominykh, Mikhail; Prasolova-Forland, Ekaterina; Morozov, Mikhail; Gerasimov, Alexey

    2011-01-01

    This paper is focused on virtual campuses, i.e. virtual worlds representing real educational institutions that are based on the metaphor of a university and provide users with different learning tools. More specifically, the idea of integrating a virtual campus into the context of a virtual city is suggested. Such a virtual city, where students…

  6. Agreements in Virtual Organizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankowska, Malgorzata

    This chapter is an attempt to explain the important impact that contract theory delivers with respect to the concept of virtual organization. The author believes that not enough research has been conducted in order to transfer theoretical foundations for networking to the phenomena of virtual organizations and open autonomic computing environment to ensure the controllability and management of them. The main research problem of this chapter is to explain the significance of agreements for virtual organizations governance. The first part of this chapter comprises explanations of differences among virtual machines and virtual organizations for further descriptions of the significance of the first ones to the development of the second. Next, the virtual organization development tendencies are presented and problems of IT governance in highly distributed organizational environment are discussed. The last part of this chapter covers analysis of contracts and agreements management for governance in open computing environments.

  7. Debugging the virtual machine

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, P.; Pizzi, R.

    1994-09-02

    A computer program is really nothing more than a virtual machine built to perform a task. The program`s source code expresses abstract constructs using low level language features. When a virtual machine breaks, it can be very difficult to debug because typical debuggers provide only low level machine implementation in formation to the software engineer. We believe that the debugging task can be simplified by introducing aspects of the abstract design into the source code. We introduce OODIE, an object-oriented language extension that allows programmers to specify a virtual debugging environment which includes the design and abstract data types of the virtual machine.

  8. Flirting with virtual reality.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Lawrence

    2005-07-01

    Psychoanalysis encourages patients to experience a virtual reality of the psychoanalytic relationship, in which both image and wish can be experimented with. Originally, the patient's awareness was supposed to move back and forth between the virtual and the actual, in a flickering and uncertain fashion. That is uncomfortable, and analysts have often preferred the domain of virtuality or of actuality, or have denied the distinction altogether. Recent philosophical developments and doubts about transference neurosis and reconstruction further tempt analysts to relax the flickering uncertainty of virtual and actual. Patient and analyst may gain comfort but lose something in the process. PMID:16104333

  9. Mueller matrix microscopic ellipsometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuki, Soichi; Murase, Norio; Kano, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    We propose a Mueller matrix ellipsometer based on imaging of the exit pupil of a microscope objective lens. The instrument had a polarizer and a rotating phase retarder on the polarizing arm and a polarizer (analyzer) on the analyzing arm. A vector F representing the optical effect from the objective lens to the detector was obtained by rotating the retarder and analyzing the CCD images taken at multiple azimuths of the retarder. Twelve elements of the Mueller matrix of the sample were determined from the four elements of the F vector. To test this method, a thin film on a cover glass was measured using an oil-immersion objective on internal reflection geometry. The refractive index and thickness of the film were well fitted to a three layer model taking into account the contributions of the objective effect. The accuracy of this system was also evaluated using matrix elements ideally equal to 0 or 1. The random error was estimated from the measured images of the F vector elements to be approximately 0.1% at maximum. The sources of the random and systematic errors inherent to this system were also discussed.

  10. Scientists View Battery Under Microscope

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-10

    PNNL researchers use a special microscope setup that shows the inside of a battery as it charges and discharges. This battery-watching microscope is located at EMSL, DOE's Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory that resides at PNNL. Researchers the world over can visit EMSL and use special instruments like this, many of which are the only one of their kind available to scientists.

  11. The Latest in Handheld Microscopes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wighting, Mervyn J.; Lucking, Robert A.; Christmann, Edwin P.

    2004-01-01

    Around 1590, Zacharias Jansenn of Holland invented the microscope. Jansenn, an eyeglass maker by trade, experimented with lenses and discovered that things appeared closer with combinations of lenses. Over the past 400 years, several refinements to microscopes have occurred, making it possible to magnify objects between 200 and 1,500 times their…

  12. Development of virtual histology and virtual biopsy using laser-scanning confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Inoue, H; Cho, J Y; Satodate, H; Sakashita, M; Hidaka, E; Fukami, S; Kazawa, T; Yoshida, T; Shiokawa, A; Kudo, S

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this project is to acquire a direct image of histology from in vivo gastrointestinal mucosa. In other words, the task of 'endo-microscope' is to observe the cellular architecture of tissue in vivo during routine endoscopic examination. As the first step to completing this study, resected fresh specimens from the oesophagus. stomach and colon were examined by laser-scanning confocal microscopy (LCM) (Fluoview, Olympus, Tokyo). Fresh untreated mucosal specimens obtained by endoscopic pinch biopsy, polypectomy or endoscopic mucosal resection were collected and placed in normal saline and examined by LCM, collecting the reflective light of a 488-nm wavelength argon laser beam. As the second step, a probe-type LCM 'endo-microscope' was designed and applied to observe the human oral-cavity mucosa. The probe has 4.5-mm outer diameter and 20-cm length, which enables easy access to oral cavity mucosa. The estimated special resolution of the probe is 1-5 microm. A real-time microscopic image directly from ex vivo fresh specimens was acquired. The acquired LCM images corresponded well with the conventional H-E light microscopic images. Cell wall, nucleus and cytoplasm were simultaneously visualized by LCM scanning. This novel method enables serial imaginary microscopic sections on fresh specimens. In addition, a probe-type LCM 'endo-microscope' was designed and was applied to observe human oral cavity mucosa. Virtual histological images from the living oral squamous cell were successfully obtained. LCM images from ex vivo fresh specimens demonstrated the features of the H-E staining histological image. In the next step to accomplish our project, we developed a LCM probe with 4.5-mm outer diameter to obtain a virtual image of human oral cavity mucosa. PMID:12797680

  13. SEMEDS (scanning electron microscope educators)

    SciTech Connect

    Thorp, K.E.G.; Williams, J.; Adams, W.W.

    1994-12-31

    SEMEDS is a motivational science program which was initiated in 1989 at the Air Force`s Wright Laboratory, Aeronautical Systems Center. The program utilizes hands-on experience with high power scanning electron microscopes to stimulate students and demonstrate that science is fun. The program is run by employees at the laboratory who volunteer their own time to assist the students on the microscopes, explain the chemistry, physics and materials science involved, provide possible explanations for features observed with the microscopes, and describe their own education and jobs as scientists, engineers, and technical managers. Teachers from area junior and senior high schools bring students after school hours to the laboratory. The students are divided into groups of three to six and assigned a microscope. Each microscope is monitored by an experienced operator who assists the students and provides explanations. Enthusiasm and personal testimony by teachers and students have demonstrated the success of this rapidly growing program.

  14. Petrology of the Betulia Igneous Complex, Cauca, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Rodriguez, Javier

    2014-12-01

    The Betulia Igneous Complex (BIC) is a group of Late-Miocene (11.8 ± 0.2 Ma) hypabyssal intrusions of intermediate to felsic composition located in the SW of the Colombian Andes. These bodies have a calc-alkaline tendency and are related to the subduction of the Nazca plate under the South American plate. Diorites, quartz diorites and tonalities have porphyritic and phaneritic textures and are composed of plagioclase, amphibole, quartz, biotite, and orthoclase. Plagioclase is mainly of andesine-type and the amphiboles were classified mainly as magnesiohornblendes, actinolites, and tschermakites. BIC rocks have a narrow range of SiO2 content (59-67wt%) and exhibit an enrichment of LILE and LREE relative to HFSE and HREE, respectively. These features are attributed to enrichment of LILE from the source and retention of HFSE (mainly Nb, Ta, and Ti) by refractory phases within the same source. The depletion of HREE is explained by fractionation of mineral phases that have a high partition coefficients for these elements, especially amphiboles, the major mafic phase in the rocks. Nevertheless, the fractionation of garnet in early stages of crystallization is not unlikely. Probably all BIC units were generated by the same magma chamber or at least by the same petrologic mechanism as shown by the similar patterns in spider and REE diagrams; fractional crystallization and differentiation processes controlled the final composition of the rocks, and crystallization stages determined the texture. Isotopic compositions of BIC rocks (87Sr/86Sr: 0.70435-0.70511; 143Nd/144Nd: 0.51258-0.51280; 206Pb/204Pb: 19.13-19.31; 207Pb/204Pb: 15.67-15.76; 208Pb/204Pb: 38.93-39.20) indicate a source derived from the mantle with crustal contamination. The model proposed for the BIC consists of fluids from the dehydration of the subducted slab (Nazca plate) and subducted sediments that generated partial melting of the mantle wedge. These basaltic melts ascended to the mantle-crust boundary where they were retained due to density differences and began to produce processes of melting, assimilation, storage, and homogenization (MASH zone). At this depth (˜40-45 km), fractional crystallization and differentiation processes began to produce more felsic magmas that were able to ascend through the crust and be emplaced at shallow depths.

  15. On the Grand Challenges in Physical Petrology: the Multiphase Crossroads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergantz, G. W.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid progress in experimental, micro-analytical and textural analysis at the crystal scale has produced an unprecedented record of magmatic processes. However an obstacle to further progress is the lack of understanding of how mass, energy and momentum flux associated with crystal-rich, open-system events produces identifiable outcomes. Hence developing a physically-based understanding of magmatic systems linking micro-scale petrological observations with a physical template operating at the macro-scale presents a so-called "Grand Challenge." The essence of this challenge is that magmatic systems have characteristic length and feedback scales between those accessible by classical continuum and discrete methods. It has become increasingly obvious that the old-school continuum methods have limited resolution and power of explanation for multiphase (real) magma dynamics. This is, in part, because in crystal-rich systems the deformation is non-affine, and so the concept of constitutive behavior is less applicable and likely not even relevant, especially if one is interested in the emergent character of micro-scale processes. One expression of this is the cottage industry of proposing viscosity laws for magmas, which serves as "blunt force" de facto corrections for what is intrinsically multiphase behavior. Even in more fluid-rich systems many of these laws are not suitable for use in the very transport theories they aim to support. The alternative approach is the discrete method, where multiphase interactions are explicitly resolved. This is a daunting prospect given the numbers of crystals in magmas. But perhaps all crystals don't need to be modeled. I will demonstrate how discrete methods can recover critical state behavior, resolve crystal migration, the onset of visco-elastic behavior such as melt-present shear bands which sets the large-scale mixing volumes, some of the general morpho-dynamics that underlies purported rheological models, and transient controls on the emergence and dissipation of distinct thermodynamic states. As simulations with 106 - 107 crystals are now possible both the local, micro-scale crystal processes as well as the larger scale processes controlled by particle-particle-fluid interactions, can be simultaneously resolved.

  16. Petrology of the spinel peridotite xenoliths from petit spot volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, N.; Tamura, A.; Morishita, T.; Hirano, N.; Arai, S.

    2011-12-01

    Petit spot is a new type of volcanism recently discovered in the NW Pacific and in some other oceanic regions [Hirano et al., 2006; 2008]. The eruption ages of the volcanoes are estimated younger than 10 Ma, whereas the Pacific Plate of the area was formed in the Early Cretaceous (~130 Ma). The volcanoes erupted strong to moderate alkaline and highly vesicular basalt. The locations of the volcanic fields, when they were active, were estimated away from any spreading centers, hotspots and even island arcs [Hirano et al., 2006]. The alignment and the size of the knolls imply that this volcanic field is a monogenetic volcanic cluster, which are often observed in the intra-continental plate. In order to understand the petit spot volcanism, we are taking trans-disciplinary surveys using JAMSTEC R/V KAIREI and YOKOSUKA and shore-based research suggest that there are a lot of small knolls assumed young volcanoes [Abe et al., 2005; 2008]. As many monogenetic alkaline-basalt volcanoes, some of petit spot volcanoes include deep-seated rocks xenoliths. They are fragments of dolerite, micro-gabbro, gabbro, lherzolite, dunite, wehrlite, pyroxenite and harzburgite [Abe et al., 2006]. The major- and trace-element chemistry of the mafic xenoliths shows normal MORB composition [Machida per. Com.], and the major mineral chemistry of the ultramafic xenoliths has a variation within the abyssal peridotite and have chromian spinel. The Noble gas chemistry suggests that they are the fragments of the old Pacific plate [Yamamoto et al., 2009; Shimizu et al., per. com.]. The clinopyroxene in one of the ultramafic xenoliths has LREE-depleted trace element patterns which is similar to that in the abyssal peridotite from slow spreading ridges. The other samples have LREE-enriched patterns, and the one lherzolite shows highly HREE-depleted patterns which is same as the pattern of clinopyroxene in garnet peridotite in Kimberlites [Abe et al., 2006]. This suggests that the lherzolite sample is originated from the depth of the boundary between spinel- and garnet-stability fields in the deep oceanic lithosphere. As a result of the study, those ultramafic xenoliths were seated in the different depth of the oceanic lithosphere. It is noteworthy that no serpentinite or highly altered maficc rocks discovered in the petit spot volcanic field. The deep-seated rock xenoliths and its host alkaline basalt provide us much information about the geochemical, petrological and physical structure and the thermal state of the old oceanic plate [Abe et al., 2006; Yamamoto et al., 2009; Harigane et al., 2011].

  17. Petrology of enstatite chondrites and anomalous enstatite achondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Niekerk, Deon

    2012-01-01

    Chondrites are meteorites that represent unmelted portions of asteroids. The enstatite chondrites are one class of chondrites. They consist of reduced mineral assemblages that formed under low oxygen fugacity in the solar nebula, prior to accretion into asteroids. There are two groups of enstatite chondrites---EH and EL. I studied EL3 meteorites, which are understood to be unmetamorphosed and thus to only preserve primitive nebular products. I show in a petrographic study that the EL3s are in fact melt--breccias in which impact-melting produced new mineral assemblages and textures in portions of the host chondrites, after accretion. I document meta- land sulfide assemblages that are intergrown with silicate minerals (which are often euhedral), and occur outside chondrules; these assemblages probably represent impact-melting products, and are different from those in EH3 chondrites that probably represent nebular products. In situ siderophile trace element compositions of the metal in EL3s, obtained by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, are consistent with an impact-melting hypothesis. The trace element concentrations show no clear volatility trend, and are thus probably not the result of volatile-driven petrogenetic processes that operated in the solar nebula. Trace element modeling suggests that the character of the trace element patterns together with deviations from the mean bulk EL metal pattern is consistent with metal that crystallized in a coexisting liquid-solid metal system in which dissolved carbon influenced element partitioning. I also conducted a petrographic and mineral-chemistry study of several anomalous enstatite meteorites. These have igneous textures, but unfractionated mineralogy similar to unmelted chondrites. I show that with the exception of one, the meteorites are related to each other, and probably formed by crystallization from an impact melt instead of metamorphism through the decay of short lived radionuclides. The broad importance of these studies lies in documenting the petrology of extraterrestrial materials that reveal the geological history of the young solar system prior to the existence of planets. Furthermore, they serve to identify which mineral assemblages record nebular processes and which record processes on asteroids, so that future studies may select the correct material to address particular questions.

  18. Aragats stratovolcano in Armenia - volcano-stratigraphy and petrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meliksetian, Khachatur; Savov, Ivan; Connor, Charles; Halama, Ralf; Jrbashyan, Ruben; Navasardyan, Gevorg; Ghukasyan, Yura; Gevorgyan, Hripsime; Manucharyan, Davit; Ishizuka, Osamu; Quidelleur, Xavier; Germa, Aurélie

    2014-05-01

    In this contribution we discuss the geological structure and volcano-stratigraphy of the Quaternary Aragats stratovolcano in Armenia based on recent age determinations as well as petrological and geochemical features of magma generation processes specific for collision zones. Armenia is situated in the NE part of the Anatolian-Armenian-Iranian plateau, an intensely deformed segment of the Alpine-Himalayan belt. The complex geological structure of the region is represented by a mosaic of tectonic blocks comprising fragments of volcanic arcs, continental crust and exhumed oceanic crust. Collision of the Arabian plate with the Eurasian margin in early Miocene resulted in orogenic uplift associated with intense volcanism. Aragats (4090m) is one the largest volcanoes in the entire region and produced central vent (inc. Plinian VEI>4) and monogenetic type flank eruptions and periphery plateaus within a total area greater than 5000 km2, known as Aragats volcanic province (AVP). The Aragats volcanic province (AVP) comprises the composite cone of Aragats volcano, the peak of which is built on a summit plateau, ~45 km in diameter shield structure with dozens of flank vents, scattered monogenetic cinder cones on the adjacent volcanic plateaus as well as the neighboring stratovolcano Arailer. New K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar age determinations of groundmass and separated plagioclase samples indicate that volcanism at AVP began ~2.5 Ma, while most recent volcanic activity is 0.49 Ma for Plinian eruption of dacites from Irind flank vent and basaltic trachyandesite lava flows from Tirinkatar (0.48-0.61 Ma), Kakavasar, (0.52-0.54 Ma) and Ashtarak (0.58 Ma) monogenetic flank centers, as well as trachyandesites of Jrbazhan volcano on the summit plateau of Aragats (0.52 Ma). Based on bulk rock geochemical data (major, minor and low abundance trace elements, Sr and Nd isotopes) and mineral chemistry, we conclude that volcanic rocks of AVP are largely recording a complex mixing between deep asthenospheric mantle and remnants of subduction-modified and metasomatically enriched mantle sources, followed by fractionation in large magma chamber(s). Mineral-melt equilibria studies reveal dry (<1%H2O) and very hot source, fluid inclusions study reveal pronounced enrichment with CO2 over H2O in fluid phase. Noteworthy are high eruption temperatures compared to global volcanic arcs, explaining the very long (up to 25 km) and thick (>200m) trachydacitic lava flows.

  19. A Virtual Good Idea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolch, Matt

    2009-01-01

    School districts across the country have always had to do more with less. Funding goes only so far, leaving administrators and IT staff to find innovative ways to save money while maintaining a high level of academic quality. Creating virtual servers accomplishes both tasks, district technology personnel say. Virtual environments not only allow…

  20. A Virtual Good Idea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolch, Matt

    2009-01-01

    School districts across the country have always had to do more with less. Funding goes only so far, leaving administrators and IT staff to find innovative ways to save money while maintaining a high level of academic quality. Creating virtual servers accomplishes both tasks, district technology personnel say. Virtual environments not only allow…

  1. 10 Myths of Virtualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2012-01-01

    Half of servers in higher ed are virtualized. But that number's not high enough for Link Alander, interim vice chancellor and CIO at the Lone Star College System (Texas). He aspires to see 100 percent of the system's infrastructure requirements delivered as IT services from its own virtualized data centers or other cloud-based operators. Back in…

  2. 10 Myths of Virtualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2012-01-01

    Half of servers in higher ed are virtualized. But that number's not high enough for Link Alander, interim vice chancellor and CIO at the Lone Star College System (Texas). He aspires to see 100 percent of the system's infrastructure requirements delivered as IT services from its own virtualized data centers or other cloud-based operators. Back in…

  3. Virtual School Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, Debra S.; Peterson, Gary W.; Hale, Rebecca R.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of virtual schools opens doors to opportunity for delivery of student services via the Internet. Through the use of structured interviews with four practicing Florida virtual school counselors, and a follow-up survey, the authors examined the experiences and reflections of school counselors who are employed full time in a statewide…

  4. Virtual Peace Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firer, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    This article is based on the convictions that peace education is the basis for any sustainable non-violent relations between parties in a conflict, and that virtual peace education is almost the only feasible way to practise peace education in an open violent conflict as is the current Israeli/Palestinians one. Moreover, virtual peace education…

  5. Virtual World of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanigan, Robin L.; Ash, Katie; Davis, Michelle R.; Quillen, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The United States has many lessons it can learn from how other countries are deploying virtual education and how it might partner up with those countries in different ways to offer a wider range of educational and cultural experiences to its students. This report, part of "Education Week's" ongoing series on virtual education, draws out many of…

  6. Virtual School Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, Debra S.; Peterson, Gary W.; Hale, Rebecca R.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of virtual schools opens doors to opportunity for delivery of student services via the Internet. Through the use of structured interviews with four practicing Florida virtual school counselors, and a follow-up survey, the authors examined the experiences and reflections of school counselors who are employed full time in a statewide…

  7. Virtual Worlds for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Steve

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an online experience that has not only created a fantasy world for the general public but has enabled some tech-savvy educators to create virtual educational opportunities. Second Life, or SL, is a 3-D Internet-based virtual world created by Linden Lab and populated by nearly 1,000,000 active users worldwide since 2003.…

  8. Digging the Virtual Past

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polymeropoulou, Panagiota

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we will investigate the way that the technological progress and the Informatics contributed greatly to the field of Archaeology. There will be analyzed the terms of virtual archaeology and virtual reality in archaeology and there will be an extended reference to the applications and the computer graphics that archaeologists could use…

  9. Teaching the Virtual Presentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flatley, Marie E.

    2007-01-01

    Today, the virtual presentation is catching on rapidly in small, medium, and large businesses alike. A virtual presentation is one delivered live from a desktop or laptop computer to an audience anywhere in the world where there is Internet access. These new Web-based technologies are easy to use and inexpensive, making them readily accessible for…

  10. Virtual Schools. Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2009-01-01

    The majority of school districts in the U.S. are providing some form of online learning for their students. In the past, virtual schools primarily targeted advanced students who didn't have access to certain courses in their regular schools. Recently, however, many virtual schools have shifted their focus to credit recovery as a way to provide…

  11. Hardgrove grindability index and petrology used as an enhanced predictor of coal feed rate

    SciTech Connect

    Hower, J.C. )

    1990-01-01

    An improved predictor of coal pulverization behavior and coal feed rate is under development at the CAER based upon the interaction between Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI) and coal petrology. With educated attention, this interaction may be a useful tool to enhance coal feed rates if cautiously extended to the mining environment where blends of coal lithotypes are produced.

  12. Unmixing the SNCs: Chemical, Isotopic, and Petrologic Components of the Martian Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the conference on Unmixing the SNCs: Chemical, Isotopic, and Petrologic Components of Martian Meteorites, September 11-12, 2002, in Houston, Texas. Administration and publications support for this meeting were provided by the staff of the Publications and Program Services Department at the Lunar and Planetary Institute.

  13. Petrology and Geochemistry of Lunar Meteorite Abar al'Uj 012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mészáros, M.; Hofmann, B. A.; Korotev, R. L.; Gnos, E.; Greber, N.; Greenwood, R. C.

    2014-09-01

    The petrology and geochemistry of Abar al’Uj 012, a feldspathic lunar meteorite found in Saudi Arabia is described. The meteorite is a vesicular crystalline impact-melt breccia, which lacks a fusion crust and has a ferroan anorthosite affinity.

  14. Trusted Virtual Disk Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, Carlo; Tomlinson, Allan

    Many solutions have been proposed to raise the security level of virtualisation. However, most overlook the security of virtual disk images. With our paper we present a secure, flexible and transparent security architecture for virtual disk images. Virtual machines running on our architecture transparently benefit from confidentiality and integrity assurance. We achieve this by incorporating the concepts of Trusted Computing and in particular the Trusted Platform Module (TPM). This enables us to provide a secure and flexible trusted virtual disk infrastructure to a broad number of platforms. Furthermore, the unique concept of Trusted Virtual Disk Images (TVDI) allows an image owner to stay in control over the disk image throughout its complete life-cycle.

  15. A Microscopic Information System (MIS) to assist in petrographic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarquini, S.; Favalli, M.

    2009-04-01

    Rock texture results from all the petrological processes that have affected the rock system. The interpretation of a rock texture relies on the analysis of the morphometric parameters of the constituting components (e.g. crystals or grains). A consistent and statistically sound quantification of components size and shape is crucial to adequately unravel the petrology of a rock, but the gathering of these measurements may be time-consuming or difficult to achieve using low-cost facilities. The basic technique for texture analysis of rocks is the observation of thin sections in transmitted light by using a petrographic microscope. To automate and speed-up textural measurements from thin section in transmitted light, several image processing procedures have been published in the last two decades. Nevertheless, the complexity of the optical properties of crystals hampered the determination of a method that is completely satisfactory, especially for complex polymineralic plutonic rocks. This work provides a contribution to solve this problem. We present a novel composite procedure based on four approaches: i) the use of a slide scanner to acquire the input imagery in transmitted light from thin sections without using the petrographic microscope; ii) the storage of the resulting images in a GIS-like database structure that is extremely useful to retrieve, browse and analyze a large archive of images from a high number of thin sections; iii) the application of a custom image analysis procedure based on two region growing functions; iv) the refinement of the regions after raster to vector conversion using GIS software. We call the obtained analysis system a Microscopic Information System (MIS), because it relies on GIS software but it is not a geographic system. In this study we apply this technique to analyze 137 thin sections obtained from 49 samples of 8 different granitoid rocks that are commonly used in the decorative stone industry. For each thin section 5 collimated RGB images are scanned: 4 under different direction of crossed polarization and 1 without polarization. The input device warrants a pixel of 9.4 microns. Two image processing functions (a seeded and an unseeded ones) work on a multi-band selection of the input imagery to account for the most represented intra-crystalline colour patterns observed in the minerals constituting the samples (plagioclase, quartz, K-feldspar and femic minerals). The flexible multi-format data visualization provided by GIS software offers an improved working environment compared to standard image processing units. This system can also substitute the petrographic microscope in performing a preliminary thin section survey. This method provides accurate measurements using an inexpensive device and proved to be fast, reliable and flexible. Once tuned, it has been successfully applied to all the analysed thin sections without further calibrations. The obtained measurement database is constituted by the morphometric measurements of about 87,000 crystals. The GIS structure of this database makes easy the analysis of the obtained results allowing an instant visualization of the outcomes of morphometric or modal queries over any selection of samples.

  16. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope... Devices § 884.6190 Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which...

  17. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope... Devices § 884.6190 Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which...

  18. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope... Devices § 884.6190 Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which...

  19. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope... Devices § 884.6190 Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which...

  20. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope... Devices § 884.6190 Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which...

  1. Handheld Micromanipulation with Vision-Based Virtual Fixtures

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Brian C.; MacLachlan, Robert A.; Hager, Gregory D.; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2011-01-01

    Precise movement during micromanipulation becomes difficult in submillimeter workspaces, largely due to the destabilizing influence of tremor. Robotic aid combined with filtering techniques that suppress tremor frequency bands increases performance; however, if knowledge of the operator's goals is available, virtual fixtures have been shown to greatly improve micromanipulator precision. In this paper, we derive a control law for position-based virtual fixtures within the framework of an active handheld micromanipulator, where the fixtures are generated in real-time from microscope video. Additionally, we develop motion scaling behavior centered on virtual fixtures as a simple and direct extension to our formulation. We demonstrate that hard and soft (motion-scaled) virtual fixtures outperform state-of-the-art tremor cancellation performance on a set of artificial but medically relevant tasks: holding, move-and-hold, curve tracing, and volume restriction. PMID:23275860

  2. Cosmic petrology and the planetary evolution of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marakushev, A. A.

    2005-12-01

    Cosmic petrology, whose origin was triggered by astronomic discoveries at the turn of the twenty-first century, now plays a pivotal role in the ‘compositional’ interpretation of the results of extraterrestrial observations. Cosmic petrology is able to play this role owing to the experience gained in studying meteorites and, in particular, chondrites, which display preserved traces of their two-stage evolution. The latter relates these meteorites to the planetary evolutions of the Solar System. This evolution started with the origin of the giant planets via the accretion of water hydrogen icy (‘cometary’) planetesimals simultaneously with the accumulation of the Sun's mass. They underwent contraction with the release of energy sufficient for their complete melting and subsequent differentiation into giant fluid envelopes and chondritic cores. The iron silicate differentiation of the latter brought about the magnetic fields of the giant planets. The Sun evolved even further and, upon reaching its stellar state, began actively to affect the surrounding planetary system and induced the dissipation of the dense interplanetary nebula in space. This process gave rise to the rapid rotation of the giant planets. The influence of the Sun on the giant planets caused the surface migration of hydrogen, a process accompanied by the acceleration of the rotation and, as a consequence, the separation of satellites under the effect of centrifugal forces. This glaringly manifests the deceleration of the planetary evolution with increasing distance from the Sun. This effect was at a maximum on the near-Sun giant planets, which have lost their fluid envelopes, so that their cores were transformed into independent terrestrial planets simultaneously with the loss of their satellite systems. The preserved relics of these systems are the Moon of the Earth, and Phobos and Deimos of Mars. They provide evidence of the very old age of the near-Sun terrestrial protoplanets, in contrast with the relatively young ages of satellites of the giant planets belonging to the Jovian group. The Moon is one of the oldest known satellites in the Solar System. Volcanic activity on the Moon has an age of 4.6 3.2 Gyears, whereas its analogue Io (a satellite of Jupiter) is now characterized by the culmination of its volcanic activity. Volcanic events on the satellites of the giant planets and on the terrestrial planets are some of the most conspicuous manifestations of their endogenic activity, which is caused by the fluid state of these molten cores, generating magnetic fields. This activity was lost by planets when their consolidation was completed. The duration of the endogenic activity of planets was predetermined by their protoplanetary evolution in the form of the cores of their parent giant planets. In this sense, the Earth is a unique planet, whose endogenic activity has already lasted for 4.6 Gyears, whereas the Earth's core is now less than 50% consolidated. This makes the Earth different in a major way from the rest of the terrestrial planets (Mercury, Venus and Mars), whose endogenic evolution terminated at a primitive stage because of the loss of their fluid components as a result of complete consolidation, which was coupled with the loss of their magnetic fields. There are good reasons to believe that the Earth had completely differentiated under the tremendous pressure of the fluid shell of its parental planet (Proto-Earth), and this predetermined the huge reserves of fluid components stored in its liquid core. At the same time, the differentiation of the other terrestrial planets was associated with the loss of the fluid shells of their parental protoplanets. The effect of parent protoplanets was even weaker in the states of the satellite planets, which lost their fluid shells and differentiated in space vacuum, a process that was responsible for the low reserves of fluid components in their molten iron cores and, correspondingly, their relatively short-lived endogenic activity (1.4 Gyears). The endogenic activity of iron stony planets is cau

  3. Petrology and geochemistry of the 2006 eruption of Augustine Volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, Jessic F.; Nye, Christopher J.; Coombs, Michelle L.; Tilman, Mariah; Izbekov, Pavel; Cameron, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    Deposits from the 2006 eruption of Augustine Volcano, Alaska, record a complex history of magma mixing before and during the eruption. The eruption produced five major lithologies: low-silica andesite scoria (LSAS; 56.5 to 58.7 weight percent SiO2), mostly during the initial explosive phase; high-silica andesite pumice (HSA; 62.2 to 63.3 weight percent SiO2), prevalent during the continuous phase; dense low-silica andesite (DLSA; 56.4 to 59.3 weight percent SiO2), predominantly during the late effusive phase; and dense intermediate andesite (DIA) and banded clasts, present throughout the eruption but most abundant in the continuous phase. The DIA and banded clasts have compositions that fall between and partially overlap the ranges noted above. All rock types are phenocryst-rich (36 to 44 volume percent), containing plagioclase, orthopyroxene, augite, Fe-Ti oxides, olivine, and rare amphibole, apatite, and anhydrite. Glasses from tephra and flow-deposit clasts range from 66 to nearly 80 weight percent SiO2 and represent highly evolved melt relative to the bulk rock compositions. Fe-Ti oxides recorded fO2~2 log units above the Ni-NiO buffer and temperatures of 904+47 degree(s) C and 838+14 degree(s) C from LSAS and HSA samples, respectively, with the intermediate lithologies falling in the middle of these ranges. The dense low-silica andesite and scoria (collectively LSA) are compositionally nearly identical, and trace-element patterns show that the HSA is not the result of shallow crustal fractionation of the LSA. The petrological and geochemical data indicate that two-component magma mixing between the LSA and HSA caused the compositional spread in eruptive products. The phenocryst population in the LSA suggests that it represents a hybrid formed from the HSA and an unerupted, basaltic 'replenishing' magma. On the basis of petrological and geophysical observations reported here and elsewhere in this volume, the HSA was stored as a crystal-rich mush with its top at ~5-km depth. An influx of basalt remobilized and partially mixed with a portion of the mush, forming the hybrid LSA. The lower viscosity LSA ascended towards the surface as a dike, erupting during the explosive phase in mid-January 2006. In late January, a large explosion produced the first significant volumes of HSA, followed by several days of rapid HSA effusion during the eruption's continuous phase. After a three-week hiatus marked by elevated gas output, signifying an open system, degassed LSA erupted during the final, effusive phase. Consistency in eruptive styles and compositions suggests that the HSA magma body may have been similarly rejuvenated during the past several eruptions. Appendixes 1-5 These appendixes are in digital form and consist of additional descriptions and compositional data for samples used in this study. They consist of spreadsheet documents provided in several file formats. * Appendix 1. Samples of Augustine Volcano 2006 eruptive products used in this study, sorted by eruptive unit and lithologic type. This table lists samples of Augustine Volcano 2006 eruptive products used in this study. The samples are sorted by eruptive unit and lithologic type. * Appendix 2. Modal Mineralogy and Point Count Data for the Augustine Eruptive Lithologies. This table presents the modal mineralogy data, determined from 1,000 point counts from thin sections of each lithology. These data form the basis for the average modal mineralogy data presented in table 2 and figure 4. * Appendix 3. Augustine Whole-Rock Geochemical Analyses. This appendix includes data collected by the Washington State University Geoanalytical Laboratory for the Alaska Volcano Observatory. The data include analyses from 2006 Augustine eruptive products, as well as pre-2006 historical, and early Holocene and Pleistocene samples. * Appendix 4. Groundmass Glass Electron Microprobe Analyses from Augustine 2006 Samples used in this Study. This appendix includes gla

  4. Virtual Worlds, Virtual Literacy: An Educational Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoerger, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Virtual worlds enable students to learn through seeing, knowing, and doing within visually rich and mentally engaging spaces. Rather than reading about events, students become part of the events through the adoption of a pre-set persona. Along with visual feedback that guides the players' activities and the development of visual skills, visual…

  5. Virtual microscopy in a veterinary curriculum.

    PubMed

    Sims, Michael H; Mendis-Handagama, Chamindrani; Moore, Robert N

    2007-01-01

    Teaching faculty in the University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine assist students in their professional education by providing a new way of viewing microscopic slides digitally. Faculty who teach classes in which glass slides are used participate in a program called Virtual Microscopy. Glass slides are digitized using a state-of-the-art integrated system, and a personal computer functions as the "microscope." Additionally, distribution of the interactive images is enhanced because they are available to students online. The digital slide offers equivalent quality and resolution to the original glass slide viewed on a microscope and has several additional advantages over microscopes. Students can choose to examine the entire slide at any of several objectives; they are able to access the slides (called WebSlides) from the college's server, using either Internet Explorer or a special browser developed by Bacus Laboratories, Inc.,(a) called the WebSlide browser, which lets the student simultaneously view a low-objective image and one or two high-objective images of the same slide. The student can "move the slide" by clicking and dragging the image to a new location. Easy archiving, annotation of images, and Web conferencing are additional features of the system. PMID:18287467

  6. The application of JPEG2000 in virtual microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tuominen, Vilppu J; Isola, Jorma

    2009-06-01

    Virtual microscopy (i.e., the viewing of entire microscope specimens on a computer display) is becoming widely applied in microscopy teaching and clinical laboratory medicine. Despite rapidly increasing use, virtual microscopy currently lacks of a universally accepted image format. A promising candidate is JPEG2000, which has potential advantages for handling gigabyte-sized virtual slides. To date, no JPEG2000-based software has been specifically suited for virtual microscopy. To study the utility of JPEG2000 in virtual microscopy, we first optimized JPEG2000 code-stream parameters for virtual slide viewing (i.e., fast navigation, zooming, and use of an overview window). Compression using ratios 25:1-30:1 with the irreversible wavelet filter were found to provide the best compromise between file size and image quality. Optimal code-stream parameters also consisted of 10 wavelet decomposition levels, progression order Resolution-Position-Component-Layer (RPCL), a precinct size of 128 x 128, and code-block size of 64 x 64. Tiling and the use of multiple quality layers were deemed unnecessary. A compression application (JVScomp) was developed for creating optimally parameterized JPEG2000 virtual slides. A viewing application (JVSview) was developed specifically for virtual microscopy, offering all of the basic viewing functions. JVSview also supports viewing of focus stacks, embedding of textual descriptions, and defining regions of interest as metadata. Combined with our server application (JVSserv), virtual slides can be viewed over networks by employing the JPEG2000 Interactive Protocol (JPIP). The software can be tested using virtual slide examples located on our public JPIP server ( http://jvsmicroscope.uta.fi/ ). The software package is freely downloadable and usable for noncommercial purposes. PMID:17999112

  7. Virtual Human project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Richard C.; Kruse, Kara L.; Allgood, Glenn O.; Hively, Lee M.; Fischer, K. N.; Munro, Nancy B.; Easterly, Clay E.

    2001-08-01

    This paper describes the development of a comprehensive human modeling environment, the Virtual Human, which will be used initially to model the human respiratory system for purposes of predicting pulmonary disease or injury using lung sounds. The details of the computational environment, including the development of a Virtual Human Thorax, a database for storing models, model parameters, and experimental data, and a Virtual Human web interface are outlined. Preliminary progress in developing this environment will be presented. A separate paper at the conference describes the modeling of sound generation using computational fluid dynamics and the modeling of sound propagation in the human respiratory system.

  8. Microscopic Procedures for Plant Meiosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braselton, James P.

    1997-01-01

    Describes laboratory techniques designed to familiarize students with meiosis and how microscopic preparations of meiosis are made. These techniques require the use of fresh or fixed flowers. Contains 18 references. (DDR)

  9. (Center of excellence: Microlaser microscope)

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    This Center-of-Excellence grant has two components: development of an imaging system based on microlaser arrays forms a central project among a group of laser diagnostic and therapeutic efforts primarily funded outside the grant. In these first 8 months we have set up the Microlaser Microscope using small microlaser arrays. We have emphasized the basics of microlaser handling and electronic addressing and the optics of the microscope. Details of electronics and optics given here will be used in the larger arrays which should be available soon. After a description of the central Microlaser Microscope project, we touch briefly on the other projects of the Center, which have been outstandingly fruitful this year. Publications are necessarily concerned with the smaller projects, since the Microlaser Microscope is in its early stages.

  10. Magnetic Resonance Force Microscope Development

    SciTech Connect

    Hammel, P.C.; Zhang, Z.; Suh, B.J.; Roukes, M.L.; Midzor, M.; Wigen, P.E.; Childress, J.R.

    1999-06-03

    Our objectives were to develop the Magnetic Resonance Force Microscope (MRFM) into an instrument capable of scientific studies of buried structures in technologically and scientifically important electronic materials such as magnetic multilayer materials. This work resulted in the successful demonstration of MRFM-detected ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) as a microscopic characterization tool for thin magnetic films. Strong FMR spectra obtained from microscopic Co thin films (500 and 1000 angstroms thick and 40 x 200 microns in lateral extent) allowed us to observe variations in sample inhomogeneity and magnetic anisotropy field. We demonstrated lateral imaging in microscopic FMR for the first time using a novel approach employing a spatially selective local field generated by a small magnetically polarized spherical crystallite of yttrium iron garnet. These successful applications of the MRFM in materials studies provided the basis for our successful proposal to DOE/BES to employ the MRF M in studies of buried interfaces in magnetic materials.

  11. Mars Life? - Microscopic Tubular Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This electron microscope image shows extremely tiny tubular structures that are possible microscopic fossils of bacteria-like organisms that may have lived on Mars more than 3.6 billion years ago. A two-year investigation by a NASA research team found organic molecules, mineral features characteristic of biological activity and possible microscopic fossils such as these inside of an ancient Martian rock that fell to Earth as a meteorite. The largest possible fossils are less than 1/100th the diameter of a human hair in size while most are ten times smaller. The fossil-like structures were found in carbonate minerals formed along pre-existing fractures in the meteorite in a fashion similar to the way fossils occur in limestone on Earth, although on a microscopic scale.

  12. Adirondack Under the Microscope-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This overhead look at the martian rock dubbed Adirondack was captured by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's panoramic camera. It shows the approximate region where the rover's microscopic imager began its first close-up inspection.

  13. Microscopic study of the string breaking in QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badalian, A. M.; Orlovsky, V. D.; Simonov, Yu. A.

    2013-08-01

    Theory of strong decays defines in addition to decay widths also the channel coupling and the mass shifts of the levels above the decay thresholds. In the standard decay models of the 3 P 0 type the decay vertex is taken to be a phenomenological constant ? and such a choice leads to large mass shifts of all meson levels due to real and virtual decays, the latter giving a divergent contribution. Here we show that taking the microscopic details of decay vertex into account, one obtains new string width effect coefficient, which strongly suppresses virtual decay contribution. In addition for a realistic space structure of the decay vertex of highly excited states, the decay matrix elements appear to be strongly different from those, where the constant ? is used. From our analysis also follows that so-called flattening potential can imitate the effects of intermediate decay channels.

  14. Microscopic study of the string breaking in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Badalian, A. M. Orlovsky, V. D. Simonov, Yu. A.

    2013-08-15

    Theory of strong decays defines in addition to decay widths also the channel coupling and the mass shifts of the levels above the decay thresholds. In the standard decay models of the {sup 3}P{sub 0} type the decay vertex is taken to be a phenomenological constant {gamma} and such a choice leads to large mass shifts of all meson levels due to real and virtual decays, the latter giving a divergent contribution. Here we show that taking the microscopic details of decay vertex into account, one obtains new string width effect coefficient, which strongly suppresses virtual decay contribution. In addition for a realistic space structure of the decay vertex of highly excited states, the decay matrix elements appear to be strongly different from those, where the constant {gamma} is used. From our analysis also follows that so-called flattening potential can imitate the effects of intermediate decay channels.

  15. On thermodynamic and microscopic reversibility

    SciTech Connect

    Crooks, Gavin E.

    2011-07-12

    The word 'reversible' has two (apparently) distinct applications in statistical thermodynamics. A thermodynamically reversible process indicates an experimental protocol for which the entropy change is zero, whereas the principle of microscopic reversibility asserts that the probability of any trajectory of a system through phase space equals that of the time reversed trajectory. However, these two terms are actually synonymous: a thermodynamically reversible process is microscopically reversible, and vice versa.

  16. Active Learning: A Small Group Histology Laboratory Exercise in a Whole Class Setting Utilizing Virtual Slides and Peer Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloodgood, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Histology laboratory instruction is moving away from the sole use of the traditional combination of light microscopes and glass slides in favor of virtual microscopy and virtual slides. At the same time, medical curricula are changing so as to reduce scheduled time for basic science instruction as well as focusing on student-centered learning…

  17. Active Learning: A Small Group Histology Laboratory Exercise in a Whole Class Setting Utilizing Virtual Slides and Peer Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloodgood, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Histology laboratory instruction is moving away from the sole use of the traditional combination of light microscopes and glass slides in favor of virtual microscopy and virtual slides. At the same time, medical curricula are changing so as to reduce scheduled time for basic science instruction as well as focusing on student-centered learning…

  18. Virtual Organizations: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nami, Mohammad Reza

    The need to remain competitive in the open market forces companies to concentrate on their core competencies while searching for alliances when additional skills or resources are needed to fulfill business opportunities. The changing business situation of companies and customer needs have motivated researchers to introduce Virtual Organization (VO) idea. A Virtual Organization is always a form of partnership and managing partners and handling partnerships are crucial. Virtual organizations are defined as a temporary collection of enterprises that cooperate and share resources, knowledge, and competencies to better respond to business opportunities. This paper presents base concepts of virtual organizations including properties, management concepts, operational concepts, and main issues in collaboration such as security and authentication.

  19. ISIS Workshops Using Virtualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, K. J.; Becker, T. L.

    2015-06-01

    ISIS workshops are now using virtualization technology to improve the user experience and create a stable, consistent and useful ISIS installation for educational purposes as well as future processing needs.

  20. Jefferson Lab Virtual Tour

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-05-22

    Take a virtual tour of the campus of Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. You can see inside our two accelerators, three experimental areas, accelerator component fabrication and testing areas, high-performance computing areas and laser labs.

  1. The Virtual Reference Librarian's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipow, Anne Grodzins

    This book is a practical guide to librarians and their administrators who are thinking about or in the early stages of providing virtual reference service. Part 1, "The Decision to Go Virtual," provides a context for thinking about virtual reference, including the benefits and problems, getting in the virtual frame of mind, and shopping for…

  2. Petrology, diagnosis, and sedimentology of oil reservoirs in Upper Cretaceous Shannon Sandstone Beds, Powder River basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Hansley, P.L.; Whitney, C.G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of the petrology of the Shannon Sandstone Member that indicates diagenetic alterations of outcrop and near-surface sandstones cannot be used to predict the diagenesis of deeply buried sandstones. Textural relations show that oil migrated to reservoirs late in the postdepositional history of the Shannon. Petrologic and sedimentologic data suggest that an alternative depositional model (for example, a nearshore rather than mid-shelf setting) should be considered for the Shannon.

  3. Virtual Reality Lab Assistant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Hrishikesh; Palmer, Timothy A.

    1996-01-01

    Virtual Reality Lab Assistant (VRLA) demonstration model is aligned for engineering and material science experiments to be performed by undergraduate and graduate students in the course as a pre-lab simulation experience. This will help students to get a preview of how to use the lab equipment and run experiments without using the lab hardware/software equipment. The quality of the time available for laboratory experiments can be significantly improved through the use of virtual reality technology.

  4. Scanning Miniature Microscopes without Lenses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yu

    2009-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts some alternative designs of proposed compact, lightweight optoelectronic microscopes that would contain no lenses and would generate magnified video images of specimens. Microscopes of this type were described previously in Miniature Microscope Without Lenses (NPO - 20218), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 22, No. 8 (August 1998), page 43 and Reflective Variants of Miniature Microscope Without Lenses (NPO 20610), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 9 (September 1999), page 6a. To recapitulate: In the design and construction of a microscope of this type, the focusing optics of a conventional microscope are replaced by a combination of a microchannel filter and a charge-coupled-device (CCD) image detector. Elimination of focusing optics reduces the size and weight of the instrument and eliminates the need for the time-consuming focusing operation. The microscopes described in the cited prior articles contained two-dimensional CCDs registered with two-dimensional arrays of microchannels and, as such, were designed to produce full two-dimensional images, without need for scanning. The microscopes of the present proposal would contain one-dimensional (line image) CCDs registered with linear arrays of microchannels. In the operation of such a microscope, one would scan a specimen along a line perpendicular to the array axis (in other words, one would scan in pushbroom fashion). One could then synthesize a full two-dimensional image of the specimen from the line-image data acquired at one-pixel increments of position along the scan. In one of the proposed microscopes, a beam of unpolarized light for illuminating the specimen would enter from the side. This light would be reflected down onto the specimen by a nonpolarizing beam splitter attached to the microchannels at their lower ends. A portion of the light incident on the specimen would be reflected upward, through the beam splitter and along the microchannels, to form an image on the CCD. If the nonpolarizing beam splitter were replaced by a polarizing one, then the specimen would be illuminated by s-polarized light. Upon reflection from the specimen, some of the s-polarized light would become p-polarized. Only the p-polarized light would contribute to the image on the CCD; in other words, the image would contain information on the polarization rotating characteristic of the specimen.

  5. The role of petrology in defining volcanic hazards and designing monitoring systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, I. E.; Turner, M. B.; Price, R. C.; Cronin, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    Petrology is the study of magmatic systems; physical volcanology investigates processes of eruption. Physical volcanology provides the pre-eminent underpinning of the practical business of defining hazard scenarios, planning mitigation and designing monitoring strategies. Recent research in a variety of volcanic settings has demonstrated an important link between the petrologic processes that at a fundamental level drive the behavior of volcanoes and the processes that determine the eruptive style of a volcano. Together these define the hazards that arise from volcanic eruptions. Petrological studies of volcanoes are typically based on a study of lava because coherent rock is less vulnerable to weathering and alteration and is more durable in the geological record. Pyroclastic materials are commonly friable and glassy, are more easily eroded, and are more difficult to use in the analytical techniques that have become the staple basis of petrological studies. However, pyroclastic materials represent a complementary but different part of the magmatic story and it is only by integrating both effusive and explosive components of an eruption sequence that a complete picture of the behavior of the system feeding a volcano can be gained. Andesitic strato-cones are made up of a cone-building facies consisting mainly of primary magmatic products and usually dominated by lava flows because pyroclastic material is easily eroded from the slopes of a steep cone. The surrounding ring plain facies includes primary pyroclastic deposits but is typically dominated by redistributed material in the form of debris flow and lahar deposits together with reworked fluvial material. The deposits of each of these two facies are assembled on different time scales and they contain different aspects of the record of the evolution of the magmatic system that gave rise to them. An important practical consequence of this is that different parts of the geochemical record of the system can occur in different parts of the volcano. Integrated petrological and volcanological studies on the andesite volcanoes of northern New Zealand have identified repeated cycles of deep seated behavior that translate directly into patterns in eruptive behavior. Further, it has been possible to define long term petrological evolutionary trends which provide a framework for understanding shorter term cycles. On an even shorter time scale the flux of magma through the near vent environment can be investigated by means of the stabilities of mineral phases vulnerable to variable cooling rates. Thus the fundamental behavior of andesitic volcanoes as defined by an understanding of the underlying magmatic system can provide the foundation for robust probabilistic time-varying hazard forecasts as well as strategies for monitoring potentially active volcanoes.

  6. Integration of Petrologic, Geophysical, and Gas Monitoring Data at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornber, C. R.; Lee, R. L.; Gansecki, C. A.; Orr, T. R.; Miklius, A.; Sutton, A. J.; Thelen, W. A.

    2014-12-01

    Well-quenched, near-vent lava samples taken at weekly to monthly intervals during the past 31 years of near-continuous Kilauea East Rift Zone (ERZ) eruption have yielded an unprecedented temporal record of petrology and geochemistry. Salient petrologic parameters derived from bulk lava major- and trace-element geochemistry, and from microprobe analyses of matrix glasses, phenocrysts, and melt-inclusions, are now incorporated into the USGS Volcano Science Center's near real-time volcano-monitoring software platform, called the Volcano Analysis and Visualization Environment (VALVE). The petrologic parameters now imported into VALVE for correlation with geophysical and gas data streams are: 1) MgO systematics of bulk lava, glass, and olivine, used to portray pre-eruptive magma temperature and temperature of lava erupted at the vent, 2) incompatible element ratios of bulk lava and glass, used to track either sudden or long-term magma-mixing or magma-source changes , and 3) magmatic sulfur, measured within glass inclusions of olivine, used to infer pre-eruptive volatile content of magma. Petrologic data in VALVE provides added insight into magmatic processes. For example, since the onset of Kilauea's summit eruption in 2008, correlations of summit deformation with MgO systematics and magmatic sulfur in coeval summit tephra and ERZ lava, along with their identical incompatible-element signatures, demonstrate summit-to-ERZ magmatic continuity. As constrained by geophysical and geologic observations at both ends of the eruptive plumbing system, changes in petrology of lava erupted at Puu Oo are likely associated with physical maturation of magma pathways along the shallow ERZ conduit, repeated intrusions and systematic over-pressurization during the 2003-2007 surge in magma supply. Two fissure eruptions uprift of Puu Oo in January 1997 and March 2011 also show a strong correlation of geophysical and gas signatures with a petrologic shift to cooler, incompatible-element enriched lava samples, indicating mixing with stored magmas within the ERZ. This integration of disparate data sets enhances assessments of changing magmatic conditions and enables data-sharing amongst staff scientists monitoring and evaluating hazards associated with ongoing eruptions of Kilauea.

  7. Using Observations to Interpret Magma Processes in the Sierra Nevada: An Undergraduate Petrology Laboratory Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenner, J. M.

    2003-12-01

    Undergraduate igneous and metamorphic petrology is often one of the few courses in which students use field, thin section, hand sample and geochemical observations to interpret a suite of related rocks. Many students may not have encountered the idea of separating observation from interpretation prior to petrology; yet being able to distinguish these is an important skill for any budding petrologist to learn. Labs that require students to integrate abstract concepts from the lecture portion of the course to present a coherent story based on observations are essential to producing students that are well versed in petrology. A capstone-type lab allows students use many of their recently acquired skills to solve real problems in petrology. These integrated labs can take a number of forms from a short lab looking at a few related thin sections, to a multi-week lab with specified tasks, to a semester-long project culminating in a paper or a presentation. For the past few years, I have used a suite of rocks from the Sierra Nevada batholith to give petrology students a capstone experience for the igneous portion of the course. Students are given thin sections with hand samples, a map and a table of geochemical analyses and asked to record hand-sample and thin section observations with the idea that these will be used to understand processes that were active during batholith generation. Because students are given geochemical analyses, they are also expected to experiment with the use of graphs (e.g., Harker and spider diagrams) to better understand tables of geochemical analyses. The students use observations about rocks and geochemistry to build a coherent story around these rocks; the final product is a short paper in which they use petrographic observations and geochemical diagrams to back up their interpretations. Although the lab presented is specifically designed around a set of thin sections housed at the University of Wisconsin Oshkosh for an upper level course, the lab is highly adaptable. I present some options for adapting this lab to any set of thin sections and hand samples with associated geochemical analyses. This lab can also be tailored to a variety of skill levels - from 2nd year introductory petrology to a graduate course.

  8. The Virtual Observatory: I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanisch, R. J.

    2014-11-01

    The concept of the Virtual Observatory arose more-or-less simultaneously in the United States and Europe circa 2000. Ten pages of Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium: Panel Reports (National Academy Press, Washington, 2001), that is, the detailed recommendations of the Panel on Theory, Computation, and Data Exploration of the 2000 Decadal Survey in Astronomy, are dedicated to describing the motivation for, scientific value of, and major components required in implementing the National Virtual Observatory. European initiatives included the Astrophysical Virtual Observatory at the European Southern Observatory, the AstroGrid project in the United Kingdom, and the Euro-VO (sponsored by the European Union). Organizational/conceptual meetings were held in the US at the California Institute of Technology (Virtual Observatories of the Future, June 13-16, 2000) and at ESO Headquarters in Garching, Germany (Mining the Sky, July 31-August 4, 2000; Toward an International Virtual Observatory, June 10-14, 2002). The nascent US, UK, and European VO projects formed the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) at the June 2002 meeting in Garching, with yours truly as the first chair. The IVOA has grown to a membership of twenty-one national projects and programs on six continents, and has developed a broad suite of data access protocols and standards that have been widely implemented. Astronomers can now discover, access, and compare data from hundreds of telescopes and facilities, hosted at hundreds of organizations worldwide, stored in thousands of databases, all with a single query.

  9. VIRTUAL FRAME BUFFER INTERFACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, T. L.

    1994-01-01

    Large image processing systems use multiple frame buffers with differing architectures and vendor supplied user interfaces. This variety of architectures and interfaces creates software development, maintenance, and portability problems for application programs. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program makes all frame buffers appear as a generic frame buffer with a specified set of characteristics, allowing programmers to write code which will run unmodified on all supported hardware. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface converts generic commands to actual device commands. The virtual frame buffer consists of a definition of capabilities and FORTRAN subroutines that are called by application programs. The virtual frame buffer routines may be treated as subroutines, logical functions, or integer functions by the application program. Routines are included that allocate and manage hardware resources such as frame buffers, monitors, video switches, trackballs, tablets and joysticks; access image memory planes; and perform alphanumeric font or text generation. The subroutines for the various "real" frame buffers are in separate VAX/VMS shared libraries allowing modification, correction or enhancement of the virtual interface without affecting application programs. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program was developed in FORTRAN 77 for a DEC VAX 11/780 or a DEC VAX 11/750 under VMS 4.X. It supports ADAGE IK3000, DEANZA IP8500, Low Resolution RAMTEK 9460, and High Resolution RAMTEK 9460 Frame Buffers. It has a central memory requirement of approximately 150K. This program was developed in 1985.

  10. PETRO.CALC.PLOT, Microsoft Excel macros to aid petrologic interpretation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sidder, G.B.

    1994-01-01

    PETRO.CALC.PLOT is a package of macros which normalizes whole-rock oxide data to 100%, calculates the cation percentages and molecular proportions used for normative mineral calculations, computes the apices for ternary diagrams, determines sums and ratios of specific elements of petrologic interest, and plots 33 X-Y graphs and five ternary diagrams. PETRO.CALC.PLOT also may be used to create other diagrams as desired by the user. The macros run in Microsoft Excel 3.0 and 4.0 for Macintosh computers and in Microsoft Excel 3.0 and 4.0 for Windows. Macros provided in PETRO.CALC.PLOT minimize repetition and time required to recalculate and plot whole-rock oxide data for petrologic analysis. ?? 1994.

  11. MinChem: A Prototype Petrologic Database for Hanford Site Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Mackley, Rob D.; Last, George V.; Serkowski, John A.; Middleton, Lisa A.; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2010-09-01

    A prototype petrologic database (MinChem) has been under continual development for several years. MinChem contains petrologic, mineralogical, and bulk-rock geochemical data for Hanford Site sediments collected over multiple decades. The database is in relational form and consists of a series of related tables modeled after the Hanford Environmental Information System HEIS (BHI 2002) structures. The HEIS-compatible tables were created in anticipation of eventual migration into HEIS, or some future form of HEIS (e.g. HEIS-GEO). There are currently a total of 13,129 results in MinChem from 521 samples collected at 381 different sampling sites. These data come from 19 different original source documents published and unpublished (e.g. letter reports) between 1976 and 2009. The data in MinChem consist of results from analytical methods such as optical and electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray fluorescence, and electron probe microanalysis.

  12. The lunar regolith - Chemistry and petrology of Luna 24 grain size fractions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laul, J. C.; Rode, O. D.; Simon, S. B.; Papike, J. J.

    1987-01-01

    Chemical data obtained by instrumental neutron activation analysis are reported for 30 elements in eight lunar soil size fractions from 370 to less than 2 microns, as well as petrology for five size fractions down to 40-10 microns in two Luna 24 soils. While the compositions of coarser fractions are similar to each other, they differ from the fractions smaller than 10 microns; these become increasingly feldspathic and enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILE) with decreasing grain size. The high concentrations of the Ni, Au and Ir meteoritic indicator elements in these finer fractions are consistent with comminution by meteoritic impact. Size distributions, petrology and LILE patterns indicate that Luna 24 soils are less reworked than most lunar soils.

  13. Petrology and provenance of Apollo 15 drive tube 15007/8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basu, Abhijit; Gerke, Tammie; Mckay, David S.

    1988-01-01

    The petrology of submillimeter fractions of soils from 13 levels of Apollo 15 drive tube 15007/8 have been studied through grain size analysis, modal analysis of the 90-150 micron sieve fraction, and electron probe microanalysis of monomineralic fragments of olivine, pyroxene, and plagioclase from the soils. It is shown that core 15007/8 does not contain distinct lithologic units and probably contains soils of mixed maturity in which mixing has greatly dominated in situ reworking. No petrologic layering is found in the core. Abundances of KREEP basalts correlate with mare basalts and not with anorthosite, norite, and troctolite components from the Apennine Front. Some olivine and pyroxene fragments with mare basalt affinity are found to be optically and chemically unzoned, suggesting that they may have been derived from unusual source rocks.

  14. Fractal approach in petrology: Small-angle neutron scattering experiments with volcanic rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Lucido, G.; Triolo, R.; Caponetti, E.

    1988-11-01

    Following Mandelbrot's pioneering work in 1977, we attempt to use the concept of fractal dimension in petrology. Fractal dimension is an intensive property of matter which offers a quantitative measure of the degree of surface roughness. Neutron scattering experiments have been performed on 18 volcanic rocks from different localities. The scattered intensity as a function of the momentum transfer obeys a power law whose exponent varies, for the rock samples presented, between -3 and -4. We conclude that, at the molecular level, our volcanic rocks are not fractal volumes. With regard to the particle-matrix interface, it is not possible to provide a determination at the present stage of research. Our findings suggest it is feasible to verify the degree of surface irregularity at a resolution which is relevant to many aspects of petrology.

  15. Constraints on chondrule origin from petrology of isotopically characterized chondrules in the Allende meteorite

    SciTech Connect

    Mcsween, H.Y. Jr.

    1985-09-01

    The petrologic and chemical properties of the ferromagnesian chondrules in the Allende carbonaceous chondrite were examined in terms of the isotopic composition and the correlations between isotopic patterns. Areas of thin sections were studied with a SEM and bulk chemical fractions of 12 constituents were quantified to calculate correlations with petrologic features. A possible correlation between (CaO + Al2O2)/MgO and oxygen isotopes imply the formation of oxygen isotopic compositions in the chondrules by exchanges between isotopically heavy nebular gases and O-16 enriched solids. Different rates of gaseous exchange occurred with the various types of chondrules. Factors which may have controlled the exchanges are discussed. 21 references.

  16. PETRO.CALC.PLOT, Microsoft Excel macros to aid petrologic interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidder, Gary B.

    1994-07-01

    PETRO.CALC.PLOT is a package of macros which normalizes whole-rock oxide data to 100%, calculates the cation percentages and molecular proportions used for normative mineral calculations, computes the apices for ternary diagrams, determines sums and ratios of specific elements of petrologic interest, and plots 33 X-Y graphs and five ternary diagrams. PETRO.CALC.PLOT also may be used to create other diagrams as desired by the user. The macros run in Microsoft Excel 3.0 and 4.0 for Macintosh computers and in Microsoft Excel 3.0 and 4.0 for Windows. Macros provided in PETRO.CALC.PLOT minimize repetition and time required to recalculate and plot whole-rock oxide data for petrologic analysis.

  17. Mineralogy, petrology and chemistry of ANT-suite rocks from the lunar highlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinz, M.; Keil, K.

    1977-01-01

    Anorthositic-noritic-troctolitic (ANT) rocks are the oldest and most abundant rocks of the lunar surface, and comprise about 90% of the suite of the lunar highlands. Consideration is given to the mineralogy, petrology, bulk chemistry, and origin of ANT-suite rocks. Problems associated in classifying and labeling lunar highland rocks because of textural complexities occurring from impact modifications are discussed. The mineralogy of ANT-suite rocks, dominated by plagioclase, olivine and pyrozene, and containing various minor minerals, is outlined. The petrology of ANT-suite rocks is reviewed along with the major element bulk composition of these rocks, noting that they are extremely depleted in K2O and P2O5. Various models describing the origin of ANT-suite rocks are summarized, and it is suggested that this origin involves a parental liquid of high-alumina basalt with low Fe/Fe+Mg.

  18. Mineralogy, petrology and geochemistry of carbonaceous chondritic clasts in the LEW 85300 polymict eucrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, M. E.; Hewins, R. H.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Lindstrom, M. M.; Xiao, X.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1992-01-01

    We have performed a detailed petrologic and mineralogic study of two chondritic clasts from the polymict eucrite Lewis Cliff (LEW) 85300, and performed chemical analyses by INAA and RNAA on one of these. Petrologically, the clasts are identified and are composed of dispersed aggregates, chondrules, and chondrule fragments supported by matrix. The aggregates and chondrules are composed of olivine, orthopyroxene, plus some diopside. The matrix consists of fine-grained olivine, and lesser orthopyroxene and augite. Fine-grained saponite is common in the matrix. The bulk major composition of the clast studied by INAA and RNAA shows unusual abundance patterns for lithophile, siderophile and chalcophile elements but is basically chondritic. The INAA/RNAA data preclude assignment of the LEW 85300,15 clast to any commonly accepted group of carbonaceous chondrite.

  19. Apollo 17, Station 6 boulder sample 76255 - Absolute petrology of breccia matrix and igneous clasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, J. L.; Phinney, W. C.; Simonds, C. H.

    1976-01-01

    The matrix of 76255 is the finest-grained, most clast-laden, impact-melt polymict breccia sampled from the Station 6 boulder. The paper speculates on how the matrix of 76255 fits into and enhances existing thermal models of breccia lithification. Emphasis is on the detailed petrology of five lithic clasts, two of which display mineralogical and textural affinities to mare basalts, while three, a gabbro, a norite, and a troctolite are considered primitive plutonic rocks.

  20. Thermal and petrologic constraints on the lower crustal melt accumulation in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakas, O.; Dufek, J.; Mangan, M.; Wright, H. M. N.

    2014-12-01

    Heat transfer in active volcanic areas is governed by complex coupling between tectonic and magmatic processes. These two processes provide unique imprints on the petrologic and thermal evolution of magma by controlling the geometry, depth, longevity, composition, and fraction of melt in the crust. The active volcanism, tectonic extension, and significantly high surface heat flow in Salton Sea Geothermal Field, CA, provides information about the dynamic heat transfer processes in its crust. The volcanism in the area is associated with tectonic extension over the last 500 ka, followed by subsidence and sedimentation at the surface level and dike emplacement in the lower crust. Although significant progress has been made describing the tectonic evolution and petrology of the erupted products of the Salton Buttes, their coupled control on the crustal heat transfer and feedback on the melt evolution remain unclear. To address these concepts, we develop a two-dimensional finite volume model and investigate the compositional and thermal evolution of the melt and crust in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field through a one-way coupled thermal model that accounts for tectonic extension, lower crustal magma emplacement, sedimentation, and subsidence. Through our simulations, we give quantitative estimates to the thermal and compositional evolution and longevity of the lower crustal melt source in the crustal section. We further compare the model results with petrologic constraints. Our thermal balance equations show that crustal melting is limited and the melt is dominated by mantle-derived material. Similarly, petrologic work on δ18O isotope ratios suggests fractional crystallization of basalt with minor crustal assimilation. In addition, we suggest scenarios for the melt fraction, composition, enthalpy release, geometry and depth of magma reservoirs, their temporal evolution, and the timescales of magmatic storage and evolution processes. These parameters provide the source conditions for the dynamics of surface volcanism and the presence of a geothermal system, which modify the thermal and mechanical structure of the crust.

  1. Report of the Workshop on Unmixing the SNCs: Chemical, Isotopic, and Petrologic Components of Martian Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, Allan H. (Editor); Herd, Christopher D. K. (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    Geochemical and petrologic studies of the Martian meteorites (nicknamed the SNCs) have proliferated in the past few years, from a wealth of new samples and the perfection of new analytical methods. An intriguing result from these studies is that the chemical and isotopic compositions of the Martian meteorites, all basalts or derived from basaltic magma, can be modeled as mixtures of a limited number of components. These mixing components were the focus of the workshop.

  2. Research in volcanic geology, petrology and planetary science at MIT, 1969 to 1974

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgetchin, T. R.

    1974-01-01

    The behavior of volcanoes was studied by geologic mapping, petrologic investigations of lava and xenoliths, physical measurements, and theoretical modelling. Field observations were conducted in Alaska (Nunivak Island), Iceland, Hawaii (Mauna Kea), Italy (Etna, Stromboli), and Arizona. The results are discussed and compared with known data for lunar and planetary gelogy. Field methods used for the volcano research are cited and a list is given of all participating scientists and students. Publications and abstracts resulting from the research are also listed.

  3. Mineralogy, Petrology, Chronology, and Exposure History of the Chelyabinsk Meteorite and Parent Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, K.; Abell, P.; Agresti, D.; Berger, E. L.; Burton, A. S.; Delaney, J. S.; Fries, M. D.; Gibson, E. K.; Harrington, R.; Herzog, G. F.; Keller, L. P.; Locke, D.; Lindsay, F.; McCoy, T. J.; Morris, R. V.; Nagao, K.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Niles, P. B.; Nyquist, L.; Park, J.; Peng, Z. X.; Shih, C. Y.; Simon, J. I.; Swisher, C. C., III; Tappa, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Chelyabinsk meteorite fall on February 15, 2013 attracted much more attention worldwide than do most falls. A consortium led by JSC received 3 masses of Chelyabinsk (Chel-101, -102, -103) that were collected shortly after the fall and handled with care to minimize contamination. Initial studies were reported in 2013; we have studied these samples with a wide range of analytical techniques to better understand the mineralogy, petrology, chronology and exposure history of the Chelyabinsk parent body.

  4. Mineralogy and petrology of basaltic fragments from the Luna 24 drill core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coish, R. A.; Taylor, L. A.

    1978-01-01

    The petrology of rock fragments and monomineralic grains from Luna 24 samples is described, and a petrogenetic scheme for the derivation of Mare Crisium basalts is presented. Components of the rock fragments include subophitic basalts, metabasalts, late-stage fragments, olivine vitrophyres, and non-mare lithic fragments of possible cumulate origin. Among the monomineralic grains (which are much more abundant than the rock fragments) are pyroxene, plagioclase, olivine, ilmenite and native Fe.

  5. Macroscopic-microscopic mass models

    SciTech Connect

    Nix, J.R.; Moller, P.

    1995-07-01

    We discuss recent developments in macroscopic-microscopic mass models, including the 1992 finite-range droplet model, the 1992 extended- Thomas-Fermi Strutinsky-integral model, and the 1994 Thomas-Fermi model, with particular emphasis on how well they extrapolate to new regions of nuclei. We also address what recent developments in macroscopic-microscopic mass models are teaching us about such physically relevant issues as the nuclear curvature energy, a new congruence energy arising from a greater-than-average overlap of neutron and proton wave functions, the nuclear incompressibility coefficient, and the coulomb redistribution energy arising from a central density depression. We conclude with a brief discussion of the recently discovered rock of metastable superheavy nuclei near {sup 272}110 that had been correctly predicted by macroscopic-microscopic models, along with a possible new tack for reaching an island near {sup 290}110 beyond our present horizon.

  6. Microscopic characterization of peptide nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Mammadov, Rashad; Tekinay, Ayse B; Dana, Aykutlu; Guler, Mustafa O

    2012-02-01

    Peptide-based nanomaterials have been utilized for various applications from regenerative medicine to electronics since they provide several advantages including easy synthesis methods, numerous routes for functionalization and biomimicry of secondary structures of proteins which leads to design of self-assembling peptide molecules to form nanostructures. Microscopic characterization at nanoscale is critical to understand processes directing peptide molecules to self-assemble and identify structure-function relationship of the nanostructures. Here, fundamental studies in microscopic characterization of peptide nanostructures are discussed to provide insights in widely used microscopy tools. In this review, we will encompass characterization studies of peptide nanostructures with modern microscopes, such as TEM, SEM, AFM, and advanced optical microscopy techniques. We will also mention specimen preparation methods and describe interpretation of the images. PMID:21821422

  7. Selecting microscopic equations of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taranto, G.; Baldo, M.; Burgio, G. F.

    2013-04-01

    We compare a set of equations of state derived within microscopic many-body approaches, and study their predictions as far as phenomenological data on nuclei from heavy ion collisions, and astrophysical observations on neutron stars are concerned. We find that all the data, taken together, put strong constraints not easy to be fulfilled accurately. Although no major discrepancies are found among the considered microscopic equations of state and with respect to the data, it turns out that, if one takes strictly the phenomenological constraints, the selection reduces to only one equation of state. The results provide an estimate of the uncertainty on the theoretical prediction at a microscopic level of the nuclear equation of state.

  8. Mosaic of Commemorative Microscope Substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Written by electron beam lithography in the Microdevices Laboratory of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, this Optical Microscope substrate helps the Phoenix Mars Mission science team learn how to assemble individual microscope images into a mosaic by aligning rows of text.

    Each line is about 0.1 millimeter tall, the average thickness of a human hair. Except for the Mogensen twins, the names are of babies born and team members lost during the original development of MECA (the Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer) for the canceled 2001 Mars lander mission. The plaque also acknowledges the MECA 2001 principal investigator, now retired.

    This image was taken by the MECA Optical Microscope on Sol 111, or the 111th day of the Phoenix mission (Sept. 16, 2008).

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. VirtualMicroscopy: ultra-fast interactive microscopy of gigapixel/terapixel images over internet

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ching-Wei; Huang, Cheng-Ta; Hung, Chu-Mei

    2015-01-01

    As digital imaging technology advances, gigapixel or terapixel super resolution microscopic images become available. We have built a real time virtual microscopy technique for interactive analysis of super high resolution microscopic images over internet on standard desktops, laptops or mobile devices. The presented virtual microscopy technique is demonstrated to perform as fast as using a microscopy locally without any delay to assess gigapixel ultra high resolution image data through wired or wireless internet by a Tablet or a standard PC. More importantly, the presented technology enables analysis of super high resolution microscopic image across sites and time and allows multi-person analysis at the same time, which greatly speed up data analysis process and reduces miscommunication among scientists and doctors. A web site has been created for illustration purposes. (http://www-o.ntust.edu.tw/~cweiwang/VirtualMicroscopy). PMID:26360909

  10. The EarthChem Deep Lithosphere Dataset: Digital Access to Mantle Xenolith Petrological Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, K. A.; Lehnert, K. A.; Walker, J. D.; Fishman, A.; McDonough, W. F.

    2006-12-01

    Establishment of a geologic framework for the USArray mission of EarthScope largely depends on community efforts that facilitate the integration of seismic data with petrologic, gravity, structural, and other geologic data. The EarthChem federation of interoperable databases (www.earthchem.org) provides cyberinfrastructure in which large geochemical data collections are assembled and curated to maximize data usability and accessibility. In an effort to address the needs of the GeoFrame/USArray community, EarthChem is developing the Deep Lithosphere Petrological Dataset to provide easy access to an integrated, comprehensive, global set of petrological data from upper mantle and lower crustal rocks. The initial focus for EarthChem's Deep Lithosphere dataset is xenolith data from geographic locations identified by GeoFrame as relevant to the USArray mission. Data are compiled in a relational database that complements the data collections of NAVDAT, GEOROC, and PetDB, and which together can be accessed and downloaded through the EarthChem Portal. The web interface permits the user to query by sample location, rock type, mineral, inclusion, author, major oxide, trace element and isotopic composition to build customized datasets. Additionally, radiometric age, host rock information, and model data such as pressure and temperature, including information about the geobarometer/geothermometer used by authors in their calculations, are included in the dataset to provide the perspective of geochemical modeling on the nature of the sub-continental mantle and lower crust for correlation with seismic imaging and geodynamic modeling.

  11. Developing a Quantum Electron Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohstall, Christoph; Klopfer, Brannon; Francis, Josh; Skulason, Gunnar; Juffmann, Thomas; Kasevich, Mark; QEM Team

    2014-03-01

    We develop a new electron microscope based on the interaction-free measurement principle. Such a Quantum Electron Microscope (QEM) may enable imaging of biological samples with radiation doses so small that they are non-lethal. The realization of the QEM will require precise control over the quantum motion of free electrons. On this poster, we discuss our approach to build a QEM including the realization of an electron resonator and an electron amplitude beam-splitter. On top of the QEM application, these developments will advance the electron analogue to photon quantum optics. Funded by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation.

  12. Long working distance interference microscope

    DOEpatents

    Sinclair, Michael B.; DeBoer, Maarten P.; Smith, Norman F.

    2004-04-13

    Disclosed is a long working distance interference microscope suitable for three-dimensional imaging and metrology of MEMS devices and test structures on a standard microelectronics probe station. The long working distance of 10-30 mm allows standard probes or probe cards to be used. This enables nanometer-scale 3-D height profiles of MEMS test structures to be acquired across an entire wafer. A well-matched pair of reference/sample objectives is not required, significantly reducing the cost of this microscope, as compared to a Linnik microinterferometer.

  13. Microscopic Materials on a Magnet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    These images show a comparison of the weak magnet OM7 from the Optical Microscope on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander before (left) and after (right) soil deposition.

    The microscope took the left image during Phoenix's Sol 15 (June 10, 2008) and the right image during Sol 21 (Jun 16, 2008).

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. Advanced Microscopic Integrated Thermocouple Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettigrew, Penny J.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop and refine a technique for making microscopic thermocouple arrays for use in measuring the temperature gradient across a solid-liquid interface during the solidification process. Current thermocouple technology does not allow for real-time measurements across the interface due to the prohibitive size of available thermocouples. Microscopic thermocouple arrays will offer a much greater accuracy and resolution of temperature measurements across the solid-liquid interface which will lead to a better characterization of the solidification process and interface reaction which affect the properties of the resulting material.

  15. Virtual data in CMS production

    SciTech Connect

    Arbree, A. et al.

    2004-08-26

    Initial applications of the GriPhyN Chimera Virtual Data System have been performed within the context of CMS Production of Monte Carlo Simulated Data. The GriPhyN Chimera system consists of four primary components: (1) a Virtual Data Language, which is used to describe virtual data products, (2) a Virtual Data Catalog, which is used to store virtual data entries, (3) an Abstract Planner, which resolves all dependencies of a particular virtual data product and forms a location and existence independent plan, (4) a Concrete Planner, which maps an abstract, logical plan onto concrete, physical grid resources accounting for staging in/out files and publishing results to a replica location service. A CMS Workflow Planner, MCRunJob, is used to generate virtual data products using the Virtual Data Language. Subsequently, a prototype workflow manager, known as WorkRunner, is used to schedule the instantiation of virtual data products across a grid.

  16. Varieties of virtualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R.

    1991-01-01

    Natural environments have a content, i.e., the objects in them; a geometry, i.e., a pattern of rules for positioning and displacing the objects; and a dynamics, i.e., a system of rules describing the effects of forces acting on the objects. Human interaction with most common natural environments has been optimized by centuries of evolution. Virtual environments created through the human-computer interface similarly have a content, geometry, and dynamics, but the arbitrary character of the computer simulation creating them does not insure that human interaction with these virtual environments will be natural. The interaction, indeed, could be supernatural but it also could be impossible. An important determinant of the comprehensibility of a virtual environment is the correspondence between the environmental frames of reference and those associated with the control of environmental objects. The effects of rotation and displacement of control frames of reference with respect to corresponding environmental references differ depending upon whether perceptual judgement or manual tracking performance is measured. The perceptual effects of frame of reference displacement may be analyzed in terms of distortions in the process of virtualizing the synthetic environment space. The effects of frame of reference displacement and rotation have been studied by asking subjects to estimate exocentric direction in a virtual space.

  17. Petrology of some lithic fragments from Luna 20.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roedder, E.; Weiblen, P. W.

    1973-01-01

    Microscopic and electron microprobe studies were made of polished thin sections of part of a 30-mg sample of 250- to 500-micron lunar soil returned by Luna 20 from a point between Mare Fecunditatis and Mare Crisium. Very fine-grained lithic (crystalline) rock fragments, composing about one-fifth of the total sample, have mineralogical compositions equivalent to various types of gabbro, anorthositic gabbro, gabbroic anorthosite, and troctolite, with minor basalt. The textures now observed in these fragments are in large part metamorphic. Twenty-seven electron microprobe analyses of minerals from these fragments are presented, including olivine, plagioclase, pyroxene, spinel, nickel-iron, and a Zr-Ti-REE mineral possibly similar to 'phase B' of Lovering and Wark (1971). Analyses of seven melt inclusions and 28 defocused beam analyses of lithic fragments are also given. Some of the fragments contain 'gas' inclusions which, along with the fine grain size, are believed to indicate final crystallization under low pressure near surface conditions.

  18. High efficiency virtual impactor

    DOEpatents

    Loo, B.W.

    1980-03-27

    Environmental monitoring of atmospheric air is facilitated by a single stage virtual impactor for separating an inlet flow (Q/sub 0/) having particulate contaminants into a coarse particle flow (Q/sub 1/) and a fine particle flow (Q/sub 2/) to enable collection of such particles on different filters for separate analysis. An inlet particle acceleration nozzle and coarse particle collection probe member having a virtual impaction opening are aligned along a single axis and spaced apart to define a flow separation region at which the fine particle flow (Q/sub 2/) is drawn radially outward into a chamber while the coarse particle flow (Q/sub 1/) enters the virtual impaction opening.

  19. Virtual reality in radiology: virtual intervention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harreld, Michael R.; Valentino, Daniel J.; Duckwiler, Gary R.; Lufkin, Robert B.; Karplus, Walter J.

    1995-04-01

    Intracranial aneurysms are the primary cause of non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage. Morbidity and mortality remain high even with current endovascular intervention techniques. It is presently impossible to identify which aneurysms will grow and rupture, however hemodynamics are thought to play an important role in aneurysm development. With this in mind, we have simulated blood flow in laboratory animals using three dimensional computational fluid dynamics software. The data output from these simulations is three dimensional, complex and transient. Visualization of 3D flow structures with standard 2D display is cumbersome, and may be better performed using a virtual reality system. We are developing a VR-based system for visualization of the computed blood flow and stress fields. This paper presents the progress to date and future plans for our clinical VR-based intervention simulator. The ultimate goal is to develop a software system that will be able to accurately model an aneurysm detected on clinical angiography, visualize this model in virtual reality, predict its future behavior, and give insight into the type of treatment necessary. An associated database will give historical and outcome information on prior aneurysms (including dynamic, structural, and categorical data) that will be matched to any current case, and assist in treatment planning (e.g., natural history vs. treatment risk, surgical vs. endovascular treatment risks, cure prediction, complication rates).

  20. Intraoperative virtual brain counseling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhaowei; Grosky, William I.; Zamorano, Lucia J.; Muzik, Otto; Diaz, Fernando

    1997-06-01

    Our objective is to offer online real-tim e intelligent guidance to the neurosurgeon. Different from traditional image-guidance technologies that offer intra-operative visualization of medical images or atlas images, virtual brain counseling goes one step further. It can distinguish related brain structures and provide information about them intra-operatively. Virtual brain counseling is the foundation for surgical planing optimization and on-line surgical reference. It can provide a warning system that alerts the neurosurgeon if the chosen trajectory will pass through eloquent brain areas. In order to fulfill this objective, tracking techniques are involved for intra- operativity. Most importantly, a 3D virtual brian environment, different from traditional 3D digitized atlases, is an object-oriented model of the brain that stores information about different brain structures together with their elated information. An object-oriented hierarchical hyper-voxel space (HHVS) is introduced to integrate anatomical and functional structures. Spatial queries based on position of interest, line segment of interest, and volume of interest are introduced in this paper. The virtual brain environment is integrated with existing surgical pre-planning and intra-operative tracking systems to provide information for planning optimization and on-line surgical guidance. The neurosurgeon is alerted automatically if the planned treatment affects any critical structures. Architectures such as HHVS and algorithms, such as spatial querying, normalizing, and warping are presented in the paper. A prototype has shown that the virtual brain is intuitive in its hierarchical 3D appearance. It also showed that HHVS, as the key structure for virtual brain counseling, efficiently integrates multi-scale brain structures based on their spatial relationships.This is a promising development for optimization of treatment plans and online surgical intelligent guidance.

  1. Chasing Meteors With a Microscope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Richard C.

    1993-01-01

    Describes types of meteors and micrometeorites that enter the Earth's atmosphere. Presents an activity where students collect micrometeorites with a strip of tape in an undisturbed outdoor area. After 24 hours, they examine the tape by sandwiching it between 2 glass slides and view through a microscope at 100X. (PR)

  2. Curriculum Guidelines for Microscopic Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1993

    1993-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for curricula in microscopic anatomy offer an overview of the histology curriculum, note primary educational goals, outline specific content for general and oral histology, suggest prerequisites, and make recommendations for sequencing. Appropriate faculty and facilities are also suggested.…

  3. High-resolution electron microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathan, R.

    1977-01-01

    Employing scanning transmission electron microscope as interferometer, relative phases of diffraction maximums can be determined by analysis of dark field images. Synthetic aperture technique and Fourier-transform computer processing of amplitude and phase information provide high resolution images at approximately one angstrom.

  4. Nature Study with the Microscope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sollberger, Dwight E.

    1991-01-01

    Identifies specific instruction difficulties, potential problems, solutions, and activities for successful use of microscopes in the classroom. Procedures are outlined for guiding students in creating their own slides with monocotyledon and dicotyledon stems, fern spores, stomata, lichens, and red onions. (MCO)

  5. Light-Fueled Microscopic Walkers.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hao; Wasylczyk, Piotr; Parmeggiani, Camilla; Martella, Daniele; Burresi, Matteo; Wiersma, Diederik Sybolt

    2015-07-01

    The first microscopic artificial walker equipped with liquid-crystalline elastomer muscle is reported. The walker is fabricated by direct laser writing, is smaller than any known living terrestrial creatures, and is capable of several autonomous locomotions on different surfaces. PMID:26033690

  6. Switch on Micro*scope!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roland, Sarah; Bahr, Michele; Olendzenski, Lorraine; Patterson, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Scientists at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, have created micro*scope, a free, searchable knowledge environment for exploring the microbial world. Microbiology can easily be incorporated into the curriculum, because microbial communities are easy to access. Organisms grow quickly, making certain arrays of…

  7. Scanning tunneling microscope nanoetching method

    DOEpatents

    Li, Yun-Zhong (West Lafayette, IN); Reifenberger, Ronald G. (West Lafayette, IN); Andres, Ronald P. (West Lafayette, IN)

    1990-01-01

    A method is described for forming uniform nanometer sized depressions on the surface of a conducting substrate. A tunneling tip is used to apply tunneling current density sufficient to vaporize a localized area of the substrate surface. The resulting depressions or craters in the substrate surface can be formed in information encoding patterns readable with a scanning tunneling microscope.

  8. The microscope in the hatchery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fish, F.F.

    1935-01-01

    Without the aid of the microscope, it is safe to assume that fish Culture would now stand exactly where it did seventy-five years ago when methods of artificial fertilization were first applied. It is also safe to assume that the results from fish culture would be as unsatisfactory as they were at that time when the fishery resources were steadily declining in spite of the increased liberation of advanced fry from the hatcheries. During the past few years the microscope has saved millions of fish in our hatcheries which otherwise would have been sacrificed to disease. Moreover, the microscope has permitted all of the recent work in selective breeding, nutritional requirements, and disease control. This work marks most of the progress fish culture has made during the past twenty-five years. This progress forms the first definite step away from the old system of hatching and distributing fish, a system which was founded by the ancient Chinese. The microscope has been the key which enabled the fish culturist to solve the riddle of success which has stood, unanswered, for 2,500 years.

  9. Juvenile spondyloarthritis with microscopic colitis.

    PubMed

    Deepthi, Raran Veetil; Bhat, Shubha P; Shetty, Siddharth M; Shenoy, Rathika D

    2012-07-01

    We report an adolescent girl with long standing spondyloarthritis and chronic diarrhea. Colonoscopy and biopsy revealed microscopic colitis. All serology and HLA-B27 were negative. This case is reported for its rarity and the need to evaluate gut in chronic arthritis to achieve clinical remission. PMID:22885441

  10. Switch on Micro*scope!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roland, Sarah; Bahr, Michele; Olendzenski, Lorraine; Patterson, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Scientists at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, have created micro*scope, a free, searchable knowledge environment for exploring the microbial world. Microbiology can easily be incorporated into the curriculum, because microbial communities are easy to access. Organisms grow quickly, making certain arrays of…

  11. Curriculum Guidelines for Microscopic Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1993

    1993-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for curricula in microscopic anatomy offer an overview of the histology curriculum, note primary educational goals, outline specific content for general and oral histology, suggest prerequisites, and make recommendations for sequencing. Appropriate faculty and facilities are also suggested.…

  12. Virtual reality welder training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Steven A.; Reiners, Dirk; Prachyabrued, Mores; Borst, Christoph W.; Chambers, Terrence L.

    2010-01-01

    This document describes the Virtual Reality Simulated MIG Lab (sMIG), a system for Virtual Reality welder training. It is designed to reproduce the experience of metal inert gas (MIG) welding faithfully enough to be used as a teaching tool for beginning welding students. To make the experience as realistic as possible it employs physically accurate and tracked input devices, a real-time welding simulation, real-time sound generation and a 3D display for output. Thanks to being a fully digital system it can go beyond providing just a realistic welding experience by giving interactive and immediate feedback to the student to avoid learning wrong movements from day 1.

  13. Virtual interface environment workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, S. S.; Wenzel, E. M.; Coler, C.; Mcgreevy, M. W.

    1988-01-01

    A head-mounted, wide-angle, stereoscopic display system controlled by operator position, voice and gesture has been developed at NASA's Ames Research Center for use as a multipurpose interface environment. This Virtual Interface Environment Workstation (VIEW) system provides a multisensory, interactive display environment in which a user can virtually explore a 360-degree synthesized or remotely sensed environment and can viscerally interact with its components. Primary applications of the system are in telerobotics, management of large-scale integrated information systems, and human factors research. System configuration, research scenarios, and research directions are described.

  14. A VIRTUAL OPERATING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Dennis E.; Scherrer, Deborah K.; Sventek, Joseph S.

    1980-05-01

    Significant progress toward disentangling computing environments from their under lying operating systern has been made. An approach is presented that achieves inter-system uniformity at all three levels of user interface - virtual machine, utilities, and command language. Under specifiable conditions, complete uniformity is achievable without disturbing the underlying operating system. The approach permits accurate computation of the cost to move both people and software to a new system. The cost of moving people is zero, and the cost of moving software is equal to the cost of implementing a virtual machine. Efficiency is achieved through optimization of the primitive functions.

  15. Virtual bronchoscopic navigation.

    PubMed

    Asano, Fumihiro

    2010-03-01

    Virtual bronchoscopic navigation (VBN) is a method for the guidance of a bronchoscope to peripheral lesions using virtual bronchoscopy (VB) images of the bronchial path. Irrespective of the bronchoscopist's skill level, the bronchoscope can be readily guided to the target in a short time. A system to automatically search for the bronchial path to the target has been developed and clinically applied; this system produces VB images of the path to the fourth- to twelfth- (median, sixth-) generation bronchi, and displays the VB images simultaneously with real bronchoscopic images. In this article, the author discusses VBN and the automatic VBN system, reviews the published literature, and describes its usefulness and limitations. PMID:20172434

  16. Remote laboratory for phase-aided 3D microscopic imaging and metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meng; Yin, Yongkai; Liu, Zeyi; He, Wenqi; Li, Boqun; Peng, Xiang

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, the establishment of a remote laboratory for phase-aided 3D microscopic imaging and metrology is presented. Proposed remote laboratory consists of three major components, including the network-based infrastructure for remote control and data management, the identity verification scheme for user authentication and management, and the local experimental system for phase-aided 3D microscopic imaging and metrology. The virtual network computer (VNC) is introduced to remotely control the 3D microscopic imaging system. Data storage and management are handled through the open source project eSciDoc. Considering the security of remote laboratory, the fingerprint is used for authentication with an optical joint transform correlation (JTC) system. The phase-aided fringe projection 3D microscope (FP-3DM), which can be remotely controlled, is employed to achieve the 3D imaging and metrology of micro objects.

  17. Virtual reality for emergency training

    SciTech Connect

    Altinkemer, K.

    1995-12-31

    Virtual reality is a sequence of scenes generated by a computer as a response to the five different senses. These senses are sight, sound, taste, touch, smell. Other senses that can be used in virtual reality include balance, pheromonal, and immunological senses. Many application areas include: leisure and entertainment, medicine, architecture, engineering, manufacturing, and training. Virtual reality is especially important when it is used for emergency training and management of natural disasters including earthquakes, floods, tornados and other situations which are hard to emulate. Classical training methods for these extraordinary environments lack the realistic surroundings that virtual reality can provide. In order for virtual reality to be a successful training tool the design needs to include certain aspects; such as how real virtual reality should be and how much fixed cost is entailed in setting up the virtual reality trainer. There are also pricing questions regarding the price per training session on virtual reality trainer, and the appropriate training time length(s).

  18. Virtual Jupiter - Real Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzhitskaya, Lanika; Speck, A.; Laffey, J.

    2010-01-01

    How many earthlings went to visit Jupiter? None. How many students visited virtual Jupiter to fulfill their introductory astronomy courses’ requirements? Within next six months over 100 students from University of Missouri will get a chance to explore the planet and its Galilean Moons using a 3D virtual environment created especially for them to learn Kepler's and Newton's laws, eclipses, parallax, and other concepts in astronomy. The virtual world of Jupiter system is a unique 3D environment that allows students to learn course material - physical laws and concepts in astronomy - while engaging them into exploration of the Jupiter's system, encouraging their imagination, curiosity, and motivation. The virtual learning environment let students to work individually or collaborate with their teammates. The 3D world is also a great opportunity for research in astronomy education to investigate impact of social interaction, gaming features, and use of manipulatives offered by a learning tool on students’ motivation and learning outcomes. Use of 3D environment is also a valuable source for exploration of how the learners’ spatial awareness can be enhanced by working in 3-dimensional environment.

  19. Virtual Libraries: Service Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Jan

    This paper discusses client service issues to be considered when transitioning to a virtual library situation. Themes related to the transitional nature of society in the knowledge era are presented, including: paradox and a contradictory nature; blurring of boundaries; networks, systems, and holistic thinking; process/not product, becoming/not…

  20. Definition of Virtual Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Bruce W.

    1979-01-01

    Presents an examination of graphical displays of solutions to time-dependent Schrodinger equation modeling a laser-excited three-level atom. It suggests that an energy level may be regarded as virtual when it is detuned from resonance by more than two Rabi frequencies. (Author/HM)

  1. Virtual First Impressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergren, Martha Dewey

    2005-01-01

    Frequently, a nurse's first and only contact with a graduate school, legislator, public health official, professional organization, or school nursing colleague is made through e-mail. The format, the content, and the appearance of the e-mail create a virtual first impression. Nurses can manage their image and the image of the profession by…

  2. Growing Virtual Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garber, Debbie

    2004-01-01

    As online collaborative technologies become easier to use, an increasing range of "virtual communities" are being established, often for educational purposes. This report stresses that an efficient technology is only part of the process underlying a successful online community. It considers the social process on which an online learning community…

  3. The Virtual Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    1997-01-01

    Increasingly, college teachers and instructional designers are exploring use of the technology of virtual reality to enhance student learning in math, science, and the social sciences. It is found particularly useful for teaching psychomotor skills and may have potential to make scientific concepts and abstract subjects more accessible to…

  4. Literacy in Virtual Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, Guy

    2009-01-01

    Introducing new digital literacies into classroom settings is an important and challenging task, and one that is encouraged by both policy-makers and educators. This paper draws on a case study of a 3D virtual world which aimed to engage and motivate primary school children in an immersive and literacy-rich on-line experience. Planning decisions,…

  5. Virtual Museum Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prosser, Dominic; Eddisford, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines children's and adults' attitudes to virtual representations of museum objects. Drawing on empirical research data gained from two web-based digital learning environments. The paper explores the characteristics of on-line learning activities that move children from a sense of wonder into meaningful engagement with objects and…

  6. Virtual Museum Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prosser, Dominic; Eddisford, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines children's and adults' attitudes to virtual representations of museum objects. Drawing on empirical research data gained from two web-based digital learning environments. The paper explores the characteristics of on-line learning activities that move children from a sense of wonder into meaningful engagement with objects and…

  7. Learning in Virtual Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricken, William

    The essence of the computer revolution is yet to come, for computers are essentially generators of realities. Virtual reality (VR) is the next step in the evolutionary path; the user is placed inside the image and becomes a participant within the computational space. A VR computer generates a direct experience of the computational environment. The…

  8. Virtual machine performance benchmarking.

    PubMed

    Langer, Steve G; French, Todd

    2011-10-01

    The attractions of virtual computing are many: reduced costs, reduced resources and simplified maintenance. Any one of these would be compelling for a medical imaging professional attempting to support a complex practice on limited resources in an era of ever tightened reimbursement. In particular, the ability to run multiple operating systems optimized for different tasks (computational image processing on Linux versus office tasks on Microsoft operating systems) on a single physical machine is compelling. However, there are also potential drawbacks. High performance requirements need to be carefully considered if they are to be executed in an environment where the running software has to execute through multiple layers of device drivers before reaching the real disk or network interface. Our lab has attempted to gain insight into the impact of virtualization on performance by benchmarking the following metrics on both physical and virtual platforms: local memory and disk bandwidth, network bandwidth, and integer and floating point performance. The virtual performance metrics are compared to baseline performance on "bare metal." The results are complex, and indeed somewhat surprising. PMID:21207096

  9. Virtual Field Trips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Virginia A.

    1997-01-01

    Virtual field trips can provide experiences beyond the reach of average K-12 students. Describes multimedia products for school use: Africa Trail, Dinosaur Hunter, Louvre Museum, Magic School Bus Explores the Rainforest, and Up to the Himalayas: Kingdoms in the Clouds and provides book and Internet connections for additional learning, highlighting…

  10. Virtual Field Trips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Virginia A.

    1997-01-01

    Virtual field trips can provide experiences beyond the reach of average K-12 students. Describes multimedia products for school use: Africa Trail, Dinosaur Hunter, Louvre Museum, Magic School Bus Explores the Rainforest, and Up to the Himalayas: Kingdoms in the Clouds and provides book and Internet connections for additional learning, highlighting…

  11. Deeply virtual Compton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marukyan, Hrachya

    2015-11-01

    This paper reviews the experimental measurements in the field of deeply virtual Compton scattering and related theoretical efforts aimed for the extraction of generalized parton distributions, objects, describing the three-dimensional structure of nucleons and nuclei. The future experiments and theoretical expectations are also considered.

  12. War Games Go Virtual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Scott

    2006-01-01

    This article describes how researchers work with military to create the next generation of training technology. This article also describes the features of Flatworld, a virtual military training technology. Flatworld is one of many projects under development at the Institute for Creative Technologies, a research group that is supported primarily…

  13. Virtual Inquiry Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlow, Danielle; Nilsen, Katy

    2011-01-01

    Children in classrooms and scientists in laboratories engage in similar activities: they observe, ask questions, and try to explain phenomena. Video conferencing technology can remove the wall between the classroom and the laboratory, bringing children and scientists together. Virtual experiences and field trips can provide many of the benefits of…

  14. Virtual Bridge Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    This design/problem-solving activity challenges students to design a replacement bridge for one that has been designated as either structurally deficient or functionally obsolete. The Aycock MS Technology/STEM Magnet Program Virtual Bridge Design Challenge is an authentic introduction to the engineering design process. It is a socially relevant…

  15. Virtual Bridge Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    This design/problem-solving activity challenges students to design a replacement bridge for one that has been designated as either structurally deficient or functionally obsolete. The Aycock MS Technology/STEM Magnet Program Virtual Bridge Design Challenge is an authentic introduction to the engineering design process. It is a socially relevant…

  16. Virtual Beach Manager Toolset

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Virtual Beach Manager Toolset (VB) is a set of decision support software tools developed to help local beach managers make decisions as to when beaches should be closed due to predicted high levels of water borne pathogens. The tools are being developed under the umbrella of...

  17. Virtual Inquiry Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlow, Danielle; Nilsen, Katy

    2011-01-01

    Children in classrooms and scientists in laboratories engage in similar activities: they observe, ask questions, and try to explain phenomena. Video conferencing technology can remove the wall between the classroom and the laboratory, bringing children and scientists together. Virtual experiences and field trips can provide many of the benefits of…

  18. Virtual Campus Tours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrell, Andrea

    1999-01-01

    College campus "tours" offered online have evolved to include 360-degree views, live video, animation, talking tour guides, interactive maps with photographic links, and detailed information about buildings, departments, and programs. Proponents feel they should enhance, not replace, real tours. The synergy between the virtual tour and other…

  19. Virtual sea border

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferriere, D.; Rucinski, A.; Jankowski, T.

    2007-04-01

    Establishing a Virtual Sea Border by performing a real-time, satellite-accessible Internet-based bio-metric supported threat assessment of arriving foreign-flagged cargo ships, their management and ownership, their arrival terminal operator and owner, and rewarding proven legitimate operators with an economic incentive for their transparency will simultaneously improve port security and maritime transportation efficiencies.

  20. Rethinking Virtual Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Virtual reference services seem a natural extension of libraries digital collections and the emphasis on access to the library anytime, anywhere. If patrons use the library from home, it makes sense to provide them with person-to-person online reference. The Library of Congress (LC), OCLC, and several large library systems have developed and…

  1. Engineering in a virtual environment.

    PubMed

    Noor, A K; Ellis, S R

    1996-07-01

    The authors review virtual environment technology and its application to the aerospace industry. Virtual environment systems have three components: sensors, effectors, and interlinkage hardware and software. Virtual environment tools used by the aerospace industry include the Multi-dimensional, User-oriented, Synthetic Environment (MUSE); Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE); and Immersadesk. Engineering applications include design and manufacture of aerospace systems, maintenance, and repair. PMID:11539335

  2. Petrology of Eocene volcanic rocks of Moalleman Damghan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolfaghari, Seddigheh; Kohansal, Reza; Hashem Emami, Mohammad

    2010-05-01

    The Moalleman area is situated to the south of Damghan City, in the central of Torud sheet (scale 1:250000). The area is part of central Iran structural zone. The oldest and the youngest rocks units of the area include schists and limestone ascribed to Silurian and Devonian periods, and the fluvial terraces of Quaternary periods. Most of the volcanic rocks of the area are respectively related to Lutetion stage till upper Eocene, and are exposed between the Torud Angilu faults. Following to the eruption of these rocks, during upper Eocene to Oligocene, subvolcanic cryptodomes, hypoabyssal plutons and several dikes have intruded into this volcanic sequence. Igneous rocks of the study area may be classified into three main groups: Lavas, Pyroclastics and subvolcanic. Lavas include basalts, andesite, dacitic andesites and quartztrachyandesite, Trachyandesites form the major volume of these volcanic rocks with in the study. Pyroclastic rocks mainly consist of cryptallic tuff (with an andesitic to trachyandesitic composition) and crystal tuff. (With an andesitic to dacitic composition). The Major volume of volcanic rocks of study area have suffered alterations which gave rise to the formation of secondary minerals such as calcite, chlorite, sericite, epidote, serpentine, and iddingsite. It appears that the faults and fractures with in these rocks have facilitated the transition of hydrothermal solutions and the subsequent alteration. Microscopic evidences of magmatic contamination in lavas include phenomena such as resorption, formations of sieve texture, and osciliatory zoning in plagioclases, corrosion of pyroxenes and plagioclases, and two types of altered and unaltered plagioclases concurrence. According to the geochemical diagrams, the rocks of the study area of the alkaline and calc-alkaline types and have a tendency to potassium enrichment (probably related to contamination of their magma). Geochemical evidences such as great scatter in the diagrams and showing no particular trend in some differentiation coefficient plots, spectially of the elements Hf, Th, and Zr, and also the similarity between spider diagrams of samples to the diagrams of amphibolites- gneiss facies (upper crust) are the cues to contamination of basaltic melts with upper crust. It appears that during Eocene, due to a variety of factors, basaltic magma, while ascending to the surface, has been subjected to some variation and processes of partial crystallization and partal contamination (assimilation fractional crystallization process) resulted in the formation of the intermediate rocks.

  3. Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation is based on the concept of smart sensor technology for testing with intelligence needed to perform sell-diagnosis of health, and to participate in a hierarchy of health determination at sensor, process, and system levels. A virtual sensor test instrumentation consists of five elements: (1) a common sensor interface, (2) microprocessor, (3) wireless interface, (4) signal conditioning and ADC/DAC (analog-to-digital conversion/ digital-to-analog conversion), and (5) onboard EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory) for metadata storage and executable software to create powerful, scalable, reconfigurable, and reliable embedded and distributed test instruments. In order to maximize the efficient data conversion through the smart sensor node, plug-and-play functionality is required to interface with traditional sensors to enhance their identity and capabilities for data processing and communications. Virtual sensor test instrumentation can be accessible wirelessly via a Network Capable Application Processor (NCAP) or a Smart Transducer Interlace Module (STIM) that may be managed under real-time rule engines for mission-critical applications. The transducer senses the physical quantity being measured and converts it into an electrical signal. The signal is fed to an A/D converter, and is ready for use by the processor to execute functional transformation based on the sensor characteristics stored in a Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS). Virtual sensor test instrumentation is built upon an open-system architecture with standardized protocol modules/stacks to interface with industry standards and commonly used software. One major benefit for deploying the virtual sensor test instrumentation is the ability, through a plug-and-play common interface, to convert raw sensor data in either analog or digital form, to an IEEE 1451 standard-based smart sensor, which has instructions to program sensors for a wide variety of functions. The sensor data is processed in a distributed fashion across the network, providing a large pool of resources in real time to meet stringent latency requirements.

  4. Technology Counts 2012: Virtual Shift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Week, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Virtual education is moving into that intersection where rising popularity meets calls for greater accountability. How the virtual education movement responds to those calls will have a significant impact on how it evolves in K-12 over the next five to 10 years. This report tackles this shift in the virtual education landscape. It examines the…

  5. Virtual Worlds in Computing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crellin, Jonathan; Duke-Williams, Emma; Chandler, Jane; Collinson, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on the use of a virtual world ("Second Life") in computing education, and identifies the precursors of current virtual world systems. The article reviews the potential for virtual worlds as tools in computing education. It describes two areas where "Second Life" has been used in computing education: as a development…

  6. Ethnography in a Virtual World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumar, Wesley; Madison, Nora

    2013-01-01

    This article situates the discussion of virtual ethnography within the larger political/economic changes of twenty-first century consumer capitalism and suggests that increasingly our entire social world is a virtual world and that there were very particular utopian and dystopian framings of virtual community growing out of that history. The…

  7. Team Development of Virtual Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sooyoung

    2004-01-01

    Advanced technologies, globalization, the competitiveness of business, flexible working practices, and other rapid changes in the nature of work have all led to the booming of "virtual teams." This paper will provide an overview of virtual teams, including a description of their emergence, a definition and typology of the term "virtual team," an…

  8. Technology Counts 2012: Virtual Shift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Week, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Virtual education is moving into that intersection where rising popularity meets calls for greater accountability. How the virtual education movement responds to those calls will have a significant impact on how it evolves in K-12 over the next five to 10 years. This report tackles this shift in the virtual education landscape. It examines the…

  9. Virtual Worlds in Computing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crellin, Jonathan; Duke-Williams, Emma; Chandler, Jane; Collinson, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on the use of a virtual world ("Second Life") in computing education, and identifies the precursors of current virtual world systems. The article reviews the potential for virtual worlds as tools in computing education. It describes two areas where "Second Life" has been used in computing education: as a development…

  10. Constructing Meaning with Virtual Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iaonnou-Georgiou, Sophie

    2002-01-01

    Presents a constructivist rationale for introducing virtual reality in language learning and teaching and describes various virtual reality environments that are available. Ways of implementing constuctivist learning through virtual reality are suggested as well as basic guidelines for successful implementation in the classroom. (Author/VWL)

  11. Ethnography in a Virtual World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumar, Wesley; Madison, Nora

    2013-01-01

    This article situates the discussion of virtual ethnography within the larger political/economic changes of twenty-first century consumer capitalism and suggests that increasingly our entire social world is a virtual world and that there were very particular utopian and dystopian framings of virtual community growing out of that history. The…

  12. World Reaction to Virtual Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    DRaW Computing developed virtual reality software for the International Space Station. Open Worlds, as the software has been named, can be made to support Java scripting and virtual reality hardware devices. Open Worlds permits the use of VRML script nodes to add virtual reality capabilities to the user's applications.

  13. Hyperbaric Hydrothermal Atomic Force Microscope

    DOEpatents

    Knauss, Kevin G.; Boro, Carl O.; Higgins, Steven R.; Eggleston, Carrick M.

    2003-07-01

    A hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope (AFM) is provided to image solid surfaces in fluids, either liquid or gas, at pressures greater than normal atmospheric pressure. The sample can be heated and its surface imaged in aqueous solution at temperatures greater than 100.degree. C. with less than 1 nm vertical resolution. A gas pressurized microscope base chamber houses the stepper motor and piezoelectric scanner. A chemically inert, flexible membrane separates this base chamber from the sample cell environment and constrains a high temperature, pressurized liquid or gas in the sample cell while allowing movement of the scanner. The sample cell is designed for continuous flow of liquid or gas through the sample environment.

  14. Nanocarpets for Trapping Microscopic Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noca, Flavio; Chen, Fei; Hunt, Brian; Bronikowski, Michael; Hoenk, Michael; Kowalczyk, Robert; Choi, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Nanocarpets that is, carpets of carbon nanotubes are undergoing development as means of trapping microscopic particles for scientific analysis. Examples of such particles include inorganic particles, pollen, bacteria, and spores. Nanocarpets can be characterized as scaled-down versions of ordinary macroscopic floor carpets, which trap dust and other particulate matter, albeit not purposefully. Nanocarpets can also be characterized as mimicking both the structure and the particle-trapping behavior of ciliated lung epithelia, the carbon nanotubes being analogous to cilia. Carbon nanotubes can easily be chemically functionalized for selective trapping of specific particles of interest. One could, alternatively, use such other three-dimensionally-structured materials as aerogels and activated carbon for the purposeful trapping of microscopic particles. However, nanocarpets offer important advantages over these alternative materials: (1) Nanocarpets are amenable to nonintrusive probing by optical means; and (2) Nanocarpets offer greater surface-to-volume ratios.

  15. Mars Life? - Microscopic Tubular Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This electron microscope image shows tubular structures of likely Martian origin. These structures are very similar in size and shape to extremely tiny microfossils found in some Earth rocks. This photograph is part of a report by a NASA research team published in the Aug. 16, 1996, issue of the journal Science. A two-year investigation by the team found organic molecules, mineral features characteristic of biological activity and possible microscopic fossils such as these inside of an ancient Martian rock that fell to Earth as a meteorite. The largest possible fossils are less than 1/100th the diameter of a human hair in size while most are ten times smaller.

  16. Hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope

    DOEpatents

    Knauss, Kevin G.; Boro, Carl O.; Higgins, Steven R.; Eggleston, Carrick M.

    2002-01-01

    A hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope (AFM) is provided to image solid surfaces in fluids, either liquid or gas, at pressures greater than normal atmospheric pressure. The sample can be heated and its surface imaged in aqueous solution at temperatures greater than 100.degree. C. with less than 1 nm vertical resolution. A gas pressurized microscope base chamber houses the stepper motor and piezoelectric scanner. A chemically inert, flexible membrane separates this base chamber from the sample cell environment and constrains a high temperature, pressurized liquid or gas in the sample cell while allowing movement of the scanner. The sample cell is designed for continuous flow of liquid or gas through the sample environment.

  17. Microscopic Description of Scission Configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Dubray, N.; Goutte, H.; Berger, J. F.

    2007-02-26

    Properties of 226Th, 256Fm, 258Fm and 260Fm nuclei in the scission region are described using a full-microscopic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approach with the effective Gogny nucleon-nucleon interaction. In a first step, the Potential Energy Surfaces are computed in the (q 20, q30) plane, the scission lines are found, fulfilling a given criterion on the density in the nuclear neck. Finally a few properties of the fragments along this line are presented.

  18. Optical Analysis of Microscope Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biles, Jonathan R.

    Microscope images were analyzed with coherent and incoherent light using analog optical techniques. These techniques were found to be useful for analyzing large numbers of nonsymbolic, statistical microscope images. In the first part phase coherent transparencies having 20-100 human multiple myeloma nuclei were simultaneously photographed at 100 power magnification using high resolution holographic film developed to high contrast. An optical transform was obtained by focussing the laser onto each nuclear image and allowing the diffracted light to propagate onto a one dimensional photosensor array. This method reduced the data to the position of the first two intensity minima and the intensity of successive maxima. These values were utilized to estimate the four most important cancer detection clues of nuclear size, shape, darkness, and chromatin texture. In the second part, the geometric and holographic methods of phase incoherent optical processing were investigated for pattern recognition of real-time, diffuse microscope images. The theory and implementation of these processors was discussed in view of their mutual problems of dimness, image bias, and detector resolution. The dimness problem was solved by either using a holographic correlator or a speckle free laser microscope. The latter was built using a spinning tilted mirror which caused the speckle to change so quickly that it averaged out during the exposure. To solve the bias problem low image bias templates were generated by four techniques: microphotography of samples, creation of typical shapes by computer graphics editor, transmission holography of photoplates of samples, and by spatially coherent color image bias removal. The first of these templates was used to perform correlations with bacteria images. The aperture bias was successfully removed from the correlation with a video frame subtractor. To overcome the limited detector resolution it is necessary to discover some analog nonlinear intensity peak detector which would allow one sampling point to determine if the correlation intensity was high anywhere in the correlation output. Three specific medical uses for the intensity correlators are detailed.

  19. Apparatus Would Stain Microscope Slides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breeding, James D.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed apparatus meters specific amounts of fluid out of containers at specific times to stain microscope slides. Intended specifically for semiautomated staining of microbiological and hematological samples in microgravity, leakproof apparatus used in other environments in which technicians have little time to allocate to staining procedures and/or exposure to toxic staining agents or to micro-organisms to be stained hazardous. Apparatus adapted to perform almost any staining procedure and accommodates multiple staining reagents, useful for small or remote clinical laboratories.

  20. Petrology and reservoir paragenesis in the Sussex 'B' sandstone of the upper Cretaceous Cody Shale, House Creek and Porcupine Fields, Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Higley, D.K.

    1991-05-03

    Using petrologic and sedimentologic studies, the paper characterizes the influence of sedimentologic and petrologic variations on reservoir heterogeneity in the Sussex 'B' sandstone in the House Creek and Porcupine fields, Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Effects of authigenic minerals on reservoir properties are described in detail for selected inter-ridge and ridge facies sandstones.

  1. Microscopic theory of irreversible processes

    PubMed Central

    Prigogine, I.; Mayné, F.; George, C.; De Haan, M.

    1977-01-01

    The microscopic theory of irreversible processes that we developed is summarized and illustrated, using as a simple example the Friedrichs model. Our approach combines the Poincaré's point of view (dynamical interpretation of irreversibility) with the Gibbs-Einstein ensemble point of view. It essentially consists in a nonunitary transformation theory based on the symmetry properties of the Liouville equation and dealing with continuous spectrum. The second law acquires a microscopic content in terms of a Liapounov function which is a quadratic functional of the density operator. In our new representation of dynamics, which is defined for a restricted set of observables and states, this functional takes a universal form. We obtain, in this way, a semi-group description, the generator of which contains a part directly related to the microscopic entropy production. The Friedrichs model gives us a simple field theoretical example for which the entropy production can be evaluated. The thermodynamical meaning of life-times is explicitly displayed. The transition from pure states to mixtures, as well as the occurrence of long tails in thermodynamic systems, are also briefly discussed. PMID:16592442

  2. Compact Microscope Imaging System Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDowell, Mark

    2001-01-01

    The Compact Microscope Imaging System (CMIS) is a diagnostic tool with intelligent controls for use in space, industrial, medical, and security applications. The CMIS can be used in situ with a minimum amount of user intervention. This system, which was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center, can scan, find areas of interest, focus, and acquire images automatically. Large numbers of multiple cell experiments require microscopy for in situ observations; this is only feasible with compact microscope systems. CMIS is a miniature machine vision system that combines intelligent image processing with remote control capabilities. The software also has a user-friendly interface that can be used independently of the hardware for post-experiment analysis. CMIS has potential commercial uses in the automated online inspection of precision parts, medical imaging, security industry (examination of currency in automated teller machines and fingerprint identification in secure entry locks), environmental industry (automated examination of soil/water samples), biomedical field (automated blood/cell analysis), and microscopy community. CMIS will improve research in several ways: It will expand the capabilities of MSD experiments utilizing microscope technology. It may be used in lunar and Martian experiments (Rover Robot). Because of its reduced size, it will enable experiments that were not feasible previously. It may be incorporated into existing shuttle orbiter and space station experiments, including glove-box-sized experiments as well as ground-based experiments.

  3. Duties to Extraterrestrial Microscopic Organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockell, C. S.

    Formulating a normative axiology for the treatment of extraterrestrial microscopic organisms, should they ever be found, requires an extension of environmental ethics to beyond the Earth. Using an ethical framework for the treatment of terrestrial micro-organisms, this paper elaborates a similar ethic for the treatment of extraterrestrial microscopic organisms. An ethic of `teloempathy' allows for the moral considerability of any organism that has `interests', based on rudimentary qualities of conativism, and therefore allows for an identical treatment of all life, related or not related to life on Earth. Although, according to this ethic, individual extraterrestrial microscopic organisms have a good of their own and even `rights', at this level the ethic can only be theoretical, allowing for the inevitable destruction of many individual organisms during the course of human exploratory missions, similarly to the daily destruction of microbes by humans on Earth. A holistic teloempathy, an operative ethic, not only provides a framework for human exploration, but it also has important implications for planetary protection and proposals to implement planetary-scale atmospheric alterations on other bodies. Even prior to the discovery of extraterrestrial life, or the discovery of a complete absence of such life, this exercise yields important insights into the moral philosophy that guides our treatment of terrestrial micro-organisms.

  4. Microscope Image of Scavenged Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Optical Microscope shows a strongly magnetic surface which has scavenged particles from within the microscope enclosure before a sample delivery from the lander's Robotic Arm. The particles correspond to the larger grains seen in fine orange material that makes up most of the soil at the Phoenix site. They vary in color, but are of similar size, about one-tenth of a millimeter.

    As the microscope's sample wheel moved during operation, these particles also shifted, clearing a thin layer of the finer orange particles that have also been collected. Together with the previous image, this shows that the larger grains are much more magnetic than the fine orange particles with a much larger volume of the grains being collected by the magnet. The image is 2 milimeters across.

    It is speculated that the orange material particles are a weathering product from the larger grains, with the weathering process both causing a color change and a loss of magnetism.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Accretion, metamorphism, and brecciation of ordinary chondrites - Evidence from petrologic studies of meteorites from Roosevelt County, New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Edward R. D.; Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Keil, Klaus

    1986-01-01

    The olivines and pyroxenes from twenty-nine ordinary chondrites from Roosevelt County, New Mexico are examined. The mineralogical properties of the chondrites studied are described. Correlations between mineral compositions and petrologic type and between petrologic type and bulk chemistry are analyzed. It is observed that mean CaO concentrations in olivine show significant variations among equilibrated chondrites, but these are not correlated with petrologic type; the degree of heterogeneity of FeO concentrations in olivines of types 4-6 is not correlated with the degree of metamorphism; and mean FeO concentrations of silicates show average increases of 3-5 percent from type 4 to type 6 in each group.

  6. Art in virtual reality 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ben

    2010-01-01

    For decades, virtual reality artwork has existed in a small but highly influential niche in the world of electronic and new media art. Since the early 1990's, virtual reality installations have come to define an extreme boundary point of both aesthetic experience and technological sophistication. Classic virtual reality artworks have an almost mythological stature - powerful, exotic, and often rarely exhibited. Today, art in virtual environments continues to evolve and mature, encompassing everything from fully immersive CAVE experiences to performance art in Second Life to the use of augmented and mixed reality in public space. Art in Virtual Reality 2010 is a public exhibition of new artwork that showcases the diverse ways that contemporary artists use virtual environments to explore new aesthetic ground and investigate the continually evolving relationship between our selves and our virtual worlds.

  7. Blending Curriculum with Research in an Undergraduate Petrology Course: A Recipe for Success?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzales, D. A.; Semken, S. C.

    2009-12-01

    In this presentation we discuss the design, key curricular elements, and strengths and weaknesses of an undergraduate course in the Department of Geosciences at Fort Lewis College that was recast to focus on petrologic studies in the Southern Rocky Mountains and Colorado Plateau. Redesign of the course retained an additional petrology option in the curriculum and offered undergraduates a richer opportunity to learn and practice science-research skills. This course emphasizes direct engagement and student responsibility for learning: traits valuable in transforming undergraduates into experienced and competent professionals. Previous offerings of this course have been field based, each having a unique context for research. The primary pedagogical strategy was to blend field studies with inquiry to promote authentic, student-driven research. Students applied and tested their prior knowledge, and used observational and interpretative skills, to investigate major regional rock bodies and geologic histories, as opposed to completing a set of activities with predefined outcomes. In 2010, students will work on an NSF-funded project to test hypotheses on the origin and evolution of mafic magmas of the Navajo volcanic field. This research will most involve petrographic and microanalytical techniques on rock specimens with a subordinate amount of field work. Formative and summative assessment data for previous offerings of this course reveal that these classes have an impact on the academic interests and future successes of students. Assessment data collected from students, and other faculty that interacted with them, indicate that students in this research-oriented petrology course have gained a greater understanding of the elements and complications of research. They have also developed geologic skills and a passion for geologic research that have influenced subsequent academic (and later career) paths of the students.

  8. Curating Virtual Data Collections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, Chris; Leon, Amanda; Ramapriyan, Hampapuram; Tsontos, Vardis; Shie, Chung-Lin; Liu, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    NASAs Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) contains a rich set of datasets and related services throughout its many elements. As a result, locating all the EOSDIS data and related resources relevant to particular science theme can be daunting. This is largely because EOSDIS data's organizing principle is affected more by the way they are produced than around the expected end use. Virtual collections oriented around science themes can overcome this by presenting collections of data and related resources that are organized around the user's interest, not around the way the data were produced. Virtual collections consist of annotated web addresses (URLs) that point to data and related resource addresses, thus avoiding the need to copy all of the relevant data to a single place. These URL addresses can be consumed by a variety of clients, ranging from basic URL downloaders (wget, curl) and web browsers to sophisticated data analysis programs such as the Integrated Data Viewer.

  9. Virtual reality systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, David W.

    1992-01-01

    Virtual realities are a type of human-computer interface (HCI) and as such may be understood from a historical perspective. In the earliest era, the computer was a very simple, straightforward machine. Interaction was human manipulation of an inanimate object, little more than the provision of an explicit instruction set to be carried out without deviation. In short, control resided with the user. In the second era of HCI, some level of intelligence and control was imparted to the system to enable a dialogue with the user. Simple context sensitive help systems are early examples, while more sophisticated expert system designs typify this era. Control was shared more equally. In this, the third era of the HCI, the constructed system emulates a particular environment, constructed with rules and knowledge about 'reality'. Control is, in part, outside the realm of the human-computer dialogue. Virtual reality systems are discussed.

  10. Virtual reality at work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Frederick P., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The utility of virtual reality computer graphics in telepresence applications is not hard to grasp and promises to be great. When the virtual world is entirely synthetic, as opposed to real but remote, the utility is harder to establish. Vehicle simulators for aircraft, vessels, and motor vehicles are proving their worth every day. Entertainment applications such as Disney World's StarTours are technologically elegant, good fun, and economically viable. Nevertheless, some of us have no real desire to spend our lifework serving the entertainment craze of our sick culture; we want to see this exciting technology put to work in medicine and science. The topics covered include the following: testing a force display for scientific visualization -- molecular docking; and testing a head-mounted display for scientific and medical visualization.

  11. Spinel cataclasites in 15445 and 72435 - Petrology and criteria for equilibrium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, M. B.; Herzberg, C. T.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of establishing the existence of equilibrium among the coexisting phases in the rock is addressed by presenting petrographic and mineral chemistry data on a new spinel cataclasite from 15445 (clast H) and data more extensive than those previously available on two clasts in 72435. Criteria useful in reconstructing the original petrology of these and other spinel cataclasites are analyzed by considering equilibrium among the different phases, that is, the mono- or polymict nature of these cataclasized samples. Finally, the role of impact processes in disturbing the equilibria is discussed.

  12. Determination of the petrologic type of CV3 chondrites by Raman spectroscopy of included organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonal, Lydie; Quirico, Eric; Bourot-Denise, Michèle; Montagnac, Gilles

    2006-04-01

    This paper reports the first reliable quantitative determination of the thermal metamorphism grade of a series of nine CV3 chondrites: Allende, Axtell, Bali, Mokoia, Grosnaja, Efremovka, Vigarano, Leoville, and Kaba. The maturity of the organic matter in matrix, determined by Raman spectroscopy, has been used as a powerful metamorphic tracer, independent of the mineralogical context and extent of aqueous alteration. This tracer has been used along with other metamorphic tracers such as Fe zoning in type-I chondrules of olivine phenocrysts, presolar grain abundance and noble gas abundance (bulk and P3 component). The study shows that the petrologic types determined earlier by Induced ThermoLuminescence were underestimated and suggests the following values: PT (Allende-Axtell) >3.6; PT (Bali-Mokoia-Grosnaja) ˜3.6; PT (Efremovka-Leoville-Vigarano) = 3.1-3.4; PT (Kaba) ˜3.1. The most commonly studied CV3, Allende, is also the most metamorphosed. Bali is a breccia containing clasts of different petrologic types. The attribution suggested by this study is that of clasts of the highest petrologic types, as pointed out by IOM maturity and noble gas bulk abundance. CV3 chondrites have complex asteroidal backgrounds, with various degrees of aqueous alteration and/or thermal metamorphism leading to complex mineralogical and petrologic patterns. (Fe,Mg) chemical zoning in olivine phenocrysts, on the borders of type I chondrules of porphyritic olivine- and pyroxene-rich textural types, has been found to correlate with the metamorphism grade. This suggests that chemical zoning in some chondrules, often interpreted as exchanges between chondrules and nebular gas, may well have an asteroidal origin. Furthermore, the compositional range of olivine matrix is controlled both by thermal metamorphism and aqueous alteration. This does not support evidence of a nebular origin and does not necessarily mirror the metamorphism grade through (Fe,Mg) equilibration. On the other hand, it may provide clues on the degree of aqueous alteration vs. thermal metamorphism and on the timing of both processes. In particular, Mokoia experienced significant aqueous alteration after the metamorphism peak, whereas Grosnaja, which has similar metamorphism grade, did not.

  13. Global petrologic variations of the Moon: A ternary-diagram approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Philip A.; Spudis, Paul D.

    1987-01-01

    A ternary-diagram approach is used to show on a single map as much detailed geochemical information concerning petrologic variations within the lunar crust as is possible. The classification map shows the global spatial distributions of end-member compositions, the transitional spatial relations between end-member compositions, and quantitative estimates of relative proportions of each end member at each pixel location within the orbital groundtracks. The use of elemental ratios in this analysis, instead of the commonly used elemental bivariate diagrams, shows geologic information that is otherwise hidden in individual elemental databases.

  14. "MERAPIDATA": New Petrologic and Geochemical Database of the Merapi Volcano, Central Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, A. Y.; Martel, C.; Pratomo, I.; Toutain, J.; Sumarti, S.; Surono, S.

    2011-12-01

    Petrologic and geochemical databases of erupted products are critical for monitoring and predicting the evolution of active volcanoes. To monitor the activity of one of the most dangerous volcanoes in the world, Merapi Volcano in Indonesia, in the framework of the new instrumental site VELI (Volcans Explosifs - Laboratoires Indonésiens labelled by INSU in 2009 in France), we generated "MERAPIDATA", a complete database of available petrologic and geochemical data published in the literature on pyroclastic flows, tephra, lavas and xenoliths coupled with the exact ages of historical flows [1] or estimated ages based on 14C geochronology [2]. "MERAPIDATA" permits to access complete petrologic, geochemical, and geochronological information (e.g., major, trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb-O isotopic composition of the bulk volcanic rocks, xenoliths, minerals and glasses; textural information; type of eruption; classification) of a given volcanic product or series. In addition to ~300 published volcanic products, new data on 2 pyroclastic flows, 1 tephra and 4 ash samples collected on northern and western slopes of the volcano in October and November 2010 during subplinian type eruption have been added to "MERAPIDATA". The 2010 ash sample chemistry allows classifying them as high-K basaltic andesite. The ash samples demonstrate major and trace element compositions typical for the high-K series. For the first time, we obtained complete data on the Merapi ash samples which characterized by low L.O.I. ? 0.58 wt%, CO2total ? 0.05 wt%, H2Ototal = 0.3 - 0.5 wt%, Stotal ? 0.13 wt% and moderate Cl (550 - 1120 ppm) contents. The ash-leachates produced by leaching experiments demonstrate constant F/Cl ratios (0.05 ± 0.01) and Ca-Na-K enrichment (Ca/Na= 3 - 7, Na/K = 1 - 5). Sr-Nd-Pb-O isotopic analyses on the 2010 Merapi products are in progress. New petrologic (e.g., melt and fluid inclusion data, T - P - fO2 - aH2O - aCO2) and geochemical (e.g., volatile, major, trace element and isotopic composition of the bulk volcanic rocks and glassy matrix) data will permit to explain unexpected subplinian type of the 2010 eruption. The complete "MERAPIDATA" programmed with MS Access 2007 will be available in English version for open access at the website of the Observatory of Midi-Pyrénées (Toulouse, France): "http://www.get.obs-mip.fr/index.php/Annuaire/Borisova-Anastassia/MERAPIDATA". [1] Camus et al., (2000). JVGR 100, 139-163. [2] Gertisser & Keller (2003). JVGR 123, 1-23.

  15. Mercury: Informing Remote Sensing through Petrology in the Absence of Samples from the Innermost Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, T. J.; Nittler, L. R.; Stockstill-Cahill, K.; Blewett, D. T.

    2012-12-01

    Remote sensing missions and petrologic studies are complementary methods of understanding airless planetary bodies. For bodies with both orbital missions and samples available for laboratory study, missions provide global chemical, mineralogical, and geologic data sets and context for samples, whereas samples often provide complementary petrogenetic histories in a chronological framework. In contrast, although the wealth of orbital data from MESSENGER is not complemented by samples from Mercury, petrologic and experimental studies remain essential to understanding the innermost planet. Prior to MESSENGER, most models centered on high-temperature events and formation under highly reducing conditions to explain Mercury's high metal to silicate ratio. These models predicted enrichment in refractory elements and depletion in volatile elements. The inference of formation at highly reducing conditions is supported by MESSENGER results. The low FeO concentration in the crust, implied low FeO contents of the mantle, apparent efficient partitioning of iron into the core, and evidence for Ca- and/or Mg-sulfides from X-Ray Spectrometer data are all consistent with reducing conditions. In contrast, the suggestion that Mercury is highly volatile-depleted has been refuted. Direct evidence for a relatively volatile-rich planet come from Na, K, and S abundances measured on the surface with MESSENGER's XRS and Gamma-Ray Spectrometer and the presence of neutral and ionized Na, K, and S species in the exosphere. Indirect evidence for volatile-rich compositions include the suggestion of volcanic vents with associated mantling pyroclastic deposits, hollows inferred to form by geologically recent volatile loss, and an inferred interior structure that includes a solid iron sulfide layer at the top of Mercury's fluid core. Petrologic and experimental studies of meteorites have played a key role in deciphering orbital data from MESSENGER. Partial melts from an enstatite chondrite assemblage produce S-rich silicate melts that subsequently crystallize Ca,Mg-sulfides and an Fe,Ni-FeS melt rich in Si, consistent with the geochemical characteristics observed or inferred from Mercury. The application of these petrologic principles, derived from the study of highly reduced meteorites, has advanced our understanding of Mercury. With new insights into the geology, mineralogy, and geochemistry of Mercury, the possibility exists that a meteorite launched from Mercury by an impact event could be identified on Earth. If such a link can be forged between a meteorite and Mercury, a new era of exploration, one largely based on isotopic systematics to understand the nature and timing of the geologic evolution of Mercury, could begin.

  16. Geochemical work of the Geochemistry and Petrology Branch U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingerson, E.

    1954-01-01

    The current geochemical work of the Geochemistry and Petrology Branch of the U.S. Geological Survey is outlined under the headings of geochemical compilations, laboratory projects, and field-laboratory projects. Some thirty-seven active projects are described. Six others are mentioned which are planned for the near future. The importance and value of cooperative projects and the "team approach" are emphasized. The hope is expressed that more such projects can be undertaken; also, that summaries of geochemical work under way elsewhere will be published soon for the advancement and better coordination of geochemical research. ?? 1954.

  17. Theft of Virtual Property — Towards Security Requirements for Virtual Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, Anja

    The article is focused to introduce the topic of information technology security for Virtual Worlds to a security experts’ audience. Virtual Worlds are Web 2.0 applications where the users cruise through the world with their individually shaped avatars to find either amusement, challenges or the next best business deal. People do invest a lot of time but beyond they invest in buying virtual assets like fantasy witcheries, wepaons, armour, houses, clothes,...etc with the power of real world money. Although it is called “virtual” (which is often put on the same level as “not existent”) there is a real value behind it. In November 2007 dutch police arrested a seventeen years old teenager who was suspicted to have stolen virtual items in a Virtual World called Habbo Hotel [Reuters07]. In order to successfully provide security mechanisms into Virtual Worlds it is necessarry to fully understand the domain for which the security mechansims are defined. As Virtual Worlds must be clasified into the domain of Social Software the article starts with an overview of how to understand Web 2.0 and gives a short introduction to Virtual Worlds. The article then provides a consideration of assets of Virtual Worlds participants, describes how these assets can be threatened and gives an overview of appopriate security requirements and completes with an outlook of possible countermeasures.

  18. Virtual nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, J.F.

    1997-08-01

    The term virtual nuclear weapons proliferation and arsenals, as opposed to actual weapons and arsenals, has entered in recent years the American lexicon of nuclear strategy, arms control, and nonproliferation. While the term seems to have an intuitive appeal, largely due to its cyberspace imagery, its current use is still vague and loose. The author believes, however, that if the term is clearly delineated, it might offer a promising approach to conceptualizing certain current problems of proliferation. The first use is in a reference to an old problem that has resurfaced recently: the problem of growing availability of weapon-usable nuclear materials in civilian nuclear programs along with materials made `excess` to defense needs by current arms reduction and dismantlement. It is argued that the availability of these vast materials, either by declared nuclear-weapon states or by technologically advanced nonweapon states, makes it possible for those states to rapidly assemble and deploy nuclear weapons. The second use has quite a different set of connotations. It is derived conceptually from the imagery of computer-generated reality. In this use, one thinks of virtual proliferation and arsenals not in terms of the physical hardware required to make the bomb but rather in terms of the knowledge/experience required to design, assemble, and deploy the arsenal. Virtual weapons are a physics reality and cannot be ignored in a world where knowledge, experience, materials, and other requirements to make nuclear weapons are widespread, and where dramatic army reductions and, in some cases, disarmament are realities. These concepts are useful in defining a continuum of virtual capabilities, ranging from those at the low end that derive from general technology diffusion and the existence of nuclear energy programs to those at the high end that involve conscious decisions to develop or maintain militarily significant nuclear-weapon capabilities.

  19. A Virtual, Shoestring Vacation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texley, Juliana

    2009-01-01

    If there is a discrepancy between the scope of your imagination and the depth of your bank account, this may be the ideal summer to stretch your horizons by diving into a good book. You can take a virtual vacation to almost any place or time by reading. You will not need to fill your gas tank or empty your pocketbook. Reading has a small carbon…

  20. A Virtual, Shoestring Vacation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texley, Juliana

    2009-01-01

    If there is a discrepancy between the scope of your imagination and the depth of your bank account, this may be the ideal summer to stretch your horizons by diving into a good book. You can take a virtual vacation to almost any place or time by reading. You will not need to fill your gas tank or empty your pocketbook. Reading has a small carbon…

  1. Geometry of the Concord, North Carolina, intrusive complex: A synthesis of potential field modeling and petrologic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Richard T.; McSween, Harry Y., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    We propose a new model to explain the geometric and petrologic characteristics of a large gabbro-syenite complex in the southern Appalachian Piedmont, based on reinterpretation of available gravity, magnetic, and petrologic data. In our interpretation the complex is composed of vertically stacked, tabular plutons, and the exposed intrusive rocks are underlain by a much larger body, vertically separated by 1-1.5 km. Our model provides a possible explanation for the perplexing absence from the Concord complex of rock types intermediate to syenite and gabbro in the fractionation sequence. Fractionation occurred in the deeper magma chamber, which was episodically tapped to produce syenite and gabbro at higher levels.

  2. Armenian Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.

    2015-07-01

    Vast amount of information continuously accumulated in astronomy requires finding new solutions for its efficient storage, use and dissemination, as well as accomplishing new research projects. Virtual Observatories (VOs) have been created in a number of countries to set up a new environment for these tasks. Based on them, the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) was created in 2002, which unifies 19 VO projects, including Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO) founded in 2005. ArVO is a project of Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) aimed at construction of a modern system for data archiving, extraction, acquisition, reduction, use and publication. ArVO technical and research projects are presented, including the Global Spectroscopic Database, which is being built based on Digitized First Byurakan Survey (DFBS). Quick optical identification of radio, IR or X-ray sources will be possible by plotting their positions in the DFBS or other spectroscopic plate and matching all available data. Accomplishment of new projects by combining data is so important that the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) recently created World Data System (WDS) for unifying data coming from all science areas, and BAO has also joined it.

  3. Virtual blood bank

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Kit Fai

    2011-01-01

    Virtual blood bank is the computer-controlled, electronically linked information management system that allows online ordering and real-time, remote delivery of blood for transfusion. It connects the site of testing to the point of care at a remote site in a real-time fashion with networked computers thus maintaining the integrity of immunohematology test results. It has taken the advantages of information and communication technologies to ensure the accuracy of patient, specimen and blood component identification and to enhance personnel traceability and system security. The built-in logics and process constraints in the design of the virtual blood bank can guide the selection of appropriate blood and minimize transfusion risk. The quality of blood inventory is ascertained and monitored, and an audit trail for critical procedures in the transfusion process is provided by the paperless system. Thus, the virtual blood bank can help ensure that the right patient receives the right amount of the right blood component at the right time. PMID:21383930

  4. Neuroelectric Virtual Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Kevin; Jorgensen, Charles

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents recent results in neuroelectric pattern recognition of electromyographic (EMG) signals used to control virtual computer input devices. The devices are designed to substitute for the functions of both a traditional joystick and keyboard entry method. We demonstrate recognition accuracy through neuroelectric control of a 757 class simulation aircraft landing at San Francisco International Airport using a virtual joystick as shown. This is accomplished by a pilot closing his fist in empty air and performing control movements that are captured by a dry electrode array on the arm which are then analyzed and routed through a flight director permitting full pilot outer loop control of the simulation. We then demonstrate finer grain motor pattern recognition through a virtual keyboard by having a typist tap his traders on a typical desk in a touch typist position. The EMG signals are then translated to keyboard presses and displayed. The paper describes the bioelectric pattern recognition methodology common to both examples. Figure 2 depicts raw EMG data from typing, the numeral '8' and the numeral '9'. These two gestures are very close in appearance and statistical properties yet are distinguishable by our hidden Kharkov model algorithms. Extensions of this work to NASA emissions and robotic control are considered.

  5. Tele Hyper Virtuality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terashima, Nobuyoshi

    1994-01-01

    In the future, remote images sent over communication lines will be reproduced in virtual reality (VR). This form of virtual telecommunications, which will allow observers to engage in an activity as though it were real, is the focus of considerable attention. Taken a step further, real and unreal objects will be placed in a single space to create an extremely realistic environment. Here, imaginary and other life forms as well as people and animals in remote locations will gather via telecommunication lines that create a common environment where life forms can work and interact together. Words, gestures, diagrams and other forms of communication will be used freely in performing work. Actual construction of a system based on this new concept will not only provide people with experiences that would have been impossible in the past, but will also inspire new applications in which people will function in environments where it would have been difficult if not impossible for them to function until now. This paper describes Tele Hyper Virtuality concept, its definition, applications, the key technologies to accomplish it and future prospects.

  6. High efficiency virtual impactor

    DOEpatents

    Loo, Billy W. (Oakland, CA)

    1981-01-01

    Environmental monitoring of atmospheric air is facilitated by a single stage virtual impactor (11) for separating an inlet flow (Q.sub.O) having particulate contaminants into a coarse particle flow (Q.sub.1) and a fine particle flow (Q.sub.2) to enable collection of such particles on different filters (19a, 19b) for separate analysis. An inlet particle acceleration nozzle (28) and coarse particle collection probe member (37) having a virtual impaction opening (41) are aligned along a single axis (13) and spaced apart to define a flow separation region (14) at which the fine particle flow (Q.sub.2) is drawn radially outward into a chamber (21) while the coarse particle flow (Q.sub.1) enters the virtual impaction opening (41). Symmetrical outlet means (47) for the chamber (21) provide flow symmetry at the separation region (14) to assure precise separation of particles about a cutpoint size and to minimize losses by wall impaction and gravitational settling. Impulse defocusing means (42) in the probe member (37) provides uniform coarse particle deposition on the filter (19a) to aid analysis. Particle losses of less than 1% for particles in the 0 to 20 micron range may be realized.

  7. Integrated approach to teaching and testing in histology with real and virtual imaging.

    PubMed

    Heidger, Paul M; Dee, Fred; Consoer, Daniel; Leaven, Timothy; Duncan, James; Kreiter, Clarence

    2002-04-15

    The University of Iowa College of Medicine histology teaching laboratory incorporates extensive Web- and computer-based teaching modalities, including the Virtual Microscope (VM), as emerging learning aids in histology and pathology laboratory instruction. We report here our experience in offering a multiple resource-based approach to laboratory instruction while retaining the opportunity and requirement of examining actual microscopic slide preparations with the microscope. Acceptance of this approach has been high among our students and faculty, and performance levels established over years of teaching histology by traditional means have been maintained. PMID:12001217

  8. Microscopic Analysis of Activated Sludge. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This training manual presents material on the use of a compound microscope to analyze microscope communities, present in wastewater treatment processes, for operational control. Course topics include: sampling techniques, sample handling, laboratory analysis, identification of organisms, data interpretation, and use of the compound microscope

  9. A Student-Built Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekkens, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Many introductory and nanotechnology textbooks discuss the operation of various microscopes including atomic force (AFM), scanning tunneling (STM), and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). In a nanotechnology laboratory class, students frequently utilize microscopes to obtain data without a thought about the detailed operation of the tool itself.…

  10. A Student-Built Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekkens, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Many introductory and nanotechnology textbooks discuss the operation of various microscopes including atomic force (AFM), scanning tunneling (STM), and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). In a nanotechnology laboratory class, students frequently utilize microscopes to obtain data without a thought about the detailed operation of the tool itself.…

  11. Results of new petrologic and remote sensing studies in the Big Bend region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benker, Stevan Christian

    The initial section of this manuscript involves the South Rim Formation, a series of 32.2-32 Ma comenditic quartz trachytic-rhyolitic volcanics and associated intrusives, erupted and was emplaced in Big Bend National Park, Texas. Magmatic parameters have only been interpreted for one of the two diverse petrogenetic suites comprising this formation. Here, new mineralogic data for the South Rim Formation rocks are presented. Magmatic parameters interpreted from these data assist in deciphering lithospheric characteristics during the mid-Tertiary. Results indicate low temperatures (< 750 °C), reduced conditions (generally below the FMQ buffer), and low pressures (? 100 MPa) associated with South Rim Formation magmatism with slight conditional differences between the two suites. Newly discovered fayalite microphenocrysts allowed determination of oxygen fugacity values (between -0.14 and -0.25 DeltaFMQ over temperature ranges of 680-700 °C), via mineral equilibria based QUILF95 calculations, for Emory Peak Suite. Petrologic information is correlated with structural evidence from Trans-Pecos Texas and adjacent regions to evaluate debated timing of tectonic transition (Laramide compression to Basin and Range extension) and onset of the southern Rio Grande Rift during the mid-Tertiary. The A-type and peralkaline characteristics of the South Rim Formation and other pre-31 Ma magmatism in Trans-Pecos Texas, in addition to evidence implying earlier Rio Grande Rift onset in Colorado and New Mexico, promotes a near-neutral to transtensional setting in Trans-Pecos Texas by 32 Ma. This idea sharply contrasts with interpretations of tectonic compression and arc-related magmatism until 31 Ma as suggested by some authors. However, evidence discussed cannot preclude a pre-36 Ma proposed by other authors. The later section of this manuscript involves research in the Big Bend area using Google Earth. At present there is high interest in using Google Earth in a variety of scientific investigations. However, program developers have disclosed limited information concerning the program and its accuracy. While some authors have attempted to independently constrain the accuracy of Google Earth, their results have potentially lost validity through time due to technological advances and updates to imagery archives. For this reason we attempt to constrain more current horizontal and vertical position accuracies for the Big Bend region of West Texas. In Google Earth a series of 268 data points were virtually traced along various early Tertiary unconformities in Big Bend National Park and Big Bend Ranch State Park. These data points were compared with high precision GPS measurements collected in field and yielded a horizontal position accuracy of 2.64 meters RMSE. Complications arose in determining vertical position accuracy for Google Earth because default keyhole markup language (.kml) files currently do not export elevation data. This drawback forces users to hand record and manually input elevation values listed on screen. This is a significant handicap rendering Google Earth data useless with larger datasets. However, in a workaround solution exempted elevation values can be replaced from other data sources based on Google Earth horizontal positioning. We used Fledermaus 3D three-dimensional visualization software to drape Google Earth horizontal positions over a National Elevation Dataset (NED) digital elevation map (DEM) in order to adopt a large set of elevation data. A vertical position accuracy of 1.63 meters RMSE was determined between 268 Google Earth data points and the NED. Since determined accuracies were considerably lower than those reported in previous investigations, we devoted a later portion of this investigation to testing Google Earth-NED data in paleo-surface modeling of the Big Bend region. An 18 x 30 kilometer area in easternmost Big Ranch State Park was selected to create a post-Laramide paleo-surface model via interpolation of approximately 2900 Google Earth-NED data points representing sections of an early Tertiary unconformity. The area proved difficult to model as unconformity tracing and interpolation were often hindered by surface inflation due to regional magmatism, burial of Laramide topography by subsequent volcanism and sedimentation, and overprinting of Basin & Range extensional features masking Laramide compressional features. Despite these difficulties, a model was created illustrating paleo-topographic highs in the southeastern Bofecillos Mountains and at Lajitas Mesa. Based on the amount of surface relief depicted, inconsistency with subsequent normal faulting, and distance from magmatic features capable of surface doming or inflation, we believe the paleo-topographic highs modeled legitimately reflect the post-Laramide surface. We interpret the paleo-surface in this area as reflecting a post-Laramide surface that has experienced significant erosion. We attribute the paleo-topographic highs as Laramide topography that was more resistant. The model also implies a southern paleo-drainage direction for the area and suggests the present day topographic low through which the Rio Grande flows may have formed very soon after the Laramide Orogeny. Based on the newly calculated horizontal and vertical position accuracies for the Big Bend region and results of modeled Google Earth-NED data in easternmost Big Bend Ranch State Park, it seems Google Earth can be effectively utilized for remote sensing and geologic studies, however we urge caution as developers remain reluctant to disclose detailed program information to the public.

  12. Ballistic-Electron-Emission Microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, William J.; Bell, L. Douglas

    1990-01-01

    Ballistic-electron-emission microscope (BEEM) employs scanning tunneling-microscopy (STM) methods for nondestructive, direct electrical investigation of buried interfaces, such as interface between semiconductor and thin metal film. In BEEM, there are at least three electrodes: emitting tip, biasing electrode, and collecting electrode, receiving current crossing interface under investigation. Signal-processing device amplifies electrode signals and converts them into form usable by computer. Produces spatial images of surface by scanning tip; in addition, provides high-resolution images of buried interface under investigation. Spectroscopic information extracted by measuring collecting-electrode current as function of one of interelectrode voltages.

  13. Atomic force microscope mediated chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, M. S.

    2013-02-01

    An atomic force microscope (AFM) is presented as an instrument for rapid, miniaturized chromatography. The AFM is used to inject a sample, provide shear driven liquid flow over a functionalized substrate, and detect separated components. The components are then analyzed with surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy using AFM deposition of gold nanoparticles on the separated bands. This AFM mediated chromatography (AFM-MC) is demonstrated using lipophilic dyes and normal phase chemistry. A significant reduction in both size and separation time scales is achieved with 25 μm length scale and 1 s separation times. AFM-MC has general applications to trace chemical analysis and microfluidics.

  14. Solid-state optical microscope

    DOEpatents

    Young, I.T.

    1981-01-07

    A solid state optical microscope is described wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. Means for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions are provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

  15. Microscopic theory of fission dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negele, John W.

    1989-10-01

    A microscopic theory of fission is presented in which a Feynman path integral is used to understand tunneling. The idea of an instanton in the case of a Boson field theory is generalized to many Fermions and used to determine the dynamical path self-consistently. The essential roles of Fermion nodal surfaces and symmetry breaking are emphasized. The theory is applied to a solvable pedagogical model, which demonstrates its quantitative accuracy and the importance of solving for the optimal collective path. Similar features are observed in a more realistic calculation of a 32-Fermion system in three dimensions.

  16. Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Microscopic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ballmann, Charles W.; Thompson, Jonathan V.; Traverso, Andrew J.; Meng, Zhaokai; Scully, Marlan O.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional stimulated Brillouin scattering microscopy is demonstrated for the first time using low power continuous-wave lasers tunable around 780 nm. Spontaneous Brillouin spectroscopy has much potential for probing viscoelastic properties remotely and non-invasively on a microscopic scale. Nonlinear Brillouin scattering spectroscopy and microscopy may provide a way to tremendously accelerate the data aquisition and improve spatial resolution. This general imaging setup can be easily adapted for specific applications in biology and material science. The low power and optical wavelengths in the water transparency window used in this setup provide a powerful bioimaging technique for probing the mechanical properties of hard and soft tissue. PMID:26691398

  17. Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Microscopic Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballmann, Charles W.; Thompson, Jonathan V.; Traverso, Andrew J.; Meng, Zhaokai; Scully, Marlan O.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

    2015-12-01

    Two-dimensional stimulated Brillouin scattering microscopy is demonstrated for the first time using low power continuous-wave lasers tunable around 780 nm. Spontaneous Brillouin spectroscopy has much potential for probing viscoelastic properties remotely and non-invasively on a microscopic scale. Nonlinear Brillouin scattering spectroscopy and microscopy may provide a way to tremendously accelerate the data aquisition and improve spatial resolution. This general imaging setup can be easily adapted for specific applications in biology and material science. The low power and optical wavelengths in the water transparency window used in this setup provide a powerful bioimaging technique for probing the mechanical properties of hard and soft tissue.

  18. Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Microscopic Imaging.

    PubMed

    Ballmann, Charles W; Thompson, Jonathan V; Traverso, Andrew J; Meng, Zhaokai; Scully, Marlan O; Yakovlev, Vladislav V

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional stimulated Brillouin scattering microscopy is demonstrated for the first time using low power continuous-wave lasers tunable around 780 nm. Spontaneous Brillouin spectroscopy has much potential for probing viscoelastic properties remotely and non-invasively on a microscopic scale. Nonlinear Brillouin scattering spectroscopy and microscopy may provide a way to tremendously accelerate the data aquisition and improve spatial resolution. This general imaging setup can be easily adapted for specific applications in biology and material science. The low power and optical wavelengths in the water transparency window used in this setup provide a powerful bioimaging technique for probing the mechanical properties of hard and soft tissue. PMID:26691398

  19. Microscopic Modeling the Demographic Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo?kowska, Katarzyna; Szymczak, Szymon; Cebrat, Stanis?aw

    We have adapted the Penna ageing model to simulate the profound changes in the age structures of populations caused by the better life style, medical care and decrease in birth rate. In Poland, after the political transformations in the last decade of the twentieth century, the increase in the expected lifespan has been accompanied by very deep decrease in birthrate, much below the minimum necessary for keeping the constant size of the population. Our microscopic model describes the changes in the age structure which have already happened and predicts the future, assuming that our attitudes in respect to life style and social relations will not change.

  20. Microscopic tubes in igneous rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, D.; Simmons, G.

    1977-01-01

    Microscopic tubes have been observed in several igneous rocks and may be quite common. They occur in single crystals and have either elliptical or circular cross-sections 1 to 5 microns in diameter and are ten to hundreds of microns long. Microtubes may be hollow or partially or completely filled with another phase, but are distinct from acicular crystals of accessory minerals such as rutile. Microtubes can form by at least three processes: (1) the partial annealing of microcracks, (2) the natural etching of dislocations, or (3) the primary inclusion of fluid material during crystal growth.

  1. Virtual immunology: software for teaching basic immunology.

    PubMed

    Berçot, Filipe Faria; Fidalgo-Neto, Antônio Augusto; Lopes, Renato Matos; Faggioni, Thais; Alves, Luiz Anastácio

    2013-01-01

    As immunology continues to evolve, many educational methods have found difficulty in conveying the degree of complexity inherent in its basic principles. Today, the teaching-learning process in such areas has been improved with tools such as educational software. This article introduces "Virtual Immunology," a software program available free of charge in Portuguese and English, which can be used by teachers and students in physiology, immunology, and cellular biology classes. We discuss the development of the initial two modules: "Organs and Lymphoid Tissues" and "Inflammation" and the use of interactive activities to provide microscopic and macroscopic understanding in immunology. Students, both graduate and undergraduate, were questioned along with university level professors about the quality of the software and intuitiveness of use, facility of navigation, and aesthetic organization using a Likert scale. An overwhelmingly satisfactory result was obtained with both students and immunology teachers. Programs such as "Virtual Immunology" are offering more interactive, multimedia approaches to complex scientific principles that increase student motivation, interest, and comprehension. PMID:24259333

  2. Virtual microscopy-The future of teaching histology in the medical curriculum?

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Friedrich P; Eichhorn, Michael; Bräuer, Lars

    2010-12-20

    Conventional continuing education in microscopic anatomy, histopathology, hematology and microbiology has hitherto been carried out using numerous sets of sectioned tissue specimens in a microscopy laboratory. In comparison, after digitalization of the sections it would be possible to access teaching specimens via virtual microscopy and the internet at any time and place. This would make it possible to put innumerable new learning scenarios into practice. The present article elucidates the advantages of virtual microscopy in histology instruction and presents a concept of how virtual microscopy could be introduced into the teaching of microscopic anatomy in several steps. Initially, the presently existing microscopic teaching specimens would be digitalized and made available on-line without restriction. In a second step, instruction would be shifted to an emphasis on virtual microscopy, utilizing all of the advantages offered by the technique. In a third step, the microscopic contents could be networked with other anatomical, radiological and clinical content on-line, thus opening new learning perspectives for students of human and dental medicine as well as those of medically related courses of study. The advantages and disadvantages of such a concept as well as some possibly arising consequences are discussed in the following. PMID:20971623

  3. Sensing mode atomic force microscope

    DOEpatents

    Hough, Paul V. C.; Wang, Chengpu

    2006-08-22

    An atomic force microscope is described having a cantilever comprising a base and a probe tip on an end opposite the base; a cantilever drive device connected to the base; a magnetic material coupled to the probe tip, such that when an incrementally increasing magnetic field is applied to the magnetic material an incrementally increasing force will be applied to the probe tip; a moveable specimen base; and a controller constructed to obtain a profile height of a specimen at a point based upon a contact between the probe tip and a specimen, and measure an adhesion force between the probe tip and the specimen by, under control of a program, incrementally increasing an amount of a magnetic field until a release force, sufficient to break the contact, is applied. An imaging method for atomic force microscopy involving measuring a specimen profile height and adhesion force at multiple points within an area and concurrently displaying the profile and adhesion force for each of the points is also described. A microscope controller is also described and is constructed to, for a group of points, calculate a specimen height at a point based upon a cantilever deflection, a cantilever base position and a specimen piezo position; calculate an adhesion force between a probe tip and a specimen at the point by causing an incrementally increasing force to be applied to the probe tip until the probe tip separates from a specimen; and move the probe tip to a new point in the group.

  4. Sensing mode atomic force microscope

    DOEpatents

    Hough, Paul V.; Wang, Chengpu

    2004-11-16

    An atomic force microscope is described having a cantilever comprising a base and a probe tip on an end opposite the base; a cantilever drive device connected to the base; a magnetic material coupled to the probe tip, such that when an incrementally increasing magnetic field is applied to the magnetic material an incrementally increasing force will be applied to the probe tip; a moveable specimen base; and a controller constructed to obtain a profile height of a specimen at a point based upon a contact between the probe tip and a specimen, and measure an adhesion force between the probe tip and the specimen by, under control of a program, incrementally increasing an amount of a magnetic field until a release force, sufficient to break the contact, is applied. An imaging method for atomic force microscopy involving measuring a specimen profile height and adhesion force at multiple points within an area and concurrently displaying the profile and adhesion force for each of the points is also described. A microscope controller is also described and is constructed to, for a group of points, calculate a specimen height at a point based upon a cantilever deflection, a cantilever base position and a specimen piezo position; calculate an adhesion force between a probe tip and a specimen at the point by causing an incrementally increasing force to be applied to the probe tip until the probe tip separates from a specimen; and move the probe tip to a new point in the group.

  5. Sensing mode atomic force microscope

    DOEpatents

    Hough, Paul V. C.; Wang, Chengpu

    2003-01-01

    An atomic force microscope utilizes a pulse release system and improved method of operation to minimize contact forces between a probe tip affixed to a flexible cantilever and a specimen being measured. The pulse release system includes a magnetic particle affixed proximate the probe tip and an electromagnetic coil. When energized, the electromagnetic coil generates a magnetic field which applies a driving force on the magnetic particle sufficient to overcome adhesive forces exhibited between the probe tip and specimen. The atomic force microscope includes two independently displaceable piezo elements operable along a Z-axis. A controller drives the first Z-axis piezo element to provide a controlled approach between the probe tip and specimen up to a point of contact between the probe tip and specimen. The controller then drives the first Z-axis piezo element to withdraw the cantilever from the specimen. The controller also activates the pulse release system which drives the probe tip away from the specimen during withdrawal. Following withdrawal, the controller adjusts the height of the second Z-axis piezo element to maintain a substantially constant approach distance between successive samples.

  6. Martian Magnets Under the Microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit acquired this microscopic imager view of its capture magnet on sol 92 (April 6, 2004). Both Spirit and the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity are equipped with a number of magnets. The capture magnet, as seen here, has a stronger charge than its sidekick, the filter magnet. The lower-powered filter magnet captures only the most magnetic airborne dust with the strongest charges, while the capture magnet picks up all magnetic airborne dust.

    The magnets' primary purpose is to collect the martian magnetic dust so that scientists can analyze it with the rovers' Moessbauer spectrometers. While there is plenty of dust on the surface of Mars, it is difficult to confirm where it came from, and when it was last airborne. Because scientists are interested in learning about the properties of the dust in the atmosphere, they devised this dust-collection experiment.

    The capture magnet is about 4.5 centimeters (1.8 inches) in diameter and is constructed with a central cylinder and three rings, each with alternating orientations of magnetization. Scientists have been monitoring the continual accumulation of dust since the beginning of the mission with panoramic camera and microscopic imager images. They had to wait until enough dust accumulated before they could get a Moessbauer spectrometer analysis. The results of that analysis, performed on sol 92, have not been sent back to Earth yet.

  7. Microscopical advances in assisted reproduction.

    PubMed

    Baccetti, B

    2004-01-01

    In a series of papers carried out by this laboratory it was demonstrated that the quality of sterile males sperm, assessed submicroscopically and mathematically, is closely correlated with the success of the various procedures of assisted reproduction. If we attempt to select hypothetically optimal spermatozoa destined to the ICSI by light inverted microscopy, a considerable amount of ultrastructural information is lost and our selection is merely based on the motility. In this study we apply polarization microscopy to the ICSI technique, introducing polarizing and analyzing lenses in an inverted microscope model, operating in a transparent container. The retardation of the birefringence in the various organelles is evaluated by compensators, and the images are transmitted to a video system, and stored in a computer. Spermatozoa are maintained alive and perfectly motile in this polarizing inverted microscope, and the character of the birefringence is the same as in fixed and sectioned biological material examined by polarization microscopy. The birefringence of the sperm structures allows a sperm analysis closer to TEM than to phase contrast light microscopy analysis. PMID:15906610

  8. Inspection with Robotic Microscopic Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedersen, Liam; Deans, Matthew; Kunz, Clay; Sargent, Randy; Chen, Alan; Mungas, Greg

    2005-01-01

    Future Mars rover missions will require more advanced onboard autonomy for increased scientific productivity and reduced mission operations cost. One such form of autonomy can be achieved by targeting precise science measurements to be made in a single command uplink cycle. In this paper we present an overview of our solution to the subproblems of navigating a rover into place for microscopic imaging, mapping an instrument target point selected by an operator using far away science camera images to close up hazard camera images, verifying the safety of placing a contact instrument on a sample or finding nearby safe points, and analyzing the data that comes back from the rover. The system developed includes portions used in the Multiple Target Single Cycle Instrument Placement demonstration at NASA Ames in October 2004, and portions of the MI Toolkit delivered to the Athena Microscopic Imager Instrument Team for the MER mission still operating on Mars today. Some of the component technologies are also under consideration for MSL mission infusion.

  9. Towards Calibrating the Vestan Regolith: Correlating the Petrology, Chemistry and Spectroscopy of Howardites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Ammannito, E.; Hiroi, T.; De Angelis, S.; Di Iorio, T.; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, C.

    2013-01-01

    The Dawn spacecraft carries a visible and infrared mapping spectrometer (VIR) [1] that has acquired spectra for the wavelength range 0.25-5.0 µm at various spatial resolutions covering much of the vestan surface [2]. Through comparison of VIR spectra with laboratory spectra of howardite, eucrite and diogenite meteorites, the distribution of more diogenite-rich and more eucrite-rich terranes on Vesta have been mapped [3], but these maps are qualitative in nature. The available laboratory spectra are not well-integrated with detailed sample petrology or composition limiting their utility for lithologic mapping. Importantly, howardites are now recognized to come in two subtypes, regolithic and fragmental [4]. The former are breccias assembled in part from true regolith, while the latter have had much less exposure to the space environment. We are attempting to develop a more quantitative basis for mapping the distribution of lithologic types on Vesta through acquiring laboratory spectra on splits of howardites that have been petrologically and chemically characterized [5]. Noble gas analyses have been done on some allowing identification of those howardites that have been exposed in the true regolith of Vesta [6].

  10. Lithostratigraphy, petrology and 40Ar- 39Ar geochronology of the Crucero Supergroup, Puno department, SE Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandeman, Hamish A.; Clark, Alan H.; Farrar, Edward; Pauca, Guido Arroyo

    1997-07-01

    The Cordillera de Carabaya region of the southern Peruvian Andes preserves a collage of Tertiary igneous suites, including extrusive and hypabyssal units, that are herein assigned to the Crucero Supergroup and Crucero Intrusive Supersuite, respectively. The supergroup consists of two petrologically and temporally distinct assemblages, the Picotani and the Quenamari Groups, both with silicic hypabyssal representatives. Stratigraphic, petrologic and 40Ar- 39 Ar geochronologic studies of these rocks demonstrate that they are exposed in four localities, the Quenamari, Antauta, Cayconi and Picotani volcanic fields. The Picotani Group incorporates a diverse assemblage of lavas and pyroclastic rocks, including lamprophyres (minette), medium- to high-K calc-alkaline basalts, shoshonites, and S-type rhyodacites and rhyolites, as well as commingled and mixed associations of these, constituting ten mappable formations and twelve delimited hypabyssal units. These were emplaced over a brief interval from ca. 22 -to- 26 Ma. The Quenamari Group, in contrast, comprises entirely silicic, strongly peraluminous suites including, biotite + sillimanite ± muscovite ± andalusite ± tourmaline-bearing pyroclastic units and cogenetic epizonal intrusions. These constitute three distinct volcanic formations and at least 8 intrusive bodies. Rocks of the Quenamari Group span a broad temporal interval, from ca. 6.5 to 17 Ma. The rock associations of the Crucero Supergroup are clearly distinct from time-equivalent igneous units of the calc-alkaline, Main Andean arc in southern Peru, thereby implying differing geodynamic conditions during their genesis.

  11. Toward the reconciliation of seismological and petrological perspectives on oceanic lithosphere heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennett, B. L. N.; Furumura, T.

    2015-09-01

    The character of the high-frequency seismic phases Po and So, observed after propagation for long distances in the oceanic lithosphere, requires the presence of scattering from complex structure in 3-D. Current models use stochastic representations of seismic structure in the oceanic lithosphere. The observations are compatible with quasi-laminate features with horizontal correlation length around 10 km and vertical correlation length 0.5 km, with a uniform level of about 2% variation through the full thickness of the lithosphere. Such structures are difficult to explain with petrological models, which would favor stronger heterogeneity at the base of the lithosphere associated with underplating from frozen melts. Petrological evidence mostly points to smaller-scale features than suggested by seismology. The models from the different fields have been derived independently, with various levels of simplification. Fortunately, it is possible to gently modify the seismological model toward stronger basal heterogeneity, but there remains a need for some quasi-laminate structure throughout the mantle component of the oceanic lithosphere. The new models help to bridge the gulf between the different viewpoints, but ambiguities remain.

  12. Interactive computer programs for petrologic modeling with extended Q-mode factor analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miesch, A.T.

    1976-01-01

    An extended form of Q-mode factor analysis may be used if the row-sums of the data matrix are constant and can be helpful especially in developing and testing petrologic-mixing models for igneous systems. The first step is to represent the sample compositions as unit vectors in M-dimensional space and then to project them into space of fewer dimensions (m) as determined to be appropriate from a factor-variance diagram. Compositions thought to be those of possible end-members in the petrologic system then are represented as vectors in the M-dimensional space and projected into the same space as the sample vectors. If these vectors remain close to unity in length after projection, the corresponding compositions can serve as end-member compositions for the model. After m suitable end-member compositions have been identified, each sample composition is expressed as a mixture of the end-members by computation of the composition loadings. The interactive computer programs presented are useful in these procedures because of the trial-and-error nature of the modeling procedures. ?? 1976.

  13. Petrological and seismic precursors of the paroxysmal phase of the last Vesuvius eruption on March 1944

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, Lucia; D'Auria, Luca; Cavallo, Andrea; Fiore, Stefano

    2014-09-01

    Abrupt transitions in style and intensity are common during volcanic eruptions, with an immediate impact on the surrounding territory and its population. Defining the factors trigger such sudden shifts in the eruptive behavior as well as developing methods to predict such changes during volcanic crises are crucial goals in volcanology. In our research, the combined investigation of both petrological and seismic indicators has been applied for the first time to a Vesuvius eruption, that of March 1944 that caused the present dormant state of the volcano. Our results contribute to elucidate the evolution of the conduit dynamics that generated a drastic increase in the Volcanic Explosivity Index, associated to the ejection of huge amount of volcanic ash. Remarkably, our study shows that the main paroxysm was announced by robust changes in petrology consistent with seismology, thus suggesting that the development of monitoring methods to assess the nature of ejected juvenile material combined with conventional geophysical techniques can represent a powerful tool for forecasting the evolution of an eruption towards violent behavior. This in turn is a major goal in volcanology because this evidence can help decision-makers to implement an efficient safety strategy during the emergency (scale and pace of evacuation).

  14. Petrology and Geochemistry of Unbrecciated Harzburgitic Diogenite MIL 07001: A Window Into Vestan Geological Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Peng, Z. X.; Mertzman, S. A.; Mertzman, K. R.

    2014-01-01

    There is a strong case that asteroid 4 Vesta is the parent of the howardite, eucrite and diogenite (HED) meteorites. Models developed for the geological evolution of Vesta can satisfy the compositions of basaltic eucrites that dominate in the upper crust. The bulk compositional characteristics of diogenites - cumulate harzburgites and orthopyroxenites from the lower crust - do not fit into global magma ocean models that can describe the compositions of basaltic and cumulate eucrites. Recent more detailed formation models do make provision for a more complicated origin for diogenites, but this model has yet to be completely vetted. Compositional studies of bulk samples has led to the hypothesis that many diogenites were formed late by interaction of their parent melts with a eucritic crust, but those observations may alternatively be explained by subsolidus equilibration of trace elements between orthopyroxene and plagioclase and Ca-phosphate in the rocks. Differences in radiogenic Mg-26 content between diogenites and eucrites favors early formation of the former, not later formation. Understanding the origin of diogenites is crucial for understanding the petrologic evolution of Vesta. We have been doing coordinated studies of a suite of diogenites including petrologic investigations, bulk rock major and trace element studies, and in situ trace element analyses of orthopyroxene. Here we will focus on an especially unusual, and potentially key, diogenite, MIL 07001.

  15. Petrological and seismic precursors of the paroxysmal phase of the last Vesuvius eruption on March 1944.

    PubMed

    Pappalardo, Lucia; D'Auria, Luca; Cavallo, Andrea; Fiore, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Abrupt transitions in style and intensity are common during volcanic eruptions, with an immediate impact on the surrounding territory and its population. Defining the factors trigger such sudden shifts in the eruptive behavior as well as developing methods to predict such changes during volcanic crises are crucial goals in volcanology. In our research, the combined investigation of both petrological and seismic indicators has been applied for the first time to a Vesuvius eruption, that of March 1944 that caused the present dormant state of the volcano. Our results contribute to elucidate the evolution of the conduit dynamics that generated a drastic increase in the Volcanic Explosivity Index, associated to the ejection of huge amount of volcanic ash. Remarkably, our study shows that the main paroxysm was announced by robust changes in petrology consistent with seismology, thus suggesting that the development of monitoring methods to assess the nature of ejected juvenile material combined with conventional geophysical techniques can represent a powerful tool for forecasting the evolution of an eruption towards violent behavior. This in turn is a major goal in volcanology because this evidence can help decision-makers to implement an efficient safety strategy during the emergency (scale and pace of evacuation). PMID:25199537

  16. Petrological and seismic precursors of the paroxysmal phase of the last Vesuvius eruption on March 1944

    PubMed Central

    Pappalardo, Lucia; D'Auria, Luca; Cavallo, Andrea; Fiore, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Abrupt transitions in style and intensity are common during volcanic eruptions, with an immediate impact on the surrounding territory and its population. Defining the factors trigger such sudden shifts in the eruptive behavior as well as developing methods to predict such changes during volcanic crises are crucial goals in volcanology. In our research, the combined investigation of both petrological and seismic indicators has been applied for the first time to a Vesuvius eruption, that of March 1944 that caused the present dormant state of the volcano. Our results contribute to elucidate the evolution of the conduit dynamics that generated a drastic increase in the Volcanic Explosivity Index, associated to the ejection of huge amount of volcanic ash. Remarkably, our study shows that the main paroxysm was announced by robust changes in petrology consistent with seismology, thus suggesting that the development of monitoring methods to assess the nature of ejected juvenile material combined with conventional geophysical techniques can represent a powerful tool for forecasting the evolution of an eruption towards violent behavior. This in turn is a major goal in volcanology because this evidence can help decision-makers to implement an efficient safety strategy during the emergency (scale and pace of evacuation). PMID:25199537

  17. Precise autofocusing microscope with rapid response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chien-Sheng; Jiang, Sheng-Hong

    2015-03-01

    The rapid on-line or off-line automated vision inspection is a critical operation in the manufacturing fields. Accordingly, this present study designs and characterizes a novel precise optics-based autofocusing microscope with a rapid response and no reduction in the focusing accuracy. In contrast to conventional optics-based autofocusing microscopes with centroid method, the proposed microscope comprises a high-speed rotating optical diffuser in which the variation of the image centroid position is reduced and consequently the focusing response is improved. The proposed microscope is characterized and verified experimentally using a laboratory-built prototype. The experimental results show that compared to conventional optics-based autofocusing microscopes, the proposed microscope achieves a more rapid response with no reduction in the focusing accuracy. Consequently, the proposed microscope represents another solution for both existing and emerging industrial applications of automated vision inspection.

  18. Surgery applications of virtual reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    Virtual reality is a computer-generated technology which allows information to be displayed in a simulated, bus lifelike, environment. In this simulated 'world', users can move and interact as if they were actually a part of that world. This new technology will be useful in many different fields, including the field of surgery. Virtual reality systems can be used to teach surgical anatomy, diagnose surgical problems, plan operations, simulate and perform surgical procedures (telesurgery), and predict the outcomes of surgery. The authors of this paper describe the basic components of a virtual reality surgical system. These components include: the virtual world, the virtual tools, the anatomical model, the software platform, the host computer, the interface, and the head-coupled display. In the chapter they also review the progress towards using virtual reality for surgical training, planning, telesurgery, and predicting outcomes. Finally, the authors present a training system being developed for the practice of new procedures in abdominal surgery.

  19. The virtual environment display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgreevy, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    Virtual environment technology is a display and control technology that can surround a person in an interactive computer generated or computer mediated virtual environment. It has evolved at NASA-Ames since 1984 to serve NASA's missions and goals. The exciting potential of this technology, sometimes called Virtual Reality, Artificial Reality, or Cyberspace, has been recognized recently by the popular media, industry, academia, and government organizations. Much research and development will be necessary to bring it to fruition.

  20. Virtual interface environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Scott S.

    1986-01-01

    A head-mounted, wide-angle, stereoscopic display system controlled by operator position, voice and gesture has been developed for use as a multipurpose interface environment. The system provides a multisensory, interactive display environment in which a user can virtually explore a 360-degree synthesized or remotely sensed environment and can viscerally interact with its components. Primary applications of the system are in telerobotics, management of large-scale integrated information systems, and human factors research. System configuration, application scenarios, and research directions are described.

  1. "Virtual Feel" Capaciflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M.

    2006-01-01

    The term "virtual feel" denotes a type of capaciflector (an advanced capacitive proximity sensor) and a methodology for designing and using a sensor of this type to guide a robot in manipulating a tool (e.g., a wrench socket) into alignment with a mating fastener (e.g., a bolt head) or other electrically conductive object. A capaciflector includes at least one sensing electrode, excited with an alternating voltage, that puts out a signal indicative of the capacitance between that electrode and a proximal object.

  2. Virtual Solar Inc.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, R. D.; Hill, F.; Hurlburt, N.

    2004-07-01

    The need to develop new ways of accessing solar observations, coupled with rapidly increasing volumes of data and the desire to share data with other communities, has led to several projects intended to create virtual solar observatories. We outline the three main initiatives, EGSO, VSO and CoSEC, and describe how the the combined effort will result in a facility that will better match the needs of the community. Interaction with related communities are discussed, including similarities and differences with the IVOA and interoperability.

  3. Mobile Virtual Private Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulkkis, Göran; Grahn, Kaj; Mårtens, Mathias; Mattsson, Jonny

    Mobile Virtual Private Networking (VPN) solutions based on the Internet Security Protocol (IPSec), Transport Layer Security/Secure Socket Layer (SSL/TLS), Secure Shell (SSH), 3G/GPRS cellular networks, Mobile IP, and the presently experimental Host Identity Protocol (HIP) are described, compared and evaluated. Mobile VPN solutions based on HIP are recommended for future networking because of superior processing efficiency and network capacity demand features. Mobile VPN implementation issues associated with the IP protocol versions IPv4 and IPv6 are also evaluated. Mobile VPN implementation experiences are presented and discussed.

  4. Next Generation Virtual Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, P.; McGuinness, D. L.

    2008-12-01

    Virtual Observatories (VO) are now being established in a variety of geoscience disciplines beyond their origins in Astronomy and Solar Physics. Implementations range from hydrology and environmental sciences to solid earth sciences. Among the goals of VOs are to provide search/ query, access and use of distributed, heterogeneous data resources. With many of these goals being met and usage increasing, new demands and requirements are arising. In particular there are two of immediate and pressing interest. The first is use of VOs by non-specialists, especially for information products that go beyond the usual data, or data products that are sought for scientific research. The second area is citation and attribution of artifacts that are being generated by VOs. In some sense VOs are re-publishing (re-packaging, or generating new synthetic) data and information products. At present only a few VOs address this need and it is clear that a comprehensive solution that includes publishers is required. Our work in VOs and related semantic data framework and integration areas has lead to a view of the next generation of virtual observatories which the two above-mentioned needs as well as others that are emerging. Both of the needs highlight a semantic gap, i.e. that the meaning and use for a user or users beyond the original design intention is very often difficult or impossible to bridge. For example, VOs created for experts with complex, arcane or jargon vocabularies are not accessible to the non-specialist and further, information products the non-specialist may use are not created or considered for creation. In the second case, use of a (possibly virtual) data or information product (e.g. an image or map) as an intellectual artifact that can be accessed as part of the scientific publication and review procedure also introduces terminology gaps, as well as services that VOs may need to provide. Our supposition is that formalized methods in semantics and semantic web technologies are ideal to meet and solve both of these semantic gaps. In this presentation we highlight both of the emerging needs, and current and emerging semantic web solutions that will enable the next generation of virtual observatories. Our work is funded under NSF/OCI and NASA/ACCESS/ESTO projects to the High Altitude Observatory at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and McGuinness Associates Consulting.

  5. Recoverable distributed shared virtual memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Kun-Lung; Fuchs, W. Kent

    1990-01-01

    The problem of rollback recovery in distributed shared virtual environments, in which the shared memory is implemented in software in a loosely coupled distributed multicomputer system, is examined. A user-transparent checkpointing recovery scheme and a new twin-page disk storage management technique are presented for implementing recoverable distributed shared virtual memory. The checkpointing scheme can be integrated with the memory coherence protocol for managing the shared virtual memory. The twin-page disk design allows checkpointing to proceed in an incremental fashion without an explicit undo at the time of recovery. The recoverable distributed shared virtual memory allows the system to restart computation from a checkpoint without a global restart.

  6. Enhanced virtual microscopy for collaborative education

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Curricular reform efforts and a desire to use novel educational strategies that foster student collaboration are challenging the traditional microscope-based teaching of histology. Computer-based histology teaching tools and Virtual Microscopes (VM), computer-based digital slide viewers, have been shown to be effective and efficient educational strategies. We developed an open-source VM system based on the Google Maps engine to transform our histology education and introduce new teaching methods. This VM allows students and faculty to collaboratively create content, annotate slides with markers, and it is enhanced with social networking features to give the community of learners more control over the system. Results We currently have 1,037 slides in our VM system comprised of 39,386,941 individual JPEG files that take up 349 gigabytes of server storage space. Of those slides 682 are for general teaching and available to our students and the public; the remaining 355 slides are used for practical exams and have restricted access. The system has seen extensive use with 289,352 unique slide views to date. Students viewed an average of 56.3 slides per month during the histology course and accessed the system at all hours of the day. Of the 621 annotations added to 126 slides 26.2% were added by faculty and 73.8% by students. The use of the VM system reduced the amount of time faculty spent administering the course by 210 hours, but did not reduce the number of laboratory sessions or the number of required faculty. Laboratory sessions were reduced from three hours to two hours each due to the efficiencies in the workflow of the VM system. Conclusions Our virtual microscope system has been an effective solution to the challenges facing traditional histopathology laboratories and the novel needs of our revised curriculum. The web-based system allowed us to empower learners to have greater control over their content, as well as the ability to work together in collaborative groups. The VM system saved faculty time and there was no significant difference in student performance on an identical practical exam before and after its adoption. We have made the source code of our VM freely available and encourage use of the publically available slides on our website. PMID:21269474

  7. Thermal modeling of the southern Alaska subduction zone: Insight into the petrology of the subducting slab and overlying mantle wedge

    SciTech Connect

    Ponko, S.C.; Peacock, S.M.

    1995-11-10

    This report discusses a two-dimensional thermal model of the southern Alaska subduction zone. This model allows specfic predictions to be made about the pressure-temperature conditions and mineralogy of the subducting oceanic crust and the mantle wedge and assess different petrologic models for the generation of Alaskan arc magmas.

  8. Petrologic insights into basaltic volcanism at historically active Hawaiian volcanoes: Chapter 6 in Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helz, Rosalind L.; Clague, David A.; Sisson, Thomas W.; Thornber, Carl R.

    2014-01-01

    Contributions to our knowledge of the nature of the mantle source(s) of Hawaiian basalts are reviewed briefly, although this is a topic where debate is ongoing. Finally, our accumulated petrologic observations impose constraints on the nature of the summit reservoirs at KÄ«lauea and Mauna Loa, specifically whether the summit chamber has been continuous or segmented during past decades.

  9. Origin of New Faculty in Sedimentary Petrology at Ph.D.-Granting Universities in the United States and Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Scott E.

    1981-01-01

    To aid prospective graduate students in sedimentary petrology who wish to teach at colleges or universities, 121 doctoral graduates in this field are traced to their present appointments in higher education. Only 31 percent of these graduates attained this career goal. (Author/WB)

  10. Research and applications of virtual medicine.

    PubMed

    Ann Heng, Pheng

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we would like to share our experience in developing various virtual medicine applications, including virtual arthroscopy, virtual acupuncture and virtual anatomy. We have deployed the latest graphics processor to develop these virtual reality based learning and training systems. Having utilized various visible human datasets, the visual quality of the applications has been greatly improved. PMID:17281150

  11. Field Experience in Virtual Schools--To Be There Virtually

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compton, Lily Ki Lo; Davis, Niki; Mackey, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Virtual Schooling (VS) for K-12 school students using distance technologies has increased rapidly in the 21st century with the growth of online learning and virtual schools in more than 44 states in the USA and as e-learning in over 20 clusters of rural schools in New Zealand. Although VS requires a special set of teaching methods, teacher…

  12. When Virtual Worlds Expand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bainbridge, William Sims

    The future of a virtual world depends on whether it can grow in subjective size, cultural content, and numbers of human participants. In one form of growth, exemplified by Second Life, the scope of a world increases gradually as new sponsors pay for new territory and inhabitants create content. A very different form of growth is sudden expansion, as when World of Warcraft (WoW) added entire new continents in its Burning Crusade and Lich King expansions (Lummis and Kern 2006, 2008; Corneliussen and Rettberg 2008; Sims et al. 2008). Well-established gamelike worlds have often undergone many expansions. Both the pioneer science fiction game Anarchy Online, which was launched in 2001, and Star Wars Galaxies dating from 2003, have had three, and EVE Online also from 2003 has had nine, although smaller ones. This chapter reports research on WoW's 2008 Lich King expansion, using both quantitative and qualitative methods, in order to develop theoretical ideas of the implications of expansion for virtual worlds.

  13. Tours in Virtual Globes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treves, R.

    2009-12-01

    The most significant new feature to appear in Google Earth 5.0 in February was the tour feature, it can produce eye catching and appealing animations as was shown by the Apollo 11 Tour which shows a model of the lunar module descending to the surface of the moon. It allows users to record themselves navigating around Google Earth switching elements on and off. The use of the tour functionality goes beyond exciting animations, it has important applications as a way of; introducing users to a larger data set presented in a Virtual Globe, offering an alternative to PowerPoint as a platform to support presentations and as a quick way to produce powerful visualizations for education purposes. In this talk I will explore how best to use to tours to present a range of spatial data and examine how the Google Earth tour compares to similar functionality that is appearing in other Virtual Globes and other 3D environments such as Second Life.

  14. Virtual Optical Comparator

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Greg

    2008-10-20

    The Virtual Optical Comparator, VOC, was conceived as a result of the limitations of conventional optical comparators and vision systems. Piece part designs for mechanisms have started to include precision features on the face of parts that must be viewed using a reflected image rather than a profile shadow. The VOC concept uses a computer generated overlay and a digital camera to measure features on a video screen. The advantage of this system is superior edge detection compared to traditional systems. No vinyl charts are procured or inspected. The part size and expensive fixtures are no longer a concern because of the range of the X-Y table of the Virtual Optical Comparator. Product redesigns require only changes to the CAD image overlays; new vinyl charts are not required. The inspection process is more ergonomic by allowing the operator to view the part sitting at a desk rather than standing over a 30 inch screen. The procurement cost for the VOC will be less than a traditional comparator with a much smaller footprint with less maintenance and energy requirements.

  15. Grids, Clouds, and Virtualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cafaro, Massimo; Aloisio, Giovanni

    This chapter introduces and puts in context Grids, Clouds, and Virtualization. Grids promised to deliver computing power on demand. However, despite a decade of active research, no viable commercial grid computing provider has emerged. On the other hand, it is widely believed - especially in the Business World - that HPC will eventually become a commodity. Just as some commercial consumers of electricity have mission requirements that necessitate they generate their own power, some consumers of computational resources will continue to need to provision their own supercomputers. Clouds are a recent business-oriented development with the potential to render this eventually as rare as organizations that generate their own electricity today, even among institutions who currently consider themselves the unassailable elite of the HPC business. Finally, Virtualization is one of the key technologies enabling many different Clouds. We begin with a brief history in order to put them in context, and recall the basic principles and concepts underlying and clearly differentiating them. A thorough overview and survey of existing technologies provides the basis to delve into details as the reader progresses through the book.

  16. Hydrothermal alteration and tectonic setting of intrusive rocks from East Brawley, Imperial Valley: an application of petrology to geothermal reservoir analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Keskinen, M.; Sternfeld, J.

    1982-01-01

    A geothermal well near East Brawley intersected a series of thin (3 to 35m) diabasic to dioritic intrusives. The petrology and chemistry of these meta-igneous rocks can provide insight into the thermal and fluid chemical characteristics of the reservoir and into the processes of magma generation at depth. A description of the rock types and their hydrothermal alteration is presented in order to increase the petrologic data base relating to this important facet of the geothermal potential of the Salton Trough and to provide a case study illustrating how detailed petrologic examination of well cuttings can provide important input in the construction of a geothermal reservoir model.

  17. The virtual group identification process: a virtual educational community case.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chia-Ping; Young, Mei-Lein

    2008-02-01

    Because the Internet provides an alternative forum for the social interaction of professional groups, understanding how these groups form as virtual communities (VCs) in cyberspace is crucial. In this study, we observe the social interactions of teachers belonging to the largest VC in Taiwan and analyze discourse on an important educational policy, using content analysis to ascertain how virtual group identity is established. Our primary findings show that among the seven identity categories characterizing professional virtual group identity, both alliance and kinship types of identities are the main forces behind the formation of a virtual group. In contrast, the affection, attachment, bonding, closeness, and nostalgia types of identities show minimal effect. Moreover, leadership of the virtual group plays a critical role in the group setting, and participants play a part in restoring a positive sense of self or in shaping the group identity as they encounter threats in this dynamic environment. PMID:18275318

  18. Effect of display resolution on time to diagnosis with virtual pathology slides in a systematic search task.

    PubMed

    Randell, Rebecca; Ambepitiya, Thilina; Mello-Thoms, Claudia; Ruddle, Roy A; Brettle, David; Thomas, Rhys G; Treanor, Darren

    2015-02-01

    Performing diagnoses using virtual slides can take pathologists significantly longer than with glass slides, presenting a significant barrier to the use of virtual slides in routine practice. Given the benefits in pathology workflow efficiency and safety that virtual slides promise, it is important to understand reasons for this difference and identify opportunities for improvement. The effect of display resolution on time to diagnosis with virtual slides has not previously been explored. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of display resolution on time to diagnosis with virtual slides. Nine pathologists participated in a counterbalanced crossover study, viewing axillary lymph node slides on a microscope, a 23-in 2.3-megapixel single-screen display and a three-screen 11-megapixel display consisting of three 27-in displays. Time to diagnosis and time to first target were faster on the microscope than on the single and three-screen displays. There was no significant difference between the microscope and the three-screen display in time to first target, while the time taken on the single-screen display was significantly higher than that on the microscope. The results suggest that a digital pathology workstation with an increased number of pixels may make it easier to identify where cancer is located in the initial slide overview, enabling quick location of diagnostically relevant regions of interest. However, when a comprehensive, detailed search of a slide has to be made, increased resolution may not offer any additional benefit. PMID:25128321

  19. Combined petrological, geochemical and isotopic modeling of a plume source: Example of Gambier Island, Pitcairn chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delavault, Hélène; Chauvel, Catherine; Sobolev, Alexander; Batanova, Valentina

    2015-09-01

    Mantle plumes have been increasingly studied in the past years, yet they remain not well understood. While geophysical approaches attempt to locate the depth of sources, petrological approaches characterize the nature of the materials that melt and geochemical approaches trace their history and origin. However, combined studies remain rare while they could provide strong constraints on the processes that give rise to mantle plumes. Here we present a new model that combines petrological and geochemical approaches to constrain the nature of source materials, their temperature of melting, their composition and their age. We focus on Gambier Island, Pitcairn chain in Polynesia because it has the advantage of combining two important features, (a) most lavas are tholeiites, a necessary feature to perform an accurate petrological modeling that can be compared to other plumes and (b) it belongs to the Pitcairn Chain, whose composition varies through time and samples today the extreme EM1-type source. We present geochemical analyses as well as Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopes of lavas and high-precision olivine analyses. Using in situ olivine analyses and REE modeling, we constrain the composition of the mantle source (5% recycled oceanic crust - 95% peridotite), how both components melt (25-30% versus 0.5-1.5%) and we estimate the temperature of Gambier source at about 1400 °C, a rather low temperature compared to Hawaii for example. We also constrain both the age and the nature of the recycled material using the isotopic data. They require the presence of about 3% sediment associated to recycled basalt in the pyroxenitic component and its age is about 1.5 Gyr. We also attribute the marked Nb-Ta positive anomalies and the elevated Ce/Pb ratios to the presence of recycled basalt in the mantle source. These features resemble typical HIMU lavas but the younger age of the recycled material together with the presence of sediment in the plume source explains the lower Pb isotopic ratios. The clear isotopic change between Gambier and Pitcairn Islands suggests that the plume source changed radically within 5 Ma. More generally, our new data and model suggest that the FOZO composition as sampled by Gambier lavas does not necessarily represent a large and rather primitive mantle source.

  20. Teaching Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry in the 21st Century: Instructional Resources for Geoscience Faculty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogk, D. W.; Beane, R. J.; Whitney, D. L.; Nicolaysen, K. E.; Panero, W. R.; Peck, W. H.

    2011-12-01

    Mineralogy, petrology and geochemistry (MPG) are pillars of the geoscience curriculum because of their relevance in interpreting Earth history and processes, application to geo-hazards, resources, and environmental issues, and contributions to emerging fields such as geology and human health. To keep faculty current in scientific advances in these fields, and in modern instructional methods, the On the Cutting Edge program convened a workshop at the University of Minnesota in August, 2011. This workshop builds on the previous 15 year's work that has been focused on identifying, aggregating, and developing high-quality collections of teaching activities and related resources, and in building a community of scholars in support of excellence in instruction in MPG courses. The goals of the workshop were to: a) develop an integrated, comprehensive and reviewed curriculum for MPG courses, and to seek ways to make connections with the larger geoscience curriculum; b) to explore emerging topics in MPG such as geobiology and climate change; c) demonstrate effective methods in teaching MPG in the context of Earth system science; d) share effective teaching activities and strategies for the classroom, laboratory and field including advances in pedagogy, assessments and research on learning; e) keep faculty current on recent advances in mineralogy, petrology and geochemistry research and to apply these findings to our teaching; f) explore and utilize current societal and global issues that intersect mineralogy, petrology and geochemistry to heighten the relevancy of course content for students; and h) meet colleagues and foster future teaching and research collaborations. A significant outcome of this workshop is a peer reviewed of collection of 300+ existing teaching activities, and a gap analysis to identify teaching activities needed to make these collections comprehensive and coherent. In addition, a series of thematic collections were developed to assist high priority areas of teaching MPG (e.g. MPG in Introductory Geoscience Courses-Beyond "Rocks in a Box"; thermobarometry programs). All demonstrations and presentations made at the workshop are accessible from the workshop webpage, including a wide variety of active learning exercises and demonstrations of modern computer applications (e.g. SHAPE, ATOMS, CrystalMaker, MELTS, Theriak-Domino, Perplex, TWQ, Google Earth and Gigapans, and PHREEQC). A post-workshop field trip to the Precambrian rocks of northern Minnesota focused on effective teaching and learning in the field. We encourage the geoscience community to use these online resources, and please consider contributing additional teaching activities and resources to these collections.

  1. Composition and Petrology of HED Polymict Breccias: The Regolith of (4) Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Cartwright, J. A.; Herrin, J. S.; Mertzman, S. A.; Mertzman, K. R.; Peng, Z. X.; Quinn, J. E.

    2012-01-01

    The polymict breccias of the howardite, eucrite and diogenite (HED) clan of meteorites preserve records of regolith processes that occur on Vesta, their putative home world. These breccias -- howardites, polymict eucrites and polymict diogenites -- are impact-engendered mixtures of diogenites and eucrites. The compositions of polymict breccias can be used to constrain the lithologic diversity of the vestan crust and the excavation depths of these materials. We have done petrological and compositional studies of multiple samples of 5 polymict eucrites and 28 howardites to investigate these issues. Older analyses were done on samples of approx 0.5 gram mass by INAA; newer analyses on samples of approx 5 gram mass by XRF and ICP-MS. We estimate the percentage of eucritic material (POEM) of polymict breccias by comparing their Al and/or Ca contents to those of average basaltic eucrite and diogenite. Our samples have POEM ranging from 28 to 98; adding two polymict diogenites from extends the range to POEM 10. One hypothesis is that ancient, well-mixed vestan regolith has POEM approx 67 and has a higher content of admixed impactor material. Several of our howardites have POEM of 59-74 (Al and/or Ca contents +/- 10% of POEM 67); about a third have Ni contents >300 micro g/g suggesting they contain >2% chondritic material (CM and/or CR). These may be regolithic howardites. Only one (LEW 85313) contains Ne dominated by a solar wind (SW) component. PCA 02066 is dominated by impact-melt material of polymict parentage and petrologically appears to be a mature regolith breccia, yet it does not contain SW-Ne. GRO 95602 falls within the POEM window, contains SW-Ne], yet has a Ni content of 193 micro g/g. Its petrologic characteristics suggest it was formed from immature regolith (no polymict breccia clasts; no glass). Trace element characteristics of the polymict breccias demonstrate the dominance of main-group eucrites as the basaltic component. Mixing diagrams of Zr, Nb, Ba, Hf and Ta with Al show no evidence for a significant contribution from Stannern-trend eucrites. An exception is polymict eucrite LEW 86001 (POEM 92), which is dominated by Stannern-trend basaltic debris. Howardite LAP 04838 (POEM 84) has higher incompatible trace concentrations than other polymict breccias (excluding LEW 86001), and either contains a Stannern-trend basaltic component, or has a significant contributions from evolved eucrites like Nuevo Laredo.

  2. Developing Trust in Virtual Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germain, Marie-Line

    2011-01-01

    Rapid globalization, advances in technology, flatter organizational structures, synergistic cooperation among firms, and a shift to knowledge work environments have led to the increasing use of virtual teams in organizations. Selecting, training, and socializing employees in virtual teamwork has therefore become an important human resource…

  3. The Geography of Virtual Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mon, Lorri; Bishop, Bradley Wade; McClure, Charles R.; McGilvray, Jessica; Most, Linda; Milas, Theodore Patrick; Snead, John T.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the geography of virtual questioning by using geographic information systems to study activity within the Florida Electronic Library "Ask a Librarian" collaborative chat service. Researchers mapped participating libraries throughout the state of Florida that served as virtual "entry portals" for users as they asked questions…

  4. The Virtual Intercultural Team Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rus, Calin

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the Virtual Intercultural Team Tool (VITT) and discusses its processes and benefits. VIIT is a virtual platform designed with the aim of assisting European project teams to improve intercultural communication and build on their cultural diversity for effective implementation of their projects. It is a process-focused tool,…

  5. Telemedicine, virtual reality, and surgery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormack, Percival D.; Charles, Steve

    1994-01-01

    Two types of synthetic experience are covered: virtual reality (VR) and surgery, and telemedicine. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: geometric models; physiological sensors; surgical applications; virtual cadaver; VR surgical simulation; telesurgery; VR Surgical Trainer; abdominal surgery pilot study; advanced abdominal simulator; examples of telemedicine; and telemedicine spacebridge.

  6. Webinars at Louisiana Virtual School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Allen

    2009-01-01

    Delivering meaningful professional development, engaging students in exciting yet practical curricula, and effectively communicating with faculty and staff members are challenges in any school setting. At the Louisiana Virtual School, a state-funded virtual school run by the Louisiana Department of Education, the 6,000 students, 115 instructors,…

  7. Virtual cathode microwave devices -- Basics

    SciTech Connect

    Thode, L.E.; Snell, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    Unlike a conventional microwave tube, a virtual-cathode device operates above the space-charge limit where the depth of the space-charge potential can cause electron reflection. The region associated with this electron reflection is referred to as a virtual cathode. Microwaves can be generated through oscillations in the position of the virtual cathode and through the bunching of electrons trapped in a potential well between the real and virtual cathodes. These two mechanisms are competitive. There are three basic classes of virtual cathode devices: (1) reflex triode; (2) reditron and side-shoot vircator; and (3) reflex diode or vircator. The reflex diode is the highest power virtual-cathode device. For the reflex diode the energy exchange between the beam and electromagnetic wave occurs in both the axial and radial directions. In some designs the oscillating-virtual-cathode frequency exceeds the reflexing-electron frequency exceeds the oscillating-virtual-cathode frequency. For the flex diode a periodic disruption in magnetic insulation can modulate the high- frequency microwave power. Overall, particle-in-cell simulation predictions and axial reflex diode experiments are in good agreement. Although frequency stability and phase locking of the reflex diode have been demonstrated, little progress has been made in efficiency enhancement. 58 refs., 11 figs.

  8. Virtual Schools. Trends and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadderman, Margaret

    This article looks at a rapidly growing form of distance education: virtual schools. Also known as cyber schools, these Internet-based programs enroll fewer than 50,000 students nationwide, but more and more companies are entering this market. Some examples of these virtual schools are the Willoway CyberSchool, which was founded by a former…

  9. Designing a Virtual Field Trip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacina, Jan Guidry

    2004-01-01

    Virtual field trips offer a new way for teachers and students to visit historical sites and museums. Most notably, virtual field trips provide access to places that normally would be impossible for classrooms to visit, and this, in turn, provides a plethora of learning possibilities for the classroom. Why should teachers consider creating a…

  10. Virtual Enterprises and Vocational Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreber, Stefan

    2001-01-01

    Characteristics of virtual enterprises (client oriented, temporary working organizations that dissolve after solving specific problems, extensive technological applications) can be applied to vocational training. Virtual learning centers can provide web-based training intraorganizationally and interorganizationally via intranets and extranets. (SK)

  11. Adolescent Attitudes towards Virtual Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pleau, Andrea R.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to examine adolescents' attitudes towards virtual schooling. Virtual schooling may be defined as any public or private organization that delivers instruction via the Internet. The rationale for this study is based on the increased number of adolescents opting to complete some or all of their secondary education through…

  12. Dedicated online virtual reference instruction.

    PubMed

    Guillot, Ladonna; Stahr, Beth; Plaisance, Louise

    2005-01-01

    To facilitate nursing students' information literacy skills and enhance traditional library user services, academic librarians have developed synchronous (real-time) online virtual reference instruction in nursing research classes. The authors discuss collaborative efforts of nursing and library faculty in planning, implementing, and evaluating a discipline-specific virtual reference pilot program. PMID:16292145

  13. Creating the Virtual Middle Ground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heim, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Contemporary culture exhibits an increasingly polarized spectrum of attitudes toward virtualization: those who want photorealism and those who seek sheer fantasy. This author describes "Virtual Realism," his strategy for balancing the two social forces. His students at California's Art Center College of Design are putting it to the test.…

  14. Virtual Ed. Faces Sharp Criticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quillen, Ian

    2011-01-01

    It's been a rough time for the image of K-12 virtual education. Studies in Colorado and Minnesota have suggested that full-time online students are struggling to match the achievement levels of their peers in brick-and-mortar schools. Articles in "The New York Times" questioned not only the academic results for students in virtual schools, but…

  15. The Geography of Virtual Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mon, Lorri; Bishop, Bradley Wade; McClure, Charles R.; McGilvray, Jessica; Most, Linda; Milas, Theodore Patrick; Snead, John T.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the geography of virtual questioning by using geographic information systems to study activity within the Florida Electronic Library "Ask a Librarian" collaborative chat service. Researchers mapped participating libraries throughout the state of Florida that served as virtual "entry portals" for users as they asked questions…

  16. Knowledge Navigation for Virtual Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Julian E.

    2004-01-01

    A virtual vehicle is a digital model of the knowledge surrounding a potentially real vehicle. Knowledge consists not only of the tangible information, such as CAD, but also what is known about the knowledge - its metadata. This paper is an overview of technologies relevant to building a virtual vehicle, and an assessment of how to bring those technologies together.

  17. Adolescent Attitudes towards Virtual Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pleau, Andrea R.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to examine adolescents' attitudes towards virtual schooling. Virtual schooling may be defined as any public or private organization that delivers instruction via the Internet. The rationale for this study is based on the increased number of adolescents opting to complete some or all of their secondary education through…

  18. Learning Experience with Virtual Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Virtual worlds create a new opportunity to enrich the educational experience through media-rich immersive learning. Virtual worlds have gained notoriety in games such as World of Warcraft (WoW), which has become the most successful online game ever, and in "general purpose" worlds, such as Second Life (SL), whose participation levels (more than 10…

  19. The Power of Virtual Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rock, Marcia L.; Zigmond, Naomi P.; Gregg, Madeleine; Gable, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Amid budget cuts in U.S. public schools, the spotlight is on how to make less effective teachers more effective--fast. The authors describe virtual coaching--in which a coach interacts electronically with a teacher as a lesson unfolds--as a promising way to help teachers with weak teaching skills. Virtual coaching uses online and mobile technology…

  20. Developing Trust in Virtual Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germain, Marie-Line

    2011-01-01

    Rapid globalization, advances in technology, flatter organizational structures, synergistic cooperation among firms, and a shift to knowledge work environments have led to the increasing use of virtual teams in organizations. Selecting, training, and socializing employees in virtual teamwork has therefore become an important human resource…