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1

A virtual petrological microscope for teaching and outreach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Learning to use microscopes for geoscience or life science applications is a crucial part of the practical training offered in many science degrees, but the opportunities to study are often constrained by available laboratory space and time, and sometimes constrained by the number of high quality microscopes available. The alternative, although not replacing physical microscopes, offers the opportunity for enhancement and enrichment of laboratory experience in geoscience. An on-line microscope can also be used to engage the public with access to rare rocks such as meteorites and lunar samples. The focus of petrological microscope study in higher education is not primarily related to learning facts but is concerned with learning how to discriminate and classify within the paradigms of the discipline. In this case, the recognition and measurement of key features in rock samples in hand specimen and thin section. Whilst undertaking the practical exercise of recognition and naming of rock samples students are really being required to develop an understanding of the rock cycle as a model representing the relationship between rock categories and the process of their formation. The problems of teaching with complex visual materials, in effect of teaching learners 'how to see' from the scientific perspective of a particular discipline, are quite general. It could reasonably be expected that lessons learnt from the implementation and detailed evaluation of the proposed web-based system will generalise to many other topics in science education. Thus we focussed on the thin section images rather than reproducing a system that resembled a physical microscope. The virtual petrological microscope developed for a course at the Open University UK enables student acquisition of skills such as mineral and rock recognition using a browser window to explore thin sections of rocks as if they were using a laboratory microscope. The microscope allows students to pan around the thin sections (held as 1GB files on a remote server); zoom in and out, change from plane polarised light to cross polarised light conditions, and study the changing mineral pleochroism and birefringence in rotating view 'hot spots'. The microscope also includes tools such as hyper-linked descriptive teaching text, labels on the slide, XY coordinates and measurement tools. The fully developed system is for individual users each accessing the slides via a browser window, but we are also developing mobile version and exploring a shared version which will allow students and tutors to collaborate at distance.

Kelley, Simon P.; Whalley, Peter; Tindle, Andrew G.; Anand, Mahesh

2010-05-01

2

A Virtual Petrological Microscope for All Apollo 11 Lunar Samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A means of viewing, over the Internet, polished thin sections of every rock in the Apollo lunar sample collections via software, duplicaing many of the functions of a petrological microscope, is described.

Pillnger, C. T.; Tindle, A. G.; Kelley, S. P.; Quick, K.; Scott, P.; Gibson, E. K.; Zeigler, R. A.

2014-01-01

3

Assessment of Petrological Microscopes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a set of procedures designed to check the design, ergonomics, illumination, function, optics, accessory equipment, and image quality of a microscope being considered for purchase. Functions for use in a petrology or mineralogy laboratory are stressed. (CW)

Mathison, Charter Innes

1990-01-01

4

Virtual Microscope for Earth Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Virtual Microscope was developed for undergraduate teaching of petrology and geoscience at the Open University in the United Kingdom, allowing students to explore rock hand specimens and thin sections in a browser window. Collections include petrographic images of terrestrial, extraterrestrial and rare rock collections.

Simon Kelley

5

The virtual microscope.  

PubMed

We present the design and implementation of the Virtual Microscope, a software system employing a client/server architecture to provide a realistic emulation of a high power light microscope. The system provides a form of completely digital telepathology, allowing simultaneous access to archived digital slide images by multiple clients. The main problem the system targets is storing and processing the extremely large quantities of data required to represent a collection of slides. The Virtual Microscope client software runs on the end user's PC or workstation, while database software for storing, retrieving and processing the microscope image data runs on a parallel computer or on a set of workstations at one or more potentially remote sites. We have designed and implemented two versions of the data server software. One implementation is a customization of a database system framework that is optimized for a tightly coupled parallel machine with attached local disks. The second implementation is component-based, and has been designed to accommodate access to and processing of data in a distributed, heterogeneous environment. We also have developed caching client software, implemented in Java, to achieve good response time and portability across different computer platforms. The performance results presented show that the Virtual Microscope systems scales well, so that many clients can be adequately serviced by an appropriately configured data server. PMID:15000350

Catalyürek, Umit; Beynon, Michael D; Chang, Chialin; Kurc, Tahsin; Sussman, Alan; Saltz, Joel

2003-12-01

6

Virtual pinhole confocal microscope  

SciTech Connect

Scanned confocal microscopes enhance imaging capabilities, providing improved contrast and image resolution in 3-D, but existing systems have significant technical shortcomings and are expensive. Researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory have developed a novel approach--virtual pinhole confocal microscopy--that uses state of the art illumination, detection, and data processing technologies to produce an imager with a number of advantages: reduced cost, faster imaging, improved efficiency and sensitivity, improved reliability and much greater flexibility. Work at Los Alamos demonstrated proof of principle; prototype hardware and software have been used to demonstrate technical feasibility of several implementation strategies. The system uses high performance illumination, patterned in time and space. The authors have built functional confocal imagers using video display technologies (LCD or DLP) and novel scanner based on a micro-lens array. They have developed a prototype system for high performance data acquisition and processing, designed to support realtime confocal imaging. They have developed algorithms to reconstruct confocal images from a time series of spatially sub-sampled images; software development remains an area of active development. These advances allow the collection of high quality confocal images (in fluorescence, reflectance and transmission modes) with equipment that can inexpensively retrofit to existing microscopes. Planned future extensions to these technologies will significantly enhance capabilities for microscopic imaging in a variety of applications, including confocal endoscopy, and confocal spectral imaging.

George, J.S.; Rector, D.M.; Ranken, D.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Biophysics Group; Peterson, B. [SciLearn Inc. (United States); Kesteron, J. [VayTech Inc. (United States)

1999-06-01

7

Virtual petrological microscopy: web 2.0 technology for learning microscopy skills outside the laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Learning to use microscopes for geoscience or life science applications is a crucial part of the practical training offered in many science degrees, but the opportunities to study are often constrained by available laboratory space and time, and sometimes constrained by the number of high quality microscopes available. We will demonstrate a new based virtual petrological microscope which offers the opportunity for enhancement and enrichment of laboratory experience in geoscience. The focus of petrological microscope study is not primarily related to learning facts but is concerned with learning how to discriminate and classify within the paradigms of the discipline. In this case, the recognition and measurement of key features in rock samples in hand specimen and thin section. Whilst undertaking the practical exercise of recognition and naming of rock samples students are really being required to develop an understanding of the rock cycle as a model representing the relationship between rock categories and the process of their formation. The problems of teaching with complex visual materials, in effect of teaching learners 'how to see' from the scientific perspective of a particular discipline, are quite general. It could reasonably be expected that lessons learnt from the implementation and detailed evaluation of the proposed web-based system will generalise to many other topics in science education. Thus we focussed on the thin section images rather than reproducing a system that resembled a physical microscope. The virtual petrological microscope developed for a course at the Open University UK enables student acquisition of skills such as mineral and rock recognition using a browser window to explore thin sections of rocks as if they were using a laboratory microscope. The microscope allows students to pan around the thin sections (held as 1GB files on a remote server); zoom in and out, change from plane polarised light to cross polarised light conditions, and study the changing mineral pleochroism and birefringence in rotating view 'hot spots'. The microscope also includes tools such as hyper-linked descriptive teaching text, labels on the slide, XY coordinates and measurement tools. The fully developed system is for individual users each accessing the slides via a browser window, but we are also developing mobile version and exploring a shared version which will allow students and tutors to collaborate at distance.

Kelley, S. P.; Whalley, P.; Tindle, A.

2009-12-01

8

Inquiry based learning with a virtual microscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of newly funded initiative, the Wolfson OpenScience Laboratory, we are linking a tool for inquiry based learning, nQuire (http://www.nquire.org.uk) with the virtual microscope for Earth science (http://www.virtualmicroscope.co.uk) to allow students to undertake projects and gain from inquiry based study thin sections of rocks without the need for a laboratory with expensive petrological microscopes. The Virtual Microscope (VM) was developed for undergraduate teaching of petrology and geoscience, allowing students to explore rock hand specimens and thin sections in a browser window. The system is based on HTML5 application and allows students to scan and zoom the rocks in a browser window, view in ppl and xpl conditions, and rotate specific areas to view birefringence and pleochroism. Importantly the VM allows students to gain access to rare specimens such as Moon rocks that might be too precious to suffer loss or damage. Experimentation with such specimens can inspire the learners' interest in science and allows them to investigate relevant science questions. Yet it is challenging for learners to engage in scientific processes, as they may lack scientific investigation skills or have problems in planning their activities; for teachers, managing inquiry activities is a demanding task (Quintana et al., 2004). To facilitate the realization of inquiry activities, the VM is being integrated with the nQuire tool. nQuire is a web tool that guides and supports students through the inquiry process (Mulholland et al., 2011). Learners are encouraged to construct their own personally relevant hypothesis, pose scientific questions, and plan the method to answer them. Then, the system enables users to collect and analyze data, and share their conclusions. Teachers can monitor their students' progress through inquiries, and give them access to new parts of inquiries as they advance. By means of the integration of nQuire and the VM, inquiries that involve collecting data through a microscope can be created and supported. To illustrate the possibilities of these tools, we have designed two inquiries that engage learners in the study of Moon rock samples under the microscope, starting from general questions such as comparison of Moon rocks or determining the origin of meteorites. One is aimed at undergraduate Geology students; the second has been conceived for the general public. Science teachers can reuse these inquiries, adapt them as they need, or create completely new inquiries using nQuire's authoring tool. We will report progress and demonstrate the combination of these two on-line tools to create an open educational resource allowing educators to design and run science inquiries for Earth and planetary science in a range of settings from schools to universities. Quintana, C., Reiser, B. J., Davis, E. A., Krajcik, J., Fretz, E., Duncan, R. G., Kyza, E., et al. (2004). A scaffolding design framework for software to support science inquiry. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 13(3), 337-386. Mulholland, P., Anastopoulou, S., Collins, T., FeiBt, M., Gaved, M., Kerawalla, L., Paxton, M., et al. (2011). nQuire: Technological support for personal inquiry learning. IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies. First published online, December 5, 2011, http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/TLT.2011.32.

Kelley, S. P.; Sharples, M.; Tindle, A.; Villasclaras-Fernández, E.

2012-12-01

9

Using a modified standard microscope to generate virtual slides.  

PubMed

A standard microscope was reconfigured as a virtual slide generator by adding a Prior Scientific H101 robotic stage with H29 controller and 0.1 microm linear scales and a Hitachi HV-C20 3CCD camera. Media Cybernetics Image Pro Plus version 4 (IP4) software controlled stage movement in the X-, Y-, and Z-axis, whereas a Media Cybernetics Pro-Series Capture Kit captured images at 640 x 480 pixels. Stage calibration, scanning algorithms, storage requirements, and viewing modes were standardized. IP4 was used to montage the captured images into a large virtual slide image that was subsequently saved in TIF or JPEG format. Virtual slides were viewed at the workstation using the IP4 viewer as well as Adobe Photoshop and Kodak Imaging. MGI Zoom Server delivered the virtual slides to the Internet, and MicroBrightField's Neuroinformatica viewing software provided a browser-based virtual microscope interface together with labeling tools for annotating virtual slides. The images were served from a Windows 2000 platform with 2 GB RAM, 500 GB of disk storage, and a 1.0 GHz P4 processor. To conserve disk space on the image server, TIF files were converted to the FlashPix (FPX) file format using a compression ratio of 10:1. By using 4x, 10x, 20x, and 40x objectives, very large gigapixel images of tissue whole-mounts and tissue arrays with high quality and morphologic detail are now being generated for teaching, publication, research, and morphometric analysis. Technical details and a demonstration of our system can be found on the Web at http://virtualmicroscope.osu.edu. PMID:12731075

Romer, David J; Yearsley, Kurtis H; Ayers, Leona W

2003-05-01

10

From microscope to mountain belt: 150 years of petrology and its contribution to understanding geodynamics, particularly the tectonics of orogens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirty-five years ago the introduction of the plate tectonics paradigm led to a new understanding of orogeny. Subsequently, the development of advanced instruments for remote collection of information and for analysis of elemental and isotopic composition of materials, and the increases in computing power have enabled an unprecedented number of high-precision data about the Earth to be collected, analyzed, modelled and displayed. Within this revolution in global tectonics, the metamorphic petrologist has developed methods to unravel the depth, thermal, temporal and deformational history of orogens using detailed observations at map, hand sample and thin-section scales in combination with elemental and isotope data, and using inverse and forward modelling. Two exciting new directions in metamorphic petrology in relation to geodynamics concern the kinship between earthquakes and metamorphic reactions in subduction zones, and the petrology of the Earth's mantle. Evidence of the changes in pressure ( P) and temperature ( T) in the Earth's crust and upper mantle during the break up, movement, and collision of pieces of the continental lithosphere is sporadically recorded by the mineralogy and microstructures preserved in rocks exhumed to the surface. Better calibration of phase equilibria, the use of internally-consistent thermodynamic data sets and the development of techniques to retrieve close-to-peak P-T conditions from metamorphic rocks have yielded more precise P-T data that enhance our ability to characterize the path followed by individual rocks in P-T space. An improved ability to date segments of the P-T path, and to separate the length of time associated with the prograde (increasing T) evolution from the age of close-to-peak P-T conditions has enabled better understanding of the rates and processes involved in lithosphere thickening. At the same time, better constraints on the retrograde thermal history have contributed to our knowledge of the several tectonic processes that may operate during exhumation, although these are less well understood. The expanding database of key information, combined with predictions from modelling, has allowed the identification of characteristic P-T-t evolutions expected for rocks that have undergone distinct tectono-metamorphic histories. However, relating structural events recorded by rocks to specific points along the P-T evolution remains problematic, particularly regarding complex overprinting patterns of inclusion trails in porphyroblasts. These advances have improved our understanding of the tectonic evolution of orogens. At the extreme of conditions for crustal metamorphism are the recently discovered ultra-high pressure (UHP) and ultra-high temperature (UHT) facies of metamorphism. Both are problematic given our limited knowledge of processes at these conditions, particularly the return of UHP rocks from peak- P conditions and the mechanism for extreme heat in the crust in UHT metamorphism. The extreme depth inferred for metamorphism in some UHP terranes raises the issue of whether theoretically plausible tectonic overpressures can be dynamically maintained to affect metamorphic reactions. If the pressure gradient recorded by UHP rocks is greater than lithostatic, the UHP metamorphism may have occurred at depths shallower than currently believed. These studies have provided a reliable first-order framework for the comparison of rocks of ancient suture zones where the plate tectonics situation is less certain. However, orogens are spatially and temporally extended nonlinear systems with feedback relations. Such complex systems generate apparently simple behavior by self-organization, and the influence of unique histories must be respected.

Brown, M.

2001-09-01

11

Beagle I and II Voyages: Charles Darwin's rocks and the quest for Mars rock; the Open University's virtual microscope has both  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exploration is in itself a fascinating subject, and a strong draw to engaging the public in understanding science. Nearly two hundred years ago Charles Darwin took part in an exploration of the Earth, and more recently we have begun to explore the solar system and in particular the surface of Mars. The engagement is made easier if an element of exploration is involved in the public engagement, using modern internet and even mobile technologies. The Open University combines all those aspects in a series of virtual microscopes for Earth science that are freely available on the web, installed in museums, or built into its teaching material. The basis of the virtual microscope is a mosaic of several hundred microscopic images of each thin section taken in plane polarised light, between crossed polars and in reflected light, which are then assembled into three high resolution images. Rotation movies for selected points in the thin section illustrate changing optical properties such as birefringence. The user is able to pan and zoom around to explore the section, studying the mineralogy and rock texture, and view the rotation movies linked to points in the section to see the changing birefringence colours. We have created several collections of terrestrial rocks, mainly for teaching purposes, and outreach directly linked to exploration: Charles Darwin returned from the Voyage of the Beagle with a large variety of rock samples, and although thin sections were not being made at that time, they were created from his rocks in the late 19th century. The historic material is part of the "Darwin the Geologist" exhibition at the Sedgwick Museum in Cambridge. Our Darwin virtual microscope includes hand specimen illustrations and thin sections together with documentation and an interactive map allow internet users and museum visitors alike to have a close look at Darwin's rocks and study the petrology of them. Charles Darwin explored distant horizons on Earth in the 19th century; in the 20th century the Apollo astronauts set foot on the Moon, returning valuable rock samples to Earth. Through collaboration between NASA and the OU it became possible to show lunar samples as virtual thin sections. The Beagle II mission represented a new voyage, following Charles Darwin's footsteps, to horizons well beyond the Earth - on a journey to investigate the planet Mars. Although no samples have yet been returned from the red planet, we do have access to Martian meteorites. Like Moon rock samples, these meteorites are rare and very valuable. So, one way to make them accessible to the general public is via the internet using our virtual microscope technology. Within the framework of the EUROPLANET project, and in collaboration with the Natural History Museum in London we are making such meteorites freely available to all. We plan to extend this collection and make it openly accessible for teaching and outreach activities anywhere and any time. Our current microscopes are located at http://microscope.open.ac.uk.

Schwenzer, S. P.; Tindle, A. G.; Anand, M.; Gibson, E. K.; Pearson, V. K.; Pemberton, D.; Pillinger, C.; Smith, C. L.; Whalley, P.; Kelley, S. P.

2011-12-01

12

Drift-insensitive distributed calibration of probe microscope scanner in nanometer range: Virtual mode  

E-print Network

A method of distributed calibration of a probe microscope scanner is suggested which main idea consists in a search for a net of local calibration coefficients (LCCs) in the process of automatic measurement of a standard surface, whereby each point of the movement space of the scanner can be characterized by a unique set of scale factors. Feature-oriented scanning (FOS) methodology is used as a basis for implementation of the distributed calibration permitting to exclude in situ the negative influence of thermal drift, creep and hysteresis on the obtained results. Possessing the calibration database enables correcting in one procedure all the spatial distortions caused by nonlinearity, nonorthogonality and spurious crosstalk couplings of the microscope scanner piezomanipulators. To provide high precision of spatial measurements in nanometer range, the calibration is carried out using natural standards - constants of crystal lattice. One of the useful modes of the developed calibration method is a virtual mode...

Lapshin, Rostislav V

2015-01-01

13

Enhancing learning objectives by use of simple virtual microscopic slides in cellular physiology and histology: impact and attitudes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The impact and perception of students on the use of a simple, low technology-driven version of a virtual microscope in teaching and assessments in cellular physiology and histology were studied. Its impact on the time and resources of the faculty were also assessed. Simple virtual slides and conventional microscopes were used to conduct the same examinations for the same students. Students performed significantly better in the examination with the virtual slide and also showed a significantly higher preference for virtual slides. The time and cost implications of conducting examinations using the simple virtual slides were reduced by >1,400%. The results reemphasize the need for the design and adoption of simple sustainable technological innovations in developing countries to bridge gaps in purposeful learning environments.

Augustine Uchechukwu Agu (University of Nigeria)

2012-06-01

14

Petrology Home  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is a clearinghouse for a variety of educational and supporting materials for teaching igneous and metamorphic petrology. Some features of the site are a collection of classroom and laboratory activities, teaching materials such as lecture notes and Power Point presentations, a database of geochemical instruments available for use at various institutions, a collection of petrology syllabi, and email list discussion groups. These collections reflect the contributions of faculty members from across the country, and will continue to grow as new materials and tools are developed.

15

UNIT, PETROLOGY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS TEACHER'S GUIDE FOR A UNIT ON PETROLOGY IS SUITABLE FOR ADAPTATION AT EITHER THE UPPER ELEMENTARY OR THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL LEVELS. THE UNIT BEGINS WITH A STORY THAT INTRODUCES VOLCANIC ACTION AND IGNEOUS ROCK FORMATION. SELECTED CONCEPTS ARE LISTED FOLLOWED BY SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES. A BIBLIOGRAPHY, FILM LIST, VOCABULARY LIST, AND QUESTION AND…

Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.

16

A Digital Approach to Learning Petrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the undergraduate igneous and metamorphic petrology course at Northern Arizona University, we are employing petrographic microscopes equipped with relatively inexpensive ( $200) digital cameras that are linked to pen-tablet computers. The camera-tablet systems can assist student learning in a variety of ways. Images provided by the tablet computers can be used for helping students filter the visually complex specimens they examine. Instructors and students can simultaneously view the same petrographic features captured by the cameras and exchange information about them by pointing to salient features using the tablet pen. These images can become part of a virtual mineral/rock/texture portfolio tailored to individual student's needs. Captured digital illustrations can be annotated with digital ink or computer graphics tools; this activity emulates essential features of more traditional line drawings (visualizing an appropriate feature and selecting a representative image of it, internalizing the feature through studying and annotating it) while minimizing the frustration that many students feel about drawing. In these ways, we aim to help a student progress more efficiently from novice to expert. A number of our petrology laboratory exercises involve use of the camera-tablet systems for collaborative learning. Observational responsibilities are distributed among individual members of teams in order to increase interdependence and accountability, and to encourage efficiency. Annotated digital images are used to share students' findings and arrive at an understanding of an entire rock suite. This interdependence increases the individual's sense of responsibility for their work, and reporting out encourages students to practice use of technical vocabulary and to defend their observations. Pre- and post-course student interest in the camera-tablet systems has been assessed. In a post-course survey, the majority of students reported that, if available, they would use camera-tablet systems to capture microscope images (77%) and to make notes on images (71%). An informal focus group recommended introducing the cameras as soon as possible and having them available for making personal mineralogy/petrology portfolios. Because the stakes are perceived as high, use of the camera-tablet systems for peer-peer learning has been progressively modified to bolster student confidence in their collaborative efforts.

Reid, M. R.

2011-12-01

17

Concurrent access to a virtual microscope using a web service oriented architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Virtual microscopy (VM) facilitates visualization and deployment of histopathological virtual slides (VS), a useful tool for education, research and diagnosis. In recent years, it has become popular, yet its use is still limited basically because of the very large sizes of VS, typically of the order of gigabytes. Such volume of data requires efficacious and efficient strategies to access the VS content. In an educative or research scenario, several users may require to access and interact with VS at the same time, so, due to large data size, a very expensive and powerful infrastructure is usually required. This article introduces a novel JPEG2000-based service oriented architecture for streaming and visualizing very large images under scalable strategies, which in addition need not require very specialized infrastructure. Results suggest that the proposed architecture enables transmission and simultaneous visualization of large images, while it is efficient using resources and offering users proper response times.

Corredor, Germán.; Iregui, Marcela; Arias, Viviana; Romero, Eduardo

2013-11-01

18

The Beginnings of Experimental Petrology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An account of Van't Hoff's change from theoretical chemistry to petrology provides data on the European intellectual climate of the early 1900's and shows how his work laid the foundation for experimental petrology of hard rocks." (AL)

Eugster, Hans P.

1971-01-01

19

Irreversible thermodynamics in petrology  

SciTech Connect

The formulation of reaction rates and transport rates from the point of view of entropy production can help elucidate petrologic processes. The theory of irreversible thermodynamics relates fluxes of heat or mass linearly to thermodynamic forces (temperature gradients or chemical potential gradients) near equilibrium. A consequence of the general theory of irreversible thermodynamics is that each flux may be influenced by any of the thermodynamic forces. This type of coupling leads to such effects as thermal diffusion, the Soret effect, and uphill diffusion. The theory, however, constrains the number and size of the coupling phenomenological coefficients. Estimates of the coupling phenomenological coefficients enable a calculation of the importance of these coupling effects. The linear theory of irreversible thermodynamics relates the rates of reactions to the free energy difference of the reaction. This relation can be used along with experimental data to obtain the individual rates of reactions in petrology. The behavior of systems far from equilibrium is shown to be different from that near equilibrium. In particular, the formation of spatial patterns so common in petrology, is intimately related to the action of a system, when far from equilibrium. The analysis of Liesegang type models as well as the spatial patterns arising from autocatalytic effects can provide useful insights into the formation of differentiated layering in petrology. (JMT)

Fisher, G.W.; Lasaga, A.C.

1981-01-01

20

Petrology of Anomalous Eucrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most mafic achondrites can be broadly categorized as being "eucritic", that is, they are composed of a ferroan low-Ca clinopyroxene, high-Ca plagioclase and a silica phase. They are petrologically distinct from angritic basalts, which are composed of high-Ca, Al-Ti-rich clinopyroxene, Carich olivine, nearly pure anorthite and kirschsteinite, or from what might be called brachinitic basalts, which are composed of ferroan orthopyroxene and high-Ca clinopyroxene, intermediate-Ca plagioclase and ferroan olivine. Because of their similar mineralogy and composition, eucrite-like mafic achondrites formed on compositionally similar asteroids under similar conditions of temperature, pressure and oxygen fugacity. Some of them have distinctive isotopic compositions and petrologic characteristics that demonstrate formation on asteroids different from the parent of the HED clan (e.g., Ibitira, Northwest Africa (NWA) 011). Others show smaller oxygen isotopic distinctions but are otherwise petrologically and compositionally indistinguishable from basaltic eucrites (e.g., Pasamonte, Pecora Escarpment (PCA) 91007). The degree of uniformity in delta O-17 of eucrites and diogenites is one piece of evidence considered to favor of a magma-ocean scenario for their petrogenesis. Given that the O isotopic differences separating Pasamonte and PCA 91007 from other eucrites are small, and that there is an absence of other distinguishing characteristics, a legitimate question is: Did the HED parent asteroid fail to homogenize via a magma-ocean stage, thus explaining outliers like Pasamonte? We are initiating a program of study of anomalous eucrite-like achondrites as one part of our effort to seek a resolution of this issue. Here we present preliminary petrologic information on Asuka (A-) 881394, Elephant Moraine (EET) 87520 and EET 87542. We will have studied several more by conference time.

Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Peng, Z. X.; Ross, D. K.

2015-01-01

21

Carbon petrology in cometary dust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chondritic porous (CP) interplanetary dust particles (IDP's) are collected in the Earth's stratosphere. There exists an extensive database on major and minor element chemistry, stable isotopes, noble gas abundances and mineralogy of many CP IDP's, as well as infrared and Raman spectroscopic properties. For details on the mineralogy, chemistry and physical properties of IDP's, I refer to the reviews by Mackinnon and Rietmeijer (1987), Bradley et al. (1988) and Sandford (1987). Texture, mineralogy (Mackinnon and Rietmeijer, 1987) and chemistry (Schramm et al., 1989; Flynn and Sutton, 1991) support the notion that CP IDP's are a unique group of ultrafine-grained extraterrestiral materials that are distinct from any known meteorite class. Their fluffy, or porous, morphology suggests that CP IDP's probably endured minimal alteration by protoplanetary processes since their formation. It is generally accepted that CP IDP's are solid debris from short-period comets. The evidence is mostly circumstantial but this notion gained significant support based on the comet Halley dust data (Brownlee, 1990). In this paper, I will accept that CP IDP's are indeed cometary dust. The C/Si ratio in CP IDP's is 3.3 times higher than in CI carbonaceous chondrites (Schramm et al. 1989). The intraparticle carbon distribution is heteorogeneous (Rietmeijer and McKay, 1986). Carbon occurs both in oxidized and reduced forms. Analytical electron microscope (AEM) and Raman spectroscopic analyses have shown the presence of several carbon forms in CP IDP's but the data are scattered in the literature. Carbons in cometary CP IDP's are among the most pristine Solar System carbons available for laboratory study. Similar to a recently developed petrological model for the diversity of layer silicates in CP IDP's (Zolensky, 1991) that is useful to constrain in situ aqueous alteration in comets (Rietmeijer and Mackinnon, 1987a), I here present the first effort to develop a petrological concept of carbons in CP IDP's. This concept is useful to constrain comet evolution. I also present the philosophical constraint facing Earth Scientists in studies of protoplanets that require a new approach to cometary dust studies.

Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.

1992-01-01

22

Microscope 16 THE MICROSCOPE  

E-print Network

of light microscopes in this lab, the compound microscope and the dissecting microscope. Electron as light passes through them. The parts of the compound microscope are reviewed below. The Dissecting to be viewed with the compound light microscope. With these microscopes, you see the surface of things

Koptur, Suzanne

23

Petrology of metamorphic rocks  

SciTech Connect

''Petrology of Metamorphic Rocks'' reviews Central European opinions about the origin and formation of metamorphic rocks and their genetic systems, confronting the works of such distinguished European scientists as Rosenbusch, Becke, Niggli, Sander, Eskola, Barth and others with present-day knowledge and the results of Soviet and American investigations. The initial chapters discuss the processes that give rise to metamorphic rocks, and the main differences between regional metamorphism and other types of alterations, the emphasis being laid on the material characteristic of the processes of metamorphism, metasomatism and ultrametamorphism. Further chapters give a brief characterization of research methods, together with a detailed genetic classification based on the division of primary rocks into igneous rocks, sediments and ore materials. The effects of metamorphic alterations and those of the properties of the primary rocks are analyzed on the basis of examples taken chiefly from the Bohemian Massif, the West Carpathians, other parts of the European Variscides, from the crystalline Scandinavian Shelf in Norway and Finland, and from the Alps. Typical examples are documented by a number of charts, photographs and petrographical - particularly petrochemical - data.

Suk, M.

1983-01-01

24

Virtual Quarry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive virtual tour for younger students lets them 'drive' a quarry truck and visit a rock quarry to see how the rock is mined, processed and transported, and what the aggregate is used for. The tour includes safety tips for visiting quarries. They can also 'restore' an abandoned quarry by planting virtual grass, reeds, and trees, view movies about quarries, and use a virtual microscope to look at some rock samples. There are also links to lesson plans on the use and restoration of quarries.

25

The Poster: A Petrologic Exercise For The Resource-Challenged  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scientific poster is a common format for transmitting information and can be used as a petrologic exercise that may be particularly beneficial for those programs with limited resources. For example, the Saint Norbert College geology program was founded in 1987 and a traditional geology major established in 1994. We have high quality petrographic microscopes and excellent on-campus computing resources but otherwise lack common facilities such as a rock preparation room and instrumentation for obtaining research quality geochemical data such as XRF or SEM. The petrology poster exercise is designed to mimic the formative stages of a research project from fieldwork through geochemical analysis. A background literature search on a regional rock assemblage, usually suggested by the instructor, is conducted by the students. A specific petrologic aspect, such as the troctolitic portion of the Duluth Complex, is selected for investigation. Fieldwork consists of detailed outcrop and handsample descriptions, with approximately ten samples collected for thin section analysis. Geochemical data is culled from the literature by the instructor and computer modeled by the students using standard petrologic modeling programs such as IGPET. Having characterized the rock in detail, the students make interpretations of their data and more importantly, formulate research questions for future investigation. The final poster summarizes a student's work and is presented to their peers for critique. The goal of this semester-long exercise is to provide a near-professional research experience to the students for limited costs (i.e. site field trip and professional preparation of the thin sections). Additional benefits include: in-depth instruction related to writing an abstract, enhanced computer graphic skills related to poster construction, and a final product that makes an excellent springboard to a senior thesis.

Flood, T. P.

2003-12-01

26

Theoretical petrology. [of igneous and metamorphic rocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the present paper, some areas of growing interest in the American efforts in petrology during the 1975-1978 quadrennium are reviewed. In igneous petrology, studies of structures and thermodynamic properties of silicate melts and of kinetics of igneous processes are in a period of rapid growth. Plate tectonic concepts have had (and will no doubt continue to have) an important influence by focusing interest on specific problems and by providing a framework for the understanding of petrogenesis. An understanding of mantle processes and evolution through the integration of petrological, geophysical, and geochemical constraints has been developed over the past 20 years, and will undoubtedly provide direction for future petrological studies.

Stolper, E.

1979-01-01

27

Lunar breccias, petrology, and earth planetary structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics covered include: (1) petrologic studies of poikiloblastic textured rocks; (2) petrology of aluminous mare basalts in breccia 14063; (3) petrology of Apollo 15 breccia 15459; (4) high-alumina mare basalts; (5) some petrological aspects of imbrium stratigraphy; (6) petrology of lunar rocks and implication to lunar evolution; (7) the crystallization trends of spinels in Tertiary basalts from Rhum and Muck and their petrogenetic significance; (8) the geology and evolution of the Cayman Trench; (9) The petrochemistry of igneous rocks from the Cayman Trench and the Captains Bay Pluton, Unalaska Island and their relation to tectonic processes at plate margins; and (10) the oxide and silicate mineral chemistry of a Kimberlite from the Premier Mine with implications for the evolution of kimberlitic magma.

Ridley, W. I.

1978-01-01

28

MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY OF COMET WILD2 NUCLEUS SAMPLES Stardust Mineralogy/Petrology Subteam: Michael Zolensky1  

E-print Network

MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY OF COMET WILD2 NUCLEUS SAMPLES Stardust Mineralogy/Petrology Subteam the first week we plan to begin the harvesting of aerogel cells, and the comet nucleus samples they contain/Petrology subgroup of the Preliminary Examination Team are as follows. (1) Comet nucleus mineralogy and petrology

Grossman, Lawrence

29

Tunguska: Petrology and Specific Gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1983, Sekanina clearly demonstrated that the Tunguska object was asteroidal rather than cometary (Sekanina, 1983). He also demonstrated that Tunguska was an ordinary meteor, unusual only by its mass. The Tunguska object essentially self-destructed by its terminal burst and the remaining dust was highly altered. No unaltered meteorites have been recovered from Tunguska. Had the Tunguska object been smaller, some fragments would have survived to impact the Earth unaltered. One of the unanswered problems was the original petrological classification of the object and therefore its specific gravity.

Povenmire, H.

1996-03-01

30

Petrology of the igneous rocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Papers published during the 1983-1986 period on the petrology and geochemistry of igneous rocks are discussed, with emphasis on tectonic environment. Consideration is given to oceanic rocks, subdivided into divergent margin suites (mid-ocean ridge basalts, ridge-related seamounts, and back-arc basin basalts) and intraplate suites (oceanic island basalts and nonridge seamounts), and to igneous rocks formed at convergent margins (island arc and continental arc suites), subdivided into volcanic associations and plutonic associations. Other rock groups discussed include continental flood basalts, layered mafic intrusions, continental alkalic associations, komatiites, ophiolites, ash-flow tuffs, anorthosites, and mantle xenoliths.

Mccallum, I. S.

1987-01-01

31

Graduate Studies in Volcanology, Igneous Petrology & Economic Geology For more information  

E-print Network

Graduate Studies in Volcanology, Igneous Petrology & Economic Geology VIPER For more information Volcanology, Igneous Petrology and Economic geology Research group Interested in Volcanoes? Magmas? Ore) John Dilles (ore deposits, igneous petrology) Randy Keller (igneous petrology, marine geology) Roger

Kurapov, Alexander

32

Mind Over Magma: The Story of Igneous Petrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the centuries that enquiring minds have studied and theorized about igneous rocks, much progress has been made, both in accumulating observations and in developing theories. Yet, writing a history of this progress is a daunting undertaking. The volume of the literature is vast and in multiple languages; the various lines of inquiry are diverse and complex; and the nomenclature is sometimes abstruse. On top of these challenges, many of its principal issues have yet to find a definitive consensus. With the exception of a few topical studies, historians of science have virtually avoided the subject. In Mind Over Magma: The Story of Igneous Petrology, Davis Young has taken on the challenge of writing a comprehensive survey of the study of igneous rocks, and the result has been a remarkable book of meticulous scholarship. Igneous petrology is a vast subject, and it is not obvious how best to organize its history. Young takes a topical approach, generally grouping together various studies by either the problem being investigated or the method of attack. These topics span the earliest times to the present, with an emphasis on recurring themes, such as the causes of magmatic diversity and the origins of the granitic rocks. The range of topics includes most of the subjects central to the field over its history. As much as is practical, topics are discussed in chronological order, and along the way, the reader is treated to biographical sketches of many of the key contributors. This organization proves effective in dealing with the multitude of concepts.

Snyder, Don

2004-01-01

33

Petrological studies on lunar rock samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Petrological studies were made on Apollo 14, 15, 16, and 17 lunar samples. High-pressure melting experiments were conducted, along with electron microprobe analyses. The composition of the samples is reported.

Kushiro, I.

1974-01-01

34

Using Data to Teach Igneous Petrology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In order to make connections between the two disparate segments (lecture and laboratory) of a Petrology course; short exercises using real data accompany each laboratory exercise. Three examples are discussed pertain to granites, basalts, and andesites.

Pranoti Asher

35

JOURNAL OF PETROLOGY VOLUME 40 NUMBER 1 PAGES 199213 1999 Petrology of High-Pressure Metapelites  

E-print Network

JOURNAL OF PETROLOGY VOLUME 40 NUMBER 1 PAGES 199­213 1999 Petrology of High-Pressure Metapelites, 1998 High-pressure metamorphism in the Penninic Adula nappe (Central on eclogite lenses, which also preserved 1990; Meyre et al., 1997). As in many other high-pressure high-pressure relics, even

Zack, Thomas

36

APPLICATIONS OF CATHODOLUMINESCENCE OF QUARTZ AND FELDSPAR TO SEDIMENTARY PETROLOGY.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cathodoluminescence (CL), the emission of visible light during electron bombardment, was first used in sandstone petrology in the mid-1960's. CL techniques are especially useful for determining the origin and source of quartz and feldspar, two of the most common constituents in clastic rocks. CL properties of both minerals are dependent on their temperature of crystallization, duration of cooling, and/or history of deformation. Detrital quartz and feldspar are typically derived from igneous and metamorphic sources and luminesce in the visible range whereas authigenic quartz and feldspar form at low temperatures and do not luminesce. Quantification of luminescent and non-luminescent quartz and feldspar with the scanning electron microscope, electron microprobe, or a commercial CL device can allow for the determination of origin, diagenesis, and source of clastic rocks when used in conjunction with field and other petrographic analyses.

Ruppert, Leslie F.

1987-01-01

37

Chemistry and Petrology of Chondrules from the Mokoia CV Chondrite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bulk chemical compositions of 94 chondrules from Mokoia have been obtained by INAA. Elemental abundances are correlated with petrology. Chemical and petrological properties are very similar to chondrules from Allende and do not show strong alteration signatures.

Jones, R. H.; Schilk, A. J.

2000-01-01

38

Petrologic implications of plate tectonics.  

PubMed

Petrologists can make significant contributions to the plate tectonic concept. Fixing the stability fields of the principal rock types involved will provide the limits of pressure and temperature of the various environments. Experimental determination of the partition coefficients of the trace elements will be helpful. Studies of the partial melting behavior of possible parental materials in the absence and presence of water, especially the undersaturated region, will contribute to the understanding of magma production. Experimental observations on the rheological properties of the peridotites below and just above the solidus will lead to a better evaluation of the convective mechanism. Measurement of the fundamental properties of rocks, such as the density of solids and liquids at high pressures and temperatures, would contribute to understanding the concepts of diapiric rise, magma segregation, and the low-velocity zone. Broader rock sampling of the oceanic areas of all environments will do much to define the petrologic provinces. The field petrologist specializing in the Paleozoic regions and Precambrian shields can contribute by examining those regions for old plate boundaries and devising new criteria for their recognition. PMID:17770454

Yoder, H S

1971-07-30

39

Virtual Lab Educational Software  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA Learning Technologies (NLT) is a NASA R&D effort for the engineering of teaching tools that deliver NASA content in the most engaging and dynamic manner possible. NLT builds the pipeline and the delivery point for unencumbered access to the best data NASA has to provide. Virtual Lab completely emulates a scanning electron microscope and allows any user to zoom and focus into a variety of built-in microscopic samples. It also comes with a set of educational materials such as a demo on how a SEM works and movies of the real thing in action. Virtual Lab is freely available with a growing library of samples to choose from.

Hogan, Patrick

40

A tutorial for sandstone petrology: architecture and development of an interactive program for teaching highly visual material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed an interactive computer-based tutorial in sandstone petrology for undergraduate-level students. The goal of this tutorial is to provide students exposure to the highly visual subject matter of petrography outside the confines of organized laboratory exercises. This paper describes the architecture and development procedures of the current version of the sandstone petrography tutorial, and offers a possible model for similar development approaches in other fields of petrography or in any other field that utilizes large quantities of visual material such as remote sensing image interpretation or seismic interpretation. The tutorial is an interactive photomicrograph archive with sufficient content and flexible architecture that functions as a virtual laboratory instructor as well as a stand-alone reference. The current tutorial was programmed using Macromedia Authorware v.6.0 and supports both Windows-based and MacOS personal computers. The tutorial is constructed around the Folk sandstone classification scheme (quartzarenite, arkose, and litharenite), and an additional section addresses grains other than quartz, feldspar, and lithic fragments and sandstones dominated by these grains. The user interface is designed to take minimal portion of the screen area so that the screen can closely mimic the type of view seen by a student peering down a microscope. Each photomicrograph in the tutorial is basically unadorned until the user actively calls up information that is temporarily displayed over the image, inducing the user to search for information and actively "ask" to be informed with a mouse click. The structure of the tutorial permits multiple strategies of program use, as a linear tutorial, tutorial driven by thumbnail browser, and as a searchable reference.

Choh, Suk-Joo; Milliken, Kitty L.; McBride, Earle F.

2003-11-01

41

Athena microscopic Imager investigation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Athena science payload on the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) includes the Microscopic Imager (MI). The MI is a fixed-focus camera mounted on the end of an extendable instrument arm, the Instrument Deployment Device (IDD). The MI was designed to acquire images at a spatial resolution of 30 microns/pixel over a broad spectral range (400-700 nm). The MI uses the same electronics design as the other MER cameras but has optics that yield a field of view of 31 ?? 31 mm across a 1024 ?? 1024 pixel CCD image. The MI acquires images using only solar or skylight illumination of the target surface. A contact sensor is used to place the MI slightly closer to the target surface than its best focus distance (about 66 mm), allowing concave surfaces to be imaged in good focus. Coarse focusing (???2 mm precision) is achieved by moving the IDD away from a rock target after the contact sensor has been activated. The MI optics are protected from the Martian environment by a retractable dust cover. The dust cover includes a Kapton window that is tinted orange to restrict the spectral bandpass to 500-700 nm, allowing color information to be obtained by taking images with the dust cover open and closed. MI data will be used to place other MER instrument data in context and to aid in petrologic and geologic interpretations of rocks and soils on Mars. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

Herkenhoff, K.E.; Squyres, S.W.; Bell, J.F., III; Maki, J.N.; Arneson, H.M.; Bertelsen, P.; Brown, D.I.; Collins, S.A.; Dingizian, A.; Elliott, S.T.; Goetz, W.; Hagerott, E.C.; Hayes, A.G.; Johnson, M.J.; Kirk, R.L.; McLennan, S.; Morris, R.V.; Scherr, L.M.; Schwochert, M.A.; Shiraishi, L.R.; Smith, G.H.; Soderblom, L.A.; Sohl-Dickstein, J. N.; Wadsworth, M.V.

2003-01-01

42

Magmas and magmatic rocks: An introduction to igneous petrology  

SciTech Connect

This book melds traditional igneous petrology with the emerging science of planetary petrology to provide an account of current ideas on active magmatic and volcanic processes, drawing examples from all igneous provinces of the world as well as from the moon and planets. It reviews the history and development of concepts fundamental to modern igneous petrology and includes indepth sections on magmas, magnetic differentiation and volcanology.

Middlemost, E.A.K.

1986-01-01

43

Teaching Petrology Using the Primary Scientific Literature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Designed as part of the Professional Development for Geoscience Faculty series at Carleton College, this particular set of resources is designed for those teaching students about petrology. For those who might be unfamiliar with this discipline, petrology is the branch of geology that studies the origin, composition, distribution, and structure of rocks. The materials on this site are divided into two primary sections: Teaching Strategies and Recommended Readings. In the first section, visitors can view a range of materials, including exercises to teach scientific reading comprehension and mineralogic concepts as well as a nice piece on how to review a journal article. Further along, visitors can take in several of the recommended readings. Some of the readings are available in their entirety, although others are only cited and may require an academic library to access.

2012-05-18

44

Teaching Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology Through Guided Inquiry Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Undergraduate Petrology at New Mexico State University (GEOL 399) has been taught using three, 5-6 week long projects in place of lectures, lab, and exams for the last six years. Reasons for changing from the traditional format include: 1) to move the focus from identification and memorization to petrologic thinking; 2) the need for undergraduate students to apply basic chemical,

N. J. McMillan

2003-01-01

45

Petrologic Locations of Nanodiamonds in Carbonaceous Chondrite Meteorites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanodiamonds (NDs), with dimensions near two nanometers, are widespread accessory minerals in primitive meteorites. They have been studied extensively in concentrates made from acid-insoluble residues, but surprisingly little is known about their petrologic settings in the meteorites because they have not been studied in situ. Information about such settings is fundamental for determining how they formed and were incorporated into the meteorites. The primary goal of the planned research is to determine and compare the petrologic settings of NDs within matrix of different types of carbonaceous chondrites, with the long-term aim of providing new insights regarding the origin of NDs. This research will also provide new data on the structure and major and trace element compositions of individual NDs and regions within them. Transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) provide uniquely powerful information regarding chemical, bonding, and structural data on the scale needed to solve this problem, assuming the NDs can be located within the host matrix. We have developed methods of observing NDs in situ within the fine-grained matrix of primitive meteorites and will use various TEMs to accomplish that goal for several meteorites. High- resolution imaging and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) will permit determination of both structural and chemical information about the NDs and their adjacent minerals. By the middle of the proposed grant period, two state-of-the-art, aberration-corrected TEMs will have been installed at ASU and will be used to locate heavy elements such as Xe, Te, and Pd within the NDs. These TEMs permit the imaging of individual atoms of heavy elements with annular dark-field (ADF) imaging, and these atoms can be identified using EELS. The result of these new types of measurements will provide information about whether such elements, which have been used to determine whether NDs formed in supernovae, occur within the interiors or on the surfaces of the NDs. The proposed research will contribute to the NASA vision statement and goal to "Advance scientific knowledge of the origin and history of the solar system ..." (NASA's Strategic Goals, ROSES Table 1A, Strategic Sub-goal 3C) and "Discover the origin, structure, evolution, and destiny of the universe, and search for Earth-like planets" (NASA's Strategic Goals, ROSES Table 1A, Strategic Sub-goal 3D). The proposed research will generate fundamental new knowledge regarding meteoritic NDs and an improved understanding of primitive materials.

Garvie, Laurence

46

Rethinking how Undergraduate ``Hard Rock'' Petrology is Taught  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A course in "hard rock" petrology forms a core component of undergraduate training in the geosciences. In most cases, the subjects of igneous and metamorphic petrology are combined in a single course and the course is traditionally structured so that the two subjects are covered in series. This approach enables students to focus on each subject separately, with knowledge of igneous rocks helping students to understand metamorphic rock protoliths. Student assessment shows, however, that this approach tends to compartmentalize learning and the two main subjects might just as well be taught in separate courses. In practical applications such as fieldwork, students must be able to access their understanding of igneous and metamorphic rocks virtually simultaneously. To better integrate student learning, I developed a spiral learning approach to teaching petrology (e.g., Bruner, 1990; Dyar et al., 2004) so that commonalities could be revisited several times over the course of a semester and, in so doing, students' grasp of the fundamental insights provided by igneous and metamorphic rocks could be scaffolded into greater understanding. The course initially focuses on the dynamics of the environments in which igneous and metamorphic rocks form: heat flow, fluid flow, and plate tectonics. Several subsequent weeks explore topics relevant to identifying and understanding igneous and metamorphic rocks in the field: crystal nucleation and growth, the roles of pressure and heat, and field classification. Laboratory exercises parallel this structure, also emphasizing observations that are valuable in the field: the relationship between minerals and rocks, textural observations, and general rock classification. The final portion of the course explores “hard rocks” in more detail with a greater emphasis on the interplay between chemistry and mineralogy. A variety of learner-centered activities in the course help students bridge the gap between novice and expert and include more explicit emphasis on visualization and on helping students become comfortable with interpreting data numerically and graphically. Pen tablet computers are used extensively in the laboratory for visualization, photomicrograph capture, and annotation. Cooperative learning activities developed for this course make use of learning methods such as pair share, round-robin, small group explorations case studies, and jigsaw exercises (sometimes as introduction to, sometimes as review of material), and Jeopardy-style review sessions. On an assessment questionnaire at the end of the semester students ranked the in-class cooperative learning activities as on par with lectures and homework exercises in facilitating their learning. Students reported satisfactory attainment of three major goals identified for the course even though they were not explicitly reminded of these goals at the time of assessment. References cited: Bruner, J., 1990. Acts of Meaning. Harvard University Press.; Dyar, M.D., Gunter, M.E., Davis, J.C., and Odell, M.R., 2004. Integration of new methods into teaching mineralogy; Huba, M.E. and Freed, J.E., 2000. Learner-centered Assessment on College Campus: Shifting the Focus from Teaching to Learning. Allyn and Bacon.

Reid, M. R.

2010-12-01

47

Virtual Labs and Virtual Worlds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual Labs and Virtual Worlds Coastline Community College has under development several virtual lab simulations and activities that range from biology, to language labs, to virtual discussion environments. Imagine a virtual world that students enter online, by logging onto their computer from home or anywhere they have web access. Upon entering this world they select a personalized identity represented by

Ted Boehler

2006-01-01

48

Virtual Courseware: Drosophila  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this virtual lab exercise, students can discover and apply principles of genetic inheritance by studying fruit flies (Drosophila) in an interactive online environment. The exercise allows them to order fruit fly mutants from a web merchant, mate the flies in an incubator, anesthetize flies for observation, examine them under a microscope, and analyze the data from offspring to determine patterns of inheritance. Notes and experimental data can be saved online in a virtual notebook and used to generate a report. The exercise concludes with an online quiz, and alignments to state and national standards are included.

49

Using Dynamic Digital Maps to Teach Petrology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this session we will examine how to utilize Dynamic Digital Maps (DDMs) in undergraduate petrology courses to bring inaccessible and exciting volcanic field areas to the students in the classroom and to engage the students in authentic research experiences. A DDM is a stand-alone "presentation manager" computer program that contains interactive maps, analytical data, digital images and movies. They are essentially complete geologic maps in digital format, available on CD-ROM and on line. We have developed two different kinds of exercises that use DDMs to provide field-based context for undergraduate research projects in petrology. In one, the students use the DDM of the Tatara-San Pedro volcanic complex of the Andes Mountains of central Chile to develop a group research poster on part of the volcano's evolution, to present to the class, modeled after what would be presented at a national meeting. The second exercise focuses on the Springville Volcanic field, where the students try to understand the magma evolution using both field relations and quantitative modeling skills. Read a complete description of how dynamic digital maps work, with more ideas for the classroom. (from Teaching with Data, Simulations and Models)

Christopher D. Condit

50

[Petrological Analysis of Astrophysical Dust Analog Evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This project "Petrological analysis of astrophysical dust analog evolution" was initiated to try to understand the vapor phase condensation, and the nature of the reaction products, in circumstellar environments, such as the solar nebula 4,500 Myrs ago, and in the interstellar medium. Telescope-based infrared [IR] spectroscopy offers a broad-scale inventory of the various types of dust in these environments but no details on small-scale variations in terms of chemistry and morphology and petrological phase relationships. Vapor phase condensation in these environments is almost certainly a non-equilibrium process. The main challenge to this research was to document the nature of this process that, based on astrophysical observations, seems to yield compositionally consistent materials. This observation may suggest a predictable character during non-equilibrium condensation. These astrophysical environments include two chemically distinct, that is, oxygen-rich and carbon-rich environments. The former is characterized by silicates the latter by carbon-bearing solids. According to cosmological models of stellar evolution circumstellar dust accreted into protoplanets wherein thermal and/or aqueous processes will alter the dust under initially, non-equilibrium conditions.

Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.

1997-01-01

51

Microscope and method of use  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for electronically focusing and electronically scanning microscopic specimens are given. In the invention, visual images of even moving, living, opaque specimens can be acoustically obtained and viewed with virtually no time needed for processing (i.e., real time processing is used). And planar samples are not required. The specimens (if planar) need not be moved during scanning, although it will be desirable and possible to move or rotate nonplanar specimens (e.g., laser fusion targets) against the lens of the apparatus. No coupling fluid is needed, so specimens need not be wetted. A phase acoustic microscope is also made from the basic microscope components together with electronic mixers. 7 figs.

Bongianni, W.L.

1984-04-17

52

Microscope and method of use  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for electronically focusing and electronically scanning microscopic specimens are given. In the invention, visual images of even moving, living, opaque specimens can be acoustically obtained and viewed with virtually no time needed for processing (i.e., real time processing is used). And planar samples are not required. The specimens (if planar) need not be moved during scanning, although it will be desirable and possible to move or rotate nonplanar specimens (e.g., laser fusion targets) against the lens of the apparatus. No coupling fluid is needed, so specimens need not be wetted. A phase acoustic microscope is also made from the basic microscope components together with electronic mixers.

Bongianni, Wayne L. (Los Alamos, NM)

1984-01-01

53

Petrological and rheological controls on volcanism to terrestrial planets  

E-print Network

Through experimental petrology and geodynamic modeling, processes of melting under thick lithospheres on the Earth and the moon are investigated. Phase equilibrium experiments were carried out on Apollo 14B and 15C picritic ...

Elkins Tanton, Linda Tarbox, 1965-

2002-01-01

54

Petrology and Composition of HED Polymict Breccias  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The howardite, eucrite and diogenite (HED) clan of meteorites forms the largest suite of achondrites with over 900 named members. The HEDs are igneous rocks and breccias of igneous rocks from a differentiated asteroid [1]. The consensus view is that these rocks hail from the asteroid 4 Vesta, which will be the first target of NASA's Dawn mission. When Dawn arrives at Vesta, she will begin remote imagery and spectroscopy of the surface. The surface she will observe will be dominated by rocks and soils mixed through impact gardening. To help with the interpretation of the remotely sensed data, we have begun a project on the petrologic and compositional study of a suite of HED polymict breccias. Here we report on the preliminary findings of this project.

Mittlefehldt, David W.; Herrin, J. S.; Mertzman, S. A.; Mertzman, K. R.

2010-01-01

55

Petrology, Geochemistry and Genesis of Ureilites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ureilites are enigmatic achondrites that have some characteristics resulting from high temperature igneous processing, yet retain other characteristics inherited from the solar nebula. They are basalt-depleted ultramafic rocks containing 7-66 mg/g elemental C. They are rich in noble gases and display a correlation between mg# and Delta (17)O. This mishmash of properties has engendered various models for ureilite genesis, from those in which nebular processes dominate to those in which parent body igneous processes dominate. Characterization of new ureilites, especially of new subtypes, is an important part of attempts to unravel the history of the ureilite parent body or bodies. Here we report on the petrology and geochemistry of a suite of ureilites, mostly from Antarctica, and use these data to discuss ureilite petrogenesis. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Hudon, Pierre; Galindo, Charles, Jr.

2005-01-01

56

Lunar composition - A geophysical and petrological synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lunar compositional constraints are derived on the basis of geophysical data (in particular, the lunar seismic model as revised by Nakamura) and petrological arguments. Only in the case of extreme assumptions can critical aspects of bulk lunar composition be demonstrated to be equivalent to the present-day terrestrial mantle; specifically, the moon has an Mg number that is too low and an alumina abundance that is too high. Over a broad range of crustal densities the presence of a metallic core at least 150 km in radius is necessary to reconcile the upper mantle lunar seismic model with mass and moment of inertia constraints. A significant seismic discontinuity at 500 km depth may mark the lowest extent of early lunar differentiation, possibly representing a transition between highly fractionated upper mantle and less fractionated, perhaps even primordial, middle/lower mantle.

Mueller, Steve; Phillips, Roger J.; Taylor, G. Jeffrey

1988-01-01

57

Petrology of brecciated ferroan noritic anorthosite 67215  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A petrologic study of breccia 67215 is presented, showing that the rock has the bulk composition of a ferroan noritic anorthosite and is a polymict breccia containing several lithic clast types within a crushed, cataclastic matrix. The dominant lithic clasts contained in breccia 67215 are found to be igneous and metamorphic low- and high- Ca pyroxenes and olivine. Other clasts include granulated and sheared clasts, coarse-grained anorthosite with relatively Fe-rich augite, aphanitic, feldspathic microporphyritic melt breccias, and an impact-melt rock with strongly zoned relatively Mg-rich pyroxene. It is concluded that this rock type is relatively common in the highlands regolith excavated by the North Ray Crater.

Mcgee, James J.

1988-01-01

58

Altering petrology through microbial dissimilatory phosphite oxidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) takes advantage of various microbial metabolisms to increase hydrocarbon and energy yield by improving oil flow and flood water sweep in a reservoir during tertiary recovery. Wormholing at the injection well is believed to be the result of the large drop in pressure when water exits the injection well and enters the unconsolidated reservoir matrix. One possible means of prevent this event is to consolidate the rock matrix immediately around the injection well to create a permeable zone of stable petrology. Many microbial processes are known to result in the precipitation of ionic components into their environment creating solid-phase minerals. Such processes could be judiciously applied to bind unconsolidated matrices in order to form a permeable concreted rock matrix, which would minimize wormholing events and thus improve floodwater sweep. However, to date, apart from the application of urea oxidation creating calcium carbonate precipitation, there has been little investigation of the applicability of these precipitated bioconcretions to MEOR strategies and none to control wormholing events. Here we present a novel approach to altering rock petrology to concrete unconsolidated matrices in the near well environment by the biogenesis of authigenic minerals through microbial dissimilatory phosphite oxidation. Desulfotignum phosphitoxidans, strain FiPS-3 is currently the only isolated organism capable of using phosphite (HPO32-) as an electron donor for growth. This process, known as dissimilatory phosphite oxidation (DPO), can be coupled to either sulfate reduction or homoacetogenesis and leads to the accumulation of inorganic phosphate in the medium. The resulting insoluble mineral phases can coat the rock environment resulting in a concretion binding the unconsolidated matrix particles into a single phase. In this study we demonstrate that DPO can effectively produce calcium or magnesium phosphate minerals in packed glass bead mini-columns and could potentially be applied to create a concretion binding the unconsolidated matrix particles into a single phase.

Zhu, H.; Figueroa, I.; Coates, J. D.

2013-12-01

59

The natural hydrous sodium silicates from the northern bank of Lake Chad: occurrence, petrology and genesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrous sodium silicates sometimes associated with zeolites, form in an alkaline environment, in which there is a high concentration of dissolved silica. Such an environment existed during the Holocene in N'Guigmi interdunal depressions (Lake Chad), which led to the precipitation of various types of hydrous sodium silicates, including magadiite, kenyaite, and zeolites. Scanning electron and optical microscope observations allow several microstructures to be distinguished. These microstructures result from either precipitation sequences or a transformation along a diagenetic gradient. New petrological, microstructural and geochemical data confirm the transformation of magadiite into kenyaite during its diagenetic evolution, of which the final stage is probably Magadi-type chert. The study of various deposits of these minerals (hardened beds, scattered isolated crystals, mineralized plant debris, irregular concretions) have been used for paleo-environmental reconstruction. The decrease in the abundance of magadiite concretions in the sedimentary sequence can probably be explained by the climatic evolution of the region.

Sebag, D.; Verrecchia, E. P.; Lee, Seong-Joo; Durand, A.

2001-01-01

60

Magnetic petrology of eastern North America diabases. I - Olivine-normative dikes from western South Carolina  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The oxide mineralogy and the magnetic behavior of 15 olivine-normative samples obtained from South-Caroline diabase dikes were investigated using electron microprobe and SEM analyses and measurements of natural remanence magnetization (NRM), saturation isothermal remanence magnetization (SIRM), and anhysteritic remanence magnetization. It was found that chromite (which for these olivine-normative diabases is a sensitive petrologic indicator) constitutes up to 0.5 vol pct and that its abundance and composition correlate with bulk rock Cr. Microscopic analyses showed that titanomagnetite compositions were mostly between 0.4 and 0.55. The values of NRM and the NRM/SIRM ratios varied between 4 and 0.01 A sq m/kg and 0.0019 and 0.032, respectively. These properties inversely correlate with Cr content and demonstrably contrast Cr-rich and Cr-poor samples.

Warner, Richard D.; Wasilewski, Peter J.

1990-01-01

61

Virtual Colonoscopy  

MedlinePLUS

... colon. Virtual colonoscopy can show irritated and swollen tissue, ulcers, and polyps—extra pieces of tissue that grow ... colon. Virtual colonoscopy can show irritated and swollen tissue, ulcers, and polyps—extra pieces of tissue that grow ...

62

Virtual reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the terms cyberspace and virtual reality have been around for years, virtual reality as an industry is in its infancy. The term virtual reality is credited to Jaron Lanier, founder of VPL Research; earlier experimenters, like Myron Krueger in the mid-1970s, used phrases like artificial reality. William Gibson coined cyberspace in his 1984 science fiction novel. Neuromancer. Few technologies

C. Machover; S. E. Tice

1994-01-01

63

Virtual time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual time is a new paradigm for organizing and synchronizing distributed systems which can be applied to such problems as distributed discrete event simulation and distributed database concurrency control. Virtual time provides a flexible abstraction of real time in much the same way that virtual memory provides an abstraction of real memory. It is implemented using the Time Warp mechanism,

David R. Jefferson

1985-01-01

64

PhD position in igneous petrology MarieCurie Initial Training Network ABYSS (ESR2)  

E-print Network

PhD position in igneous petrology Marie in igneous petrology and geochemistry. The successful applicant will study rockforming processes, geochemical modelling Goals: Define field relations of crustal rocks and host mantle peridotites

Demouchy, Sylvie

65

Tele-nanorobotics using atomic force microscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tele-nanorobotics system using an atomic force microscope (AFM) as the nanorobot has been proposed. Modeling and control of the AFM cantilever, and modeling of nanometer scale forces have been realized for telemanipulation applications. Besides 3-D virtual reality visual feedback in the user interface, a 1 DOF haptic device has been constructed for nano scale haptic sensing. For feeling the

Metin Sitti; Hideki Hashimoto

1998-01-01

66

Electronic Blending in Virtual Microscopy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Virtual microscopy (VM) is a relatively new technology that transforms the computer into a microscope. In essence, VM allows for the scanning and transfer of glass slides from light microscopy technology to the digital environment of the computer. This transition is also a function of the change from print knowledge to electronic knowledge, or as…

Maybury, Terrence S.; Farah, Camile S.

2010-01-01

67

Petrology and radiogeology of the Stripa pluton  

SciTech Connect

To better define the character of the rock encompassing the thermomechanical and hydrological experiments at the Stripa mine in central Sweden, and to help determine the size of the Stripa pluton, detailed studies were conducted of the petrology and radiogeology of the quartz monzonite and adjacent rocks. Petrologic studies emphasized optical petrography, with supplementary X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and microprobe analyses. Radiogeologic investigations were based primarily on surface and underground gamma-ray spectrometric measurements of uranium, thorium and potassium, supplemented by laboratory gamma spectrometric analyses and fission-track radiographic determinations of the locations and abundance of uranium in the rock matrix. Both the quartz monzonite and the metavolcanic leptite which it intruded are strongly fractured. Two stages of fracture filling are evident; an earlier stage encompassing quartz, sericite, feldspar, epidote, and chlorite, and a later stage dominated by carbonate minerals. The Stripa quartz monzonite is chemically and mineralogically distinct from other plutons in the region. Muscovite is the predominant mica in the quartz monzonite; biotite has been altered to chlorite, hornblende is absent, and accessory minerals are scarce. In contrast, in other plutons in the Stripa region biotite and hornblende are prominent mafic minerals and accessory minerals are abundant. The Stripa quartz monzonite is also considerably more radioactive than the leptite and other plutons in the region. Uranium and thorium abundances are both- 30 ppm, considerably higher than in "normal" granitic rocks where the thorium-to-uranium ratio generally exceeds 2. Potassium-argon dating of muscovite from the Stripa quartz monzonite indicates that this rock may be older, at 1691 million years than granitic rock of the neighboring Gusselby and Kloten massifs, whose ages, based on K-Ar dating of biotite, are respectively 1604 and 1640 m.y. Heat flow and heat productivity considerations show that although Stripa quartz monzonite contains high abundances of radioelements, the pluton has little effect on the regional heat flow. If it occurs in a layered plutonic setting, it is not more than 1.5 km thick; otherwise it may comprise a stock, dike, or border phase that is relatively small compared with the large granitic plutons exposed in the region.

Wollenberg, Harold; Flexser, Steve; Andersson, Lennart

1980-12-01

68

Virtual Congresses  

PubMed Central

A new form of scientific medical meeting has emerged in the last few years—the virtual congress. This article describes the general role of computer technologies and the Internet in the development of this new means of scientific communication, by reviewing the history of “cyber sessions” in medical education and the rationale, methods, and initial results of the First Virtual Congress of Cardiology. Instructions on how to participate in this virtual congress, either actively or as an observer, are included. Current advantages and disadvantages of virtual congresses, their impact on the scientific community at large, and future developments and possibilities in this area are discussed. PMID:10641960

Lecueder, Silvia; Manyari, Dante E.

2000-01-01

69

Virtual Neuron  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Neurons are able to communicate with each other using biochemicals called neurotransmitters. Use Virtual Neuron to explore neurotransmitter properties, make neurons fire, and manipulate neural circuits.

2009-04-14

70

Virtual Labs and Virtual Worlds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Virtual Labs and Virtual Worlds Coastline Community College has under development several virtual lab simulations and activities that range from biology, to language labs, to virtual discussion environments. Imagine a virtual world that students enter online, by logging onto their computer from home or anywhere they have web access. Upon entering this world they select a personalized identity represented by a digitized character (avatar) that can freely move about, interact with the environment, and communicate with other characters. In these virtual worlds, buildings, gathering places, conference rooms, labs, science rooms, and a variety of other “real world” elements are evident. When characters move about and encounter other people (players) they may freely communicate. They can examine things, manipulate objects, read signs, watch video clips, hear sounds, and jump to other locations. Goals of critical thinking, social interaction, peer collaboration, group support, and enhanced learning can be achieved in surprising new ways with this innovative approach to peer-to-peer communication in a virtual discussion world. In this presentation, short demos will be given of several online learning environments including a virtual biology lab, a marine science module, a Spanish lab, and a virtual discussion world. Coastline College has been a leader in the development of distance learning and media-based education for nearly 30 years and currently offers courses through PDA, Internet, DVD, CD-ROM, TV, and Videoconferencing technologies. Its distance learning program serves over 20,000 students every year. sponsor Jerry Meisner

Boehler, Ted

2006-12-01

71

Virtual Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\\\The need for automatic storage allocation arises from desires for program modularity, machine independence, and resource sharing. Virtual memory is an elegant way of achieving these objectives. In a virtual memory, the addresses a program may use to identify information are distinguished from the addresses the memory system uses to identify physical storage sites, and program-generated addresses are translated automatically

Peter J. Denning

1970-01-01

72

Virtual grasshopper  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

3D virtual image of a grasshopper (Family Acrididae). This movie is also available as a Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) model. The VRML models are more interactive than the QuickTime versions, but special software may need to be downloaded to open them (read the Â?HelpÂ? page for details). Those people using public computers may be limited from fully accessing the resource. Mozilla Firefox users can view the VRML files directly in their browsers by downloading the Cortona extension (http://www.parallelgraphics.com/products/cortona/download/netscape/). This website is an excellent educational resource for all ages. The Virtual Insects home page (http://www.ento.vt.edu/~sharov/3d/3dinsect.html) has a basic explanation of how virtual reality works, including the Virtual Reality Modeling Language. The "Virtual Images" link takes you to a list of insects that can be viewed as 3D digital reconstructions. The image files would make excellent additions to teaching lectures for introductory classes. Visit the "How to Build Virtual Insects" page to read about how the images were created and how the original models were made more biologically accurate. Also be sure to read the page on how to view the cyber-insects inside a virtual reality "cave".

0000-00-00

73

Virtual mosquito  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

3D virtual image of a mosquito (Family Culicidae). This movie is also available as a Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) model. The VRML models are more interactive than the QuickTime versions, but special software may need to be downloaded to open them (read the Â?HelpÂ? page for details). Those people using public computers may be limited from fully accessing the resource. Mozilla Firefox users can view the VRML files directly in their browsers by downloading the Cortona extension (http://www.parallelgraphics.com/products/cortona/download/netscape/). This website is an excellent educational resource for all ages. The Virtual Insects home page (http://www.ento.vt.edu/~sharov/3d/3dinsect.html) has a basic explanation of how virtual reality works, including the Virtual Reality Modeling Language. The "Virtual Images" link takes you to a list of insects that can be viewed as 3D digital reconstructions. The image files would make excellent additions to teaching lectures for introductory classes. Visit the "How to Build Virtual Insects" page to read about how the images were created and how the original models were made more biologically accurate. Also be sure to read the page on how to view the cyber-insects inside a virtual reality "cave".

0000-00-00

74

Virtual termite  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

3D virtual image of a termite (Order Isoptera). This movie is also available as a Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) model. The VRML models are more interactive than the QuickTime versions, but special software may need to be downloaded to open them (read the Â?HelpÂ? page for details). Those people using public computers may be limited from fully accessing the resource. Mozilla Firefox users can view the VRML files directly in their browsers by downloading the Cortona extension (http://www.parallelgraphics.com/products/cortona/download/netscape/). This website is an excellent educational resource for all ages. The Virtual Insects home page (http://www.ento.vt.edu/~sharov/3d/3dinsect.html) has a basic explanation of how virtual reality works, including the Virtual Reality Modeling Language. The "Virtual Images" link takes you to a list of insects that can be viewed as 3D digital reconstructions. The image files would make excellent additions to teaching lectures for introductory classes. Visit the "How to Build Virtual Insects" page to read about how the images were created and how the original models were made more biologically accurate. Also be sure to read the page on how to view the cyber-insects inside a virtual reality "cave".

0000-00-00

75

Virtual flea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

3D virtual image of a flea (Order Siphonaptera). This movie is also available as a Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) model. The VRML models are more interactive than the QuickTime versions, but special software may need to be downloaded to open them (read the Â?HelpÂ? page for details). Those people using public computers may be limited from fully accessing the resource. Mozilla Firefox users can view the VRML files directly in their browsers by downloading the Cortona extension (http://www.parallelgraphics.com/products/cortona/download/netscape/). This website is an excellent educational resource for all ages. The Virtual Insects home page (http://www.ento.vt.edu/~sharov/3d/3dinsect.html) has a basic explanation of how virtual reality works, including the Virtual Reality Modeling Language. The "Virtual Images" link takes you to a list of insects that can be viewed as 3D digital reconstructions. The image files would make excellent additions to teaching lectures for introductory classes. Visit the "How to Build Virtual Insects" page to read about how the images were created and how the original models were made more biologically accurate. Also be sure to read the page on how to view the cyber-insects inside a virtual reality "cave".

0000-00-00

76

Virtual fly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

3D virtual image of a blow fly (Family Calliphoridae). This movie is also available as a Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) model. The VRML models are more interactive than the QuickTime versions, but special software may need to be downloaded to open them (read the Â?HelpÂ? page for details). Those people using public computers may be limited from fully accessing the resource. Mozilla Firefox users can view the VRML files directly in their browsers by downloading the Cortona extension (http://www.parallelgraphics.com/products/cortona/download/netscape/). This website is an excellent educational resource for all ages. The Virtual Insects home page (http://www.ento.vt.edu/~sharov/3d/3dinsect.html) has a basic explanation of how virtual reality works, including the Virtual Reality Modeling Language. The "Virtual Images" link takes you to a list of insects that can be viewed as 3D digital reconstructions. The image files would make excellent additions to teaching lectures for introductory classes. Visit the "How to Build Virtual Insects" page to read about how the images were created and how the original models were made more biologically accurate. Also be sure to read the page on how to view the cyber-insects inside a virtual reality "cave".

0000-00-00

77

Virtual mantis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

3D virtual image of a mantis (Family Mantidae). This movie is also available as a Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) model. The VRML models are more interactive than the QuickTime versions, but special software may need to be downloaded to open them (read the Â?HelpÂ? page for details). Those people using public computers may be limited from fully accessing the resource. Mozilla Firefox users can view the VRML files directly in their browsers by downloading the Cortona extension (http://www.parallelgraphics.com/products/cortona/download/netscape/). This website is an excellent educational resource for all ages. The Virtual Insects home page (http://www.ento.vt.edu/~sharov/3d/3dinsect.html) has a basic explanation of how virtual reality works, including the Virtual Reality Modeling Language. The "Virtual Images" link takes you to a list of insects that can be viewed as 3D digital reconstructions. The image files would make excellent additions to teaching lectures for introductory classes. Visit the "How to Build Virtual Insects" page to read about how the images were created and how the original models were made more biologically accurate. Also be sure to read the page on how to view the cyber-insects inside a virtual reality "cave".

0000-00-00

78

Virtual bee  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

3D virtual image of a honey bee (Family Apidae *spelled Apiidae in the image caption*). This movie is also available as a Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) model. The VRML models are more interactive than the QuickTime versions, but special software may need to be downloaded to open them (read the Â?HelpÂ? page for details). Those people using public computers may be limited from fully accessing the resource. Mozilla Firefox users can view the VRML files directly in their browsers by downloading the Cortona extension (http://www.parallelgraphics.com/products/cortona/download/netscape/). This website is an excellent educational resource for all ages. The Virtual Insects home page (http://www.ento.vt.edu/~sharov/3d/3dinsect.html) has a basic explanation of how virtual reality works, including the Virtual Reality Modeling Language. The "Virtual Images" link takes you to a list of insects that can be viewed as 3D digital reconstructions. The image files would make excellent additions to teaching lectures for introductory classes. Visit the "How to Build Virtual Insects" page to read about how the images were created and how the original models were made more biologically accurate. Also be sure to read the page on how to view the cyber-insects inside a virtual reality "cave".

0000-00-00

79

Virtually Possible  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Diane Lewis began building her popular virtual education program in a storage closet. The drab room, just big enough to squeeze in a tiny table, was her office at the headquarters of Seminole County (Florida) Public Schools. She had a computer and a small staff of temporary workers. Lewis, who managed to open two successful virtual schools for…

Mellon, Ericka

2011-01-01

80

Virtual Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual time is a broad, new paradigm for organizing and synchronizing distributed systems, subsuming such heretofore distantly related problems as distributed discrete event simulation and distributed database concurrency control. It is an abstraction of real time in much the same way that virtual memory is an abstraction of real memory, and it reorganizes the concepts of concurrency and synchronization in

David Jefferson

1983-01-01

81

The Mineralogy and Petrology of Anomalous Eucrite Emmaville  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has long been known that certain basaltic achondrites share similarities with eucrites. These eucrite-like achondrites have distinct isotopic compositions and petrologic characteristics indicative of formation on a separate parent body from the howardite-eucrite-diogenite (HED) clan (e.g., Ibitira, Northwest Africa (NWA) 011). Others show smaller isotopic variations but are otherwise petrologically and compositionally indistinguishable from basaltic eucrites (e.g., Pasamonte, Pecora Escarpment (PCA) 91007). The Emmaville eucrite has a delta O-17 value of -0.137 plus or minus 0.024 per mille (1 sigma), which is substantially different from the eucrite mean of -0.246 plus or minus 0.014 per mille (2 sigma), but similar to those of A-881394 and Bunburra Rockhole (BR). Currently little data exist for Emmaville in terms of petrology or bulk composition. Studying anomalous eucrites allows us to more completely understand the numbers of asteroids represented by eucrite- like basalts and thus constrain the heterogeneity of the HED suite. In this study, we present our preliminary petrological and mineral composition results for Emmaville.

Barrett, T. J.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Ross, D. K.; Greenwood, R. C.; Anand, M.; Franchi, I. A.; Grady, M. M.; Charlier, B. L. A.

2015-01-01

82

Mineralogy and Petrology of New Antarctic Nakhlite MIL 03346  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Among the approx.1300 meteorites returned from Antarctica by the 2003-2004 ANSMET expedition was a 715g nakhlite, MIL 03346, recovered from the Miller Range. Samples of this meteorite were distributed to investigators on December 16, 2004. We were allocated PTS MIL 03346,63,100. This abstract is our preliminary report on the mineralogy and petrology of this important new sample.

McKay, G.; Schwandt, C.

2005-01-01

83

A Simulated Research Problem for Undergraduate Metamorphic Petrology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a laboratory problem in metamorphic petrology designed to simulate a research experience. The problem deals with data on scales ranging from a geologic map to hand specimens to thin sections. Student analysis includes identifying metamorphic index minerals, locating their isograds on the map, and determining the folding sequence. (BC)

Amenta, Roddy V.

1984-01-01

84

Mineralogy and petrology of Grenada, Lesser Antilles island arc  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mineralogy and petrology of volcanic and plutonic rocks from the island of Grenada are described. The volcanic rocks include basanitoids, alkalic and subalkalic basalts, andesites and dacites. Phenocryst phases in the basanitoids and basalts are olivine (Fo90-71), zoned calcic augite, spinel ranging from ferrian pleonaste through chromite to titaniferous magnetite, and plagioclase. Some of the basalts contain pargasitic amphibole.

Richard J. Arculus

1978-01-01

85

Petrological evidence for secular cooling in mantle Claude Herzberg1  

E-print Network

) such as oceanic plateaux and continental flood provinces1 . However, a quantitative petrological comparison has are shown in Figs 1b and 2. For the present-day Galapagos plume, TP ranges from 1,400 to 1,500 uC (ref. 2

86

GEOL 2520 IGNEOUS AND METAMORPHIC PETROLOGY COURSE OUTLINE  

E-print Network

of the Earth's mantle and crust. The origin of igneous and metamorphic rocks. IGNEOUS PETROLOGY The origin of magmas Chapter(s) 1, 6 (selected topics) Mineralogy of igneous rocks Major, minor, and accessory minerals in igneous rocks: a review (major rock-forming minerals are emphasized). Introduction to igneous phase

Chakhmouradian, Anton

87

Virtualization A Dialogue on Virtualization  

E-print Network

the first of our three pieces on operating systems: virtualization. Student: But what is virtualization, oh noble professor? Professor: Imagine we have a peach. Student: A peach? (incredulous) Professor: Yes peach, but in reality they don't. Student: So you are sharing the peach, but you don't even know it

Arpaci-Dusseau, Remzi

88

Virtual Satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Virtual Satellite (VirtualSat) is a computer program that creates an environment that facilitates the development, verification, and validation of flight software for a single spacecraft or for multiple spacecraft flying in formation. In this environment, enhanced functionality and autonomy of navigation, guidance, and control systems of a spacecraft are provided by a virtual satellite that is, a computational model that simulates the dynamic behavior of the spacecraft. Within this environment, it is possible to execute any associated software, the development of which could benefit from knowledge of, and possible interaction (typically, exchange of data) with, the virtual satellite. Examples of associated software include programs for simulating spacecraft power and thermal- management systems. This environment is independent of the flight hardware that will eventually host the flight software, making it possible to develop the software simultaneously with, or even before, the hardware is delivered. Optionally, by use of interfaces included in VirtualSat, hardware can be used instead of simulated. The flight software, coded in the C or C++ programming language, is compilable and loadable into VirtualSat without any special modifications. Thus, VirtualSat can serve as a relatively inexpensive software test-bed for development test, integration, and post-launch maintenance of spacecraft flight software.

Hammrs, Stephan R.

2008-01-01

89

Virtual Earthquake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Virtual Earthquake was created by California State University, Los Angeles, as part of the Electronic Desktop Project. This virtual simulation allows students to locate the epicenter of an earthquake and determine its magnitude on the Richter scale. Students can choose from four geographic areas for their simulation. Virtual Earthquake carefully guides the student through the steps required to calculate the epicenter and to determine the magnitude of a simulated earthquake. The actual epicenter is provided along with the epicenter determined by the user. The user can then determine the magnitude of the earthquake as measured on the Richter scale.

90

Virtual Wonders  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The British Natural History Museum has posted this site, which features a selection of fossils, meteorites, and other specimens that can be rotated and viewed in virtual reality. Each specimen is accompanied by a brief text description and links to additional information. This is a collection of strange and interesting virtual objects, most of which the viewer will not find in galleries. Virtual Wonders include a fossil ammonite, Anomalocaris model, Archaeopteryx skull, Coccolithopore, Radiolarian model, land snail shell, meteorite fragments, a two-faced sheep skull, fossil seashell, microfossil, specimen jar, surface of Mars, and trilobites.

91

Virtually Hawaii  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Virtually Hawaii is provided by researchers at the University of Hawaii, Proxemy Research, Terra Systems, and private company sponsors. Visitors can explore virtual field trips of the Hawaiian Islands, participate in remote sensing tutorials, work with an interactive spectral imager, view space and aircraft images, and more. The virtual field trip of the "big island" includes a simulated flight, a ground tour, a kids tour, and a link to six ways to enjoy Kilauea Volcano. An interesting and informative site, everyone from kids to grandparents will enjoy its content and ease of use.

92

Virtually Possible  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a ray drawing activity to aid students in their understanding of how virtual images are formed by plane mirrors, and how the image size and distance from the mirror compare to those of the object.

Darlene DePalma

2012-06-22

93

Virtual Dating  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an interactive exercise about Geologic Time. It focuses on how geologists and archaeologists determine the ages of rocks and ancient artifacts. This is a beta release of an instructional activity still under development. Virtual Dating contains two modules as well as a demonstration version. One module is Virtual Dating Isochron for rocks and minerals and the other is Virtual Dating Radiocarbon (Carbon-14). The interactive modules involve the students in exploring data and background information and answering questions as they move through the activity. An answer checking and feedback function is employed. There is also a Virtual Dating Demo if you want to do a quick run-through of the activity without answer checking enabled.

Gary Novak

94

Virtual Cave  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive resource adapted from The Virtual Cave by Dave Bunnell, presents images of various features found in solution caves and includes detailed information on how these features are formed and where they occur.

2005-10-21

95

Virtual Worlds for Virtual Organizing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The members and resources of a virtual organization are dispersed across time and space, yet they function as a coherent entity through the use of technologies, networks, and alliances. As virtual organizations proliferate and become increasingly important in society, many may exploit the technical architecture s of virtual worlds, which are the confluence of computer-mediated communication, telepresence, and virtual reality originally created for gaming. A brief socio-technical history describes their early origins and the waves of progress followed by stasis that brought us to the current period of renewed enthusiasm. Examination of contemporary examples demonstrates how three genres of virtual worlds have enabled new arenas for virtual organizing: developer-defined closed worlds, user-modifiable quasi-open worlds, and user-generated open worlds. Among expected future trends are an increase in collaboration born virtually rather than imported from existing organizations, a tension between high-fidelity recreations of the physical world and hyper-stylized imaginations of fantasy worlds, and the growth of specialized worlds optimized for particular sectors, companies, or cultures.

Rhoten, Diana; Lutters, Wayne

96

Virtual memory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Virtual memory was conceived as a way to automate overlaying of program segments. Modern computers have very large main memories, but need automatic solutions to the relocation and protection problems. Virtual memory serves this need as well and is thus useful in computers of all sizes. The history of the idea is traced, showing how it has become a widespread, little noticed feature of computers today.

Denning, P. J.

1986-01-01

97

Mineralogical and petrological investigations of lunar samples.  

PubMed

Fragments of igneous rocks and breccias, and one coarse-grained rock with thin sections, have been studied. Minerals found include pyroxene, plagioclase, olivine, ilmenite, troilite, ulvöspinel, native iron, cristobalite, tridymite, alkali feldspar, apatite, and quartz. Textures are described and interpreted. Among features revealed by optical, microprobe, x-ray diffraction, and electron microscope methods are extreme zoning and unmixing in pyroxene grains, compositional variations in ilmenites, and effects of shock metamorphism. Some trace elements were determined by x-ray fluorescence analysis. PMID:17781508

Bailey, J C; Champness, P E; Dunham, A C; Esson, J; Fyfe, W S; Mackenzie, W S; Stumpfl, E F; Zussman, J

1970-01-30

98

Data-driven Science in Geochemistry & Petrology: Vision & Reality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science in many fields is increasingly ';data-driven'. Though referred to as a ';new' Fourth Paradigm (Hey, 2009), data-driven science is not new, and examples are cited in the Geochemical Society's data policy, including the compilation of Dziewonski & Anderson (1981) that led to PREM, and Zindler & Hart (1986), who compiled mantle isotope data to present for the first time a comprehensive view of the Earth's mantle. Today, rapidly growing data volumes, ubiquity of data access, and new computational and information management technologies enable data-driven science at a radically advanced scale of speed, extent, flexibility, and inclusiveness, with the ability to seamlessly synthesize observations, experiments, theory, and computation, and to statistically mine data across disciplines, leading to more comprehensive, well informed, and high impact scientific advances. Are geochemists, petrologists, and volcanologists ready to participate in this revolution of the scientific process? In the past year, researchers from the VGP community and related disciplines have come together at several cyberinfrastructure related workshops, in part prompted by the EarthCube initiative of the US NSF, to evaluate the status of cyberinfrastructure in their field, to put forth key scientific challenges, and identify primary data and software needs to address these. Science scenarios developed by workshop participants that range from non-equilibrium experiments focusing on mass transport, chemical reactions, and phase transformations (J. Hammer) to defining the abundance of elements and isotopes in every voxel in the Earth (W. McDonough), demonstrate the potential of cyberinfrastructure enabled science, and define the vision of how data access, visualization, analysis, computation, and cross-domain interoperability can and should support future research in VGP. The primary obstacle for data-driven science in VGP remains the dearth of accessible, integrated data from lab and sensor measurements, experiments, and models, both from past and from present studies, and their poor discoverability, interoperability, and standardization. Other deficiencies include the lack of widespread sample curation and online sample catalogs, and broad community support and enforcement of open data sharing policies and a strategy for sustained funding and operation of the cyberinfrastructure. In order to achieve true data-driven science in geochemistry and petrology, one of the primary requirements is to change the way data and models are managed and shared to dramatically improve their access and re-usability. Adoption of new data publication practices, new ways of citing data that ensure attribution and credit to authors, tools that help investigators to seamlessly manage their data throughout the data life cycle, from the point of acquisition to upload to repositories, and population of databases with historical data are among the most urgent needs. The community, especially early career scientists, must work together to produce the cultural shift within the discipline toward sharing of data and knowledge, virtual collaboration, and social networking. Dziewonski, A M, & Anderson, D L: Physics of the Earth and Planet Interiors 25 (4), 297 (1981) Hey, T, Tansley, S, Tolle, K (Eds.): Redmond, VA: Microsoft Research (2009) Zindler, A, & Hart, S R: Ann. Rev. Earth Plan. Sci. 14, 493 (1986)

Lehnert, K. A.; Ghiorso, M. S.; Spear, F. S.

2013-12-01

99

TEAM Electron Microscope Animation  

SciTech Connect

The TEAM Electron Microscope, a device that enables atomic-scale imaging in 3-D, has a rotating stage that can hold and position samples inside electron microscopes with unprecedented stability, position-control accuracy, and range of motion.The TEAM Stage makes one of the world's most powerful electron microscopes even better, and enables previously impossible experiments.

None

2012-01-01

100

Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Martian Meteorites: Petrology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The session "Martian Meteorites: Petrology: included the following reports:Volatile Behavior in Lunar and Terrestrial Basalts During Shock: Implications for Martian Magmas; Problems with a Low-Pressure Tholeiitic Magmatic History for the Chassigny Dunite; Fast Cooling History of the Chassigny Martian Meteorite; Rehomogenized Interstitial and Inclusion Melts in Lherzolitic Shergottite ALH 77005: Petrologic Significance; Compositional Controls on the Formation of Kaersutite Amphibole in Shergottite Meteorites; Chemical Characteristics of an Olivine-Phyric Shergottite, Yamato 980459; Pb-Hf-Sr-Nd Isotopic Systematics and Age of Nakhlite NWA 998; Noble Gases in Two Samples of EETA 79001 (Lith. A); Experimental Constraints on the Iron Content of the Martian Mantle; and Mars as the Parent Body for the CI Carbonaceous Chondrites: New Data.

2004-01-01

101

Petrologic and Chemical Characterization of a Suite of Antarctic Diogenites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The origin of diogenites, ultramafic cumulates related to eucrites, is an unresolved problem [1]. Most diogenites are orthopyroxenites, a few are harzburgites [2], and some are transitional to cumulate eucrites [1, 3]. Cumulate eucrites are gabbros formed by crystal fractionation from basaltic eucrites [4]. The consensus view is that basaltic eucrites are residual melts from global-magma-ocean crystallization on their parent asteroid [4] which is plausibly Vesta [5]. However, the petrologic and compositional characteristics of diogenites seem to preclude a magma ocean origin [1, 4]. We are doing a petrologic and chemical study of new or unusual diogenites with the ultimate goals of constraining their genesis, and the geologic evolution of Vesta.

Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Mertzman, S. A.; Peng, Z. X.; Mertzman, K. R.

2013-01-01

102

Virtual Vision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computer vision and sensor networks researchers are increasingly motivated to investigate complex multi-camera sensing and control issues that arise in the automatic visual surveillance of extensive, highly populated public spaces such as airports and train stations. However, they often encounter serious impediments to deploying and experimenting with large-scale physical camera networks in such real-world environments. We propose an alternative approach called "Virtual Vision", which facilitates this type of research through the virtual reality simulation of populated urban spaces, camera sensor networks, and computer vision on commodity computers. We demonstrate the usefulness of our approach by developing two highly automated surveillance systems comprising passive and active pan/tilt/zoom cameras that are deployed in a virtual train station environment populated by autonomous, lifelike virtual pedestrians. The easily reconfigurable virtual cameras distributed in this environment generate synthetic video feeds that emulate those acquired by real surveillance cameras monitoring public spaces. The novel multi-camera control strategies that we describe enable the cameras to collaborate in persistently observing pedestrians of interest and in acquiring close-up videos of pedestrians in designated areas.

Terzopoulos, Demetri; Qureshi, Faisal Z.

103

Petrological evidence for secular cooling in mantle plumes.  

PubMed

Geological mapping and geochronological studies have shown much lower eruption rates for ocean island basalts (OIBs) in comparison with those of lavas from large igneous provinces (LIPs) such as oceanic plateaux and continental flood provinces. However, a quantitative petrological comparison has never been made between mantle source temperature and the extent of melting for OIB and LIP sources. Here we show that the MgO and FeO contents of Galapagos-related lavas and their primary magmas have decreased since the Cretaceous period. From petrological modelling, we infer that these changes reflect a cooling of the Galapagos mantle plume from a potential temperature of 1,560-1,620 degrees C in the Cretaceous to 1,500 degrees C at present. Iceland also exhibits secular cooling, in agreement with previous studies. Our work provides quantitative petrological evidence that, in general, mantle plumes for LIPs with Palaeocene-Permian ages were hotter and melted more extensively than plumes of more modern ocean islands. We interpret this to reflect episodic flow from lower-mantle domains that are lithologically and geochemically heterogeneous. PMID:19340079

Herzberg, Claude; Gazel, Esteban

2009-04-01

104

Virtual Hospital  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided and maintained by the University of Iowa Health Care, the Virtual Hospital is designed as a "medical reference and health promotion tool for health care providers and patients." To that end, the site offers current and authoritative medical information for patients and professional and pedagogical information for health care providers. The former includes patient educational briefs browseable by organ system or by a topical list, a collection of peer-reviewed and annotated Web resources, an internal search engine, and archives of a column offering medical advice to middle-aged users. Resources in the health care provider section include several digital libraries aimed at certain specialties (Pediatrics, Pediatric Radiology, Family Medicine, and Medical Student); multimedia textbooks and teaching files grouped by organ system; lectures and publications; and clinical practice guidelines. Additional resources at the site include links to the Virtual Children's and Virtual Naval Hospitals, an internal search engine, and online continuing education courses.

105

Virtual Labs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the past few years, the Howard Hughes Medical Instituteâ??s Biointeractive website has garnered critical acclaim from a number of international organizations that evaluate various multimedia products that educate Internet users about science and technology. Most recently, their Virtual Labs area on the site has been well-received, and they are visually entrancing and easy to use. Currently, the site contains five full virtual labs, and they include those that allow students to learn how to identify various bacteria and another one that casts participants as a young intern who is learning how to identify heritable diseases of the heart. Each virtual lab contains resources for instructors, along with an interactive quiz.

106

Virtual Labs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the past few years, the Howard Hughes Medical Instituteâ??s Biointeractive website has garnered critical acclaim from a number of international organizations that evaluate various multimedia products that educate Internet users about science and technology. Most recently, their Virtual Labs area on the site has been well-received, and they are visually entrancing and easy to use. Currently, the site contains six full virtual labs, and they include those that allow students to learn how to identify various bacteria and another one that casts participants as a young intern who is learning how to identify heritable diseases of the heart. Each virtual lab contains resources for instructors, along with an interactive quiz.

107

Application of Automated SEM-EDS Based Mineral Identification Systems to Problems in Metamorphic Petrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automated scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS) based mineral identification systems such as QEMSCAN have been in development for over 20 years, primarily as a tool to understand mineral liberation and element distribution in metal mining industry. This powerful technique is now being used in non mining applications such as metamorphic petrology where accurate mineral identification and metamorphic fabrics are key to deciphering the metamorphic history of samples. The QEMSCAN was developed by CSIRO for application in the mining industry where it is used to understand mineralogy, texture, mineral associations, the presence of gangue minerals and deleterious elements that may potentially interfere with mineral processing and planning, and the overall impact of mineralogy on grinding and flotation processes. It is capable of identifying most rock-forming minerals in milliseconds from their characteristic x-ray spectra. The collected x-ray spectra are compared to entries in a database containing the species identification profiles (SIPs) and are assigned a label accordingly. QEMSCAN is capable of searching large sample areas at high resolution resulting in the accurate and precise determination of all minerals present. Reports that were originally developed for the mining geologist can be equally useful to the petrologist, e.g. phase/mineral maps, modal mineral abundances and mineral association reports. Identification of key minerals is of great importance to determining the petrologic history of a sample. These key minerals may be few in number and present as small microinclusions (less than 100 ?m) making them difficult to identify, if at all, with the petrographic microscope. Therefore, imaging by electron-microprobe or scanning electron microscope are the methods traditionally used. However, because of the small field of view available on these instruments at a magnification necessary to resolve micron sized relicts and textures, the search for a few microinclusions may be extremely time consuming, tedious and costly. QEMSCAN with its ability to provide large quantitative data sets and search large sample areas at high resolution means that whole thin sections can have their mineralogy accurately and precisely determined in hours. For instance in metamorphic petrology once relict minerals of earlier metamorphic assemblages are located; thermobarometry and geochronology can then be applied; resulting in a wealth of information on previous segments of the pressure-temperature-time-deformation path. The relict mineral textures and their relationship to the fabric of the entire thin section can be easily seen in the phase/mineral map yielding important textural information. We have developed a SIP database to be used to study metamorphic samples from the Central Metamorphic terrane (CMt) of the eastern Klamath Mountains, northern California. The CMt was chosen because recent work has resulted in the discovery of relict rutile grains and ilmenite-plagioclase-amphibole symplectites textures interpreted as the decomposition of either garnet or omphacite during exhumation from eclogite facies conditions. The QEMSCAN is being used primarily to search for these relict garnet and omphacite grains. Although only a few samples have been run, no garnet or omphacite have been located thus far. However, in a very short period of time the modal mineral abundances and overall fabric have been determined to a degree never previously achieved.

Fairhurst, Robert; Barrow, Wendy; Rollinson, Gavyn

2010-05-01

108

FLASK-SG: A program to compute chemical equilibria in metamorphic petrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical equilibrium calculation program for metamorphic petrology, FLASK-SG, was written for Unix variants (Linux, IRIX, Tru64 UNIX). It is also ported to Windows 95/98. The user specifies a temperature, pressure, and substance amounts (in moles of any chemical formula in C-H-O-Si-Al-Ti-Fe-Mn-Mg-Ca-Na-K system) to this program, then it calculates the stable mineral assemblage, mineral amounts, and gas composition under the given conditions using Gibbs free energy minimization method with the Holland and Powell (1990) data set. Searching algorithm for the stable mineral assemblage is the Metropolis Monte Carlo method. The coding language is C++, and experimental object oriented programming style is adopted to make the main program part as a class library. Model-dependent functions such as fugacity coefficients and activities are implemented as virtual methods of the "systems" class, so they can be easily changed as methods of inherited class from the "systems" class. These characteristics are aimed for a future "simulation kit".

Takeno, Naoto

2001-12-01

109

Exhumation tectonics of the ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks in the Qinling orogen in east China: New petrological-structural-  

E-print Network

Exhumation tectonics of the ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks in the Qinling orogen in east of the UHP metamorphism is discussed. INDEX TERMS: 8109 Tectonophysics: Continental tectonics--extensional (0905); 1035 Geochemistry: Geochronology; 3660 Mineralogy and Petrology: Metamorphic petrology; 9609

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

110

Metastability during metamorphism (reading a metamorphic petrology paper from the literature)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

I use this problem set as a way to introduce students (mostly sophomores) to reading a technical article from the literature. The paper is Austrheim, H, 1987, Eclogitization of lower crustal granulites by fluid migration through shear zones, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 81:221-232. The paper describes Grenville-age mafic and anorthositic granulites in Norway re-metamorphosed under eclogite facies conditions during the Caledonian. The granulite-facies assemblages persist metastabiliy, and only become eclogite assemblages in or near shear zones where fluids allow the granulite->eclogite reactions to occur. I try to have this problem set serve a number of purposes. First, I ask the students to answer a number of guiding questions so that they work through the paper and look up terms as needed. Some of the questions are directly from the text, and others more are open-ended. I wrap-up the problem set with a 'virtual field trip' of the area discussed in the paper. This slide-show works out much better than similar ones I do in this class, because they have all read about the area and have tried to visualize the field relationships already. The virtual field trip typically leads into interesting discussions about tectonics and metamorphism, polymetamorphism, the meaning of facies, how petrology is done in the field, and how metastability is necessary in order to interpret metamorphic history. In an advanced class other papers by Austrheim and co-workers can be used to explore pseudotachylites and the interplay between metamorphism and seismicity.

William Peck

111

Virtual Economy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Launched February 26, 1999, Virtual Economy (VE) is an Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS), Biz/ed, and Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC-UK) learning tool based on the UK governmental model for economic forecasting and planning. This elaborate site contains a "floor plan" for constructing a functional budget and is complete with teacher and student guides, case studies, and model details.

112

VIRTUAL GROWER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Greenhouses are complex systems. One management decision invariably influences another in often unexpected or unforeseen ways. Trial and error and “rules of thumb” are not a consistently profitable manner to make management decisions. A new computer-based management tool called Virtual Grower was...

113

Virtual Sandbox  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactive applications such as virtual reality systems have become popular in recent years. A ground surface composed of a granular material can be deformed when it comes into contact with an object, and, in this paper, we propose a deformation algorithm for the ground sur- face which is useful for such applications. The deforma- tion algorithm is divided into three

Koichi Onoue; Tomoyuki Nishita

2003-01-01

114

Virtualize Me!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

John Abdelmalak, director of technology for the School District of the Chathams, was pretty sure it was time to jump on the virtualization bandwagon last year when he invited Dell to conduct a readiness assessment of his district's servers. When he saw just how little of their capacity was being used, he lost all doubt. Abdelmalak is one of many…

Waters, John K.

2009-01-01

115

Massive atmospheric sulfur loading of the AD 1600 Huaynaputina eruption and implications for petrologic sulfur estimates  

E-print Network

Massive atmospheric sulfur loading of the AD 1600 Huaynaputina eruption and implications for petrologic sulfur estimates Fidel Costa1 and Bruno Scaillet Institut des Sciences de la Terre d'Orle´ans, UMR petrological, analytical, and thermodyna- mical data to constrain the sulfur yield of the AD 1600 Huaynaputina

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

116

Petrological Investigations of CAIs from Efremovka and NWA 3118 CV3 Chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several new big CAIs were extracted from the Efremovka and NWA 3118 CV3 chondrites to analyze petrology, chemistry and isotopic compositions. Here we report preliminary results on mineralogy, petrology and bulk chemistry of two CAIs, of Type B1 and of Type A.

Ivanova, M. A.; Lorenz, C. A.; Korochantseva, E. V.; MacPherson, G. J.

2010-03-01

117

A Collaborative Approach to Petrologic Monitoring of the Mt. Saint Helens 2004 Eruption  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the first 3 weeks of MSH 2004 eruptive activity, petrologic evaluation of small amounts of volcanic ash provided our only direct means to determine if volcanic unrest was magmatic or hydrothermal in origin. Petrologic monitoring began with collection of ash from solar panels and tree leaves proximal to the crater, shortly after the initial phreatic explosive event on October

C. Thornber; M. Rowe; J. Pallister; D. Gooding; D. Ramsey; J. Ewert; M. Couchman; D. Dzurisin; R. Hoblitt; M. Clynne; J. Lowenstern; J. Vallance; K. Cashman

2004-01-01

118

MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY OF COMET WILD2 NUCLEUS SAMPLES --FINAL RESULTS OF THE  

E-print Network

MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY OF COMET WILD2 NUCLEUS SAMPLES -- FINAL RESULTS OF THE PRELIMINARY was successfully recovered in northern Utah on Janu- ary 15, 2006, and its cargo of coma grains from Comet Wild 2- mental sample issues: (1) Comet nucleus mineralogy and petrology, and grain physical properties (2

Grossman, Lawrence

119

Cryogenic immersion microscope  

DOEpatents

A cryogenic immersion microscope whose objective lens is at least partially in contact with a liquid reservoir of a cryogenic liquid, in which reservoir a sample of interest is immersed is disclosed. When the cryogenic liquid has an index of refraction that reduces refraction at interfaces between the lens and the sample, overall resolution and image quality are improved. A combination of an immersion microscope and x-ray microscope, suitable for imaging at cryogenic temperatures is also disclosed.

Le Gros, Mark (Berkeley, CA); Larabell, Carolyn A. (Berkeley, CA)

2010-12-14

120

Thermal-Wave Microscope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer-controlled thermal-wave microscope developed to investigate III-V compound semiconductor devices and materials. Is nondestructive technique providing information on subsurface thermal features of solid samples. Furthermore, because this is subsurface technique, three-dimensional imaging also possible. Microscope uses intensity-modulated electron beam of modified scanning electron microscope to generate thermal waves in sample. Acoustic waves generated by thermal waves received by transducer and processed in computer to form images displayed on video display of microscope or recorded on magnetic disk.

Jones, Robert E.; Kramarchuk, Ihor; Williams, Wallace D.; Pouch, John J.; Gilbert, Percy

1989-01-01

121

Virtual Polyhedra  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A growing collection of over 1000 virtual reality polyhedra to explore, complementing Hart's Pavilion of Polyhedreality. Includes instructions for building paper models of polyhedra including modular origami, with ideas for classroom use. Each of the sections contains background information and exercises, a list of virtual reality models, and links to further topics. Platonic Solids (Regular Convex Polyhedra); Kepler-Poinsot Polyhedra (Regular NonConvex Polyhedra); Archimedean Polyhedra (Semi-Regular Convex Polyhedra); Prisms and Anti-Prisms; Archimedean Duals; Quasi-Regular Polyhedra; Johnson Solids (the remaining convex polyhedra with regular faces); Pyramids, Dipyramids, and Trapezohedra; Compound Polyhedra - Introduction; Stellated Polyhedra - Introduction; Compounds of Cubes; Convex Deltahedra; Zonohedra; Uniform Polyhedra; Uniform Compounds of Uniform Polyhedra; Stellations of the Icosahedron; Stellations of the Rhombic Triacontahedron; Other Good Stuff: Alphabetic list of articles, Alphabetic listing of all the polyhedra models, a Glossary, and an Annotated Bibliography. Also background material on polygons and on polyhedron names.

Hart, George W. (George William), 1955-

122

Virtual Autopsy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Designed with medical students in mind, Leicester (England) University's Virtual Autopsy site takes the student on a virtual tour of seven autopsies. Several options allow for efficient navigation of the site: Cause of Death is a self-assessment quiz students may take after "performing" each autopsy; Return to History takes the user back to the beginning of each case; and Choose another Case lets the user move between the seven cases. Each case contains nearly a dozen detailed color images of certain key parts (including tissues) of the human anatomy--lung, body, heart, head--with hyperlinks to further information. By clicking on the dictionary icon, for instance, a student links to a pop-up page with detailed descriptions of that particular condition. Aspiring pathologists are sure to find this worthwhile, and the absence of gruesome images makes it a good learning site for many budding medical scientists as well.

123

Virtual Sojourner  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module has students carry out a virtual Mars mission similar to Pathfinder's rover, the Sojourner. Students work in teams, concentrating on specific mission needs, such as engineering, camera, navigation, or science. The activities in this module simulate the Mars Pathfinder mission objectives and structure. The purpose of this module is for students to work collaboratively to map, invent, and solve navigation problems with a 'remote' classroom.

Richard Edgerton

124

Virtual impactor  

DOEpatents

A virtual impactor having improved efficiency and low wall losses in which a core of clean air is inserted into the aerosol flow while aerosol flow is maintained adjacent inner wall surfaces of the focusing portion of the impactor. The flow rate of the core and the length of the throat of the impactor's collection probe, as well as the dimensional relationships of other components of the impactor adjacent the separation region of the impactor, are selected to optimize separation efficiency.

Yeh, Hsu-Chi (Albuquerque, NM); Chen, Bean T. (Albuquerque, NM); Cheng, Yung-Sung (Albuquerque, NM); Newton, George J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1988-08-30

125

Virtual anthropology.  

PubMed

Comparative morphology, dealing with the diversity of form and shape, and functional morphology, the study of the relationship between the structure and the function of an organism's parts, are both important subdisciplines in biological research. Virtual anthropology (VA) contributes to comparative morphology by taking advantage of technological innovations, and it also offers new opportunities for functional analyses. It exploits digital technologies and pools experts from different domains such as anthropology, primatology, medicine, paleontology, mathematics, statistics, computer science, and engineering. VA as a technical term was coined in the late 1990s from the perspective of anthropologists with the intent of being mostly applied to biological questions concerning recent and fossil hominoids. More generally, however, there are advanced methods to study shape and size or to manipulate data digitally suitable for application to all kinds of primates, mammals, other vertebrates, and invertebrates or to issues regarding plants, tools, or other objects. In this sense, we could also call the field "virtual morphology." The approach yields permanently available virtual copies of specimens and data that comprehensively quantify geometry, including previously neglected anatomical regions. It applies advanced statistical methods, supports the reconstruction of specimens based on reproducible manipulations, and promotes the acquisition of larger samples by data sharing via electronic archives. Finally, it can help identify new, hidden traits, which is particularly important in paleoanthropology, where the scarcity of material demands extracting information from fragmentary remains. This contribution presents a current view of the six main work steps of VA: digitize, expose, compare, reconstruct, materialize, and share. The VA machinery has also been successfully used in biomechanical studies which simulate the stress and strains appearing in structures. Although methodological issues remain to be solved before results from the two domains can be fully integrated, the various overlaps and cross-fertilizations suggest the widespread appearance of a "virtual functional morphology" in the near future. PMID:25418603

Weber, Gerhard W

2015-02-01

126

Virtual Geoengineer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The site presents specific topics in geoengineering practice through photos, maps, diagrams, and videos using texts. Materials found in the Virtual Geoengineer include: photos with details of projects, case histories, photos of different construction methods with explanations and equipment used in construction, and construction issues on specific projects. Topics covered include: geology, earthquake engineering, foundations, excavation, in-situ testing, dams, geosynthetics, landslides, and slope failures.

127

Optical microscopic imaging based on VRML language  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As so-called VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language), is a kind of language used to establish a model of the real world or a colorful world made by people. As in international standard, VRML is the main kind of program language based on the "www" net building, which is defined by ISO, the kind of MIME is x-world or x-VRML. The most important is that it has no relationship with the operating system. Otherwise, because of the birth of VRML 2.0, its ability of describing the dynamic condition gets better, and the interaction of the internet evolved too. The use of VRML will bring a revolutionary change of confocal microscope. For example, we could send different kinds of swatch in virtual 3D style to the net. On the other hand, scientists in different countries could use the same microscope in the same time to watch the same samples by the internet. The mode of sending original data in the model of text has many advantages, such as: the faster transporting, the fewer data, the more convenient updating and fewer errors. In the following words we shall discuss the basic elements of using VRML in the field of Optical Microscopic imaging.

Zhang, Xuedian; Zhang, Zhenyi; Sun, Jun

2009-11-01

128

Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

SEM (Scanning electron Microscope) image of a vesicular ash particle erupted by Augustine volcano on January 13, 2006. The ash sample was collected during the ashfall in Homer, Alaska by John Paskievitch, AVO. The image was acquired by Pavel Izbekov using ISI-40 Scanning Electron Microscope at the A...

129

Photography through the Microscope.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how to illuminate and optically stain slides for microscope use and how to interface a 35mm camera with a microscope using an adaptor. Provides equipment descriptions and sources, details about illumination, image formation, darkfield adaptors, centerable filter adaptors, darkfield stops, rheinburg filters, and choosing specimens to…

McNeil, D. W.

1992-01-01

130

Petrology of Two Itokawa Particles: Comparison with Equilibrated LL Chondrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A strong link between Itokawa particles and LL chondrites was confirmed by preliminary examinations of Hayabusa particles [e.g., 1, 2]. Both poorly equilibrated and highly equilibrated particles have been found among the grains returned from Itokawa [1], and it is suggested that they correspond to LL4 and LL5-6, respectively. Here we report the petrography of two Itokawa particles and TEM study of one, and compare them to Antarctic LL chondrites with variable petrologic types (LL4-LL7) in order to understand the metamorphic history of asteroid Itokawa.

Komatsu, M.; Mikouchi, T.; Arai, T.; Fagan, T. J.; Zolensky, M.; Hagiya, K.; Ohsumi, K.; Karouji, Y.

2015-01-01

131

Mineralogy and Petrology of COMET WILD2 Nucleus Samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The sample return capsule of the Stardust spacecraft will be recovered in northern Utah on January 15, 2006, and under nominal conditions it will be delivered to the new Stardust Curation Laboratory at the Johnson Space Center two days later. Within the first week we plan to begin the harvesting of aerogel cells, and the comet nucleus samples they contain for detailed analysis. By the time of the LPSC meeting we will have been analyzing selected removed grains for more than one month. This presentation will present the first results from the mineralogical and petrological analyses that will have been performed.

Zolensky, Michael; Bland, Phil; Bradley, John; Brearley, Adrian; Brennan, Sean; Bridges, John; Brownlee, Donald; Butterworth, Anna; Dai, Zurong; Ebel, Denton

2006-01-01

132

University of Minnesota Structure Tectonics and Metamorphic Petrology Research Group  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Minnesota Structure Tectonics and Metamorphic Petrology Research Group describes its research on the deformation of continental lithosphere at this website. Users can find clear explanations of the group's current projects including partial melting and orogeny, continental subduction, and shear zones. Students and scientists can find the research interests and a list of publications for the group's faculty, research associates, and students. The website displays the group's analytical, field, and teaching equipment as well as its Institute for Rock Magnetism and Characterization Facility.

133

Virtual WiFi: Bring VirtualizationVirtual WiFi: Bring Virtualization from Wired to Wireless  

E-print Network

Virtual WiFi: Bring VirtualizationVirtual WiFi: Bring Virtualization from Wired to Wireless Lei Xia was done in Intel Labs during Xia's internship th #12;Virtual WiFi · New virtualization approach suitableFiToday Virtual WiFi #12;Why we need virtual WiFi?y · Client Virtualization · Enterprise IT: Separate enterprise

Bustamante, Fabián E.

134

Igneous and metamorphic petrology in the field: a problem-based, writing-intensive alternative to traditional classroom petrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Geology Department at Western Washington University (~100 geology majors) offers field and classroom versions of its undergraduate petrology course. This is a one-quarter course (igneous and metamorphic petrology) with mineralogy as a prerequisite. The field version of the course is offered during the three weeks prior to fall quarter and the classroom version is offered in spring quarter. We take 15-20 students around the state of Washington, camping at different outcrop sites where students integrate observational skills, petrologic knowledge, and writing. Petrogenetic associations in various tectonic settings provide the theme of the course. We compare ophiolites vs. arc sequences (volcanic, plutonic, and metamorphic rocks), S- vs. I-type granitoids (plutonic rocks and associated metamorphic rocks), Barrovian vs. Buchan vs. subduction zone metamorphism of different protoliths, and flood-basalt vs. active-arc volcanism. Some basics are covered in the first day at WWU, followed by 17 days of field instruction. Lecture is integrated with outcrop study in the field. For example, students will listen to a lecture about magma differentiation processes as they examine cumulate rocks in the Mt. Stuart batholith, and a lecture about metamorphic facies as they study blueschist facies rocks in the San Juan Islands. Students study multiple outcrops around a site for 1-4 days. They then use their observations (sketches and written descriptions of mineral assemblages, rock types, rock textures, etc.) and analysis techniques (e.g. geochemical data plotting, metamorphic protolith analysis) to write papers in which the data are interpreted in terms of a larger tectonic problem. In advance of the writing process, students use group discussion techniques such as whiteboarding to share their observational evidence and explore interpretations. Student evaluations indicate that despite the intense pace of the course, they enjoy it more. Students also feel that they retain more material for future classes. The undivided attention, immediate writing/reflection, and repetition of skills in different settings reinforce material. Because of students' higher level of engagement, more of them pursue advanced classes or independent studies. A corollary benefit is that students form strong bonds with their cohort group, providing mutual support as they continue through the program and ultimately improving their field camp experience. Final exam scores are equal to or better than in the traditional class, and some basic skills, such the ability to make observations at a variety of scales in sketches and writing, are better. Students can also better distinguish between observation and inference in report writing. Finally, students can apply their theoretical understanding of petrologic processes (e.g. magma differentiation, metamorphic facies progressions) to real rocks in a more sophisticated way using evidence.

DeBari, S. M.

2011-12-01

135

Virtual impactor  

DOEpatents

A virtual impactor is described having improved efficiency and low wall losses in which a core of clean air is inserted into the aerosol flow while aerosol flow is maintained adjacent to the inner wall surfaces of the focusing portion of the impactor. The flow rate of the core and the length of the throat of the impactor's collection probe, as well as the dimensional relationships of other components of the impactor adjacent the separation region of the impactor, are selected to optimize separation efficiency. 4 figs.

Yeh, H.C.; Chen, B.T.; Cheng, Y.S.; Newton, G.J.

1988-08-30

136

[Microscopic colitis: update 2014].  

PubMed

Microscopic colitis, which includes lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis, represents a frequent cause of chronic watery diarrhea especially in the elderly population. Several medications, such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, proton pump inhibitors or antidepressants, as well as cigarette smoking have been recognized as risk factors for microscopic colitis. The diagnosis of microscopic colitis is based on a macroscopically normal ileo-colonoscopy and several biopsies from the entire colon, which demonstrate the pathognomonic histopathologic findings. Therapy is mainly based on the use of budesonide. Other medications, such as mesalazine, cholestyramine and bismuth, have been evaluated as well but the evidence is less solid. PMID:25276996

Burgmann, Konstantin; Fraga, Montserrat; Schoepfer, Alain M; Yun, Pu

2014-09-01

137

Microscope collision protection apparatus  

DOEpatents

A microscope collision protection apparatus for a remote control microscope which protects the optical and associated components from damage in the event of an uncontrolled collision with a specimen, regardless of the specimen size or shape. In a preferred embodiment, the apparatus includes a counterbalanced slide for mounting the microscope's optical components. This slide replaces the rigid mounts on conventional upright microscopes with a precision ball bearing slide. As the specimen contacts an optical component, the contacting force will move the slide and the optical components mounted thereon. This movement will protect the optical and associated components from damage as the movement causes a limit switch to be actuated, thereby stopping all motors responsible for the collision.

DeNure, Charles R. (Pocatello, ID)

2001-10-23

138

Minerals Under the Microscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides an easy-to-understand introduction to the basics of optical mineralogy. Topics include the polarized light microscope, mineral shape and cleavage, relief, color and pleochroism, interference colors, extinction angles, twinning, opacity, vibration directions and mineral identification. The site features short, clear descriptions accompanied by photographs and drawings. This website would be useful as a concise introduction to the use of a petrographic microscope in identifying minerals.

Browning, Paul

139

Infrared microscope inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface.

Forman, Steven E. (Framingham, MA); Caunt, James W. (Concord, MA)

1985-02-26

140

Infrared microscope inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface. 4 figs.

Forman, S.E.; Caunt, J.W.

1985-02-26

141

Microscopic colitis syndrome.  

PubMed Central

The colorectal biopsy specimens from 30 patients with chronic watery diarrhoea but normal endoscopic and radiographic findings were studied by light microscopy, morphometry, immunohistochemistry, and two patients with electron microscopy. The histological changes in the colorectum were originally diagnosed in six patients as lymphocytic colitis and in 24 patients as collagenous colitis. The analysis of the specimens for this study could delineate three distinct groups of microscopic colitis: lymphocytic colitis (six patients), collagenous colitis without lymphocytic attack on the surface epithelium (seven patients), and a mixed form presenting with both thickening of the collagen plate and increased number of intraepithelial lymphocytes (17 patients). No transformation was seen from one type to another during follow up of six patients for four to seven years. Increased numbers of active pericryptal myofibroblasts were found with the electron microscope in one patient with mixed microscopic colitis showing also myofibroblasts entrapped within the collagen layer. Hitherto undescribed flat mucosa of the ileum was found in one patient with lymphocytic colitis and both flat mucosa and thickening of the collagen plate in the ileum were seen in one patient with the mixed form of the disease. In another patient with mixed microscopic colitis, normalisation of the colorectal morphology occurred after temporary loop ileostomy, followed by the reappearance of both diarrhoea, inflammation, and thickening of the collagen plate after the ileostomy was reversed. No association was found between non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) consumption and collagenous or mixed microscopic colitis. The primary cause of microscopic colitis is probably an immunological reaction to luminal antigen/s, perhaps of ileal origin. The engagement of the pericryptal myofibroblasts in the disease process might result in the development of the various forms of microscopic colitis. An inverse relation between intraepithelial lymphocyte count and collagen thickness may indicate that microscopic colitis is a spectral disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7615277

Veress, B; Löfberg, R; Bergman, L

1995-01-01

142

Petrology and Geochemistry of D'Orbigny, Geochemistry of Sahara 99555, and the Origin of Angrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have done detailed petrologic study of the angrite, D'Orbigny, and geochemical study of it and Sahara 99555. D'Orbigny is an igneous-textured rock composed of Ca-rich olivine, Al-Ti-diopside-hedenbergite, subcalcic kirschsteinite, two generations of hercynitic spinel and anorthite, with the mesostasis phases ulv6spinel, Ca-phosphate, a silicophosphate phase and Fe-sulfide. We report an unknown Fe-Ca-Al-Ti-silicate phase in the mesostasis not previously found in angrites. One hercynitic spinel is a large, rounded homogeneous grain of a different composition than the euhedral and zoned grains. We believe the former is a xenocryst, the first such described from angrites. The mafic phases are highly zoned; mg# of cores for olivine are approx.64, and for clinopyroxene approx.58, and both are zoned to Mg-free rims. The Ca content of olivine increases with decreasing mg#, until olivine with approx.20 mole% Ca is overgrown by subcalcic kirschsteinite with Ca approx.30-35 mole%. Detailed zoning sequences in olivine-subcalcic kirschsteinite and clinopyroxene show slight compositional reversals. There is no mineralogic control that can explain these reversals, and we believe they were likely caused by local additions of more primitive melt during crystallization of D'Orbigny. D'Orbigny is the most ferroan angrite with a bulk rock mg# of 32. Compositionally, it is virtually identical to Sahara 99555; the first set of compositionally identical angrites. Comparison with the other angrites shows that there is no simple petrogenetic sequence, partial melting with or without fractional crystallization, that can explain the angrite suite. Angra dos Reis remains a very anomalous angrite. Angrites show no evidence for the brecciation, shock, or impact or thermal metamorphism that affected the HED suite and ordinary chondrites. This suggests the angrite parent body may have followed a fundamentally different evolutionary path than did these other parent bodies.

Mittlefehldt, David W.; Killgore, Marvin; Lee, Michael T.

2001-01-01

143

Petrology and geochemistry of D'Orbigny, geochemistry of Sahara 99555, and the origin of angrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have done a detailed petrologic study of the angrite, D'Orbigny, and geochemical study of it and Sahara 99555. D'Orbigny is an igneous-textured rock composed of Ca-rich olivine, Al-Ti-diopside-hedenbergite, subcalcic kirschsteinite, two generations of hercynitic spinel and anorthite, with the mesostasis phases ulvöspinel, Ca-phosphate, a silico-phosphate phase and Fe-sulfide. We report an unknown Fe-Ca-Al-Ti-silicate phase in the mesostasis not previously found in angrites. One hercynitic spinel is a large, rounded homogeneous grain of a different composition than the euhedral and zoned grains. We believe the former is a xenocryst, the first such described from angrites. The mafic phases are highly zoned; mg# of cores for olivine are ~64, and for clinopyroxene ~58, and both are zoned to Mg-free rims. The Ca content of olivine increases with decreasing mg#, until olivine with ~20 mole% Ca is overgrown by subcalcic kirschsteinite with Ca ~30-35 mole%. Detailed zoning sequences in olivine-subcalcic kirschsteinite and clinopyroxene show slight compositional reversals. There is no mineralogic control that can explain these reversals, and we believe they were likely caused by local additions of more primitive melt during crystallization of D'Orbigny. D'Orbigny is the most ferroan angrite with a bulk rock mg# of 32. Compositionally, it is virtually identical to Sahara 99555; they are the first set of compositionally identical angrites. Comparison with the other angrites shows that there is no simple petrogenetic sequence, partial melting with or without fractional crystallization, that can explain the angrite suite. Angra dos Reis remains an anomalous angrite. Angrites show no evidence for the brecciation, shock, impact metamorphism, or thermal metamorphism that affected the HED suite and ordinary chondrites. This suggests that the angrite parent body may have followed a fundamentally different evolutionary path than did these other parent bodies.

Mittlefehldt, David W.; Killgore, Marvin; Lee, Michael T.

2002-03-01

144

Virtual Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The website for the Virtual Laboratory contains a bold and direct statement: "Conventional teaching all too often accepts memorization and pattern recognition as true learning" After reading this statement, it makes sense that the goal of this site is "to help students to recognize, confront, correct, and expand their understanding of subject or a technique." The site contains five different sets of course materials that use interactive materials, short quizzes, and embedded demonstrations to assist students and teachers alike. One set of materials that should not be missed is in the Teaching & Learning Biology area. Here visitors will find links, fact sheets, and pedagogical suggestions for teaching a college-level biology course. Moving on, the Chemistry, Life, the Universe and Everything section contains a new perspective on how to reform the garden-variety general chemistry course.

2012-04-27

145

Virtual Sweden  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Panoramic photographs that immerse their audience in a landscape have been in vogue throughout the history of photographic enterprises. With this in mind, users should not be surprised to learn of the existence of the Virtual Sweden website. Established by Jonas Carlson in 2003, the site contains 360 degree panoramic images taken by Carlson from a wide variety of locales across the globe. Of course, visitors should start by looking at the panoramic photograph taken from the Gronskar lighthouse in the Stockholm archipelago, but then they would be remiss not to look at some of the other available images. Some of the other places Carlson has seen fit to document are Rome, Thailand, Egypt, and London. Visitors can peruse a thematic list of these locations, or they may simply go straight to his "Latest additions" list, which is also on the site's homepage.

Carlson, Jonas

2005-01-01

146

Teaching Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology Through Guided Inquiry Projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Undergraduate Petrology at New Mexico State University (GEOL 399) has been taught using three, 5-6 week long projects in place of lectures, lab, and exams for the last six years. Reasons for changing from the traditional format include: 1) to move the focus from identification and memorization to petrologic thinking; 2) the need for undergraduate students to apply basic chemical, structural, and field concepts to igneous and metamorphic rocks; 3) student boredom in the traditional mode by the topic that has captivated my professional life, in spite of my best efforts to offer thrilling lectures, problems, and labs. The course has three guided inquiry projects: volcanic, plutonic, and pelitic dynamothermal. Two of the rock suites are investigated during field trips. Each project provides hand samples and thin sections; the igneous projects also include whole-rock major and trace element data. Students write a scientific paper that classifies and describes the rocks, describes the data (mineralogical and geochemical), and uses data to interpret parameters such as tectonic setting, igneous processes, relationship to phase diagrams, geologic history, metamorphic grade, metamorphic facies, and polymetamorphic history. Students use the text as a major resource for self-learning; mini-lectures on pertinent topics are presented when needed by the majority of students. Project scores include evaluation of small parts of the paper due each Friday and participation in peer review as well as the final report. I have found that petrology is much more fun, although more difficult, to teach using this method. It is challenging to be totally prepared for class because students are working at different speeds on different levels on different aspects of the project. Students enjoy the course, especially the opportunity to engage in scientific investigation and debate. A significant flaw in this course is that students see fewer rocks and have less experience in rock classification. This is partially remedied by four field trips and two supplemental assignments (igneous and metamorphic) in which students identify hand samples of a wide variety of rock types. The project-based approach enhances critical thinking, math, reading, and writing skills at the expense of hand sample identification and the benefits of review of material prior to testing.

McMillan, N. J.

2003-12-01

147

Learning Activities for an Undergraduate Mineralogy/Petrology Course-"I Am/We Are."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces an entry level mineralogy/igneous petrology course designed for undergraduate students and presents a series of learning activities based on individual and cooperative learning. Includes 18 references. (Author/YDS)

Goodell, Philip C.

2001-01-01

148

Magnesium-rich crustal compositions on Mercury: Implications for magmatism from petrologic modeling  

E-print Network

Magnesium-rich crustal compositions on Mercury: Implications for magmatism from petrologic modeling: Stockstill-Cahill, K. R., T. J. McCoy, L. R. Nittler, S. Z. Weider, and S. A. Hauck II (2012), Magnesium

Hauck II, Steven A.

149

Petrology and geochemistry of pyroxenites in the Lanzo ultramafic massif, Northwestern Italy  

E-print Network

Combined field, microtextural, and geochemical observations are presented for pyroxenites in the Lanzo ultramafic massif in order to place chemical and petrological constraints both locally on the geologic history of the ...

Pesce, Kathryn A

2012-01-01

150

JOURNAL OF PETROLOGY VOLUME 38 NUMBER 6 PAGES 757783 1997 Mineral Zoning, PTXM Phase Relations,  

E-print Network

petrologic analysis of ten meta-anorthosites and related INTRODUCTION rocks from the Adirondack highlands­T­X­M modeling of this reaction reveals a meta-anorthosite and related rocks with the goal ofP­T path

Spear, Frank S.

151

An Inquiry-Based Approach to Learning Petrology Using Student-Generated Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Petrology course at Macalester College is designed around a semester-long project. All laboratory and classroom activities within the course are directed toward understanding and solving a real-world problem, the origin and evolution of an intrusion in northern Minnesota. Emphasis is on using multi-disciplinary approaches, modern instrumentation, and student-generated data. After completing the course, students exhibit improved quantitative skills, reasoning, and understanding of fundamental petrologic processes.

Karl Wirth

152

Mineralogy and Petrology of Unbrecciated Lunar Basaltic Meteorite LAP 02205  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LAP 02205 is a 1.2 kg unbrecciated basalt found in the LaPaz icefield of Antarctica during the 2002-2003 ANSMET season [1]. It has been classified as a lunar basalt on the basis of pyroxene Fe/Mn ratios (approx. 60) and oxygen isotopes [1]; both are within previously defined compositional ranges for the Moon [2]. We have initiated a comprehensive study of the mineralogy, petrology and geochemistry of this new and unique meteorite. The results reported here will allow the comparison of this sample both to the other lunar basaltic meteorites (NWA 032, A881757, Y793169, Dho287A), as well as to lunar basalts in the Apollo and Luna collections.

Righter, K.; Brandon, A. D.; Norman, M. D.

2004-01-01

153

Linking petrology and seismology at an active volcano.  

PubMed

Many active volcanoes exhibit changes in seismicity, ground deformation, and gas emissions, which in some instances arise from magma movement in the crust before eruption. An enduring challenge in volcano monitoring is interpreting signs of unrest in terms of the causal subterranean magmatic processes. We examined over 300 zoned orthopyroxene crystals from the 1980-1986 eruption of Mount St. Helens that record pulsatory intrusions of new magma and volatiles into an existing larger reservoir before the eruption occurred. Diffusion chronometry applied to orthopyroxene crystal rims shows that episodes of magma intrusion correlate temporally with recorded seismicity, providing evidence that some seismic events are related to magma intrusion. These time scales are commensurate with monitoring signals at restless volcanoes, thus improving our ability to forecast volcanic eruptions by using petrology. PMID:22628652

Saunders, Kate; Blundy, Jon; Dohmen, Ralf; Cashman, Kathy

2012-05-25

154

Lunar ferroan anorthosite 60025 - Petrology and chemistry of mafic lithologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eleven splits from the mafic-mineral-rich part of anorthosite 60025 were studied in order to establish the exact nature and causes of compositional variations in the minerals of lunar ferroan anorthosites. All splits were analyzed by INAA, and five were studied intensively by petrologic techniques. All splits were found to have similar cataclastic textures and show textural evidence of at least two episodes of deformation. The whole-rock split contains mafic minerals having a wide range of compositions and is probably polymict. It is suggested that the rare-earth patterns for all splits can be duplicated safactorily, assuming that the equilibrium liquids had flat, or nearly flat, chondrite-normalized rare-earth patterns. The plagioclases in all splits were found to be identical. Data obtained indicate that in ferroan anorthosites An content in plagioclase and mg' of associated mafic minerals are not strongly correlated.

James, O. B.; Mcgee, J. J.; Lindstrom, M. M.

1991-01-01

155

Lunar basalt meteorite EET 87521: Petrology of the clast population  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Elephant Moraine meteorite EET 87521 was classified as a lunar mare basalt breccia which is composed mainly of VLT basalt clasts. Here we report on our petrological study of lithic clasts and monomineralic fragments in the thin sections EET 87521,54 and EET 87521,47,1, which were prepared from the meteorite. The results of the study show that EET 87521 consists mainly of Al-rich ferrobasalt clasts and olivine pyroxenite clasts. The bulk composition of the meteorite can be well modelled by the mixing of these lithic components which appear to be differentiates of the Luna 25 basalt melt. KREEP and Mg-rich gabbro components are minor constituents of EET 87521.

Semenova, A. S.; Nazarov, M. A.; Kononkova, N. N.

1993-01-01

156

Apollo 15 yellow impact glasses: Chemistry, petrology, and exotic origin  

SciTech Connect

The Apollo 15 yellow impact glasses are characterized by moderate TiO/sub 2/ (approx.4.8%) and high abundances of the large ion lithophile elements (e.g., K, P, Hf, Th, REE). Since the chemistry of these glasses cannot be duplicated by any combination of local components presently known to occur at the Apollo 15 landing site, these yellow glasses seem to be exotic to that area. Chemical and petrologic constraints suggest that these samples were produced by impact melting of an immature mare regolith developed upon an unusual variety of mare basalt. We speculate that the target basalt were the youngest lava flows known to exist on the moon (i.e., Eratosphenian-age lavas in Oceanus Procellarum and Mare Imbrium). Specific tests are proposed for evaluating this provocative hypothesis.

Delano, J.W.; Lindsley, D.H.; Ma, M.; Schmitt, R.A.

1982-11-15

157

Petrologic and In Situ Geochemical Constraints on Diogenite Genesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diogenites, members of the howardite, eucrite and diogenite (HED) clan, are orthopyroxenite, harzburgite and dunite meteorites [1-3]. Most are breccias, but remnant textures indicate they were originally coarse-grained rocks, with grain sizes of order of cm. Their petrography and compositions support an origin as crustal cumulates from a differentiated asteroid. Astronomical observations, and surface mineralogy and composition of Vesta determined by the Dawn spacecraft suggest that asteroid (4) Vesta is the parent object for HED meteorites [4-6]. The origin of diogenites is an unsettled issue. It is difficult to fit their bulk compositional characteristics into global magma ocean models that successfully describe the compositions of basaltic and cumulate eucrites [7]. Compositional analyses of acid-leached bulk samples have led to the hypothesis that many diogenites were formed late by interaction of their parent melts with a eucritic crust [8]. Those observations may alternatively be explained by subsolidus equilibration of trace elements between orthopyroxene and minor/ accessory phases in the rocks such as plagioclase and phosphate [7]. These competing hypotheses can be tested through in situ measurements of trace and minor elements in orthopyroxene. Our new petrologic observations and in situ minor and trace element data for a suite of diogenites are used to discuss the petrologic evolution of diogenites. Our preliminary data on two diogenites are consistent with the hypothesis that subsolidus element mobilization processes caused unusual trace element signatures seen in some diogenites [7]. We cannot stress strongly enough, however, that the sample set is too small and that additional data are required before definitive conclusions can be made.

Mittlefehldt, David W.; Peng, Z. X.

2013-01-01

158

Virtual Worlds, Real Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many children between the ages of four and twelve log in to Web-based virtual play spaces each day, and these virtual worlds are quickly becoming an important aspect of their out-of-school lives. Consequently, educators' challenge is to see how they can leverage virtual spaces, such as the virtual play spaces, for learning and literacy. Over the…

Meyers, Eric M.

2009-01-01

159

Teaching Petrology in the 21st Century: A Workshop Report and Call to Action  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Petrology plays an important role in the upper division geology curriculum, introducing students to the skills needed to investigate and interpret igneous and metamorphic rocks that form the bulk of the earth's interior. Central concepts in petrology courses typically include chemical differentiation of Earth, the role of igneous and metamorphic processes in the Earth system, and the occurrences and distribution of rocks and in a variety of tectonic settings. Seventy-nine geoscientists who teach (or plan to teach) petrology in the undergraduate curriculum gathered for a week at Montana State University this past summer to discuss best practices and how petrology should be integrated into the geology curriculum of the 21st century. The first three days of the workshop were devoted to visiting some of the classic geological field locations in Montana and Wyoming to discuss the role of fieldwork in teaching petrologic concepts. The following four days were spent on the MSU campus in a mixture of large group discussions, smaller topical working group meetings, and demonstration sessions where faculty presented exercises, laboratory activities, or moderated small group discussions on pedagogy and assessment. One of the main outcomes of the workshop was the development of a web site for sharing teaching materials (http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/petrology03). This site contains a complete record of workshop activities. A collection of over 200 digital resources that support teaching petrology is now available, including over 30 new instructional activities contributed by workshop participants. Each activity contains 1) a brief introduction to the activity; 2) the activity itself along with supporting documents such as teaching notes and an answer key; and 3) a place for comments by users to give feedback to the author and to those who might be interested in using the activity. A formal review process of these resources will be initiated in the coming year. Another important outcome of the workshop was the formation of working groups around five areas: development of rock suites, modeling and databases, experiments in petrology, phase equilibria, and geodynamic petrology. These working groups began the process of organizing existing resources for dissemination, identifying important gaps in coverage, and developing plans to create new resources in these areas for educators. Overall, workshop participants advocated the need to establish stronger ties between petrology and the larger geology curriculum, to better articulate the contributions of petrology in understanding the Earth system, and to develop better activities and strategies to motivate students to learn petrology. The goal of the workshop and of this session is to learn from each other the best practices in teaching petrology, to expand the participation in these activities, and to call for help in the development of new resources and methods for teaching petrology throughout the geoscience curriculum. Contributions to the Teaching Petrology website and participation in the working groups is strongly encouraged and open to everyone in the community. This workshop is part of the NAGT On The Cutting Edge workshop series, and was supported by funds from the NSF CCLI-ND program.

Mogk, D.; Davidson, C.; Manduca, C.; Braday, J.

2003-12-01

160

Virtual Titanic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The recent historical and cinematic fascination with the Titanic proves that the allure of this most famous luxury liner remains unsinkable. The Discovery Channel Online has created a captivating site devoted to images, movies (IPIX, QuickTime), and text describing the ship and its demise. While the site contains historical photos and lithographs of the ship as well as underwater photos and movies from a 1985 submersible mission, the unique contribution of this site is its numerous virtual images of the interior and exterior of the Titanic as well as its movies of the collision and sinking. Developed by Andrew Nelson for a CD-ROM game, the movies include a flyby of the ship, a collision movie, a listing movie, and a three-part series of the sinking. Both flat and "bubble" views of such features as the first-class cabins, the wireless room, and the grand staircase are also included. A talk-back section discusses various theories surrounding the sinking and contains several related links.

161

Virtual button interface  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method of issuing commands to a computer by a user interfacing with a virtual reality environment are disclosed. To issue a command, the user directs gaze at a virtual button within the virtual reality environment, causing a perceptible change in the virtual button, which then sends a command corresponding to the virtual button to the computer, optionally after a confirming action is performed by the user, such as depressing a thumb switch. 4 figs.

Jones, J.S.

1999-01-12

162

Virtual button interface  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method of issuing commands to a computer by a user interfacing with a virtual reality environment. To issue a command, the user directs gaze at a virtual button within the virtual reality environment, causing a perceptible change in the virtual button, which then sends a command corresponding to the virtual button to the computer, optionally after a confirming action is performed by the user, such as depressing a thumb switch.

Jones, Jake S. (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-01-01

163

Virtual Goods Recommendations in Virtual Worlds  

PubMed Central

Virtual worlds (VWs) are computer-simulated environments which allow users to create their own virtual character as an avatar. With the rapidly growing user volume in VWs, platform providers launch virtual goods in haste and stampede users to increase sales revenue. However, the rapidity of development incurs virtual unrelated items which will be difficult to remarket. It not only wastes virtual global companies' intelligence resources, but also makes it difficult for users to find suitable virtual goods fit for their virtual home in daily virtual life. In the VWs, users decorate their houses, visit others' homes, create families, host parties, and so forth. Users establish their social life circles through these activities. This research proposes a novel virtual goods recommendation method based on these social interactions. The contact strength and contact influence result from interactions with social neighbors and influence users' buying intention. Our research highlights the importance of social interactions in virtual goods recommendation. The experiment's data were retrieved from an online VW platform, and the results show that the proposed method, considering social interactions and social life circle, has better performance than existing recommendation methods.

Chen, Kuan-Yu; Liao, Hsiu-Yu; Chen, Jyun-Hung; Liu, Duen-Ren

2015-01-01

164

Thermal Lens Microscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a novel laser microscope based on the thermal lens effect induced by a coaxial beam comprised of excitation and probe beams. The signal generation mechanism was confirmed to be an authentic thermal lens effect from the measurement of signal and phase dependences on optical configurations between the sample and the probe beam focus, and therefore, the thermal lens

Kenji Uchiyama; Akihide Hibara; Hiroko Kimura; Tsuguo Sawada; Takehiko Kitamori

2000-01-01

165

Microscopic plasma Hamiltonian  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Hamiltonian for the microscopic plasma model is derived from the Low Lagrangian after the dual roles of the generalized variables are taken into account. The resulting Hamilton equations are shown to agree with the Euler-Lagrange equations of the Low Lagrangian.

Peng, Y.-K. M.

1974-01-01

166

Atomic force microscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scanning tunneling microscope (STM), which is capable of measuring forces as small as 10 to the -18th N, is described. Application of the STM to observations of insulator surfaces on the atomic scale is discussed in detail. The results of preliminary tests of the system indicate a lateral resolution of 30 A and a vertical resolution of less than

G. Binnig; C. F. Quate; Ch. Gerber

1986-01-01

167

Exploring Tools: Special Microscopes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use a flexible magnet as a model for a scanning probe microscope (SPM). They learn that SPMs are an example of a special tool that scientists use to work on the nanoscale. Use this activity to talk about different tools that scientists use to study the nanoscale.

Nanoscale Informal Science Education Network

2010-01-01

168

Laser Projection Microscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use a laser pointer to project a microscopic image of a liquid sample suspended from the tip of a syringe. This activity includes step by step instructions with helpful photographs and a video showcasing the projection images. This activity involves lasers, syringes, and stagnant water, so learners should exercise caution and adult supervision is recommended.

Sean Michael Ragan

2011-01-01

169

[Application of data fusion of microscopic spectral imaging in reservoir characterization].  

PubMed

In recent years, spectral imaging technique has been applied widely in mineralogy and petrology. The technique combines the spectral technique with imaging technique. The samples can be analyzed and recognized both in spectra and space by using the technique. However, the problem is how to acquire the needful information from a large number of data of spectral imaging, and how to enhance the needful information. In the present paper, the experimental data were processed by using the technique of data fusion of microscopic spectral imaging. The space distribution map of chemical composition and physical parameters of samples were obtained. The result showed that the distribution of different hydrocarbon in the reservoirs, pore connectivity, etc. were revealed well. The technique of data fusion of microscopic spectral imaging provided a new method for reservoir characterization. PMID:22250524

Li, Jing; Zha, Ming; Guo, Yuan-Ling; Chen, Yong

2011-10-01

170

Virtual PCR  

SciTech Connect

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) stands among the keystone technologies for analysis of biological sequence data. PCR is used to amplify DNA, to generate many copies from as little as a single template. This is essential, for example, in processing forensic DNA samples, pathogen detection in clinical or biothreat surveillance applications, and medical genotyping for diagnosis and treatment of disease. It is used in virtually every laboratory doing molecular, cellular, genetic, ecologic, forensic, or medical research. Despite its ubiquity, we lack the precise predictive capability that would enable detailed optimization of PCR reaction dynamics. In this LDRD, we proposed to develop Virtual PCR (VPCR) software, a computational method to model the kinetic, thermodynamic, and biological processes of PCR reactions. Given a successful completion, these tools will allow us to predict both the sequences and concentrations of all species that are amplified during PCR. The ability to answer the following questions will allow us both to optimize the PCR process and interpret the PCR results: What products are amplified when sequence mixtures are present, containing multiple, closely related targets and multiplexed primers, which may hybridize with sequence mismatches? What are the effects of time, temperature, and DNA concentrations on the concentrations of products? A better understanding of these issues will improve the design and interpretation of PCR reactions. The status of the VPCR project after 1.5 years of funding is consistent with the goals of the overall project which was scoped for 3 years of funding. At half way through the projected timeline of the project we have an early beta version of the VPCR code. We have begun investigating means to improve the robustness of the code, performed preliminary experiments to test the code and begun drafting manuscripts for publication. Although an experimental protocol for testing the code was developed, the preliminary experiments were tainted by contaminated products received from the manufacturer. Much knowledge has been gained in the development of the code thus far, but without final debugging, increasing its robustness and verifying it against experimental results, the papers which we have drafted to share our findings still require the final data necessary for publication. The following sections summarize our final progress on VPCR as it stands after 1.5 years of effort on an ambitious project scoped for a 3 year period. We have additional details of the methods than are provided here, but would like to have legal protection in place before releasing them. The result of this project, a suite of programs that predict PCR products as a function of reaction conditions and sequences, will be used to address outstanding questions in pathogen detection and forensics at LLNL. VPCR should enable scientists to optimize PCR protocols in terms of time, temperature, ion concentration, and primer sequences and concentrations, and to estimate products and error rates in advance of performing experiments. Our proposed capabilities are well ahead of all currently available technologies, which do not model non-equilibrium kinetics, polymerase extension, or predict multiple or undesired PCR products. We are currently seeking DHS funding to complete the project, at which time licensing opportunities will be explored, an updated patent application will be prepared, and a publication will be submitted. A provisional and a full patent application have already been filed (1).

Gardner, S N; Clague, D S; Vandersall, J A; Hon, G; Williams, P L

2006-02-23

171

Petrologic predictions regarding future eruptive activity at Mount Hood, Oregon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mount Hood, Oregon, represents a volcano that has a significant chance of erupting within the next few decades, but that has experienced no observed eruptions that provide direct geophysical or other constraints on eruption mechanisms and dynamics. In this case, petrological studies provide important insights into the potential nature of future eruptions, and these can be used to consider the geophysical and other signals that might accompany any renewed activity, and the timescales over which these might occur. In this contribution we present a summary of recent petrological work at Mount Hood and highlight data that provide insight into the likely nature of future eruptions. One of the most important features of Mount Hood lavas is the widespread evidence for magma mixing and mafic recharge. Andesites and low silica dacites from previous eruptive phases formed via mixing and hybridization between hotter ascending mafic magma and a long-lived crystal rich silicic magma or mush stored at shallow depths beneath the volcano. Mineral zoning studies show that mixing only occurs immediately prior to eruption, and we infer recharge of mafic magma into a shallow crustal magma storage zone is the predominant means by which eruptions of Mount Hood are initiated. Ascent of mafic magma and recharge would likely be accompanied by seismic, deformation and other detectable geophysical signals. Mineral barometry shows that amphiboles associated with shallow silicic magma formed at ~3-6 km, which we interpret to represent the depth of shallow silicic magma storage, and the depth at which recharge and mixing occurs. Amphiboles crystallized from mafic magma formed at ~10-16 km depth during magma ascent. Thus deeper earthquakes might accompany initial movement of mafic magma and more shallow seismic activity may occur during the convective overturn associated with recharge, mixing and final ascent of the hybridized magma. High-SiO2 melt inclusions in erupted lavas also contain low sulfur contents, thus mafic recharge and mixing should also be accompanied by the release of significant amounts of SO2 derived from mafic magma. Diffusion modeling based in mineral rim compositions suggests that the period between mafic recharge and eventual eruption and quenching is quite short - weeks to a few months at most, consistent with studies of other andesitic volcanoes. This provides an estimate of the potential time period that might elapse between detection of geophysical and other data indicative of recharge and mixing and magma reaching the surface.

Kent, A. J.; Koleszar, A. M.

2012-12-01

172

Acoustic imaging microscope  

DOEpatents

An imaging system includes: an object wavefront source and an optical microscope objective all positioned to direct an object wavefront onto an area of a vibrating subject surface encompassed by a field of view of the microscope objective, and to direct a modulated object wavefront reflected from the encompassed surface area through a photorefractive material; and a reference wavefront source and at least one phase modulator all positioned to direct a reference wavefront through the phase modulator and to direct a modulated reference wavefront from the phase modulator through the photorefractive material to interfere with the modulated object wavefront. The photorefractive material has a composition and a position such that interference of the modulated object wavefront and modulated reference wavefront occurs within the photorefractive material, providing a full-field, real-time image signal of the encompassed surface area.

Deason, Vance A.; Telschow, Kenneth L.

2006-10-17

173

Ion photon emission microscope  

DOEpatents

An ion beam analysis system that creates microscopic multidimensional image maps of the effects of high energy ions from an unfocussed source upon a sample by correlating the exact entry point of an ion into a sample by projection imaging of the ion-induced photons emitted at that point with a signal from a detector that measures the interaction of that ion within the sample. The emitted photons are collected in the lens system of a conventional optical microscope, and projected on the image plane of a high resolution single photon position sensitive detector. Position signals from this photon detector are then correlated in time with electrical effects, including the malfunction of digital circuits, detected within the sample that were caused by the individual ion that created these photons initially.

Doyle, Barney L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2003-04-22

174

Femtosecond scanning tunneling microscope  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). By combining scanning tunneling microscopy with ultrafast optical techniques we have developed a novel tool to probe phenomena on atomic time and length scales. We have built and characterized an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope in terms of temporal resolution, sensitivity and dynamic range. Using a novel photoconductive low-temperature-grown GaAs tip, we have achieved a temporal resolution of 1.5 picoseconds and a spatial resolution of 10 nanometers. This scanning tunneling microscope has both cryogenic and ultra-high vacuum capabilities, enabling the study of a wide range of important scientific problems.

Taylor, A.J.; Donati, G.P.; Rodriguez, G.; Gosnell, T.R.; Trugman, S.A.; Some, D.I.

1998-11-01

175

Microscopic and macroscopic dynamics  

SciTech Connect

Atomistic Molecular Dynamics and Lagrangian Continuum Mechanics can be very similarly adapted to massively-parallel computers. Millions of degrees of freedom can be treated. The two complementary approaches, microscopic and macroscopic, are being applied to increasingly realistic flows of fluids and solids. The two approaches can also be combined in a hybrid simulation scheme. Hybrids combine the fundamental constitutive advantage of atoms with the size advantage of the continuum picture.

Hoover, W.G.; Hoover, C.G.; De Groot, A.J.; Pierce, T.G. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Science; [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1993-06-01

176

The Transmission Electron Microscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A typical commercial transmission electron microscope (TEM) costs about 5 for each electron volt (eV) of energy in the beam and, if you add on all available options, it can easily cost up to5 for each electron volt (eV) of energy in the beam\\u000a and, if you add on all available options, it can easily cost up to 10 per

David B. Williams; C. Barry Carter

177

Microscopic enteritis: Bucharest consensus  

PubMed Central

Microscopic enteritis (ME) is an inflammatory condition of the small bowel that leads to gastrointestinal symptoms, nutrient and micronutrient deficiency. It is characterised by microscopic or sub-microscopic abnormalities such as microvillus changes and enterocytic alterations in the absence of definite macroscopic changes using standard modern endoscopy. This work recognises a need to characterize disorders with microscopic and submicroscopic features, currently regarded as functional or non-specific entities, to obtain further understanding of their clinical relevance. The consensus working party reviewed statements about the aetiology, diagnosis and symptoms associated with ME and proposes an algorithm for its investigation and treatment. Following the 5th International Course in Digestive Pathology in Bucharest in November 2012, an international group of 21 interested pathologists and gastroenterologists formed a working party with a view to formulating a consensus statement on ME. A five-step agreement scale (from strong agreement to strong disagreement) was used to score 21 statements, independently. There was strong agreement on all statements about ME histology (95%-100%). Statements concerning diagnosis achieved 85% to 100% agreement. A statement on the management of ME elicited agreement from the lowest rate (60%) up to 100%. The remaining two categories showed general agreement between experts on clinical presentation (75%-95%) and pathogenesis (80%-90%) of ME. There was strong agreement on the histological definition of ME. Weaker agreement on management indicates a need for further investigations, better definitions and clinical trials to produce quality guidelines for management. This ME consensus is a step toward greater recognition of a significant entity affecting symptomatic patients previously labelled as non-specific or functional enteropathy.

Rostami, Kamran; Aldulaimi, David; Holmes, Geoffrey; Johnson, Matt W; Robert, Marie; Srivastava, Amitabh; Fléjou, Jean-François; Sanders, David S; Volta, Umberto; Derakhshan, Mohammad H; Going, James J; Becheanu, Gabriel; Catassi, Carlo; Danciu, Mihai; Materacki, Luke; Ghafarzadegan, Kamran; Ishaq, Sauid; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Peña, A Salvador; Bassotti, Gabrio; Marsh, Michael N; Villanacci, Vincenzo

2015-01-01

178

Measuring virtual wealth in virtual worlds Jingzhi Guo Zhiguo Gong  

E-print Network

Measuring virtual wealth in virtual worlds Jingzhi Guo · Zhiguo Gong Published online: 21 January on measuring virtual wealth in an open virtual world for diagnosing the health of virtual worlds. It proved in a circled networked organization, the article devised a virtual wealth measuring scheme, called Gross

Guo, Jingzhi

179

Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS) is enabling the integration of design, training, and operations capabilities into an intelligent virtual station for the International Space Station (ISS). A viewgraph of the IVS Remote Server is presented.

2002-01-01

180

Petrology of New Stannern-trend Eucrites and Eucrite Genesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eucrites are basaltic meteorites of the howardite-eucrite-diogenite (HED) suite that originated on a differentiated asteroid, possibly 4 Vesta. Basaltic eucrites are divided into three subgroups based on composition: main group, Stannern-trend, and Nuevo Laredo-trend. The main group and Nuevo Laredo-trend define a sequence formed by fractional crystallization of pigeonite and plagioclase from primitive parent melts [2, 3]. The Stannern-trend cannot be explained this way, but may rather represent a partial-melt sequence of their parent body. However, this model seems inadequate to explain eucrite siderophile element contents, and it is difficult to develop a single unifying model for petrogenesis of all eucrites. Until recently, there were only four Stannern- trend eucrites. One is an anomalous partial cumulate. There is little geochemical variation among these meteorites, so the Stannern-trend was poorly defined. Geochemical studies have identified four additional eucrites as members of the Stannern-trend; one extends the Stannern-trend closer to the main group [5]. No detailed descriptions of these rocks have been published. In order to better integrate these eucrites into the suite, we have done petrologic study of them. They are: LEW 88010, PCA 82501, PCA 91006 and PCA 91179.

Gardner, K. G.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.

2004-01-01

181

Petrology and structure of shear-controlled anatexites in migmatite  

SciTech Connect

A close spatial relationship exists between small-scale shear structures and anatexites. The shear structures appear to provide the pathways for the release of incipient anatectic melt as well as subsequent coalescing. Braid-like interconnections of melt develop into larger-scale zones of neosome which cut older migmatite. These patterns are present in the Mount Arabia migmatite, a granitic phase of the Lithonia Gneiss, which covers more than 1800 square kilometers of the Inner Piedmont of Georgia. Mapped at a scale of 1:50, selected areas of the Mount Arabia migmatite display several stages of progressive melting from incipient metatectic films parallel to gneissic bands, to arterites composed of over 30% neosome. The migmatite shows macroscopic structural heterogeneity which appears to be related to the degree of remelting. Zones of high melt proportion consist of more ductilly deformed gneiss with contorted banding, buckle folding, mafic schlieren and pods of nebulitic migmatite. Except for its lower biotite percentage, the composition of the anatectic granite is the same as the gneiss. The petrologic and structural modification history in the Mount Arabia migmatite can be reconstructed using the composite effects of partial melt segregation, restite disaggregation, re-equilibration and contrasts in structural competance.

Size, W.B.; Covert, J.

1985-01-01

182

Petrology of four clasts from consortium breccia 73215  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One felsite ('granite') and three ANT-suite anorthositic gabbro clasts extracted from breccia 73215 are described. The felsite clast has two components - fragments of crystalline felsite and veins and patches of felsic glass. The crystalline felsite, which consists largely of a vermicular intergrowth of quartz and Ba-K-feldspar, crystallized from a highly differentiated melt between 3.90 and 4.05 b.y. The felsic glass component consists of crystallized brown and colorless glasses and uncrystallized colorless glass which are all K and Si rich. The relation of glass features to past heating and the breccia-forming event is considered. In the three anorthositic gabbros, which have similar mineralogies and gradational textures, plagioclase is dominant, and olivine and orthopyroxene are the major mafic minerals. The petrologic data suggest that the gabbros formed as heated, partly melted, and/or recrystallized polymict breccias. It is possible that the approximately 4.25 b.y. age obtained for the three rocks is the date of the melting/recrystallization event.

James, O. B.; Hammarstrom, J. G.

1977-01-01

183

Virtual reality for retail  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper an experiment of designing an existing retail area though virtual models is presented. The capability of interaction between the designer and the virtual models allows to verify the relationship between the building, the furniture and the products on the shelves, through a realistic perception of the virtualized Point of Sale. For this purpose a specific 3D modeling

Gabriele Guidi; Laura L. Micoli; Cesare Casagrande; Luciano Ghezzi

2010-01-01

184

Virtual Worlds? "Outlook Good"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many people believed that virtual worlds would end up like the eight-track audiotape: a memory of something no longer used (or useful). Yet today there are hundreds of higher education institutions represented in three-dimensional (3D) virtual worlds such as Active Worlds and Second Life. The movement toward the virtual realm as a viable teaching…

Kelton, AJ

2008-01-01

185

High availability using virtualization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High availability has always been one of the main problems for a data center. Till now high availability was achieved by host per host redundancy, a highly expensive method in terms of hardware and human costs. A new approach to the problem can be offered by virtualization. Using virtualization, it is possible to achieve a redundancy system for all the services running on a data center. This new approach to high availability allows to share the running virtual machines over the servers up and running, by exploiting the features of the virtualization layer: start, stop and move virtual machines between physical hosts. The system (3RC) is based on a finite state machine with hysteresis, providing the possibility to restart each virtual machine over any physical host, or reinstall it from scratch. A complete infrastructure has been developed to install operating system and middleware in a few minutes. To virtualize the main servers of a data center, a new procedure has been developed to migrate physical to virtual hosts. The whole Grid data center SNS-PISA is running at the moment in virtual environment under the high availability system. As extension of the 3RC architecture, several storage solutions have been tested to store and centralize all the virtual disks, from NAS to SAN, to grant data safety and access from everywhere. Exploiting virtualization and ability to automatically reinstall a host, we provide a sort of host on-demand, where the action on a virtual machine is performed only when a disaster occurs.

Calzolari, Federico

2009-10-01

186

Petrology of the Crystalline Rocks Hosting the Santa Fe Impact Structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We collected samples from within the area of shatter cone occurrence and for approximately 8 kilometers (map distance) along the roadway. Our primary goal is to date the impact. Our secondary goal is to use the petrology and Ar systematics to provide further insight into size and scale of the impact. Our approach is to: Conduct a detailed petrology study to identify lithologies that share petrologic characteristics and tectonic histories but with differing degrees of shock. Obtain micro-cores of K-bearing minerals from multiple samples for Ar-40/Ar-39 analysis. Examine the Ar diffusion patterns for multiple minerals in multiple shocked and control samples. This will help us to better understand outcrop and regional scale relationships among rocks and their responses to the impact event.

Schrader, C. M.; Cohen, B. A.

2010-01-01

187

PetroGraph: A new software to visualize, model, and present geochemical data in igneous petrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new software, PetroGraph, has been developed to visualize, elaborate, and model geochemical data for igneous petrology purposes. The software is able to plot data on several different diagrams, including a large number of classification and "petrotectonic" plots. PetroGraph gives the opportunity to handle large geochemical data sets in a single program without the need of passing from one software to the other as usually happens in petrologic data handling. Along with these basic functions, PetroGraph contains a wide choice of modeling possibilities, from major element mass balance calculations to the most common partial melting and magma evolution models based on trace element and isotopic data. Results and graphs can be exported as vector graphics in publication-quality form, or they can be copied and pasted within the most common graphics programs for further modifications. All these features make PetroGraph one of the most complete software presently available for igneous petrology research.

Petrelli, M.; Poli, G.; Perugini, D.; Peccerillo, A.

2005-07-01

188

Petrology of fine-grained rock fragments and petrologic implications of single crystal from the Luna 20 soil.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Only fine-grained rocks are present in the Luna 20 samples, and coarser-grained rocks are represented by fragments of single crystals. A petrologic study has been made of 47 fine-grained crystalline rocks, microbreccias, and glassy aggregates. In addition, a total of 33 single crystals of pyroxene, plagioclase, olivine, and spinel, in the size range from 125 to 500 microns, have been examined using electron microprobe and single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The most abundant fine-grained crystalline rocks in the samples examined are recrystallized anorthositic norite and anorthositic troctolite. Gabbroic rocks, anorthosite, and KREEP basalt are present but not common. Most of the single crystals of pyroxene and plagioclase could have been derived from coarser-grained noritic, troctolitic, and anorthositic rocks. However, three of the 14 pyroxene crystals, and two of the five olivine crystals have Fe/(Fe + Mg) contents greater than 0.45 and are believed to have been derived from mare basalts or related rocks.

Cameron, K. L.; Papike, J. J.; Bence, A. E.; Sueno, S.

1973-01-01

189

Positron Reaction Microscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing a positron reaction microscope to measure kinematically complete ionization reactions of atoms and dissociative ionization of simple molecules by positron impact. The experiment is designed to use the slow positron beamline at the ARC Centre for Antimatter Matter Studies (CAMS) node at the Australian National University (ANU). This project is a collaboration among the University of North Texas, CAMS, and the Max Planck Insitute for Kern Phyzik in Heidelberg. Initial measurements and apparatus calibration will be performed using electrons. For positron measurements, the apparatus will be rolled into position on the slow positron beamline at the CAMS site at ANU.

Mueller, D. W.; Lee, C.; Vermet, C.; Armitage, S.; Slaughter, D.; Hargrave, L.; Dorn, A.; Brunton, J.; Buckman, S. J.; Sullivan, J. P.

2012-06-01

190

Low frequency acoustic microscope  

DOEpatents

A scanning acoustic microscope is disclosed for the detection and location of near surface flaws, inclusions or voids in a solid sample material. A focused beam of acoustic energy is directed at the sample with its focal plane at the subsurface flaw, inclusion or void location. The sample is scanned with the beam. Detected acoustic energy specularly reflected and mode converted at the surface of the sample and acoustic energy reflected by subsurface flaws, inclusions or voids at the focal plane are used for generating an interference signal which is processed and forms a signal indicative of the subsurface flaws, inclusions or voids.

Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T. (Palo Alto, CA)

1986-11-04

191

Adirondack Under the Microscope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image was taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit front hazard-identification camera after the rover's first post-egress drive on Mars Sunday, Jan. 15, 2004. Engineers drove the rover approximately 3 meters (10 feet) from the Columbia Memorial Station toward the first rock target, seen in the foreground. The football-sized rock was dubbed Adirondack because of its mountain-shaped appearance. Scientists have begun using the microscopic imager instrument at the end of the rover's robotic arm to examine the rock and understand how it formed.

2004-01-01

192

Solid state optical microscope  

DOEpatents

A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal. 2 figs.

Young, I.T.

1983-08-09

193

Atomic Force Microscope  

SciTech Connect

The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) is a recently developed instrument that has achieved atomic resolution imaging of both conducting and non- conducting surfaces. Because the AFM is in the early stages of development, and because of the difficulty of building the instrument, it is currently in use in fewer than ten laboratories worldwide. It promises to be a valuable tool for obtaining information about engineering surfaces and aiding the .study of precision fabrication processes. This paper gives an overview of AFM technology and presents plans to build an instrument designed to look at engineering surfaces.

Day, R.D.; Russell, P.E.

1988-12-01

194

Solid state optical microscope  

DOEpatents

A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

Young, Ian T. (Pleasanton, CA)

1983-01-01

195

Idea Bank: Microscopic Impressionism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Claude Monet meets the world of science through Histro-Art, a concept that was conceived from the impressions of an 11th and 12th-grade college preparatory human anatomy and physiology class who were studying histology using a micro-video system. As they observed a slide of smooth muscle, one student noticed the resemblance to impressionist art, and thus the concept was born. In this engaging activity, students observe microscopic slide tissue and interpret impressionism theory using various mediums to create their own art pieces. It is sure to leave them with a lasting "impression" of the connection between art and science.

John Reitnauer

2005-04-01

196

A Unified Geometric Model For Virtual Slide Images Processing  

E-print Network

as a cytological slide can contains millions of cells on which abnormal cells (affected by a cancer) are often very pathology as a diagnosis tool. However, computer- aided diagnosis involves many tasks, from the acquisition this paper. 2. MICROSCOPIC IMAGING PROBLEMS In this section, we briefly introduce pathology and virtual slide

Lezoray, Olivier

197

Virtual Lung Project Animated Film Series The Challenge  

E-print Network

Virtual Lung Project Animated Film Series The Challenge This film series seeks to educate models, videos clips and images re- corded microscopically, fluid and molecular animations, and colloquial narration, the films combine the ideas of many researchers into our current understanding

Whitton, Mary C.

198

An experimental study of pathologist's navigation patterns in virtual microscopy  

PubMed Central

In virtual microscopy, a sequential process of captures of microscopical fields, allows to construct a virtual slide which is visualized using a specialized software, called the virtual microscopy viewer. This tool allows useful exploration of images, composed of thousands of microscopical fields of view at different levels of magnification, emulating an actual microscopical examination. The aim of this study was to establish the main pathologist's navigation patterns when exploring virtual microscopy slides, using a graphical user interface, adapted to the pathologist's workflow. Four pathologists with a similar level of experience, graduated from the same pathology program, navigated six virtual slides. Different issues were evaluated, namely, the percentage of common visited image regions, the time spent at each and its coincidence level, that is to say, the region of interest location. In addition, navigation patterns were also assessed, i.e., mouse movement velocities and linearity of the diagnostic paths. Results suggest that regions of interest are determined by a complex combination of the visited area, the time spent at each visit and the coincidence level among pathologists. Additionally, linear trajectories and particular velocity patterns were found for the registered diagnostic paths. PMID:21087502

2010-01-01

199

Constraints on chondrule origin from petrology of isotopically characterized chondrules in the Allende meteorite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The petrologic and chemical properties of the ferromagnesian chondrules in the Allende carbonaceous chondrite were examined in terms of the isotopic composition and the correlations between isotopic patterns. Areas of thin sections were studied with a SEM and bulk chemical fractions of 12 constituents were quantified to calculate correlations with petrologic features. A possible correlation between (CaO + Al2O2)/MgO and oxygen isotopes imply the formation of oxygen isotopic compositions in the chondrules by exchanges between isotopically heavy nebular gases and O-16 enriched solids. Different rates of gaseous exchange occurred with the various types of chondrules. Factors which may have controlled the exchanges are discussed.

McSween, H. Y., Jr.

1985-09-01

200

The formation of chondrules: petrologic tests of the shock wave model  

PubMed

Chondrules are millimeter-sized rounded igneous rocks within chondritic meteorites. Their textures and fractionated mineral chemistries suggest that they formed by repeated, localized, brief (minutes to hours) melting of cold aggregates of mineral dust in the protoplanetary nebula. Astrophysical models of chondrule formation have been unable to explain the petrologically diverse nature of chondrites. However, a nebular shock wave model for chondrule formation agrees with many of the observed petrologic and geochemical properties of chondrules and shows how particles within the nebula are sorted by size and how rims around chondrules are formed. It also explains the volatile-rich nature of chondrule rims and the chondrite matrix. PMID:9525858

Connolly Jr HC; Love

1998-04-01

201

Microscope Imaging Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Exploratorium in San Francisco continue to break new and intriguing ground with their latest online project, the Microscope Imaging Station. The actual physical Station resides at their museum, and was opened in 2004. Developed to complement this interactive exhibit, this online manifestation of the Station allows visitors to peer into the cells of living organisms such as sea urchins and zebrafish. The sea urchin feature is a real treat, as it is accompanied by a well-written essay on how this spiky creature may help unlock the secrets of genes, reproduction, and cancer. If that wasn't enough, the essay (as with other features on the site) includes a short video clip. The "Gallery" is definitely worth a stop as well. Here, visitors will find a wide range of high-resolution images and movies created with research-grade microscopes. Watching cells move, the fertilization process and the world of mitosis is a rather nice way to spend a few minutes, and visitors will probably want to pass the site along to friends and family.

202

Microscopic VECSEL modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This tutorial gives an overview of the microscopic approach developed to describe equilibrium and nonequilibrium effects in optically excited semiconductor systems with an emphasis to the application for VECSEL modelling. It is outlined how nonequilibrium quantum theory is used to derive dynamic equations for the relevant physical quantities, i.e. the optically induced polarization and the dynamical carrier occupation probabilities. Due to the Coulombic many-body interactions, polarization and populations couple to expectation values of higher-order quantum correlations. With the help of a systematic correlation expansion and truncation approach, we arrive at a closed set of equations. Formally these can be combined with Maxwell's equations for the classical light field, yielding the Maxwell-semiconductor Bloch equations (MSBE). However, instead of the more traditional approach where losses and dissipative processes are treated phenomenologically and/or through coupling to external reservoirs, we derive fully microscopic equations for the carrier-carrier and carrier-phonon scattering as well as the effective polarization dephasing. Due to their general nature, the resulting equations are fully valid under most experimentally relevant conditions. The theory is applied to model the high-intensity light field in the VECSEL cavity coupled to the dynamics of the optical polarization and the nonequilibrium carrier distributions in the quantum-well gain medium.

Koch, S. W.; Hader, J.; Moloney, J. V.

2014-03-01

203

A compact optofluidic microscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a novel optical imaging device that can be directly integrated into a microfluidic network, and therefore enables on-chip imaging in a microfluidic system. This micro imaging device, termed optofluidic microscope (OFM) is free of bulk optics and is based on a nanohole array defined in a non-transmissive metallic layer that is patterned onto the floor of the microfluidic channel. The operation of the optofluidic microscope will be explained in details and its performance is examined by using a popular animal model, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Images from a large population of nematode worms are efficiently acquired within a short time frame. The quality of the OFM images of C. elegans and the morphological characteristics revealed therein are evaluated. Two groups of early-stage C. elegans larvae, wild-type and dpy-24 are successfully separated even though their morphological difference at the larval stage is subtle. The experimental results support our claim that the methodology described therein can be effectively used to develop a powerful tool for fulfilling high-resolution, high-throughput imaging task in microfluidics-based systems.

Heng, Xin; Cui, Xiquan; Erickson, David; Baugh, Larry R.; Sternberg, Paul W.; Psaltis, Demetri; Yang, Changhuei

2006-08-01

204

Electron microscope phase enhancement  

DOEpatents

A microfabricated electron phase shift element is used for modifying the phase characteristics of an electron beam passing though its center aperture, while not affecting the more divergent portion of an incident beam to selectively provide a ninety-degree phase shift to the unscattered beam in the back focal plan of the objective lens, in order to realize Zernike-type, in-focus phase contrast in an electron microscope. One application of the element is to increase the contrast of an electron microscope for viewing weakly scattering samples while in focus. Typical weakly scattering samples include biological samples such as macromolecules, or perhaps cells. Preliminary experimental images demonstrate that these devices do apply a ninety degree phase shift as expected. Electrostatic calculations have been used to determine that fringing fields in the region of the scattered electron beams will cause a negligible phase shift as long as the ratio of electrode length to the transverse feature-size aperture is about 5:1. Calculations are underway to determine the feasibility of aspect smaller aspect ratios of about 3:1 and about 2:1.

Jin, Jian; Glaeser, Robert M.

2010-06-15

205

Why do magmas stall? Insights from petrologic and geodetic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magmas stall at various depths in the crust due to their internal properties (magma viscosity, buoyancy) and external crustal controls (local stress regime, wallrock strength). Annen et al. (JPet 2006) propose a petrological model in which buoyant magma ascends through the crust until the depth of water saturation, after which it crystallizes catastrophically and stalls due to the large increase in magma viscosity. Magmas may erupt from this storage region, or viscous death may result in pluton formation. In order to test this model, and constrain magma storage depths, we combine petrological and geodetic data for several active volcanoes along the Aleutian-Alaska arc. We analyzed glassy, primarily olivine-hosted melt inclusions by SIMS in tephra samples for their pre-eruptive volatile contents, which can be related to the depth of entrapment via pressure-dependent H2O-CO2 solubility models (e.g., VolatileCalc). Melt inclusions are not in equilibrium with pure water vapor (all will contain S and C species), but >50% of the inclusion population are in equilibrium with a vapor containing >85% H2O. Geodetic data (InSAR, GPS) record surface deformation related to volcano inflation/deflation, and can be inverted to solve for the depths of volume change (magma storage) in the crust. In the Aleutians, we find that the maximum melt inclusion trapping depths and geodetic depths correlate, suggesting both techniques record crustal magma storage and crystallization. Melt inclusions from the 1997 Okmok eruption are trapped at ?3 km; deformation during the eruption and subsequent inflation occurred at 3±0.5 km (Miyagi et al., EPSL 2004; Lu & Masterlark, JGR 2005). At Akutan, melt inclusions and GPS data indicate magma storage at ~5-7 km. Inclusions from flank cones of Makushin yield depths of 7 km, similar to inflation observed beneath the main edifice (6.8 km, Lu et al., JGR 2002). Pleistocene inclusions from Augustine volcano indicate magma storage at 10-18 km, in accord with a deep magma source proposed for the 2006 eruption. Melt inclusions from Shishaldin are trapped at depths up to 4 km, coincident with the base of the conduit (Vergnoille & Caplan Auerbach, BVolc 2006). Other volcanoes record similar depths of melt inclusion entrapment and deformation, including Mt. St. Helens, Irazú, Soufriere Hills, Vesuvius, and Etna. Clearly, crystallization will occur where magmas stall, cool, and degas, so it may not be surprising that the depths of deformation correlate with the depths of melt inclusion entrapment. But the question of why magmas stall at various depths remains. In the Aleutians, maximum H2O contents of melt inclusions (from 2 wt% at Shishaldin to 7 wt% at Augustine) negatively correlate with measures of the degree of mantle melting (Ti6.0 and Y6.0), which is expected if water drives mantle melting beneath arcs (e.g. Kelley et al. JGR 2006; Portnyagin et al EPSL 2007). Thus, if magmas stall near the depths where they reach H2O-saturation, as predicted by Annen et al. and observed here, then magma chamber and pluton depths may ultimately be controlled by the primary magmatic water contents set in the mantle.

Zimmer, M. M.; Plank, T.; Freymueller, J.; Hauri, E. H.; Larsen, J. F.; Nye, C. J.

2007-12-01

206

Petrology and Cosmochemistry of a Suite of R Chondrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chondrites are among the most primitive surviving materials from the early solar system. They are divided into groups based on chemical types defined by mineralogy, bulk composition, and oxygen isotope compositions. Chondrites range in petrographic grade from type 1 to type 7. Type 3 chondrites are the most primitive and are little changed from the nebular solids accreted to form asteroids. They are composed of chondrules, fine-grained matrix, metal and sulfide, plus or minus Ca-Al-rich inclusions. With increasing aqueous alteration at low temperatures, members of some chondrite classes transformed from type 3 towards type 1. With increasing thermal metamorphism and low fluid content, members of other classes changed from type 3 towards type 7. Rumuruti (R) chondrites are a rare group (0.1% of falls) similar to ordinary chondrites in some properties but different in others. They are characterized by low chondrule/matrix modal abundance ratios, high oxidation state, small mean chondrule size, abundant sulfides and low metal contents. R chondrites vary in petrologic type from 3 to 6. They are important objects to study because some of them have undergone metamorphism at high temperatures in the presence of aqueous fluids. In contrast, CM and CI chondrites were heated to low temperatures in the presence of aqueous fluids leading to alteration; they contain low-T hydrous phases (phyllosilicates) and little or no remaining metal. Ordinary chondrites were heated to high temperatures in a low-fluid environment resulting in anhydrous metamorphic rocks. R6 chondrites are highly metamorphosed and some contain the high-T hydrous phases mica and amphibole. R chondrites are thus unique and give us an opportunity to examine whether there are compositional effects caused by high-T, highfluid metamorphism of nebular materials.

Torrano, Z. A.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Peng, Z. X.

2015-01-01

207

Petrologic evidence for collisional heating of chondritic asteroids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The identification of the mechanism(s) responsible for heating asteroids is among the major problems in planetary science. Because of difficulties with models of electromagnetic induction and the decay of short-lived radionuclides, it is worthwhile to evaluate the evidence for collisional heating. New evidence for localized impact heating comes from the high proportion of relict type-6 material among impact-melt-bearing ordinary chondrites (OC). This relict material was probably metamorphosed by residual heat within large craters. Olivine aggregates composed of faceted crystals with 120 deg triple junctions occur within the melted regions of the Chico and Rose City OC melt rocks; the olivine aggregates formed from shocked, mosaicized olivine grains that underwent contact metamorphism. Large-scale collisional heating is supoorted by the correlation in OC between petrologic type and shock stage; no other heating mechanism can readily account for this correlation. The occurrence of impact-melt-rock clasts in OC that have been metamorphosed along with their whole rocks indicates that some impact events preceded or accompanied thermal metamorphism. Such impacts events, occurring during or shortly after accretion, are probably responsible for substantially melting approximately 0.5% of OC. These events must have heated a larger percentage of OC to subsolidus temperatures sufficient to have caused significant metamorphism. If collisional heating is viable, then OC parent asteroids must have been large; large OC asteroids in the main belt may include those of the S(IV) spectral subtype. Collisional heating is inconsistent with layered ('onion-shell') structures in OC asteroids (wherein the degree of metamorphism increases with depth), but the evidence for such structures is weak. It seems likely that collisional heating played an important role in metamorphosing chondritic asteroids.

Rubin, Alan E.

1995-01-01

208

Early Petrologic Processes on the Ureilite Parent Body  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a petrographic and petrologic analysis of 21 olivine-pigeonite ureilites, along with new experimental results on melt compositions predicted to be in equilibrium with ureilite compositions. We conclude that these ureilites are the residues of a partial melting/smelting event. Textural evidence preserved in olivine and pigeonite record the extent of primary smelting. In pigeonite cores, we observe fine trains of iron metal inclusions that formed by the reduction of olivine to pigeonite and metal during primary smelting. Olivine cores lack metal inclusions but the outer grain boundaries are variably reduced by a late-stage reduction event. The modal proportion of pigeonite and percentage of olivine affected by late stage reduction are inversely related and provide an estimation of the degree of primary smelting during ureilite petrogenesis. In our sample suite, this correlation holds for 16 of the 21 samples examined. Olivine-pigeonite-liquid phase equilibrium constraints are used to obtain temperature estimates for the ureilite samples examined. Inferred smelting temperatures range from approximately 1150 C to just over 1300 C and span the range of estimates published for ureilites containing two or more pyroxenes. Temperature is also positively correlated with modal percent pigeonite. Smelting temperature is inversely correlated with smelting depth--the hottest olivine-pigeonite ureilites coming from the shallowest depth in the ureilite parent body. The highest temperature samples also have oxygen isotopic signatures that fall toward the refractory inclusion-rich end of the carbonaceous chondrite-anhydrous mineral (CCAM) slope 1 mixing line. These temperature-depth variations in the ureilite parent body could have been created by a heterogeneous distribution of heat producing elements, which would indicate that isotopic heterogeneities existed in the material from which the ureilite parent body was assembled.

Singletary, S. J.; Grove, T. L.

2003-01-01

209

The continental lithosphere: Reconciling thermal, seismic, and petrologic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of the present study is to extract non-thermal signal from seismic tomography models in order to distinguish compositional variations in the continental lithosphere and to examine if geochemical and petrologic constraints on global-scale compositional variations in the mantle are consistent with modern geophysical data. In the lithospheric mantle of the continents, seismic velocity variations of a non-thermal origin (calculated from global Vs seismic tomography data [Grand S.P., 2002. Mantle shear-wave tomography and the fate of subducted slabs. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, 360, 2475-2491.; Shapiro N.M., Ritzwoller M.H. 2002. Monte-Carlo inversion for a global shear velocity model of the crust and upper mantle. Geophysical Journal International 151, 1-18.] and lithospheric temperatures [Artemieva I.M., Mooney W.D., 2001. Thermal structure and evolution of Precambrian lithosphere: A global study. Journal of Geophysical Research 106, 16387-16414.] show strong correlation with tectono-thermal ages and with regional variations in lithospheric thickness constrained by surface heat flow data and seismic velocities. In agreement with xenolith data, strong positive velocity anomalies of non-thermal origin (attributed to mantle depletion) are clearly seen for all of the cratons; their amplitude, however, varies laterally and decreases with depth, reflecting either a peripheral growth of the cratons in Proterozoic or their peripheral reworking. These cratonic regions where kimberlite magmas erupted show only weakly positive compositional velocity anomalies, atypical for the "intact" cratonic mantle. A reduction in the amplitude of compositional velocity anomalies in kimberlite provinces is interpreted to result from metasomatic enrichment (prior or during kimberlite emplacement) of the cratonic mantle, implying that xenolith data maybe non-representative of the "intact" cratonic mantle.

Artemieva, Irina M.

2009-04-01

210

Petrology of the 2008 eruption of Kasatochi volcano, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kasatochi volcano, a 3 × 3 km island in the Andreanof Islands group in the central Aleutians, erupted explosively with little warning on August 7, 2008. For two days the eruption sent ash clouds to an altitude of nearly 45000 ft asl. Within two weeks, immediately after the activity at Kasatochi decreased, the island was visited by AVO scientist Chris Waythomas, who was able to collect a suite of samples from pyroclastic flow deposits formed during the climatic phase of the eruption. Pumiceous juvenile blocks appear to be one of the predominant lithologies in the pyroclastic flows. The whole rock composition of magmas erupted during the climatic phase shows little variation, e.g. 58.46 - 59.19 wt. % SiO2, 6.98 - 7.09 wt. % CaO, and 1.00 - 1.07 wt.% K2O. The erupted andesite is crystalline-rich, with phenocryst content of nearly 40 vol. %. The mineral assemblage includes plagioclase, ortho- and clinopyroxenes, hornblende, and Ti-magnetite. The matrix glass is clear, compositionally uniform (68.5± 0.8 wt.% SiO2) and contains elongated microlites of plagioclase, pyroxenes, and amphibole. Most mineral phases appear to be chemically and texturally homogeneous with little or no signs of disequilibrium. Hornblende phenocrysts have no reaction rims that form in response to syn-eruptive ascent and decompression of magmas. Ongoing petrological investigations will use compositions of mineral and glass phases in the erupted products to constrain pre- and syn-eruptive magma conditions during the 2008 Kasatochi event.

Izbekov, P. E.

2008-12-01

211

Mars Under the Microscope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This magnified look at the martian soil near the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's landing site, Meridiani Planum, shows coarse grains sprinkled over a fine layer of sand. The image was captured by the rover's microscopic imager on the 10th day, or sol, of its mission. Scientists are intrigued by the spherical rocks, which can be formed by a variety of geologic processes, including cooling of molten lava droplets and accretion of concentric layers of material around a particle or 'seed.'

The examined patch of soil is 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across. The circular grain in the lower left corner is approximately 3 millimeters (.12 inches) across, or about the size of a sunflower seed.

2004-01-01

212

Femtosecond photoelectron point projection microscope  

SciTech Connect

By utilizing a nanometer ultrafast electron source in a point projection microscope we demonstrate that images of nanoparticles with spatial resolutions of the order of 100 nanometers can be obtained. The duration of the emission process of the photoemitted electrons used to make images is shown to be of the order of 100 fs using an autocorrelation technique. The compact geometry of this photoelectron point projection microscope does not preclude its use as a simple ultrafast electron microscope, and we use simple analytic models to estimate temporal resolutions that can be expected when using it as a pump-probe ultrafast electron microscope. These models show a significant increase in temporal resolution when comparing to ultrafast electron microscopes based on conventional designs. We also model the microscopes spectroscopic abilities to capture ultrafast phenomena such as the photon induced near field effect.

Quinonez, Erik; Handali, Jonathan; Barwick, Brett [Department of Physics, Trinity College, 300 Summit St., Hartford, Connecticut 06106 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Trinity College, 300 Summit St., Hartford, Connecticut 06106 (United States)

2013-10-15

213

Femtosecond photoelectron point projection microscope.  

PubMed

By utilizing a nanometer ultrafast electron source in a point projection microscope we demonstrate that images of nanoparticles with spatial resolutions of the order of 100 nanometers can be obtained. The duration of the emission process of the photoemitted electrons used to make images is shown to be of the order of 100 fs using an autocorrelation technique. The compact geometry of this photoelectron point projection microscope does not preclude its use as a simple ultrafast electron microscope, and we use simple analytic models to estimate temporal resolutions that can be expected when using it as a pump-probe ultrafast electron microscope. These models show a significant increase in temporal resolution when comparing to ultrafast electron microscopes based on conventional designs. We also model the microscopes spectroscopic abilities to capture ultrafast phenomena such as the photon induced near field effect. PMID:24182122

Quinonez, Erik; Handali, Jonathan; Barwick, Brett

2013-10-01

214

Atomic Force Microscope Operation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation (large file)

This animation is a scientific illustration of the operation of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Atomic Force Microscope, or AFM. The AFM is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer, or MECA.

The AFM is used to image the smallest Martian particles using a very sharp tip at the end of one of eight beams.

The beam of the AFM is set into vibration and brought up to the surface of a micromachined silicon substrate. The substrate has etched in it a series of pits, 5 micrometers deep, designed to hold the Martian dust particles.

The microscope then maps the shape of particles in three dimensions by scanning them with the tip.

At the end of the animation is a 3D representation of the AFM image of a particle that was part of a sample informally called 'Sorceress.' The sample was delivered to the AFM on the 38th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (July 2, 2008).

The image shows four round pits, only 5 microns in depth, that were micromachined into the silicon substrate.

A Martian particle only one micrometer, or one millionth of a meter, across is held in the upper left pit.

The rounded particle shown at the highest magnification ever seen from another world is a particle of the dust that cloaks Mars. Such dust particles color the Martian sky pink, feed storms that regularly envelop the planet and produce Mars' distinctive red soil.

The AFM was developed by a Swiss-led consortium, with Imperial College London producing the silicon substrate that holds sampled particles.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

215

Virtual Campus in the Context of an Educational Virtual City  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is focused on virtual campuses, i.e. virtual worlds representing real educational institutions that are based on the metaphor of a university and provide users with different learning tools. More specifically, the idea of integrating a virtual campus into the context of a virtual city is suggested. Such a virtual city, where students…

Fominykh, Mikhail; Prasolova-Forland, Ekaterina; Morozov, Mikhail; Gerasimov, Alexey

2011-01-01

216

Transmission electron microscope CCD camera  

DOEpatents

In order to improve the performance of a CCD camera on a high voltage electron microscope, an electron decelerator is inserted between the microscope column and the CCD. This arrangement optimizes the interaction of the electron beam with the scintillator of the CCD camera while retaining optimization of the microscope optics and of the interaction of the beam with the specimen. Changing the electron beam energy between the specimen and camera allows both to be optimized.

Downing, Kenneth H. (Lafayette, CA)

1999-01-01

217

Review of the Microscopic Colitides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microscopic colitis is a common cause of chronic diarrhea in predominantly older adults. Incidence rates of microscopic colitis\\u000a (including lymphocytic and collagenous colitis) have increased over time to levels comparable to other forms of inflammatory\\u000a bowel disease. The possibility of drug-induced microscopic colitis is an important consideration when evaluating these patients,\\u000a although this concept requires further investigation. There are few

Eugene F. Yen; Darrell S. Pardi

218

SJU Virtual Education List  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

New list: VIRTED - Uses of VIRTUAL REALITY in Education is an open, unmoderated discussion list for teachers, students and anyone else interested in the uses of virtual reality in education and learning. The goal of the list is to explore the use and potential uses of virtual reality environments in both traditional and alternative educational settings, the effects of virtual reality environments upon the learning process, and the efficacy of using virtual reality as an educational delivery system. Review of research, publications and observations related to EDUCATIONAL uses of virtual reality are welcome and encouraged. The mission is to shed light on this new avenue of education and learning which takes place in both text based environments as well as graphic environments.

219

Petrology and geochemistry of the Lyngdal granodiorite (Southern Norway) and the role of  

E-print Network

Petrology and geochemistry of the Lyngdal granodiorite (Southern Norway) and the role of fractional and trace elements, Sr­Nd isotopes) of the Lyngdal granodiorite and associated massifs (Tranevåg and Red correspond to the parent magma of the studied plutons. The Lyngdal granodiorite and associated massifs

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

220

A new petrological and geophysical investigation of the present-day plumbing system of Mount Vesuvius  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model of the electrical resistivity of Mt. Vesuvius has been elaborated to investigate the present structure of the volcanic edifice. The model is based on electrical conductivity measurements in the laboratory, on geophysical information, in particular, magnetotelluric (MT) data, and on petrological and geochemical constraints. Both 1-D and 3-D simulations explored the effect of depth, volume and resistivity of

A. Pommier; P. Tarits; S. Hautot; M. Pichavant; B. Scaillet; F. Gaillard

2010-01-01

221

JOURNAL OF PETROLOGY VOLUME 40 NUMBER 5 PAGES 831851 1999 Calculation of Peridotite Partial Melting from  

E-print Network

JOURNAL OF PETROLOGY VOLUME 40 NUMBER 5 PAGES 831­851 1999 Calculation of Peridotite Partial. Productivities forof the melting reaction for peridotite (S/F )rxn P , where F is the systems enriched peridotite residua decreasesreaction stoichiometry cause discontinuous changes in (S/F )rxn P . calculated

Asimow, Paul D.

222

JOURNAL OF PETROLOGY VOLUME 39 NUMBER 6 PAGES 10911115 1998 Calculation of Peridotite Partial Melting from  

E-print Network

JOURNAL OF PETROLOGY VOLUME 39 NUMBER 6 PAGES 1091­1115 1998 Calculation of Peridotite Partial of peridotite using of the results of calculations of peridotite melting using MELTS, there are a number the suitability of this peridotite have more MgO and less SiO2 than equivalent ex- perimentally derived liquids

Asimow, Paul D.

223

Petrologic considerations for hot dry rock geothermal site selection in the Clear Lake Region, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Clear Lake area is well known for anomalous heat flow, thermal springs, hydrothermal mineral deposits, and Quaternary volcanism. These factors, along with the apparent lack of a large reservoir of geothermal fluid north of Collayomi fault make the Clear Lake area an attractive target for hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal development. Petrologic considerations provide some constraints on site selection

J. Stimac; F. Goff; B. C. Jr. Hearn

1992-01-01

224

PhD position in igneous petrology Marie-Curie Initial Training Network ABYSS (ESR3)  

E-print Network

PhD position in igneous petrology Marie-Curie Initial Training Network ABYSS (ESR3) Training no later than November 1, 2014. It is funded by ABYSS, an EU Framework 7 Marie Curie Integrated Training) and Benoit Ildefonse (ildefonse@um2.fr) 1 ABYSS has received funding from the People programme (Marie Curie

Demouchy, Sylvie

225

Magma Chamber Processes Within Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii Based on Petrology of Recent Summit Lavas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time series analyses of petrologic and geochemical parameters are effective in delineating magmatic processes of active volcanoes. The frequent eruptions of Kilauea Volcano make it an excellent candidate for such an analysis. No systematic study has been previously undertaken of the historic lavas from this classic volcano. We assembled a comprehensive suite of lavas and tephra ranging from 15th century

M. O. Garcia; A. J. Pietruszka; J. M. Rhodes

2001-01-01

226

The tholeiitic Kermadec volcanic suite: Additional field and petrological data including iron-enriched plagioclase feldspars  

Microsoft Academic Search

New lithological and petrological descriptions are given for a cluster of offshore islands in the Raoul group (Napier, Nugent, North and South Meyer, Dayrell, North and South Chanter) and for L'Esperance Island, along with AFM plots for 40 additional bulk chemical analyses. Petrography and microprobe data for these rocks, and for other islands in the Kermadec chain (Macauley, Curtis, Rumble

R. N. Brothers; M. M. Hawke

1981-01-01

227

Petrology and Petrography of Ely Limestone in Part of Eastern Great Basin*  

E-print Network

Petrology and Petrography of Ely Limestone in Part of Eastern Great Basin* YAZDAN MOLLAZAL Tehran Ranch area, White Pine County, Nevada, reference section for Ely Limestone (Steele, 1960), the formation ) In the central Pequop Mountains of Elko County. Nevada, the Ely Limestone is 1600 feet of argillaceous, silty

Seamons, Kent E.

228

Petrology and Geochemistry of Lunar Meteorite Abar al'Uj 012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The petrology and geochemistry of Abar al’Uj 012, a feldspathic lunar meteorite found in Saudi Arabia is described. The meteorite is a vesicular crystalline impact-melt breccia, which lacks a fusion crust and has a ferroan anorthosite affinity.

Mészáros, M.; Hofmann, B. A.; Korotev, R. L.; Gnos, E.; Greber, N.; Greenwood, R. C.

2014-09-01

229

Unmixing the SNCs: Chemical, Isotopic, and Petrologic Components of the Martian Meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the conference on Unmixing the SNCs: Chemical, Isotopic, and Petrologic Components of Martian Meteorites, September 11-12, 2002, in Houston, Texas. Administration and publications support for this meeting were provided by the staff of the Publications and Program Services Department at the Lunar and Planetary Institute.

2002-01-01

230

Mineralogical, petrological and radioactivity aspects of some building material from Egyptian Old Kingdom monuments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineralogical, petrological, XRF and radioactivity measurements were carried out on several Egyptian monuments (at Giza plateau and Abydos), as an integrated archaeological sciences project concerning Egyptian cultural heritage with a threefold aim: (a) the multifold analysis of construction material (granite, limestone, sandstone, gypsum), providing new data, (b) a detailed radioactivity survey of the monuments, and (c) the development of a

I. Liritzis; C. Sideris; A. Vafiadou; J. Mitsis

2008-01-01

231

The petrology and geochemistry of a metabasite belt along the southern margin of Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 600km long metabasite belt is exposed at the southern border of the Chugach terrane in southern Alaska, south of the Eocene Chugach Metamorphic Complex (CMC). In this contribution, we present petrologic and geochemical results for parts of this metabasite belt. The metabasites studied are amphibolite grade and their PT conditions are evaluated with hornblende–plagioclase thermometry and the average PT

E. Bruand; D. Gasser; P. Bonnand; K. Stuewe

2011-01-01

232

Petrological and Experimental Constraints on the Pre-eruption Conditions of Holocene  

E-print Network

, 2000) and potential hazardous effects (e.g. eruptions of Mt. Peleee, 1902, or Mount St. Helens, 1980, 1990), Mount St. Helens (Rutherford et al., 1985; Gardner et al., 1995), Novarupta (Hammer et al., 2002Petrological and Experimental Constraints on the Pre-eruption Conditions of Holocene Dacite from

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

233

Petrology and micromechanics of experimentally deformed natural rock salt: Physical processes: Topical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of impurities and microprocesses on the creep of natural salt samples are presented. Salts are analyzed from four sites (Palo Duro Unit 4 and Palo Duro Unit 5, Texas; Avery Island, Louisiana; and Salina Basin, Michigan). The salts have been deformed at temperatures and pressures that simulate repository conditions. Bulk chemistry, optical petrology, and microprobe analyses are used to

1987-01-01

234

Sedimentary Petrology Field Trip to Gravel Quarry near Rotterdam Junction, NY  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a Stratigraphy Sedimentary Petrology field trip stop at an exceptional glacial outwash gravel quarry, where students measure, identify and count clast types, measure cross-bedding directions, and examine the early stages of lithification of gravel to conglomerate. The gravel deposits are also representative of the local surficial aquifer material that lies nearby in the subsurface.

Dr. Paul Ryberg

235

PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF THE PETROLOGICAL-GEOCHEMICAL COMPONENT TO THE BATHOLITHS PROJECT  

E-print Network

during batholith generation. Petrologic and geochemical studies of arc-related, igneous and meta-igneous rocks along two proposed transects (Dean and Douglas Channels) will be carried out in this project generated from crustal and mantle-derived rocks, and (4) temporal changes in chemical and isotopic patterns

Wetmore, Paul H.

236

Vic Camp Geol 688: Advanced Igneous Petrology Office: GMCS-228K  

E-print Network

exercises. We will examine the genesis of Igneous rocks through an understanding of phase diagramsVic Camp Geol 688: Advanced Igneous Petrology Fall 2009 Office: GMCS-228K Office hours: anytime to proceed in the following order: Nature of the upper mantle Ternary phase diagrams Processes in igneous

Camp, Vic

237

The Zaklodzie enstatite meteorite: Mineralogy, petrology, origin, and classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Zaklodzie meteorite was found in September 1998, about 40 km west of Zamosc, in southeast Poland. Macroscopic and microscopic observations (in transmitted and reflected light), microprobe analyses, cathodoluminescence images, and X-ray diffraction data show that the meteorite is composed of clino- and orthoenstatite, two generations of feldspars, relict olivine (forsterite), a polymorph of SiO2 (apparently cristobalite), and opaque minerals:

Tadeusz A. Przylibski; Pawel Zagozdzon P; Ryszard Kryza; Andrzej S. Pilski

2005-01-01

238

Virtual Reality Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Michigan Virtual Reality Laboratory (VRL) at the College of Engineering explores innovative applications of immersive and non-immersive virtual environments in a variety of areas. For industrial applications, research is focused on virtual prototyping of engineering designs - especially in the automotive and marine industry - the simulation of manufacturing processes, and related engineering tasks. Additional activities include the use of virtual reality in accident simulations, medicine, architecture, archeology, education, and other areas. As an interdisciplinary facility, the VRL collaborates with many disciplines within the university and serves the outside community. Through a combined directorship, the Laboratory cooperates closely with the University of Michigan 3D Lab.

Fogler, H. Scott

239

Petrology of the Betulia Igneous Complex, Cauca, Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Betulia Igneous Complex (BIC) is a group of Late-Miocene (11.8 ± 0.2 Ma) hypabyssal intrusions of intermediate to felsic composition located in the SW of the Colombian Andes. These bodies have a calc-alkaline tendency and are related to the subduction of the Nazca plate under the South American plate. Diorites, quartz diorites and tonalities have porphyritic and phaneritic textures and are composed of plagioclase, amphibole, quartz, biotite, and orthoclase. Plagioclase is mainly of andesine-type and the amphiboles were classified mainly as magnesiohornblendes, actinolites, and tschermakites. BIC rocks have a narrow range of SiO2 content (59-67wt%) and exhibit an enrichment of LILE and LREE relative to HFSE and HREE, respectively. These features are attributed to enrichment of LILE from the source and retention of HFSE (mainly Nb, Ta, and Ti) by refractory phases within the same source. The depletion of HREE is explained by fractionation of mineral phases that have a high partition coefficients for these elements, especially amphiboles, the major mafic phase in the rocks. Nevertheless, the fractionation of garnet in early stages of crystallization is not unlikely. Probably all BIC units were generated by the same magma chamber or at least by the same petrologic mechanism as shown by the similar patterns in spider and REE diagrams; fractional crystallization and differentiation processes controlled the final composition of the rocks, and crystallization stages determined the texture. Isotopic compositions of BIC rocks (87Sr/86Sr: 0.70435-0.70511; 143Nd/144Nd: 0.51258-0.51280; 206Pb/204Pb: 19.13-19.31; 207Pb/204Pb: 15.67-15.76; 208Pb/204Pb: 38.93-39.20) indicate a source derived from the mantle with crustal contamination. The model proposed for the BIC consists of fluids from the dehydration of the subducted slab (Nazca plate) and subducted sediments that generated partial melting of the mantle wedge. These basaltic melts ascended to the mantle-crust boundary where they were retained due to density differences and began to produce processes of melting, assimilation, storage, and homogenization (MASH zone). At this depth (?40-45 km), fractional crystallization and differentiation processes began to produce more felsic magmas that were able to ascend through the crust and be emplaced at shallow depths.

Gil-Rodriguez, Javier

2014-12-01

240

Petrology of the spinel peridotite xenoliths from petit spot volcanoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Petit spot is a new type of volcanism recently discovered in the NW Pacific and in some other oceanic regions [Hirano et al., 2006; 2008]. The eruption ages of the volcanoes are estimated younger than 10 Ma, whereas the Pacific Plate of the area was formed in the Early Cretaceous (~130 Ma). The volcanoes erupted strong to moderate alkaline and highly vesicular basalt. The locations of the volcanic fields, when they were active, were estimated away from any spreading centers, hotspots and even island arcs [Hirano et al., 2006]. The alignment and the size of the knolls imply that this volcanic field is a monogenetic volcanic cluster, which are often observed in the intra-continental plate. In order to understand the petit spot volcanism, we are taking trans-disciplinary surveys using JAMSTEC R/V KAIREI and YOKOSUKA and shore-based research suggest that there are a lot of small knolls assumed young volcanoes [Abe et al., 2005; 2008]. As many monogenetic alkaline-basalt volcanoes, some of petit spot volcanoes include deep-seated rocks xenoliths. They are fragments of dolerite, micro-gabbro, gabbro, lherzolite, dunite, wehrlite, pyroxenite and harzburgite [Abe et al., 2006]. The major- and trace-element chemistry of the mafic xenoliths shows normal MORB composition [Machida per. Com.], and the major mineral chemistry of the ultramafic xenoliths has a variation within the abyssal peridotite and have chromian spinel. The Noble gas chemistry suggests that they are the fragments of the old Pacific plate [Yamamoto et al., 2009; Shimizu et al., per. com.]. The clinopyroxene in one of the ultramafic xenoliths has LREE-depleted trace element patterns which is similar to that in the abyssal peridotite from slow spreading ridges. The other samples have LREE-enriched patterns, and the one lherzolite shows highly HREE-depleted patterns which is same as the pattern of clinopyroxene in garnet peridotite in Kimberlites [Abe et al., 2006]. This suggests that the lherzolite sample is originated from the depth of the boundary between spinel- and garnet-stability fields in the deep oceanic lithosphere. As a result of the study, those ultramafic xenoliths were seated in the different depth of the oceanic lithosphere. It is noteworthy that no serpentinite or highly altered maficc rocks discovered in the petit spot volcanic field. The deep-seated rock xenoliths and its host alkaline basalt provide us much information about the geochemical, petrological and physical structure and the thermal state of the old oceanic plate [Abe et al., 2006; Yamamoto et al., 2009; Harigane et al., 2011].

Abe, N.; Tamura, A.; Morishita, T.; Hirano, N.; Arai, S.

2011-12-01

241

Formation of cratonic lithosphere: An integrated thermal and petrological model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of cratonic mantle peridotite of Archean age is examined within the time frame of Earth's thermal history, and how it was expressed by temporal variations in magma and residue petrology. Peridotite residues that occupy the lithospheric mantle are rare owing to the effects of melt-rock reaction, metasomatism, and refertilization. Where they are identified, they are very similar to the predicted harzburgite residues of primary magmas of the dominant basalts in greenstone belts, which formed in a non-arc setting (referred to here as "non-arc basalts"). The compositions of these basalts indicate high temperatures of formation that are well-described by the thermal history model of Korenaga. In this model, peridotite residues of extensive ambient mantle melting had the highest Mg-numbers, lowest FeO contents, and lowest densities at ~ 2.5-3.5 Ga. These results are in good agreement with Re-Os ages of kimberlite-hosted cratonic mantle xenoliths and enclosed sulfides, and provide support for the hypothesis of Jordan that low densities of cratonic mantle are a measure of their high preservation potential. Cratonization of the Earth reached its zenith at ~ 2.5-3.5 Ga when ambient mantle was hot and extensive melting produced oceanic crust 30-45 km thick. However, there is a mass imbalance exhibited by the craton-wide distribution of harzburgite residues and the paucity of their complementary magmas that had compositions like the non-arc basalts. We suggest that the problem of the missing basaltic oceanic crust can be resolved by its hydration, cooling and partial transformation to eclogite, which caused foundering of the entire lithosphere. Some of the oceanic crust partially melted during foundering to produce continental crust composed of tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG). The remaining lithosphere gravitationally separated into 1) residual eclogite that continued its descent, and 2) buoyant harzburgite diapirs that rose to underplate cratonic nuclei composed of non-arc basalts and TTG. Finally, assembly of cratonic nuclei into cratons at convergent boundaries substantially modified harzburgite residues by melt-rock reaction.

Herzberg, Claude; Rudnick, Roberta

2012-09-01

242

Aragats stratovolcano in Armenia - volcano-stratigraphy and petrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this contribution we discuss the geological structure and volcano-stratigraphy of the Quaternary Aragats stratovolcano in Armenia based on recent age determinations as well as petrological and geochemical features of magma generation processes specific for collision zones. Armenia is situated in the NE part of the Anatolian-Armenian-Iranian plateau, an intensely deformed segment of the Alpine-Himalayan belt. The complex geological structure of the region is represented by a mosaic of tectonic blocks comprising fragments of volcanic arcs, continental crust and exhumed oceanic crust. Collision of the Arabian plate with the Eurasian margin in early Miocene resulted in orogenic uplift associated with intense volcanism. Aragats (4090m) is one the largest volcanoes in the entire region and produced central vent (inc. Plinian VEI>4) and monogenetic type flank eruptions and periphery plateaus within a total area greater than 5000 km2, known as Aragats volcanic province (AVP). The Aragats volcanic province (AVP) comprises the composite cone of Aragats volcano, the peak of which is built on a summit plateau, ~45 km in diameter shield structure with dozens of flank vents, scattered monogenetic cinder cones on the adjacent volcanic plateaus as well as the neighboring stratovolcano Arailer. New K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar age determinations of groundmass and separated plagioclase samples indicate that volcanism at AVP began ~2.5 Ma, while most recent volcanic activity is 0.49 Ma for Plinian eruption of dacites from Irind flank vent and basaltic trachyandesite lava flows from Tirinkatar (0.48-0.61 Ma), Kakavasar, (0.52-0.54 Ma) and Ashtarak (0.58 Ma) monogenetic flank centers, as well as trachyandesites of Jrbazhan volcano on the summit plateau of Aragats (0.52 Ma). Based on bulk rock geochemical data (major, minor and low abundance trace elements, Sr and Nd isotopes) and mineral chemistry, we conclude that volcanic rocks of AVP are largely recording a complex mixing between deep asthenospheric mantle and remnants of subduction-modified and metasomatically enriched mantle sources, followed by fractionation in large magma chamber(s). Mineral-melt equilibria studies reveal dry (<1%H2O) and very hot source, fluid inclusions study reveal pronounced enrichment with CO2 over H2O in fluid phase. Noteworthy are high eruption temperatures compared to global volcanic arcs, explaining the very long (up to 25 km) and thick (>200m) trachydacitic lava flows.

Meliksetian, Khachatur; Savov, Ivan; Connor, Charles; Halama, Ralf; Jrbashyan, Ruben; Navasardyan, Gevorg; Ghukasyan, Yura; Gevorgyan, Hripsime; Manucharyan, Davit; Ishizuka, Osamu; Quidelleur, Xavier; Germa, Aurélie

2014-05-01

243

Petrology of enstatite chondrites and anomalous enstatite achondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chondrites are meteorites that represent unmelted portions of asteroids. The enstatite chondrites are one class of chondrites. They consist of reduced mineral assemblages that formed under low oxygen fugacity in the solar nebula, prior to accretion into asteroids. There are two groups of enstatite chondrites---EH and EL. I studied EL3 meteorites, which are understood to be unmetamorphosed and thus to only preserve primitive nebular products. I show in a petrographic study that the EL3s are in fact melt--breccias in which impact-melting produced new mineral assemblages and textures in portions of the host chondrites, after accretion. I document meta- land sulfide assemblages that are intergrown with silicate minerals (which are often euhedral), and occur outside chondrules; these assemblages probably represent impact-melting products, and are different from those in EH3 chondrites that probably represent nebular products. In situ siderophile trace element compositions of the metal in EL3s, obtained by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, are consistent with an impact-melting hypothesis. The trace element concentrations show no clear volatility trend, and are thus probably not the result of volatile-driven petrogenetic processes that operated in the solar nebula. Trace element modeling suggests that the character of the trace element patterns together with deviations from the mean bulk EL metal pattern is consistent with metal that crystallized in a coexisting liquid-solid metal system in which dissolved carbon influenced element partitioning. I also conducted a petrographic and mineral-chemistry study of several anomalous enstatite meteorites. These have igneous textures, but unfractionated mineralogy similar to unmelted chondrites. I show that with the exception of one, the meteorites are related to each other, and probably formed by crystallization from an impact melt instead of metamorphism through the decay of short lived radionuclides. The broad importance of these studies lies in documenting the petrology of extraterrestrial materials that reveal the geological history of the young solar system prior to the existence of planets. Furthermore, they serve to identify which mineral assemblages record nebular processes and which record processes on asteroids, so that future studies may select the correct material to address particular questions.

van Niekerk, Deon

2012-01-01

244

Virtual clay modeling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a CAD system in which a user can directly manipulate the shape of a virtual object like a clay model and can produce its solid model data. The key component of its hardware is a special input device with a 3D position tracker and a tactile sensor. In this system, the movement of a virtual object is

Ken-ichi Kameyama

1997-01-01

245

Rethinking the Virtual  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author builds theoretically off an alternative conception of the virtual, through a series of steps. First, he explores four processes of engagement through which immersion happens (interest, involvement, imagination and interaction); these will prove especially important for understanding the educational potential of virtuality. Second, he…

Burbules, Nicholas C.

2004-01-01

246

Constructing the Virtual Section  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper details the conduct and results arising from an experiment known as VISE (Virtual Infantry Section Experiment) performed at The Australian Army's Headline03. VISE employed a 1st Person Simulator (1PS) known as VBS (Virtual Battlefield System) to examine alternate section structures - 8-member, 9-member, and 12- member. Three classes of section combat scenarios were constructed within VBS - a

Michael Barlow; Peter Morrison; Mathew Luck; Alistair Dickie

2004-01-01

247

Virtual Classes, Real Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As Internet technology encroached on the public school classroom about a decade ago, Kim Ross, superintendent of the Houston (MN) School District saw an opportunity. The entrepreneurial spirit overtook Ross and his team, and out of that was born the Minnesota Virtual Academy and the Minnesota Center of Online Learning, or MCoOL--two virtual

Beem, Kate

2010-01-01

248

10 Myths of Virtualization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Half of servers in higher ed are virtualized. But that number's not high enough for Link Alander, interim vice chancellor and CIO at the Lone Star College System (Texas). He aspires to see 100 percent of the system's infrastructure requirements delivered as IT services from its own virtualized data centers or other cloud-based operators. Back in…

Schaffhauser, Dian

2012-01-01

249

Virtual yellowjacket wasp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

3D virtual image of a yellowjacket wasp (Family Vespidae). This movie is also available as a Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) model. The VRML models are more interactive than the QuickTime versions, but special software may need to be downloaded to open them (read the Â?HelpÂ? page for details). Those people using public computers may be limited from fully accessing the resource. Mozilla Firefox users can view the VRML files directly in their browsers by downloading the Cortona extension (http://www.parallelgraphics.com/products/cortona/download/netscape/). This website is an excellent educational resource for all ages. The Virtual Insects home page (http://www.ento.vt.edu/~sharov/3d/3dinsect.html) has a basic explanation of how virtual reality works, including the Virtual Reality Modeling Language. The "Virtual Images" link takes you to a list of insects that can be viewed as 3D digital reconstructions. The image files would make excellent additions to teaching lectures for introductory classes. Visit the "How to Build Virtual Insects" page to read about how the images were created and how the original models were made more biologically accurate. Also be sure to read the page on how to view the cyber-insects inside a virtual reality "cave".

0000-00-00

250

Virtual water strider  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

3D virtual image of a water strider (Family Gerridae). This movie is also available as a Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) model. The VRML models are more interactive than the QuickTime versions, but special software may need to be downloaded to open them (read the Â?HelpÂ? page for details). Those people using public computers may be limited from fully accessing the resource. Mozilla Firefox users can view the VRML files directly in their browsers by downloading the Cortona extension (http://www.parallelgraphics.com/products/cortona/download/netscape/). This website is an excellent educational resource for all ages. The Virtual Insects home page (http://www.ento.vt.edu/~sharov/3d/3dinsect.html) has a basic explanation of how virtual reality works, including the Virtual Reality Modeling Language. The "Virtual Images" link takes you to a list of insects that can be viewed as 3D digital reconstructions. The image files would make excellent additions to teaching lectures for introductory classes. Visit the "How to Build Virtual Insects" page to read about how the images were created and how the original models were made more biologically accurate. Also be sure to read the page on how to view the cyber-insects inside a virtual reality "cave".

0000-00-00

251

Teaching the Virtual Presentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today, the virtual presentation is catching on rapidly in small, medium, and large businesses alike. A virtual presentation is one delivered live from a desktop or laptop computer to an audience anywhere in the world where there is Internet access. These new Web-based technologies are easy to use and inexpensive, making them readily accessible for…

Flatley, Marie E.

2007-01-01

252

Virtual peace education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is based on the convictions that peace education is the basis for any sustainable non?violent relations between parties in a conflict, and that virtual peace education is almost the only feasible way to practise peace education in an open violent conflict as is the current Israeli\\/Palestinians one. Moreover, virtual peace education has an independent rationale that justifies its

Ruth Firer

2008-01-01

253

Virtual Peace Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is based on the convictions that peace education is the basis for any sustainable non-violent relations between parties in a conflict, and that virtual peace education is almost the only feasible way to practise peace education in an open violent conflict as is the current Israeli/Palestinians one. Moreover, virtual peace education…

Firer, Ruth

2008-01-01

254

A Virtual Good Idea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School districts across the country have always had to do more with less. Funding goes only so far, leaving administrators and IT staff to find innovative ways to save money while maintaining a high level of academic quality. Creating virtual servers accomplishes both tasks, district technology personnel say. Virtual environments not only allow…

Bolch, Matt

2009-01-01

255

In virtual fashion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer graphics and virtual reality are being combined to enable clothes-shoppers to serve as their own clothes models for garments that are digitally fitted and converted into unique 2D patterns. Everything off the rack in effect becomes custom tailoring, choice of fabric and all. The author describes how the virtual reality mannequin is developed from digital images of the body.

S. Gray

1998-01-01

256

Virtual german cockroach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

3D virtual image of a German Cockroach (Family Blattidae). This movie is also available as a Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) model. The VRML models are more interactive than the QuickTime versions, but special software may need to be downloaded to open them (read the Â?HelpÂ? page for details). Those people using public computers may be limited from fully accessing the resource. Mozilla Firefox users can view the VRML files directly in their browsers by downloading the Cortona extension (http://www.parallelgraphics.com/products/cortona/download/netscape/). This website is an excellent educational resource for all ages. The Virtual Insects home page (http://www.ento.vt.edu/~sharov/3d/3dinsect.html) has a basic explanation of how virtual reality works, including the Virtual Reality Modeling Language. The "Virtual Images" link takes you to a list of insects that can be viewed as 3D digital reconstructions. The image files would make excellent additions to teaching lectures for introductory classes. Visit the "How to Build Virtual Insects" page to read about how the images were created and how the original models were made more biologically accurate. Also be sure to read the page on how to view the cyber-insects inside a virtual reality "cave".

0000-00-00

257

Microscopic Theory of Supercapacitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As new energy technologies are designed and implemented, there is a rising demand for improved energy storage devices. At present the most promising class of these devices is the electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC), also known as the supercapacitor. A number of recently created supercapacitors have been shown to produce remarkably large capacitance, but the microscopic mechanisms that underlie their operation remain largely mysterious. In this thesis we present an analytical, microscopic-level theory of supercapacitors, and we explain how such large capacitance can result. Specifically, we focus on four types of devices that have been shown to produce large capacitance. The first is a capacitor composed of a clean, low-temperature two-dimensional electron gas adjacent to a metal gate electrode. Recent experiments have shown that such a device can produce capacitance as much as 40% larger than that of a conventional plane capacitor. We show that this enhanced capacitance can be understood as the result of positional correlations between electrons and screening by the gate electrode in the form of image charges. Thus, the enhancement of the capacitance can be understood primarily as a classical, electrostatic phenomenon. Accounting for the quantum mechanical properties of the electron gas provides corrections to the classical theory, and these are discussed. We also present a detailed numerical calculation of the capacitance of the system based on a calculation of the system's ground state energy using the variational principle. The variational technique that we develop is broadly applicable, and we use it here to make an accurate comparison to experiment and to discuss quantitatively the behavior of the electrons' correlation function. The second device discussed in this thesis is a simple EDLC composed of an ionic liquid between two metal electrodes. We adopt a simple description of the ionic liquid and show that for realistic parameter values the capacitance can be as much as three times larger than that of a plane capacitor with thickness equal to the ion diameter. As in the previous system, this large capacitance is the result of image charge formation in the metal electrode and positional correlations between discrete ions that comprise the electric double-layer. We show that the maximum capacitance scales with the temperature to the power -1/3, and that at moderately large voltage the capacitance also decays as the inverse one third power of voltage. These results are confirmed by a Monte Carlo simulation. The third type of device we consider is that of a porous supercapacitor, where the electrode is made from a conducting material with a dense arrangement of narrow, planar pores into which ionic liquid can enter when a voltage is applied. In this case we show that when the electrode is metallic the narrow pores aggressively screen the interaction between neighboring ions in a pore, leading to an interaction energy between ions that decays exponentially. This exponential interaction between ions allows the capacitance to be nearly an order of magnitude larger than what is predicted by mean-field theories. This result is confirmed by a Monte Carlo simulation. We also present a theory for the capacitance when the electrode is not a perfect metal, but has a finite electronic screening radius. When this screening radius is larger than the distance between pores, ions begin to interact across multiple pores and the capacitance is determined by the Yukawa-like interaction of a three-dimensional, correlated arrangement of ions. Finally, we consider the case of supercapacitor electrodes made from a stack of graphene sheets with randomly-inserted "spacer" molecules. For such devices, experiments have produced very large capacitance despite the small density of states of the electrode material, which would seem to imply poor screening of the ionic charge. We show that these large capacitance values can be understood as the result of collective entrance of ions into the graphene stack (GS) and the renormalization

Skinner, Brian Joseph

258

The application of JPEG2000 in virtual microscopy.  

PubMed

Virtual microscopy (i.e., the viewing of entire microscope specimens on a computer display) is becoming widely applied in microscopy teaching and clinical laboratory medicine. Despite rapidly increasing use, virtual microscopy currently lacks of a universally accepted image format. A promising candidate is JPEG2000, which has potential advantages for handling gigabyte-sized virtual slides. To date, no JPEG2000-based software has been specifically suited for virtual microscopy. To study the utility of JPEG2000 in virtual microscopy, we first optimized JPEG2000 code-stream parameters for virtual slide viewing (i.e., fast navigation, zooming, and use of an overview window). Compression using ratios 25:1-30:1 with the irreversible wavelet filter were found to provide the best compromise between file size and image quality. Optimal code-stream parameters also consisted of 10 wavelet decomposition levels, progression order Resolution-Position-Component-Layer (RPCL), a precinct size of 128 x 128, and code-block size of 64 x 64. Tiling and the use of multiple quality layers were deemed unnecessary. A compression application (JVScomp) was developed for creating optimally parameterized JPEG2000 virtual slides. A viewing application (JVSview) was developed specifically for virtual microscopy, offering all of the basic viewing functions. JVSview also supports viewing of focus stacks, embedding of textual descriptions, and defining regions of interest as metadata. Combined with our server application (JVSserv), virtual slides can be viewed over networks by employing the JPEG2000 Interactive Protocol (JPIP). The software can be tested using virtual slide examples located on our public JPIP server ( http://jvsmicroscope.uta.fi/ ). The software package is freely downloadable and usable for noncommercial purposes. PMID:17999112

Tuominen, Vilppu J; Isola, Jorma

2009-06-01

259

Age-dating implications from the morphologic, petrologic, and isotopic investigations of a calcic soil, Terrell County, Texas  

E-print Network

AGE-DATING IMPLICATIONS FROM THE MORPHOLOGIC, PETROLOGIC, AND ISOTOPIC INVESTIGATIONS OF A CALCIC SOIL, TERRELL COUNTY, TEXAS A Thesis by DARREN MANNING JOLLEY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1994 Ma~or Subject: Geology AGE-DATING IMPLICATIONS FROM THE MORPHOLOGIC, PETROLOGIC, AND ISOTOPIC INVESTIGATIONS OF A CALCIC SOIL, TERRELL COUNTY, TEXAS A Thesis by DARREN...

Jolley, Darren Manning

1994-01-01

260

Microscopic study of the string breaking in QCD  

SciTech Connect

Theory of strong decays defines in addition to decay widths also the channel coupling and the mass shifts of the levels above the decay thresholds. In the standard decay models of the {sup 3}P{sub 0} type the decay vertex is taken to be a phenomenological constant {gamma} and such a choice leads to large mass shifts of all meson levels due to real and virtual decays, the latter giving a divergent contribution. Here we show that taking the microscopic details of decay vertex into account, one obtains new string width effect coefficient, which strongly suppresses virtual decay contribution. In addition for a realistic space structure of the decay vertex of highly excited states, the decay matrix elements appear to be strongly different from those, where the constant {gamma} is used. From our analysis also follows that so-called flattening potential can imitate the effects of intermediate decay channels.

Badalian, A. M., E-mail: badalian@itep.ru; Orlovsky, V. D., E-mail: orlovskii@itep.ru; Simonov, Yu. A., E-mail: simonov@itep.ru [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)

2013-08-15

261

Partitionable Virtual Synchrony Extended Virtual Synchrony  

E-print Network

FIFO multicast framework. A natural extension of this idea is to implement one set of group presents several EVS algorithms for implementing a partitionable Virtual Synchrony (VS) model of group communication. It first explicitly defines the VS and EVS models through the presentation of their safety

Amir, Yair

262

Partitionable Virtual Synchrony Extended Virtual Synchrony  

E-print Network

multicast framework. A natural extension of this idea is to implement one set of group communication presents several EVS algorithms for implementing a partitionable Virtual Synchrony (VS) model of group communication. It first explicitly defines the VS and EVS models through the presentation of their safety

Amir, Yair

263

VirtualVirtual PrivatePrivate  

E-print Network

of VPNs When and why VPN? VPN Design Issues Security Issues VPN Examples: PPTP, L2TP, IPSec Overview #12;Raj Jain 3 What is a VPN?What is a VPN? Private Network: Uses leased lines Virtual Private Network: Uses public Internet Internet Service Provider #12;Raj Jain 4 Types of VPNsTypes of VPNs WAN VPN

Jain, Raj

264

The role of petrology in defining volcanic hazards and designing monitoring systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Petrology is the study of magmatic systems; physical volcanology investigates processes of eruption. Physical volcanology provides the pre-eminent underpinning of the practical business of defining hazard scenarios, planning mitigation and designing monitoring strategies. Recent research in a variety of volcanic settings has demonstrated an important link between the petrologic processes that at a fundamental level drive the behavior of volcanoes and the processes that determine the eruptive style of a volcano. Together these define the hazards that arise from volcanic eruptions. Petrological studies of volcanoes are typically based on a study of lava because coherent rock is less vulnerable to weathering and alteration and is more durable in the geological record. Pyroclastic materials are commonly friable and glassy, are more easily eroded, and are more difficult to use in the analytical techniques that have become the staple basis of petrological studies. However, pyroclastic materials represent a complementary but different part of the magmatic story and it is only by integrating both effusive and explosive components of an eruption sequence that a complete picture of the behavior of the system feeding a volcano can be gained. Andesitic strato-cones are made up of a cone-building facies consisting mainly of primary magmatic products and usually dominated by lava flows because pyroclastic material is easily eroded from the slopes of a steep cone. The surrounding ring plain facies includes primary pyroclastic deposits but is typically dominated by redistributed material in the form of debris flow and lahar deposits together with reworked fluvial material. The deposits of each of these two facies are assembled on different time scales and they contain different aspects of the record of the evolution of the magmatic system that gave rise to them. An important practical consequence of this is that different parts of the geochemical record of the system can occur in different parts of the volcano. Integrated petrological and volcanological studies on the andesite volcanoes of northern New Zealand have identified repeated cycles of deep seated behavior that translate directly into patterns in eruptive behavior. Further, it has been possible to define long term petrological evolutionary trends which provide a framework for understanding shorter term cycles. On an even shorter time scale the flux of magma through the near vent environment can be investigated by means of the stabilities of mineral phases vulnerable to variable cooling rates. Thus the fundamental behavior of andesitic volcanoes as defined by an understanding of the underlying magmatic system can provide the foundation for robust probabilistic time-varying hazard forecasts as well as strategies for monitoring potentially active volcanoes.

Smith, I. E.; Turner, M. B.; Price, R. C.; Cronin, S. J.

2011-12-01

265

Results of new petrologic and remote sensing studies in the Big Bend region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The initial section of this manuscript involves the South Rim Formation, a series of 32.2-32 Ma comenditic quartz trachytic-rhyolitic volcanics and associated intrusives, erupted and was emplaced in Big Bend National Park, Texas. Magmatic parameters have only been interpreted for one of the two diverse petrogenetic suites comprising this formation. Here, new mineralogic data for the South Rim Formation rocks are presented. Magmatic parameters interpreted from these data assist in deciphering lithospheric characteristics during the mid-Tertiary. Results indicate low temperatures (< 750 °C), reduced conditions (generally below the FMQ buffer), and low pressures (? 100 MPa) associated with South Rim Formation magmatism with slight conditional differences between the two suites. Newly discovered fayalite microphenocrysts allowed determination of oxygen fugacity values (between -0.14 and -0.25 DeltaFMQ over temperature ranges of 680-700 °C), via mineral equilibria based QUILF95 calculations, for Emory Peak Suite. Petrologic information is correlated with structural evidence from Trans-Pecos Texas and adjacent regions to evaluate debated timing of tectonic transition (Laramide compression to Basin and Range extension) and onset of the southern Rio Grande Rift during the mid-Tertiary. The A-type and peralkaline characteristics of the South Rim Formation and other pre-31 Ma magmatism in Trans-Pecos Texas, in addition to evidence implying earlier Rio Grande Rift onset in Colorado and New Mexico, promotes a near-neutral to transtensional setting in Trans-Pecos Texas by 32 Ma. This idea sharply contrasts with interpretations of tectonic compression and arc-related magmatism until 31 Ma as suggested by some authors. However, evidence discussed cannot preclude a pre-36 Ma proposed by other authors. The later section of this manuscript involves research in the Big Bend area using Google Earth. At present there is high interest in using Google Earth in a variety of scientific investigations. However, program developers have disclosed limited information concerning the program and its accuracy. While some authors have attempted to independently constrain the accuracy of Google Earth, their results have potentially lost validity through time due to technological advances and updates to imagery archives. For this reason we attempt to constrain more current horizontal and vertical position accuracies for the Big Bend region of West Texas. In Google Earth a series of 268 data points were virtually traced along various early Tertiary unconformities in Big Bend National Park and Big Bend Ranch State Park. These data points were compared with high precision GPS measurements collected in field and yielded a horizontal position accuracy of 2.64 meters RMSE. Complications arose in determining vertical position accuracy for Google Earth because default keyhole markup language (.kml) files currently do not export elevation data. This drawback forces users to hand record and manually input elevation values listed on screen. This is a significant handicap rendering Google Earth data useless with larger datasets. However, in a workaround solution exempted elevation values can be replaced from other data sources based on Google Earth horizontal positioning. We used Fledermaus 3D three-dimensional visualization software to drape Google Earth horizontal positions over a National Elevation Dataset (NED) digital elevation map (DEM) in order to adopt a large set of elevation data. A vertical position accuracy of 1.63 meters RMSE was determined between 268 Google Earth data points and the NED. Since determined accuracies were considerably lower than those reported in previous investigations, we devoted a later portion of this investigation to testing Google Earth-NED data in paleo-surface modeling of the Big Bend region. An 18 x 30 kilometer area in easternmost Big Ranch State Park was selected to create a post-Laramide paleo-surface model via interpolation of approximately 2900 Google Earth-NED data points representing sections of an early Tertiary

Benker, Stevan Christian

266

Virtual stag beetle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

3D image of a stage beetle (Family Lucanidae). This movie is also available as a Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) model. The VRML models are more interactive than the QuickTime versions, but special software may need to be downloaded to open them (read the Â?HelpÂ? page for details). Those people using public computers may be limited from fully accessing the resource. Mozilla Firefox users can view the VRML files directly in their browsers by downloading the Cortona extension (http://www.parallelgraphics.com/products/cortona/download/netscape/). This website is an excellent educational resource for all ages. The Virtual Insects home page (http://www.ento.vt.edu/~sharov/3d/3dinsect.html) has a basic explanation of how virtual reality works, including the Virtual Reality Modeling Language. The "Virtual Images" link takes you to a list of insects that can be viewed as 3D digital reconstructions. The image files would make excellent additions to teaching lectures for introductory classes. Visit the "How to Build Virtual Insects" page to read about how the images were created and how the original models were made more biologically accurate. Also be sure to read the page on how to view the cyber-insects inside a virtual reality "cave".

0000-00-00

267

Magnetic Resonance Force Microscope Development  

SciTech Connect

Our objectives were to develop the Magnetic Resonance Force Microscope (MRFM) into an instrument capable of scientific studies of buried structures in technologically and scientifically important electronic materials such as magnetic multilayer materials. This work resulted in the successful demonstration of MRFM-detected ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) as a microscopic characterization tool for thin magnetic films. Strong FMR spectra obtained from microscopic Co thin films (500 and 1000 angstroms thick and 40 x 200 microns in lateral extent) allowed us to observe variations in sample inhomogeneity and magnetic anisotropy field. We demonstrated lateral imaging in microscopic FMR for the first time using a novel approach employing a spatially selective local field generated by a small magnetically polarized spherical crystallite of yttrium iron garnet. These successful applications of the MRFM in materials studies provided the basis for our successful proposal to DOE/BES to employ the MRF M in studies of buried interfaces in magnetic materials.

Hammel, P.C.; Zhang, Z.; Suh, B.J.; Roukes, M.L.; Midzor, M.; Wigen, P.E.; Childress, J.R.

1999-06-03

268

Microscopic Procedures for Plant Meiosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes laboratory techniques designed to familiarize students with meiosis and how microscopic preparations of meiosis are made. These techniques require the use of fresh or fixed flowers. Contains 18 references. (DDR)

Braselton, James P.

1997-01-01

269

(Center of excellence: Microlaser microscope)  

SciTech Connect

This Center-of-Excellence grant has two components: development of an imaging system based on microlaser arrays forms a central project among a group of laser diagnostic and therapeutic efforts primarily funded outside the grant. In these first 8 months we have set up the Microlaser Microscope using small microlaser arrays. We have emphasized the basics of microlaser handling and electronic addressing and the optics of the microscope. Details of electronics and optics given here will be used in the larger arrays which should be available soon. After a description of the central Microlaser Microscope project, we touch briefly on the other projects of the Center, which have been outstandingly fruitful this year. Publications are necessarily concerned with the smaller projects, since the Microlaser Microscope is in its early stages.

Webb, R.H.

1992-01-01

270

Ultrasound Microscope: Quantative Backscatter Imaging  

E-print Network

Ultrasound Microscope: Quantative Backscatter Imaging Srikanta Sharma Academic supervisor: Sandy Cochran Industrial supervisor: Jim McAneny #12;Hypothesis of Intra-membrane Cavitation: Ultrasound Induced and cellular membranes that could explain cavitational and non- cavitational ultrasound induced bio

Greenaway, Alan

271

4-H Virtual Farm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 4-H Virtual Farm offers sections on horses, farm pond aquaculture, beef, dairy, poultry, and wheat. Each section has an interview with a producer about their work, information on the industry in Virginia, animations of farm processes, a virtual reality view of a farm, information on what the producers must know and how they use science, explanations of the food chain, a glossary for students to learn to talk like a producer, and a quiz for a chance to win virtual blue ribbons.

272

Science Nation: Virtual Self  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An avatar is a movable image that people design to represent themselves in virtual reality environments or in cyberspace. Avatars are usually for fun and games but could avatars actually change us? Jeremy Bailenson thinks so. With support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), he created the Virtual Human Interaction Lab (VHIL) at Stanford University to study, among other things, the power avatars exert on their real world masters. Sometimes, avatars are designed to be ideal versions of their creators, and there's now evidence that the virtual reality persona begins to influence the real life persona.

273

Theory of a microscopic maser  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theory is presented for a truly microscopic maser consisting of a single-mode high-Q resonator in which a monoenergetic beam of excited two-level atoms is injected at such a low flux that at most one atom at a time is present inside the cavity. Both a microscopic theory and a heuristic Fokker-Planck approach are presented. It is shown that the

P. Filipowicz; J. Javanainen; P. Meystre

1986-01-01

274

On thermodynamic and microscopic reversibility  

SciTech Connect

The word 'reversible' has two (apparently) distinct applications in statistical thermodynamics. A thermodynamically reversible process indicates an experimental protocol for which the entropy change is zero, whereas the principle of microscopic reversibility asserts that the probability of any trajectory of a system through phase space equals that of the time reversed trajectory. However, these two terms are actually synonymous: a thermodynamically reversible process is microscopically reversible, and vice versa.

Crooks, Gavin E.

2011-07-12

275

Mineralogy, petrology and chemistry of ANT-suite rocks from the lunar highlands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Anorthositic-noritic-troctolitic (ANT) rocks are the oldest and most abundant rocks of the lunar surface, and comprise about 90% of the suite of the lunar highlands. Consideration is given to the mineralogy, petrology, bulk chemistry, and origin of ANT-suite rocks. Problems associated in classifying and labeling lunar highland rocks because of textural complexities occurring from impact modifications are discussed. The mineralogy of ANT-suite rocks, dominated by plagioclase, olivine and pyrozene, and containing various minor minerals, is outlined. The petrology of ANT-suite rocks is reviewed along with the major element bulk composition of these rocks, noting that they are extremely depleted in K2O and P2O5. Various models describing the origin of ANT-suite rocks are summarized, and it is suggested that this origin involves a parental liquid of high-alumina basalt with low Fe/Fe+Mg.

Prinz, M.; Keil, K.

1977-01-01

276

MinChem: A Prototype Petrologic Database for Hanford Site Sediments  

SciTech Connect

A prototype petrologic database (MinChem) has been under continual development for several years. MinChem contains petrologic, mineralogical, and bulk-rock geochemical data for Hanford Site sediments collected over multiple decades. The database is in relational form and consists of a series of related tables modeled after the Hanford Environmental Information System HEIS (BHI 2002) structures. The HEIS-compatible tables were created in anticipation of eventual migration into HEIS, or some future form of HEIS (e.g. HEIS-GEO). There are currently a total of 13,129 results in MinChem from 521 samples collected at 381 different sampling sites. These data come from 19 different original source documents published and unpublished (e.g. letter reports) between 1976 and 2009. The data in MinChem consist of results from analytical methods such as optical and electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray fluorescence, and electron probe microanalysis.

Mackley, Rob D.; Last, George V.; Serkowski, John A.; Middleton, Lisa A.; Cantrell, Kirk J.

2010-09-01

277

Petrology/Geochemistry/Mineralogy/Structure of Shear zones in St. Lawrence County  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These rocks were collected from outcrops frequented by structural geology field trips. CCM 42 is from the town of Clare, CCM 43 is from Russell; although labeled CCM, neither is from the Carthoage Colton Mylonite Zone, but both are from shear zones. DEK is from the world famous DeKalb anticline. In this lab we try to pull together material from petrology, geochemistry, mineralogy and structure.

Robert Badger

278

Mineralogy, Petrology, Chronology, and Exposure History of the Chelyabinsk Meteorite and Parent Body  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Chelyabinsk meteorite fall on February 15, 2013 attracted much more attention worldwide than do most falls. A consortium led by JSC received 3 masses of Chelyabinsk (Chel-101, -102, -103) that were collected shortly after the fall and handled with care to minimize contamination. Initial studies were reported in 2013; we have studied these samples with a wide range of analytical techniques to better understand the mineralogy, petrology, chronology and exposure history of the Chelyabinsk parent body.

Righter, K.; Abell, P.; Agresti, D.; Berger, E. L.; Burton, A. S.; Delaney, J. S.; Fries, M. D.; Gibson, E. K.; Harrington, R.; Herzog, G. F.; Keller, L. P.; Locke, D.; Lindsay, F.; McCoy, T. J.; Morris, R. V.; Nagao, K.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Niles, P. B.; Nyquist, L.; Park, J.; Peng, Z. X.; Shih, C. Y.; Simon, J. I.; Swisher, C. C., III; Tappa, M.

2015-01-01

279

Report of the Workshop on Unmixing the SNCs: Chemical, Isotopic, and Petrologic Components of Martian Meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geochemical and petrologic studies of the Martian meteorites (nicknamed the SNCs) have proliferated in the past few years, from a wealth of new samples and the perfection of new analytical methods. An intriguing result from these studies is that the chemical and isotopic compositions of the Martian meteorites, all basalts or derived from basaltic magma, can be modeled as mixtures of a limited number of components. These mixing components were the focus of the workshop.

Treiman, Allan H. (Editor); Herd, Christopher D. K. (Editor)

2002-01-01

280

Petrology and geochemistry of a diamondiferous lherzolite from the Premier diamond mine, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the petrology and geochemistry of a diamondiferous peridotite xenolith from the Premier diamond mine in South Africa.The xenolith is altered with pervasive serpentinisation of olivine and orthopyroxene. Garnets are in an advanced state of kelyphitisation but partly fresh. Electron microprobe analyses of the garnets are consistent with a lherzolitic paragenesis (8.5 wt.% Cr2O3 and 6.6 wt.%

René Dobbe; Braam Smit; Emilie Thomassot; Pierre Cartigny

2004-01-01

281

Chemistry, Petrology, and Noble Gases of Lunar Highland Meteorite QUE 93069  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several pieces of QUE93069.6 of together 0.764 g were obtained for our investigations. 43 mg were used for rare gas analysis, all other material was homogenized for analyses by INAA, XRF, and SSMS techniques (Table 1). Available for investigation was also thin section, QUE93069.33. Petrology: Our PTS shows a fragmental breccia, as described by [1]. Fine, irregular metal particles are

B. Spettel; G. Dreibus; A. Burghele; K. P. Jochum; L. Schultz; H. W. Weber; F. Wlotzka; H. Wanke

1995-01-01

282

The causes and petrological significance of cathodoluminescence emissions from alkali feldspars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cathodoluminescence (CL) of a variety of alkali feldspars from South Greenland has been examined in an attempt to understand\\u000a the causes of the CL and its petrological significance. Analytical methods have included CL spectroscopy, secondary ion mass\\u000a spectrometry (SIMS) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to correlate the presence of certain CL emissions to the presence\\u000a of certain trace element

Adrian A. Finch; Jeanette Klein

1999-01-01

283

Petrology and provenance of Upper Cretaceous Sandstone, southern San Rafael Mountains, Santa Barbara County, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petrologic analysis of 24 medium to coarse-grained sandstone samples, collected from a 2950-m submarine fan complex of late Campanian-early Maestrichtian age exposed within Mono Creek Canyon, reveal commonly calcite cemented, poorly sorted, subangular biotic arkoses. Framework averages 86.0%. Matrix - primarily detrital quartz, feldspar, and lithic fragments finer than 0.03 mm and mechanically and chemically altered phyllosilicates and labile aphanites

Cameron D. Toyne

1987-01-01

284

Mineralogy and petrology of basaltic fragments from the Luna 24 drill core  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The petrology of rock fragments and monomineralic grains from Luna 24 samples is described, and a petrogenetic scheme for the derivation of Mare Crisium basalts is presented. Components of the rock fragments include subophitic basalts, metabasalts, late-stage fragments, olivine vitrophyres, and non-mare lithic fragments of possible cumulate origin. Among the monomineralic grains (which are much more abundant than the rock fragments) are pyroxene, plagioclase, olivine, ilmenite and native Fe.

Coish, R. A.; Taylor, L. A.

1978-01-01

285

Petrology and geochronology of eclogites from the Variscan Schwarzwald (F.R.G.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Moldanubian basement of the Schwarzwald contains basic to ultrabasic rocks of both crustal and mantle origin which display high-pressure mineral assemblages or relics of such. In order to constrain the P-T-t evolution of the crustal high-pressure rocks, petrological and geochronological studies have been carried out on three eclogite samples. Geothermobarometric estimations indicate minimum metamorphic pressures of 1.6 GPa and

Angelika Kalt; Michael Hanel; Helmut Schleicher; Ulrich Kramm

1994-01-01

286

Research in volcanic geology, petrology and planetary science at MIT, 1969 to 1974  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The behavior of volcanoes was studied by geologic mapping, petrologic investigations of lava and xenoliths, physical measurements, and theoretical modelling. Field observations were conducted in Alaska (Nunivak Island), Iceland, Hawaii (Mauna Kea), Italy (Etna, Stromboli), and Arizona. The results are discussed and compared with known data for lunar and planetary gelogy. Field methods used for the volcano research are cited and a list is given of all participating scientists and students. Publications and abstracts resulting from the research are also listed.

Mcgetchin, T. R.

1974-01-01

287

Apollo 17, Station 6 boulder sample 76255 - Absolute petrology of breccia matrix and igneous clasts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The matrix of 76255 is the finest-grained, most clast-laden, impact-melt polymict breccia sampled from the Station 6 boulder. The paper speculates on how the matrix of 76255 fits into and enhances existing thermal models of breccia lithification. Emphasis is on the detailed petrology of five lithic clasts, two of which display mineralogical and textural affinities to mare basalts, while three, a gabbro, a norite, and a troctolite are considered primitive plutonic rocks.

Warner, J. L.; Phinney, W. C.; Simonds, C. H.

1976-01-01

288

World Virtual Observatory Organization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the base of experience of our Unoversity and Observatory we investigate the seven blocks model of virtual organization for consolidation of resources. This model consists of the next blocks: 1.Population-scientists students robots and agents. 2.Aspiration of population groups. 3.Territory. 4.Production. 5.Ecology and safety. 6.Finance. 7. External relations - input and output flows of population information resources.The world virtual observatory is the virtual world which consists of three groups of variables - appearances essences and structured uncertainty which defines the number and distribution of arbitrary coefficients in equivalent equations. The consolodation of recources permit to create the large telescopes with distributed structure on our planet and cosmos. Virtual instruments can have the best characteristics by means of collective effects which have investigated in our paper.

Ignatyev, Mikhail; Pinigin, Gennadij

289

Jefferson Lab Virtual Tour  

ScienceCinema

Take a virtual tour of the campus of Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. You can see inside our two accelerators, three experimental areas, accelerator component fabrication and testing areas, high-performance computing areas and laser labs.

None

2014-05-22

290

Virtual Organizations: An Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need to remain competitive in the open market forces companies to concentrate on their core competencies while searching for alliances when additional skills or resources are needed to fulfill business opportunities. The changing business situation of companies and customer needs have motivated researchers to introduce Virtual Organization (VO) idea. A Virtual Organization is always a form of partnership and managing partners and handling partnerships are crucial. Virtual organizations are defined as a temporary collection of enterprises that cooperate and share resources, knowledge, and competencies to better respond to business opportunities. This paper presents base concepts of virtual organizations including properties, management concepts, operational concepts, and main issues in collaboration such as security and authentication.

Nami, Mohammad Reza

291

MIT Environmental Virtual Campus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The MIT Environmental Virtual Campus is an interactive exploration of environmental protection and safety issues on campus. Users navigate different sectors of campus activities for useful information for meeting environmental regulations and ensuring that colleges are sustainable.

292

Base Blocks Virtual Manipulative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual manipulative provides base blocks that consist of individual "units," "longs," "flats," and "blocks" (ten of each set for base 10). They can be used to show place value for numbers and to increase understanding of addition and subtraction.

National Library of Virtual Manipulatives

2008-12-10

293

Petrologic characteristic and Geological Model of Igneous Reservoir: An example in Zhanhua Seg, Eastern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diabase is a typical igneous rock, which intrude the oil-bearing mudstone and form potential reservoir. As an example of Luo151 igneous rock in Zhanhua Seg, Eastern China, we studied the diabase reservoir in detail, including petrologic analysis, reservoir anisotropy and geological modeling. Four lithofacies zones are divided according to analyzing petrology, texture and structureϻwhich comprise carbonaceous slate, hornfels containing cordierite and grammite, border subfacies and central subfacies, and the petrologic types include carbonaceous slate, hornfels, and diabases. The diabase construction is divided into grammite hornfels micropore and diabase porous-fracture type reservoirs. The mudstone layers in Third Member of Shahejie Formation (Es3) provide favorable hydrocarbon source rock and cap formation, diabase and hornfels belts serve as reservoirs, faults and microcracks in the wall rocks as the pathways for oil and gas migration. The invasive time was about in the later deposition period of Dongying Formation and the middle of that of Guantao Formation, the oil generated from oil source rock of Es3 in the period of the Minghuazhen formation and is earlier more than the period of diabase oil trap and porous space forming.

Li, Q.; Shao, S.; Kang, R.; Liu, K.

2003-12-01

294

The Virtual Science Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Virtual schooling offers students the opportunity to enroll in a science course not taught at their home school or school district, interact with expert instructors in a particular field, and gain access to subject matter they may have otherwise missed (i.e., teenage moms, home-schooled students, expelled students, etc.). This chapter examines best teaching practices emerging within this new field and showcases specific examples of how various technologies are used within virtual science classrooms.

Rick Ferdig

2008-01-01

295

The virtual wind tunnel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and implementation of a virtual environment linked to a graphics workstation for the visualization of complex fluid flows are described. The system user wears a stereo head-tracked display, which effectively displays 3-D information, and an instrumented glove to intuitively position flow-visualization tools. The visualization structures and their interfaces in the virtual environment and the implementation hardware and software

S. Bryson; C. Levit

1992-01-01

296

Virtual Courseware: Earthquake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive exercise lets students investigate how seismic waves are used to locate the epicenter of an earthquake and determine its magnitude. They will place virtual seismic stations on an interactive map, trigger a virtual explosion, and measure the difference in arrival times of S- and P-waves generated by the explosion. Using this data, they can determine the distance to each station and use triangulation to determine the epicenter of the earthquake.

297

VIRTUAL FRAME BUFFER INTERFACE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large image processing systems use multiple frame buffers with differing architectures and vendor supplied user interfaces. This variety of architectures and interfaces creates software development, maintenance, and portability problems for application programs. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program makes all frame buffers appear as a generic frame buffer with a specified set of characteristics, allowing programmers to write code which will run unmodified on all supported hardware. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface converts generic commands to actual device commands. The virtual frame buffer consists of a definition of capabilities and FORTRAN subroutines that are called by application programs. The virtual frame buffer routines may be treated as subroutines, logical functions, or integer functions by the application program. Routines are included that allocate and manage hardware resources such as frame buffers, monitors, video switches, trackballs, tablets and joysticks; access image memory planes; and perform alphanumeric font or text generation. The subroutines for the various "real" frame buffers are in separate VAX/VMS shared libraries allowing modification, correction or enhancement of the virtual interface without affecting application programs. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program was developed in FORTRAN 77 for a DEC VAX 11/780 or a DEC VAX 11/750 under VMS 4.X. It supports ADAGE IK3000, DEANZA IP8500, Low Resolution RAMTEK 9460, and High Resolution RAMTEK 9460 Frame Buffers. It has a central memory requirement of approximately 150K. This program was developed in 1985.

Wolfe, T. L.

1994-01-01

298

The Virtual Observatory: I  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of the Virtual Observatory arose more-or-less simultaneously in the United States and Europe circa 2000. Ten pages of Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium: Panel Reports (National Academy Press, Washington, 2001), that is, the detailed recommendations of the Panel on Theory, Computation, and Data Exploration of the 2000 Decadal Survey in Astronomy, are dedicated to describing the motivation for, scientific value of, and major components required in implementing the National Virtual Observatory. European initiatives included the Astrophysical Virtual Observatory at the European Southern Observatory, the AstroGrid project in the United Kingdom, and the Euro-VO (sponsored by the European Union). Organizational/conceptual meetings were held in the US at the California Institute of Technology (Virtual Observatories of the Future, June 13-16, 2000) and at ESO Headquarters in Garching, Germany (Mining the Sky, July 31-August 4, 2000; Toward an International Virtual Observatory, June 10-14, 2002). The nascent US, UK, and European VO projects formed the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) at the June 2002 meeting in Garching, with yours truly as the first chair. The IVOA has grown to a membership of twenty-one national projects and programs on six continents, and has developed a broad suite of data access protocols and standards that have been widely implemented. Astronomers can now discover, access, and compare data from hundreds of telescopes and facilities, hosted at hundreds of organizations worldwide, stored in thousands of databases, all with a single query.

Hanisch, R. J.

2014-11-01

299

Virtual Heritage Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"The Virtual Heritage Network [VHN], is a new international organisation designed to promote the utilisation of technology for the education, interpretation, conservation and preservation of Natural, Cultural and World Heritage." The heart of VHN is a searchable library that consists of papers, articles, and reports "discussing applications, tools, games, [and] financial and legal aspects" of virtual heritage. Submissions are self-selected and given online reviews by site users, but everything we saw here was professional and, in most cases, had been published elsewhere in academic or news media forums. The site also lets users keep up to date with current developments in the virtual heritage industry via a newsletter, and for members (registration free), offers an email digest of recent submissions to the site, an electronic mailing list, and a forthcoming message board. For the uninitiated, the site has reprinted an article from the November edition of UNESCO's World Heritage Magazine explaining the concept of Virtual Heritage (available from the What is Virtual Heritage? link on the front page). The VHN was established this month by the International Society on Virtual Systems and MultiMedia (VSMM Society) with the support of the UNESCO World Heritage Centre.

300

Microscopic approach to nuclear reactions: General formalism  

SciTech Connect

In this first of two successive papers we present a microscopic model for nuclear reactions. It allows the description of elastic and inelastic nucleon scattering as well as photonuclear reactions with real and virtual photons. The model is based on a particular classification scheme of the many-body Hilbert space according to the number of continuum nucleons. By its very definition it is restricted to processes with at most one continuum particle in the entrance and/or exit channel. In a large model space, containing all single-particle resonances as bound states, nuclear wave functions are calculated by means of the structure model MONSTER(VAMPIR). Arbitrary general effective two-body forces may be used for the structure calculations as well as for the coupling of the resulting highly correlated wave functions to the continuum. It is the coupling to a modified resonance free continuum in the framework of a general coupled-channel calculation which allows the description of the intermediate structure of the nuclear continuum. In the second paper results obtained from an application to the reaction /sup 29/Si(e,e'x/sub i/)/sup 27/Al will be presented, while in a forthcoming paper the particular role of a fifth response function arising from polarized electron scattering will be discussed. copyright 1988 Academic Press, Inc.

Fladt, B.; Schmid, K.W.; Gruemmer, F.

1988-06-01

301

Correlated Study of Rb-Sr Systematics and Petrologic Properties of Chondrules from Allende (CV): Evidence for Secondary Alteration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to clarify when and where the distributions of alkalis in chondrules were established [1-3] we have undertaken a correlated study of Rb-Sr systematics and petrologic properties of chondrules from the Allende (CV) meteorite. We report here the results of Rb-Sr isotopic analyses combined with petrologic examinations for 16 chondrules (19 specimens) from Allende. The whole-rock analyses indicate a model age of 4.5 +/- 0.05 Ga (using ALL [4]), suggesting that the Rb-Sr isotopic system has been closed in bulk Allende for 4.5 yr. For the chondrules, the earlier works [4,5] include a few barred-olivine and many unknown petrographic types (probably mostly porphyritic) chondrules. In this work, we present results for 1 radial pyroxene, 4 porphyritic (7 specimens), and 11 barred olivine chondrules, covering major petrographic types. The results are shown in an 87Rb-87Sr evolution diagram (Fig. 1). Including earlier results [4,5], no systematic differences are found for different textural types, but data points mostly deviate from the 4.5-Ga line to the right, forming a rough linear array. This means that the Rb-Sr isotopic system in chondrules have been disturbed by a late event(s). The slope of the dotted line corresponds to an age of ~4.0 Ga. The meanlng of the linear trend is not clear because of the lack of isotopic equilibrium. Ground masses of chondrules analyzed for Rb-Sr isotopes were examined by optical microscope and EPMA. Some chondrules have primary glassy ground masses enriched in the anorthite component, especially in their central parts. However, as demonstrated previously [6], most of the chondrules analyzed here for Rb-Sr isotopes were also altered. They have abundant nepheline and sodalite components that replace primary glassy ground masses. Sodium was secondarily introduced and Ca was lost from the Allende chondrules. Using abundances of dodalite and nepheline components, the degree of alteration was tentatively classified into three categories: A (least altered), B (middle), and C (most altered). In Fig. 1, the chondrules with higher 87Rb/86Sr are mostly in categories of B or C. On the other hand, the chondrules of category A have the lower 87Rb/86Sr ratio, relatively close to that of bulk Allende. The 87Rb/86Sr ratios are related to the alteration categories but are not directly related to the isotopic deviation. It is thus considered that the general trend of high and low elemental ratios of Rb/Sr had been basically established during the early nebular processes and were then modified significantly more recently. The diffusivities of alkalis in glassy materials [7] at low temperatures (~400 degrees C) suggest a possible migration of Rb as well as Na from matrix to ground masses of chondrules. The old model age for Allende "matrix" [5] is consistent with such a possibility. We therefore strongly suggest that the Allende chondrules were subjected to a low- temperature alteration reaction after consolidation of the chondrules. References: [1] Grossman J. N. and Wasson J. T. (1983) In Chondrules and Their Origins (E. A. King, ed.), 88-121, LPI. [2] Hewins R. H. (1991) GCA, 55, 935-942. [3] Matsuda H. et al. (1990) Meteoritics, 25, 137-143. [4] Gray C. M. et al. (1973) Icarus, 20, 213-239. [5] Tatsumoto M. et al. (1976) GCA, 40, 617-634. [6] Kimura M. and Ikeda Y. (1992) Papers 17th Symp. Antarct. Meteor., 31-33. [7] Jambon A. and Carron J. P. (1976) GCA, 40, 897-903. Fig. 1, which appears here in the hard copy, shows an 87Rb-87Sr evolution diagram for chondrules from the Allende meteorite.

Nakamura, N.; Kimura, M.; Shimoda, H.; Nohda, S.

1993-07-01

302

Remote laboratory for phase-aided 3D microscopic imaging and metrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the establishment of a remote laboratory for phase-aided 3D microscopic imaging and metrology is presented. Proposed remote laboratory consists of three major components, including the network-based infrastructure for remote control and data management, the identity verification scheme for user authentication and management, and the local experimental system for phase-aided 3D microscopic imaging and metrology. The virtual network computer (VNC) is introduced to remotely control the 3D microscopic imaging system. Data storage and management are handled through the open source project eSciDoc. Considering the security of remote laboratory, the fingerprint is used for authentication with an optical joint transform correlation (JTC) system. The phase-aided fringe projection 3D microscope (FP-3DM), which can be remotely controlled, is employed to achieve the 3D imaging and metrology of micro objects.

Wang, Meng; Yin, Yongkai; Liu, Zeyi; He, Wenqi; Li, Boqun; Peng, Xiang

2014-05-01

303

Care and Feeding of the Compound Microscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab activity from the Biotechnology Alliance for Suncoast Biology Educators is intended to demonstrate appropriate use of a microscope. It covers the basic care and operation of a compound light microscope. The lesson includes information on how a compound microscope works, a diagram of its parts, tips for usage, a practice activity, and a checklist for putting the microscope away.

Keirle, Matt

304

Petrology of some lithic fragments from Luna 20.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microscopic and electron microprobe studies were made of polished thin sections of part of a 30-mg sample of 250- to 500-micron lunar soil returned by Luna 20 from a point between Mare Fecunditatis and Mare Crisium. Very fine-grained lithic (crystalline) rock fragments, composing about one-fifth of the total sample, have mineralogical compositions equivalent to various types of gabbro, anorthositic gabbro, gabbroic anorthosite, and troctolite, with minor basalt. The textures now observed in these fragments are in large part metamorphic. Twenty-seven electron microprobe analyses of minerals from these fragments are presented, including olivine, plagioclase, pyroxene, spinel, nickel-iron, and a Zr-Ti-REE mineral possibly similar to 'phase B' of Lovering and Wark (1971). Analyses of seven melt inclusions and 28 defocused beam analyses of lithic fragments are also given. Some of the fragments contain 'gas' inclusions which, along with the fine grain size, are believed to indicate final crystallization under low pressure near surface conditions.

Roedder, E.; Weiblen, P. W.

1973-01-01

305

Macroscopic-microscopic mass models  

SciTech Connect

We discuss recent developments in macroscopic-microscopic mass models, including the 1992 finite-range droplet model, the 1992 extended- Thomas-Fermi Strutinsky-integral model, and the 1994 Thomas-Fermi model, with particular emphasis on how well they extrapolate to new regions of nuclei. We also address what recent developments in macroscopic-microscopic mass models are teaching us about such physically relevant issues as the nuclear curvature energy, a new congruence energy arising from a greater-than-average overlap of neutron and proton wave functions, the nuclear incompressibility coefficient, and the coulomb redistribution energy arising from a central density depression. We conclude with a brief discussion of the recently discovered rock of metastable superheavy nuclei near {sup 272}110 that had been correctly predicted by macroscopic-microscopic models, along with a possible new tack for reaching an island near {sup 290}110 beyond our present horizon.

Nix, J.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Moller, P. [Aizu Univ., Fukushima (Japan). Center for Mathematical Sciences

1995-07-01

306

Mosaic of Commemorative Microscope Substrate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Written by electron beam lithography in the Microdevices Laboratory of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, this Optical Microscope substrate helps the Phoenix Mars Mission science team learn how to assemble individual microscope images into a mosaic by aligning rows of text.

Each line is about 0.1 millimeter tall, the average thickness of a human hair. Except for the Mogensen twins, the names are of babies born and team members lost during the original development of MECA (the Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer) for the canceled 2001 Mars lander mission. The plaque also acknowledges the MECA 2001 principal investigator, now retired.

This image was taken by the MECA Optical Microscope on Sol 111, or the 111th day of the Phoenix mission (Sept. 16, 2008).

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

307

Virtual data in CMS production  

SciTech Connect

Initial applications of the GriPhyN Chimera Virtual Data System have been performed within the context of CMS Production of Monte Carlo Simulated Data. The GriPhyN Chimera system consists of four primary components: (1) a Virtual Data Language, which is used to describe virtual data products, (2) a Virtual Data Catalog, which is used to store virtual data entries, (3) an Abstract Planner, which resolves all dependencies of a particular virtual data product and forms a location and existence independent plan, (4) a Concrete Planner, which maps an abstract, logical plan onto concrete, physical grid resources accounting for staging in/out files and publishing results to a replica location service. A CMS Workflow Planner, MCRunJob, is used to generate virtual data products using the Virtual Data Language. Subsequently, a prototype workflow manager, known as WorkRunner, is used to schedule the instantiation of virtual data products across a grid.

Arbree, A. et al.

2004-08-26

308

Microscopic Materials on a Magnet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These images show a comparison of the weak magnet OM7 from the Optical Microscope on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander before (left) and after (right) soil deposition.

The microscope took the left image during Phoenix's Sol 15 (June 10, 2008) and the right image during Sol 21 (Jun 16, 2008).

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

309

Long working distance interference microscope  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a long working distance interference microscope suitable for three-dimensional imaging and metrology of MEMS devices and test structures on a standard microelectronics probe station. The long working distance of 10-30 mm allows standard probes or probe cards to be used. This enables nanometer-scale 3-D height profiles of MEMS test structures to be acquired across an entire wafer. A well-matched pair of reference/sample objectives is not required, significantly reducing the cost of this microscope, as compared to a Linnik microinterferometer.

Sinclair, Michael B.; DeBoer, Maarten P.; Smith, Norman F.

2004-04-13

310

Tunable Aqueous Virtual Micropore  

PubMed Central

A charged micro-particle can be trapped in an aqueous environment by forming a narrow virtual pore – a cylindrical space region in which the particle motion in the radial direction is limited by forces emerging from dynamical interactions of the particle charge and dipole moment with external radio-frequency quadrupole electric field. If the particle satisfies the trap stability criteria its mean motion is reduced exponentially with time due to the viscosity of the aqueous environment. Thereafter the long-time motion of particle is subject only to random, Brownian fluctuations, whose magnitude, influenced by the electrophoretic and dielectrophoretic effects and added to the particle size, determines the radius of the virtual pore, which we demonstrate by comparison of computer simulations and experiment. The measured size of the virtual nanopore could be utilized to estimate the charge of a trapped micro-object. PMID:22271580

Park, Jae Hyun; Guan, Weihua; Reed, Mark A.; Krsti?, Predrag S.

2012-01-01

311

High efficiency virtual impactor  

DOEpatents

Environmental monitoring of atmospheric air is facilitated by a single stage virtual impactor for separating an inlet flow (Q/sub 0/) having particulate contaminants into a coarse particle flow (Q/sub 1/) and a fine particle flow (Q/sub 2/) to enable collection of such particles on different filters for separate analysis. An inlet particle acceleration nozzle and coarse particle collection probe member having a virtual impaction opening are aligned along a single axis and spaced apart to define a flow separation region at which the fine particle flow (Q/sub 2/) is drawn radially outward into a chamber while the coarse particle flow (Q/sub 1/) enters the virtual impaction opening.

Loo, B.W.

1980-03-27

312

4-H Virtual Farm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the 4-H Virtual Farm, 4-H hopes to help kids "discover why farming is part of your life even if you've never lived on a farm, never seen crops grow in a field, or never touched a cow." Even though this Web site focuses, to an extent, on Virginia agriculture, the content should be applicable and interesting to any student. Six virtual farms are available (horse, aquaculture, beef, dairy, poultry, and wheat), each offering a variety of activities and multimedia features that help students explore agricultural ecology, resource management, and much more. After visiting the 4-H Virtual Farm, students can take the Blue Ribbon Challenge, a fun interactive quiz.

313

Virtual Courseware: Earthquake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Virtual Earthquake is an interactive web-based program designed to introduce the concepts of how an earthquake epicenter is located and how the Richter magnitude of an earthquake is determined. Virtual Earthquake shows the recordings of an earthquake's seismic waves detected by instruments far away from the earthquake. The instrument recording the seismic waves is called a seismograph and the recording is a seismogram. The point of origin of an earthquake is called its focus and the point on the earth's surface directly above the focus is the epicenter. You are to locate the epicenter of an earthquake by making simple measurements on three seismograms that are generated by the Virtual Earthquake program. Additionally, you will be required to determine the Richter Magnitude of that quake from the same recordings. Richter Magnitude is an estimate of the amount of energy released during an earthquake.

Gary Novak

2000-04-25

314

Nature Study with the Microscope.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies specific instruction difficulties, potential problems, solutions, and activities for successful use of microscopes in the classroom. Procedures are outlined for guiding students in creating their own slides with monocotyledon and dicotyledon stems, fern spores, stomata, lichens, and red onions. (MCO)

Sollberger, Dwight E.

1991-01-01

315

MEMS optical scanners for microscopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) optical scanners have been around for more than two decades. Various applications have been presented, but few of them have advanced to the commercial level to date due to the difficulties of combination of optics and MEMS devices. This paper presents our activities of investigating MEMS scanner applications related to microscopic imaging. First, we started with developing

Hiroshi Miyajima; Kenzi Murakami; Masahiro Katashiro

2004-01-01

316

Microscopic theory of rubber elasticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microscopic integral equation theory of elasticity in polymer liquids and networks is developed which addresses the nonclassical problem of the consequences of interchain repulsive interactions and packing correlations on mechanical response. The theory predicts strain induced softening, and a nonclassical intermolecular contribution to the linear modulus. The latter is of the same magnitude as the classical single chain entropy

Folusho T. Oyerokun; Kenneth S. Schweizer

2004-01-01

317

Curriculum Guidelines for Microscopic Anatomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for curricula in microscopic anatomy offer an overview of the histology curriculum, note primary educational goals, outline specific content for general and oral histology, suggest prerequisites, and make recommendations for sequencing. Appropriate faculty and facilities are also suggested.…

Journal of Dental Education, 1993

1993-01-01

318

Microscopic Approach to Nuclear Fission  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microscopic theory for the decay of a compound nucleus is presented which is formulated in the spirit of transport theories. Its basic physical assumption is the existence of two time scales, a rapid one concerning the creation of intrinsic excitations and a slow one controlling the change of the nuclear shape. This fact is used in the derivation of

K. Dietrich; J.-J. Niez; J.-F. Berger

2010-01-01

319

Switch on Micro*scope!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scientists at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, have created micro*scope, a free, searchable knowledge environment for exploring the microbial world. Microbiology can easily be incorporated into the curriculum, because microbial communities are easy to access. Organisms grow quickly, making certain arrays of…

Roland, Sarah; Bahr, Michele; Olendzenski, Lorraine; Patterson, David J.

2005-01-01

320

Chasing Meteors With a Microscope.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes types of meteors and micrometeorites that enter the Earth's atmosphere. Presents an activity where students collect micrometeorites with a strip of tape in an undisturbed outdoor area. After 24 hours, they examine the tape by sandwiching it between 2 glass slides and view through a microscope at 100X. (PR)

Jones, Richard C.

1993-01-01

321

Virtual reality in radiology: virtual intervention  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intracranial aneurysms are the primary cause of non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage. Morbidity and mortality remain high even with current endovascular intervention techniques. It is presently impossible to identify which aneurysms will grow and rupture, however hemodynamics are thought to play an important role in aneurysm development. With this in mind, we have simulated blood flow in laboratory animals using three dimensional computational fluid dynamics software. The data output from these simulations is three dimensional, complex and transient. Visualization of 3D flow structures with standard 2D display is cumbersome, and may be better performed using a virtual reality system. We are developing a VR-based system for visualization of the computed blood flow and stress fields. This paper presents the progress to date and future plans for our clinical VR-based intervention simulator. The ultimate goal is to develop a software system that will be able to accurately model an aneurysm detected on clinical angiography, visualize this model in virtual reality, predict its future behavior, and give insight into the type of treatment necessary. An associated database will give historical and outcome information on prior aneurysms (including dynamic, structural, and categorical data) that will be matched to any current case, and assist in treatment planning (e.g., natural history vs. treatment risk, surgical vs. endovascular treatment risks, cure prediction, complication rates).

Harreld, Michael R.; Valentino, Daniel J.; Duckwiler, Gary R.; Lufkin, Robert B.; Karplus, Walter J.

1995-04-01

322

Virtual-Geology.Info  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At virtual-geology.info, Roger Suthren, a professor at Oxford Brookes University, offers educational materials on geologic phenomena throughout the world. Users can take virtual field trips to study the geology of Scotland, Alaska, and France. In the Regional Geology link, visitors can view wonderful pictures of the volcanoes of Germany, Italy, France, and Greece. Educators can find images of sediments and sedimentary rocks which can be used in a variety of classroom exercises. The website supplies descriptions and additional educational links about sedimentology and environmental geology.

323

Virtual Amateur Astronomer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Virtual Amateur Astronomer is an archive of high-quality images of all varieties of astronomical objects. The images, hosted on the Virtual Amateur Astronomer web site and linked from other web pages, include high- and low-resolution versions (where available), brief descriptions, and links to additional information. They are organized by subject: the solar system, Messier objects, the Milky Way and universe, and a selection of miscellaneous images. There is also a "best of" category, links to other web sites with astronomical imagery, and a selection of images capturing the amateur experience, captured through small telescopes.

324

Virtual Finance Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Search Partners, a provider of executive financial search services, presents the Virtual Finance Library, a packed collection of links to financial sites. The main page of Virtual Finance Library contains general information including reference and dictionary sites, calculators and converters, and interesting links. The rest of the library is accessible via the table of contents on the left side of the screen. The Websites are organized by topic, geographic location, or subtopic. Each topic begins with a short introduction to the subject, several pages long, and most links are descriptively annotated.

325

Organizing ready-made virtual objects for virtual environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the world of simulation, Virtual reality (VR) software allows users to visualize, manipulate and interact with computers and complex data. VR has been utilized in applications such as architecture, medicine, advertisement, business, entertainment, and education. Developing VR environments is costly and expensive. Highly-technical persons are needed to create the virtual objects from scratch. Once a virtual system is created,

W. M. R. W. Idris; M. Y. M. Saman; A. Ahmad; A. S. M. Noor

2010-01-01

326

Accretion, metamorphism, and brecciation of ordinary chondrites - Evidence from petrologic studies of meteorites from Roosevelt County, New Mexico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The olivines and pyroxenes from twenty-nine ordinary chondrites from Roosevelt County, New Mexico are examined. The mineralogical properties of the chondrites studied are described. Correlations between mineral compositions and petrologic type and between petrologic type and bulk chemistry are analyzed. It is observed that mean CaO concentrations in olivine show significant variations among equilibrated chondrites, but these are not correlated with petrologic type; the degree of heterogeneity of FeO concentrations in olivines of types 4-6 is not correlated with the degree of metamorphism; and mean FeO concentrations of silicates show average increases of 3-5 percent from type 4 to type 6 in each group.

Scott, Edward R. D.; Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Keil, Klaus

1986-01-01

327

Algorithmic architecture in virtual spaces  

E-print Network

Much of the recent interest in virtual worlds has focused on using the immersive properties of virtual worlds to recreate an experience like that of interacting face to face with other participants. This thesis instead ...

Harry, Drew

2008-01-01

328

Using the Virtual Design Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Virtual Design Center (http:\\/\\/vdc.cet.edu) provides research-based design guidelines for inquiry-based learning activities. The Virtual Design Center also provides educational researchers opportunities to share new knowledge about how practitioners could apply learning theories to learning activities. The participants will be introduced to the six-step process and the various services of the Virtual Design Center. The Virtual Design Center's process has

Beaumie Kim

2006-01-01

329

Virtual-Channel Flow Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Network throughput,can be increased by dividing the buffer storage associated with each network channel into several virtual channels [DalSei]. Each physical channel is associated with several small queues, virtual channels, rather than a single deep queue. The virtual channels associated with one physical channel,are allocated in- dependently,but compete,with each other for physical bandwidth.,Virtual channels,decouple,buffer resources from transmission resources. This

William J. Dally

1992-01-01

330

Reconciling mantle attenuation-temperature relationships from seismology, petrology, and laboratory measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

attenuation measurements provide a powerful tool for sampling mantle properties. Laboratory experiments provide calibrations at seismic frequencies and mantle temperatures for dry melt-free rocks, but require ˜102-103 extrapolations in grain size to mantle conditions; also, the effects of water and melt are not well understood. At the same time, body wave attenuation measured from dense broadband arrays provides reliable estimates of shear wave attenuation (QS-1), affording an opportunity for calibration. We reanalyze seismic data sets that sample arc and back-arc mantle in Central America, the Marianas, and the Lau Basin, confirming very high attenuation (QS ˜ 25-80) at 1 Hz and depths of 50-100 km. At each of these sites, independent petrological studies constrain the temperature and water content where basaltic magmas last equilibrated with the mantle, 1300-1450°C. The QS measurements correlate inversely with the petrologically inferred temperatures, as expected. However, dry attenuation models predict QS too high by a factor of 1.5-5. Modifying models to include effects of H2O and rheology-dependent grain size shows that the effects of water-enhanced dissipation and water-enhanced grain growth nearly cancel, so H2O effects are modest. Therefore, high H2O in the arc source region cannot explain the low QS, nor in the back arc where lavas show modest water content. Most likely, the high attenuation reflects the presence of melt, and some models of melt effects come close to reproducing observations. Overall, body wave QS can be reconciled with petrologic and laboratory inferences of mantle conditions if melt has a strong influence beneath arcs and back arcs.

Abers, G. A.; Fischer, K. M.; Hirth, G.; Wiens, D. A.; Plank, T.; Holtzman, B. K.; McCarthy, C.; Gazel, E.

2014-09-01

331

Virtual Worlds in Computing Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on the use of a virtual world ("Second Life") in computing education, and identifies the precursors of current virtual world systems. The article reviews the potential for virtual worlds as tools in computing education. It describes two areas where "Second Life" has been used in computing education: as a development…

Crellin, Jonathan; Duke-Williams, Emma; Chandler, Jane; Collinson, Timothy

2009-01-01

332

Team Development of Virtual Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advanced technologies, globalization, the competitiveness of business, flexible working practices, and other rapid changes in the nature of work have all led to the booming of "virtual teams." This paper will provide an overview of virtual teams, including a description of their emergence, a definition and typology of the term "virtual team," an…

Kim, Sooyoung

2004-01-01

333

Virtual Reality in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the concept of virtual reality; reviews its history; describes general uses of virtual reality, including entertainment, medicine, and design applications; discusses classroom uses of virtual reality, including a software program called Virtus WalkThrough for use with a computer monitor; and suggests future possibilities. (34 references)…

Pantelidis, Veronica S.

1993-01-01

334

The Virtual Physiological Human  

PubMed Central

The Virtual Physiological Human is synonymous with a programme in computational biomedicine that aims to develop a framework of methods and technologies to investigate the human body as a whole. It is predicated on the transformational character of information technology, brought to bear on that most crucial of human concerns, our own health and well-being.

Coveney, Peter V.; Diaz, Vanessa; Hunter, Peter; Kohl, Peter; Viceconti, Marco

2011-01-01

335

Virtual Tide Pool  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Virtual Tide Pool features a three dimensional view of a tide pool during both low and high tides. Students can see animals that live under, above, and at the waters surface. This site offers the ability to pan the tide pool for a 360 degree view, with zoom options, and gives descriptions of the animals found during both low and high tides.

Science NetLinks (PBS; )

2003-04-29

336

Physics Virtual Bookshelf  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Physics Virtual Bookshelf is a collection of documents written by professors as class notes or physics education research. This collection includes content on classical physics, computational physics, data analysis, modern physics, relativity, quantum mechanics, and pedagogy. The collection is organized by topic and easily browsed. The site is viewable as a standard Web page (default) or in Adobe Flash format.

Harrison, David M.

337

Interactive Virtual Environments Introduction  

E-print Network

, tele-robotics, medicine and healthcare, security and entertainment. #12;The first part of the course efficiency of the symbiotic team. Reference [1] G. Burdea and Ph. Coiffet, Virtual Reality Technology, (2nd applications in industrial design, communications, telerobotics, scientific research, medicine, training

Petriu, Emil M.

338

Diffy Virtual Manipulative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Diffy is a virtual manipulative that allows students to practice their subtraction facts with whole numbers, integers, fractions, decimals, or money. It is a puzzle of sorts with four black numbers placed at the corners of a black square. The first goal is to fill in the four blanks in the blue circles in the middle of each side of the black square.

Utah State University

2011-06-28

339

Virtual Campus Tours.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College campus "tours" offered online have evolved to include 360-degree views, live video, animation, talking tour guides, interactive maps with photographic links, and detailed information about buildings, departments, and programs. Proponents feel they should enhance, not replace, real tours. The synergy between the virtual tour and other…

Jarrell, Andrea

1999-01-01

340

Virtual Seismic Atlas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Virtual Seismic Atlas is an open access community resource to share the geological interpretation of seismic data. By browsing freely through the site you will find seismic images and interpretations. And you can down load higher resolution images for your use.

Virtual Seismic Atlas

341

Virtual Libraries: Service Realities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses client service issues to be considered when transitioning to a virtual library situation. Themes related to the transitional nature of society in the knowledge era are presented, including: paradox and a contradictory nature; blurring of boundaries; networks, systems, and holistic thinking; process/not product, becoming/not…

Novak, Jan

342

VIRTUAL REALITYVIRTUAL REALITY Introduction  

E-print Network

of VR Systems ... according to [Isdale] Window on World Systems (WoW), or Desktop VR. Video Mapping from earlier CAT scans and real-time ultrasound. A fighter pilot sees computer generated maps and data #12;G. Burdea and Ph. Coiffet, Virtual Reality Tec

Petriu, Emil M.

343

Adventures in Virtual Reality  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students look at the topography and cross-section of El Paso Texas and Edwards Aquifer in virtual reality, using historical data of the Edwards Aquifer that contains information on recharge, discharge and precipitation. From this data, conclusions can be made about future discharges of the aquifer.

344

Motion Graphs Virtual Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Motion Graphs virtual lab helps physics students learn the essential features of position vs. time and velocity vs. time graphs. Students are provided sample graphs, and they try to move the on-screen caterpillar in order to make the caterpillar's motion match the sample graph. A printable activity guide is included.

2014-04-03

345

The Virtual Library  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's school libraries must meet student needs as both a physical and virtual space. Existing both offline and online, they must offer around-the-clock access as well as instruction and guidance that support the face-to-face interactions of students with librarians and classroom teachers. Although students are often technologically proficient,…

Valenza, Joyce Kasman

2006-01-01

346

A Virtual, Shoestring Vacation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If there is a discrepancy between the scope of your imagination and the depth of your bank account, this may be the ideal summer to stretch your horizons by diving into a good book. You can take a virtual vacation to almost any place or time by reading. Y

Juliana Texley

2009-07-01

347

Virtual Beach Manager Toolset  

EPA Science Inventory

The Virtual Beach Manager Toolset (VB) is a set of decision support software tools developed to help local beach managers make decisions as to when beaches should be closed due to predicted high levels of water borne pathogens. The tools are being developed under the umbrella of...

348

VICE: A VIrtual CEll  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the specification and analysis of VICE, a hy- pothetical cell with a genome as basic as possible. We used an enhanced version of the ¼-calculus and a prototype running it to study the be- haviour of VICE. The results of our experimentation in silico confirm that our virtual cell \\

Davide Chiarugi; Michele Curti; Pierpaolo Degano; Roberto Marangoni

2004-01-01

349

Fish tank virtual reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The defining characteristics of what we call “Fish Tank Virtual Reality” are a stereo image of a three dimensional (3D) scene viewed on a monitor using a perspective projection coupled to the head position of the observer. We discuss some of the relative merits of this mode of viewing as compared to head mounted stereo displays. In addition, we report

Colin Ware; Kevin Arthur; Kellogg S. Booth

1993-01-01

350

Virtual Roller Coaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roller coasters are an attractive, adventurous and exciting form of entertainment. In this paper, we present a virtual roller coaster system, which includes roller coaster simulation software, a motion platform and a motion control unit. We investigate the track structure of the roller coaster and propose a methodology to generate the track automatically. We also simulate the forces exerted on

Zen-chung Shih; Yuh-sen Jaw; Mei-ling Hsu

2000-01-01

351

Rethinking Virtual Reference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Virtual reference services seem a natural extension of libraries digital collections and the emphasis on access to the library anytime, anywhere. If patrons use the library from home, it makes sense to provide them with person-to-person online reference. The Library of Congress (LC), OCLC, and several large library systems have developed and…

Tenopir, Carol

2004-01-01

352

Virtual Cardiology Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The focus of this lab is on heritable diseases of the heart. You are cast here as a virtual intern to accompany a doctor examining three different patients. Each patient is examined, using more than one diagnostic tool, and at each stage, the doctor will invite you to examine the patient yourself and ask for your opinion.

Joseph Perpich, M.D., J.D. (Howard Hughes Medical Institute; )

2008-04-16

353

Virtual Bead Loom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site uses the example of Native American beadwork to demonstrate mathematical concepts (specifically, Cartesian coordinates). The materials include an interactive virtual beadloom with which students can create their own beadwork design. The interdisciplinary lesson may be used in conjunction with instruction on Native American culture and traditions.

354

Virtual machine performance benchmarking.  

PubMed

The attractions of virtual computing are many: reduced costs, reduced resources and simplified maintenance. Any one of these would be compelling for a medical imaging professional attempting to support a complex practice on limited resources in an era of ever tightened reimbursement. In particular, the ability to run multiple operating systems optimized for different tasks (computational image processing on Linux versus office tasks on Microsoft operating systems) on a single physical machine is compelling. However, there are also potential drawbacks. High performance requirements need to be carefully considered if they are to be executed in an environment where the running software has to execute through multiple layers of device drivers before reaching the real disk or network interface. Our lab has attempted to gain insight into the impact of virtualization on performance by benchmarking the following metrics on both physical and virtual platforms: local memory and disk bandwidth, network bandwidth, and integer and floating point performance. The virtual performance metrics are compared to baseline performance on "bare metal." The results are complex, and indeed somewhat surprising. PMID:21207096

Langer, Steve G; French, Todd

2011-10-01

355

War Games Go Virtual  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes how researchers work with military to create the next generation of training technology. This article also describes the features of Flatworld, a virtual military training technology. Flatworld is one of many projects under development at the Institute for Creative Technologies, a research group that is supported primarily…

Carlson, Scott

2006-01-01

356

The virtual physiological human  

E-print Network

challenge: to use computational tech- niques to construct a model of how the human body works? Nuala Moran on each other and on the body ­ that are involved in the functioning of the human body. Now the Virtual and complexity of the human body. According to the roadmap for the project, drawn up under STEP (Strategy

Narasayya, Vivek

357

Fitted virtual shadow maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Too little shadow map resolution and resulting undersampling arti- facts, perspective and projection aliasing, have long been a funda- mental problem of shadowing scenes with shadow mapping. We present a new smart, real-time shadow mapping algorithm that virtually increases the resolution of the shadow map beyond the GPU hardware limit where needed. We first sample the scene from the eye-point

Markus Giegl; Michael Wimmer

2007-01-01

358

Queried virtual shadow maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shadowing scenes by shadow mapping has long suffered from the fundamental problem of undersampling artifacts due to too low shadow map resolution, leading to so-called perspective and pro- jection aliasing. In this paper we present a new real-time shadow mapping algorithm capable of shadowing large scenes by virtually increasing the reso- lution of the shadow map beyond the GPU hardware

Markus Giegl; Michael Wimmer

2007-01-01

359

Virtual Knee Surgery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online activity, learners assist in performing a virtual total knee replacement surgery. There is a great deal of information about this procedure specifically as well as general surgical information, along with questions the learner must answer (using information given onscreen) before the surgery can proceed.

2012-06-26

360

Virtual Coin Toss  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you ever wondered what would happen if you tossed a coin one hundred times? What about 1,000? What about 10,000? Would you end up with more heads or more tails? Cyberspace has made it easy for you to find out using their virtual coin toss machine. This site is very helpful when studying probability!

2008-01-01

361

Petrologically-based Electrical Profiles vs. Geophysical Observations through the Upper Mantle (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineralogical transformations in the up-welling mantle play a critical role on the dynamics of mass and heat transfers at mid-ocean-ridgeS. The melting event producing ridge basalts occur at 60 km depth below the ridge axis, but because of small amounts of H2O and CO2 in the source region of MOR-basalts, incipient melting can initiate at much greater depth. Such incipient melts concentrate incompatible elements, and are particularly rich in volatile species. These juices evolve from carbonatites, carbonated basalts, to CO2-H2O-rich basalts as recently exposed by petrological surveys; the passage from carbonate to silicate melts is a complex pathway that is strongly non-linear. This picture has recently been complicated further by studies showing that oxygen increasingly partitions into garnet as pressure increases; this implies that incipient melting may be prevented at depth exceeding 200 km because not enough oxygen is available in the system to stabilize carbonate melts. The aim of this work is twofold: - We modelled the complex pathway of mantle melting in presence of C-O-H volatiles by adjusting the thermodynamic properties of mixing in the multi-component C-O-H-melt system. This allows us to calculate the change in melt composition vs. depth following any sortS of adiabat. - We modelled the continuous change in electrical properties from carbonatites, carbonated basalts, to CO2-H2O-rich basalts. We then successfully converted this petrological evolution along a ridge adiabat into electrical conductivity vs. depth signal. The discussion that follows is about comparison of this petrologically-based conductivity profile with the recent profiles obtained by inversion of the long-period electromagnetic signals from the East-Pacific-Rise. These geophysically-based profiles reveal the electrical conductivity structure down to 400 km depth and they show some intriguing highly conductive sections. We will discuss heterogeneity in electrical conductivity of the upper mantle underneath the ridge in terms of melting processes. Our prime conclusion is that the redox melting process, universally predicted by petrological models, might not be universal and that incipient melting can extend down to the transition zone.

Gaillard, F.; Massuyeau, M.; Sifre, D.; Tarits, P.

2013-12-01

362

Mercury: Informing Remote Sensing through Petrology in the Absence of Samples from the Innermost Planet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing missions and petrologic studies are complementary methods of understanding airless planetary bodies. For bodies with both orbital missions and samples available for laboratory study, missions provide global chemical, mineralogical, and geologic data sets and context for samples, whereas samples often provide complementary petrogenetic histories in a chronological framework. In contrast, although the wealth of orbital data from MESSENGER is not complemented by samples from Mercury, petrologic and experimental studies remain essential to understanding the innermost planet. Prior to MESSENGER, most models centered on high-temperature events and formation under highly reducing conditions to explain Mercury's high metal to silicate ratio. These models predicted enrichment in refractory elements and depletion in volatile elements. The inference of formation at highly reducing conditions is supported by MESSENGER results. The low FeO concentration in the crust, implied low FeO contents of the mantle, apparent efficient partitioning of iron into the core, and evidence for Ca- and/or Mg-sulfides from X-Ray Spectrometer data are all consistent with reducing conditions. In contrast, the suggestion that Mercury is highly volatile-depleted has been refuted. Direct evidence for a relatively volatile-rich planet come from Na, K, and S abundances measured on the surface with MESSENGER's XRS and Gamma-Ray Spectrometer and the presence of neutral and ionized Na, K, and S species in the exosphere. Indirect evidence for volatile-rich compositions include the suggestion of volcanic vents with associated mantling pyroclastic deposits, hollows inferred to form by geologically recent volatile loss, and an inferred interior structure that includes a solid iron sulfide layer at the top of Mercury's fluid core. Petrologic and experimental studies of meteorites have played a key role in deciphering orbital data from MESSENGER. Partial melts from an enstatite chondrite assemblage produce S-rich silicate melts that subsequently crystallize Ca,Mg-sulfides and an Fe,Ni-FeS melt rich in Si, consistent with the geochemical characteristics observed or inferred from Mercury. The application of these petrologic principles, derived from the study of highly reduced meteorites, has advanced our understanding of Mercury. With new insights into the geology, mineralogy, and geochemistry of Mercury, the possibility exists that a meteorite launched from Mercury by an impact event could be identified on Earth. If such a link can be forged between a meteorite and Mercury, a new era of exploration, one largely based on isotopic systematics to understand the nature and timing of the geologic evolution of Mercury, could begin.

McCoy, T. J.; Nittler, L. R.; Stockstill-Cahill, K.; Blewett, D. T.

2012-12-01

363

The Case for a Cooperative Studio Classroom: Teaching Petrology in a Different Way  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NOTE: This file size is large, 16.52 mb. This article describes one educator's attempts to modify his Petrology course, changing the lab-lecture format to one that emphasizes studio and cooperative learning. The goals of the changes are to improve student learning by covering a smaller number of topics in greater depth, deemphasize knowledge-based learning and emphasize development of higher order thinking skills (comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation), and help students develop good habits of the mind and fundamental skills useful for lifelong learning. The reformatted course requires that students take more responsibility for their learning.

Dexter Perkins

2005-01-01

364

Determination of the petrologic type of CV3 chondrites by Raman spectroscopy of included organic matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the first reliable quantitative determination of the thermal metamorphism grade of a series of nine CV3 chondrites: Allende, Axtell, Bali, Mokoia, Grosnaja, Efremovka, Vigarano, Leoville, and Kaba. The maturity of the organic matter in matrix, determined by Raman spectroscopy, has been used as a powerful metamorphic tracer, independent of the mineralogical context and extent of aqueous alteration. This tracer has been used along with other metamorphic tracers such as Fe zoning in type-I chondrules of olivine phenocrysts, presolar grain abundance and noble gas abundance (bulk and P3 component). The study shows that the petrologic types determined earlier by Induced ThermoLuminescence were underestimated and suggests the following values: PT (Allende-Axtell) >3.6; PT (Bali-Mokoia-Grosnaja) ˜3.6; PT (Efremovka-Leoville-Vigarano) = 3.1-3.4; PT (Kaba) ˜3.1. The most commonly studied CV3, Allende, is also the most metamorphosed. Bali is a breccia containing clasts of different petrologic types. The attribution suggested by this study is that of clasts of the highest petrologic types, as pointed out by IOM maturity and noble gas bulk abundance. CV3 chondrites have complex asteroidal backgrounds, with various degrees of aqueous alteration and/or thermal metamorphism leading to complex mineralogical and petrologic patterns. (Fe,Mg) chemical zoning in olivine phenocrysts, on the borders of type I chondrules of porphyritic olivine- and pyroxene-rich textural types, has been found to correlate with the metamorphism grade. This suggests that chemical zoning in some chondrules, often interpreted as exchanges between chondrules and nebular gas, may well have an asteroidal origin. Furthermore, the compositional range of olivine matrix is controlled both by thermal metamorphism and aqueous alteration. This does not support evidence of a nebular origin and does not necessarily mirror the metamorphism grade through (Fe,Mg) equilibration. On the other hand, it may provide clues on the degree of aqueous alteration vs. thermal metamorphism and on the timing of both processes. In particular, Mokoia experienced significant aqueous alteration after the metamorphism peak, whereas Grosnaja, which has similar metamorphism grade, did not.

Bonal, Lydie; Quirico, Eric; Bourot-Denise, Michèle; Montagnac, Gilles

2006-04-01

365

Virtual System Environments  

SciTech Connect

Distributed and parallel systems are typically managed with "static" settings: the operating system (OS) and the runtime environment (RTE) are specified at a given time and cannot be changed to fit an application's needs. This means that every time application developers want to use their application on a new execution platform, the application has to be ported to this new environment, which may be expensive in terms of application modifications and developer time. However, the science resides in the applications and not in the OS or the RTE. Therefore, it should be beneficial to adapt the OS and the RTE to the application instead of adapting the applications to the OS and the RTE. This document presents the concept of Virtual System Environments (VSE), which enables application developers to specify and create a virtual environment that properly fits their application's needs. For that four challenges have to be addressed: (i) definition of the VSE itself by the application developers, (ii) deployment of the VSE, (iii) system administration for the platform, and (iv) protection of the platform from the running VSE. We therefore present an integrated tool for the definition and deployment of VSEs on top of traditional and virtual (i.e., using system-level virtualization) execution platforms. This tool provides the capability to choose the degree of delegation for system administration tasks and the degree of protection from the application (e.g., using virtual machines). To summarize, the VSE concept enables the customization of the OS/RTE used for the execution of application by users without compromising local system administration rules and execution platform protection constraints.

Vallee, Geoffroy R [ORNL; Naughton, III, Thomas J [ORNL; Ong, Hong Hoe [ORNL; Tikotekar, Anand A [ORNL; Engelmann, Christian [ORNL; Bland, Wesley B [ORNL; Aderholdt, Ferrol [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Scott, Stephen L [ORNL

2008-01-01

366

21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted... (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical...

2014-04-01

367

21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted... (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical...

2010-04-01

368

21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted... (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical...

2013-04-01

369

21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted... (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical...

2011-04-01

370

21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted... (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical...

2012-04-01

371

Tele-nanorobotics using an atomic force microscope as a nanorobot and sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a tele-nanorobotic system using an atomic force microscope (AFM) as the nanorobot and sensor has been proposed. Modeling and control of the AFM cantilever, and modeling of nanometer scale forces have been realized for telemanipulation applications. In addition to three-dimensional virtual reality visual feedback in the user interface, a 1 d.o.f. haptic device has been constructed for

Metin Sitti; Hideki Hashimoto

1998-01-01

372

Hyperbaric Hydrothermal Atomic Force Microscope  

DOEpatents

A hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope (AFM) is provided to image solid surfaces in fluids, either liquid or gas, at pressures greater than normal atmospheric pressure. The sample can be heated and its surface imaged in aqueous solution at temperatures greater than 100.degree. C. with less than 1 nm vertical resolution. A gas pressurized microscope base chamber houses the stepper motor and piezoelectric scanner. A chemically inert, flexible membrane separates this base chamber from the sample cell environment and constrains a high temperature, pressurized liquid or gas in the sample cell while allowing movement of the scanner. The sample cell is designed for continuous flow of liquid or gas through the sample environment.

Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA); Boro, Carl O. (Milpitas, CA); Higgins, Steven R. (Laramie, WY); Eggleston, Carrick M. (Laramie, WY)

2003-07-01

373

Hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope  

DOEpatents

A hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope (AFM) is provided to image solid surfaces in fluids, either liquid or gas, at pressures greater than normal atmospheric pressure. The sample can be heated and its surface imaged in aqueous solution at temperatures greater than 100.degree. C. with less than 1 nm vertical resolution. A gas pressurized microscope base chamber houses the stepper motor and piezoelectric scanner. A chemically inert, flexible membrane separates this base chamber from the sample cell environment and constrains a high temperature, pressurized liquid or gas in the sample cell while allowing movement of the scanner. The sample cell is designed for continuous flow of liquid or gas through the sample environment.

Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA); Boro, Carl O. (Milpitas, CA); Higgins, Steven R. (Laramie, WY); Eggleston, Carrick M. (Laramie, WY)

2002-01-01

374

Nanocarpets for Trapping Microscopic Particles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nanocarpets that is, carpets of carbon nanotubes are undergoing development as means of trapping microscopic particles for scientific analysis. Examples of such particles include inorganic particles, pollen, bacteria, and spores. Nanocarpets can be characterized as scaled-down versions of ordinary macroscopic floor carpets, which trap dust and other particulate matter, albeit not purposefully. Nanocarpets can also be characterized as mimicking both the structure and the particle-trapping behavior of ciliated lung epithelia, the carbon nanotubes being analogous to cilia. Carbon nanotubes can easily be chemically functionalized for selective trapping of specific particles of interest. One could, alternatively, use such other three-dimensionally-structured materials as aerogels and activated carbon for the purposeful trapping of microscopic particles. However, nanocarpets offer important advantages over these alternative materials: (1) Nanocarpets are amenable to nonintrusive probing by optical means; and (2) Nanocarpets offer greater surface-to-volume ratios.

Noca, Flavio; Chen, Fei; Hunt, Brian; Bronikowski, Michael; Hoenk, Michael; Kowalczyk, Robert; Choi, Daniel

2004-01-01

375

Holographic microscope for phase imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a transmission video processing microscope that uses a temporary hologram recorded in real time to provide phase-conjugate illumination of phase and mixed phase and absorption objects. It uses the aberration-removal capabilities of phase conjugation to (1) produce phase contrast in phase objects, (2) make motion in phase objects visible by creating contrast only for moving elements, and (3) eliminate phase background due to an embedding medium or to phase-modulating structures in absorbing (intensity) objects.

Brody, Philip S.; Garvin, Charles G.; Gillman, Arthur W.; Shentu, Lian

1992-01-01

376

Apparatus Would Stain Microscope Slides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed apparatus meters specific amounts of fluid out of containers at specific times to stain microscope slides. Intended specifically for semiautomated staining of microbiological and hematological samples in microgravity, leakproof apparatus used in other environments in which technicians have little time to allocate to staining procedures and/or exposure to toxic staining agents or to micro-organisms to be stained hazardous. Apparatus adapted to perform almost any staining procedure and accommodates multiple staining reagents, useful for small or remote clinical laboratories.

Breeding, James D.

1993-01-01

377

TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION: VIRTUAL FIELD TRIPS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webquest will assist in furthering your understanding of the ins and outs of virtual fieldtrips, provide links to ready-made virtual fieldtrips, and provide a link so you can create your own virtual field trip. Virtual field trips have become increasingly popular with the extensive use of the world wide web. One reason for this is probably the ease with which this technology can be delivered. All that is required is a computer with internet access. Occasionally a virtual field trip will require some plug-ins ...

Mr. Hoskins

2006-03-23

378

Compact Microscope Imaging System Developed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Compact Microscope Imaging System (CMIS) is a diagnostic tool with intelligent controls for use in space, industrial, medical, and security applications. The CMIS can be used in situ with a minimum amount of user intervention. This system, which was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center, can scan, find areas of interest, focus, and acquire images automatically. Large numbers of multiple cell experiments require microscopy for in situ observations; this is only feasible with compact microscope systems. CMIS is a miniature machine vision system that combines intelligent image processing with remote control capabilities. The software also has a user-friendly interface that can be used independently of the hardware for post-experiment analysis. CMIS has potential commercial uses in the automated online inspection of precision parts, medical imaging, security industry (examination of currency in automated teller machines and fingerprint identification in secure entry locks), environmental industry (automated examination of soil/water samples), biomedical field (automated blood/cell analysis), and microscopy community. CMIS will improve research in several ways: It will expand the capabilities of MSD experiments utilizing microscope technology. It may be used in lunar and Martian experiments (Rover Robot). Because of its reduced size, it will enable experiments that were not feasible previously. It may be incorporated into existing shuttle orbiter and space station experiments, including glove-box-sized experiments as well as ground-based experiments.

McDowell, Mark

2001-01-01

379

Super-parallel MR microscope.  

PubMed

A super-parallel MR microscope in which multiple (up to 100) samples can be imaged simultaneously at high spatial resolution is described. The system consists of a multichannel transmitter-receiver system and a gradient probe array housed in a large-bore magnet. An eight-channel MR microscope was constructed for verification of the system concept, and a four-channel MR microscope was constructed for a practical application. Eight chemically fixed mouse fetuses were simultaneously imaged at the 200 micro m(3) voxel resolution in a 1.5 T superconducting magnet of a whole-body MRI, and four chemically fixed human embryos were simultaneously imaged at 120 micro m(3) voxel resolution in a 2.35 T superconducting magnet. Although the spatial resolutions achieved were not strictly those of MR microscopy, the system design proposed here can be used to attain a much higher spatial resolution imaging of multiple samples, because higher magnetic field gradients can be generated at multiple positions in a homogeneous magnetic field. PMID:12815693

Matsuda, Yoshimasa; Utsuzawa, Shin; Kurimoto, Takeaki; Haishi, Tomoyuki; Yamazaki, Yukako; Kose, Katsumi; Anno, Izumi; Marutani, Mitsuhiro

2003-07-01

380

Phase-imaging holographic microscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A real-time holographic microscope for phase imaging is described. The image-formation process is based on the aberration-correcting capability of phase-conjugate illumination. After it has passed through a phase object, the light from a laser beam is recorded as a reflection hologram within a crystal of barium titanate by the self-pumping process. Such a reflection hologram, when illuminated, returns the phase conjugate of the incident distorted optical field. The object is then displaced slightly, and the phase conjugate of the field produced by the undisplaced object now passes through the displaced object. This produces in the object plane an intensity pattern that is an image of gradients in phase retardation. A microscope (objective and ocular) creates a magnified image of the pattern. A digital processor grabs video frames, subtracting from the gradient image the initial optical field acquired before the shift. The subtractive processing results in a final image free of coherent noise and artifacts. We describe the microscope and its operation and show representative images.

Brody, Philip S.; Garvin, Charles G.; Gillman, Arthur W.; Shentu, Lian

1994-05-01

381

Microscopic entropy of trapping horizon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Carlip-Majhi-Padmanabhan approach, we calculate the microscopic entropy of the trapping (apparent) horizon of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric. We solve Killing equations for the t ,r part of the metric without fixing a priori the form of the scaling factor a (t ) which is determined from the requirement of consistency of the Killing equations. Further restrictions on the form of the Killing vector follow from the requirement that the Killing vector is null at the trapping horizon at all t . The r ,t part of the Killing vector extended by zero ? and ? components forms an approximate Killing vector in the vicinity of the horizon and satisfies the Killing equations at the horizon. Applying the technique used to calculate the microscopic entropy of the Killing horizons, we calculate the microscopic entropy of the trapping horizon. Using the explicit form of the Killing vector, we verify that the identities used in the calculation of the central term of the Virasoro algebra for the Killing horizons of black holes are valid in the present case.

Iofa, Mikhail Z.

2015-01-01

382

Microscopic Colitis with Macroscopic Endoscopic Findings  

PubMed Central

Microscopic Colitis (MC) is characterized by chronic watery diarrhea, grossly normal appearing colonic mucosa during conventional white light endoscopy, and biopsy showing microscopic inflammation. We report a case of collagenous colitis with gross endoscopic findings. PMID:23653653

Saleem, Atif; Brahmbhatt, Parag A.; Khan, Sarah; Young, Mark; LeSage, Gene D.

2013-01-01

383

Microscopic Analysis of Activated Sludge. Training Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual presents material on the use of a compound microscope to analyze microscope communities, present in wastewater treatment processes, for operational control. Course topics include: sampling techniques, sample handling, laboratory analysis, identification of organisms, data interpretation, and use of the compound microscope.…

Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

384

Theft of Virtual Property — Towards Security Requirements for Virtual Worlds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article is focused to introduce the topic of information technology security for Virtual Worlds to a security experts’ audience. Virtual Worlds are Web 2.0 applications where the users cruise through the world with their individually shaped avatars to find either amusement, challenges or the next best business deal. People do invest a lot of time but beyond they invest in buying virtual assets like fantasy witcheries, wepaons, armour, houses, clothes,...etc with the power of real world money. Although it is called “virtual” (which is often put on the same level as “not existent”) there is a real value behind it. In November 2007 dutch police arrested a seventeen years old teenager who was suspicted to have stolen virtual items in a Virtual World called Habbo Hotel [Reuters07]. In order to successfully provide security mechanisms into Virtual Worlds it is necessarry to fully understand the domain for which the security mechansims are defined. As Virtual Worlds must be clasified into the domain of Social Software the article starts with an overview of how to understand Web 2.0 and gives a short introduction to Virtual Worlds. The article then provides a consideration of assets of Virtual Worlds participants, describes how these assets can be threatened and gives an overview of appopriate security requirements and completes with an outlook of possible countermeasures.

Beyer, Anja

385

Pet Rock Project: A Semester-long Exercise for Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The pet rock project is a semester-long project in which each student randomly selects an igneous or metamorphic rock from the instructor or brings in a rock from an appropriate locality, and follows all of the steps a petrologist would take to interpret an igneous or metamorphic rock from an unknown area. This project runs in the background of the petrology class during the initial part of the semester while the student acquires the petrologic skills to make more sophisticated interpretations. The culmination of the project is for each student to spend several hours with the instructor using the electron microprobe to identify more difficult minerals with certainty, to produce high quality digital backscattered electron images and to obtain quantitative electron microprobe analyses of selected minerals that aid in the interpretation of the pet rock. Ultimately, the student interprets the rock, generally with the assistance of the instructor, writes a report explaining the process and results and presents the results to the class.

Darrell Henry

386

Towards Calibrating the Vestan Regolith: Correlating the Petrology, Chemistry and Spectroscopy of Howardites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Dawn spacecraft carries a visible and infrared mapping spectrometer (VIR) [1] that has acquired spectra for the wavelength range 0.25-5.0 µm at various spatial resolutions covering much of the vestan surface [2]. Through comparison of VIR spectra with laboratory spectra of howardite, eucrite and diogenite meteorites, the distribution of more diogenite-rich and more eucrite-rich terranes on Vesta have been mapped [3], but these maps are qualitative in nature. The available laboratory spectra are not well-integrated with detailed sample petrology or composition limiting their utility for lithologic mapping. Importantly, howardites are now recognized to come in two subtypes, regolithic and fragmental [4]. The former are breccias assembled in part from true regolith, while the latter have had much less exposure to the space environment. We are attempting to develop a more quantitative basis for mapping the distribution of lithologic types on Vesta through acquiring laboratory spectra on splits of howardites that have been petrologically and chemically characterized [5]. Noble gas analyses have been done on some allowing identification of those howardites that have been exposed in the true regolith of Vesta [6].

Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Ammannito, E.; Hiroi, T.; De Angelis, S.; Di Iorio, T.; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, C.

2013-01-01

387

Petrological and seismic precursors of the paroxysmal phase of the last Vesuvius eruption on March 1944  

PubMed Central

Abrupt transitions in style and intensity are common during volcanic eruptions, with an immediate impact on the surrounding territory and its population. Defining the factors trigger such sudden shifts in the eruptive behavior as well as developing methods to predict such changes during volcanic crises are crucial goals in volcanology. In our research, the combined investigation of both petrological and seismic indicators has been applied for the first time to a Vesuvius eruption, that of March 1944 that caused the present dormant state of the volcano. Our results contribute to elucidate the evolution of the conduit dynamics that generated a drastic increase in the Volcanic Explosivity Index, associated to the ejection of huge amount of volcanic ash. Remarkably, our study shows that the main paroxysm was announced by robust changes in petrology consistent with seismology, thus suggesting that the development of monitoring methods to assess the nature of ejected juvenile material combined with conventional geophysical techniques can represent a powerful tool for forecasting the evolution of an eruption towards violent behavior. This in turn is a major goal in volcanology because this evidence can help decision-makers to implement an efficient safety strategy during the emergency (scale and pace of evacuation). PMID:25199537

Pappalardo, Lucia; D'Auria, Luca; Cavallo, Andrea; Fiore, Stefano

2014-01-01

388

Petrology and Geochemistry of Unbrecciated Harzburgitic Diogenite MIL 07001: A Window Into Vestan Geological Evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is a strong case that asteroid 4 Vesta is the parent of the howardite, eucrite and diogenite (HED) meteorites. Models developed for the geological evolution of Vesta can satisfy the compositions of basaltic eucrites that dominate in the upper crust. The bulk compositional characteristics of diogenites - cumulate harzburgites and orthopyroxenites from the lower crust - do not fit into global magma ocean models that can describe the compositions of basaltic and cumulate eucrites. Recent more detailed formation models do make provision for a more complicated origin for diogenites, but this model has yet to be completely vetted. Compositional studies of bulk samples has led to the hypothesis that many diogenites were formed late by interaction of their parent melts with a eucritic crust, but those observations may alternatively be explained by subsolidus equilibration of trace elements between orthopyroxene and plagioclase and Ca-phosphate in the rocks. Differences in radiogenic Mg-26 content between diogenites and eucrites favors early formation of the former, not later formation. Understanding the origin of diogenites is crucial for understanding the petrologic evolution of Vesta. We have been doing coordinated studies of a suite of diogenites including petrologic investigations, bulk rock major and trace element studies, and in situ trace element analyses of orthopyroxene. Here we will focus on an especially unusual, and potentially key, diogenite, MIL 07001.

Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Peng, Z. X.; Mertzman, S. A.; Mertzman, K. R.

2014-01-01

389

Petrological and seismic precursors of the paroxysmal phase of the last Vesuvius eruption on March 1944.  

PubMed

Abrupt transitions in style and intensity are common during volcanic eruptions, with an immediate impact on the surrounding territory and its population. Defining the factors trigger such sudden shifts in the eruptive behavior as well as developing methods to predict such changes during volcanic crises are crucial goals in volcanology. In our research, the combined investigation of both petrological and seismic indicators has been applied for the first time to a Vesuvius eruption, that of March 1944 that caused the present dormant state of the volcano. Our results contribute to elucidate the evolution of the conduit dynamics that generated a drastic increase in the Volcanic Explosivity Index, associated to the ejection of huge amount of volcanic ash. Remarkably, our study shows that the main paroxysm was announced by robust changes in petrology consistent with seismology, thus suggesting that the development of monitoring methods to assess the nature of ejected juvenile material combined with conventional geophysical techniques can represent a powerful tool for forecasting the evolution of an eruption towards violent behavior. This in turn is a major goal in volcanology because this evidence can help decision-makers to implement an efficient safety strategy during the emergency (scale and pace of evacuation). PMID:25199537

Pappalardo, Lucia; D'Auria, Luca; Cavallo, Andrea; Fiore, Stefano

2014-01-01

390

Petrological and seismic precursors of the paroxysmal phase of the last Vesuvius eruption on March 1944  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abrupt transitions in style and intensity are common during volcanic eruptions, with an immediate impact on the surrounding territory and its population. Defining the factors trigger such sudden shifts in the eruptive behavior as well as developing methods to predict such changes during volcanic crises are crucial goals in volcanology. In our research, the combined investigation of both petrological and seismic indicators has been applied for the first time to a Vesuvius eruption, that of March 1944 that caused the present dormant state of the volcano. Our results contribute to elucidate the evolution of the conduit dynamics that generated a drastic increase in the Volcanic Explosivity Index, associated to the ejection of huge amount of volcanic ash. Remarkably, our study shows that the main paroxysm was announced by robust changes in petrology consistent with seismology, thus suggesting that the development of monitoring methods to assess the nature of ejected juvenile material combined with conventional geophysical techniques can represent a powerful tool for forecasting the evolution of an eruption towards violent behavior. This in turn is a major goal in volcanology because this evidence can help decision-makers to implement an efficient safety strategy during the emergency (scale and pace of evacuation).

Pappalardo, Lucia; D'Auria, Luca; Cavallo, Andrea; Fiore, Stefano

2014-09-01

391

Interactive computer programs for petrologic modeling with extended Q-mode factor analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An extended form of Q-mode factor analysis may be used if the row-sums of the data matrix are constant and can be helpful especially in developing and testing petrologic-mixing models for igneous systems. The first step is to represent the sample compositions as unit vectors in M-dimensional space and then to project them into space of fewer dimensions (m) as determined to be appropriate from a factor-variance diagram. Compositions thought to be those of possible end-members in the petrologic system then are represented as vectors in the M-dimensional space and projected into the same space as the sample vectors. If these vectors remain close to unity in length after projection, the corresponding compositions can serve as end-member compositions for the model. After m suitable end-member compositions have been identified, each sample composition is expressed as a mixture of the end-members by computation of the composition loadings. The interactive computer programs presented are useful in these procedures because of the trial-and-error nature of the modeling procedures. ?? 1976.

Miesch, A.T.

1976-01-01

392

Virtual reality systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Virtual realities are a type of human-computer interface (HCI) and as such may be understood from a historical perspective. In the earliest era, the computer was a very simple, straightforward machine. Interaction was human manipulation of an inanimate object, little more than the provision of an explicit instruction set to be carried out without deviation. In short, control resided with the user. In the second era of HCI, some level of intelligence and control was imparted to the system to enable a dialogue with the user. Simple context sensitive help systems are early examples, while more sophisticated expert system designs typify this era. Control was shared more equally. In this, the third era of the HCI, the constructed system emulates a particular environment, constructed with rules and knowledge about 'reality'. Control is, in part, outside the realm of the human-computer dialogue. Virtual reality systems are discussed.

Johnson, David W.

1992-01-01

393

Virtual university governance.  

PubMed

There is a need to establish collaboration alliances or partnerships if we are to provide global Health Informatics educatics education. Agreements need to make provision for the existing diversity between country educational systems as well as variations in funding, legislation and political systems and a number of other issues including intellectual property and copyright. Four virtual University governance models were identified, 1) evolution of existing universities, 2) newly created organisations collectively delivering one type of program eg MBA, 3) a consortium of partners using a common portal and 4) a commercial enterprise. Collectively IMIA academic members need to be in a good position to respond to the global changes in higher education and minimise the risk of failure when establishing a virtual University to collectively deliver Health Informatics education. Others have undertaken a similar path in the past, some successful others not so, we need to learn from these experiences. PMID:15718668

Hovenga, Evelyn J S

2004-01-01

394

The Virtual Bookshelf  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Island Multimedia has created a virtual library of full-text electronic books, many of which are geared toward a young adult audience. The current selection of 18 titles includes works by American authors Willa Cather, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Edgar Allan Poe, and Mark Twain. The difference between this site and those of other electronic publishers is that here Internauts can register for their own free "virtual bookshelf." With registration comes the ability to highlight favorite passages to return to later, as well as the ability to state preferences for font and background color of the books on your personal bookshelf. Unregistered visitors can click on any "Add to Shelf" box to bring up a registration form. The site has also provided a toll-free phone number for a help line.

395

Virtual Yeast Cell  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning about the various parts of a cell can be tricky business, but this virtual yeast cell offered by The University of Nottingham will come in handy for biology students and science instructors. This learning resource was created to help students in the brewing science program learn about yeast cytology, though just about anyone with an interest in cells will learn something from visiting the site. After entering the interactive cell, visitors can click on different parts of the cell (such as the cytoplasm or the nucleus) in order to learn more about the importance of each one. Visitors should remember that they can also download the virtual yeast cell and use it in the classroom or just with a group of friends.

396

California Virtual Campus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

California Virtual Campus is essentially a catalog of every virtual or technology-mediated distance education course or program offered by participating California colleges and universities. Users can search for a particular course or find information about pursuing a complete program of study from certificate level to PhD. The site summarizes important information about each course or program, such as in-state and out-of-state fees, email contacts, and registration details. For example, a search returned a list of 30 art-related course offerings at about 20 different institutions. By clicking on a title, "Visionary Artists: A Brief History of Multimedia," I found I could take this course, offered by San Francisco State University, by registering and paying a fee of $5.

397

Virtual reality at work  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The utility of virtual reality computer graphics in telepresence applications is not hard to grasp and promises to be great. When the virtual world is entirely synthetic, as opposed to real but remote, the utility is harder to establish. Vehicle simulators for aircraft, vessels, and motor vehicles are proving their worth every day. Entertainment applications such as Disney World's StarTours are technologically elegant, good fun, and economically viable. Nevertheless, some of us have no real desire to spend our lifework serving the entertainment craze of our sick culture; we want to see this exciting technology put to work in medicine and science. The topics covered include the following: testing a force display for scientific visualization -- molecular docking; and testing a head-mounted display for scientific and medical visualization.

Brooks, Frederick P., Jr.

1991-01-01

398

A Virtual, Shoestring Vacation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If there is a discrepancy between the scope of your imagination and the depth of your bank account, this may be the ideal summer to stretch your horizons by diving into a good book. You can take a virtual vacation to almost any place or time by reading. You will not need to fill your gas tank or empty your pocketbook. Reading has a small carbon…

Texley, Juliana

2009-01-01

399

Virtual environment display system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A head-mounted, wide-angle, stereoscopic display system controlled by operator position, voice and gesture has been developed for use as a multipurpose interface environment. The system provides a multisensory, interactive display environment in which a user can virtually explore a 360-degree synthesized or remotely sensed environment and can viscerally interact with its components. Primary applications of the system are in telerobotics,

S. S. Fisher; M. McGreevy; J. Humphries; W. Robinett

1987-01-01

400

When Virtual Worlds Expand  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The future of a virtual world depends on whether it can grow in subjective size, cultural content, and numbers of human participants.\\u000a In one form of growth, exemplified by Second Life, the scope of a world increases gradually as new sponsors pay for new territory and inhabitants create content. A very different\\u000a form of growth is sudden expansion, as when

William Sims Bainbridge

401

Firenet Virtual Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the Charles Sturt University, the Firenet Virtual Library is a metasource of information related to fires. Searchable by complete listings, topics, resources provided, and type of site, Firenet lists quality links to sites that cover a wide range of fire topics. Topics include vegetation, structure, and chemical fires; behavior of fires; effects on plants, animals, and soil; fire weather; modelling and prediction; and much more. This is a first rate resource for anyone with an interest in accessing information on fires.

402

Virtual nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

The term virtual nuclear weapons proliferation and arsenals, as opposed to actual weapons and arsenals, has entered in recent years the American lexicon of nuclear strategy, arms control, and nonproliferation. While the term seems to have an intuitive appeal, largely due to its cyberspace imagery, its current use is still vague and loose. The author believes, however, that if the term is clearly delineated, it might offer a promising approach to conceptualizing certain current problems of proliferation. The first use is in a reference to an old problem that has resurfaced recently: the problem of growing availability of weapon-usable nuclear materials in civilian nuclear programs along with materials made `excess` to defense needs by current arms reduction and dismantlement. It is argued that the availability of these vast materials, either by declared nuclear-weapon states or by technologically advanced nonweapon states, makes it possible for those states to rapidly assemble and deploy nuclear weapons. The second use has quite a different set of connotations. It is derived conceptually from the imagery of computer-generated reality. In this use, one thinks of virtual proliferation and arsenals not in terms of the physical hardware required to make the bomb but rather in terms of the knowledge/experience required to design, assemble, and deploy the arsenal. Virtual weapons are a physics reality and cannot be ignored in a world where knowledge, experience, materials, and other requirements to make nuclear weapons are widespread, and where dramatic army reductions and, in some cases, disarmament are realities. These concepts are useful in defining a continuum of virtual capabilities, ranging from those at the low end that derive from general technology diffusion and the existence of nuclear energy programs to those at the high end that involve conscious decisions to develop or maintain militarily significant nuclear-weapon capabilities.

Pilat, J.F.

1997-08-01

403

DNA Extraction Virtual Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual lab from the Genetic Science Learning Center at the University of Utah provides a simple overview of DNA extraction, including what it's used for, illustrations, and an activity using cheek cells and laboratory equipment to isolate DNA. The lab is followed by a classroom activity that allows students and teachers to Extract DNA from Anything Living, using household items like spinach but not little sister's big toe.

2006-01-01

404

The Virtual Body  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Virtual Body from MEDtropolis.com is an interactive overview of some of the basic structure and function of the human body. The site, available in both English and Spanish, is a mix of information and activities focused on four areas -- the brain, skeleton, heart, and digestive tract. The site's extensive array of diagrams and images, as well as its interactive nature, enhance the site's appeal and educational potential.

1999-01-01

405

Origin of New Faculty in Sedimentary Petrology at Ph.D.-Granting Universities in the United States and Canada.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To aid prospective graduate students in sedimentary petrology who wish to teach at colleges or universities, 121 doctoral graduates in this field are traced to their present appointments in higher education. Only 31 percent of these graduates attained this career goal. (Author/WB)

Thornton, Scott E.

1981-01-01

406

Thermal modeling of the southern Alaska subduction zone: Insight into the petrology of the subducting slab and overlying mantle wedge  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses a two-dimensional thermal model of the southern Alaska subduction zone. This model allows specfic predictions to be made about the pressure-temperature conditions and mineralogy of the subducting oceanic crust and the mantle wedge and assess different petrologic models for the generation of Alaskan arc magmas.

Ponko, S.C.; Peacock, S.M. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)] [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

1995-11-10

407

Petrology and geochemistry of LaPaz Icefield 02205: A new unique low-Ti mare-basalt meteorite  

E-print Network

Petrology and geochemistry of LaPaz Icefield 02205: A new unique low-Ti mare-basalt meteorite low-Ti mare-basalt meteorite that was discovered in the LaPaz Ice Field in Antarctica. This is the first crystalline lunar basalt in the US Antarctic collection and the only 5th unbrecciated mare-basalt

408

EXPERIMENTAL PETROLOGY OF THE BASALTIC SHERGOTTITE YAMATO 980459: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE THERMAL STRUCTURE OF THE MARTIAN MANTLE.  

E-print Network

EXPERIMENTAL PETROLOGY OF THE BASALTIC SHERGOTTITE YAMATO 980459: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE THERMAL) is a basalt with abundant olivine megacrysts, i.e., an olivine-phyric shergottite. Because Y98 is the most magnesian shergottite known, it is the most likely, a priori, to represent a primitive mantle-derived basalt

Treiman, Allan H.

409

Petrology, geochemistry, and age of low-Ti mare-basalt meteorite Northeast Africa 003-A: A possible member  

E-print Network

Petrology, geochemistry, and age of low-Ti mare-basalt meteorite Northeast Africa 003-A: A possible member of the Apollo 15 mare basaltic suite Jakub Haloda a,b,*, Patricie Ty´cova´ a,b , Randy L. Korotev for this study, (NEA 003-A) consists of mare-basalt and a smaller adjacent portion ($25 vol%) is a basaltic

410

JOURNAL OF PETROLOGY VOLUME 40 NUMBER 9 PAGES 13431375 1999 Peridotite Melting at 10 and 15 GPa: an  

E-print Network

JOURNAL OF PETROLOGY VOLUME 40 NUMBER 9 PAGES 1343­1375 1999 Peridotite Melting at 1·0 and 1·5 GPa, 1998; REVISED TYPESCRIPT ACCEPTED APRIL 12, 1999 diamond aggregate trap. We also present peridotite of the use of natural mineral mixes as starting reversals of the 1·0 GPa peridotite melting experiments

411

The Influence of Mantle Petrology on Basin Subsidence During Rifting Nina S.C. Simon & Yuri Y. Podladchikov  

E-print Network

The Influence of Mantle Petrology on Basin Subsidence During Rifting Nina S.C. Simon & Yuri Y-linear and discontinuous due to complex mineralogy and, most importantly, phase transitions. It was shown that the garnet-spinel and spinel plagioclase transitions in the lithospheric mantle have the most profound effect on uplift

Simon, Nina

412

Petrology of Peridotite Xenoliths from Iraya Volcano, Philippines, and its Implication for Dynamic Mantle-Wedge Processes  

E-print Network

Peridotite xenoliths entrained in calc-alkaline andesites from the Iraya volcano, Philippines, were petrologically examined to con-strain the nature of the mantle-wedge materials and processes. They can be classified into two types: C-type (coarse-grained type) and F-type (fine-grained type

Shoji Arai; Shuichi Takada; Katsuyoshi Michibayashi

2002-01-01

413

The Mount Manengouba, a complex volcano of the Cameroon Line:1 Volcanic history, petrological and geochemical features2  

E-print Network

1 The Mount Manengouba, a complex volcano of the Cameroon Line:1 Volcanic history, petrological.pouclet@sfr.fr23 24 Keywords: Cameroon Volcanic Line, Manengouba volcano, alkaline magmatism, Quaternary25 is related to four chronological stages: 1) forming31 of the early Manengouba shield volcano between 1

Boyer, Edmond

414

Neuroelectric Virtual Devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents recent results in neuroelectric pattern recognition of electromyographic (EMG) signals used to control virtual computer input devices. The devices are designed to substitute for the functions of both a traditional joystick and keyboard entry method. We demonstrate recognition accuracy through neuroelectric control of a 757 class simulation aircraft landing at San Francisco International Airport using a virtual joystick as shown. This is accomplished by a pilot closing his fist in empty air and performing control movements that are captured by a dry electrode array on the arm which are then analyzed and routed through a flight director permitting full pilot outer loop control of the simulation. We then demonstrate finer grain motor pattern recognition through a virtual keyboard by having a typist tap his traders on a typical desk in a touch typist position. The EMG signals are then translated to keyboard presses and displayed. The paper describes the bioelectric pattern recognition methodology common to both examples. Figure 2 depicts raw EMG data from typing, the numeral '8' and the numeral '9'. These two gestures are very close in appearance and statistical properties yet are distinguishable by our hidden Kharkov model algorithms. Extensions of this work to NASA emissions and robotic control are considered.

Wheeler, Kevin; Jorgensen, Charles

2000-01-01

415

Gallery of Virtual Topography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Gallery of Virtual Topography features virtual depictions of topography, including 3D perspectives and QuickTime Virtual Reality (QTVR) movies, created from Digital Elevation Models (DEM's). The site showcases QTVR object movies where the user can spin a 3D terrain to view it from different perspectives. It also includes static 3D-perspective images (JPEG files) of the 3D terrains for those users with slower Internet connections. Some movies and images depict only the form of the landscape, but in others topographic contours are draped over the landscape to better illustrate how contours portray different types of topography (cliffs versus badlands, for example). Some animations illustrate the significance of contours, by allowing the user to progressively fill the landscape up with water to see the water interact with different topographic features. The site also contains a topographic contour map for each 3D terrain, so that instructors can develop student exercises, such as locating points on a map and constructing topographic profiles. Some QTVR movies contain numbered topographic features just for this purpose.

Stephen Reynolds

416

Canada Virtual Science Fair  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Real science fairs can be great fun, but there's nothing wrong with a virtual science fair, and in the case of the Canada Virtual Science Fair, there's so much that's right. Started in 1999, the Virtual Science Fair is an annual online science and technology contest open to all Canadian students in grades K-12. While non-Canadians aren't eligible to participate, everyone can benefit from the tremendous science education resources on the site. First off, visitors will want to learn about the past winning projects by clicking on the "All Projects" section on the site. Visitors to this section will learn about each project, their team, and so on. Along the right side of the homepage visitors can view the "Special Awards" area. Here they will find information about interesting projects that include "Harvesting Our Nature's Gas Station", "Ice: A Slippery Topic", and "River Pollutants Effect on River Bacteria". Additionally, visitors should be sure to check out their weblog and their online forum.

2008-01-01

417

Virtual Black Holes  

E-print Network

One would expect spacetime to have a foam-like structure on the Planck scale with a very high topology. If spacetime is simply connected (which is assumed in this paper), the non-trivial homology occurs in dimension two, and spacetime can be regarded as being essentially the topological sum of $S^2\\times S^2$ and $K3$ bubbles. Comparison with the instantons for pair creation of black holes shows that the $S^2\\times S^2$ bubbles can be interpreted as closed loops of virtual black holes. It is shown that scattering in such topological fluctuations leads to loss of quantum coherence, or in other words, to a superscattering matrix $\\$ $ that does not factorise into an $S$ matrix and its adjoint. This loss of quantum coherence is very small at low energies for everything except scalar fields, leading to the prediction that we may never observe the Higgs particle. Another possible observational consequence may be that the $\\theta $ angle of QCD is zero without having to invoke the problematical existence of a light axion. The picture of virtual black holes given here also suggests that macroscopic black holes will evaporate down to the Planck size and then disappear in the sea of virtual black holes.

Stephen W. Hawking

1995-10-06

418

Tele Hyper Virtuality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the future, remote images sent over communication lines will be reproduced in virtual reality (VR). This form of virtual telecommunications, which will allow observers to engage in an activity as though it were real, is the focus of considerable attention. Taken a step further, real and unreal objects will be placed in a single space to create an extremely realistic environment. Here, imaginary and other life forms as well as people and animals in remote locations will gather via telecommunication lines that create a common environment where life forms can work and interact together. Words, gestures, diagrams and other forms of communication will be used freely in performing work. Actual construction of a system based on this new concept will not only provide people with experiences that would have been impossible in the past, but will also inspire new applications in which people will function in environments where it would have been difficult if not impossible for them to function until now. This paper describes Tele Hyper Virtuality concept, its definition, applications, the key technologies to accomplish it and future prospects.

Terashima, Nobuyoshi

1994-01-01

419

Hydrothermal alteration and tectonic setting of intrusive rocks from East Brawley, Imperial Valley: an application of petrology to geothermal reservoir analysis  

SciTech Connect

A geothermal well near East Brawley intersected a series of thin (3 to 35m) diabasic to dioritic intrusives. The petrology and chemistry of these meta-igneous rocks can provide insight into the thermal and fluid chemical characteristics of the reservoir and into the processes of magma generation at depth. A description of the rock types and their hydrothermal alteration is presented in order to increase the petrologic data base relating to this important facet of the geothermal potential of the Salton Trough and to provide a case study illustrating how detailed petrologic examination of well cuttings can provide important input in the construction of a geothermal reservoir model.

Keskinen, M.; Sternfeld, J.

1982-01-01

420

Discovery Through the Computational Microscope  

PubMed Central

Summary All-atom molecular dynamics simulations have become increasingly popular as a tool to investigate protein function and dynamics. However, researchers are concerned about the short time scales covered by simulations, the apparent impossibility to model large and integral biomolecular systems, and the actual predictive power of the molecular dynamics methodology. Here we review simulations that were in the past both hotly disputed and considered key successes, namely of proteins with mainly mechanical functions (titin, fibrinogen, ankyrin, and cadherin). The simulation work covered shows how state-of-the-art modeling alleviates some of the prior concerns, and how unrefuted discoveries are made through the “computational microscope". PMID:19836330

Lee, Eric H.; Hsin, Jen; Sotomayor, Marcos; Comellas, Gemma; Schulten, Klaus

2010-01-01

421

Solid-state optical microscope  

DOEpatents

A solid state optical microscope is described wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. Means for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions are provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

Young, I.T.

1981-01-07

422

Atomic force microscope mediated chromatography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An atomic force microscope (AFM) is presented as an instrument for rapid, miniaturized chromatography. The AFM is used to inject a sample, provide shear driven liquid flow over a functionalized substrate, and detect separated components. The components are then analyzed with surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy using AFM deposition of gold nanoparticles on the separated bands. This AFM mediated chromatography (AFM-MC) is demonstrated using lipophilic dyes and normal phase chemistry. A significant reduction in both size and separation time scales is achieved with 25 ?m length scale and 1 s separation times. AFM-MC has general applications to trace chemical analysis and microfluidics.

Anderson, M. S.

2013-02-01

423

Microscopic tubes in igneous rocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microscopic tubes have been observed in several igneous rocks and may be quite common. They occur in single crystals and have either elliptical or circular cross-sections 1 to 5 microns in diameter and are ten to hundreds of microns long. Microtubes may be hollow or partially or completely filled with another phase, but are distinct from acicular crystals of accessory minerals such as rutile. Microtubes can form by at least three processes: (1) the partial annealing of microcracks, (2) the natural etching of dislocations, or (3) the primary inclusion of fluid material during crystal growth.

Richter, D.; Simmons, G.

1977-01-01

424

Precise autofocusing microscope with rapid response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid on-line or off-line automated vision inspection is a critical operation in the manufacturing fields. Accordingly, this present study designs and characterizes a novel precise optics-based autofocusing microscope with a rapid response and no reduction in the focusing accuracy. In contrast to conventional optics-based autofocusing microscopes with centroid method, the proposed microscope comprises a high-speed rotating optical diffuser in which the variation of the image centroid position is reduced and consequently the focusing response is improved. The proposed microscope is characterized and verified experimentally using a laboratory-built prototype. The experimental results show that compared to conventional optics-based autofocusing microscopes, the proposed microscope achieves a more rapid response with no reduction in the focusing accuracy. Consequently, the proposed microscope represents another solution for both existing and emerging industrial applications of automated vision inspection.

Liu, Chien-Sheng; Jiang, Sheng-Hong

2015-03-01

425

Surgery applications of virtual reality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Virtual reality is a computer-generated technology which allows information to be displayed in a simulated, bus lifelike, environment. In this simulated 'world', users can move and interact as if they were actually a part of that world. This new technology will be useful in many different fields, including the field of surgery. Virtual reality systems can be used to teach surgical anatomy, diagnose surgical problems, plan operations, simulate and perform surgical procedures (telesurgery), and predict the outcomes of surgery. The authors of this paper describe the basic components of a virtual reality surgical system. These components include: the virtual world, the virtual tools, the anatomical model, the software platform, the host computer, the interface, and the head-coupled display. In the chapter they also review the progress towards using virtual reality for surgical training, planning, telesurgery, and predicting outcomes. Finally, the authors present a training system being developed for the practice of new procedures in abdominal surgery.

Rosen, Joseph

1994-01-01

426

Martian Magnets Under the Microscope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit acquired this microscopic imager view of its capture magnet on sol 92 (April 6, 2004). Both Spirit and the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity are equipped with a number of magnets. The capture magnet, as seen here, has a stronger charge than its sidekick, the filter magnet. The lower-powered filter magnet captures only the most magnetic airborne dust with the strongest charges, while the capture magnet picks up all magnetic airborne dust.

The magnets' primary purpose is to collect the martian magnetic dust so that scientists can analyze it with the rovers' Moessbauer spectrometers. While there is plenty of dust on the surface of Mars, it is difficult to confirm where it came from, and when it was last airborne. Because scientists are interested in learning about the properties of the dust in the atmosphere, they devised this dust-collection experiment.

The capture magnet is about 4.5 centimeters (1.8 inches) in diameter and is constructed with a central cylinder and three rings, each with alternating orientations of magnetization. Scientists have been monitoring the continual accumulation of dust since the beginning of the mission with panoramic camera and microscopic imager images. They had to wait until enough dust accumulated before they could get a Moessbauer spectrometer analysis. The results of that analysis, performed on sol 92, have not been sent back to Earth yet.

2004-01-01

427

Sensing mode atomic force microscope  

DOEpatents

An atomic force microscope utilizes a pulse release system and improved method of operation to minimize contact forces between a probe tip affixed to a flexible cantilever and a specimen being measured. The pulse release system includes a magnetic particle affixed proximate the probe tip and an electromagnetic coil. When energized, the electromagnetic coil generates a magnetic field which applies a driving force on the magnetic particle sufficient to overcome adhesive forces exhibited between the probe tip and specimen. The atomic force microscope includes two independently displaceable piezo elements operable along a Z-axis. A controller drives the first Z-axis piezo element to provide a controlled approach between the probe tip and specimen up to a point of contact between the probe tip and specimen. The controller then drives the first Z-axis piezo element to withdraw the cantilever from the specimen. The controller also activates the pulse release system which drives the probe tip away from the specimen during withdrawal. Following withdrawal, the controller adjusts the height of the second Z-axis piezo element to maintain a substantially constant approach distance between successive samples.

Hough, Paul V. C. (Port Jefferson, NY); Wang, Chengpu (Upton, NY)

2003-01-01

428

Sensing mode atomic force microscope  

DOEpatents

An atomic force microscope is described having a cantilever comprising a base and a probe tip on an end opposite the base; a cantilever drive device connected to the base; a magnetic material coupled to the probe tip, such that when an incrementally increasing magnetic field is applied to the magnetic material an incrementally increasing force will be applied to the probe tip; a moveable specimen base; and a controller constructed to obtain a profile height of a specimen at a point based upon a contact between the probe tip and a specimen, and measure an adhesion force between the probe tip and the specimen by, under control of a program, incrementally increasing an amount of a magnetic field until a release force, sufficient to break the contact, is applied. An imaging method for atomic force microscopy involving measuring a specimen profile height and adhesion force at multiple points within an area and concurrently displaying the profile and adhesion force for each of the points is also described. A microscope controller is also described and is constructed to, for a group of points, calculate a specimen height at a point based upon a cantilever deflection, a cantilever base position and a specimen piezo position; calculate an adhesion force between a probe tip and a specimen at the point by causing an incrementally increasing force to be applied to the probe tip until the probe tip separates from a specimen; and move the probe tip to a new point in the group.

Hough, Paul V.; Wang, Chengpu

2004-11-16

429

Sensing mode atomic force microscope  

DOEpatents

An atomic force microscope is described having a cantilever comprising a base and a probe tip on an end opposite the base; a cantilever drive device connected to the base; a magnetic material coupled to the probe tip, such that when an incrementally increasing magnetic field is applied to the magnetic material an incrementally increasing force will be applied to the probe tip; a moveable specimen base; and a controller constructed to obtain a profile height of a specimen at a point based upon a contact between the probe tip and a specimen, and measure an adhesion force between the probe tip and the specimen by, under control of a program, incrementally increasing an amount of a magnetic field until a release force, sufficient to break the contact, is applied. An imaging method for atomic force microscopy involving measuring a specimen profile height and adhesion force at multiple points within an area and concurrently displaying the profile and adhesion force for each of the points is also described. A microscope controller is also described and is constructed to, for a group of points, calculate a specimen height at a point based upon a cantilever deflection, a cantilever base position and a specimen piezo position; calculate an adhesion force between a probe tip and a specimen at the point by causing an incrementally increasing force to be applied to the probe tip until the probe tip separates from a specimen; and move the probe tip to a new point in the group.

Hough, Paul V. C.; Wang, Chengpu

2006-08-22

430

Modelling of the MICROSCOPE Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The French space mission MICROSCOPE aims at testing the Equivalence Principle (EP) up to an accuracy of 10-15. The experiment will be carried out on a satellite which is developed and produced within the CNES Myriade series. The measuring accuracy will be achieved by means of two high-precision capacitive differential accelerometers that are built by the French institute ONERA, see Touboul and Rodrigues (Class. Quantum Gravity 18:2487-2498, 2001). At ZARM, which is a member of the science team, the data evaluation process is prepared. Therefore, a comprehensive simulation of the real system including the science signal and all error sources is built for the development and testing of data reduction and data analysis algorithms to extract the EP violation signal. Currently, the ZARM Drag-Free simulator, a tool to support mission modelling, is adapted for the MICROSCOPE mission in order to simulate test mass and satellite dynamics. Models of environmental disturbances like solar radiation pressure are considered, also. Additionally, detailed modelling of the on-board capacitive sensors is done. The actual status of the mission modelling will be presented. Particularly, the modelling of disturbances forces will be discussed in detail.

Bremer, Stefanie; List, Meike

2010-03-01

431

Measurement in the confocal microscope.  

PubMed

All measurements require that the microscope must be aligned as accurately as possible, and the gain (or PMT voltage) and black level must be set to avoid any overflow or underflow. Measuring surface profiles and relative depths is straightforward and can be carried out to a higher accuracy than the depth resolution of the microscopes, even though the actual images may look poor. Measuring the thickness of objects which are labeled throughout is less accurate. Length and 2D area measurements are common image analysis problems and easily carried out with image analysis software. Volume measurements are conceptually equally simple but require manual techniques or 3D analysis software. 3D surface area measurements require specialist software, or can be carried out with stereological techniques. Fluorescence intensity measurements require careful calibration. For ratiometric measurements filters and/or laser lines should be chosen to optimize the response and calibration should be done in conditions as close as possible to the experimental ones. FLIM allows exploration of the chemical environment, and multiple labelling even where spectra overlap. When the hardware is available it is also usually the method of choice for measuring FRET, which can measure molecular interactions in the nanometer range. Without FLIM hardware, either intensity measurements with correction for bleed-through and cross talk or acceptor bleaching are the most popular methods of measuring FRET. PMID:24052358

Cox, Guy

2014-01-01

432

Microscopic calculation for deformed nuclei  

SciTech Connect

The microscopic basis of the Interacting Boson Model for deformed nuclei is discussed. The IBM Hamiltonian is constructed microscopically in the following two steps. In the first step, the collective nucleon pairs of J = 0/sup +/ (S), 2/sup +/ (D), etc. are mapped onto the corresponding bosons. Nucleon-nucleon interactions are also mapped onto boson-boson interactions. This mapping method for deformed nuclei was proposed recently, and it turned out that this method is consistent with the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov + angular momentum projection calculation. Low-lying collective states primarily consist of S and D pairs. Consequently, the corresponding boson states mainly consist of s and d bosons, while there are some admixture of g-bosons. In the second step, effects of these g-bosons are included within the s-d boson space by a unitary transformation which transforms a combination of d and g bosons into a new d-boson. By minimizing the coupling between new d and g bosons with an appropriate mixing angle, one can neglect the coupling and obtain the IBM Hamiltonian with s and d bosons. It is demonstrated that the s-d Hamiltonian thus derived indeed reproduces spectra of the original s-d-g Hamiltonian.

Otsuka, Takaharu

1984-09-24

433

Inspection with Robotic Microscopic Imaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future Mars rover missions will require more advanced onboard autonomy for increased scientific productivity and reduced mission operations cost. One such form of autonomy can be achieved by targeting precise science measurements to be made in a single command uplink cycle. In this paper we present an overview of our solution to the subproblems of navigating a rover into place for microscopic imaging, mapping an instrument target point selected by an operator using far away science camera images to close up hazard camera images, verifying the safety of placing a contact instrument on a sample or finding nearby safe points, and analyzing the data that comes back from the rover. The system developed includes portions used in the Multiple Target Single Cycle Instrument Placement demonstration at NASA Ames in October 2004, and portions of the MI Toolkit delivered to the Athena Microscopic Imager Instrument Team for the MER mission still operating on Mars today. Some of the component technologies are also under consideration for MSL mission infusion.

Pedersen, Liam; Deans, Matthew; Kunz, Clay; Sargent, Randy; Chen, Alan; Mungas, Greg

2005-01-01

434

Virtual Reality Liver Biopsy Simulator Virtual Reality, Ultrasound-guided Liver Biopsy Simulator  

E-print Network

Virtual Reality Liver Biopsy Simulator Virtual Reality, Ultrasound-guided Liver Biopsy Simulator: Development and Performance Discrimination1 Running head: Virtual Reality Liver Biopsy Simulator Word.1259/bjr/47436030 #12;Virtual Reality Liver Biopsy Simulator ABSTRACT Purpose: Identify and prospectively

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

435

GIScience Operations with Virtual Globes  

Microsoft Academic Search

GIScience operations with 3D and 4D user-defined information is demonstrated for virtual globes using a light client on Google Earth. Shown are interactive ``point and click'' operations on 3D\\/4D objects suspended in the virtual globe environment. Such interactive operations include extraction of information from, and modification of KML\\/COLLADA models of displayed virtual objects. A Transparent Interface is introduced for Google

S. T. Shipley; S. J. Cantrell; A. Peterlin

2009-01-01

436

The virtual environment display system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Virtual environment technology is a display and control technology that can surround a person in an interactive computer generated or computer mediated virtual environment. It has evolved at NASA-Ames since 1984 to serve NASA's missions and goals. The exciting potential of this technology, sometimes called Virtual Reality, Artificial Reality, or Cyberspace, has been recognized recently by the popular media, industry, academia, and government organizations. Much research and development will be necessary to bring it to fruition.

Mcgreevy, Michael W.

1991-01-01

437

Building Smart Embodied Virtual Characters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embodied conversational characters are autonomous, graphically embodied virtual creatures that live in a 2D or 3D virtual\\u000a environment. They are able to interact intelligently with human users, other characters, and their digital environment. While\\u000a for decades research has concentrated on geometric body modelling and the development of animation and rendering techniques\\u000a for virtual characters, other qualities have now come in

Thomas Rist; Elisabeth André

2003-01-01

438

Property-Based TPM Virtualization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, virtualization technologies and hypervisors celebrate their rediscovery. Especially migration of virtual machines (VMs)\\u000a between hardware platforms provides a useful and cost-effective means to manage complex IT infrastructures. A challenge in\\u000a this context is the virtualization of hardware security modules like the Trusted Platform Module (TPM) since the intended\\u000a purpose of TPMs is to securely link software and the underlying

Ahmad-reza Sadeghi; Christian Stüble; Marcel Winandy

2008-01-01

439

Composition and Petrology of HED Polymict Breccias: The Regolith of (4) Vesta  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The polymict breccias of the howardite, eucrite and diogenite (HED) clan of meteorites preserve records of regolith processes that occur on Vesta, their putative home world. These breccias -- howardites, polymict eucrites and polymict diogenites -- are impact-engendered mixtures of diogenites and eucrites. The compositions of polymict breccias can be used to constrain the lithologic diversity of the vestan crust and the excavation depths of these materials. We have done petrological and compositional studies of multiple samples of 5 polymict eucrites and 28 howardites to investigate these issues. Older analyses were done on samples of approx 0.5 gram mass by INAA; newer analyses on samples of approx 5 gram mass by XRF and ICP-MS. We estimate the percentage of eucritic material (POEM) of polymict breccias by comparing their Al and/or Ca contents to those of average basaltic eucrite and diogenite. Our samples have POEM ranging from 28 to 98; adding two polymict diogenites from extends the range to POEM 10. One hypothesis is that ancient, well-mixed vestan regolith has POEM approx 67 and has a higher content of admixed impactor material. Several of our howardites have POEM of 59-74 (Al and/or Ca contents +/- 10% of POEM 67); about a third have Ni contents >300 micro g/g suggesting they contain >2% chondritic material (CM and/or CR). These may be regolithic howardites. Only one (LEW 85313) contains Ne dominated by a solar wind (SW) component. PCA 02066 is dominated by impact-melt material of polymict parentage and petrologically appears to be a mature regolith breccia, yet it does not contain SW-Ne. GRO 95602 falls within the POEM window, contains SW-Ne], yet has a Ni content of 193 micro g/g. Its petrologic characteristics suggest it was formed from immature regolith (no polymict breccia clasts; no glass). Trace element characteristics of the polymict breccias demonstrate the dominance of main-group eucrites as the basaltic component. Mixing diagrams of Zr, Nb, Ba, Hf and Ta with Al show no evidence for a significant contribution from Stannern-trend eucrites. An exception is polymict eucrite LEW 86001 (POEM 92), which is dominated by Stannern-trend basaltic debris. Howardite LAP 04838 (POEM 84) has higher incompatible trace concentrations than other polymict breccias (excluding LEW 86001), and either contains a Stannern-trend basaltic component, or has a significant contributions from evolved eucrites like Nuevo Laredo.

Mittlefehldt, David W.; Cartwright, J. A.; Herrin, J. S.; Mertzman, S. A.; Mertzman, K. R.; Peng, Z. X.; Quinn, J. E.

2012-01-01

440

Petrology, geochemistry, and tectonic implications of newly collected samples from Babeldaob Island, Republic of Palau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The islands of Palau in the Western Pacific mark the southern end of the Kyushu-Palau Ridge, which is the westernmost remnant arc of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) system. Because it has extensive subaerial exposures of volcanic rocks, it offers an excellent opportunity for detailed geological and petrological investigation. The largest island of Palau, Babeldaob, is composed largely of volcanic materials erupted between the middle Eocene and Oligocene (Mason et al., 1956; Meijer et al., 1983; Cosca et al., 1998). Previous studies have been hampered by thick laterites but nevertheless have shown that boninites and more typical arc basalts and andesites make up these materials. These studies also suggest that early arc sequences similar to those identified along the IBM forearc to the north are also found here (Hawkins and Castillo, 1998). Road cutting and quarrying for the new "Compact Road" around Babeldaob have recently provided unprecedented exposures of the volcanic units. The scientific party for Cruise YK0612 of the R/V Yokosuka spent one day examining and sampling some of these outcrops. Here, we report geological impressions of these outcrops and preliminary petrological and geochemical data for these newly exposed volcanic rocks. The new outcrops expose volcanic conglomerates, breccias, and finer-grained sediments; lava flows, pillow lavas, dikes, and volcanic plugs. Some of the coarse sediments are massive and matrix- supported, and probably were deposited by debris flows. These are interbedded with normally graded turbidite sequences, suggesting subaqueous deposition. A quarry near the east-central coast exposed a complex of meter-scale dikes cut by fault gouge zones. Shallow dome and breccia deposits as well as a pillow lava sequence cropped out in a quarry and a road-cut respectively along the central spine of the island. Most samples are broadly basaltic to andesitic and boninitic, although hornblende andesites or dacites compose the dome and one section of reworked pyroclastic deposits. Petrological, geochemical and geochronological work in progress will allow us to further categorize these samples and place them in the geodynamic history of the IBM arc system.

Reagan, M.; Ishizuka, O.; Hawkins, J.; Bloomer, S.; Fryer, P.; Ishii, T.; Kelley, K.; Kimura, J.; Michibayashi, K.; Ohara, Y.; Stern, R.; Blake, B.; Colin, P.; Colin, L.

2006-12-01

441

A Collaborative Approach to Petrologic Monitoring of the Mt. Saint Helens 2004 Eruption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the first 3 weeks of MSH 2004 eruptive activity, petrologic evaluation of small amounts of volcanic ash provided our only direct means to determine if volcanic unrest was magmatic or hydrothermal in origin. Petrologic monitoring began with collection of ash from solar panels and tree leaves proximal to the crater, shortly after the initial phreatic explosive event on October 1. Within days, a network of 21 ash collection stations (later extended to 27stations), consisting of nested 5-gal buckets supported a few feet above ground-level, was deployed around the volcano at distances of 2.4 to 10 km from the vent. Much of the outer ash collection network is accessible by vehicle on forest roads within the designated hazard zone. Near-vent ash-collectors are co-located with GPS or seismic stations to facilitate collection by those monitoring teams. However, ash retrieval from most proximal stations requires helicopter transport and suitable weather conditions. Ash was collected from subsequent and more explosive steam and ash eruptions on October 4 and 5, and from steam plumes rising from the vent between October 6 and 20, at various down-wind stations. These small ash samples, often only 10ths of grams, are the only eruptive products sampled during this period of endogenous and exogenous dome growth within the crater. On October 20, samples from the base of a new lava spine in the vent area were collected using a bucket suspended from a helicopter. After each collection, samples were air-shipped to collaborators at a variety of USGS and university laboratories, and rapid turn-around of petrologic data on eruption products allowed early recognition of juvenile magmatic components. The progressive change from phreatic to magmatic attributes with time was recognized during the early phases of this eruption and helped to constrain eruption models and forecasts of volcanic hazard. An extensive database is being populated with characteristics of ash and rock samples. The MSH04 sample database will also include details of the ash collection network, prevailing winds, distribution of samples for analysis and a compilation of analytical data and images and is intended for release as a USGS open-file report.

Thornber, C.; Rowe, M.; Pallister, J.; Gooding, D.; Ramsey, D.; Ewert, J.; Couchman, M.; Dzurisin, D.; Hoblitt, R.; Clynne, M.; Lowenstern, J.; Vallance, J.; Cashman, K.

2004-12-01

442

Petrology of Peridotite and Pyroxenite Xenoliths from the Jericho Kimberlite: Implications for the Thermal State of the Mantle beneath the Slave Craton,  

E-print Network

KEY WORDS: mantle xenolith; peridotite; pyroxenite; Slave craton; thermalWe report comprehensive petrological and thermobarometric data for statethe following types of mantle xenoliths from the Jericho kimberlite in the Slave craton: (1) coarse peridotite; (2) porphyroclastic peridotite; (3

Northern Canada; M. G. Kopylova; J. K. Russell; H. Cookenboo

1997-01-01

443

Petrological and geochronological constraints on the metamorphic evolution of high-pressure granulites and eclogites of the Snowbird tectonic zone, Canada  

E-print Network

This thesis examines the petrology and geochronology of high-pressure granulites and eclogites within the Snowbird tectonic zone of the western Canadian Shield. The focus of this study is the East Athabasca mylonite triangle ...

Baldwin, Julia A. (Julia Ann), 1974-

2003-01-01

444

Virtual Scarabaeid Beetle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a 3D virtual reality image of the shiny green beetle Chrysophora chrysochlora (family Scarabaeidae). Menu tools can be used to rotate and/or zoom in on the image. The clarity of the image is excellent, but gets slightly blurry when fully zoomed. This is a high quality resource for teaching, especially for topics involving insect morphology. The Cornell University "Beetle Science" home page (http://www.explore.cornell.edu/scene.cfm?scene=Beetle%20Science) has many more excellent resources for teachers and students. QuickTime 5.0 is required to view the image, which possibly could limit users with older or public computers.

0000-00-00

445

Virtual Japanese Rhinoceros Beetle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a 3D virtual reality image of the "Japanese Rhinoceros Beetle," or Allomyrina dichotoma (family Scarabaeidae, subfamily Dynastinae). Menu tools can be used to rotate and/or zoom in on the image. The clarity of the image is excellent, but gets slightly blurry when fully zoomed. This is a high quality resource for teaching, especially for topics involving insect morphology. The Cornell University "Beetle Science" home page (http://www.explore.cornell.edu/scene.cfm?scene=Beetle%20Science) has many more excellent resources for teachers and students. QuickTime 5.0 is required to view it, which possibly could limit users with older or public computers.

0000-00-00

446

The Virtual Lab Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It can be a real challenge to learn about the foibles and details of lab work, so it is nice to report that Dr. Stephanie Dellis has created this excellent Virtual Lab Book for students beginning the study of molecular biology. The guide is divided into twelve parts, including "Safety in the Molecular Biology Lab", "Minipreparation of Plasmid DNA", and "PCR and Thermacycling". Along with written instructions and particulars, each section also contains a number of helpful diagrams and visual illustrations. Visitors will also want to look at the specialized lab protocols included here, such as "How to Spread a Plate" and "DNA Isolation".

447

Virtual Turing Machine 2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A Turing machine is theoretical computer consisting of a finite set of internal states, a finite alphabet that includes a blank symbol, and a finite set of instructions. It has a physical head and a physical infinitely long tape, which is divided into cells. The cell values consist of the alphabet. The tape has a finite number of non-blank cells. The head can read and write to the cells and move the tape one cell to the left and one cell to the right. The Virtual Turing Machine lets you input tape values and an instruction set to see the output of a turing machine.

Paul R. C. Ming

448

Virtual vision loss simulator.  

PubMed

Vision loss is common among people over the age of 65 and the condition is irreversible in most cases. Our simulator is a means to effectively and accurately inform people about the nature of common vision problems, initially limited to medically accurate simulations of cataract and macular degeneration. Using an eye tracker that continuously determines the subject's fixation point, a systematically degraded digital image displayed on an HMD can be a powerful educational tool. This article presents our Virtual Vision Loss (VVL) simulator and the developed simulation techniques based on calibration from 27 subjects. PMID:15544311

Toufaili, Feras M; Seibel, Eric J; McIntyre, David J

2004-01-01

449

"Virtual Feel" Capaciflectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The term "virtual feel" denotes a type of capaciflector (an advanced capacitive proximity sensor) and a methodology for designing and using a sensor of this type to guide a robot in manipulating a tool (e.g., a wrench socket) into alignment with a mating fastener (e.g., a bolt head) or other electrically conductive object. A capaciflector includes at least one sensing electrode, excited with an alternating voltage, that puts out a signal indicative of the capacitance between that electrode and a proximal object.

Vranish, John M.

2006-01-01

450

Mobile Virtual Private Networking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mobile Virtual Private Networking (VPN) solutions based on the Internet Security Protocol (IPSec), Transport Layer Security/Secure Socket Layer (SSL/TLS), Secure Shell (SSH), 3G/GPRS cellular networks, Mobile IP, and the presently experimental Host Identity Protocol (HIP) are described, compared and evaluated. Mobile VPN solutions based on HIP are recommended for future networking because of superior processing efficiency and network capacity demand features. Mobile VPN implementation issues associated with the IP protocol versions IPv4 and IPv6 are also evaluated. Mobile VPN implementation experiences are presented and discussed.

Pulkkis, Göran; Grahn, Kaj; Mårtens, Mathias; Mattsson, Jonny

451

The Virtual Terrain Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Virtual Terrain Project (VTP) homepage has a wealth of information about three dimensional environment rendering, as well as links to many different research efforts and papers about the subject. The project's aim "is to foster the creation of tools for easily constructing any part of the real world in interactive, 3D digital form." Several subtopics are addressed, including plant modeling and realistic ground detailing and texturing. An interesting focus is on cultural aspects of terrain rendering, such as roads, buildings, and other infrastructure. Some images of VTP worlds are shown, and three software titles developed with the project can be downloaded upon request.

452

The Experimental Virtual Environment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Experimental Virtual Environment (EVE) is a project being conducted by the Helsinki University of Technology and the high-performance computing and networking center in Finland. The EVE encloses the user inside three walls and a floor that are rear projection screens, and the user can interact with the environment with a head tracking unit and other sensors. A brief introduction is given on the EVE Web site, followed by examples of applications for the system, its current implementation, and descriptions of past and current projects. A thesis about the EVE implementation goes into much more detail, and there are also several theses and related documents given in the Publications section.

453

VIRTUAL THEATER for Industrial Training: A Collaborative Virtual Environment  

E-print Network

applications. In this paper we present a CVE prototype developed for industrial tele-training. We are showingVIRTUAL THEATER for Industrial Training: A Collaborative Virtual Environment J.C.OLIVEIRA1 , S Technology and Engineering 2 Dept. of Systems and Computer Engineering 1 University of Ottawa 2 Carleton

Ottawa, University of

454

Petrology, geochemistry and tectonic settings of the mafic dikes and sills associated with the evolution of the Proterozoic Cuddapah Basin of south India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we summarize the petrological, geochemical and tectonic processes involved in the evolution of the Proterozoic\\u000a intracratonic Cuddapah basin. We use new and available ages of Cuddapah igneous rocks, together with field, stratigraphic,\\u000a geophysical and other criteria, to arrive at a plausible model for the timing of these processes during basin evolution. We\\u000a present petrological and geochronological evidence

Nilanjan Chatterjee; Somdev Bhattacharji

2001-01-01

455

Petrology and precursors of lithic clasts from feldspathic fragmental breccia 67975  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Textures and mineral chemistry (by INAA) of five lithic clasts, including both light green and light gray clasts, from feldspathic fragmental breccia 67975 were studied. The presence of five rock types was confirmed: feldspathic microporphyritic melt breccia, metamorphosed mafic-rich melt breccia with zoned and mantled clasts, 'typical' reequilibrated lunar feldspathic granulites with granoblastic texture and homogeneous mineral chemistry, hornfels, and a recrystallized mafic-rich granulite with relict igneous texture and the composition of a ferroan anorthositic norite. The mineralogy and textural data corroborate the grouping of the light green clasts proposed by Lindstrom (1984). However, the light gray clasts do not appear to be coherent in petrologic (or chemical) characteristics; one is a plagioclase-rich, possibly monomict rock with ferroan anorthositic precursor(s), and the other represents a mixture of feldspathic granulite and ferroan anorthositic norite lithologies.

Mcgee, James J.

1987-01-01

456

Petrology and geochemistry of lithic fragments separated from the Apollo 15 deep-drill core  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Petrological and geochemical analysis of lithic fragments separated from the Apollo 15 deep-drill core showed these fragments to fall into the essentially the same range of rock types as observed in surface soil samples and large rock samples. Three particles are singled out as being of special interest. One sample is a mare basalt containing extremely evolved phases. The particle may represent small-scale imperfect crystal/liquid separation in a lava flow. A green glass particle is not the ultramafic emerald green glass described from the Apollo 15 site, but rather an ANT-like light green color, and has a quite different chemical composition from the ultramafic variety. One mare basalt displays a positive Eu anomaly and is enriched in plagioclase relative to olivine plus pyroxene.

Lindstrom, M. M.; Nielsen, R. L.; Drake, M. J.

1977-01-01

457

An Isotopic and Petrologic Study of Calcium-Aluminum-Rich Inclusions from CO3 Meteorites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the mineralogy and petrology of 229 calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from ten CO3 meteorites of petrologic types 3.0-3.7. Subsets of these inclusions were measured by ion probe for magnesium, calcium, and titanium isotopes and REE abundances. Most CAIs from CO3 meteorites fall into three major types: (1) melilite-rich inclusions, which also contain spinel/hercynite, perovskite, and occasionally hibonite; (2) spinel-pyroxene inclusions; and (3) hibonite-hercynite inclusions. In addition, several isolated hibonite grains, two grossite (CaAl 4O 7) bearing CAIs, two hibonite-fassaite microspherules, and one anorthite-spinel-pyroxene inclusion were found. CAIs from CO3 meteorites exhibit all of the REE patterns commonly seen in inclusions from CV3 and CM2 chondrites. Most exhibit evidence of 26Al, and many have inferred ( 26Al/ 27Al) o ? 5 × 10 -5. The relative abundances of different types of CAIs in CO3 chondrites differ from those in CV3 and CM2 chondrites. CAIs in CO3 chondrites have experienced considerable secondary alteration, both before and after accretion. Signatures of nebular alteration include Wark-Lovering rims and the high Fe contents in spinels from all hibonite/hercynite inclusions. Occasionally, melilite and anorthite show evidence of nebular alteration to feldspathoids and pyroxene. The magnesium-aluminum systematics of some melilite-rich inclusions were apparently disturbed prior to final accretion of the parent body. Parent body alteration is indicated by correlations between CAI characteristics and the petrologic type of the host meteorite. Spinel in melilite-rich and coarse-grained spinel-pyroxene inclusions becomes more Fe rich, with the development of relatively homogeneous hercynitic spinel (˜50-60 mol%) in CAIs from metamorphic grades >3.4. Perovskite has been converted to ilmenite in types >3.4. Melilite-rich inclusions are abundant in CO3.0-3.3 meteorites, rare in 3.4 meteorites, and absent meteorites of types 3.5-3.7; melilite-rich CAIs are probably replaced by inclusions rich in feldspathoids, pyroxene, and Fe-rich spinel. Isotopic disturbance of the magnesium-aluminum systematics may be more severe in higher petrologic types. Hibonite seems to be unaffected by this level of metamorphism. Three isotopically unusual inclusions were found. One single-crystal hibonite, Isna SP16, has a REE pattern strongly depleted in Ce and Y, ( 26Al/ 27Al) o = (2.4 ± 0.3) × 10 -5, and mass fractionated calcium (F Ca = +12 ± 2‰/amu), but no resolvable nuclear anomalies in neutron-rich calcium isotopes. The REE pattern, which is thought to reflect nebular conditions, and mass-fractionated calcium, indicative of evaporation, are similar to those of the FUN inclusion, HAL, and related hibonites, indicating similar formation conditions. The absence in Isna SP16 of the nuclear anomalies observed in HAL and the difference in ( 26Al/ 27Al) o between HAL and Isna SP16 indicate that the processes that produced HAL-type hibonites operated on diverse materials. Two hibonite-bearing microspherules, Colony SP1 and ALH82101 SP15, exhibit nearly flat REE patterns with negative europium anomalies and slightly negative ? 26Mg. ALH82101 SP15 has resolved excesses of 48Ca and 50Ti. These characteristics are similar to those of previously described microspherules from Murchison and Lance, implying that the microspherules formed via a single process from related, but not identical source materials.

Russell, S. S.; Huss, G. R.; Fahey, A. J.; Greenwood, R. C.; Hutchison, R.; Wasserburg, G. J.

1998-02-01

458

Petrology and provenance of the Great Valley Group. Southern Klamath Mountains and northern Sacramento Valley  

SciTech Connect

Lower Cretaceous sandstone and conglomerate of the Great Valley Group rest depositionally on the southern Klamath Mountains at the north end of the Sacramento Valley. Exposures include nonmarine, shallow marine, and deep marine sediments, which are part of the Platina Formation (petrofacies). Approximately 150 sandstone point counts (500 points per section using Gazzi-Dickinson method) and 32 conglomerate clast counts indicate a Klamath provenance of mixed magmatic-arc and recycled orogenic character. Standard triangular plots and multivariate analyses (combined with paleocurrent and paleogeographic data) suggest discrete source areas within the Klamath terrane. However, the general homogeneity of both sandstone and conglomerate petrology is consistent with all of the units being included within the Platina petrofacies.

Short, P.F.; Ingersoll, R.V. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))

1990-05-01

459

A distributed architecture for a loosely coupled virtual microscopy system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Virtual microscopy systems are typically implemented following standard client-server architectures, under which the server must store a huge quantity of data. The server must attend requests from many clients as several Regions of Interest (RoIs) at any desired levels of magnification and quality. The communication bandwidth limitation, the I/O image data accesses, the decompression processing and specific raw image data operations such as clipping or zooming to a desired magnification, are highly time-consuming processes. All this together may result in poor navigation experiences with annoying effects produced by the delayed response times. This article presents a virtual microscope system with a distributed storage system and parallel processing. The system attends each request in parallel, using a clustered java virtual machine and a distributed filesystem. Images are stored in JPEG2000 which allows natural parallelization by splitting the image data into a set of small codeblocks that contain independent information of an image patch, namely, a particular magnification, a specific image location and a pre-established quality level. The compressed J2K file is replicated within the Distributed Filesystem, providing fault tolerance and fast access. A requested RoI is split into stripes which are independently decoded for the distributed filesystem, using an index file which allows to easily locate the particular node containing the required set of codeblocks. When comparing with a non-parallelized version of the virtual microscope software, user experience is improved by speeding up RoI displaying in about 60 % using two computers.

Sánchez, César; Romero, Eduardo

2011-03-01

460

Virtual Interactive Classroom: A New Technology for Distance Learning Developed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Virtual Interactive Classroom (VIC) allows Internet users, specifically students, to remotely control and access data from scientific equipment. This is a significant advantage to school systems that cannot afford experimental equipment, have Internet access, and are seeking to improve science and math scores with current resources. A VIC Development Lab was established at Lewis to demonstrate that scientific equipment can be controlled by remote users over the Internet. Current projects include a wind tunnel, a room camera, a science table, and a microscope.

York, David W.; Babula, Maria

1999-01-01

461

Basaltic Magmatism: The Dominant Factor in the Petrologic and Tectonic Evolution of the Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Silicate bodies such as the Moon, Mars, probably Mercury, and possibly Venus, appear to have evolved in three main stages: a first (felsic) differentiation, a late heavy bombardment, and a second (basaltic) differentiation. It has been proposed that the Earth underwent a similar sequence. This paper argues that the second differentiation, basaltic magmatism, has dominated the petrologic and tectonic evolution of the Earth for four billion years. A global andesitic crust, formed during and after accretion of the planet, was disrupted by major impacts that triggered mantle upwelling and sea-floor spreading about 4 billion years ago. The oceanic crust collectively has since been formed by basaltic volcanism, from spreading centers and mantle plumes. However, the continental crust has also been greatly affected. Basaltic underplating has promoted anatexis and diapiric intrusion of granitoids in granite-greenstone terrains, as well as providing heat for regional metamorphism. Basaltic intrusions, such as the Nipissing diabase of the Sudbury area, have added to the thickness of continental crust. Satellite magnetic surveys suggest that there are more such basaltic intrusions than previously realized; examples include the Bangui anomaly of central Africa and the Kentucky anomaly. Basaltic overplating from mafic dike swarms has repeatedly flooded continents; had it not been for erosion, they would be covered with basalt as Venus is today. The tectonic effects of basaltic volcanism on continents have only recently been realized. The World Stress Map project has discovered that continents are under horizontal compressive stress, caused by push from mid-ocean ridges, i.e., by basaltic volcanism. The stress fields are generally uniform over large intraplate areas, and could contribute to intraplate tectonism. Seafloor spreading has demonstrably been effective for at least 200 million years, and ridge push thus a contributor to tectonic activity for that long. Collectively, the petrologic and tectonic evolution of the Earth has been dominated for about 4 billion years by the 'second differentiation,' i.e., by basaltic magmatism.

Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

2003-01-01

462

Lateral variation in geochemistry, petrology, and palynology in the Elswick coal bed, Pike County, Kentucky  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Middle Pennsylvanian/Langsettian (Westphalian A) Elswick coal bed, correlative to the Upper Banner of Virginia, is a rare example of a mined high-sulfur (> 2%) coal in Eastern Kentucky, a region known for low-sulfur coals. To characterize lateral variation in the geochemistry, petrography, and palynology of the Elswick coal bed, three sites were sampled along a southeast-northwest transect within a single mine. At the southeastern site, the lower 101??cm of the 116-cm thick coal is dull, generally dominated by durain and dull clarain. While all benches at this site fit within the previously-defined "mixed palynoflora - moderate/low vitrinite group," suggesting a stressed environment of deposition, the palynology of the benches of the dull interval show greater diversity than might be expected just from the petrology. Lithology is generally similar between the sites, but each site has some differences in the petrology. Overall, the coal bed shows significant lateral variation in properties at the mine scale, some of which can be attributed to the gain or loss of upper and lower lithologies, either through an actual physical merging or through the change in character of lithotypes. Sulfur content varies between the three sites examined for this study. Site 3, located in the northwestern portion of the study area is characterized by a strikingly high sulfur zone (7.45%) in the middle of the coal bed, a feature missing at the other sites. Pyrite and marcasite, in a mid-seam lithotype at the northwestern site (site 3), show signs of overgrowths, indicating multiple generations of sulfide emplacement. The high-sulfur site 3 lithologies all have massive overgrowths of euhedral and framboidal pyrite, fracture- and cleat-fill pyrite, and sulfide emplacement in fusinite lumens. Sulfur is high throughout the mine area, but variations are evident in the extent of secondary growth of sulfides. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Hower, J.C.; Ruppert, L.F.; Eble, C.F.

2007-01-01

463

Volcanological and petrological evolution of Vulcano island (Aeolian Arc, southern Tyrrhenian Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Petrological and geochemical data are reported for volcanic rocks from Vulcano island. The subaerial volcanism (120 ka to present) built up a NW-SE elongated composite structure, affected by two intersecting multistage calderas. Volcanics older than 20 ka consist mostly of high-K calc-alkaline (HKCA) to shoshonitic (SHO) mafic rocks. These magmas interacted significantly with the continental crust, which generated variable Sr isotopic ratios (0.70412-0.70520). However, a major role was also played by input of parental liquids into the magma chamber, which prevented further evolution of the magmas. HKCA, SHO, and potassic (KS) rocks formed from 20 to 8 ka, display a much larger range of SiO2 (from shoshonites to rhyolites) and higher concentrations of incompatible elements with respect to the previous stage. Sr isotopic ratios show small variations (0.70448-0.70486). Mixing of silicic and mafic liquids and fractional crystallization processes (FC) were the main evolutionary processes during this stage. Volcanics younger than 8 ka consist of SHO and leucite-bearing KS mafic rocks, with abundant intermediate and silicic products. Mafic and intermediate rocks display similar incompatible element abundances and Sr isotopic ratios as the previous stage volcanics, whereas higher 87Sr/86Sr (0.70494-0.70583) are observed in some rhyolites. These products originated from a complex interplay of FC, crustal assimilation, and magma mixing processes. The most mafic rocks show increasing incompatible element abundances, Rb/Sr, Rb/Ba, Mg/Al, Mg/Ca, and a decrease in large ion lithophile to high field strength element ratios, passing from older HKCA-SHO to the younger SHO-KS volcanics. These variations suggest a shifting of magma sources from a slightly metasomatized asthenosphere (fertile peridotite) to a more strongly metasomatized lithospheric mantle (residual peridotite). Time-related petrological and geochemical variations have been used to develop a model for the evolution of the Vulcano plumbing system.

de Astis, Gianfilippo; La Volpe, Luigi; Peccerillo, Angelo; Civetta, Lucia

1997-04-01

464

Petrologic considerations for hot dry rock geothermal site selection in the Clear Lake Region, California  

SciTech Connect

The Clear Lake area is well known for anomalous heat flow, thermal springs, hydrothermal mineral deposits, and Quaternary volcanism. These factors, along with the apparent lack of a large reservoir of geothermal fluid north of Collayomi fault make the Clear Lake area an attractive target for hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal development. Petrologic considerations provide some constraints on site selection for HDR development. Spatial and temporal trends in volcanism in the Coast Ranges indicate that magmatism has migrated to the north with time, paralleling passage of the Mendocino triple junction and propagation of the San Andreas fault. Volcanism in the region may have resulted from upwelling of hot asthenosphere along the southern margin of the subducted segment of the Gorda plate. Spatial and temporal trends of volcanism within the Clear Lake volcanic field are similar to larger-scale trends of Neogene volcanism in the Cost Ranges. Volcanism (especially for silicic compositions) shows a general migration to the north over the {approximately}2 Ma history of the field, with the youngest two silicic centers located at Mt. Konocti and Borax Lake. The Mt. Konocti system (active from {approximately} 0.6 to 0.3 Ma) was large and long-lived, whereas the Borax Lake system is much smaller but younger (0.09 Ma). Remnants of silicic magma bodies under Mt. Konocti may be in the latter stages of cooling, whereas a magma body centered under Borax Lake may be in the early stages of development. The existence of an upper crustal silicic magma body of under Borax Lake has yet to be demonstrated by passive geophysics, however, subsurface temperatures in the area as high (> 200{degrees}C at 2000 m) as those beneath the Mt. Konocti area. Based on petrologic considerations alone, the Mt. Konocti-Borax Lake area appears to be the most logical choice for HDR geothermal development in the region.

Stimac, J.; Goff, F. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Hearn, B.C. Jr. (US Geological Survey, Reston, VA, Branch of Lithospheric Processes (United States))

1992-01-01

465

Virtualizing healthcare: competing visions.  

PubMed

Telehealth technologies show tremendous promise in helping reduce health care costs by bridging distance and time. However, neither of the two competing visions for how telehealth should be used is scalable. On the one hand, remote telehealth care providers who triage or monitor patients, are not integrated into the health care system. They are outsiders, lacking access to the records of patients. On the other hand, face-to-face providers who provide the bulk of care in the health care system, are increasingly being asked to keep track of remote monitoring data and to manage patients remotely. They are insiders, but lack the time or training to manage patients remotely. In this paper, we propose a third way: integrate telehealth care providers into the primary care team as a virtual team. Being virtual, they can provide complementary services that patients need, but are not getting, such as peak and off hours care, off hours disease management advice, between-visit support and follow-up and remote device monitoring. We also describe the design requirements, issues and solutions for integrating telehealth technology into electronic medical record systems. PMID:25676974

Keshavjee, Karim; Lajoie, Don; Murphy, Jim

2015-01-01

466

Virtual Developing Country  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Biz/ed recently unveiled this new resource. Virtual Developing Country introduces users to "many of the issues and ideas that are of interest in the field of development economics" by offering a virtual tour of the African country Zambia. On the field trip, users make stops to visit places and meet people that help illustrate economic and development theory. Five field trips are offered: The Rural Life and Agriculture Tour, The Copper Tour, The Trade Tour, The Aid Tour, and The Wildlife Tour. Throughout the tours, users are introduced to the people, places, and sites of Zambia, along with the economic issues related to each tour. Each stop is accompanied by key data and economic theory, photographs, worksheets, and a glossary. The teacher's guide gives a detailed description of the program and offers advice to how to effectively use it in the classroom. This interactive site is an outstanding example of the innovative ways the Web can be used as a teaching tool.

467

When Virtual Worlds Expand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The future of a virtual world depends on whether it can grow in subjective size, cultural content, and numbers of human participants. In one form of growth, exemplified by Second Life, the scope of a world increases gradually as new sponsors pay for new territory and inhabitants create content. A very different form of growth is sudden expansion, as when World of Warcraft (WoW) added entire new continents in its Burning Crusade and Lich King expansions (Lummis and Kern 2006, 2008; Corneliussen and Rettberg 2008; Sims et al. 2008). Well-established gamelike worlds have often undergone many expansions. Both the pioneer science fiction game Anarchy Online, which was launched in 2001, and Star Wars Galaxies dating from 2003, have had three, and EVE Online also from 2003 has had nine, although smaller ones. This chapter reports research on WoW's 2008 Lich King expansion, using both quantitative and qualitative methods, in order to develop theoretical ideas of the implications of expansion for virtual worlds.

Bainbridge, William Sims

468

Virtual reality in telemedicine.  

PubMed

Virtual reality (VR) can be considered as the leading edge of a general evolution of present communication interfaces involving the television, computer, and telephone. The main characteristic of this evolution is the full immersion of the human sensorimotor channels into a vivid and global communication experience. Because telemedicine principally focuses on transmitting medical information, VR has the potential to enhance this function. Particularly, VR can be used in telemedicine as an advanced communication interface, which enables a more intuitive mode of interacting with information, and as a flexible environment that enhances the feeling of physical presence during the interaction. In this article, the state of the art in VR-based telemedicine applications is described. This technology is now used in remote or augmented surgery as well as surgical training, which are critically dependent on eye-hand coordination. Recently, however, different researchers have tried to use virtual environments in medical visualization and for assessment and rehabilitation in neuropsychology. This article also discusses technological, ergonomical, and human factor issues, and specific guidelines are presented for expanding the use of VR in telemedicine. PMID:11110636

Riva, G; Gamberini, L

2000-01-01

469

Oriental Institute Virtual Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Chicago Oriental Institute Virtual Museum has recently opened its doors. The unique aspect of this museum of "history, art and archaeology of the ancient Near East" is that it uses Apple Quicktime VR (available for both Windows and Macintosh platforms from a pointer to the Apple Computer site) to take the visitor on a moving tour through selected parts of the museum. Viewers can move about museum exhibits by simply dragging their mouse to the right or left. At this time only the Egyptian and Assyrian galleries are "open," but soon the Mesopotamian, Persian, Palestinian, and Temporary Exhibits galleries will be open as well. Each exhibit is accompanied by a complete list of artifacts on exhibit, as well as connections to other Oriental Institute sites of interest, including selected photographic archives. At present, the main drawback to the site is that the artifacts are not virtually "labeled"; that is, it is very difficult for the lay user to link the artifacts being viewed to their descriptions. However, this site is a work in progress, and planned enhancements include the embedding of URLs in the QTVR panoramic movie files, and linking text and photographs of individual objects to their images in the panoramic movie. Note that each exhibit is very large (around 900 kilobytes), and that familiarity with QTVR will help in the navigation of the site.

470

Intelligent Virtual Environments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The research goals of the British-based lab, Intelligent Virtual Environments, of the University of Teesside are to develop "new models of interactivity based on Artificial Intelligence techniques." The website contains access to current projects, past and completed projects, technologies, as well as all publications and a tool to search those publications. Visitors can view the more than two dozen articles, going all the way back to 2000 on the subject of artificial intelligence techniques. On the menu to the left-hand side of the page are the links to the lab's current projects "IRIS", "CALLAS" and "COMPANIONS", and to "ALTERNE", "BARDS" and "CHARBIS", which are the lab's past and completed projects. Visitors especially shouldn't miss learning about the "COMPANIONS" project, which will be a virtual conversation companion in the near future. Watch the "Companions Movie" and check out the "Health and Fitness Companion" and "Senior Companion" demonstrators on the COMPANIONS homepage. There is also a Companions blog, for those interested in reading and responding to various topics related to this personalized type of artificial intelligence.

471

Ergito: Virtual Text  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ergito's Virtual Text, started in 2000, was created to provide a more timely and interactive alternative to printed scientific textbooks at the undergraduate and graduate level. This still-developing Web site covers life science writ large, including molecular biology, cell biology, genetics, biochemistry, immunology, and so on. However, only a small number of features are available free of charge. The first chapter of the molecular biology module -- Genes are DNA -- is available for free, as is Great Experiments, a collection of essays written by authors who conducted original research that has contributed greatly to our understanding of molecular and cellular biology. Great Experiments has a recently added essay by 2001 Nobel Prize winner Paul Nurse, titled "The Discovery of cdc2 as the Key Regulator of the Cell Cycle." These essays are formatted just as the Virtual Text pages are, with downloadable figures, a glossary, an online note-taking feature (notes are automatically compiled with a summary of the essay), glossary, and more. Ergito will soon make available Techniques, another free feature offering descriptions of widely used experimental protocols. Even without free access to the larger body of material in this Web site, Ergito is a fantastic resource for learning about molecular and cellular biology. Users must complete a free registration process to access this Web site.

472

The Russian Virtual Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Russian Virtual Observatory (RVO) will be an integral component of the International Virtual Observatory (IVO). The RVO has the main goal of integrating resources of astronomical data accumulated in Russian observatories and institutions (databases, archives, digitized glass libraries, bibliographic data, a remote access system to information and technical resources of telescopes etc.), and providing transparent access for scientific and educational purposes to the distributed information and data services that comprise its content. Another goal of the RVO is to provide Russian astronomers with on-line access to the rich volumes of data and metadata that have been, and will continue to be, produced by astronomical survey projects. Centre for Astronomical Data (CAD), among other Russian institutions, has had the greatest experience in collecting and distributing astronomical data for more than 20 years. Some hundreds of catalogs and journal tables are currently available from the CAD repository. More recently, mirrors of main astronomical data resources (VizieR, ADS, etc) are now maintained in CAD. Besides, CAD accumulates and makes available for the astronomical community information on principal Russian astronomical resources.

Dluzhnevskaya, O. B.; Malkov, O. Yu.; Kilpio, A. A.; Kilpio, E. Yu.; Kovaleva, D. A.; Sat, L. A.

473

Virtual Optical Comparator  

SciTech Connect

The Virtual Optical Comparator, VOC, was conceived as a result of the limitations of conventional optical comparators and vision systems. Piece part designs for mechanisms have started to include precision features on the face of parts that must be viewed using a reflected image rather than a profile shadow. The VOC concept uses a computer generated overlay and a digital camera to measure features on a video screen. The advantage of this system is superior edge detection compared to traditional systems. No vinyl charts are procured or inspected. The part size and expensive fixtures are no longer a concern because of the range of the X-Y table of the Virtual Optical Comparator. Product redesigns require only changes to the CAD image overlays; new vinyl charts are not required. The inspection process is more ergonomic by allowing the operator to view the part sitting at a desk rather than standing over a 30 inch screen. The procurement cost for the VOC will be less than a traditional comparator with a much smaller footprint with less maintenance and energy requirements.

Thompson, Greg

2008-10-20

474

Collaborative Virtual Environment Standards: A Performance Evaluation  

E-print Network

1 Collaborative Virtual Environment Standards: A Performance Evaluation Jauvane C. de Oliveira of Information Technology and Engineering University of Ottawa, Canada [jauvane | shervin | georgana]@mcrlab.uottawa.ca Abstract Collaborative Virtual Environments are virtual reality spaces that enable participants

Ottawa, University of

475

Virtual stationary timed automata for mobile networks  

E-print Network

In this thesis, we formally define a programming abstraction for mobile networks called the Virtual Stationary Automata programming layer, consisting of real mobile clients, virtual timed I/O automata called virtual ...

Nolte, Tina Ann, 1979-

2009-01-01

476

Colon Cancer: Virtual Detection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Colon cancer is both the second most pervasive cancer to attack humans and one of the most preventable. One of the sad reasons for its prevalence has little to do with genes, diet, or overall health. Instead, it is the social stigma of the colon and rectum and the associated test --the colonoscopy -- which drives this cancer to the top of the list of killers. As with many cancer types, colon and rectal cancer is best treated in the early stages. And, when done so, the success of treatment is exponentially greater than dealing with it later on. While the typical test, the colonoscopy, is reliable, safe, and relatively easy, it still requires temporary sedation of the patient and the insertion of a camera through the large intestines. While the patient is sleepy and relaxed due to the sedation, and the procedure is reliably painless, t