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1

A Virtual Petrological Microscope for All Apollo 11 Lunar Samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A means of viewing, over the Internet, polished thin sections of every rock in the Apollo lunar sample collections via software, duplicaing many of the functions of a petrological microscope, is described.

Pillnger, C. T.; Tindle, A. G.; Kelley, S. P.; Quick, K.; Scott, P.; Gibson, E. K.; Zeigler, R. A.

2014-01-01

2

A virtual petrological microscope for teaching and outreach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning to use microscopes for geoscience or life science applications is a crucial part of the practical training offered in many science degrees, but the opportunities to study are often constrained by available laboratory space and time, and sometimes constrained by the number of high quality microscopes available. The alternative, although not replacing physical microscopes, offers the opportunity for enhancement

Simon P. Kelley; Peter Whalley; Andrew G. Tindle; Mahesh Anand

2010-01-01

3

Assessment of Petrological Microscopes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a set of procedures designed to check the design, ergonomics, illumination, function, optics, accessory equipment, and image quality of a microscope being considered for purchase. Functions for use in a petrology or mineralogy laboratory are stressed. (CW)

Mathison, Charter Innes

1990-01-01

4

Virtual Microscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Virtual Microscope is a NASA-funded project that provides simulated scientific instrumentation for students and researchers worldwide as part of NASA's Virtual Laboratory initiative. This site serves as home base for the Imaging Technology Group's contributions to that project- namely virtual microscopes and the multi-dimensional, high-resolution image datasets they view. Currently we provide 90 samples totaling over 62 gigapixels of image data. The Virtual Microscope, which is available for free download, supports functionality from electron, light, and scanning probe microscopes, datasets for these instruments, training materials to learn more about microscopy, and other related tools. The project is open source and the code is available on Sourceforge.

2011-05-25

5

Virtual Microscope for Earth Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Virtual Microscope was developed for undergraduate teaching of petrology and geoscience at the Open University in the United Kingdom, allowing students to explore rock hand specimens and thin sections in a browser window. Collections include petrographic images of terrestrial, extraterrestrial and rare rock collections.

Kelley, Simon; Tindle, Andy; Mahesh, And A.; University, Open

6

Virtual petrological microscopy: web 2.0 technology for learning microscopy skills outside the laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning to use microscopes for geoscience or life science applications is a crucial part of the practical training offered in many science degrees, but the opportunities to study are often constrained by available laboratory space and time, and sometimes constrained by the number of high quality microscopes available. We will demonstrate a new based virtual petrological microscope which offers the

S. P. Kelley; P. Whalley; A. Tindle

2009-01-01

7

Virtual Compound Microscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Virtual Microscopy is a very handy online tool to learn how to use a microscope. The creator developed this tool in response to student frustration in learning how to use microscopes. The virtual scope has all the same controls found on the real unit and the user can learn the parts of the microscope as well as how to adjust the different objectives, course and fine focus, and make light adjustments with the iris diaphragm. Of particular interest is the fact that the simulation shows actual microscope specimens, like onion root tip, so students can see what mitotic figures look like under the microscope without having to be expert users. Of course, a simulation does not take the place of using the actual microscope but can certainly shorten the time that it takes to learn how to use one, and lessen the amount of frustration for both student and teacher.

Ketcham, Robert

8

The Virtual Microscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The work of pathologists is often limited by the supply of tissue samples and live specimens they have on hand. This paper addresses this problem by proposing the Virtual Microscope (VM), a software-based solution that digitally records images of magnified slides. In this manner, a scientist would only need to search a database of digital slides instead of hoping to find another slide of the required sample. The VM is created in such a way as to simulate a real microscope, allowing the user to change illumination levels, focus, and magnification factor. The authors describe the architecture and different configurations of the VM system, as well as addressing potential problems due to the massive amount of data required for a single digital slide.

Benyon, Michael P.; Catalyurek, Umit.; Chang, Chialin, 1966-.; Kure, Tahsin.; Saltz, Joel.; Sussman, Alan (Alan L.).

9

Virtual pinhole confocal microscope  

SciTech Connect

Scanned confocal microscopes enhance imaging capabilities, providing improved contrast and image resolution in 3-D, but existing systems have significant technical shortcomings and are expensive. Researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory have developed a novel approach--virtual pinhole confocal microscopy--that uses state of the art illumination, detection, and data processing technologies to produce an imager with a number of advantages: reduced cost, faster imaging, improved efficiency and sensitivity, improved reliability and much greater flexibility. Work at Los Alamos demonstrated proof of principle; prototype hardware and software have been used to demonstrate technical feasibility of several implementation strategies. The system uses high performance illumination, patterned in time and space. The authors have built functional confocal imagers using video display technologies (LCD or DLP) and novel scanner based on a micro-lens array. They have developed a prototype system for high performance data acquisition and processing, designed to support realtime confocal imaging. They have developed algorithms to reconstruct confocal images from a time series of spatially sub-sampled images; software development remains an area of active development. These advances allow the collection of high quality confocal images (in fluorescence, reflectance and transmission modes) with equipment that can inexpensively retrofit to existing microscopes. Planned future extensions to these technologies will significantly enhance capabilities for microscopic imaging in a variety of applications, including confocal endoscopy, and confocal spectral imaging.

George, J.S.; Rector, D.M.; Ranken, D.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Biophysics Group; Peterson, B. [SciLearn Inc. (United States); Kesteron, J. [VayTech Inc. (United States)

1999-06-01

10

Virtual Microscope: Light Microscopy Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animated tutorial illustrates the basics of light microscopy. It opens with a brief introduction to light refraction and interference. Next, the tutorial explores light microscope anatomy and contrast methods -- including stain, darkfield, and polarized contrast. Finally, it discusses the field of fluorescent light microscopy. This resource is part of the Virtual Microscope project, which provides cost-free simulated scientific instrumentation for students and researchers worldwide as part of NASA's Virtual Laboratory initiative. See Related Materials for links to additional animated tutorials on Atomic Force Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy.

2013-02-11

11

Digital Dynamic Telepathology - the Virtual Microscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Virtual Microscope is being designed as an inte- grated computer hardware and software system that gen- erates a highly realistic digital simulation of analog, me- chanical light microscopy. We present our work over the past year in meeting the challenges in building such a sys- tem. The enhancements we made are discussed, as well as the planned future improvements.

Michael D. Beynon; Fabian Bustamante; Angelo Demarzo; Renato Ferreira; Robert Miller; Mark Silberman; Joel Saltz; Alan Sussman; Hubert Tsang

1998-01-01

12

Molecular Expressions: Virtual Microscopy - Stereoscopic Zoom Microscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This item is an interactive Java tutorial that simulates an industrial stereoscope with a zoom ratio of 15x. The stereoscopic microscope is designed with two separate optical paths and two eyepieces to produce a 3-D visualization. It is often used to study surfaces of solid materials or to conduct close work such as microsurgery or circuit board inspection. This simulation features diverse specimens including an integrated circuit, a tungsten filament, and a moth wing. It is part of a larger collection of virtual microscopy simulations developed for teachers and learners of introductory optics.

Davidson, Michael

2008-08-23

13

The Role of the Virtual Microscope in Distance Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Screen-based microscopes allow for a shared visualisation and task-directed conversations that offer significant pedagogic advantages for the science disciplines involving observation of natural samples such as the geosciences and biosciences, and particularly for distance education in these disciplines. The role and development of a virtual

Whalley, Peter; Kelley, Simon; Tindle, Andrew

2011-01-01

14

Virtual Reality in Biological Microscopic Imaging R. v Liere, W. de Leeuw, J. Mulder  

E-print Network

Virtual Reality in Biological Microscopic Imaging R. v Liere, W. de Leeuw, J. Mulder Department addresses the role of virtual reality in gaining insight in these presentations. The understanding. Perceiving these charac- teristics is enhanced by using virtual reality technology. The advantage of virtual

Liere, Robert van

15

Construction of a Virtual Scanning Electron Microscope (VSEM)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Imaging Technology Group (ITG) proposed to develop a Virtual SEM (VSEM) application and supporting materials as the first installed instrument in NASA s Virtual Laboratory Project. The instrument was to be a simulator modeled after an existing SEM, and was to mimic that real instrument as closely as possible. Virtual samples would be developed and provided along with the instrument, which would be written in Java.

Fried, Glenn; Grosser, Benjamin

2004-01-01

16

Enhancing Learning Objectives by Use of Simple Virtual Microscopic Slides in Cellular Physiology and Histology: Impact and Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact and perception of students on the use of a simple, low technology-driven version of a virtual microscope in teaching and assessments in cellular physiology and histology were studied. Its impact on the time and resources of the faculty were also assessed. Simple virtual slides and conventional microscopes were used to conduct the same…

Anyanwu, Godson Emeka; Agu, Augustine Uchechukwu; Anyaehie, Ugochukwu Bond

2012-01-01

17

An array microscope for ultrarapid virtual slide processing and telepathology. Design, fabrication, and validation study.  

PubMed

This paper describes the design and fabrication of a novel array microscope for the first ultrarapid virtual slide processor (DMetrix DX-40 digital slide scanner). The array microscope optics consists of a stack of three 80-element 10 x 8-lenslet arrays, constituting a "lenslet array ensemble." The lenslet array ensemble is positioned over a glass slide. Uniquely shaped lenses in each of the lenslet arrays, arranged perpendicular to the glass slide constitute a single "miniaturized microscope." A high-pixel-density image sensor is attached to the top of the lenslet array ensemble. In operation, the lenslet array ensemble is transported by a motorized mechanism relative to the long axis of a glass slide. Each of the 80 miniaturized microscopes has a lateral field of view of 250 microns. The microscopes of each row of the array are offset from the microscopes in other rows. Scanning a glass slide with the array microscope produces seamless two-dimensional image data of the entire slide, that is, a virtual slide. The optical system has a numerical aperture of N.A.= 0.65, scans slides at a rate of 3 mm per second, and accrues up to 3,000 images per second from each of the 80 miniaturized microscopes. In the ultrarapid virtual slide processing cycle, the time for image acquisition takes 58 seconds for a 2.25 cm2 tissue section. An automatic slide loader enables the scanner to process up to 40 slides per hour without operator intervention. Slide scanning and image processing are done concurrently so that post-scan processing is eliminated. A virtual slide can be viewed over the Internet immediately after the scanning is complete. A validation study compared the diagnostic accuracy of pathologist case readers using array microscopy (with images viewed as virtual slides) and conventional light microscopy. Four senior pathologists diagnosed 30 breast surgical pathology cases each using both imaging modes, but on separate occasions. Of 120 case reads by array microscopy, there were 3 incorrect diagnoses, all of which were made on difficult cases with equivocal diagnoses by light microscopy. There was a strong correlation between array microscopy vs. "truth" diagnoses based on surgical pathology reports. The kappa statistic for the array microscopy vs. truth was 0.96, which is highly significant (z=10.33, p <0.001). There was no statistically significant difference between rates of agreement with truth between array microscopy and light microscopy (z=0.134, p >0.05). Array microscopy and light microscopy did not differ significantly with respect to the number/percent of correct decisions rendered (t=0.552, p=0.6376) or equivocal decisions rendered (t=2.449, p=0.0917). Pathologists rated 95.8% of array microscopy virtual slide images as good or excellent. None were rated as poor. The mean viewing time for a DMetrix virtual slide was 1.16 minutes. The DMetrix virtual slide processor has been found to reduce the virtual slide processing cycle more than 10 fold, as compared with other virtual slide systems reported to date. The virtual slide images are of high quality and suitable for diagnostic pathology, second opinions, expert opinions, clinical trials, education, and research. PMID:15668886

Weinstein, Ronald S; Descour, Michael R; Liang, Chen; Barker, Gail; Scott, Katherine M; Richter, Lynne; Krupinski, Elizabeth A; Bhattacharyya, Achyut K; Davis, John R; Graham, Anna R; Rennels, Margaret; Russum, William C; Goodall, James F; Zhou, Pixuan; Olszak, Artur G; Williams, Bruce H; Wyant, James C; Bartels, Peter H

2004-11-01

18

Beagle I and II Voyages: Charles Darwin's rocks and the quest for Mars rock; the Open University's virtual microscope has both  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exploration is in itself a fascinating subject, and a strong draw to engaging the public in understanding science. Nearly two hundred years ago Charles Darwin took part in an exploration of the Earth, and more recently we have begun to explore the solar system and in particular the surface of Mars. The engagement is made easier if an element of exploration is involved in the public engagement, using modern internet and even mobile technologies. The Open University combines all those aspects in a series of virtual microscopes for Earth science that are freely available on the web, installed in museums, or built into its teaching material. The basis of the virtual microscope is a mosaic of several hundred microscopic images of each thin section taken in plane polarised light, between crossed polars and in reflected light, which are then assembled into three high resolution images. Rotation movies for selected points in the thin section illustrate changing optical properties such as birefringence. The user is able to pan and zoom around to explore the section, studying the mineralogy and rock texture, and view the rotation movies linked to points in the section to see the changing birefringence colours. We have created several collections of terrestrial rocks, mainly for teaching purposes, and outreach directly linked to exploration: Charles Darwin returned from the Voyage of the Beagle with a large variety of rock samples, and although thin sections were not being made at that time, they were created from his rocks in the late 19th century. The historic material is part of the "Darwin the Geologist" exhibition at the Sedgwick Museum in Cambridge. Our Darwin virtual microscope includes hand specimen illustrations and thin sections together with documentation and an interactive map allow internet users and museum visitors alike to have a close look at Darwin's rocks and study the petrology of them. Charles Darwin explored distant horizons on Earth in the 19th century; in the 20th century the Apollo astronauts set foot on the Moon, returning valuable rock samples to Earth. Through collaboration between NASA and the OU it became possible to show lunar samples as virtual thin sections. The Beagle II mission represented a new voyage, following Charles Darwin's footsteps, to horizons well beyond the Earth - on a journey to investigate the planet Mars. Although no samples have yet been returned from the red planet, we do have access to Martian meteorites. Like Moon rock samples, these meteorites are rare and very valuable. So, one way to make them accessible to the general public is via the internet using our virtual microscope technology. Within the framework of the EUROPLANET project, and in collaboration with the Natural History Museum in London we are making such meteorites freely available to all. We plan to extend this collection and make it openly accessible for teaching and outreach activities anywhere and any time. Our current microscopes are located at http://microscope.open.ac.uk.

Schwenzer, S. P.; Tindle, A. G.; Anand, M.; Gibson, E. K.; Pearson, V. K.; Pemberton, D.; Pillinger, C.; Smith, C. L.; Whalley, P.; Kelley, S. P.

2011-12-01

19

UNIT, PETROLOGY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS TEACHER'S GUIDE FOR A UNIT ON PETROLOGY IS SUITABLE FOR ADAPTATION AT EITHER THE UPPER ELEMENTARY OR THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL LEVELS. THE UNIT BEGINS WITH A STORY THAT INTRODUCES VOLCANIC ACTION AND IGNEOUS ROCK FORMATION. SELECTED CONCEPTS ARE LISTED FOLLOWED BY SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES. A BIBLIOGRAPHY, FILM LIST, VOCABULARY LIST, AND QUESTION AND…

Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.

20

Drift-insensitive distributed calibration of probe microscope scanner in nanometer range: Virtual mode  

E-print Network

A method of distributed calibration of a probe microscope scanner is suggested which main idea consists in a search for a net of local calibration coefficients (LCCs) in the process of automatic measurement of a standard surface, whereby each point of the movement space of the scanner can be characterized by a unique set of scale factors. Feature-oriented scanning (FOS) methodology is used as a basis for implementation of the distributed calibration permitting to exclude in situ the negative influence of thermal drift, creep and hysteresis on the obtained results. Possessing the calibration database enables correcting in one procedure all the spatial distortions caused by nonlinearity, nonorthogonality and spurious crosstalk couplings of the microscope scanner piezomanipulators. To provide high precision of spatial measurements in nanometer range, the calibration is carried out using natural standards - constants of crystal lattice. One of the useful modes of the developed calibration method is a virtual mode...

Lapshin, Rostislav V

2015-01-01

21

Design and Assessment of an Interactive Digital Tutorial for Undergraduate-Level Sandstone Petrology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study describes the goals, features and effectiveness of a digital interactive tutorial which was created to provide undergraduates a 'virtual microscope' resource for learning sandstone petrology. The goal of the tutorial is to provide students exposure to the highly visual subject matter of petrography outside the confines of organized laboratory exercises. The hope is that widespread use of such digital interactive formats will allow students to gain high levels of expertise with description and interpretation of earth materials despite the reduced amounts of hands-on laboratory practice that are allowed by modern curricula.

Milliken, K.; Barufaldi, James; Mcbride, Earle; Choh, S.

2003-09-01

22

Novel amplitude and frequency demodulation algorithm for a virtual dynamic atomic force microscope.  

PubMed

Frequency-modulated atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM; also called non-contact atomic force microscopy) is the prevailing operation mode in (sub-)atomic resolution vacuum applications. A major obstacle that prohibits a wider application range is the low frame capture rate. The speed of FM-AFM is limited by the low bandwidth of the automatic gain control (AGC) and frequency demodulation loops. In this work we describe a novel algorithm that can be used to overcome these weaknesses. We analysed the settling times of the proposed loops and that of the complete system, and we found that an approximately 70-fold improvement can be achieved over the existing real and virtual atomic force microscopes. We show that proportional-integral-differential controllers perform better in the frequency demodulation loop than conventional proportional-integral controllers. We demonstrate that the signal to noise ratio of the proposed system is 5.7 × 10(-5), which agrees with that of the conventional systems; thus, the new algorithm would improve the performance of FM-AFMs without compromising the resolution. PMID:21727410

Kokavecz, J; Tóth, Z; Horváth, Z L; Heszler, P; Mechler, A

2006-04-14

23

Novel amplitude and frequency demodulation algorithm for a virtual dynamic atomic force microscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frequency-modulated atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM; also called non-contact atomic force microscopy) is the prevailing operation mode in (sub-)atomic resolution vacuum applications. A major obstacle that prohibits a wider application range is the low frame capture rate. The speed of FM-AFM is limited by the low bandwidth of the automatic gain control (AGC) and frequency demodulation loops. In this work we describe a novel algorithm that can be used to overcome these weaknesses. We analysed the settling times of the proposed loops and that of the complete system, and we found that an approximately 70-fold improvement can be achieved over the existing real and virtual atomic force microscopes. We show that proportional-integral-differential controllers perform better in the frequency demodulation loop than conventional proportional-integral controllers. We demonstrate that the signal to noise ratio of the proposed system is 5.7 × 10-5, which agrees with that of the conventional systems; thus, the new algorithm would improve the performance of FM-AFMs without compromising the resolution.

Kokavecz, J.; Tóth, Z.; Horváth, Z. L.; Heszler, P.; Mechler, Á.

2006-04-01

24

Review and update of the applications of organic petrology: Part 1, geological applications  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organic petrology developed as coal petrology at the beginning of the 20th century dedicated mainly to the study of coals because of their utilization in industry. Coal petrology was then considered a branch of coal science. Later, with the development of specialized nomenclature, classification of coal components, and the standardization and improvement of analytical (microscopical) methods, this discipline expanded in interests and name, becoming organic petrology. Organic petrology carries a broader context, being as well a tool applied in the study of dispersed organic matter in sedimentary rocks due to its importance in exploration for fossil fuel resources. At present, organic petrology is a discipline widely recognized for its role in fundamental and applied research with respect to both coal utilization and in geosciences. Throughout the 20th century several important monographs have been published on the discipline of organic petrology, including “Stach's textbook of coal petrology” (1st edition 1935, 2nd 1975, 3rd 1982), updated as the more general “Organic petrology” by Taylor et al. (1998). More recently, the text “Applied coal petrology: the role of petrology in coal utilization” was published by Suárez-Ruiz and Crelling (2008). This review is the first in a two-part review series that describes and updates the role of organic petrology in geosciences. A second part complementing this one and focused on the applications of organic petrology to other scientific fields will follow.

Suárez-Ruiz, Isabel; Flores, Deolinda; Mendonça Filho, João Graciano; Hackley, Paul C.

2012-01-01

25

Concurrent access to a virtual microscope using a web service oriented architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Virtual microscopy (VM) facilitates visualization and deployment of histopathological virtual slides (VS), a useful tool for education, research and diagnosis. In recent years, it has become popular, yet its use is still limited basically because of the very large sizes of VS, typically of the order of gigabytes. Such volume of data requires efficacious and efficient strategies to access the VS content. In an educative or research scenario, several users may require to access and interact with VS at the same time, so, due to large data size, a very expensive and powerful infrastructure is usually required. This article introduces a novel JPEG2000-based service oriented architecture for streaming and visualizing very large images under scalable strategies, which in addition need not require very specialized infrastructure. Results suggest that the proposed architecture enables transmission and simultaneous visualization of large images, while it is efficient using resources and offering users proper response times.

Corredor, Germán.; Iregui, Marcela; Arias, Viviana; Romero, Eduardo

2013-11-01

26

The nanomanipulator: a virtual-reality interface for a scanning tunneling microscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an atomic-scale teleoperation system that uses a head-mounted display and force-feedback manipulator arm for a user interface and a Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) as a sensor and effector. The system approximates presence at the atomic scale, placing the scientist on the surface, in control, while the experiment is happening. A scientist using the Nanomanipulator can view incoming STM

Russell M. Taylor II; Warren Robinett; Vernon L. Chi; Frederick P. Brooks Jr.; William V. Wright; R. Stanley Williams; Erik J. Snyder

1993-01-01

27

Microscope 16 THE MICROSCOPE  

E-print Network

Microscope 16 THE MICROSCOPE In this exercise you will learn about the principles of optical microscopy and become fa- miliar with the use of the microscope. Microscopes are delicate and expensive instruments; they should be handled with utmost care! Before you use the microscope, your instructor

Koptur, Suzanne

28

Semantically Enabling Knowledge Representation of Metamorphic Petrology Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More and more metamorphic petrology data is being collected around the world, and is now being organized together into different virtual data portals by means of virtual organizations. For example, there is the virtual data portal Petrological Database (PetDB, http://www.petdb.org) of the Ocean Floor that is organizing scientific information about geochemical data of ocean floor igneous and metamorphic rocks; and also The Metamorphic Petrology Database (MetPetDB, http://metpetdb.rpi.edu) that is being created by a global community of metamorphic petrologists in collaboration with software engineers and data managers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. The current focus is to provide the ability for scientists and researchers to register their data and search the databases for information regarding sample collections. What we present here is the next step in evolution of the MetPetDB portal, utilizing semantically enabled features such as discovery, data casting, faceted search, knowledge representation, and linked data as well as organizing information about the community and collaboration within the virtual community itself. We take the information that is currently represented in a relational database and make it available through web services, SPARQL endpoints, semantic and triple-stores where inferencing is enabled. We will be leveraging research that has taken place in virtual observatories, such as the Virtual Solar Terrestrial Observatory (VSTO) and the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO); vocabulary work done in various communities such as Observations and Measurements (ISO 19156), FOAF (Friend of a Friend), Bibo (Bibliography Ontology), and domain specific ontologies; enabling provenance traces of samples and subsamples using the different provenance ontologies; and providing the much needed linking of data from the various research organizations into a common, collaborative virtual observatory. In addition to better representing and presenting the actual data, we also look to organize and represent the knowledge information and expertise behind the data. Domain experts hold a lot of knowledge in their minds, in their presentations and publications, and elsewhere. Not only is this a technical issue, this is also a social issue in that we need to be able to encourage the domain experts to share their knowledge in a way that can be searched and queried over. With this additional focus in MetPetDB the site can be used more efficiently by other domain experts, but can also be utilized by non-specialists as well in order to educate people of the importance of the work being done as well as enable future domain experts.

West, P.; Fox, P. A.; Spear, F. S.; Adali, S.; Nguyen, C.; Hallett, B. W.; Horkley, L. K.

2012-12-01

29

Petrology and classification of the Garraf, Spain chondrite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microscopic and electron microprobe studies indicate that the Garraf meteorite is a highly-recrystallized chondrite of petrologic type 6. Olivine (Fa24.7; PMD 1.1) and low-Ca pyroxene (Fs20.9; PMD 1.1) compositions indicate that it belongs to the L-group. Based on contents of noble gases, pervasive fracturing of silicates, common undulose extinction of olivine and plagioclase, and the lack of melt pockets and maskelynite, Garraf is placed into shock facies b. It is concluded that Garraf is a highly recrystallized L6b chondrite that, after recrystallization, was cataclased and comminuted by shock.

Keil, K.; Conrad, G. H.; King, E. A.; San Miguel, A.

1986-01-01

30

The Poster: A Petrologic Exercise For The Resource-Challenged  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scientific poster is a common format for transmitting information and can be used as a petrologic exercise that may be particularly beneficial for those programs with limited resources. For example, the Saint Norbert College geology program was founded in 1987 and a traditional geology major established in 1994. We have high quality petrographic microscopes and excellent on-campus computing resources but otherwise lack common facilities such as a rock preparation room and instrumentation for obtaining research quality geochemical data such as XRF or SEM. The petrology poster exercise is designed to mimic the formative stages of a research project from fieldwork through geochemical analysis. A background literature search on a regional rock assemblage, usually suggested by the instructor, is conducted by the students. A specific petrologic aspect, such as the troctolitic portion of the Duluth Complex, is selected for investigation. Fieldwork consists of detailed outcrop and handsample descriptions, with approximately ten samples collected for thin section analysis. Geochemical data is culled from the literature by the instructor and computer modeled by the students using standard petrologic modeling programs such as IGPET. Having characterized the rock in detail, the students make interpretations of their data and more importantly, formulate research questions for future investigation. The final poster summarizes a student's work and is presented to their peers for critique. The goal of this semester-long exercise is to provide a near-professional research experience to the students for limited costs (i.e. site field trip and professional preparation of the thin sections). Additional benefits include: in-depth instruction related to writing an abstract, enhanced computer graphic skills related to poster construction, and a final product that makes an excellent springboard to a senior thesis.

Flood, T. P.

2003-12-01

31

Theoretical petrology. [of igneous and metamorphic rocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the present paper, some areas of growing interest in the American efforts in petrology during the 1975-1978 quadrennium are reviewed. In igneous petrology, studies of structures and thermodynamic properties of silicate melts and of kinetics of igneous processes are in a period of rapid growth. Plate tectonic concepts have had (and will no doubt continue to have) an important influence by focusing interest on specific problems and by providing a framework for the understanding of petrogenesis. An understanding of mantle processes and evolution through the integration of petrological, geophysical, and geochemical constraints has been developed over the past 20 years, and will undoubtedly provide direction for future petrological studies.

Stolper, E.

1979-01-01

32

Soil Under the Microscope Mini-Workshop  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This mini-workshop is a brief introduction to the use of the polarized light microscope for thin-section analysis of soils, known as micromorphology. It assumes only a rudimentary knowledge of mineralogy and sedimentary petrology. Participants have an opportunity to describe and characterize soils with different properties in thin section. Applications to environmental geology and hydrogeology are also mentioned.

Driese, Steven

33

Virtual Quarry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive virtual tour for younger students lets them 'drive' a quarry truck and visit a rock quarry to see how the rock is mined, processed and transported, and what the aggregate is used for. The tour includes safety tips for visiting quarries. They can also 'restore' an abandoned quarry by planting virtual grass, reeds, and trees, view movies about quarries, and use a virtual microscope to look at some rock samples. There are also links to lesson plans on the use and restoration of quarries.

34

Lunar breccias, petrology, and earth planetary structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics covered include: (1) petrologic studies of poikiloblastic textured rocks; (2) petrology of aluminous mare basalts in breccia 14063; (3) petrology of Apollo 15 breccia 15459; (4) high-alumina mare basalts; (5) some petrological aspects of imbrium stratigraphy; (6) petrology of lunar rocks and implication to lunar evolution; (7) the crystallization trends of spinels in Tertiary basalts from Rhum and Muck and their petrogenetic significance; (8) the geology and evolution of the Cayman Trench; (9) The petrochemistry of igneous rocks from the Cayman Trench and the Captains Bay Pluton, Unalaska Island and their relation to tectonic processes at plate margins; and (10) the oxide and silicate mineral chemistry of a Kimberlite from the Premier Mine with implications for the evolution of kimberlitic magma.

Ridley, W. I.

1978-01-01

35

MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY OF COMET WILD2 NUCLEUS SAMPLES Stardust Mineralogy/Petrology Subteam: Michael Zolensky1  

E-print Network

MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY OF COMET WILD2 NUCLEUS SAMPLES Stardust Mineralogy/Petrology Subteam the first week we plan to begin the harvesting of aerogel cells, and the comet nucleus samples they contain/Petrology subgroup of the Preliminary Examination Team are as follows. (1) Comet nucleus mineralogy and petrology

Grossman, Lawrence

36

Petrology of the igneous rocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Papers published during the 1983-1986 period on the petrology and geochemistry of igneous rocks are discussed, with emphasis on tectonic environment. Consideration is given to oceanic rocks, subdivided into divergent margin suites (mid-ocean ridge basalts, ridge-related seamounts, and back-arc basin basalts) and intraplate suites (oceanic island basalts and nonridge seamounts), and to igneous rocks formed at convergent margins (island arc and continental arc suites), subdivided into volcanic associations and plutonic associations. Other rock groups discussed include continental flood basalts, layered mafic intrusions, continental alkalic associations, komatiites, ophiolites, ash-flow tuffs, anorthosites, and mantle xenoliths.

Mccallum, I. S.

1987-01-01

37

Microscope Simulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here you can read and find out about different kinds of microscopes - what you can see in them and how to prepare specimens for a particular microscope. You can also try the four different microscope simulators and watch and compare images taken with phase contrast microscopes, fluorescence microscopes, transmission electron microscopes and scanning tunneling microscopes. Test your knowledge of microscopes by answering the 20 questions in the "Microscope quiz".

2012-09-14

38

Graduate Studies in Volcanology, Igneous Petrology & Economic Geology For more information  

E-print Network

Graduate Studies in Volcanology, Igneous Petrology & Economic Geology VIPER For more information Volcanology, Igneous Petrology and Economic geology Research group Interested in Volcanoes? Magmas? Ore) John Dilles (ore deposits, igneous petrology) Randy Keller (igneous petrology, marine geology) Roger

Kurapov, Alexander

39

Mind Over Magma: The Story of Igneous Petrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the centuries that enquiring minds have studied and theorized about igneous rocks, much progress has been made, both in accumulating observations and in developing theories. Yet, writing a history of this progress is a daunting undertaking. The volume of the literature is vast and in multiple languages; the various lines of inquiry are diverse and complex; and the nomenclature is sometimes abstruse. On top of these challenges, many of its principal issues have yet to find a definitive consensus. With the exception of a few topical studies, historians of science have virtually avoided the subject. In Mind Over Magma: The Story of Igneous Petrology, Davis Young has taken on the challenge of writing a comprehensive survey of the study of igneous rocks, and the result has been a remarkable book of meticulous scholarship. Igneous petrology is a vast subject, and it is not obvious how best to organize its history. Young takes a topical approach, generally grouping together various studies by either the problem being investigated or the method of attack. These topics span the earliest times to the present, with an emphasis on recurring themes, such as the causes of magmatic diversity and the origins of the granitic rocks. The range of topics includes most of the subjects central to the field over its history. As much as is practical, topics are discussed in chronological order, and along the way, the reader is treated to biographical sketches of many of the key contributors. This organization proves effective in dealing with the multitude of concepts.

Snyder, Don

2004-01-01

40

Using Data to Teach Igneous Petrology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In order to make connections between the two disparate segments (lecture and laboratory) of a Petrology course; short exercises using real data accompany each laboratory exercise. Three examples are discussed pertain to granites, basalts, and andesites.

Asher, Pranoti

41

Sedimentary petrology. 2nd edition  

SciTech Connect

The second edition of Sedimentary Petrology is extensively revised and updated; much effort has been expended to strengthen the weaknesses of the earlier edition, and much of this effort has been successful. It consists of sixteen chapters. Following two introductory chapters (occurrence of sedimentary rocks; weathering and soils), eleven chapters cover the various sedimentary rock types. Coverage is allocated in proportion to their relative abundance and relative ease of study -- three chapters on conglomerates and sandstones (textures and structures, composition, and diagenesis); one on mud rocks; three on carbonates (limestone textures, structures, and environments; limestone mineralogy and diagenesis; and dolostones); and one each on evaporites, cherts, iron-rich rocks, and phosphorites. A novel and useful chapter on paleogeothermometry rounds out the discussion of rocks, followed by chapters on The Development of a Research Project'' and common laboratory methods.

Blatt, H.

1992-01-01

42

A detailed petrological analysis of hydrated, low-nickel, nonchondritic stratospheric dust particles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed petrological analysis of three low-Ni, K-bearing, nonchondritic stratospheric dust particles is performed, and these particles are compared to products of high-energy, explosive (Plinian-type) volcanic events. The analytical electron microscope (AEM) analyses show pervasive layer silicates, carbonate and goethite, and chemical fractionation in the matrix of these particles similar to hydrothermal alteration in volcanic ejecta. Along with low Ni content and the presence of potassium, the texture and mineralogy of particles L2001-18, L2001-20, and L2002 C2 are similar to at least two nonchondritic stratospheric dust particles of the igneous subgroup for which an extraterrestrial origin has been suggested based on their minor- and trace-element abundances. The petrological characteristics of some low-Ni, K-bearing nonchondritic stratospheric dust particles supports a probable terrestrial volcanic origin, but the AEM data alone cannot exclude an extraterrestrial origin for these particles.

Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.

1992-01-01

43

Focusing One's Microscope By Daniel Pauly  

E-print Network

The Lead Focusing One's Microscope By Daniel Pauly Sea Around Us Project, Fisheries Centre discoveries are often a matter of focusing one's microscope -- actual or virtual -- and so rules have emerged's Microscope. The Science Chronicles (The Nature Conservancy), January 2011: 4-7. #12;! Establishing

Pauly, Daniel

44

SAN DIEGO STATE UNIVERSITY Geol 324: Petrology  

E-print Network

, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks. The goal of this course is to introduce undergraduate students sedimentary petrology in Geol 536: Sedimentology and Lithostratigraphy!). Unlike sedimentary rocks is defined as the study of rocks, and especially, the study of the geological processes that create igneous

Camp, Vic

45

Microscope Webquest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Work with your table partner to complete this activity about using microscopes. Visit the following links to complete the worksheet given to you. A-Z Microscope History Microbus - History of the Microscope What in the World - National Geographic games Magnification Model Powers of 10 If you finish you may return to the What in the World - National Geographic games ...

Smith, Mrs.

2011-02-17

46

Magmas and magmatic rocks: An introduction to igneous petrology  

SciTech Connect

This book melds traditional igneous petrology with the emerging science of planetary petrology to provide an account of current ideas on active magmatic and volcanic processes, drawing examples from all igneous provinces of the world as well as from the moon and planets. It reviews the history and development of concepts fundamental to modern igneous petrology and includes indepth sections on magmas, magnetic differentiation and volcanology.

Middlemost, E.A.K.

1986-01-01

47

Virtual Lab Educational Software  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA Learning Technologies (NLT) is a NASA R&D effort for the engineering of teaching tools that deliver NASA content in the most engaging and dynamic manner possible. NLT builds the pipeline and the delivery point for unencumbered access to the best data NASA has to provide. Virtual Lab completely emulates a scanning electron microscope and allows any user to zoom and focus into a variety of built-in microscopic samples. It also comes with a set of educational materials such as a demo on how a SEM works and movies of the real thing in action. Virtual Lab is freely available with a growing library of samples to choose from.

Hogan, Patrick; Kim, Randolph

2008-11-18

48

[Virtual microscopy: first applications].  

PubMed

Only recently fast-paced developments in computer technology allowed for the digitization of complete histologic slides. The resulting virtual slides may be viewed via webbrowser by any number of pathologists or students independent of time and location. Usage of a virtual microscope simply requires a computer workstation with a fast internet connection, which opens this technology to a broad public. A virtual microscopy system consists of three components: acquisition, server and client. Such systems are under development by different commercial and academic bodies worldwide. We have developed a virtual microscope system called vMic (http://www.vmic.unibas.ch) which provides virtual slides of very high image quality. Several successfully held online slide seminars and a histology course for students in dentistry are freely accessible in the internet. With the commercial availability of ultra rapid and easy-to-use slide scanners and the fast improvements of technology virtual microscopy will offer many applications in teaching, research and diagnostics. Thanks to additional functionalities, real microscopes will most likely be replaced by computer workstations in a couple of years. PMID:16096757

Glatz-Krieger, K; Glatz, D; Mihatsch, M J

2006-11-01

49

Rethinking how Undergraduate ``Hard Rock'' Petrology is Taught  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A course in "hard rock" petrology forms a core component of undergraduate training in the geosciences. In most cases, the subjects of igneous and metamorphic petrology are combined in a single course and the course is traditionally structured so that the two subjects are covered in series. This approach enables students to focus on each subject separately, with knowledge of igneous rocks helping students to understand metamorphic rock protoliths. Student assessment shows, however, that this approach tends to compartmentalize learning and the two main subjects might just as well be taught in separate courses. In practical applications such as fieldwork, students must be able to access their understanding of igneous and metamorphic rocks virtually simultaneously. To better integrate student learning, I developed a spiral learning approach to teaching petrology (e.g., Bruner, 1990; Dyar et al., 2004) so that commonalities could be revisited several times over the course of a semester and, in so doing, students' grasp of the fundamental insights provided by igneous and metamorphic rocks could be scaffolded into greater understanding. The course initially focuses on the dynamics of the environments in which igneous and metamorphic rocks form: heat flow, fluid flow, and plate tectonics. Several subsequent weeks explore topics relevant to identifying and understanding igneous and metamorphic rocks in the field: crystal nucleation and growth, the roles of pressure and heat, and field classification. Laboratory exercises parallel this structure, also emphasizing observations that are valuable in the field: the relationship between minerals and rocks, textural observations, and general rock classification. The final portion of the course explores “hard rocks” in more detail with a greater emphasis on the interplay between chemistry and mineralogy. A variety of learner-centered activities in the course help students bridge the gap between novice and expert and include more explicit emphasis on visualization and on helping students become comfortable with interpreting data numerically and graphically. Pen tablet computers are used extensively in the laboratory for visualization, photomicrograph capture, and annotation. Cooperative learning activities developed for this course make use of learning methods such as pair share, round-robin, small group explorations case studies, and jigsaw exercises (sometimes as introduction to, sometimes as review of material), and Jeopardy-style review sessions. On an assessment questionnaire at the end of the semester students ranked the in-class cooperative learning activities as on par with lectures and homework exercises in facilitating their learning. Students reported satisfactory attainment of three major goals identified for the course even though they were not explicitly reminded of these goals at the time of assessment. References cited: Bruner, J., 1990. Acts of Meaning. Harvard University Press.; Dyar, M.D., Gunter, M.E., Davis, J.C., and Odell, M.R., 2004. Integration of new methods into teaching mineralogy; Huba, M.E. and Freed, J.E., 2000. Learner-centered Assessment on College Campus: Shifting the Focus from Teaching to Learning. Allyn and Bacon.

Reid, M. R.

2010-12-01

50

Microscopic Polyangiitis  

MedlinePLUS

... viewed under the microscope in a patient’s urine. Constitutional Symptoms Weight loss, fevers, fatigue, and malaise are part of a collection of complaints regarded as “constitutional” symptoms. Constitutional complaints are a common finding in ...

51

[Petrological Analysis of Astrophysical Dust Analog Evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This project "Petrological analysis of astrophysical dust analog evolution" was initiated to try to understand the vapor phase condensation, and the nature of the reaction products, in circumstellar environments, such as the solar nebula 4,500 Myrs ago, and in the interstellar medium. Telescope-based infrared [IR] spectroscopy offers a broad-scale inventory of the various types of dust in these environments but no details on small-scale variations in terms of chemistry and morphology and petrological phase relationships. Vapor phase condensation in these environments is almost certainly a non-equilibrium process. The main challenge to this research was to document the nature of this process that, based on astrophysical observations, seems to yield compositionally consistent materials. This observation may suggest a predictable character during non-equilibrium condensation. These astrophysical environments include two chemically distinct, that is, oxygen-rich and carbon-rich environments. The former is characterized by silicates the latter by carbon-bearing solids. According to cosmological models of stellar evolution circumstellar dust accreted into protoplanets wherein thermal and/or aqueous processes will alter the dust under initially, non-equilibrium conditions.

Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.

1997-01-01

52

Using Dynamic Digital Maps to Teach Petrology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this session we will examine how to utilize Dynamic Digital Maps (DDMs) in undergraduate petrology courses to bring inaccessible and exciting volcanic field areas to the students in the classroom and to engage the students in authentic research experiences. A DDM is a stand-alone "presentation manager" computer program that contains interactive maps, analytical data, digital images and movies. They are essentially complete geologic maps in digital format, available on CD-ROM and on line. We have developed two different kinds of exercises that use DDMs to provide field-based context for undergraduate research projects in petrology. In one, the students use the DDM of the Tatara-San Pedro volcanic complex of the Andes Mountains of central Chile to develop a group research poster on part of the volcano's evolution, to present to the class, modeled after what would be presented at a national meeting. The second exercise focuses on the Springville Volcanic field, where the students try to understand the magma evolution using both field relations and quantitative modeling skills. Read a complete description of how dynamic digital maps work, with more ideas for the classroom. (from Teaching with Data, Simulations and Models)

Christopher D. Condit

53

In vivo virtual intraoperative surgical photoacoustic microscopy  

SciTech Connect

We developed a virtual intraoperative surgical photoacoustic microscopy system by combining with a commercial surgical microscope and photoacoustic microscope (PAM). By sharing the common optical path in the microscope and PAM system, we could acquire the PAM and microscope images simultaneously. Moreover, by employing a beam projector to back-project 2D PAM images onto the microscope view plane as augmented reality, the conventional microscopic and 2D cross-sectional PAM images are concurrently mapped on the plane via an ocular lens of the microscope in real-time. Further, we guided needle insertion into phantom ex vivo and mice skins in vivo.

Han, Seunghoon, E-mail: hsh860504@gmail.com; Kim, Sehui, E-mail: sehui0916@nate.com; Kim, Jeehyun, E-mail: jeehk@knu.ac.kr, E-mail: chulhong@postech.edu [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Changho, E-mail: ch31037@postech.edu; Jeon, Mansik, E-mail: msjeon@postech.edu [Department of Creative IT Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Creative IT Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chulhong, E-mail: jeehk@knu.ac.kr, E-mail: chulhong@postech.edu [Department of Creative IT Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Creative IT Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Engineering, The State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14221 (United States)

2013-11-11

54

In vivo virtual intraoperative surgical photoacoustic microscopy  

PubMed Central

We developed a virtual intraoperative surgical photoacoustic microscopy system by combining with a commercial surgical microscope and photoacoustic microscope (PAM). By sharing the common optical path in the microscope and PAM system, we could acquire the PAM and microscope images simultaneously. Moreover, by employing a beam projector to back-project 2D PAM images onto the microscope view plane as augmented reality, the conventional microscopic and 2D cross-sectional PAM images are concurrently mapped on the plane via an ocular lens of the microscope in real-time. Further, we guided needle insertion into phantom ex vivo and mice skins in vivo. PMID:24343135

Han, Seunghoon; Lee, Changho; Kim, Sehui; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun; Kim, Chulhong

2013-01-01

55

[Microscopic polyangiitis].  

PubMed

Microscopic polyangiitis is a non-granulomatous necrotizing vasculitis involving small vessels. Clinical manifestations are highly polymorphic, but rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis is one of the most frequent and most severe manifestations of the disease. Biopsy of an affected organ and detection of circulating anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are key elements for the positive diagnosis of microscopic polyangiitis. Biopsies can disclose necrotizing vasculitis affecting small vessels, without granulomas and without immune deposits. ANCA are very specific for microscopic polyangiitis, Wegener's granulomatosis and Churg-Strauss syndrome when they are positive by indirect immunofluorescence and are directed against myeloperoxidase or proteinase 3. Such ANCA are found in about 70% of patients with microscopic polyangiitis. Treatment of severe forms of microscopic polyangiitis is based on the administration of pulse methylprednisolone, oral corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide. In the mildest forms of the disease, one can probably try either to competely avoid using immunosuppressive drugs, or to replace cyclophosphamide with azathioprine. Treatment induces a complete remission of the disease in more than 90% of cases, but about 30% of the patients will experience a relapse, and progressive worsening of renal function can occur in patients with severe chronic renal failure. PMID:10896971

Venetz, J P; Rossert, J

2000-05-01

56

Petrological and rheological controls on volcanism to terrestrial planets  

E-print Network

Through experimental petrology and geodynamic modeling, processes of melting under thick lithospheres on the Earth and the moon are investigated. Phase equilibrium experiments were carried out on Apollo 14B and 15C picritic ...

Elkins Tanton, Linda Tarbox, 1965-

2002-01-01

57

Virtual Reality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This video presentation discusses how virtual reality enables scientists to 'explore' other worlds without leaving the laboratory. The applicability of virtual reality for scientific visualization is also discussed.

1991-01-01

58

Martian Microscope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The microscopic imager (circular device in center) is in clear view above the surface at Meridiani Planum, Mars, in this approximate true-color image taken by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The image was taken on the 9th sol of the rover's journey. The microscopic imager is located on the rover's instrument deployment device, or arm. The arrow is pointing to the lens of the instrument. Note the dust cover, which flips out to the left of the lens, is open. This approximated color image was created using the camera's violet and infrared filters as blue and red.

2004-01-01

59

Petrology and Composition of HED Polymict Breccias  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The howardite, eucrite and diogenite (HED) clan of meteorites forms the largest suite of achondrites with over 900 named members. The HEDs are igneous rocks and breccias of igneous rocks from a differentiated asteroid [1]. The consensus view is that these rocks hail from the asteroid 4 Vesta, which will be the first target of NASA's Dawn mission. When Dawn arrives at Vesta, she will begin remote imagery and spectroscopy of the surface. The surface she will observe will be dominated by rocks and soils mixed through impact gardening. To help with the interpretation of the remotely sensed data, we have begun a project on the petrologic and compositional study of a suite of HED polymict breccias. Here we report on the preliminary findings of this project.

Mittlefehldt, David W.; Herrin, J. S.; Mertzman, S. A.; Mertzman, K. R.

2010-01-01

60

Petrology of brecciated ferroan noritic anorthosite 67215  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A petrologic study of breccia 67215 is presented, showing that the rock has the bulk composition of a ferroan noritic anorthosite and is a polymict breccia containing several lithic clast types within a crushed, cataclastic matrix. The dominant lithic clasts contained in breccia 67215 are found to be igneous and metamorphic low- and high- Ca pyroxenes and olivine. Other clasts include granulated and sheared clasts, coarse-grained anorthosite with relatively Fe-rich augite, aphanitic, feldspathic microporphyritic melt breccias, and an impact-melt rock with strongly zoned relatively Mg-rich pyroxene. It is concluded that this rock type is relatively common in the highlands regolith excavated by the North Ray Crater.

Mcgee, James J.

1988-01-01

61

Petrology in Action: Teaching Volcanology in the Undergraduate Curriculum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most petrology classes include description of volcanic systems as part of igneous petrology. The field of volcanology presents an opportunity for students to apply petrologic principles to physical processes with which they are familiar and to exemplify active magmatic processes that occur on relatively short time scales. As an illustration of the pedagogical connections between physical volcanology and igneous petrology, several classroom and lab exercises are described, including: a) analog experiments to illustrate rheological properties of magmas and how they vary with differing magmatic compositions; b) guided inquiry explorations of the role of magma composition on eruptive style and frequency; c) a sequence of demonstrations to illustrate physical principles of volcanic eruptions; d) problem sets using data from recent eruptions; and e) simulation of a volcanic monitoring crisis. The activities and demonstrations presented here illustrate a variety of applications of petrologic concepts, with an emphasis on the relationship between magmatic composition and its physical properties and how these physical properties in turn dictate the behavior of volcanic systems. They can be easily modified to illustrate magma chamber processes. These exercises are designed primarily for sophomore-level undergraduates and can be carried out in classrooms with a minimum of resources. The emphasis on hands-on inquiry exercises, coupled with the dynamic nature of some of these demonstrations gives students a chance to visualize petrologic processes that drive some of Earth's most dramatic events.

Harpp, K. S.

2003-12-01

62

Virtual Courseware: Drosophila  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this virtual lab exercise, students can discover and apply principles of genetic inheritance by studying fruit flies (Drosophila) in an interactive online environment. The exercise allows them to order fruit fly mutants from a web merchant, mate the flies in an incubator, anesthetize flies for observation, examine them under a microscope, and analyze the data from offspring to determine patterns of inheritance. Notes and experimental data can be saved online in a virtual notebook and used to generate a report. The exercise concludes with an online quiz, and alignments to state and national standards are included.

63

Microscopic colitis  

PubMed Central

Microscopic colitis may be defined as a clinical syndrome, of unknown etiology, consisting of chronic watery diarrhea, with no alterations in the large bowel at the endoscopic and radiologic evaluation. Therefore, a definitive diagnosis is only possible by histological analysis. The epidemiological impact of this disease has become increasingly clear in the last years, with most data coming from Western countries. Microscopic colitis includes two histological subtypes [collagenous colitis (CC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC)] with no differences in clinical presentation and management. Collagenous colitis is characterized by a thickening of the subepithelial collagen layer that is absent in LC. The main feature of LC is an increase of the density of intra-epithelial lymphocytes in the surface epithelium. A number of pathogenetic theories have been proposed over the years, involving the role of luminal agents, autoimmunity, eosinophils, genetics (human leukocyte antigen), biliary acids, infections, alterations of pericryptal fibroblasts, and drug intake; drugs like ticlopidine, carbamazepine or ranitidine are especially associated with the development of LC, while CC is more frequently linked to cimetidine, non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs and lansoprazole. Microscopic colitis typically presents as chronic or intermittent watery diarrhea, that may be accompanied by symptoms such as abdominal pain, weight loss and incontinence. Recent evidence has added new pharmacological options for the treatment of microscopic colitis: the role of steroidal therapy, especially oral budesonide, has gained relevance, as well as immunosuppressive agents such as azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine. The use of anti-tumor necrosis factor-? agents, infliximab and adalimumab, constitutes a new, interesting tool for the treatment of microscopic colitis, but larger, adequately designed studies are needed to confirm existing data. PMID:23180940

Ianiro, Gianluca; Cammarota, Giovanni; Valerio, Luca; Annicchiarico, Brigida Eleonora; Milani, Alessandro; Siciliano, Massimo; Gasbarrini, Antonio

2012-01-01

64

Magnetic petrology of eastern North America diabases. I - Olivine-normative dikes from western South Carolina  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The oxide mineralogy and the magnetic behavior of 15 olivine-normative samples obtained from South-Caroline diabase dikes were investigated using electron microprobe and SEM analyses and measurements of natural remanence magnetization (NRM), saturation isothermal remanence magnetization (SIRM), and anhysteritic remanence magnetization. It was found that chromite (which for these olivine-normative diabases is a sensitive petrologic indicator) constitutes up to 0.5 vol pct and that its abundance and composition correlate with bulk rock Cr. Microscopic analyses showed that titanomagnetite compositions were mostly between 0.4 and 0.55. The values of NRM and the NRM/SIRM ratios varied between 4 and 0.01 A sq m/kg and 0.0019 and 0.032, respectively. These properties inversely correlate with Cr content and demonstrably contrast Cr-rich and Cr-poor samples.

Warner, Richard D.; Wasilewski, Peter J.

1990-01-01

65

PhD position in igneous petrology MarieCurie Initial Training Network ABYSS (ESR2)  

E-print Network

PhD position in igneous petrology Marie in igneous petrology and geochemistry. The successful applicant will study rockforming processes, geochemical modelling Goals: Define field relations of crustal rocks and host mantle peridotites

Demouchy, Sylvie

66

Petrology and radiogeology of the Stripa pluton  

SciTech Connect

To better define the character of the rock encompassing the thermomechanical and hydrological experiments at the Stripa mine in central Sweden, and to help determine the size of the Stripa pluton, detailed studies were conducted of the petrology and radiogeology of the quartz monzonite and adjacent rocks. Petrologic studies emphasized optical petrography, with supplementary X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and microprobe analyses. Radiogeologic investigations were based primarily on surface and underground gamma-ray spectrometric measurements of uranium, thorium and potassium, supplemented by laboratory gamma spectrometric analyses and fission-track radiographic determinations of the locations and abundance of uranium in the rock matrix. Both the quartz monzonite and the metavolcanic leptite which it intruded are strongly fractured. Two stages of fracture filling are evident; an earlier stage encompassing quartz, sericite, feldspar, epidote, and chlorite, and a later stage dominated by carbonate minerals. The Stripa quartz monzonite is chemically and mineralogically distinct from other plutons in the region. Muscovite is the predominant mica in the quartz monzonite; biotite has been altered to chlorite, hornblende is absent, and accessory minerals are scarce. In contrast, in other plutons in the Stripa region biotite and hornblende are prominent mafic minerals and accessory minerals are abundant. The Stripa quartz monzonite is also considerably more radioactive than the leptite and other plutons in the region. Uranium and thorium abundances are both- 30 ppm, considerably higher than in "normal" granitic rocks where the thorium-to-uranium ratio generally exceeds 2. Potassium-argon dating of muscovite from the Stripa quartz monzonite indicates that this rock may be older, at 1691 million years than granitic rock of the neighboring Gusselby and Kloten massifs, whose ages, based on K-Ar dating of biotite, are respectively 1604 and 1640 m.y. Heat flow and heat productivity considerations show that although Stripa quartz monzonite contains high abundances of radioelements, the pluton has little effect on the regional heat flow. If it occurs in a layered plutonic setting, it is not more than 1.5 km thick; otherwise it may comprise a stock, dike, or border phase that is relatively small compared with the large granitic plutons exposed in the region.

Wollenberg, Harold; Flexser, Steve; Andersson, Lennart

1980-12-01

67

Microscope and method of use  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for electronically focusing and electronically scanning microscopic specimens are given. In the invention, visual images of even moving, living, opaque specimens can be acoustically obtained and viewed with virtually no time needed for processing (i.e., real time processing is used). And planar samples are not required. The specimens (if planar) need not be moved during scanning, although it will be desirable and possible to move or rotate nonplanar specimens (e.g., laser fusion targets) against the lens of the apparatus. No coupling fluid is needed, so specimens need not be wetted. A phase acoustic microscope is also made from the basic microscope components together with electronic mixers. 7 figs.

Bongianni, W.L.

1984-04-17

68

Microscope and method of use  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for electronically focusing and electronically scanning microscopic specimens are given. In the invention, visual images of even moving, living, opaque specimens can be acoustically obtained and viewed with virtually no time needed for processing (i.e., real time processing is used). And planar samples are not required. The specimens (if planar) need not be moved during scanning, although it will be desirable and possible to move or rotate nonplanar specimens (e.g., laser fusion targets) against the lens of the apparatus. No coupling fluid is needed, so specimens need not be wetted. A phase acoustic microscope is also made from the basic microscope components together with electronic mixers.

Bongianni, Wayne L. (Los Alamos, NM)

1984-01-01

69

The petrological expression of early Mars volcanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crystallization products of liquids produced by partial melting of a possible Martian mantle for conditions covering the earliest Noachian era to the most recent Amazonian times have been modeled using the MELTS thermodynamic calculator. The results imply a transition from low-calcium pyroxene dominated assemblages in the Noachian to high-calcium pyroxene assemblages in the Hesperian and Amazonian, which is remarkably consistent with observations made by orbiting visible and near-infrared spectrometers. This transition is interpreted as the consequence of the thermal evolution of the mantle, with no need for exotic conditions, such as higher water content or nonchondritic Ca/Al ratio of the mantle source, to produce low-calcium pyroxene rich lithologies. Our results are compatible with numerical models of the thermal evolution of Mars that predict high production rates of crust on early Mars, implying that Noachian rocks exposed at the surface may be petrological expressions of this volcanism rather than being associated with mantle overturn following the crystallization of a magma ocean.

Baratoux, D.; Toplis, M. J.; Monnereau, M.; Sautter, V.

2013-01-01

70

Virtual time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual time is a new paradigm for organizing and synchronizing distributed systems which can be applied to such problems as distributed discrete event simulation and distributed database concurrency control. Virtual time provides a flexible abstraction of real time in much the same way that virtual memory provides an abstraction of real memory. It is implemented using the Time Warp mechanism,

David R. Jefferson

1985-01-01

71

The Petrology of Very Small Rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hallmark of Eric Essene`s research and teaching is to `look at your sample` before advanced analysis. We apply this common sense yet sometimes ignored advice to explore the relation between mineral inclusions within zircon and host rock type from 4 suites: two with known genesis and two that are uncertain. A wide range of techniques can be applied to "look" at zircons and their inclusions as the prelude to in situ isotopic, structural, and chemical analysis including: optics, acid etching, SEM (SE, CL, EDS, BSE, EBSD), cold cathode CL, SIMS, and X-ray mapping. Zircons from the Sierra Nevada batholith have granitic parentage, and contain polymineralic assemblages of quartz ± biotite ± K-feldspar ± plagioclase ± muscovite ± apatite ± Fe oxide ± sphene ± amphibole. Zircons from young ocean crust have gabbroic parentage, and contain plagioclase ± intergrown Fe-Ti oxides ± apatite ± amphibole ± clinopyroxene, and rarely contain quartz. The mantle suite of zircons from kimberlite is united by chemical and physical similarities, but occurs as xenocrysts of uncertain origin. They may contain euhedral tetragonal ZrO2 ± olivine ± clinopyroxene ± apatite, in cavities up to 100 microns long. Thus the kimberlite xenocrysts are consistent with mafic or ultramafic composition. Detrital zircons from the Jack Hills metaconglomerate range in age from 4.4 to 3.1 Ga and are also of uncertain genesis. Inclusions include common quartz ± apatite ± muscovite ± monazite ± rutile ± xenotime ± Fe-oxide ± Fe sulfide. The Jack Hills zircon inclusions, irrespective of age, indicate silica saturated magmas, are most similar to those in granitic rocks, and are distinctly different from zircons in mafic ocean crust, but this does not preclude formation in small volumes of evolved magma. The observation that zircon inclusions are in apparent equilibrium demonstrates that these inclusion assemblages carry petrologic information and can be studied as `small rocks`.

Valley, J. W.; Cavosie, A. J.

2006-12-01

72

Electronic Blending in Virtual Microscopy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Virtual microscopy (VM) is a relatively new technology that transforms the computer into a microscope. In essence, VM allows for the scanning and transfer of glass slides from light microscopy technology to the digital environment of the computer. This transition is also a function of the change from print knowledge to electronic knowledge, or as…

Maybury, Terrence S.; Farah, Camile S.

2010-01-01

73

The petrographic microscope: Evolution of a mineralogical research instrument  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The petrographic microscope, designed to observe and measure the optical properties of minerals as a means of identifying them, has provided a foundation for mineralogical and petrological research for more than 120 years. Much of what is known today in these fields is attributable to this instrument, the development of which paralleled an evolution of fundamental optical theory and its correlation with mineral structure and composition. This instrument and its related accessories have evolved through a range of models and designs, which are in themselves distinctive for their scientific function and elegant construction, and are today prized by collectors of scientific instruments.

Kile, D.E.

2003-01-01

74

GEOL 2520 IGNEOUS AND METAMORPHIC PETROLOGY COURSE OUTLINE  

E-print Network

of the Earth's mantle and crust. The origin of igneous and metamorphic rocks. IGNEOUS PETROLOGY The origin of magmas Chapter(s) 1, 6 (selected topics) Mineralogy of igneous rocks Major, minor, and accessory minerals in igneous rocks: a review (major rock-forming minerals are emphasized). Introduction to igneous phase

Chakhmouradian, Anton

75

Mineralogy and petrology of Grenada, Lesser Antilles island arc  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mineralogy and petrology of volcanic and plutonic rocks from the island of Grenada are described. The volcanic rocks include basanitoids, alkalic and subalkalic basalts, andesites and dacites. Phenocryst phases in the basanitoids and basalts are olivine (Fo90-71), zoned calcic augite, spinel ranging from ferrian pleonaste through chromite to titaniferous magnetite, and plagioclase. Some of the basalts contain pargasitic amphibole.

Richard J. Arculus

1978-01-01

76

Petrological cycles and caldera-forming events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many caldera-forming events can be framed within broad petrological cycles; volcanic stratigraphy typically defines a trend from mafic to more silicic magmas with time, culminating in the catastrophic evacuation of an upper crustal reservoir filled with the silicic magma, followed by a return to the eruption of more mafic magmas shortly after caldera collapse. Understanding how such cycles develop has clear implications for characterizing the current state of an active system. Here, we focus on a detailed examination of the well-exposed Quaternary Kos-Nisyros eruptive sequence (eastern Aegean arc) to frame a potential model for such cycles. On the basis of zircon U/Th/Pb ages, building the upper crustal magma chamber large enough to induce caldera collapse required at least a few hundred thousand years. This timeframe is necessary not only for the accumulation of large amounts of viscous, gas-rich silicic magma, but also to heat the upper crust sufficiently to allow the developing reservoir to be maintained above the solidus. In the Kos-Nisyros volcanic center, small eruptions precede the caldera-forming event and mark this period of thermal maturation as the system transitions from intermediate to silicic magma, reaching the most-evolved state only shortly prior to the caldera-forming event, the Kos Plateau Tuff (> 60 km3 of volatile-rich, high-silica rhyolite). The Kos Plateau Tuff was then followed by small-volume eruptions of more mafic magma (basaltic andesite, andesite, and dacites) that are characterized by a drier mineral assemblage. With time, the system transitioned back to cold, wet, high-SiO2 rhyolite. We suggest that the changes in magma composition and mineralogy following the caldera-forming event are due to a near-complete crystallization of the non-erupted mush in the upper crustal reservoir as it is abruptly decompressed during eruption. This rapid crystallization (1) leads to the formation of a porphyritic texture in the crystalline residual - a feature frequently observed in shallow intrusions and (2) allows new inputs of more mafic magmas to reach the surface. With time, these recharge events re-establish an evolved upper crustal reservoir, starting a new cycle. This study shows that detailed spatial and temporal evaluations of the geochemical variations from volcanic complexes have the ability to provide valuable information on the 'state' of a particular magmatic system. In turn, this can assist in selecting which volcanic complexes are most worthy of installing expensive, dense seismic arrays to improve our imaging of the subsurface and better determining the volume of eruptible magmas beneath them.

Bachmann, O.; Deering, C. D.

2012-12-01

77

Virtual Neuron  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Neurons are able to communicate with each other using biochemicals called neurotransmitters. Use Virtual Neuron to explore neurotransmitter properties, make neurons fire, and manipulate neural circuits.

2009-04-14

78

Petrology and Geochemistry of LEW 88663 and PAT 91501: High Petrologic L Chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Primitive achondrites (e.g., Acapulco, Lodran) are believed to be highly metamorphosed chondritic materials, perhaps up to the point of anatexis in some types. Low petrologic grade equivalents of these achondrites are unknown, so the petrologic transition from chondritic to achondritic material cannot be documented. However, there are rare L chondrites of petrologic grade 7 that may have experienced igneous processes, and study of these may yield information relevant to the formation of primitive achondrites, and perhaps basaltic achondrites, from chondritic precursors. We have begun the study of the L7 chondrites LEW 88663 and PAT 91501 as part of our broader study of primitive achondrites. Here, we present our preliminary petrologic and geochemical data on these meteorites. Petrology and Mineral Compositions: LEW 88663 is a granular achondrite composed of equant, subhedral to anhedral olivine grains poikilitically enclosed in networks of orthopyroxene and plagioclase. Small grains of clinopyroxene are spatially associated with orthopyroxene. Troilite occurs as large anhedral and small rounded grains. The smaller troilite grains are associated with the orthopyroxene-plagioclase networks. PAT 91501 is a vesicular stone containing centimeter-sized troilite +/- metal nodules. Its texture consists of anhedral to euhedral olivine grains, anhedral orthopyroxene grains (some with euhedral clinopyroxene overgrowths), anhedral to euhedral clinopyroxene, and interstitial plagioclase and SiO2-Al2O3-K2O- rich glass. In some areas, olivine is poikilitically enclosed in orthopyroxene. Fine-grained troilite, metal, and euhedral chromite occur interstitial to the silicates. Average mineral compositions for LEW 88663 are olivine Fo(sub)75.8, orthopyroxene Wo(sub)3.4En(sub)76.2Fs(sub)20.4, clinopyroxene Wo(sub)42.6En(sub)47.8Fs(sub)9.6, plagioclase Ab(sub)75.0An(sub)21.6Or(sub)3.4. Mineral compositions for PAT 91501 are olivine Fo(sub)73.8, orthopyroxene Wo(sub)4.5En(sub)74.8Fs(sub)20.7, clinopyroxene Wo(sub)34.3En(sub)52.4Fs(sub)13.3, plagioclase Ab(sub)81.6An(sub)14.0Or(sub)44. Geochemistry: We have completed INM analysis of LEW 88663 only; analyses of PAT 91501 are in progress. The weighted mean lithophile element (refractory, moderately volatile, and volatile) content of LEW 88663 normalized to average L chondrites [1] is 0.97. The weighted mean siderophile element (excluding Fe) content is only 0.57x L. This supports the suggestion that LEW 88663 lost metal relative to average L chondrites, although not as complete as implied earlier [1]. The mean lithophile-element abundance is that of L chondrites, but the lithophile-element pattern is fractionated. Highly incompatible elements are enriched in LEW 88663 relative to L chondrites (e.g., La 2.6x, Sm 1.9x L chondrites), while the more compatible elements are near L chondrite levels or depleted (e.g., Lu 1.1x, Sc 0.94x, Cr 0.87x L chondrites). Discussion: LEW 88663 and PAT 91501 are texturally similar to the Shaw L7 chondrite [3] and to poikilitic textured clasts in LL chondrites [4]. Several textural and mineralogical characteristics of PAT 91501 indicate that this stone is in part igneous. Large rounded troilite +/- metal nodules imply that melting occurred in the metal-troilite system. Interstitial material consists of euhedral, zoned chromites, euhedral clinopyroxene overgrowths on orthopyroxene, and plagioclase + glass. Olivine often shows euhedral faces in contact with the interstitial regions. These textures indicate that the interstitial regions were molten. The average pyroxene compositions in PAT 91501 indicate equilibration at 1200 degrees C [5], above the ordinary chondrite solidus [6]. Although PAT 91501 is in part igneous in origin, we have yet to determine whether it represents an extension of parent body heating from that of metamorphosed L chondrites, or whether it represents impact melting on the parent body. We will evaluate shock features, cooling rates, and the bulk composition of PAT 91501 in order to investigate this further. Orthopyroxenes in LEW 88663 have a lo

Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Lindstrom, M. M.; Field, S. W.

1993-07-01

79

Virtual Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\\\The need for automatic storage allocation arises from desires for program modularity, machine independence, and resource sharing. Virtual memory is an elegant way of achieving these objectives. In a virtual memory, the addresses a program may use to identify information are distinguished from the addresses the memory system uses to identify physical storage sites, and program-generated addresses are translated automatically

Peter J. Denning

1970-01-01

80

Virtual mosquito  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

3D virtual image of a mosquito (Family Culicidae). This movie is also available as a Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) model. The VRML models are more interactive than the QuickTime versions, but special software may need to be downloaded to open them (read the ÃÂHelpÃÂ page for details). Those people using public computers may be limited from fully accessing the resource. Mozilla Firefox users can view the VRML files directly in their browsers by downloading the Cortona extension (http://www.parallelgraphics.com/products/cortona/download/netscape/). This website is an excellent educational resource for all ages. The Virtual Insects home page (http://www.ento.vt.edu/~sharov/3d/3dinsect.html) has a basic explanation of how virtual reality works, including the Virtual Reality Modeling Language. The "Virtual Images" link takes you to a list of insects that can be viewed as 3D digital reconstructions. The image files would make excellent additions to teaching lectures for introductory classes. Visit the "How to Build Virtual Insects" page to read about how the images were created and how the original models were made more biologically accurate. Also be sure to read the page on how to view the cyber-insects inside a virtual reality "cave".

0002-11-30

81

Virtual mantis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

3D virtual image of a mantis (Family Mantidae). This movie is also available as a Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) model. The VRML models are more interactive than the QuickTime versions, but special software may need to be downloaded to open them (read the ÃÂHelpÃÂ page for details). Those people using public computers may be limited from fully accessing the resource. Mozilla Firefox users can view the VRML files directly in their browsers by downloading the Cortona extension (http://www.parallelgraphics.com/products/cortona/download/netscape/). This website is an excellent educational resource for all ages. The Virtual Insects home page (http://www.ento.vt.edu/~sharov/3d/3dinsect.html) has a basic explanation of how virtual reality works, including the Virtual Reality Modeling Language. The "Virtual Images" link takes you to a list of insects that can be viewed as 3D digital reconstructions. The image files would make excellent additions to teaching lectures for introductory classes. Visit the "How to Build Virtual Insects" page to read about how the images were created and how the original models were made more biologically accurate. Also be sure to read the page on how to view the cyber-insects inside a virtual reality "cave".

0002-11-30

82

Virtual bee  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

3D virtual image of a honey bee (Family Apidae *spelled Apiidae in the image caption*). This movie is also available as a Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) model. The VRML models are more interactive than the QuickTime versions, but special software may need to be downloaded to open them (read the ÃÂHelpÃÂ page for details). Those people using public computers may be limited from fully accessing the resource. Mozilla Firefox users can view the VRML files directly in their browsers by downloading the Cortona extension (http://www.parallelgraphics.com/products/cortona/download/netscape/). This website is an excellent educational resource for all ages. The Virtual Insects home page (http://www.ento.vt.edu/~sharov/3d/3dinsect.html) has a basic explanation of how virtual reality works, including the Virtual Reality Modeling Language. The "Virtual Images" link takes you to a list of insects that can be viewed as 3D digital reconstructions. The image files would make excellent additions to teaching lectures for introductory classes. Visit the "How to Build Virtual Insects" page to read about how the images were created and how the original models were made more biologically accurate. Also be sure to read the page on how to view the cyber-insects inside a virtual reality "cave".

0002-11-30

83

Virtual grasshopper  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

3D virtual image of a grasshopper (Family Acrididae). This movie is also available as a Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) model. The VRML models are more interactive than the QuickTime versions, but special software may need to be downloaded to open them (read the ÃÂHelpÃÂ page for details). Those people using public computers may be limited from fully accessing the resource. Mozilla Firefox users can view the VRML files directly in their browsers by downloading the Cortona extension (http://www.parallelgraphics.com/products/cortona/download/netscape/). This website is an excellent educational resource for all ages. The Virtual Insects home page (http://www.ento.vt.edu/~sharov/3d/3dinsect.html) has a basic explanation of how virtual reality works, including the Virtual Reality Modeling Language. The "Virtual Images" link takes you to a list of insects that can be viewed as 3D digital reconstructions. The image files would make excellent additions to teaching lectures for introductory classes. Visit the "How to Build Virtual Insects" page to read about how the images were created and how the original models were made more biologically accurate. Also be sure to read the page on how to view the cyber-insects inside a virtual reality "cave".

0002-11-30

84

Virtual termite  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

3D virtual image of a termite (Order Isoptera). This movie is also available as a Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) model. The VRML models are more interactive than the QuickTime versions, but special software may need to be downloaded to open them (read the ÃÂHelpÃÂ page for details). Those people using public computers may be limited from fully accessing the resource. Mozilla Firefox users can view the VRML files directly in their browsers by downloading the Cortona extension (http://www.parallelgraphics.com/products/cortona/download/netscape/). This website is an excellent educational resource for all ages. The Virtual Insects home page (http://www.ento.vt.edu/~sharov/3d/3dinsect.html) has a basic explanation of how virtual reality works, including the Virtual Reality Modeling Language. The "Virtual Images" link takes you to a list of insects that can be viewed as 3D digital reconstructions. The image files would make excellent additions to teaching lectures for introductory classes. Visit the "How to Build Virtual Insects" page to read about how the images were created and how the original models were made more biologically accurate. Also be sure to read the page on how to view the cyber-insects inside a virtual reality "cave".

0002-11-30

85

Virtual fly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

3D virtual image of a blow fly (Family Calliphoridae). This movie is also available as a Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) model. The VRML models are more interactive than the QuickTime versions, but special software may need to be downloaded to open them (read the ÃÂHelpÃÂ page for details). Those people using public computers may be limited from fully accessing the resource. Mozilla Firefox users can view the VRML files directly in their browsers by downloading the Cortona extension (http://www.parallelgraphics.com/products/cortona/download/netscape/). This website is an excellent educational resource for all ages. The Virtual Insects home page (http://www.ento.vt.edu/~sharov/3d/3dinsect.html) has a basic explanation of how virtual reality works, including the Virtual Reality Modeling Language. The "Virtual Images" link takes you to a list of insects that can be viewed as 3D digital reconstructions. The image files would make excellent additions to teaching lectures for introductory classes. Visit the "How to Build Virtual Insects" page to read about how the images were created and how the original models were made more biologically accurate. Also be sure to read the page on how to view the cyber-insects inside a virtual reality "cave".

0002-11-30

86

Virtual flea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

3D virtual image of a flea (Order Siphonaptera). This movie is also available as a Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) model. The VRML models are more interactive than the QuickTime versions, but special software may need to be downloaded to open them (read the ÃÂHelpÃÂ page for details). Those people using public computers may be limited from fully accessing the resource. Mozilla Firefox users can view the VRML files directly in their browsers by downloading the Cortona extension (http://www.parallelgraphics.com/products/cortona/download/netscape/). This website is an excellent educational resource for all ages. The Virtual Insects home page (http://www.ento.vt.edu/~sharov/3d/3dinsect.html) has a basic explanation of how virtual reality works, including the Virtual Reality Modeling Language. The "Virtual Images" link takes you to a list of insects that can be viewed as 3D digital reconstructions. The image files would make excellent additions to teaching lectures for introductory classes. Visit the "How to Build Virtual Insects" page to read about how the images were created and how the original models were made more biologically accurate. Also be sure to read the page on how to view the cyber-insects inside a virtual reality "cave".

0002-11-30

87

Virtual Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual time is a broad, new paradigm for organizing and synchronizing distributed systems, subsuming such heretofore distantly related problems as distributed discrete event simulation and distributed database concurrency control. It is an abstraction of real time in much the same way that virtual memory is an abstraction of real memory, and it reorganizes the concepts of concurrency and synchronization in

David Jefferson

1983-01-01

88

Virtually Possible  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Diane Lewis began building her popular virtual education program in a storage closet. The drab room, just big enough to squeeze in a tiny table, was her office at the headquarters of Seminole County (Florida) Public Schools. She had a computer and a small staff of temporary workers. Lewis, who managed to open two successful virtual schools for…

Mellon, Ericka

2011-01-01

89

Data-driven Science in Geochemistry & Petrology: Vision & Reality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science in many fields is increasingly ';data-driven'. Though referred to as a ';new' Fourth Paradigm (Hey, 2009), data-driven science is not new, and examples are cited in the Geochemical Society's data policy, including the compilation of Dziewonski & Anderson (1981) that led to PREM, and Zindler & Hart (1986), who compiled mantle isotope data to present for the first time a comprehensive view of the Earth's mantle. Today, rapidly growing data volumes, ubiquity of data access, and new computational and information management technologies enable data-driven science at a radically advanced scale of speed, extent, flexibility, and inclusiveness, with the ability to seamlessly synthesize observations, experiments, theory, and computation, and to statistically mine data across disciplines, leading to more comprehensive, well informed, and high impact scientific advances. Are geochemists, petrologists, and volcanologists ready to participate in this revolution of the scientific process? In the past year, researchers from the VGP community and related disciplines have come together at several cyberinfrastructure related workshops, in part prompted by the EarthCube initiative of the US NSF, to evaluate the status of cyberinfrastructure in their field, to put forth key scientific challenges, and identify primary data and software needs to address these. Science scenarios developed by workshop participants that range from non-equilibrium experiments focusing on mass transport, chemical reactions, and phase transformations (J. Hammer) to defining the abundance of elements and isotopes in every voxel in the Earth (W. McDonough), demonstrate the potential of cyberinfrastructure enabled science, and define the vision of how data access, visualization, analysis, computation, and cross-domain interoperability can and should support future research in VGP. The primary obstacle for data-driven science in VGP remains the dearth of accessible, integrated data from lab and sensor measurements, experiments, and models, both from past and from present studies, and their poor discoverability, interoperability, and standardization. Other deficiencies include the lack of widespread sample curation and online sample catalogs, and broad community support and enforcement of open data sharing policies and a strategy for sustained funding and operation of the cyberinfrastructure. In order to achieve true data-driven science in geochemistry and petrology, one of the primary requirements is to change the way data and models are managed and shared to dramatically improve their access and re-usability. Adoption of new data publication practices, new ways of citing data that ensure attribution and credit to authors, tools that help investigators to seamlessly manage their data throughout the data life cycle, from the point of acquisition to upload to repositories, and population of databases with historical data are among the most urgent needs. The community, especially early career scientists, must work together to produce the cultural shift within the discipline toward sharing of data and knowledge, virtual collaboration, and social networking. Dziewonski, A M, & Anderson, D L: Physics of the Earth and Planet Interiors 25 (4), 297 (1981) Hey, T, Tansley, S, Tolle, K (Eds.): Redmond, VA: Microsoft Research (2009) Zindler, A, & Hart, S R: Ann. Rev. Earth Plan. Sci. 14, 493 (1986)

Lehnert, K. A.; Ghiorso, M. S.; Spear, F. S.

2013-12-01

90

A Virtual Tour of Virtual Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly describes the eight virtual schools in the United States: Kentucky Virtual High School; Illinois Virtual High School; Florida Virtual School; CCS Web Academy in Fayetteville, North Carolina; The Virtual High School in Hudson, Massachusetts; Basehor-Linwood Virtual Charter School in Kansas; Monte Vista Online Academy in Colorado; and…

Joiner, Lottie L.

2002-01-01

91

Petrologic and Chemical Characterization of a Suite of Antarctic Diogenites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The origin of diogenites, ultramafic cumulates related to eucrites, is an unresolved problem [1]. Most diogenites are orthopyroxenites, a few are harzburgites [2], and some are transitional to cumulate eucrites [1, 3]. Cumulate eucrites are gabbros formed by crystal fractionation from basaltic eucrites [4]. The consensus view is that basaltic eucrites are residual melts from global-magma-ocean crystallization on their parent asteroid [4] which is plausibly Vesta [5]. However, the petrologic and compositional characteristics of diogenites seem to preclude a magma ocean origin [1, 4]. We are doing a petrologic and chemical study of new or unusual diogenites with the ultimate goals of constraining their genesis, and the geologic evolution of Vesta.

Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Mertzman, S. A.; Peng, Z. X.; Mertzman, K. R.

2013-01-01

92

Virtual seminars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A virtual seminar (SM) is an economic and effective instructional tool for teaching students who are at a distance from their instructor. Like conventional class room teaching, a virtual seminar requires an instructor, a student, and a method of communication. Teleconferencing, video conferencing, intranets and the Internet give learners in a Virtual Seminar the ability to interact immediately with their mentors and receive real and relevant answers. This paper shows how industry and academia can benefit from using methods developed and experience gained in presenting the first virtual seminars to academic and petroleum industry participants in mid-1996. The information explosion in industry means that business or technical information is worthless until it is assimilated into a corporate knowledge management system. A search for specific information often turns into a filtering exercise or an attempt to find patterns and classify retrieved material. In the setting of an interactive corporate information system, virtual seminars meet the need for a productive new relationship between creative people and the flux of corporate knowledge. Experience shows that it is more efficient to circulate timesensitive and confidential information electronically through a virtual seminar. Automating the classification of information and removing that task from the usual work load creates an electronic corporate memory and enhances the value of the knowledge to both users and a corporation. Catalogued benchmarks, best-practice standards, and Knowledge Maps (SM) of experience serve as key aids to communicating knowledge through virtual seminars and converting that knowledge into a profit-making asset.

Nelson, H. Roice

1997-06-01

93

Petrology of the 1991-2 Pinatubo Magma System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in 1991 and 1992 was petrologically very interesting because the magma was very oxidized, S-rich, and crystal-rich (45 v % phenocrysts), and the eruption injected 20 MT of SO2 into the atmosphere. Studies of the erupted magma and seismic data indicate that 90 km3 of dacitic magma at 780 C was present at >7 km

M. J. Rutherford; J. E. Hammer

2001-01-01

94

Virtual Earthquake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Virtual Earthquake was created by California State University, Los Angeles, as part of the Electronic Desktop Project. This virtual simulation allows students to locate the epicenter of an earthquake and determine its magnitude on the Richter scale. Students can choose from four geographic areas for their simulation. Virtual Earthquake carefully guides the student through the steps required to calculate the epicenter and to determine the magnitude of a simulated earthquake. The actual epicenter is provided along with the epicenter determined by the user. The user can then determine the magnitude of the earthquake as measured on the Richter scale.

1997-01-01

95

Virtually Hawaii  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Virtually Hawaii is provided by researchers at the University of Hawaii, Proxemy Research, Terra Systems, and private company sponsors. Visitors can explore virtual field trips of the Hawaiian Islands, participate in remote sensing tutorials, work with an interactive spectral imager, view space and aircraft images, and more. The virtual field trip of the "big island" includes a simulated flight, a ground tour, a kids tour, and a link to six ways to enjoy Kilauea Volcano. An interesting and informative site, everyone from kids to grandparents will enjoy its content and ease of use.

96

Virtual cockpits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A virtual cockpit provides aircraft crew members with a seamless, three dimensional perspective of the environment outside the aircraft, along with presentation of information for primary flight, navigation, flight and vehicle management, mission management, targeting, and other situational information. The benefit of integrating a virtual cockpit within an aircraft is that safety of flight and mission success rates are improved in the presence of poor visibility, poor weather, air traffic, and threats. This paper describes a virtual cockpit implementation using video sensor arrays and tiled displays along with other avionics and external systems.

Sabatino, Anthony E.; Flegal, Tim

2002-08-01

97

Virtual Wonders  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The British Natural History Museum has posted this site, which features a selection of fossils, meteorites, and other specimens that can be rotated and viewed in virtual reality. Each specimen is accompanied by a brief text description and links to additional information. This is a collection of strange and interesting virtual objects, most of which the viewer will not find in galleries. Virtual Wonders include a fossil ammonite, Anomalocaris model, Archaeopteryx skull, Coccolithopore, Radiolarian model, land snail shell, meteorite fragments, a two-faced sheep skull, fossil seashell, microfossil, specimen jar, surface of Mars, and trilobites.

98

Petrological evidence for secular cooling in mantle plumes.  

PubMed

Geological mapping and geochronological studies have shown much lower eruption rates for ocean island basalts (OIBs) in comparison with those of lavas from large igneous provinces (LIPs) such as oceanic plateaux and continental flood provinces. However, a quantitative petrological comparison has never been made between mantle source temperature and the extent of melting for OIB and LIP sources. Here we show that the MgO and FeO contents of Galapagos-related lavas and their primary magmas have decreased since the Cretaceous period. From petrological modelling, we infer that these changes reflect a cooling of the Galapagos mantle plume from a potential temperature of 1,560-1,620 degrees C in the Cretaceous to 1,500 degrees C at present. Iceland also exhibits secular cooling, in agreement with previous studies. Our work provides quantitative petrological evidence that, in general, mantle plumes for LIPs with Palaeocene-Permian ages were hotter and melted more extensively than plumes of more modern ocean islands. We interpret this to reflect episodic flow from lower-mantle domains that are lithologically and geochemically heterogeneous. PMID:19340079

Herzberg, Claude; Gazel, Esteban

2009-04-01

99

Introduction to the Microscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The microscope operation procedures and points provided here constitute just one example of how to successfully use a microscope. Depending upon the purpose of the observation, adjustments sometimes differ from the general adjustments that are usually carried out. Users accumulate know-how and experience of the operation of microscopes by first understanding the purpose of an operation and then using the microscope.

Nikon (Nikon Corporation)

2011-01-01

100

Automatic Camera-based Microscope Calibration for a Tele-Micromanipulation System using a  

E-print Network

1 Automatic Camera-based Microscope Calibration for a Tele-Micromanipulation System using a Virtual a visual calibration technique for an optical microscope coupled to a CCD camera. The accuracy of the workspace is reconstructed through the real-time imaging of two perpendicular optical microscopes. Our

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

101

Virtual Colonoscopy  

MedlinePLUS

... virtual colonoscopy include exposure to radiation perforation—a hole or tear in the lining of the colon ... colonoscopy include exposure to radiation and perforation—a hole or tear in the lining of the colon. [ ...

102

Virtual Colonoscopy  

MedlinePLUS

Images & Videos Images & Videos: Virtual Colonoscopy Items 1 to 10 of 12 - Click images to view larger Dr. Judy Yee discusses the importance ... Return to procedure Glossary of Terms > Images and Videos > Patient Safety > Professions in Radiology > Current Radiology News ...

103

Virtual Dating  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an interactive exercise about Geologic Time. It focuses on how geologists and archaeologists determine the ages of rocks and ancient artifacts. This is a beta release of an instructional activity still under development. Virtual Dating contains two modules as well as a demonstration version. One module is Virtual Dating Isochron for rocks and minerals and the other is Virtual Dating Radiocarbon (Carbon-14). The interactive modules involve the students in exploring data and background information and answering questions as they move through the activity. An answer checking and feedback function is employed. There is also a Virtual Dating Demo if you want to do a quick run-through of the activity without answer checking enabled.

Novak, Gary

1999-04-01

104

Virtual City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In conjunction with Rice Design Alliance's Virtual City lecture series held earlier this year, home pages have been put up for two of the speakers, Howard Rheingold and Bruce Sterling, with access to online writings included.

1994-01-01

105

Application of Automated SEM-EDS Based Mineral Identification Systems to Problems in Metamorphic Petrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automated scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS) based mineral identification systems such as QEMSCAN have been in development for over 20 years, primarily as a tool to understand mineral liberation and element distribution in metal mining industry. This powerful technique is now being used in non mining applications such as metamorphic petrology where accurate mineral identification and metamorphic fabrics are key to deciphering the metamorphic history of samples. The QEMSCAN was developed by CSIRO for application in the mining industry where it is used to understand mineralogy, texture, mineral associations, the presence of gangue minerals and deleterious elements that may potentially interfere with mineral processing and planning, and the overall impact of mineralogy on grinding and flotation processes. It is capable of identifying most rock-forming minerals in milliseconds from their characteristic x-ray spectra. The collected x-ray spectra are compared to entries in a database containing the species identification profiles (SIPs) and are assigned a label accordingly. QEMSCAN is capable of searching large sample areas at high resolution resulting in the accurate and precise determination of all minerals present. Reports that were originally developed for the mining geologist can be equally useful to the petrologist, e.g. phase/mineral maps, modal mineral abundances and mineral association reports. Identification of key minerals is of great importance to determining the petrologic history of a sample. These key minerals may be few in number and present as small microinclusions (less than 100 ?m) making them difficult to identify, if at all, with the petrographic microscope. Therefore, imaging by electron-microprobe or scanning electron microscope are the methods traditionally used. However, because of the small field of view available on these instruments at a magnification necessary to resolve micron sized relicts and textures, the search for a few microinclusions may be extremely time consuming, tedious and costly. QEMSCAN with its ability to provide large quantitative data sets and search large sample areas at high resolution means that whole thin sections can have their mineralogy accurately and precisely determined in hours. For instance in metamorphic petrology once relict minerals of earlier metamorphic assemblages are located; thermobarometry and geochronology can then be applied; resulting in a wealth of information on previous segments of the pressure-temperature-time-deformation path. The relict mineral textures and their relationship to the fabric of the entire thin section can be easily seen in the phase/mineral map yielding important textural information. We have developed a SIP database to be used to study metamorphic samples from the Central Metamorphic terrane (CMt) of the eastern Klamath Mountains, northern California. The CMt was chosen because recent work has resulted in the discovery of relict rutile grains and ilmenite-plagioclase-amphibole symplectites textures interpreted as the decomposition of either garnet or omphacite during exhumation from eclogite facies conditions. The QEMSCAN is being used primarily to search for these relict garnet and omphacite grains. Although only a few samples have been run, no garnet or omphacite have been located thus far. However, in a very short period of time the modal mineral abundances and overall fabric have been determined to a degree never previously achieved.

Fairhurst, Robert; Barrow, Wendy; Rollinson, Gavyn

2010-05-01

106

Virtual memory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Virtual memory was conceived as a way to automate overlaying of program segments. Modern computers have very large main memories, but need automatic solutions to the relocation and protection problems. Virtual memory serves this need as well and is thus useful in computers of all sizes. The history of the idea is traced, showing how it has become a widespread, little noticed feature of computers today.

Denning, P. J.

1986-01-01

107

Metastability during metamorphism (reading a metamorphic petrology paper from the literature)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

I use this problem set as a way to introduce students (mostly sophomores) to reading a technical article from the literature. The paper is Austrheim, H, 1987, Eclogitization of lower crustal granulites by fluid migration through shear zones, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 81:221-232. The paper describes Grenville-age mafic and anorthositic granulites in Norway re-metamorphosed under eclogite facies conditions during the Caledonian. The granulite-facies assemblages persist metastabiliy, and only become eclogite assemblages in or near shear zones where fluids allow the granulite->eclogite reactions to occur. I try to have this problem set serve a number of purposes. First, I ask the students to answer a number of guiding questions so that they work through the paper and look up terms as needed. Some of the questions are directly from the text, and others more are open-ended. I wrap-up the problem set with a 'virtual field trip' of the area discussed in the paper. This slide-show works out much better than similar ones I do in this class, because they have all read about the area and have tried to visualize the field relationships already. The virtual field trip typically leads into interesting discussions about tectonics and metamorphism, polymetamorphism, the meaning of facies, how petrology is done in the field, and how metastability is necessary in order to interpret metamorphic history. In an advanced class other papers by Austrheim and co-workers can be used to explore pseudotachylites and the interplay between metamorphism and seismicity.

Peck, William

108

Virtual Specimens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Virtual Field Trips have been around almost as long as the Worldwide Web itself yet virtual explorers do not generally return to their desktops with folders full of virtual hand specimens. Collection of real specimens on fields trips for later analysis in the lab (or at least in the pub) has been an important part of classical field geoscience education and research for generations but concern for the landscape and for preservation of key outcrops from wanton destruction has lead to many restrictions. One of the author’s favorite outcrops was recently vandalized presumably by a geologist who felt the need to bash some of the world’s most spectacular buckle folds with a rock sledge. It is not surprising, therefore, that geologists sometimes leave fragile localities out of field trip itineraries. Once analyzed, most specimens repose in drawers or bins, never to be seen again. Some end up in teaching collections but recent pedagogical research shows that undergraduate students have difficulty relating specimens both to their collection location and ultimate provenance in the lithosphere. Virtual specimens can be created using 3D modeling software and imported into virtual globes such as Google Earth (GE) where, they may be linked to virtual field trip stops or restored to their source localities on the paleo-globe. Sensitive localities may be protected by placemark approximation. The GE application program interface (API) has a distinct advantage over the stand-alone GE application when it comes to viewing and manipulating virtual specimens. When instances of the virtual globe are embedded in web pages using the GE plug-in, Collada models of specimens can be manipulated with javascript controls residing in the enclosing HTML, permitting specimens to be magnified, rotated in 3D, and sliced. Associated analytical data may be linked into javascript and localities for comparison at various points on the globe referenced by ‘fetching’ KML. Virtual specimens open up new possibilities for distance learning, where design of effective lab exercises has long been an issue, and they permit independent evaluation of published field research by reviewers who do not have access to the physical field area. Although their creation can be labor intensive, the benefits of virtual specimens for education and research are potentially great. Interactive 3D Specimen of Sierra Granodiorite at Outcrop Location

de Paor, D. G.

2009-12-01

109

ForPeerReview Petrology of the Nakhlite (Martian) Meteorite Northwest Africa 998  

E-print Network

ForPeerReview Only Petrology of the Nakhlite (Martian) Meteorite Northwest Africa 998 Journal: Meteoritics & Planetary Science Manuscript ID: draft Manuscript Type: Article Date Submitted by the Author: n of Washington, Earth System Sciences Keywords: nakhlite, Martian , NWA 998, petrology Meteoritics

Treiman, Allan H.

110

MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY OF COMET WILD2 NUCLEUS SAMPLES --FINAL RESULTS OF THE  

E-print Network

MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY OF COMET WILD2 NUCLEUS SAMPLES -- FINAL RESULTS OF THE PRELIMINARY was successfully recovered in northern Utah on Janu- ary 15, 2006, and its cargo of coma grains from Comet Wild 2- mental sample issues: (1) Comet nucleus mineralogy and petrology, and grain physical properties (2

Grossman, Lawrence

111

Blending Curriculum with Research in an Undergraduate Petrology Course: A Recipe for Success?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this presentation we discuss the design, key curricular elements, and strengths and weaknesses of an undergraduate course in the Department of Geosciences at Fort Lewis College that was recast to focus on petrologic studies in the Southern Rocky Mountains and Colorado Plateau. Redesign of the course retained an additional petrology option in the curriculum and offered undergraduates a richer

D. A. Gonzales; S. C. Semken

2009-01-01

112

Virtual Tower  

SciTech Connect

The primary responsibility of an intrusion detection system (IDS) operator is to monitor the system, assess alarms, and summon and coordinate the response team when a threat is acknowledged. The tools currently provided to the operator are somewhat limited: monitors must be switched, keystrokes must be entered to call up intrusion sensor data, and communication with the response force must be maintained. The Virtual tower is an operator interface assembled from low-cost commercial-off-the-shelf hardware and software; it enables large amounts of data to be displayed in a virtual manner that provides instant recognition for the operator and increases assessment accuracy in alarm annunciator and control systems. This is accomplished by correlating and fusing the data into a 360-degree visual representation that employs color, auxiliary attributes, video, and directional audio to prompt the operator. The Virtual Tower would be a valuable low-cost enhancement to existing systems.

Wayne, R.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Security Engineering Dept.

1997-08-01

113

Virtual Hospital  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided and maintained by the University of Iowa Health Care, the Virtual Hospital is designed as a "medical reference and health promotion tool for health care providers and patients." To that end, the site offers current and authoritative medical information for patients and professional and pedagogical information for health care providers. The former includes patient educational briefs browseable by organ system or by a topical list, a collection of peer-reviewed and annotated Web resources, an internal search engine, and archives of a column offering medical advice to middle-aged users. Resources in the health care provider section include several digital libraries aimed at certain specialties (Pediatrics, Pediatric Radiology, Family Medicine, and Medical Student); multimedia textbooks and teaching files grouped by organ system; lectures and publications; and clinical practice guidelines. Additional resources at the site include links to the Virtual Children's and Virtual Naval Hospitals, an internal search engine, and online continuing education courses.

114

CHI_PET: Computerized hierarchical indexing of petrological information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CHI_PET is a utility, written in DbaseIV programming language, which indexes petrological and geological information in a database. The process is completely automatic and computer driven, making a comprehensive search of free-text fields for geological information, testing for 10,500 petrological and geological terms contained in current geological dictionaries. The utility uses a hierarchical index structure which has 369 components representing major headings and subheadings within the index structure given in Tomkeieff's "Dictionary of Petrology". The hierarchical structure is significant because it allows for synonymous scientific terms and provides for the recognition of subset relations. The free-text fields are treated with a record-optimized search/match procedure, with successful index strikes accumulated up the hierarchical structure. Dead words such as 'and, the' and nonsignificant characters such as ' + - /' are ignored. The process generates an index vector which shows the geological composition of each record. A database for a Rock Collection of 50,000 rocks was indexed at a rate of 2500 records per hour. An equivalent geological index would have required years of work to prepare manually. The CHI_PET process is convenient to use, and the resultant index vector also is easy to address, update, and use for retrieval. Output uses of the index vectors include: ad hoc reports for rocks that pass a selection sieve of specified index categories; an index for a suite of rocks; pseudocluster diagrams showing the index composition for a suite of rocks. A layout of the enhanced index structure is given, along with listings of the Dbase programs, and samples of output products. With minor modification to the CHI_PET utility, any hierarchical structure of index terms can be used to index free text fields in databases.

Barron, L. M.

1993-08-01

115

TEAM Electron Microscope Animation  

SciTech Connect

The TEAM Electron Microscope, a device that enables atomic-scale imaging in 3-D, has a rotating stage that can hold and position samples inside electron microscopes with unprecedented stability, position-control accuracy, and range of motion.The TEAM Stage makes one of the world's most powerful electron microscopes even better, and enables previously impossible experiments.

None

2012-01-01

116

University of Minnesota Structure Tectonics and Metamorphic Petrology Research Group  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Minnesota Structure Tectonics and Metamorphic Petrology Research Group describes its research on the deformation of continental lithosphere at this website. Users can find clear explanations of the group's current projects including partial melting and orogeny, continental subduction, and shear zones. Students and scientists can find the research interests and a list of publications for the group's faculty, research associates, and students. The website displays the group's analytical, field, and teaching equipment as well as its Institute for Rock Magnetism and Characterization Facility.

117

Mineralogy and Petrology of COMET WILD2 Nucleus Samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The sample return capsule of the Stardust spacecraft will be recovered in northern Utah on January 15, 2006, and under nominal conditions it will be delivered to the new Stardust Curation Laboratory at the Johnson Space Center two days later. Within the first week we plan to begin the harvesting of aerogel cells, and the comet nucleus samples they contain for detailed analysis. By the time of the LPSC meeting we will have been analyzing selected removed grains for more than one month. This presentation will present the first results from the mineralogical and petrological analyses that will have been performed.

Zolensky, Michael; Bland, Phil; Bradley, John; Brearley, Adrian; Brennan, Sean; Bridges, John; Brownlee, Donald; Butterworth, Anna; Dai, Zurong; Ebel, Denton

2006-01-01

118

Mineralogic and petrologic studies of meteorites and lunar samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During a 13 year period beginning in 1971, the Extraterrestrial Petrology Group examined lunar soils from all 6 Apollo missions and those returned by the Soviet Luna 16, Luna 20, and Luna 24 missions. In addition, the properties and apparent origin of the carbonaceous chondrites were examined. Chondrules, calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAI) and the fine grained matrix materials that accompany chondrules and CAI's in primitive meteorites were investigated. The effects of planetary hydrothermal alteration of matrix materials in the C1 chondrite was also investigated. Full length papers and extended abstracts published during the grant are listed chronologically.

Wood, J. A.

1984-01-01

119

WATER-IMMERSION DEEP-SUBWAVELENGTH SURFACE PLASMON VIRTUAL PROBES  

E-print Network

WATER-IMMERSION DEEP-SUBWAVELENGTH SURFACE PLASMON VIRTUAL PROBES QIAN WANG Optoelectronics 2014 Published 29 May 2014 In this paper, we report the observation of surface plasmon virtual probes in water by using near- ¯eld scanning optical microscope. The full-width half-maximum of the probe

Zheludev, Nikolay

120

Virtual sound for virtual reality  

SciTech Connect

The computational limitations of real-time interactive computing do not meet our requirements for producing realistic images for virtual reality in a convincing manner. Regardless of the real-time restrictions on virtual reality interfaces, the representations can be no better than the graphics. Computer graphics is still limited in its ability to generate complex objects such as landscapes and humans. Nevertheless, useful and convincing visualizations are made through a variety of techniques. The central theme of this article is that a similar situation is true with sound for virtual reality. It is beyond our abilityto create interactive soundscapes that create a faithful reproduction of real world sounds, however, by choosing one's application carefully and using sound to enhance a display rather than only mimic real-world scenes, a very effective use of sound can be made.

Blattner, M.M. (Anderson (M.D.) Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Biomathematics Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States) California Univ., Davis, CA (United States)); Papp, A.L. III (California Univ., Davis, CA (United States) Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

1993-02-01

121

Virtual sound for virtual reality  

SciTech Connect

The computational limitations of real-time interactive computing do not meet our requirements for producing realistic images for virtual reality in a convincing manner. Regardless of the real-time restrictions on virtual reality interfaces, the representations can be no better than the graphics. Computer graphics is still limited in its ability to generate complex objects such as landscapes and humans. Nevertheless, useful and convincing visualizations are made through a variety of techniques. The central theme of this article is that a similar situation is true with sound for virtual reality. It is beyond our abilityto create interactive soundscapes that create a faithful reproduction of real world sounds, however, by choosing one`s application carefully and using sound to enhance a display rather than only mimic real-world scenes, a very effective use of sound can be made.

Blattner, M.M. [Anderson (M.D.) Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Biomathematics]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)]|[California Univ., Davis, CA (United States); Papp, A.L. III [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1993-02-01

122

Virtual Electromagnet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an interactive online activity, in which learners equip a virtual electromagnet and see how many iron filings it can pick up. Learners change various characteristics of the electromagnet including the number of windings, the gage of the wire, the current type (AC or DC), the material used in the wire, and the voltage on the power supply.

The University of California Regents

2014-01-01

123

Virtual radios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional software radios take advantage of vastly improved analog to digital converters (ADCs) and digital signal processing (DSP) hardware. Our approach, which we refer to as virtual radios, also depends upon high performance ADCs. However, rather than use DSPs, we have chosen to ride the curve of rapidly improving workstation hardware. We use wideband digitization and then perform all of

Vanu Bose; Michael Ismert; Matt Welborn; John Guttag

1999-01-01

124

Virtual Economy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Launched February 26, 1999, Virtual Economy (VE) is an Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS), Biz/ed, and Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC-UK) learning tool based on the UK governmental model for economic forecasting and planning. This elaborate site contains a "floor plan" for constructing a functional budget and is complete with teacher and student guides, case studies, and model details.

1999-01-01

125

Virtualize Me!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

John Abdelmalak, director of technology for the School District of the Chathams, was pretty sure it was time to jump on the virtualization bandwagon last year when he invited Dell to conduct a readiness assessment of his district's servers. When he saw just how little of their capacity was being used, he lost all doubt. Abdelmalak is one of many…

Waters, John K.

2009-01-01

126

VIRTUAL GROWER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Greenhouses are complex systems. One management decision invariably influences another in often unexpected or unforeseen ways. Trial and error and “rules of thumb” are not a consistently profitable manner to make management decisions. A new computer-based management tool called Virtual Grower was...

127

Virtual Academy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Virtual Academy at the Great Oaks Institute of Technology and Career Development is a tool for remediation and acceleration. Benefits of the program include providing flexibility to students, helping students develop habits and skills for the information age, and allowing students to gain credits so they can graduate on time. (JOW)

Patterson, Claire

2001-01-01

128

The Application of JPEG2000 in Virtual Microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual microscopy (i.e., the viewing of entire microscope specimens on a computer display) is becoming widely applied in\\u000a microscopy teaching and clinical laboratory medicine. Despite rapidly increasing use, virtual microscopy currently lacks of\\u000a a universally accepted image format. A promising candidate is JPEG2000, which has potential advantages for handling gigabyte-sized\\u000a virtual slides. To date, no JPEG2000-based software has been specifically

Vilppu J. Tuominen; Jorma Isola

2009-01-01

129

The Athena Microscopic Imager Investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Athena science payload on the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) includes the Microscopic Imager (MI) [1]. The MI is a fixed-focus camera mounted on the end of an extendable instrument arm, the Instrument Deployment Device (IDD; see Figure 1).The MI was designed to acquire images at a spatial resolution of 30 microns/pixel over a broad spectral range (400 - 700 nm; see Table 1). Technically, the microscopic imager is not a microscope: it has a fixed magnification of 0.4 and is intended to produce images that simulate a geologist s view through a common hand lens. In photographers parlance, the system makes use of a macro lens. The MI uses the same electronics design as the other MER cameras [2, 3] but has optics that yield a field of view of 31 31 mm across a 1024 1024 pixel CCD image (Figure 2). The MI acquires images using only solar or skylightillumination of the target surface. A contact sensor is used to place the MI slightly closer to the target surface than its best focus distance (about 66 mm), allowing concave surfaces to be imaged in good focus. Because the MI has a relatively small depth of field (3 mm), a single MI image of a rough surface will contain both focused and unfocused areas. Coarse focusing will be achieved by moving the IDD away from a rock target after the contact sensor is activated. Multiple images taken at various distances will be acquired to ensure good focus on all parts of rough surfaces. By combining a set of images acquired in this way, a completely focused image can be assembled. Stereoscopic observations can be obtained by moving the MI laterally relative to its boresight. Estimates of the position and orientation of the MI for each acquired image will be stored in the rover computer and returned to Earth with the image data. The MI optics will be protected from the Martian environment by a retractable dust cover. The dust cover includes a Kapton window that is tinted orange to restrict the spectral bandpass to 500-700 nm, allowing color information to be obtained by taking images with the dust cover open and closed. The MI will image the same materials measured by other Athena instruments (including surfaces prepared by the Rock Abrasion Tool), as well as rock and soil targets of opportunity. Subsets of the full image array can be selected and/or pixels can be binned to reduce data volume. Image compression will be used to maximize the information contained in the data returned to Earth. The resulting MI data will place other MER instrument data in context and aid in petrologic and geologic interpretations of rocks and soils on Mars.

Herkenhoff, K. E.; Aquyres, S. W.; Bell, J. F., III; Maki, J. N.; Arneson, H. M.; Brown, D. I.; Collins, S. A.; Dingizian, A.; Elliot, S. T.; Geotz, W.

2003-01-01

130

Igneous and metamorphic petrology in the field: a problem-based, writing-intensive alternative to traditional classroom petrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Geology Department at Western Washington University (~100 geology majors) offers field and classroom versions of its undergraduate petrology course. This is a one-quarter course (igneous and metamorphic petrology) with mineralogy as a prerequisite. The field version of the course is offered during the three weeks prior to fall quarter and the classroom version is offered in spring quarter. We take 15-20 students around the state of Washington, camping at different outcrop sites where students integrate observational skills, petrologic knowledge, and writing. Petrogenetic associations in various tectonic settings provide the theme of the course. We compare ophiolites vs. arc sequences (volcanic, plutonic, and metamorphic rocks), S- vs. I-type granitoids (plutonic rocks and associated metamorphic rocks), Barrovian vs. Buchan vs. subduction zone metamorphism of different protoliths, and flood-basalt vs. active-arc volcanism. Some basics are covered in the first day at WWU, followed by 17 days of field instruction. Lecture is integrated with outcrop study in the field. For example, students will listen to a lecture about magma differentiation processes as they examine cumulate rocks in the Mt. Stuart batholith, and a lecture about metamorphic facies as they study blueschist facies rocks in the San Juan Islands. Students study multiple outcrops around a site for 1-4 days. They then use their observations (sketches and written descriptions of mineral assemblages, rock types, rock textures, etc.) and analysis techniques (e.g. geochemical data plotting, metamorphic protolith analysis) to write papers in which the data are interpreted in terms of a larger tectonic problem. In advance of the writing process, students use group discussion techniques such as whiteboarding to share their observational evidence and explore interpretations. Student evaluations indicate that despite the intense pace of the course, they enjoy it more. Students also feel that they retain more material for future classes. The undivided attention, immediate writing/reflection, and repetition of skills in different settings reinforce material. Because of students' higher level of engagement, more of them pursue advanced classes or independent studies. A corollary benefit is that students form strong bonds with their cohort group, providing mutual support as they continue through the program and ultimately improving their field camp experience. Final exam scores are equal to or better than in the traditional class, and some basic skills, such the ability to make observations at a variety of scales in sketches and writing, are better. Students can also better distinguish between observation and inference in report writing. Finally, students can apply their theoretical understanding of petrologic processes (e.g. magma differentiation, metamorphic facies progressions) to real rocks in a more sophisticated way using evidence.

DeBari, S. M.

2011-12-01

131

Factors to keep in mind when introducing virtual microscopy.  

PubMed

Digitization of glass slides and delivery of so-called virtual slides (VS) emulating a real microscope over the Internet have become reality due to recent improvements in technology. We have implemented a virtual microscope for instruction of medical students and for continuing medical education. Up to 30,000 images per slide are captured using a microscope with an automated stage. The images are post-processed and then served by a plain hypertext transfer protocol (http)-server. A virtual slide client (vMic) based on Macromedia's Flash MX, a highly accepted technology available on every modern Web browser, has been developed. All necessary virtual slide parameters are stored in an XML file together with the image. Evaluation of the courses by questionnaire indicated that most students and many but not all pathologists regard virtual slides as an adequate replacement for traditional slides. All our virtual slides are publicly accessible over the World Wide Web (WWW) at http://vmic.unibas.ch . Recently, several commercially available virtual slide acquisition systems (VSAS) have been developed that use various technologies to acquire and distribute virtual slides. These systems differ in speed, image quality, compatibility, viewer functionalities and price. This paper gives an overview of the factors to keep in mind when introducing virtual microscopy. PMID:16362822

Glatz-Krieger, Katharina; Spornitz, Udo; Spatz, Alain; Mihatsch, Michael J; Glatz, Dieter

2006-03-01

132

The geology and petrology of the Apollo 11 landing site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geochemical and petrologic data indicate that the 73 Apollo 11 basalts thus far identified can be divided into five petrologic groups (A, B1, B2, B3, D) which must represent at least five separate igneous cooling units. These five igneous bodies range in age from 3.90 b.y. to 3.60 b.y. Photogeologic studies indicate that three mare units are present, and that the lunar module set down on the oldest of the three. The exposure age data suggest that the high-K flow is the surficial rock type at the landing area, and is, therefore, probably the oldest of the three mare units. By examining the size frequency distribution and the inferred cooling rates of the individual samples, it is possible to calculate the formation thicknesses within the 30-m-deep West Crater. This suggests that A = 9 m, B1 = 2 m (and may be an ejecta blanket), B2 is equal to or greater than 8 m, and B3 = 6 m.

Beaty, D. W.; Albee, A. L.

1980-01-01

133

Is Virtual Reality Virtually Here?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Virtual reality, a three-dimensional simulation technology, may best be used (1) when training mistakes would be costly; (2) when the environment cannot be experienced in the real world; (3) to improve human-machine interfaces; (4) to make training situations real; and (5) to make the perceptible imperceptible. (SK)

Carr, Clay

1992-01-01

134

Virtual Reality and Abstract Data: Virtualizing Information  

E-print Network

Virtual Reality and Abstract Data: Virtualizing Information by Michael B. Spring and Michael C. Jennings Department of Information Science University of Pittsburgh Abstract Virtual reality interfaces may be employed in creating a map- ping between abstract data and dimensions of a virtual reality. I. Introduction

Spring, Michael B.

135

Virtual Polyhedra  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A growing collection of over 1000 virtual reality polyhedra to explore, complementing Hart's Pavilion of Polyhedreality. Includes instructions for building paper models of polyhedra including modular origami, with ideas for classroom use. Each of the sections contains background information and exercises, a list of virtual reality models, and links to further topics. Platonic Solids (Regular Convex Polyhedra); Kepler-Poinsot Polyhedra (Regular NonConvex Polyhedra); Archimedean Polyhedra (Semi-Regular Convex Polyhedra); Prisms and Anti-Prisms; Archimedean Duals; Quasi-Regular Polyhedra; Johnson Solids (the remaining convex polyhedra with regular faces); Pyramids, Dipyramids, and Trapezohedra; Compound Polyhedra - Introduction; Stellated Polyhedra - Introduction; Compounds of Cubes; Convex Deltahedra; Zonohedra; Uniform Polyhedra; Uniform Compounds of Uniform Polyhedra; Stellations of the Icosahedron; Stellations of the Rhombic Triacontahedron; Other Good Stuff: Alphabetic list of articles, Alphabetic listing of all the polyhedra models, a Glossary, and an Annotated Bibliography. Also background material on polygons and on polyhedron names.

Hart, George W. (George William), 1955-

2007-12-17

136

Virtual Autopsy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Designed with medical students in mind, Leicester (England) University's Virtual Autopsy site takes the student on a virtual tour of seven autopsies. Several options allow for efficient navigation of the site: Cause of Death is a self-assessment quiz students may take after "performing" each autopsy; Return to History takes the user back to the beginning of each case; and Choose another Case lets the user move between the seven cases. Each case contains nearly a dozen detailed color images of certain key parts (including tissues) of the human anatomy--lung, body, heart, head--with hyperlinks to further information. By clicking on the dictionary icon, for instance, a student links to a pop-up page with detailed descriptions of that particular condition. Aspiring pathologists are sure to find this worthwhile, and the absence of gruesome images makes it a good learning site for many budding medical scientists as well.

137

Virtual Sky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Virtual Sky Viewer is sponsored by The Center for Advanced Computing Research at the California Institute of Technology and the Microsoft Corporation. The Web site allows users to view "stunning, seamless images of the night sky; not just an album of popular places, but the entire northern sky at high resolution". Although reading the help link before attempting to use the viewer is recommend, the powerful application gives fascinating and unique views of the sky that most people have never seen. >.

138

Virtual Dice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash applet contains a set of four virtual dice with 6, 8, 10 and 12 faces. Clicking a chosen die generates a random value. The values on each die can be customized with the user's own choices to provide flexibility. These values can be up to five digits long and include either positive, negative or a combination of numbers, and can include text or symbols. The dice can be used to generate random numbers in game situations or in studying probability.

BBC Online Services

2012-01-01

139

Virtual Geoengineer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The site presents specific topics in geoengineering practice through photos, maps, diagrams, and videos using texts. Materials found in the Virtual Geoengineer include: photos with details of projects, case histories, photos of different construction methods with explanations and equipment used in construction, and construction issues on specific projects. Topics covered include: geology, earthquake engineering, foundations, excavation, in-situ testing, dams, geosynthetics, landslides, and slope failures.

140

Virtual anthropology.  

PubMed

Comparative morphology, dealing with the diversity of form and shape, and functional morphology, the study of the relationship between the structure and the function of an organism's parts, are both important subdisciplines in biological research. Virtual anthropology (VA) contributes to comparative morphology by taking advantage of technological innovations, and it also offers new opportunities for functional analyses. It exploits digital technologies and pools experts from different domains such as anthropology, primatology, medicine, paleontology, mathematics, statistics, computer science, and engineering. VA as a technical term was coined in the late 1990s from the perspective of anthropologists with the intent of being mostly applied to biological questions concerning recent and fossil hominoids. More generally, however, there are advanced methods to study shape and size or to manipulate data digitally suitable for application to all kinds of primates, mammals, other vertebrates, and invertebrates or to issues regarding plants, tools, or other objects. In this sense, we could also call the field "virtual morphology." The approach yields permanently available virtual copies of specimens and data that comprehensively quantify geometry, including previously neglected anatomical regions. It applies advanced statistical methods, supports the reconstruction of specimens based on reproducible manipulations, and promotes the acquisition of larger samples by data sharing via electronic archives. Finally, it can help identify new, hidden traits, which is particularly important in paleoanthropology, where the scarcity of material demands extracting information from fragmentary remains. This contribution presents a current view of the six main work steps of VA: digitize, expose, compare, reconstruct, materialize, and share. The VA machinery has also been successfully used in biomechanical studies which simulate the stress and strains appearing in structures. Although methodological issues remain to be solved before results from the two domains can be fully integrated, the various overlaps and cross-fertilizations suggest the widespread appearance of a "virtual functional morphology" in the near future. Yrbk Phys Anthropol 156:22-42, 2015. © 2014 American Association of Physical Anthropologists. PMID:25418603

Weber, Gerhard W

2015-02-01

141

Virtual Reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract vjVTK is a small toolkit enabling the use of the Visualization ToolKit (VTK) native ly within the VRJuggler Virtual Reality framework. The toolkit enables a departure from the traditional v isualization calculation-conversionimmersive,viewing cycle. vjVTK leverages the OpenGL capabilities of VTK to a llow it to run as a native graphics generation tool within the VRJuggler framework. This removes,the need

2006-01-01

142

Petrology and Geochemistry of D'Orbigny, Geochemistry of Sahara 99555, and the Origin of Angrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have done detailed petrologic study of the angrite, D'Orbigny, and geochemical study of it and Sahara 99555. D'Orbigny is an igneous-textured rock composed of Ca-rich olivine, Al-Ti-diopside-hedenbergite, subcalcic kirschsteinite, two generations of hercynitic spinel and anorthite, with the mesostasis phases ulv6spinel, Ca-phosphate, a silicophosphate phase and Fe-sulfide. We report an unknown Fe-Ca-Al-Ti-silicate phase in the mesostasis not previously found in angrites. One hercynitic spinel is a large, rounded homogeneous grain of a different composition than the euhedral and zoned grains. We believe the former is a xenocryst, the first such described from angrites. The mafic phases are highly zoned; mg# of cores for olivine are approx.64, and for clinopyroxene approx.58, and both are zoned to Mg-free rims. The Ca content of olivine increases with decreasing mg#, until olivine with approx.20 mole% Ca is overgrown by subcalcic kirschsteinite with Ca approx.30-35 mole%. Detailed zoning sequences in olivine-subcalcic kirschsteinite and clinopyroxene show slight compositional reversals. There is no mineralogic control that can explain these reversals, and we believe they were likely caused by local additions of more primitive melt during crystallization of D'Orbigny. D'Orbigny is the most ferroan angrite with a bulk rock mg# of 32. Compositionally, it is virtually identical to Sahara 99555; the first set of compositionally identical angrites. Comparison with the other angrites shows that there is no simple petrogenetic sequence, partial melting with or without fractional crystallization, that can explain the angrite suite. Angra dos Reis remains a very anomalous angrite. Angrites show no evidence for the brecciation, shock, or impact or thermal metamorphism that affected the HED suite and ordinary chondrites. This suggests the angrite parent body may have followed a fundamentally different evolutionary path than did these other parent bodies.

Mittlefehldt, David W.; Killgore, Marvin; Lee, Michael T.

2001-01-01

143

Cryogenic immersion microscope  

DOEpatents

A cryogenic immersion microscope whose objective lens is at least partially in contact with a liquid reservoir of a cryogenic liquid, in which reservoir a sample of interest is immersed is disclosed. When the cryogenic liquid has an index of refraction that reduces refraction at interfaces between the lens and the sample, overall resolution and image quality are improved. A combination of an immersion microscope and x-ray microscope, suitable for imaging at cryogenic temperatures is also disclosed.

Le Gros, Mark (Berkeley, CA); Larabell, Carolyn A. (Berkeley, CA)

2010-12-14

144

Virtual microscopy for learning and assessment in pathology.  

PubMed

Virtual slides are high-magnification digital images of tissue sections, stored in a multi-resolution file format. Using appropriate software, these slides can be viewed in a web browser in a manner that closely simulates examination of glass slides with a real microscope. We describe the successful implementation of teaching microscopic pathology with virtual slides and, for the first time, their use in summative assessment. Both students and teaching staff readily adapted to the use of virtual microscopy. Questionnaire feedback from students strongly indicated that virtual slides solved a number of problems in their learning, while providing good to excellent image quality. A deliberate policy of allocating two students per workstation promoted collaboration and helped to maintain interest in microscopic pathology. The use of a secure browser facilitated assessment using virtual slides, with no technical or security issues arising despite high peak demand. The new Medicine programme at the University of New South Wales will exclusively utilize virtual microscopy for the study of both histology and histopathology. We believe that the use of high-quality learning resources such as virtual slides can ensure that microscopic examination of tissues remains both meaningful and interesting. PMID:15470688

Kumar, Rakesh K; Velan, Gary M; Korell, Sami O; Kandara, Madan; Dee, Fred R; Wakefield, Denis

2004-12-01

145

Thermal-Wave Microscope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer-controlled thermal-wave microscope developed to investigate III-V compound semiconductor devices and materials. Is nondestructive technique providing information on subsurface thermal features of solid samples. Furthermore, because this is subsurface technique, three-dimensional imaging also possible. Microscope uses intensity-modulated electron beam of modified scanning electron microscope to generate thermal waves in sample. Acoustic waves generated by thermal waves received by transducer and processed in computer to form images displayed on video display of microscope or recorded on magnetic disk.

Jones, Robert E.; Kramarchuk, Ihor; Williams, Wallace D.; Pouch, John J.; Gilbert, Percy

1989-01-01

146

Optical versus virtual: teaching assistant perceptions of the use of virtual microscopy in an undergraduate human anatomy course.  

PubMed

Many studies that evaluate the introduction of technology in the classroom focus on student performance and student evaluations. This study focuses on instructor evaluation of the introduction of virtual microscopy into an undergraduate anatomy class. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with graduate teaching assistants (TA) and analyzed through qualitative methods. This analysis showed that the teaching assistants found the virtual microscope to be an advantageous change in the classroom. They cite the ease of use of the virtual microscope, access to histology outside of designated laboratory time, and increasing student collaboration in class as the primary advantages. The teaching assistants also discuss principal areas where the use of the virtual microscope can be improved from a pedagogical standpoint, including requiring students to spend more time working on histology in class. PMID:22069298

Collier, Larissa; Dunham, Stacey; Braun, Mark W; O'Loughlin, Valerie Dean

2012-01-01

147

JOURNAL OF PETROLOGY VOLUME 38 NUMBER 6 PAGES 757783 1997 Mineral Zoning, PTXM Phase Relations,  

E-print Network

petrologic analysis of ten meta-anorthosites and related INTRODUCTION rocks from the Adirondack highlands­T­X­M modeling of this reaction reveals a meta-anorthosite and related rocks with the goal ofP­T path

Spear, Frank S.

148

Cathodoluminescence Color Indices as a Parameter for Measuring Petrologic Changes in Meteorites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cathodoluminescence (CL) is the emission of light during exposure to an electron beam. Here, we discuss using the CL properties of meteorites to determine their petrologic type, with emphasis on CM, CO, ordinary and enstatite chondrites, and achondrites.

A. Meier; D. G. Akridge; J. M. C. Akridge; J. D. Batchelor; P. H. Benoit; J. Brewer; J. M. Dehart; B. D. Keck; J. Lu; D. M. Schneider; D. W. G. Sears; S. J. K. Symes; Y. Zhang

2003-01-01

149

Magnesium-rich crustal compositions on Mercury: Implications for magmatism from petrologic modeling  

E-print Network

Magnesium-rich crustal compositions on Mercury: Implications for magmatism from petrologic modeling: Stockstill-Cahill, K. R., T. J. McCoy, L. R. Nittler, S. Z. Weider, and S. A. Hauck II (2012), Magnesium

Hauck II, Steven A.

150

Petrology, chemistry, age and irradiation history of Luna 24 samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of petrological, chemical, isotopic age determination and irradiation studies of sample 24170 from the 170 cm depth of the regolith core returned from Mare Crisium by Luna 24 are presented. The sample is found to be comprised of fragments from a single igneous rock, with mineralogical evidence indicating it to be a mare basalt. The crystallization age is determined by Sm-Nd and Ar(40)-Ar(39) ages to be 3.30 AE, establishing the presence of relatively young flows. All soil samples show low trace element compositions with minimum contamination by KREEPUTh-rich materials. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd relations reflect the absence of significant fractionation at ages younger than 4.5 AE. One soil sample shows extremely large neutron capture effects, imposing a new lower limit to the neutron production rate in the regolith and requiring the addition of irradiated materials from depth.

Wasserburg, G. J.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Mcculloch, M. T.; Huneke, J. C.; Dymek, R. F.; Depaolo, D. J.; Chodos, A. A.; Albee, A. L.; Radicati Di Brozolo, F.

1978-01-01

151

Lunar basalt meteorite EET 87521: Petrology of the clast population  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Elephant Moraine meteorite EET 87521 was classified as a lunar mare basalt breccia which is composed mainly of VLT basalt clasts. Here we report on our petrological study of lithic clasts and monomineralic fragments in the thin sections EET 87521,54 and EET 87521,47,1, which were prepared from the meteorite. The results of the study show that EET 87521 consists mainly of Al-rich ferrobasalt clasts and olivine pyroxenite clasts. The bulk composition of the meteorite can be well modelled by the mixing of these lithic components which appear to be differentiates of the Luna 25 basalt melt. KREEP and Mg-rich gabbro components are minor constituents of EET 87521.

Semenova, A. S.; Nazarov, M. A.; Kononkova, N. N.

1993-01-01

152

Petrology and geochemistry of alkali gabbronorites from lunar breccia 67975  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed results of petrologic and compositional studies of three clasts found in thin sections of the Apollo 16 lunar breccia 67975 and of four clasts extracted from the breccia (for instrumental neutron activation analysis) prior to thin sectioning are reported. The alkali gabbronorites of the breccia form two distinct subgroups, magnesian and ferroan. The magnesian gabbronorites are composed of bytownitic plagioclase, hypersthene, augite, a silica mineral, and trace Ba-rich K-feldspar. The ferroan gabbronorites are composed of ternary plagioclase, pigeonite, augite, Ba-rich K-feldspar, and a silica mineral. Trace minerals in both subgroups are apatite, REE-rich whitlockite, and zircon. The magnesian and ferroan alkali gabbronorites appear to have formed by progressive differentiation of the same, or closely related, parent REE-rich magmas.

James, Odette B.; Flohr, Marta K.; Lindstrom, Marilyn M.

1987-01-01

153

Lunar ferroan anorthosite 60025 - Petrology and chemistry of mafic lithologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eleven splits from the mafic-mineral-rich part of anorthosite 60025 were studied in order to establish the exact nature and causes of compositional variations in the minerals of lunar ferroan anorthosites. All splits were analyzed by INAA, and five were studied intensively by petrologic techniques. All splits were found to have similar cataclastic textures and show textural evidence of at least two episodes of deformation. The whole-rock split contains mafic minerals having a wide range of compositions and is probably polymict. It is suggested that the rare-earth patterns for all splits can be duplicated safactorily, assuming that the equilibrium liquids had flat, or nearly flat, chondrite-normalized rare-earth patterns. The plagioclases in all splits were found to be identical. Data obtained indicate that in ferroan anorthosites An content in plagioclase and mg' of associated mafic minerals are not strongly correlated.

James, O. B.; Mcgee, J. J.; Lindstrom, M. M.

1991-01-01

154

Petrologic profile of Apollo 16 regolith at Station 4  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 16 double drive tube core 64001/2 (total depth about 60 cm) consists of four petrologic units based on the modal abundance of lithic, monomineralic, and other particles in the 20-500 micron size range of samples from 12 levels. Variation in the abundance of particles derived directly from bedrocks is low and the core soils probably represent only one set of source rocks. The chemical signature of an excessively high mare basalt component at about 42 cm correlates with an excess of regolith breccias, which may then be the physical carrier. The core soils as a whole show a systematic size-composition relationship that may be attributed to a large-scale macroscopic reworking and the consequent masking of any or all previous surface process related mixing event. However, on a much smaller scale (about 0.5 cm), individual soil layers seem to have evolved more via mixing than via in situ reworking.

Basu, A.; Mckay, D. S.

1984-01-01

155

Linking petrology and seismology at an active volcano.  

PubMed

Many active volcanoes exhibit changes in seismicity, ground deformation, and gas emissions, which in some instances arise from magma movement in the crust before eruption. An enduring challenge in volcano monitoring is interpreting signs of unrest in terms of the causal subterranean magmatic processes. We examined over 300 zoned orthopyroxene crystals from the 1980-1986 eruption of Mount St. Helens that record pulsatory intrusions of new magma and volatiles into an existing larger reservoir before the eruption occurred. Diffusion chronometry applied to orthopyroxene crystal rims shows that episodes of magma intrusion correlate temporally with recorded seismicity, providing evidence that some seismic events are related to magma intrusion. These time scales are commensurate with monitoring signals at restless volcanoes, thus improving our ability to forecast volcanic eruptions by using petrology. PMID:22628652

Saunders, Kate; Blundy, Jon; Dohmen, Ralf; Cashman, Kathy

2012-05-25

156

The Light Microscope.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the function of the various parts of the microscope and their integration in the formation of an optical image. Presents a procedure for setting up a microscope to obtain maximum resolution and contrast for each objective lens at all magnifications. (JRH)

Baker, W. L.

1995-01-01

157

Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

SEM (Scanning electron Microscope) image of a vesicular ash particle erupted by Augustine volcano on January 13, 2006. The ash sample was collected during the ashfall in Homer, Alaska by John Paskievitch, AVO. The image was acquired by Pavel Izbekov using ISI-40 Scanning Electron Microscope at the A...

158

Virtual endoscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on the initial developmental stages of an endoscope that can be used for medical and other applications requiring 3-D images. The conceptual basis for the design is derived from our prior efforts in the development of 3-D scopes for laparoscopy and from telepresence research with head-mounted displays for use in virtual reality. We include the initial results of the development of the viewing system and the design for the scope. Specific future research efforts and developmental phase also are described.

McLaurin, A. P.; Jones, Edwin R., Jr.

1994-04-01

159

Development of MRI Microscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have been developing an ultra high spatial resolution MRI, “MRI Microscope”, especially for 3He physics at ultra low temperature. The ultimate goal of our MRI Microscope is to achieve 1 ?m×1 ?m two dimensional spatial resolution comparable to optical microscopes. We constructed the MRI Microscope using a magnetic field of 7.2 T, with tri-axial magnetic field gradients of 2.0 T/m. We visualized the pure liquid 3He in a 230 ?m diameter tube to study the effect of nonlinearity on the MRI Microscope at low temperature and in high magnetic fields. An MRI image was obtained at 0.22 MPa, 1 K with 1.8 ?m×1.8 ?m pixel size. At 65 mK, the MRI image became more blurred. We speculate that it was caused by large spin diffusion and nonlinearity.

Hachiya, Mahiro; Arimura, Kyohei; Ueno, Tomohiro; Matsubara, Akira

2010-02-01

160

Teaching Petrology in the 21st Century: A Workshop Report and Call to Action  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Petrology plays an important role in the upper division geology curriculum, introducing students to the skills needed to investigate and interpret igneous and metamorphic rocks that form the bulk of the earth's interior. Central concepts in petrology courses typically include chemical differentiation of Earth, the role of igneous and metamorphic processes in the Earth system, and the occurrences and distribution of rocks and in a variety of tectonic settings. Seventy-nine geoscientists who teach (or plan to teach) petrology in the undergraduate curriculum gathered for a week at Montana State University this past summer to discuss best practices and how petrology should be integrated into the geology curriculum of the 21st century. The first three days of the workshop were devoted to visiting some of the classic geological field locations in Montana and Wyoming to discuss the role of fieldwork in teaching petrologic concepts. The following four days were spent on the MSU campus in a mixture of large group discussions, smaller topical working group meetings, and demonstration sessions where faculty presented exercises, laboratory activities, or moderated small group discussions on pedagogy and assessment. One of the main outcomes of the workshop was the development of a web site for sharing teaching materials (http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/petrology03). This site contains a complete record of workshop activities. A collection of over 200 digital resources that support teaching petrology is now available, including over 30 new instructional activities contributed by workshop participants. Each activity contains 1) a brief introduction to the activity; 2) the activity itself along with supporting documents such as teaching notes and an answer key; and 3) a place for comments by users to give feedback to the author and to those who might be interested in using the activity. A formal review process of these resources will be initiated in the coming year. Another important outcome of the workshop was the formation of working groups around five areas: development of rock suites, modeling and databases, experiments in petrology, phase equilibria, and geodynamic petrology. These working groups began the process of organizing existing resources for dissemination, identifying important gaps in coverage, and developing plans to create new resources in these areas for educators. Overall, workshop participants advocated the need to establish stronger ties between petrology and the larger geology curriculum, to better articulate the contributions of petrology in understanding the Earth system, and to develop better activities and strategies to motivate students to learn petrology. The goal of the workshop and of this session is to learn from each other the best practices in teaching petrology, to expand the participation in these activities, and to call for help in the development of new resources and methods for teaching petrology throughout the geoscience curriculum. Contributions to the Teaching Petrology website and participation in the working groups is strongly encouraged and open to everyone in the community. This workshop is part of the NAGT On The Cutting Edge workshop series, and was supported by funds from the NSF CCLI-ND program.

Mogk, D.; Davidson, C.; Manduca, C.; Braday, J.

2003-12-01

161

Virtual screening of virtual libraries.  

PubMed

Virtual screening of virtual libraries (VSVL) is a rapidly changing area of research. Great efforts are being made to produce better algorithms, selection methods and infrastructure. Yet, the number of successful examples in the literature is not impressive, although the quality of work certainly is high. Why is this? One reason is that these methods tend to be applied at the lead generation stage and therefore there is a large lead-time before successful examples appear in the literature. However, any computational chemist would confirm that these methods are successful and there exists a glut of start-up companies specialising in virtual screening. Moreover, the scientific community would not be focussing so much attention on this area if it were not yielding results. Even so, the paucity of literature data is certainly a hindrance to the development of better methods. The VSVL process is unique within the discovery process, in that it is the only method that can screen the > 10(30) genuinely novel molecules out there. Already, some VSVL methods are evaluating 10(13) compounds, a capacity that high throughput screening can only dream of. There is a huge potential advantage for the company that develops efficient and effective methods, for lead generation, lead hopping and optimization of both potency and ADME properties. To do this, it requires more than the software, it requires confidence to exploit the methodology, to commit synthesis on the basis of it, and to build this approach into the medicinal chemistry strategy. It is a fact that these tools remain quite daunting for the majority of scientists working at the bench. The routine use of these methods is not simply a matter of education and training. Integration of these methods into accessible and robust end user software, without dilution of the science, must be a priority. We have reached a coincidence, where several technologies have the required level of maturity predictive computational chemistry methods, algorithms that manage the combinatorial explosion, high throughput crystallography and ADME measurements and the massive increase in computational horsepower from distributed computing. The author is confident that the synergy of these technologies will bring great benefit to the industry, with more efficient production of higher quality clinical candidates. The future is bright. The future is virtual! PMID:12774691

Green, Darren V S

2003-01-01

162

[Microscopic colitis: update 2014].  

PubMed

Microscopic colitis, which includes lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis, represents a frequent cause of chronic watery diarrhea especially in the elderly population. Several medications, such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, proton pump inhibitors or antidepressants, as well as cigarette smoking have been recognized as risk factors for microscopic colitis. The diagnosis of microscopic colitis is based on a macroscopically normal ileo-colonoscopy and several biopsies from the entire colon, which demonstrate the pathognomonic histopathologic findings. Therapy is mainly based on the use of budesonide. Other medications, such as mesalazine, cholestyramine and bismuth, have been evaluated as well but the evidence is less solid. PMID:25276996

Burgmann, Konstantin; Fraga, Montserrat; Schoepfer, Alain M; Yun, Pu

2014-09-01

163

Virtual machine or virtual operating system?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of a multi-access system from an existing single-user system can be achieved by the virtual machine approach. If the virtual machines generated include as primitives the logical functions used by the single-user system activated on them, these extended virtual machines are able to support the single-user system at a decreased development, maintenance and running cost.

J. Bellino; Cl. Hans

164

Virtual Sweden  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Panoramic photographs that immerse their audience in a landscape have been in vogue throughout the history of photographic enterprises. With this in mind, users should not be surprised to learn of the existence of the Virtual Sweden website. Established by Jonas Carlson in 2003, the site contains 360 degree panoramic images taken by Carlson from a wide variety of locales across the globe. Of course, visitors should start by looking at the panoramic photograph taken from the Gronskar lighthouse in the Stockholm archipelago, but then they would be remiss not to look at some of the other available images. Some of the other places Carlson has seen fit to document are Rome, Thailand, Egypt, and London. Visitors can peruse a thematic list of these locations, or they may simply go straight to his "Latest additions" list, which is also on the site's homepage.

Carlson, Jonas

2005-01-01

165

Virtual Norfolk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An experiment in teaching with historical texts still in the early stages of development, Virtual Norfolk (Norfolk County, UK) offers five content modules that include seminars, topics, and illustrative documents. For example, the Social History of Early Modern England module includes the Everyday Lives seminar, which has among its topics Crime and the Law, where one can read the digitized version of "prosecution of Benet Goodwyn for whoring" from Norwich City Records, City Quarter Sessions, Book of Examinations and Depositions, 1561-67. Some introductory sections and commentaries have yet to be written by project staff, scholars from the University of East Anglia, and the glossary "will appear here shortly." Although parts of the site are still under construction, all historical texts are searchable by keyword; so, it is quite easy for users to broaden a search after looking over a few documents and discovering terms of interest.

2001-01-01

166

Petrologic Constraints on Seismic Velocity Variations in the Upper Mantle Beneath Southern Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional tomographic images of seismic velocity perturbations obtained from analyses of P-wave and S-wave data from the southern Africa seismic experiment show that seismic velocities are about 0.5 to 1.0% higher in the upper mantle beneath Archean cratons relative to the upper mantle off-craton and in modified craton. We examine these seismic velocity perturbations quantitatively in terms of mineralogical and petrological constraints, including depth and temperature of origin, obtained from more than 100 well-characterized mantle samples in kimberlite pipes both on and off craton. We use laboratory-determined bulk and shear moduli, as well as their temperature and pressure derivatives, to compute the seismic properties of the mineral aggregates at the estimated depths and temperatures in the mantle from which the samples were derived. Xenolith samples from the Kaapvaal craton are organized by petrologic subgroups: (1) low temperature garnet lherzolites and harzburgites that originate predominantly from depths in the range 100-150 km; (2) high temperature garnet lherzolites originating at depths in excess of 170 km; and (3) spinel lherzolites and harzburgites that are thought to comprise a continuous upper layer (depth < 80 km) of the cratonic lithosphere. Off-craton peridotites of Proterozoic age (ca 1-2 Ga) are typically more fertile (enriched in Al, Ca, and Fe) than on-craton samples, and they tend to lie on a mantle geotherm displaced toward higher temperatures. All of the mantle samples used in the present study consist dominantly of olivine and orthopyroxene, with or without lesser amounts of garnet, clinopyroxene, and spinel. P and S wave velocities are computed for each xenolith sample based on the modal proportions and chemical composition of individual mineral phases. Where possible, each velocity determination is corrected for the pressure and temperature at which the sample was in equilibrium in the mantle. A significant uncertainty in the velocity determinations results from an incomplete, and in some cases inconsistent, elasticity database. Notably absent from the database are a number of temperature derivatives, many compositional and second-order derivatives, and virtually all P-T cross-derivatives. Within the limits of these uncertainties, however, we have selected a representative set of elastic parameters that we apply uniformly to all specimens of the xenolith suite for the computation of seismic velocities. The contributions of varying mineral modes, phase compositions, and geothermal gradient to seismic velocity variations are examined in the terms of observed velocity perturbations across southern Africa. We evaluate the relative importance of the geothermal gradient vs. average rock composition of the upper mantle as factors in producing the seismic velocity variations observed between regions that are on-craton, off-craton, and in disturbed craton.

James, D. E.; Carlson, R. W.; Boyd, F. R.; Janney, P. E.

2001-05-01

167

Microscope collision protection apparatus  

DOEpatents

A microscope collision protection apparatus for a remote control microscope which protects the optical and associated components from damage in the event of an uncontrolled collision with a specimen, regardless of the specimen size or shape. In a preferred embodiment, the apparatus includes a counterbalanced slide for mounting the microscope's optical components. This slide replaces the rigid mounts on conventional upright microscopes with a precision ball bearing slide. As the specimen contacts an optical component, the contacting force will move the slide and the optical components mounted thereon. This movement will protect the optical and associated components from damage as the movement causes a limit switch to be actuated, thereby stopping all motors responsible for the collision.

DeNure, Charles R. (Pocatello, ID)

2001-10-23

168

The Beagle 2 Microscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Beagle 2 microscope provides optical images of the Martian surface at a resolution 5x higher than any other experiment currently planned. By using a novel illumination system it images in three colors and can also detect fluorescent materials.

Lüthi, B. S.; Thomas, N.; Hviid, S. F.; Keller, H. U.; Markiewicz, W. J.; Blümchen, T.; Smith, P. H.; Tanner, R.; Oquest, C.; Reynolds, R.; Josset, J.-L.; Beauvivre, S.; Hofmann, B.; Rüffer, P.; Pillinger, C. T.

2004-03-01

169

Infrared microscope inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface.

Forman, Steven E. (Framingham, MA); Caunt, James W. (Concord, MA)

1985-02-26

170

Infrared microscope inspection apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface. 4 figs.

Forman, S.E.; Caunt, J.W.

1985-02-26

171

Adaptive Scanning Optical Microscope A multidisciplinary optical microscope  

E-print Network

Adaptive Scanning Optical Microscope (ASOM): A multidisciplinary optical microscope design, the optical microscope remains one of the most important tools for observing below the threshold of the naked of view. This paper presents a new optical microscope design that combines a high speed steering mirror

Wen, John Ting-Yung

172

Virtual Titanic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The recent historical and cinematic fascination with the Titanic proves that the allure of this most famous luxury liner remains unsinkable. The Discovery Channel Online has created a captivating site devoted to images, movies (IPIX, QuickTime), and text describing the ship and its demise. While the site contains historical photos and lithographs of the ship as well as underwater photos and movies from a 1985 submersible mission, the unique contribution of this site is its numerous virtual images of the interior and exterior of the Titanic as well as its movies of the collision and sinking. Developed by Andrew Nelson for a CD-ROM game, the movies include a flyby of the ship, a collision movie, a listing movie, and a three-part series of the sinking. Both flat and "bubble" views of such features as the first-class cabins, the wireless room, and the grand staircase are also included. A talk-back section discusses various theories surrounding the sinking and contains several related links.

173

Virtually Missouri  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While it seems that almost every state historical museum or library has set up a digital collection or twelve, coordinating access to these lovely offerings has proved to be a bit tough. Fortunately for those collections created in the state of Missouri, there is the Missouri Digitization Planning Project, which has created this fine site. Sponsored with monies from the Institute of Museum & Library Services, Virtually Missouri serves as a place where institutions can place their digitized collections, and not surprisingly, the generally curious public can take a look at their creations. From the homepage, visitors can take a look at the featured collection, or delve right into the other materials by searching the catalog of collections or by just browsing a list of the collections. The offerings here are quite impressive, as they include exhibits on the African American community of northeast Missouri created by the Hannibal Free Public Library and images from the now-defunct newspaper, the St. Louis Globe Democrat.

174

Virtual button interface  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method of issuing commands to a computer by a user interfacing with a virtual reality environment are disclosed. To issue a command, the user directs gaze at a virtual button within the virtual reality environment, causing a perceptible change in the virtual button, which then sends a command corresponding to the virtual button to the computer, optionally after a confirming action is performed by the user, such as depressing a thumb switch. 4 figs.

Jones, J.S.

1999-01-12

175

Virtual button interface  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method of issuing commands to a computer by a user interfacing with a virtual reality environment. To issue a command, the user directs gaze at a virtual button within the virtual reality environment, causing a perceptible change in the virtual button, which then sends a command corresponding to the virtual button to the computer, optionally after a confirming action is performed by the user, such as depressing a thumb switch.

Jones, Jake S. (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-01-01

176

Petrology of four clasts from consortium breccia 73215  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One felsite ('granite') and three ANT-suite anorthositic gabbro clasts extracted from breccia 73215 are described. The felsite clast has two components - fragments of crystalline felsite and veins and patches of felsic glass. The crystalline felsite, which consists largely of a vermicular intergrowth of quartz and Ba-K-feldspar, crystallized from a highly differentiated melt between 3.90 and 4.05 b.y. The felsic glass component consists of crystallized brown and colorless glasses and uncrystallized colorless glass which are all K and Si rich. The relation of glass features to past heating and the breccia-forming event is considered. In the three anorthositic gabbros, which have similar mineralogies and gradational textures, plagioclase is dominant, and olivine and orthopyroxene are the major mafic minerals. The petrologic data suggest that the gabbros formed as heated, partly melted, and/or recrystallized polymict breccias. It is possible that the approximately 4.25 b.y. age obtained for the three rocks is the date of the melting/recrystallization event.

James, O. B.; Hammarstrom, J. G.

1977-01-01

177

Petrology of New Stannern-trend Eucrites and Eucrite Genesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eucrites are basaltic meteorites of the howardite-eucrite-diogenite (HED) suite that originated on a differentiated asteroid, possibly 4 Vesta. Basaltic eucrites are divided into three subgroups based on composition: main group, Stannern-trend, and Nuevo Laredo-trend. The main group and Nuevo Laredo-trend define a sequence formed by fractional crystallization of pigeonite and plagioclase from primitive parent melts [2, 3]. The Stannern-trend cannot be explained this way, but may rather represent a partial-melt sequence of their parent body. However, this model seems inadequate to explain eucrite siderophile element contents, and it is difficult to develop a single unifying model for petrogenesis of all eucrites. Until recently, there were only four Stannern- trend eucrites. One is an anomalous partial cumulate. There is little geochemical variation among these meteorites, so the Stannern-trend was poorly defined. Geochemical studies have identified four additional eucrites as members of the Stannern-trend; one extends the Stannern-trend closer to the main group [5]. No detailed descriptions of these rocks have been published. In order to better integrate these eucrites into the suite, we have done petrologic study of them. They are: LEW 88010, PCA 82501, PCA 91006 and PCA 91179.

Gardner, K. G.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.

2004-01-01

178

Petrology of the Crystalline Rocks Hosting the Santa Fe Impact Structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We collected samples from within the area of shatter cone occurrence and for approximately 8 kilometers (map distance) along the roadway. Our primary goal is to date the impact. Our secondary goal is to use the petrology and Ar systematics to provide further insight into size and scale of the impact. Our approach is to: Conduct a detailed petrology study to identify lithologies that share petrologic characteristics and tectonic histories but with differing degrees of shock. Obtain micro-cores of K-bearing minerals from multiple samples for Ar-40/Ar-39 analysis. Examine the Ar diffusion patterns for multiple minerals in multiple shocked and control samples. This will help us to better understand outcrop and regional scale relationships among rocks and their responses to the impact event.

Schrader, C. M.; Cohen, B. A.

2010-01-01

179

Electron microscope studies  

SciTech Connect

This is a report covering the research performed in the Crewe laboratory between 1964 and 1992. Because of limitations of space we have provided relatively brief summaries of the major research directions of the facility during these years. A complete bibliography has been included and we have referenced groups of pertinent publications at the beginning of each section. This report summarizes our efforts to develop better electron microscopes and chronicles many of the experimental programs, in materials science and biology, that acted both as a stimulus to better microscope design and also as a testing ground for many instrumental innovations.

Crewe, A.V.; Kapp, O.H.

1992-07-01

180

Microscopic video speckle interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Video speckle interferometry of small objects are discussed. A major problem is posed by the small depth of focus in object space. At high magnifications the exit aperture of most microscopic lenses is too small for optimum recordings. Recording areas smaller than about 0.2 × 0.2 mm 2 by a standard CCD does not improve the resolution, but the oversampling of the speckle pattern improves the signal-to-noise ratio. Under optimum conditions, we may theoretically detect defects down to about 4 ?m in size. A microscopic TV -holography system based on optical fibers has been constructed to test theoretical results.

J. Løkberg, Ole; E. Seeberg, Bjørn; Vestli, Knut

1997-03-01

181

Interactive Stereo Electron Microscopy Enhanced with Virtual Reality LBNL-48336December 17, 2001 1 Interactive Stereo Electron Microscopy Enhanced with Virtual Reality  

E-print Network

image pairs obtained from a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Our system operates by presenting in understanding the pathophysiology at a cellular level of resolution. A Scanning Electron Microscope (SEMInteractive Stereo Electron Microscopy Enhanced with Virtual Reality LBNL-48336December 17, 2001 1

182

The formation of chondrules: petrologic tests of the shock wave model  

PubMed

Chondrules are millimeter-sized rounded igneous rocks within chondritic meteorites. Their textures and fractionated mineral chemistries suggest that they formed by repeated, localized, brief (minutes to hours) melting of cold aggregates of mineral dust in the protoplanetary nebula. Astrophysical models of chondrule formation have been unable to explain the petrologically diverse nature of chondrites. However, a nebular shock wave model for chondrule formation agrees with many of the observed petrologic and geochemical properties of chondrules and shows how particles within the nebula are sorted by size and how rims around chondrules are formed. It also explains the volatile-rich nature of chondrule rims and the chondrite matrix. PMID:9525858

Connolly Jr HC; Love

1998-04-01

183

Petrology and origin of three rock outcrops off the Texas continental shelf  

E-print Network

PETROLOGY AND ORIGIN OF THREE ROCK OUTCROPS OFF THE TEXAS CONTINENTAL SHELF A Thesis by DAlE LYNN HARBER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial iulfiliment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1974 Major Subject: Geologicai Oceanography PETROLOGY AND ORIGIN OF THREE ROCK OUTCROPS OFF THE TEXAS CONTINENTAL SHELF A Thesis by DALE LYNN HARBER Approved as to style and content by: 3 f (Chairman of Committe ( ead of D artment (Me e...

Harber, Dale Lynn

2012-06-07

184

Atomic force microscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scanning tunneling microscope (STM), which is capable of measuring forces as small as 10 to the -18th N, is described. Application of the STM to observations of insulator surfaces on the atomic scale is discussed in detail. The results of preliminary tests of the system indicate a lateral resolution of 30 A and a vertical resolution of less than

G. Binnig; C. F. Quate; Ch. Gerber

1986-01-01

185

Exploring Tools: Special Microscopes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use a flexible magnet as a model for a scanning probe microscope (SPM). They learn that SPMs are an example of a special tool that scientists use to work on the nanoscale. Use this activity to talk about different tools that scientists use to study the nanoscale.

Network, Nanoscale I.; Sciencenterw

2010-01-01

186

Laser Projection Microscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use a laser pointer to project a microscopic image of a liquid sample suspended from the tip of a syringe. This activity includes step by step instructions with helpful photographs and a video showcasing the projection images. This activity involves lasers, syringes, and stagnant water, so learners should exercise caution and adult supervision is recommended.

Sean Michael Ragan

2011-01-01

187

Making Art with Microscopes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interdisciplinary teaching is a great way to focus on overarching concepts and help students make connections across disciplines. Historically, art and science have been connected disciplines. The botanical prints of the 18th and 19th centuries and early work with microscopes are two examples of a need for strong artistic skills in the science…

Benedis-Grab, Gregory

2011-01-01

188

Microscope on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image taken at Meridiani Planum, Mars by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover's microscopic imager (circular device in center), located on its instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The image was acquired on the ninth martian day or sol of the rover's mission.

2004-01-01

189

The Scanning Tunneling Microscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the Physics Department at Davidson College presents an overview of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) as well as the results of an experiment conducted by the authors. They discuss the construction of two different types of probe tips and their use for imaging graphite and molybdenum disulfide. A section of images they obtained using the STM is also included.

John A. Cowan Jr.

190

Petrologic Insights into Magma System Response to Edifice Collapse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to understand eruptive behavior at volcanic centers and to improve models for monitoring and prediction of volcanic eruptions, it is important to constrain magma storage conditions and transport in the system. Here the post-collapse eruptive behavior at Bezymianny and Shiveluch volcanoes, (Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia) are each compared to the well-known sequence at Mount St. Helens, Washington, USA (from 1956, 1964, and 1980, respectively). The magma system responds to rapid unloading of overburden pressure, due to edifice collapse, with a violent large-scale paroxysmal eruption. This reflects the amplitude of the triggering decompression event with later dome-building and explosive activity due to the reduction of vent elevation. The massive unloading events and post-collapse eruptive chronologies, provides a unique opportunity for comparison of the sources driving the catastrophic eruptions and eruptive style transitions. Analytical techniques employed included X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, electron probe micro-analyses, Fe-Ti oxide and two-pyroxene geothermometry, X-ray elemental mapping, and a novel image processing technique. Presented here are results from petrological investigations into the temporal variations of whole-rock geochemistry, geothermometry, mineral modal abundances and textures. Bezymianny is becoming more mafic over time from 61.0 to 57.3 wt.% SiO2 (1956 and 2010). Pre-eruptive magma temperatures increased from 950oC to 1050oC from 1956 to 2006. Plagioclase and amphibole disequilibrium textures are observed throughout the time series and rare mafic enclaves exist. The whole-rock chemical trend at Shiveluch shows a subtle, yet reversed trend from 60.6 to 64.2 wt.% SiO2 (1964 and 2007). Two-pyroxene geothermometry yields ~950oC+30oC (2001-2007) and is consistent with data from the 2001 -2004 eruption, of 834-978oC+60oC. Mafic enclaves occurred throughout the entire period of eruptive activity at Shiveluch. In contrast to both Bezymianny and Shiveluch, the Mount St. Helens erupted a compositionally uniform crystal-rich dacite, 65 wt.% SiO2 in 2004. Magmatic temperatures from 1980-1981 ~930oC and in 2004-2006 they had decreased to ~850oC. At this stage, a continuous and possibly punctuated replenishment of mafic magma from depth appears to be driving the frequency of eruptions and observed transitions in eruptive style at Bezymianny. At Shiveluch, an increasingly silicic geochemical trend, high temperatures and the presence of mafic enclaves, may indicate a re-mobilization of host dacite by basalt ponded at the base of the deep seated magma reservoir. Models of magma replenishment and mixing at Bezymianny and Shiveluch are discussed in the context of magma system response to edifice collapse and compared to Mount St. Helens. It is demonstrated here, that petrologic studies serve to elucidate short-time scale behavior of these magmatic systems and to enable projections of future volcanic activity.

Shipman, J. S.; Izbekov, P. E.; Gavrilenko, M.

2011-12-01

191

Petrological constraints on the crustal structure under rift zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When magmatism occurs in extensional settings, the transfer and release of heat by magma transport and storage may control the thermal structure of the crust and uppermost mantle underlying the rift zone. The composition and mineralogy of the material added to the solid crust during magmatism is also dictated by the conditions of crystallisation. The temperature, pressure and composition of this material controls the physical response of the crust on timescales relevant both for geophysical imaging of the deep structure of rift zones and for the dynamical development of the structure of zones of extension. Examination of the petrology of the products of rift zone magmatism can be used to provide constraints on the depth distribution of crystallisation and the composition of the solid material accreted to the crust and should be a key consideration in geophysical and dynamical investigations of rift zones. A number of complementary petrological techniques have been used to determine crystallisation depths under the rift zones of Iceland. These techniques include: 1) a parametrisation of clinopyroxene-liquid equilibrium; 2) a parametrisation of the composition of liquid in joint equilibrium with the phases olivine, plagioclase and clinopyroxene; 3) assessment of the order of appearance of phases on the liquidus; 4) the relationship between melt CO2 content and pressure. However, the application of each technique is dependent upon a number of assumptions about the achievement of equilibrium between phases and also the interpolation of parametrisations between experimental conditions. Most rift zone eruptions carry large crystals that have formed in the magma storage zone and these crystals are often referred to as phenocrysts, a term that implies equilibrium between the crystals and the melts that carry them to the surface for eruption. However, careful examination of the trace element composition of Icelandic clinopyroxene phenocrysts shows that they are rarely in equilibrium with their carrier liquids. In order to avoid significant systematic errors in estimates of crystallisation depths it is therefore necessary to use both the major and trace element composition of the clinopyroxenes to establish the range of potential equilibrium liquids at the depth of crystallisation and to identify if such liquids correspond to the composition of lavas from the same magmatic system. Existing parametrisations of experimental equilibrium between clinopyroxene and basaltic liquid are prone to large errors at crustal pressures. In order to address this problem, a series of experiments was conducted using a primitive Icelandic basalt composition as a starting material. These experiments indicate that the parametrisations can robustly be used to establish the importance of crystallisation close to the Moho under Iceland, at depths of over 20 km. It is likely that crystallisation also occurs in the middle and lower crust, generating cumulate gabbro material. However, systematic errors in available parameterisations of clinopyroxene-liquid equilibrium hinder barometry over this pressure range. In order to better establish crystallisation conditions for rift zone magmas, further experimental constraints for crustal pressures are required, along with development of more systematic studies of the volatile contents of melt inclusions.

Maclennan, J.; Gaetani, G. A.; Hartley, M. E.; Neave, D.; Winpenny, B.

2012-12-01

192

Visualization of confocal microscopic biomolecular data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomolecular visualization facilitates insightful interpretation of molecular structures and complex mechanisms underlying bio-chemical processes. Effective visualization techniques are required to deal with confocal microscopic biomolecular data in which intricate structures, fine features, and obscure patterns might be overlooked without sophisticated data processing and image synthesis. This paper presents major challenges in visualizing confocal microscopic biomolecular data, followed by a survey of related work. We then introduce a case study conducted to investigate the interaction between two proteins contained in a budding yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae by embedding custom modules in Amira. The multi-channel confocal microscopic volume data was first processed using an exponential operator to correct z-drop artifacts introduced during data acquisition. Channel correlation was then exploited to extract the overlap between the proteins as a new channel to represent the interaction while a statistical method was employed to compute the intensity of interaction to locate hot spots. To take advantage of crisp surface representation of region boundaries by iso-surfaces and visually pleasing translucent delineation of dense volumes by volume rendering, we adopted hybrid rendering that incorporates these two methods to display clear-cut protein boundaries, amorphous interior materials, and the scattered interaction in the same view volume with suppressed and highlighted parts selected by the user. The highlighted overlap helped biologists learn where the interaction happens and how it spreads, particularly when the volume was investigated in an immersive Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE) for intuitive comprehension of the data.

Liu, Zhanping; Moorhead, Robert J., II

2005-04-01

193

Petrologic evidence for collisional heating of chondritic asteroids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The identification of the mechanism(s) responsible for heating asteroids is among the major problems in planetary science. Because of difficulties with models of electromagnetic induction and the decay of short-lived radionuclides, it is worthwhile to evaluate the evidence for collisional heating. New evidence for localized impact heating comes from the high proportion of relict type-6 material among impact-melt-bearing ordinary chondrites (OC). This relict material was probably metamorphosed by residual heat within large craters. Olivine aggregates composed of faceted crystals with 120 deg triple junctions occur within the melted regions of the Chico and Rose City OC melt rocks; the olivine aggregates formed from shocked, mosaicized olivine grains that underwent contact metamorphism. Large-scale collisional heating is supoorted by the correlation in OC between petrologic type and shock stage; no other heating mechanism can readily account for this correlation. The occurrence of impact-melt-rock clasts in OC that have been metamorphosed along with their whole rocks indicates that some impact events preceded or accompanied thermal metamorphism. Such impacts events, occurring during or shortly after accretion, are probably responsible for substantially melting approximately 0.5% of OC. These events must have heated a larger percentage of OC to subsolidus temperatures sufficient to have caused significant metamorphism. If collisional heating is viable, then OC parent asteroids must have been large; large OC asteroids in the main belt may include those of the S(IV) spectral subtype. Collisional heating is inconsistent with layered ('onion-shell') structures in OC asteroids (wherein the degree of metamorphism increases with depth), but the evidence for such structures is weak. It seems likely that collisional heating played an important role in metamorphosing chondritic asteroids.

Rubin, Alan E.

1995-01-01

194

Petrology and geochemistry of Iceland basalts: Spatial and temporal variations  

SciTech Connect

A petrological and geochemical study of basalts from Iceland's neovolcanic zones and Tertiary lava piles was carried out in order to investigate volcanic processes associated with the development of the Iceland platform, an anomalously elevated segment of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). The Northeast and Southwest axial rift zones are dominated by olivine tholeiites and tholeiites, whereas the Southeast, Skagi, and Snaefellsnes flank zones are characterized by alkali basalts and mildly alkaline FeTi basalts. Phenocryst assemblages and textures are more diverse in flank zone basalts than in axial rift zone basalts, suggesting mixing of more diverse magma compositions and longer residence times in flank zone magma chambers. Geochemical trends observed in 2 to 14 m.y. old basalts from eastern and western Iceland indicate a complex and varied source region for Iceland magmas, dependent on both mantle plume activity and the maturity of rift zones. Decreasing (La/Sm){sub E.F.} and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios over the last 14 m.y. suggest decreasing mantle plume activity. Shorter episodes (2 to 5 m.y.) of declining (La/Sm){sub E.F.} and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr are explained by the development of new rift zones caused by repeated shifts in the location of the spreading axis. On the average, Tertiary basalts from eastern and western Iceland are chemically more similar to young (< 0.7 m.y.) basalts from immature flank zones than to young basalts from the axial rift zones, implying that the Tertiary basalts were erupted along immature rift zones. Geochemical cycles, lasting 0.1 to 0.3 m.y., in the Borgarfjordur lava pile suggest progressive melting of mantle diapirs, rising from the garnet stability zone where melting begins.

Meyer, P.S.

1984-01-01

195

Autonomous Virtual Mobile Nodes  

E-print Network

This paper presents a new abstraction for virtual infrastructure in mobile ad hoc networks. An AutonomousVirtual Mobile Node (AVMN) is a robust and reliable entity that is designed to cope with theinherent difficulties ...

Dolev, Shlomi

2005-06-15

196

Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS) is enabling the integration of design, training, and operations capabilities into an intelligent virtual station for the International Space Station (ISS). A viewgraph of the IVS Remote Server is presented.

2002-01-01

197

Virtual Reality: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights of this overview of virtual reality include optics; interface devices; virtual worlds; potential applications, including medicine and archaeology; problems, including costs; current research and development; future possibilities; and a listing of vendors and suppliers of virtual reality products. (Contains 11 references.) (LRW)

Franchi, Jorge

1994-01-01

198

Femtosecond scanning tunneling microscope  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). By combining scanning tunneling microscopy with ultrafast optical techniques we have developed a novel tool to probe phenomena on atomic time and length scales. We have built and characterized an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope in terms of temporal resolution, sensitivity and dynamic range. Using a novel photoconductive low-temperature-grown GaAs tip, we have achieved a temporal resolution of 1.5 picoseconds and a spatial resolution of 10 nanometers. This scanning tunneling microscope has both cryogenic and ultra-high vacuum capabilities, enabling the study of a wide range of important scientific problems.

Taylor, A.J.; Donati, G.P.; Rodriguez, G.; Gosnell, T.R.; Trugman, S.A.; Some, D.I.

1998-11-01

199

Ion photon emission microscope  

DOEpatents

An ion beam analysis system that creates microscopic multidimensional image maps of the effects of high energy ions from an unfocussed source upon a sample by correlating the exact entry point of an ion into a sample by projection imaging of the ion-induced photons emitted at that point with a signal from a detector that measures the interaction of that ion within the sample. The emitted photons are collected in the lens system of a conventional optical microscope, and projected on the image plane of a high resolution single photon position sensitive detector. Position signals from this photon detector are then correlated in time with electrical effects, including the malfunction of digital circuits, detected within the sample that were caused by the individual ion that created these photons initially.

Doyle, Barney L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2003-04-22

200

Dynamic Light Scattering Microscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Dynamic Light Scattering Microscope has been built on the platform of an upright microscope. The instrument is a simplified and more robust form of a design using a phase telescope [1]. Calibration data from the diffusion of polystyrene spheres in water are in agreement with expected results and data has also been acquired from two complex biological molecules, Porcine Gastric Mucin and Matrigel. For both samples, data has been acquired by scattering from the gels as well as scattering from tracer particles (polystyrene spheres). In the latter case, information about the viscoelastic properties of the biological gels is obtained from studying the dynamics of the tracer particles. [1] P.D. Kaplan and D. A. Weitz, Light-Scattering Microscopy," Applied Optics, 38 4151-4157 (1999).

Celli, Jonathan; Gregor, Brian

2004-03-01

201

Microscopic and macroscopic dynamics  

SciTech Connect

Atomistic Molecular Dynamics and Lagrangian Continuum Mechanics can be very similarly adapted to massively-parallel computers. Millions of degrees of freedom can be treated. The two complementary approaches, microscopic and macroscopic, are being applied to increasingly realistic flows of fluids and solids. The two approaches can also be combined in a hybrid simulation scheme. Hybrids combine the fundamental constitutive advantage of atoms with the size advantage of the continuum picture.

Hoover, W.G.; Hoover, C.G.; De Groot, A.J.; Pierce, T.G. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Science; [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1993-06-01

202

Electron microscope aperture system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electron microscope including an electron source, a condenser lens having either a circular aperture for focusing a solid cone of electrons onto a specimen or an annular aperture for focusing a hollow cone of electrons onto the specimen, and an objective lens having an annular objective aperture, for focusing electrons passing through the specimen onto an image plane are described. The invention also entails a method of making the annular objective aperture using electron imaging, electrolytic deposition and ion etching techniques.

Heinemann, K. (inventor)

1976-01-01

203

Petrology and geochemistry of the Lyngdal granodiorite (Southern Norway) and the role of  

E-print Network

Petrology and geochemistry of the Lyngdal granodiorite (Southern Norway) and the role of fractional and trace elements, Sr­Nd isotopes) of the Lyngdal granodiorite and associated massifs (Tranevåg and Red correspond to the parent magma of the studied plutons. The Lyngdal granodiorite and associated massifs

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

204

A NEW PETROLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE PRESENT-DAY PLUMBING  

E-print Network

A NEW PETROLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE PRESENT-DAY PLUMBING SYSTEM OF MT. VESUVIUS of the electrical resistivity of Mt. Vesuvius has been elaborated to investigate the present structure% carbonates. 1. Introduction Mt. Somma-Vesuvius is characterized by a high volcanic risk because of its

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

205

Lithospheric petrology of the eastern Arabian Plate: Constraints from Al-Ashkhara (Oman) xenoliths  

E-print Network

Lithospheric petrology of the eastern Arabian Plate: Constraints from Al-Ashkhara (Oman) xenoliths, Oman b Geosciences Dept., U. Texas at Dallas Richardson, TX 75083-0688, USA a b s t r a c ta r t i c l November 2011 Keywords: Arabian Plate Oman Xenoliths Lherzolite Lithosphere Lower crust Mafic granulite

Stern, Robert J.

206

JOURNAL OF PETROLOGY VOLUME 39 NUMBER 6 PAGES 10911115 1998 Calculation of Peridotite Partial Melting from  

E-print Network

JOURNAL OF PETROLOGY VOLUME 39 NUMBER 6 PAGES 1091­1115 1998 Calculation of Peridotite Partial of peridotite using of the results of calculations of peridotite melting using MELTS, there are a number the suitability of this peridotite have more MgO and less SiO2 than equivalent ex- perimentally derived liquids

Asimow, Paul D.

207

Petrology and Geochemistry of Lunar Meteorite Abar al'Uj 012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The petrology and geochemistry of Abar al’Uj 012, a feldspathic lunar meteorite found in Saudi Arabia is described. The meteorite is a vesicular crystalline impact-melt breccia, which lacks a fusion crust and has a ferroan anorthosite affinity.

Mészáros, M.; Hofmann, B. A.; Korotev, R. L.; Gnos, E.; Greber, N.; Greenwood, R. C.

2014-09-01

208

Sedimentary Petrology Field Trip to Gravel Quarry near Rotterdam Junction, NY  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a Stratigraphy Sedimentary Petrology field trip stop at an exceptional glacial outwash gravel quarry, where students measure, identify and count clast types, measure cross-bedding directions, and examine the early stages of lithification of gravel to conglomerate. The gravel deposits are also representative of the local surficial aquifer material that lies nearby in the subsurface.

Dr. Paul Ryberg

209

Vic Camp Geol 688: Advanced Igneous Petrology Office: GMCS-228K  

E-print Network

exercises. We will examine the genesis of Igneous rocks through an understanding of phase diagramsVic Camp Geol 688: Advanced Igneous Petrology Fall 2009 Office: GMCS-228K Office hours: anytime to proceed in the following order: Nature of the upper mantle Ternary phase diagrams Processes in igneous

Camp, Vic

210

Unmixing the SNCs: Chemical, Isotopic, and Petrologic Components of the Martian Meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the conference on Unmixing the SNCs: Chemical, Isotopic, and Petrologic Components of Martian Meteorites, September 11-12, 2002, in Houston, Texas. Administration and publications support for this meeting were provided by the staff of the Publications and Program Services Department at the Lunar and Planetary Institute.

2002-01-01

211

Thermal Lens Microscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a novel laser microscope based on the thermal lens effect induced by a coaxial beam comprised of excitation and probe beams. The signal generation mechanism was confirmed to be an authentic thermal lens effect from the measurement of signal and phase dependences on optical configurations between the sample and the probe beam focus, and therefore, the thermal lens effect theory could be applied. Two-point spatial resolution was determined by the spot size of the excitation beam, not by the thermal diffusion length. Sensitivity was quite high, and the detection ability, evaluated using a submicron microparticle containing dye molecules, was 0.8 zmol/?m2, hence a distribution image of trace chemical species could be obtained quantitatively. In addition, analytes are not restricted to fluorescent species, therefore, the thermal lens microscope is a promising analytical microscope. A two-dimensional image of a histamine molecule distribution, which was produced in mast cells at the femtomole level in a human nasal mucous polyp, was obtained.

Uchiyama, Kenji; Hibara, Akihide; Kimura, Hiroko; Sawada, Tsuguo; Kitamori, Takehiko

2000-09-01

212

Q: How do Microscopes Work?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Microscopes allow scientists to examine everyday objects in extraordinary ways. They provide high-resolution images that show objects in fine detail. This brief article describes the many types of microscopes and how they are used in different scientific venues.

Zimov, Sarah

2004-01-01

213

Concrete Fracture Prediction Using Virtual Internal Bond Model with Modified Morse Functional Potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concrete fracture behavior is predicted by one of multi-scaling methods, called the virtual internal bond (VIB) model. The VIB model describes the microscopic interactions between the cement pastes and aggregates using the concept of homogenization. The microscopic behavior is connected to macroscopic behavior by the Cauchy-Born rule, which results in the strain energy function. From the macroscopic strain energy function,

Glaucio H. Paulino; Jeffery R. Roesler

2008-01-01

214

Concrete Fracture Prediction Using Virtual Internal Bond Model with Modified Morse Functional Potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concrete fracture behavior is predicted by one of multi-scaling methods, called the virtual internal bond (VIB) model. The VIB model describes the microscopic interactions between the cement pastes and aggregates using the concept of homogenization. The microscopic behavior is connected to macroscopic behavior by the Cauchy-Born rule, which results in the strain energy function. From the macroscopic strain energy function,

Glaucio H. Paulino; Jeffery R. Roesler

2009-01-01

215

Petrology of the Betulia Igneous Complex, Cauca, Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Betulia Igneous Complex (BIC) is a group of Late-Miocene (11.8 ± 0.2 Ma) hypabyssal intrusions of intermediate to felsic composition located in the SW of the Colombian Andes. These bodies have a calc-alkaline tendency and are related to the subduction of the Nazca plate under the South American plate. Diorites, quartz diorites and tonalities have porphyritic and phaneritic textures and are composed of plagioclase, amphibole, quartz, biotite, and orthoclase. Plagioclase is mainly of andesine-type and the amphiboles were classified mainly as magnesiohornblendes, actinolites, and tschermakites. BIC rocks have a narrow range of SiO2 content (59-67wt%) and exhibit an enrichment of LILE and LREE relative to HFSE and HREE, respectively. These features are attributed to enrichment of LILE from the source and retention of HFSE (mainly Nb, Ta, and Ti) by refractory phases within the same source. The depletion of HREE is explained by fractionation of mineral phases that have a high partition coefficients for these elements, especially amphiboles, the major mafic phase in the rocks. Nevertheless, the fractionation of garnet in early stages of crystallization is not unlikely. Probably all BIC units were generated by the same magma chamber or at least by the same petrologic mechanism as shown by the similar patterns in spider and REE diagrams; fractional crystallization and differentiation processes controlled the final composition of the rocks, and crystallization stages determined the texture. Isotopic compositions of BIC rocks (87Sr/86Sr: 0.70435-0.70511; 143Nd/144Nd: 0.51258-0.51280; 206Pb/204Pb: 19.13-19.31; 207Pb/204Pb: 15.67-15.76; 208Pb/204Pb: 38.93-39.20) indicate a source derived from the mantle with crustal contamination. The model proposed for the BIC consists of fluids from the dehydration of the subducted slab (Nazca plate) and subducted sediments that generated partial melting of the mantle wedge. These basaltic melts ascended to the mantle-crust boundary where they were retained due to density differences and began to produce processes of melting, assimilation, storage, and homogenization (MASH zone). At this depth (?40-45 km), fractional crystallization and differentiation processes began to produce more felsic magmas that were able to ascend through the crust and be emplaced at shallow depths.

Gil-Rodriguez, Javier

2014-12-01

216

Aragats stratovolcano in Armenia - volcano-stratigraphy and petrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this contribution we discuss the geological structure and volcano-stratigraphy of the Quaternary Aragats stratovolcano in Armenia based on recent age determinations as well as petrological and geochemical features of magma generation processes specific for collision zones. Armenia is situated in the NE part of the Anatolian-Armenian-Iranian plateau, an intensely deformed segment of the Alpine-Himalayan belt. The complex geological structure of the region is represented by a mosaic of tectonic blocks comprising fragments of volcanic arcs, continental crust and exhumed oceanic crust. Collision of the Arabian plate with the Eurasian margin in early Miocene resulted in orogenic uplift associated with intense volcanism. Aragats (4090m) is one the largest volcanoes in the entire region and produced central vent (inc. Plinian VEI>4) and monogenetic type flank eruptions and periphery plateaus within a total area greater than 5000 km2, known as Aragats volcanic province (AVP). The Aragats volcanic province (AVP) comprises the composite cone of Aragats volcano, the peak of which is built on a summit plateau, ~45 km in diameter shield structure with dozens of flank vents, scattered monogenetic cinder cones on the adjacent volcanic plateaus as well as the neighboring stratovolcano Arailer. New K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar age determinations of groundmass and separated plagioclase samples indicate that volcanism at AVP began ~2.5 Ma, while most recent volcanic activity is 0.49 Ma for Plinian eruption of dacites from Irind flank vent and basaltic trachyandesite lava flows from Tirinkatar (0.48-0.61 Ma), Kakavasar, (0.52-0.54 Ma) and Ashtarak (0.58 Ma) monogenetic flank centers, as well as trachyandesites of Jrbazhan volcano on the summit plateau of Aragats (0.52 Ma). Based on bulk rock geochemical data (major, minor and low abundance trace elements, Sr and Nd isotopes) and mineral chemistry, we conclude that volcanic rocks of AVP are largely recording a complex mixing between deep asthenospheric mantle and remnants of subduction-modified and metasomatically enriched mantle sources, followed by fractionation in large magma chamber(s). Mineral-melt equilibria studies reveal dry (<1%H2O) and very hot source, fluid inclusions study reveal pronounced enrichment with CO2 over H2O in fluid phase. Noteworthy are high eruption temperatures compared to global volcanic arcs, explaining the very long (up to 25 km) and thick (>200m) trachydacitic lava flows.

Meliksetian, Khachatur; Savov, Ivan; Connor, Charles; Halama, Ralf; Jrbashyan, Ruben; Navasardyan, Gevorg; Ghukasyan, Yura; Gevorgyan, Hripsime; Manucharyan, Davit; Ishizuka, Osamu; Quidelleur, Xavier; Germa, Aurélie

2014-05-01

217

Formation of cratonic lithosphere: An integrated thermal and petrological model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of cratonic mantle peridotite of Archean age is examined within the time frame of Earth's thermal history, and how it was expressed by temporal variations in magma and residue petrology. Peridotite residues that occupy the lithospheric mantle are rare owing to the effects of melt-rock reaction, metasomatism, and refertilization. Where they are identified, they are very similar to the predicted harzburgite residues of primary magmas of the dominant basalts in greenstone belts, which formed in a non-arc setting (referred to here as "non-arc basalts"). The compositions of these basalts indicate high temperatures of formation that are well-described by the thermal history model of Korenaga. In this model, peridotite residues of extensive ambient mantle melting had the highest Mg-numbers, lowest FeO contents, and lowest densities at ~ 2.5-3.5 Ga. These results are in good agreement with Re-Os ages of kimberlite-hosted cratonic mantle xenoliths and enclosed sulfides, and provide support for the hypothesis of Jordan that low densities of cratonic mantle are a measure of their high preservation potential. Cratonization of the Earth reached its zenith at ~ 2.5-3.5 Ga when ambient mantle was hot and extensive melting produced oceanic crust 30-45 km thick. However, there is a mass imbalance exhibited by the craton-wide distribution of harzburgite residues and the paucity of their complementary magmas that had compositions like the non-arc basalts. We suggest that the problem of the missing basaltic oceanic crust can be resolved by its hydration, cooling and partial transformation to eclogite, which caused foundering of the entire lithosphere. Some of the oceanic crust partially melted during foundering to produce continental crust composed of tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG). The remaining lithosphere gravitationally separated into 1) residual eclogite that continued its descent, and 2) buoyant harzburgite diapirs that rose to underplate cratonic nuclei composed of non-arc basalts and TTG. Finally, assembly of cratonic nuclei into cratons at convergent boundaries substantially modified harzburgite residues by melt-rock reaction.

Herzberg, Claude; Rudnick, Roberta

2012-09-01

218

Parts of the Microscope and Their Function  

E-print Network

Parts of the Microscope and Their Function #12;Rules of using a microscope Always carry with 2 of the cords #12;Parts of a microscope #12;Parts of a microscope Eyepiece #12;Parts of a microscope Body tube #12;Parts of a microscope Nosepiece #12;Parts of a microscope Objectives Low power (short) High

Rose, Michael R.

219

An experimental study of pathologist's navigation patterns in virtual microscopy  

PubMed Central

In virtual microscopy, a sequential process of captures of microscopical fields, allows to construct a virtual slide which is visualized using a specialized software, called the virtual microscopy viewer. This tool allows useful exploration of images, composed of thousands of microscopical fields of view at different levels of magnification, emulating an actual microscopical examination. The aim of this study was to establish the main pathologist's navigation patterns when exploring virtual microscopy slides, using a graphical user interface, adapted to the pathologist's workflow. Four pathologists with a similar level of experience, graduated from the same pathology program, navigated six virtual slides. Different issues were evaluated, namely, the percentage of common visited image regions, the time spent at each and its coincidence level, that is to say, the region of interest location. In addition, navigation patterns were also assessed, i.e., mouse movement velocities and linearity of the diagnostic paths. Results suggest that regions of interest are determined by a complex combination of the visited area, the time spent at each visit and the coincidence level among pathologists. Additionally, linear trajectories and particular velocity patterns were found for the registered diagnostic paths. PMID:21087502

2010-01-01

220

The Virtual Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this site, students examine larve, crustaceans, algae, and other microscopic organisms that inhabit the oceans. The site provides exceptional images and basic information about the organism's anatomy and development. There are also links to sites about freshwater microscopic organisms.

Wim van Egmond

2007-12-12

221

Petrology and geochemistry of the 2006 eruption of Augustine Volcano  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Deposits from the 2006 eruption of Augustine Volcano, Alaska, record a complex history of magma mixing before and during the eruption. The eruption produced five major lithologies: low-silica andesite scoria (LSAS; 56.5 to 58.7 weight percent SiO2), mostly during the initial explosive phase; high-silica andesite pumice (HSA; 62.2 to 63.3 weight percent SiO2), prevalent during the continuous phase; dense low-silica andesite (DLSA; 56.4 to 59.3 weight percent SiO2), predominantly during the late effusive phase; and dense intermediate andesite (DIA) and banded clasts, present throughout the eruption but most abundant in the continuous phase. The DIA and banded clasts have compositions that fall between and partially overlap the ranges noted above. All rock types are phenocryst-rich (36 to 44 volume percent), containing plagioclase, orthopyroxene, augite, Fe-Ti oxides, olivine, and rare amphibole, apatite, and anhydrite. Glasses from tephra and flow-deposit clasts range from 66 to nearly 80 weight percent SiO2 and represent highly evolved melt relative to the bulk rock compositions. Fe-Ti oxides recorded fO2~2 log units above the Ni-NiO buffer and temperatures of 904+47 degree(s) C and 838+14 degree(s) C from LSAS and HSA samples, respectively, with the intermediate lithologies falling in the middle of these ranges. The dense low-silica andesite and scoria (collectively LSA) are compositionally nearly identical, and trace-element patterns show that the HSA is not the result of shallow crustal fractionation of the LSA. The petrological and geochemical data indicate that two-component magma mixing between the LSA and HSA caused the compositional spread in eruptive products. The phenocryst population in the LSA suggests that it represents a hybrid formed from the HSA and an unerupted, basaltic 'replenishing' magma. On the basis of petrological and geophysical observations reported here and elsewhere in this volume, the HSA was stored as a crystal-rich mush with its top at ~5-km depth. An influx of basalt remobilized and partially mixed with a portion of the mush, forming the hybrid LSA. The lower viscosity LSA ascended towards the surface as a dike, erupting during the explosive phase in mid-January 2006. In late January, a large explosion produced the first significant volumes of HSA, followed by several days of rapid HSA effusion during the eruption's continuous phase. After a three-week hiatus marked by elevated gas output, signifying an open system, degassed LSA erupted during the final, effusive phase. Consistency in eruptive styles and compositions suggests that the HSA magma body may have been similarly rejuvenated during the past several eruptions. Appendixes 1-5 These appendixes are in digital form and consist of additional descriptions and compositional data for samples used in this study. They consist of spreadsheet documents provided in several file formats. * Appendix 1. Samples of Augustine Volcano 2006 eruptive products used in this study, sorted by eruptive unit and lithologic type. This table lists samples of Augustine Volcano 2006 eruptive products used in this study. The samples are sorted by eruptive unit and lithologic type. * Appendix 2. Modal Mineralogy and Point Count Data for the Augustine Eruptive Lithologies. This table presents the modal mineralogy data, determined from 1,000 point counts from thin sections of each lithology. These data form the basis for the average modal mineralogy data presented in table 2 and figure 4. * Appendix 3. Augustine Whole-Rock Geochemical Analyses. This appendix includes data collected by the Washington State University Geoanalytical Laboratory for the Alaska Volcano Observatory. The data include analyses from 2006 Augustine eruptive products, as well as pre-2006 historical, and early Holocene and Pleistocene samples. * Appendix 4. Groundmass Glass Electron Microprobe Analyses from Augustine 2006 Samples used in this Study. This appendix includes gla

Larsen, Jessic F.; Nye, Christopher J.; Coombs, Michelle L.; Tilman, Mariah; Izbekov, Pavel; Cameron, Cheryl

2010-01-01

222

Atomic Force Microscope  

SciTech Connect

The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) is a recently developed instrument that has achieved atomic resolution imaging of both conducting and non- conducting surfaces. Because the AFM is in the early stages of development, and because of the difficulty of building the instrument, it is currently in use in fewer than ten laboratories worldwide. It promises to be a valuable tool for obtaining information about engineering surfaces and aiding the .study of precision fabrication processes. This paper gives an overview of AFM technology and presents plans to build an instrument designed to look at engineering surfaces.

Day, R.D.; Russell, P.E.

1988-12-01

223

Adirondack Under the Microscope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image was taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit front hazard-identification camera after the rover's first post-egress drive on Mars Sunday, Jan. 15, 2004. Engineers drove the rover approximately 3 meters (10 feet) from the Columbia Memorial Station toward the first rock target, seen in the foreground. The football-sized rock was dubbed Adirondack because of its mountain-shaped appearance. Scientists have begun using the microscopic imager instrument at the end of the rover's robotic arm to examine the rock and understand how it formed.

2004-01-01

224

Scanning Electron Microscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of the Science Learning Network, the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) Web site explores what an SEM is, how it's used, and what images it can produce. The How It Works section has a self-paced tutorial and an interesting movie describing how it functions as well. The other section for students is the image gallery, which has the Animal, Vegetable, Mineral game. Individual images from a SEM are shown, and users get to guess which of the three substances is shown. It isn't as easy as it sounds, but it is fun.

1998-01-01

225

Low frequency acoustic microscope  

DOEpatents

A scanning acoustic microscope is disclosed for the detection and location of near surface flaws, inclusions or voids in a solid sample material. A focused beam of acoustic energy is directed at the sample with its focal plane at the subsurface flaw, inclusion or void location. The sample is scanned with the beam. Detected acoustic energy specularly reflected and mode converted at the surface of the sample and acoustic energy reflected by subsurface flaws, inclusions or voids at the focal plane are used for generating an interference signal which is processed and forms a signal indicative of the subsurface flaws, inclusions or voids.

Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T. (Palo Alto, CA)

1986-11-04

226

Solid state optical microscope  

DOEpatents

A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

Young, Ian T. (Pleasanton, CA)

1983-01-01

227

Idea Bank: Microscopic Impressionism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Claude Monet meets the world of science through Histro-Art, a concept that was conceived from the impressions of an 11th and 12th-grade college preparatory human anatomy and physiology class who were studying histology using a micro-video system. As they observed a slide of smooth muscle, one student noticed the resemblance to impressionist art, and thus the concept was born. In this engaging activity, students observe microscopic slide tissue and interpret impressionism theory using various mediums to create their own art pieces. It is sure to leave them with a lasting "impression" of the connection between art and science.

John Reitnauer

2005-04-01

228

A petrologic and mechanical analysis of the Lion Mountain and Welge sandstones of southern Mason County, Texas  

E-print Network

A PETROLOGIC AND MECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF THE LION MOUNTAIN AND WELGE SANDSTONES OF SOUTHERN MASON COUNTY, TEXAS By Thomas Daniel Daugherty Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agrtcultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE in Geology January, 1960 A PETROLOGIC AND MECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF THE LION MOUNTAIN AND WELGE SANDSTONES OF SOUTHERN MASON COUNTY, TEXAS A Thesis by Thomas Daniel Daugherty January...

Daugherty, Thomas Daniel

2012-06-07

229

Petrology, diagnosis, and sedimentology of oil reservoirs in Upper Cretaceous Shannon Sandstone Beds, Powder River basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on a study of the petrology of the Shannon Sandstone Member that indicates diagenetic alterations of outcrop and near-surface sandstones cannot be used to predict the diagenesis of deeply buried sandstones. Textural relations show that oil migrated to reservoirs late in the postdepositional history of the Shannon. Petrologic and sedimentologic data suggest that an alternative depositional model (for example, a nearshore rather than mid-shelf setting) should be considered for the Shannon.

Hansley, P.L.; Whitney, C.G.

1990-01-01

230

Microscopic Rayleigh Droplet Beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A periodically triggered Rayleigh Droplet Beam (RDB) delivers a perfectly linear and periodic stream of identical, monoenergetic droplets that are phase-locked to the trigger signal. The droplet diameter and spacing are easily adjusted of choice of nozzle diameter and trigger frequency. Any liquid of low viscosity may be emloyed as the beam fluid. Although the field of nanofluidics is expanding rapidly, little effort has yet been devoted to ``external flows'' such as RDB's. At ASU we have generated RDB's of water and methanol down to 2 microns in droplet diameter. Nozzle clogging is the sole impediment to smaller droplets. Microscopic Rayleigh droplet beams offer tremendous potential for fundamental physical measurements, fluid dynamics research, and nanofabrication. This talk will describe the apparatus and techniques used at ASU to generate RDB's (surprisingly simple and inexpensive), discuss the triboelectric phenomena that play a role (surprisingly significant), present some initial experimental fluid dynamics measurements, and briefly survey RDB applications. Our particular interest in RDB's is as microscopic transport systems to deliver hydrated, undenatured proteins into vacuum for structure determination via serial diffraction of x-rays or electrons. This may offer the first general method for structure determination of non-crystallizable proteins.

Doak, R. B.

2005-11-01

231

Microscope Imaging Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Exploratorium in San Francisco continue to break new and intriguing ground with their latest online project, the Microscope Imaging Station. The actual physical Station resides at their museum, and was opened in 2004. Developed to complement this interactive exhibit, this online manifestation of the Station allows visitors to peer into the cells of living organisms such as sea urchins and zebrafish. The sea urchin feature is a real treat, as it is accompanied by a well-written essay on how this spiky creature may help unlock the secrets of genes, reproduction, and cancer. If that wasn't enough, the essay (as with other features on the site) includes a short video clip. The "Gallery" is definitely worth a stop as well. Here, visitors will find a wide range of high-resolution images and movies created with research-grade microscopes. Watching cells move, the fertilization process and the world of mitosis is a rather nice way to spend a few minutes, and visitors will probably want to pass the site along to friends and family.

232

Scanning Electron Microscope Room  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image shows a scanning electron microscope (SEM). This instrument uses a highly-focused beam of electrons to provide visual images of the surface of materials at magnifications up to 20,000X or more. These high magnification images allow the researcher to identify details about the material's microstructure, such as the types and sizes of microscopic particles present. The beam of electrons can also be used to examine volumes (as small as 1 micrometer in diameter) of the material being analyzed to provide information about the chemistry. This information can be used to determine chemical variations as a function of location within the material's microstructure, as well as the chemical composition of individual particles. In addition, the SEM is equipped with sophisticated instrumentation that can determine the crystal structure of individual grains and how each grain is oriented with respect to neighboring grains within the material. The chemistry and crystal structure information can be related to fracture behavior and used to modify the manufacturing processes used to produce the material in order to improve its properties.

1996-01-01

233

Microscopic VECSEL modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This tutorial gives an overview of the microscopic approach developed to describe equilibrium and nonequilibrium effects in optically excited semiconductor systems with an emphasis to the application for VECSEL modelling. It is outlined how nonequilibrium quantum theory is used to derive dynamic equations for the relevant physical quantities, i.e. the optically induced polarization and the dynamical carrier occupation probabilities. Due to the Coulombic many-body interactions, polarization and populations couple to expectation values of higher-order quantum correlations. With the help of a systematic correlation expansion and truncation approach, we arrive at a closed set of equations. Formally these can be combined with Maxwell's equations for the classical light field, yielding the Maxwell-semiconductor Bloch equations (MSBE). However, instead of the more traditional approach where losses and dissipative processes are treated phenomenologically and/or through coupling to external reservoirs, we derive fully microscopic equations for the carrier-carrier and carrier-phonon scattering as well as the effective polarization dephasing. Due to their general nature, the resulting equations are fully valid under most experimentally relevant conditions. The theory is applied to model the high-intensity light field in the VECSEL cavity coupled to the dynamics of the optical polarization and the nonequilibrium carrier distributions in the quantum-well gain medium.

Koch, S. W.; Hader, J.; Moloney, J. V.

2014-03-01

234

Forensic Scanning Electron Microscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scanning electron microscope equipped with an x-ray spectrometer is a versatile instrument which has many uses in the investigation of crime and preparation of scientific evidence for the courts. Major applications include microscopy and analysis of very small fragments of paint, glass and other materials which may link an individual with a scene of crime, identification of firearms residues and examination of questioned documents. Although simultaneous observation and chemical analysis of the sample is the most important feature of the instrument, other modes of operation such as cathodoluminescence spectrometry, backscattered electron imaging and direct x-ray excitation are also exploited. Marks on two bullets or cartridge cases can be compared directly by sequential scanning with a single beam or electronic linkage of two instruments. Particles of primer residue deposited on the skin and clothing when a gun is fired can be collected on adhesive tape and identified by their morphology and elemental composition. It is also possible to differentiate between the primer residues of different types of ammunition. Bullets may be identified from the small fragments left behind as they pass through the body tissues. In the examination of questioned documents the scanning electron microscope is used to establish the order in which two intersecting ink lines were written and to detect traces of chemical markers added to the security inks on official documents.

Keeley, R. H.

1983-03-01

235

Mineralogy and Petrology of the Tagish Lake Meteorite: New Lithologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tagish Lake meteorite is an ungrouped type 2 carbonaceous chondrite. Two distinct lithologies were identified in the study by Zolensky et al. (2002), including a carbonate-poor lithology containing abundant phyllosilicates, Fe-Ni sulfides and magnetite with sparse, altered chondrules and CAIs; and a carbonate-rich lithology containing abundant Fe-Mg-Ca-Mn carbonates with rare magnetite and lacking in CAIs or chondrules. Lithological variations beyond these two lithologies are evident from casual inspection of the pristine samples of the meteorite (Herd and Herd 2007, LPSC). The origin of these variations is not known and forms the basis for the current study of the mineralogy and petrology of this unique meteorite. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been carried out on disaggregated fragments of two distinct lithologies; current work includes the study of polished mounts in which texture is preserved. SEM analysis was carried out at the Carnegie Institution of Washington and the University of Alberta. TEM analysis was carried out on microtomed samples at the Naval Research Laboratory with a 200 keV JEOL 2200FS TEM equipped with an EDS spectrometer and scanning-TEM (STEM) based bright- and high-angle annular-dark-field detectors. Two samples representative of the macroscopic lithological variation were selected. Sample 5b is a compact, coherent fragment with abundant chondrules. Sample 11i is an example of a dark, dusty lithology; fragments of this lithology are very friable and tend to shed a residue of very fine black dust. Our SEM observations show that sample 5b consists of altered chondrules in a matrix of Mg-Fe silicates, Fe-Ni sulfide and magnetite grains, the latter present as individual grains, framboids, or whiskers. The chondrules consist of Fe-Mg olivine and pyroxene, or Mg-rich olivine and enstatite. Sample 11i consists almost entirely of very fine-grained material (average grain size less than 5 microns), containing distinct Fe-Ni sulfides, individual magnetite grains, in some cases framboidal, and a compositionally diverse group of Fe-Mg silicates (presumably phyllosilicates). The largest distinct grain found thus far is a refractory forsterite grain, 80 microns in longest dimension. In addition, we have found elongate, football-shaped, Ca-rich (carbonate?) grains of unknown origin. TEM bright-field imaging of sample 11i reveals three types of silicate morphologies that we call ropy, rough and smooth based on their appearance. Their composition, as determined by EDS analysis, shows them to be consistent with Fe-Mg-rich phyllosilicates, although some are apparently amorphous. The difference in texture is likely the result of response of the material to microtome slicing due to differences in hardness. In contrast, sample 5b behaved differently during microtomy, as evidenced by the overall texture, which indicates that the lithology consists of minerals with higher hardness. High-resolution imaging shows that the sheet silicates have a wispy texture and are poorly ordered. Based on our preliminary SEM and TEM observations we conclude that the chondrule-bearing lithology represented by sample 5b is similar to the carbonate-poor lithology of Zolensky et al. (2002), whereas the dark, dusty lithology (sample 11i) has not been previously described. This lithology is notable for its lack of chondrules, fine-grained nature, and complement of amorphous material.

Blinova, A.; Herd, C. D.; Zega, T. J.; de Gregorio, B. T.

2009-05-01

236

Petrology and stratigraphy of Paleogene nonmarine sandstones, Cascade Range, Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cascade Range of Washington north of 47? latitude is composed of probable Paleozoic and Mesozoic metamorphic rocks and Mesozoic and Tertiary plutonic rocks. Several Paleogene nonmarine arkosic sandstone units fringe and in part occur within the complex crystalline core. The early to middle Eocene Chuckanut Formation is present on the west side of the crystalline core in the western foothills of the Cascades. The early to middle Eocene Swauk Formation partially encircles the Mt. Stuart massif of the central Cascades. In the western foothills of the Cascades, between the main body of Chuckanut Formation near Bellingham and the main outcrop area of the Swauk Formation south of Mt. Stuart, many smaller bodies of arkosic sandstone have variously been referred to either the Swauk or Chuckanut Formations. The early Eocene Manastash Formation occurs locally in an area south of the Yakima River. The middle to late Eocene Chumstick Formation is mostly confined to the Chiwaukum graben within the crystalline core and is separated from the Swauk Formation on the southwest by the Leavenworth Fault. The Oligocene Wenatchee Formation unconformably over lies the Chumstick Formation near Wenatchee. The middle to late Eocene Roslyn Formation crops out north of the Yakima River and is underlain by the Teanaway Basalt which separates the Roslyn from the older Swauk Formation. The middle Eocene to early Oligocene Naches Formation forms a north-trending body that crosses the Yakima River and is in fault contact with both the Swauk and Manastash Formations. The middle to late Eocene Puget Group underlies the Quaternary deposits of the Puget Lowland southeast of Seattle on the western flank of the Cascades. The various formations are all composed predominantly of fine- to medium-grained sandstones with lesser amounts of interbedded shale, conglomerate and coal. Compositionally, the units are predominantly either feldspathic or litho-feldspathic subquartzose sandstones. Volcanic rocks are important constituents of the Puget Group, the Chumstick and Naches Formations, and the isolated arkosic bodies. The three older units, however, contain relatively less volcanic lithics to total lithics than do younger units, indicating perhaps the initiation of more widespread volcanic activity in middle Eocene time. Ratios of framework grain parameters show that the terrestrial sandstone units were derived from a mixed plutonic and tectonic source terrane of continental block tectonic provenance with an overprint of magmatic arc provenance. Modal analysis was performed on samples from the various sedimentary units to establish petrologic compositions, and to provide data with which to compare the different units and discuss clast provenance and tectonic regimen. Although the arkosic sandstones have generally uniform framework clast compositions, minor yet significant differences do exist between the units. Basal or basement-onlap portions of the units in particular are locally derived and differ markedly from the overall compositions of the individual units. Many coincidences of composition, age, structure, and bedrock indicate that the Chuckanut and Swauk may have originally been deposited as a single unit that since has been offset approximately 160 kilometers by right lateral strike slip motion starting about 48 Ma. If this hypothetical offset did occur, then major movement on the Straight Creek Fault is bracketed between about 48 Ma and Oligocene time.

Frizzell, Virgil A.

1979-01-01

237

Petrological study of clinopyroxene phenocrysts from Mt. Etna volcano (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A petrological study of clinopyroxene (Cpx) phenocrysts from both historical and recent eruptions of Mt. Etna volcano have carried out in order to investigate the processes occurring in the deepest portion of the feeding system and to constrain its chemical and physical variables. Four distinct textures were recognized: i) normal oscillatory-zoned; ii) reverse oscillatory-zoned; iii) sieve-textured cores and iv) dusty rim. Electron microprobe analysis revealed an almost constant Diopside-Augitic composition, with a slight enrichment in the enstatitic component in Cpx from more recent eruptions. Core to rim compositional profiles have been performed along the recognized textures. Normal oscillatory zoning is characterized by a sharp increase in FeO (?~2wt%) accompanied by a drop in Al2O3 in the outermost 30 ?m. On contrary, a drop in FeO, Al2O3 (?~2wt%) and a remarkable increase in MgO (up to 5wt%) at crystal rims marks reverse zoning. Similar compositional changes have been measured in dusty-textured rims, which are characterized by dissolution edges and crystal regrowth incorporating glass pockets and channels. No significant compositional variations have been observed across sieve-textured core. Trace element and REE concentrations have been measured by laser ablation mass spectrometry, evidencing enrichment in Sr, La, Zr and REE, together with a lowering of the La/Yb ratio (from ~7 to ~4), at rims in normal zoning crystals. On contrary, Cpx with reverse zoning and dusty rims always presents low Sr, La, Zr and REE contents towards crystal rims. Geothemobarometers of Putirka et al. (2003) and Putirka et al. (2004) have been applied to Cpx-melt pairs at crystal cores and rims after having checked the equilibrium conditions. Results evidence that Cpx cores start nucleating at 7.7 Kbar with the majority of them forming between 6.0 and 4.0 kbar and continue to crystallize until very shallow depth (<1 kbar). Normal oscillatory-zoned phenocrysts with Fe-rich rim form at pressure shallower than 4.0 kbar, while inverse zoning and dusty rims occur between 4 and 5 kbar. Cpx are able to record changes in the physical-chemical conditions of the magmatic system and two main distinct processes could be responsible for the observed texture. Fe-rich rim in normal oscillatory zoned crystal can be related to a decompression-induced crystallization, while reverse zoning and dusty rims can be produced by mixing with a more basic melt, occurring between 4-5 kbar, corresponding to about ~10 km of depth. Putirka et al., (2003). American Mineralogist, Vol. 88; pp.1542-1554; Putirka et al., (2008). Reviews in Mineralogy & Geochemistry, Vol. 69; pp. 61-120.

Giacomoni, Pier Paolo; Ferlito, Carmelo; Coltorti, Massimo; Bryce, Julie

2014-05-01

238

SJU Virtual Education List  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

New list: VIRTED - Uses of VIRTUAL REALITY in Education is an open, unmoderated discussion list for teachers, students and anyone else interested in the uses of virtual reality in education and learning. The goal of the list is to explore the use and potential uses of virtual reality environments in both traditional and alternative educational settings, the effects of virtual reality environments upon the learning process, and the efficacy of using virtual reality as an educational delivery system. Review of research, publications and observations related to EDUCATIONAL uses of virtual reality are welcome and encouraged. The mission is to shed light on this new avenue of education and learning which takes place in both text based environments as well as graphic environments.

1994-01-01

239

MITRE's virtual model shop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exploration of visual data and the use of visual information during the design process can be greatly enhanced by working within the virtual environment where the user is closely coupled to the data by means of immersive technologies and natural user interfaces. Current technology enables us to construct a virtual environment utilizing 3D graphics projection, object generated stereo sound, tactile feedback, and voice command input. Advances in software architectures and user interfaces enable us to focus on enhancing the design process within the virtual environment. These explorations at MITRE have evolved into an application which focuses on the ability to create, manipulate, and explore photo and audio realistic 3D models of work spaces, office complexes, and entire communities in real-time. This application, the Virtual Interactive Planning System, is a component of the MITRE virtual model shop, a suite of applications which permits the user to design and manipulate computer graphics models within the virtual environment.

Wingfield, Michael A.

1995-04-01

240

Quantitative and Qualitative Changes in Teaching Histology by Means of Virtual Microscopy In an Introductory Course in Human Anatomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a study investigating the learning impact of using virtual microscopy versus the tradition optical microscope in an undergraduate anatomy course. The study used lab averages, individual test scores, and survey results to compare differences.

Polly Husmann (Indiana University School of Medicine Medical Sciences Program); PhD Valerie Dean O'Loughlin (Indiana University Medical Sciences Program)

2009-09-14

241

Results of new petrologic and remote sensing studies in the Big Bend region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The initial section of this manuscript involves the South Rim Formation, a series of 32.2-32 Ma comenditic quartz trachytic-rhyolitic volcanics and associated intrusives, erupted and was emplaced in Big Bend National Park, Texas. Magmatic parameters have only been interpreted for one of the two diverse petrogenetic suites comprising this formation. Here, new mineralogic data for the South Rim Formation rocks are presented. Magmatic parameters interpreted from these data assist in deciphering lithospheric characteristics during the mid-Tertiary. Results indicate low temperatures (< 750 °C), reduced conditions (generally below the FMQ buffer), and low pressures (? 100 MPa) associated with South Rim Formation magmatism with slight conditional differences between the two suites. Newly discovered fayalite microphenocrysts allowed determination of oxygen fugacity values (between -0.14 and -0.25 DeltaFMQ over temperature ranges of 680-700 °C), via mineral equilibria based QUILF95 calculations, for Emory Peak Suite. Petrologic information is correlated with structural evidence from Trans-Pecos Texas and adjacent regions to evaluate debated timing of tectonic transition (Laramide compression to Basin and Range extension) and onset of the southern Rio Grande Rift during the mid-Tertiary. The A-type and peralkaline characteristics of the South Rim Formation and other pre-31 Ma magmatism in Trans-Pecos Texas, in addition to evidence implying earlier Rio Grande Rift onset in Colorado and New Mexico, promotes a near-neutral to transtensional setting in Trans-Pecos Texas by 32 Ma. This idea sharply contrasts with interpretations of tectonic compression and arc-related magmatism until 31 Ma as suggested by some authors. However, evidence discussed cannot preclude a pre-36 Ma proposed by other authors. The later section of this manuscript involves research in the Big Bend area using Google Earth. At present there is high interest in using Google Earth in a variety of scientific investigations. However, program developers have disclosed limited information concerning the program and its accuracy. While some authors have attempted to independently constrain the accuracy of Google Earth, their results have potentially lost validity through time due to technological advances and updates to imagery archives. For this reason we attempt to constrain more current horizontal and vertical position accuracies for the Big Bend region of West Texas. In Google Earth a series of 268 data points were virtually traced along various early Tertiary unconformities in Big Bend National Park and Big Bend Ranch State Park. These data points were compared with high precision GPS measurements collected in field and yielded a horizontal position accuracy of 2.64 meters RMSE. Complications arose in determining vertical position accuracy for Google Earth because default keyhole markup language (.kml) files currently do not export elevation data. This drawback forces users to hand record and manually input elevation values listed on screen. This is a significant handicap rendering Google Earth data useless with larger datasets. However, in a workaround solution exempted elevation values can be replaced from other data sources based on Google Earth horizontal positioning. We used Fledermaus 3D three-dimensional visualization software to drape Google Earth horizontal positions over a National Elevation Dataset (NED) digital elevation map (DEM) in order to adopt a large set of elevation data. A vertical position accuracy of 1.63 meters RMSE was determined between 268 Google Earth data points and the NED. Since determined accuracies were considerably lower than those reported in previous investigations, we devoted a later portion of this investigation to testing Google Earth-NED data in paleo-surface modeling of the Big Bend region. An 18 x 30 kilometer area in easternmost Big Ranch State Park was selected to create a post-Laramide paleo-surface model via interpolation of approximately 2900 Google Earth-NED data points representing sections of an early Tertiary

Benker, Stevan Christian

242

Virtual Reality Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Michigan Virtual Reality Laboratory (VRL) at the College of Engineering explores innovative applications of immersive and non-immersive virtual environments in a variety of areas. For industrial applications, research is focused on virtual prototyping of engineering designs - especially in the automotive and marine industry - the simulation of manufacturing processes, and related engineering tasks. Additional activities include the use of virtual reality in accident simulations, medicine, architecture, archeology, education, and other areas. As an interdisciplinary facility, the VRL collaborates with many disciplines within the university and serves the outside community. Through a combined directorship, the Laboratory cooperates closely with the University of Michigan 3D Lab.

Fogler, H. S.

2008-10-22

243

Mars Under the Microscope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This magnified look at the martian soil near the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's landing site, Meridiani Planum, shows coarse grains sprinkled over a fine layer of sand. The image was captured by the rover's microscopic imager on the 10th day, or sol, of its mission. Scientists are intrigued by the spherical rocks, which can be formed by a variety of geologic processes, including cooling of molten lava droplets and accretion of concentric layers of material around a particle or 'seed.'

The examined patch of soil is 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across. The circular grain in the lower left corner is approximately 3 millimeters (.12 inches) across, or about the size of a sunflower seed.

2004-01-01

244

Epi-Fluorescence Inverted Microscope (Zeiss,  

E-print Network

Epi-Fluorescence Inverted Microscope (Zeiss, Observer Z1) April 2013 #12;Start Up cont. · Turn on the microscope power supply · Press the ON/OFF button on the microscope to turn on the microscope control panel the power switch). · Press "Microscope" on the small touchscreen to setup the microscope settings

Subramanian, Venkat

245

Atomic Force Microscope Operation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation (large file)

This animation is a scientific illustration of the operation of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Atomic Force Microscope, or AFM. The AFM is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer, or MECA.

The AFM is used to image the smallest Martian particles using a very sharp tip at the end of one of eight beams.

The beam of the AFM is set into vibration and brought up to the surface of a micromachined silicon substrate. The substrate has etched in it a series of pits, 5 micrometers deep, designed to hold the Martian dust particles.

The microscope then maps the shape of particles in three dimensions by scanning them with the tip.

At the end of the animation is a 3D representation of the AFM image of a particle that was part of a sample informally called 'Sorceress.' The sample was delivered to the AFM on the 38th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (July 2, 2008).

The image shows four round pits, only 5 microns in depth, that were micromachined into the silicon substrate.

A Martian particle only one micrometer, or one millionth of a meter, across is held in the upper left pit.

The rounded particle shown at the highest magnification ever seen from another world is a particle of the dust that cloaks Mars. Such dust particles color the Martian sky pink, feed storms that regularly envelop the planet and produce Mars' distinctive red soil.

The AFM was developed by a Swiss-led consortium, with Imperial College London producing the silicon substrate that holds sampled particles.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

246

Femtosecond photoelectron point projection microscope.  

PubMed

By utilizing a nanometer ultrafast electron source in a point projection microscope we demonstrate that images of nanoparticles with spatial resolutions of the order of 100 nanometers can be obtained. The duration of the emission process of the photoemitted electrons used to make images is shown to be of the order of 100 fs using an autocorrelation technique. The compact geometry of this photoelectron point projection microscope does not preclude its use as a simple ultrafast electron microscope, and we use simple analytic models to estimate temporal resolutions that can be expected when using it as a pump-probe ultrafast electron microscope. These models show a significant increase in temporal resolution when comparing to ultrafast electron microscopes based on conventional designs. We also model the microscopes spectroscopic abilities to capture ultrafast phenomena such as the photon induced near field effect. PMID:24182122

Quinonez, Erik; Handali, Jonathan; Barwick, Brett

2013-10-01

247

Femtosecond photoelectron point projection microscope  

SciTech Connect

By utilizing a nanometer ultrafast electron source in a point projection microscope we demonstrate that images of nanoparticles with spatial resolutions of the order of 100 nanometers can be obtained. The duration of the emission process of the photoemitted electrons used to make images is shown to be of the order of 100 fs using an autocorrelation technique. The compact geometry of this photoelectron point projection microscope does not preclude its use as a simple ultrafast electron microscope, and we use simple analytic models to estimate temporal resolutions that can be expected when using it as a pump-probe ultrafast electron microscope. These models show a significant increase in temporal resolution when comparing to ultrafast electron microscopes based on conventional designs. We also model the microscopes spectroscopic abilities to capture ultrafast phenomena such as the photon induced near field effect.

Quinonez, Erik; Handali, Jonathan; Barwick, Brett [Department of Physics, Trinity College, 300 Summit St., Hartford, Connecticut 06106 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Trinity College, 300 Summit St., Hartford, Connecticut 06106 (United States)

2013-10-15

248

A Microscopic Information System (MIS) to assist in petrographic analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rock texture results from all the petrological processes that have affected the rock system. The interpretation of a rock texture relies on the analysis of the morphometric parameters of the constituting components (e.g. crystals or grains). A consistent and statistically sound quantification of components size and shape is crucial to adequately unravel the petrology of a rock, but the gathering of these measurements may be time-consuming or difficult to achieve using low-cost facilities. The basic technique for texture analysis of rocks is the observation of thin sections in transmitted light by using a petrographic microscope. To automate and speed-up textural measurements from thin section in transmitted light, several image processing procedures have been published in the last two decades. Nevertheless, the complexity of the optical properties of crystals hampered the determination of a method that is completely satisfactory, especially for complex polymineralic plutonic rocks. This work provides a contribution to solve this problem. We present a novel composite procedure based on four approaches: i) the use of a slide scanner to acquire the input imagery in transmitted light from thin sections without using the petrographic microscope; ii) the storage of the resulting images in a GIS-like database structure that is extremely useful to retrieve, browse and analyze a large archive of images from a high number of thin sections; iii) the application of a custom image analysis procedure based on two region growing functions; iv) the refinement of the regions after raster to vector conversion using GIS software. We call the obtained analysis system a Microscopic Information System (MIS), because it relies on GIS software but it is not a geographic system. In this study we apply this technique to analyze 137 thin sections obtained from 49 samples of 8 different granitoid rocks that are commonly used in the decorative stone industry. For each thin section 5 collimated RGB images are scanned: 4 under different direction of crossed polarization and 1 without polarization. The input device warrants a pixel of 9.4 microns. Two image processing functions (a seeded and an unseeded ones) work on a multi-band selection of the input imagery to account for the most represented intra-crystalline colour patterns observed in the minerals constituting the samples (plagioclase, quartz, K-feldspar and femic minerals). The flexible multi-format data visualization provided by GIS software offers an improved working environment compared to standard image processing units. This system can also substitute the petrographic microscope in performing a preliminary thin section survey. This method provides accurate measurements using an inexpensive device and proved to be fast, reliable and flexible. Once tuned, it has been successfully applied to all the analysed thin sections without further calibrations. The obtained measurement database is constituted by the morphometric measurements of about 87,000 crystals. The GIS structure of this database makes easy the analysis of the obtained results allowing an instant visualization of the outcomes of morphometric or modal queries over any selection of samples.

Tarquini, S.; Favalli, M.

2009-04-01

249

Proper alignment of the microscope.  

PubMed

The light microscope is merely the first element of an imaging system in a research facility. Such a system may include high-speed and/or high-resolution image acquisition capabilities, confocal technologies, and super-resolution methods of various types. Yet more than ever, the proverb "garbage in-garbage out" remains a fact. Image manipulations may be used to conceal a suboptimal microscope setup, but an artifact-free image can only be obtained when the microscope is optimally aligned, both mechanically and optically. Something else is often overlooked in the quest to get the best image out of the microscope: Proper sample preparation! The microscope optics can only do its job when its design criteria are matched to the specimen or vice versa. The specimen itself, the mounting medium, the cover slip, and the type of immersion medium (if applicable) are all part of the total optical makeup. To get the best results out of a microscope, understanding the functions of all of its variable components is important. Only then one knows how to optimize these components for the intended application. Different approaches might be chosen to discuss all of the microscope's components. We decided to follow the light path which starts with the light source and ends at the camera or the eyepieces. To add more transparency to this sequence, the section up to the microscope stage was called the "Illuminating Section", to be followed by the "Imaging Section" which starts with the microscope objective. After understanding the various components, we can start "working with the microscope." To get the best resolution and contrast from the microscope, the practice of "Koehler Illumination" should be understood and followed by every serious microscopist. Step-by-step instructions as well as illustrations of the beam path in an upright and inverted microscope are included in this chapter. A few practical considerations are listed in Section 3. PMID:23931502

Rottenfusser, Rudi

2013-01-01

250

Midfield microscope: exploring the extraordinary  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this thesis the development of the midfield microscope is presented. This is a microscope in which the extraordinary transmission (EOT) through sub-wavelength hole-arrays is applied.\\u000aBefore trying to combine microscopy and EOT, we look at them separately. In chapter 1 an overview is given of the current microscope techniques. The main research questions posed are which qualities, like resolution,

M. W. Docter

2008-01-01

251

Mineralogy, petrology and chemistry of ANT-suite rocks from the lunar highlands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Anorthositic-noritic-troctolitic (ANT) rocks are the oldest and most abundant rocks of the lunar surface, and comprise about 90% of the suite of the lunar highlands. Consideration is given to the mineralogy, petrology, bulk chemistry, and origin of ANT-suite rocks. Problems associated in classifying and labeling lunar highland rocks because of textural complexities occurring from impact modifications are discussed. The mineralogy of ANT-suite rocks, dominated by plagioclase, olivine and pyrozene, and containing various minor minerals, is outlined. The petrology of ANT-suite rocks is reviewed along with the major element bulk composition of these rocks, noting that they are extremely depleted in K2O and P2O5. Various models describing the origin of ANT-suite rocks are summarized, and it is suggested that this origin involves a parental liquid of high-alumina basalt with low Fe/Fe+Mg.

Prinz, M.; Keil, K.

1977-01-01

252

Global petrologic variations on the moon - A ternary-diagram approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved method for global petrologic mapping of the moon is presented, which uses a color-coded ternary diagram whose apexes are assigned the average Fe and Th/Ti ratio (normalized to chondrites) compositions of KREEP/Mg-suite rocks, mare basalts, and ferroan anorthosites. The composition of each pixel within these Apollo orbital gamma ray data bases is used to determine its position within the ternary diagram. The color corresponding to this ternary position is then placed on a classification map at that pixel's position within the orbital data bases. The resultant classification map shows spatial transitions among petrologic units, allows direct determination of the relative proportions of each end-member composition in a pixel, and provides more geologic information than can be obtained by using only the elemental data. The map units correspond remarkably well to previously delineated geologic provinces.

Davis, Philip A.; Spudis, Paul D.

1987-01-01

253

PETRO.CALC.PLOT, Microsoft Excel macros to aid petrologic interpretation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

PETRO.CALC.PLOT is a package of macros which normalizes whole-rock oxide data to 100%, calculates the cation percentages and molecular proportions used for normative mineral calculations, computes the apices for ternary diagrams, determines sums and ratios of specific elements of petrologic interest, and plots 33 X-Y graphs and five ternary diagrams. PETRO.CALC.PLOT also may be used to create other diagrams as desired by the user. The macros run in Microsoft Excel 3.0 and 4.0 for Macintosh computers and in Microsoft Excel 3.0 and 4.0 for Windows. Macros provided in PETRO.CALC.PLOT minimize repetition and time required to recalculate and plot whole-rock oxide data for petrologic analysis. ?? 1994.

Sidder, G.B.

1994-01-01

254

Petrology and provenance of Apollo 15 drive tube 15007/8  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The petrology of submillimeter fractions of soils from 13 levels of Apollo 15 drive tube 15007/8 have been studied through grain size analysis, modal analysis of the 90-150 micron sieve fraction, and electron probe microanalysis of monomineralic fragments of olivine, pyroxene, and plagioclase from the soils. It is shown that core 15007/8 does not contain distinct lithologic units and probably contains soils of mixed maturity in which mixing has greatly dominated in situ reworking. No petrologic layering is found in the core. Abundances of KREEP basalts correlate with mare basalts and not with anorthosite, norite, and troctolite components from the Apennine Front. Some olivine and pyroxene fragments with mare basalt affinity are found to be optically and chemically unzoned, suggesting that they may have been derived from unusual source rocks.

Basu, Abhijit; Gerke, Tammie; Mckay, David S.

1988-01-01

255

The lunar regolith - Chemistry and petrology of Luna 24 grain size fractions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical data obtained by instrumental neutron activation analysis are reported for 30 elements in eight lunar soil size fractions from 370 to less than 2 microns, as well as petrology for five size fractions down to 40-10 microns in two Luna 24 soils. While the compositions of coarser fractions are similar to each other, they differ from the fractions smaller than 10 microns; these become increasingly feldspathic and enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILE) with decreasing grain size. The high concentrations of the Ni, Au and Ir meteoritic indicator elements in these finer fractions are consistent with comminution by meteoritic impact. Size distributions, petrology and LILE patterns indicate that Luna 24 soils are less reworked than most lunar soils.

Laul, J. C.; Rode, O. D.; Simon, S. B.; Papike, J. J.

1987-03-01

256

Geochemical and petrological evidence for subduction–accretion processes in the Archean Eastern Indian Craton  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of sandstones often provides key evidence about the tectonic, weathering and transport processes operating on the surface at the time of deposition. Petrologic and geochemical analyses of little-metamorphosed middle–late Archean sandstones from the Eastern Indian Craton show that the sedimentary rocks were derived from dominantly 3.3-Ga-old amphibolites of the Older Metamorphic Group (OMG) and tonalites of the Older

Aniki Saha; Asish R. Basu; Carmala N. Garzione; Pradyot K. Bandyopadhyay; Amitabha Chakrabarti

2004-01-01

257

Mineralogy and petrology serving society: challenges for the 21st century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the topical problems of science in general at present is spreading the newest discoveries among population as well as among the decision-makers. "Mineralogical sciences" (mineralogy, geochemistry, petrology) affect the wide spectrum of human activities. Such an influence can already be traced in prehistory, and in the modern age the significance of the mentioned geoscience branches is on the increase. The author presents here a review of selected applications of mineralogical sciences in the development of mankind.

Hovorka, Dušan

2009-01-01

258

Ureilitic breccias: clues to the petrologic structure and impact disruption of the ureilite parent asteroid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of the ?143 ureilite meteorites are monomict (unbrecciated) ultramafic rocks, which represent the mantle (olivine+low-Ca pyroxene residues and less abundant cumulates) of a partially melted (?25–30%), carbon-rich asteroid ?125km in radius. Accumulated petrologic and geochemical studies of these meteorites have led to a picture of a ureilite parent body (UPB) that was stratified in mg#, pyroxene abundance and

Cyrena Anne Goodrich; Edward R. D. Scott; Anna Maria Fioretti

2004-01-01

259

Luna 16 - Relative proportions and petrologic significance of particles in the soil from Mare Fecunditatis.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some 2380 lithic and vitreous particles from levels A and G of the Luna 16 core-tube sample were classified. The relative proportions of particle types from each of the two layers are reported, and some petrological and mineralogical aspects of the lithic and vitreous components of the lunar regolith are discussed. Possible sources of the particles in the Luna 16 soil are examined.

Reid, J. B., Jr.; Taylor, G. J.; Marvin, U. B.; Wood, J. A.

1972-01-01

260

Remotely Deployed Virtual Sensors  

E-print Network

Remotely Deployed Virtual Sensors TR-UTEDGE-2007-010 Sanem Kabadayi Christine Julien © Copyright 2007 The University of Texas at Austin #12;Remotely Deployed Virtual Sensors Sanem Kabadayi that run on mobile client devices connect to the sensors of a multihop sensor network. For emerging

Julien, Christine

261

Virtual Scanning Electron Microscopy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Florida State University features an interactive Java tutorial that explores various aspects of virtual scanning electron microscopy. Users can see how specimens appear when magnified in the virtual SEM. The site also features an image gallery and extensive information about different types of microscopy.

Michael W. Davidson

262

Virtual water strider  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

3D virtual image of a water strider (Family Gerridae). This movie is also available as a Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) model. The VRML models are more interactive than the QuickTime versions, but special software may need to be downloaded to open them (read the ÃÂHelpÃÂ page for details). Those people using public computers may be limited from fully accessing the resource. Mozilla Firefox users can view the VRML files directly in their browsers by downloading the Cortona extension (http://www.parallelgraphics.com/products/cortona/download/netscape/). This website is an excellent educational resource for all ages. The Virtual Insects home page (http://www.ento.vt.edu/~sharov/3d/3dinsect.html) has a basic explanation of how virtual reality works, including the Virtual Reality Modeling Language. The "Virtual Images" link takes you to a list of insects that can be viewed as 3D digital reconstructions. The image files would make excellent additions to teaching lectures for introductory classes. Visit the "How to Build Virtual Insects" page to read about how the images were created and how the original models were made more biologically accurate. Also be sure to read the page on how to view the cyber-insects inside a virtual reality "cave".

0002-11-30

263

Virtual yellowjacket wasp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

3D virtual image of a yellowjacket wasp (Family Vespidae). This movie is also available as a Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) model. The VRML models are more interactive than the QuickTime versions, but special software may need to be downloaded to open them (read the ÃÂHelpÃÂ page for details). Those people using public computers may be limited from fully accessing the resource. Mozilla Firefox users can view the VRML files directly in their browsers by downloading the Cortona extension (http://www.parallelgraphics.com/products/cortona/download/netscape/). This website is an excellent educational resource for all ages. The Virtual Insects home page (http://www.ento.vt.edu/~sharov/3d/3dinsect.html) has a basic explanation of how virtual reality works, including the Virtual Reality Modeling Language. The "Virtual Images" link takes you to a list of insects that can be viewed as 3D digital reconstructions. The image files would make excellent additions to teaching lectures for introductory classes. Visit the "How to Build Virtual Insects" page to read about how the images were created and how the original models were made more biologically accurate. Also be sure to read the page on how to view the cyber-insects inside a virtual reality "cave".

0002-11-30

264

Teaching the Virtual Presentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today, the virtual presentation is catching on rapidly in small, medium, and large businesses alike. A virtual presentation is one delivered live from a desktop or laptop computer to an audience anywhere in the world where there is Internet access. These new Web-based technologies are easy to use and inexpensive, making them readily accessible for…

Flatley, Marie E.

2007-01-01

265

A Virtual Good Idea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School districts across the country have always had to do more with less. Funding goes only so far, leaving administrators and IT staff to find innovative ways to save money while maintaining a high level of academic quality. Creating virtual servers accomplishes both tasks, district technology personnel say. Virtual environments not only allow…

Bolch, Matt

2009-01-01

266

Virtual Reality in Healthcare  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our modern 21st century, daily life would be unthinkable without computers. Multimedia and virtual reality are useful for\\u000a people with special needs. This chapter presents a general overview of the use of virtual reality in medical informatics,\\u000a rehabilitation and assistive & preventive healthcare.

Cecília Sik Lányi

267

10 Myths of Virtualization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Half of servers in higher ed are virtualized. But that number's not high enough for Link Alander, interim vice chancellor and CIO at the Lone Star College System (Texas). He aspires to see 100 percent of the system's infrastructure requirements delivered as IT services from its own virtualized data centers or other cloud-based operators. Back in…

Schaffhauser, Dian

2012-01-01

268

Virtual Welding Trainers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weld-Ed, the National Center for Welding Education and Training have provided this Power Point presentation entitled âÂÂVirtual Welding Trainersâ that covers the pros and cons of implementing a virtual welding program in education. Virtual welding programs have gained attention in the past years because of a decrease in the welding workforce and increasing workforce performance. This slide show provides a history and examples of virtual reality simulation. There are lists of benefits, like instant feedback and reduced environmental concerns. Also provided are virtual welding development barriers, such as high start-up costs. Last but not least, there is a list of other institutions that are using virtual welding programs.

2009-09-24

269

Active Learning: A Small Group Histology Laboratory Exercise in a Whole Class Setting Utilizing Virtual Slides and Peer Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Histology laboratory instruction is moving away from the sole use of the traditional combination of light microscopes and glass slides in favor of virtual microscopy and virtual slides. At the same time, medical curricula are changing so as to reduce scheduled time for basic science instruction as well as focusing on student-centered learning…

Bloodgood, Robert A.

2012-01-01

270

Pearls found on the way to the ideal interface for scanned-probe microscopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1991, our team of computer scientists, chemists and physi- cists have worked together to develop an advanced, virtual- environment interface to scanned-probe microscopes. The inter- face has provided insights and useful capabilities well beyond those of the traditional interface. This paper lists the particular visualization and control techniques that have enabled actual scientific discovery, including specific examples of insight

Russell M. II taylor; Jun Chen; Shoji Okimoto; Noel Llopis-Artime; Vernon L. Chi; Frederick P. Brooks Jr.; Mike Falvo; Scott Paulson; Pichet Thiansathaporn; David Glick; Sean Washburn; Richard Superfine

1997-01-01

271

The Latest in Handheld Microscopes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Around 1590, Zacharias Jansenn of Holland invented the microscope. Jansenn, an eyeglass maker by trade, experimented with lenses and discovered that things appeared closer with combinations of lenses. Over the past 400 years, several refinements to microscopes have occurred, making it possible to magnify objects between 200 and 1,500 times their…

Wighting, Mervyn J.; Lucking, Robert A.; Christmann, Edwin P.

2004-01-01

272

Video: Focusing a Compound Microscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video from CUNY Kingsborough Community College describes how to focus a compound microscope. The brief clip, available for viewing on YouTube, would be most useful for students with a basic understanding of the parts of a compound microscope and how to use it. Running time for the video is 0:55.

2013-07-01

273

Using the Microscope: Basic Tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial is for those whose work involves day-to-day use of the light microscope, as well as those approaching the instrument for the first time. The intention is to pass on sufficient information that microscope users may better understand their instrument, set it up in a way that produces a satisfactory image in a comfortable setting, and proceed with their work.

Micrographia (Micrographia)

2012-01-06

274

Virtual patients for a virtual hospital.  

PubMed

With the introduction of VBscript & Active-X it is now possible to construct interactive websites with ease. This paper discusses the author's experience in setting up TWO different 'VIRTUAL PATIENT' websites. One such site, named VIRTUAL PATIENT 97, is based upon a goal based scenario, in this case the clinical management of common clinical problems like upper gastro-intestinal bleeding in a surgical ward. The second website, CLICK 'n' LEARN, is essentially a health education website providing material on common chronic illnesses like diabetes, hypertension and asthma. The first module deals with aspects of self care in diabetes. Included are textual as well as video clips which show various elements of diabetes self care: like the administration of insulin or the usage of a glucometer. An added twist is a target oriented interface borrowed from the TAMAGOTCHI. If the user dutifully looks after his virtual diabetic, it will thrive & the disease will be well controlled, else the virtual patient deteriorates in accelerated time. This allows for safe experimentation & promotes awareness of the importance of self care in the total management of chronic illnesses. PMID:10384665

Loke, E; Lun, K C

1998-01-01

275

Partitionable Virtual Synchrony Extended Virtual Synchrony  

E-print Network

multicast framework. A natural extension of this idea is to implement one set of group communication presents several EVS algorithms for implementing a partitionable Virtual Synchrony (VS) model of group communication. It first explicitly defines the VS and EVS models through the presentation of their safety

Amir, Yair

276

Partitionable Virtual Synchrony Extended Virtual Synchrony  

E-print Network

FIFO multicast framework. A natural extension of this idea is to implement one set of group presents several EVS algorithms for implementing a partitionable Virtual Synchrony (VS) model of group communication. It first explicitly defines the VS and EVS models through the presentation of their safety

Amir, Yair

277

INTEGRATING VIRTUAL REALITY FOR VIRTUAL PROTOTYPING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Business process re-engineering is becoming a main focus in today's efforts to overcome problems and deficits in the auto- motive and aerospace industries (e.g., integration in international markets, product complexity, increasing number of product vari- ants, reduction in product development time and cost). In this paper, we investigate the steps needed to apply vir- tual reality (VR) for virtual prototyping

BMW AG; Gabriel Zachmann

1998-01-01

278

Virtual assembly using virtual reality techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual reality is a technology which is often regarded as a natural extension to 3D computer graphics with advanced input and output devices. This technology has only recently matured enough to warrant serious engineering applications. The integration of this new technology with software systems for engineering, design, and manufacturing will provide a new boost to the field of computer-aided engineering.

Sankar Jayaram; Hugh I. Connacher; Kevin W. Lyons

1997-01-01

279

Virtual stag beetle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

3D image of a stage beetle (Family Lucanidae). This movie is also available as a Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) model. The VRML models are more interactive than the QuickTime versions, but special software may need to be downloaded to open them (read the ÃÂHelpÃÂ page for details). Those people using public computers may be limited from fully accessing the resource. Mozilla Firefox users can view the VRML files directly in their browsers by downloading the Cortona extension (http://www.parallelgraphics.com/products/cortona/download/netscape/). This website is an excellent educational resource for all ages. The Virtual Insects home page (http://www.ento.vt.edu/~sharov/3d/3dinsect.html) has a basic explanation of how virtual reality works, including the Virtual Reality Modeling Language. The "Virtual Images" link takes you to a list of insects that can be viewed as 3D digital reconstructions. The image files would make excellent additions to teaching lectures for introductory classes. Visit the "How to Build Virtual Insects" page to read about how the images were created and how the original models were made more biologically accurate. Also be sure to read the page on how to view the cyber-insects inside a virtual reality "cave".

0002-11-30

280

Microscopic study of the string breaking in QCD  

SciTech Connect

Theory of strong decays defines in addition to decay widths also the channel coupling and the mass shifts of the levels above the decay thresholds. In the standard decay models of the {sup 3}P{sub 0} type the decay vertex is taken to be a phenomenological constant {gamma} and such a choice leads to large mass shifts of all meson levels due to real and virtual decays, the latter giving a divergent contribution. Here we show that taking the microscopic details of decay vertex into account, one obtains new string width effect coefficient, which strongly suppresses virtual decay contribution. In addition for a realistic space structure of the decay vertex of highly excited states, the decay matrix elements appear to be strongly different from those, where the constant {gamma} is used. From our analysis also follows that so-called flattening potential can imitate the effects of intermediate decay channels.

Badalian, A. M., E-mail: badalian@itep.ru; Orlovsky, V. D., E-mail: orlovskii@itep.ru; Simonov, Yu. A., E-mail: simonov@itep.ru [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)

2013-08-15

281

Science Nation: Virtual Self  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An avatar is a movable image that people design to represent themselves in virtual reality environments or in cyberspace. Avatars are usually for fun and games but could avatars actually change us? Jeremy Bailenson thinks so. With support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), he created the Virtual Human Interaction Lab (VHIL) at Stanford University to study, among other things, the power avatars exert on their real world masters. Sometimes, avatars are designed to be ideal versions of their creators, and there's now evidence that the virtual reality persona begins to influence the real life persona.

282

4-H Virtual Farm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 4-H Virtual Farm offers sections on horses, farm pond aquaculture, beef, dairy, poultry, and wheat. Each section has an interview with a producer about their work, information on the industry in Virginia, animations of farm processes, a virtual reality view of a farm, information on what the producers must know and how they use science, explanations of the food chain, a glossary for students to learn to talk like a producer, and a quiz for a chance to win virtual blue ribbons.

283

Studying Trust in Virtual Teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual teams, or geographically distributed groups, are becoming more prevalent in organizations with the development of globalization, interorganizational alliances and ICT development. Virtual teams enable organizations to pool the talents of their own employees in the competitive global environment. As an important factor of virtual teams' success, trust has been a hot topic in the research field of virtual teams.

Yihong Zhan; Feng Xiong

2008-01-01

284

Virtual-channel flow control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network throughput can be increased by dividing the buffer storage associated with each network channel into several virtual channels [DalSei]. Each physical channel is associated with several small queues, virtual channels, rather than a single deep queue. The virtual channels associated with one physical channel are allocated independently but compete with each other for physical bandwidth. Virtual channels decouple buffer

William J. Dally

1990-01-01

285

Jefferson Lab Virtual Tour  

SciTech Connect

Take a virtual tour of the campus of Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. You can see inside our two accelerators, three experimental areas, accelerator component fabrication and testing areas, high-performance computing areas and laser labs.

None

2013-07-13

286

Jefferson Lab Virtual Tour  

ScienceCinema

Take a virtual tour of the campus of Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. You can see inside our two accelerators, three experimental areas, accelerator component fabrication and testing areas, high-performance computing areas and laser labs.

None

2014-05-22

287

Base Blocks Virtual Manipulative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual manipulative provides base blocks that consist of individual "units," "longs," "flats," and "blocks" (ten of each set for base 10). They can be used to show place value for numbers and to increase understanding of addition and subtraction.

National Library of Virtual Manipulatives

2008-12-10

288

Virtual Organizations: An Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need to remain competitive in the open market forces companies to concentrate on their core competencies while searching for alliances when additional skills or resources are needed to fulfill business opportunities. The changing business situation of companies and customer needs have motivated researchers to introduce Virtual Organization (VO) idea. A Virtual Organization is always a form of partnership and managing partners and handling partnerships are crucial. Virtual organizations are defined as a temporary collection of enterprises that cooperate and share resources, knowledge, and competencies to better respond to business opportunities. This paper presents base concepts of virtual organizations including properties, management concepts, operational concepts, and main issues in collaboration such as security and authentication.

Nami, Mohammad Reza

289

South Florida Virtual Tour  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual tour of South Florida takes users from Lake Okeechobee to the tip of Florida Bay. The site contains information about several regions in south Florida including facts, photos, and interactive images.

2002-10-03

290

Implementing Gibsonian Virtual Environments  

E-print Network

: . Virtual reality research has provided means of conveying multi­sensory information to human participants, and cost­effectiveness by running on garden­variety PCs. However, we should realize that the WWW

291

MIT Environmental Virtual Campus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The MIT Environmental Virtual Campus is an interactive exploration of environmental protection and safety issues on campus. Users navigate different sectors of campus activities for useful information for meeting environmental regulations and ensuring that colleges are sustainable.

2007-09-24

292

Evolution of Virtual Communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the capabilities of technologies are enhanced and users become diversified, virtual communities have evolved from BBS to a new phenomena—virtual world. This study describes the evolution of VCs in three generations by three dimensions. Facing new challenges in new VC generation, VC platform providers need to adopt new approaches. The authors discuss important factors of future VCs. The field for VCs in the future will become more sophisticated and competitive.

Cheon, Eunyoung; Ahn, Joongho

293

The virtual wind tunnel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and implementation of a virtual environment linked to a graphics workstation for the visualization of complex fluid flows are described. The system user wears a stereo head-tracked display, which effectively displays 3-D information, and an instrumented glove to intuitively position flow-visualization tools. The visualization structures and their interfaces in the virtual environment and the implementation hardware and software

S. Bryson; C. Levit

1992-01-01

294

Virtual Reality Lab Assistant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Virtual Reality Lab Assistant (VRLA) demonstration model is aligned for engineering and material science experiments to be performed by undergraduate and graduate students in the course as a pre-lab simulation experience. This will help students to get a preview of how to use the lab equipment and run experiments without using the lab hardware/software equipment. The quality of the time available for laboratory experiments can be significantly improved through the use of virtual reality technology.

Saha, Hrishikesh; Palmer, Timothy A.

1996-01-01

295

Virtual Landscapes of Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will focus on two World Wide Web projects: the virtual nation of Cyber- Yugoslavia (www.juga.com) and the homepage of former Yugoslav president Tito (www.titoville.com). Both projects problematize our understanding of nationhood and political leadership through skilful manipulation of the structural characteristics of the medium. The virtual, performative and transitory nature of both the nation and the state will

Maja Mikula

2003-01-01

296

Virtual Courseware: Earthquake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive exercise lets students investigate how seismic waves are used to locate the epicenter of an earthquake and determine its magnitude. They will place virtual seismic stations on an interactive map, trigger a virtual explosion, and measure the difference in arrival times of S- and P-waves generated by the explosion. Using this data, they can determine the distance to each station and use triangulation to determine the epicenter of the earthquake.

297

Virtual Heritage Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"The Virtual Heritage Network [VHN], is a new international organisation designed to promote the utilisation of technology for the education, interpretation, conservation and preservation of Natural, Cultural and World Heritage." The heart of VHN is a searchable library that consists of papers, articles, and reports "discussing applications, tools, games, [and] financial and legal aspects" of virtual heritage. Submissions are self-selected and given online reviews by site users, but everything we saw here was professional and, in most cases, had been published elsewhere in academic or news media forums. The site also lets users keep up to date with current developments in the virtual heritage industry via a newsletter, and for members (registration free), offers an email digest of recent submissions to the site, an electronic mailing list, and a forthcoming message board. For the uninitiated, the site has reprinted an article from the November edition of UNESCO's World Heritage Magazine explaining the concept of Virtual Heritage (available from the What is Virtual Heritage? link on the front page). The VHN was established this month by the International Society on Virtual Systems and MultiMedia (VSMM Society) with the support of the UNESCO World Heritage Centre.

298

The Virtual Observatory: I  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of the Virtual Observatory arose more-or-less simultaneously in the United States and Europe circa 2000. Ten pages of Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium: Panel Reports (National Academy Press, Washington, 2001), that is, the detailed recommendations of the Panel on Theory, Computation, and Data Exploration of the 2000 Decadal Survey in Astronomy, are dedicated to describing the motivation for, scientific value of, and major components required in implementing the National Virtual Observatory. European initiatives included the Astrophysical Virtual Observatory at the European Southern Observatory, the AstroGrid project in the United Kingdom, and the Euro-VO (sponsored by the European Union). Organizational/conceptual meetings were held in the US at the California Institute of Technology (Virtual Observatories of the Future, June 13-16, 2000) and at ESO Headquarters in Garching, Germany (Mining the Sky, July 31-August 4, 2000; Toward an International Virtual Observatory, June 10-14, 2002). The nascent US, UK, and European VO projects formed the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) at the June 2002 meeting in Garching, with yours truly as the first chair. The IVOA has grown to a membership of twenty-one national projects and programs on six continents, and has developed a broad suite of data access protocols and standards that have been widely implemented. Astronomers can now discover, access, and compare data from hundreds of telescopes and facilities, hosted at hundreds of organizations worldwide, stored in thousands of databases, all with a single query.

Hanisch, R. J.

2014-11-01

299

The Athena Microscopic Imager on the Mars Exploration Rovers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Athena science payload on the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) includes the Microscopic Imager (MI). The MI is a fixed-focus camera mounted on the end of the Instrument Deployment Device (IDD). The MI was designed to acquire images at a spatial resolution of 30 microns/pixel over a broad spectral range (400-700 nm). Technically speaking, the ''microscopic'' imager is not a microscope: it has a fixed magnification of 0.4, and is intended to produce images that simulate a geologist's view when using a common hand lens. The MI uses the same electronics design as the other MER cameras, but has optics that yield a field of view of 31 x 31 mm. The MI will acquire images using only solar or skylight illumination of the target surface. A contact sensor will be used to place the MI slightly closer to the target surface than its best focus distance (about 66 mm), allowing concave surfaces to be imaged in good focus. Because the MI has a relatively small depth of field (+/- 3 mm), a single MI image of a rough surface will contain both focused and unfocused areas. Coarse (~2 mm precision) focusing will be achieved by moving the IDD away from a target after the contact sensor is activated. Multiple images taken at various distances will be acquired to ensure good focus on all parts of rough surfaces. By combining a set of images acquired in this way, a completely focused image will be assembled. The MI optics will be protected from the martian environment by a dust cover. The dust cover includes a polycarbonate window that is tinted yellow to restrict the spectral bandpass to 500-700 nm and allow color information to be obtained by taking images with the dust cover open and closed. The MI will be used to image the same materials measured by other Athena instruments, as well as targets of opportunity (before rover traverses). The resulting images will be used to place other instrumental data in context and to aid in the petrologic interpretation of rocks and soils on Mars.

Herkenhoff, K. E.; Squyres, S. W.; Bell, J. F.; Maki, J. N.; Schwochert, M. A.

2002-12-01

300

Magnetic Resonance Force Microscope Development  

SciTech Connect

Our objectives were to develop the Magnetic Resonance Force Microscope (MRFM) into an instrument capable of scientific studies of buried structures in technologically and scientifically important electronic materials such as magnetic multilayer materials. This work resulted in the successful demonstration of MRFM-detected ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) as a microscopic characterization tool for thin magnetic films. Strong FMR spectra obtained from microscopic Co thin films (500 and 1000 angstroms thick and 40 x 200 microns in lateral extent) allowed us to observe variations in sample inhomogeneity and magnetic anisotropy field. We demonstrated lateral imaging in microscopic FMR for the first time using a novel approach employing a spatially selective local field generated by a small magnetically polarized spherical crystallite of yttrium iron garnet. These successful applications of the MRFM in materials studies provided the basis for our successful proposal to DOE/BES to employ the MRF M in studies of buried interfaces in magnetic materials.

Hammel, P.C.; Zhang, Z.; Suh, B.J.; Roukes, M.L.; Midzor, M.; Wigen, P.E.; Childress, J.R.

1999-06-03

301

Microscopic theory of vortex dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An approach to vortex dynamics is outlined, a new form being obtained for the pair potential forces on a vortex. A microscopic calculation of the vortex inertial mass is presented. Quantum effects on vortex lattice melting are briefly discussed.

Gaitonde, D. M.; Ramakrishnan, T. V.

1994-12-01

302

Adirondack Under the Microscope-2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This overhead look at the martian rock dubbed Adirondack was captured by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's panoramic camera. It shows the approximate region where the rover's microscopic imager began its first close-up inspection.

2004-01-01

303

Microscopic Procedures for Plant Meiosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes laboratory techniques designed to familiarize students with meiosis and how microscopic preparations of meiosis are made. These techniques require the use of fresh or fixed flowers. Contains 18 references. (DDR)

Braselton, James P.

1997-01-01

304

Scanning Probe Microscope Animation Gallery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, hosted by Nanoscience Instruments, has several animations from a scanning probe microscope (SPM). The topics include such items as atomic resolution, buckyballs and electrochemistry. These are good resources that could be used to explore nanoscience through visual means.

2011-02-23

305

Theory of a microscopic maser  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theory is presented for a truly microscopic maser consisting of a single-mode high-Q resonator in which a monoenergetic beam of excited two-level atoms is injected at such a low flux that at most one atom at a time is present inside the cavity. Both a microscopic theory and a heuristic Fokker-Planck approach are presented. It is shown that the

P. Filipowicz; J. Javanainen; P. Meystre

1986-01-01

306

On thermodynamic and microscopic reversibility  

SciTech Connect

The word 'reversible' has two (apparently) distinct applications in statistical thermodynamics. A thermodynamically reversible process indicates an experimental protocol for which the entropy change is zero, whereas the principle of microscopic reversibility asserts that the probability of any trajectory of a system through phase space equals that of the time reversed trajectory. However, these two terms are actually synonymous: a thermodynamically reversible process is microscopically reversible, and vice versa.

Crooks, Gavin E.

2011-07-12

307

Single Crystal Elastic Constants From Surface-Wave Measurements on Petrologic Thin-sections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although single-crystal elastic constants for many common rock-forming minerals have been measured, significant gaps remain in mineral databases. Several authors have noted a continuing need to estimate mineral properties in order to compare seismic profiles with petrologically constrained elastic models for the crust and mantle. In part, the problem is associated with the difficulty of obtaining samples of sufficient size and quality to undertake laboratory studies. The solution suggested here makes use of samples within standard petrologic thin-sections. Individual single crystals within the section are oriented using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). Compositions are determined from standard microprobe analytic techniques. The Impulsive Stimulated Light Scattering method allows measurement of surface-wave velocities as a function of direction in the plane of the thin section. Velocities from several crystals of the same composition but with differing orientations relative to the thin section are inverted to determine the single crystal elastic constants tensor. An advantage of this method is the ability to work with many small and homogeneous crystals (as small as 50 microns) that can be prepared simultaneously using standard petrological techniques. The surface finish necessary for the EBSD analysis is sufficient for the acoustic measurements. Working with light back scattered from the surface removes the difficulty with previous light-transmission methods (Brillouin and ISLS) that required nearly imperfection-free crystals. Although surface waves have a strong dependence on shear elastic constants, the elliptical particle motion couples velocities to all elastic constants. Plagioclase-group minerals constitute 30% or more of the oceanic crust and a larger fraction of the continental crust. Only pseudo-single-crystal (monoclinic) properties have been reported for these triclinic minerals. We report results obtained on individual single crystals that allow investigation of the full elastic tensor. Extension of the work to high pressure is possible.

Gauvin, M.; Brown, J. M.; Abramson, E. H.; Newman, J.; Carlson, R. L.

2004-12-01

308

Blending Curriculum with Research in an Undergraduate Petrology Course: A Recipe for Success?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this presentation we discuss the design, key curricular elements, and strengths and weaknesses of an undergraduate course in the Department of Geosciences at Fort Lewis College that was recast to focus on petrologic studies in the Southern Rocky Mountains and Colorado Plateau. Redesign of the course retained an additional petrology option in the curriculum and offered undergraduates a richer opportunity to learn and practice science-research skills. This course emphasizes direct engagement and student responsibility for learning: traits valuable in transforming undergraduates into experienced and competent professionals. Previous offerings of this course have been field based, each having a unique context for research. The primary pedagogical strategy was to blend field studies with inquiry to promote authentic, student-driven research. Students applied and tested their prior knowledge, and used observational and interpretative skills, to investigate major regional rock bodies and geologic histories, as opposed to completing a set of activities with predefined outcomes. In 2010, students will work on an NSF-funded project to test hypotheses on the origin and evolution of mafic magmas of the Navajo volcanic field. This research will most involve petrographic and microanalytical techniques on rock specimens with a subordinate amount of field work. Formative and summative assessment data for previous offerings of this course reveal that these classes have an impact on the academic interests and future successes of students. Assessment data collected from students, and other faculty that interacted with them, indicate that students in this research-oriented petrology course have gained a greater understanding of the elements and complications of research. They have also developed geologic skills and a passion for geologic research that have influenced subsequent academic (and later career) paths of the students.

Gonzales, D. A.; Semken, S. C.

2009-12-01

309

Reconciling mantle attenuation-temperature relationships from seismology, petrology, and laboratory measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

attenuation measurements provide a powerful tool for sampling mantle properties. Laboratory experiments provide calibrations at seismic frequencies and mantle temperatures for dry melt-free rocks, but require ˜102-103 extrapolations in grain size to mantle conditions; also, the effects of water and melt are not well understood. At the same time, body wave attenuation measured from dense broadband arrays provides reliable estimates of shear wave attenuation (QS-1), affording an opportunity for calibration. We reanalyze seismic data sets that sample arc and back-arc mantle in Central America, the Marianas, and the Lau Basin, confirming very high attenuation (QS ˜ 25-80) at 1 Hz and depths of 50-100 km. At each of these sites, independent petrological studies constrain the temperature and water content where basaltic magmas last equilibrated with the mantle, 1300-1450°C. The QS measurements correlate inversely with the petrologically inferred temperatures, as expected. However, dry attenuation models predict QS too high by a factor of 1.5-5. Modifying models to include effects of H2O and rheology-dependent grain size shows that the effects of water-enhanced dissipation and water-enhanced grain growth nearly cancel, so H2O effects are modest. Therefore, high H2O in the arc source region cannot explain the low QS, nor in the back arc where lavas show modest water content. Most likely, the high attenuation reflects the presence of melt, and some models of melt effects come close to reproducing observations. Overall, body wave QS can be reconciled with petrologic and laboratory inferences of mantle conditions if melt has a strong influence beneath arcs and back arcs.

Abers, G. A.; Fischer, K. M.; Hirth, G.; Wiens, D. A.; Plank, T.; Holtzman, B. K.; McCarthy, C.; Gazel, E.

2014-09-01

310

Mercury: Informing Remote Sensing through Petrology in the Absence of Samples from the Innermost Planet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing missions and petrologic studies are complementary methods of understanding airless planetary bodies. For bodies with both orbital missions and samples available for laboratory study, missions provide global chemical, mineralogical, and geologic data sets and context for samples, whereas samples often provide complementary petrogenetic histories in a chronological framework. In contrast, although the wealth of orbital data from MESSENGER is not complemented by samples from Mercury, petrologic and experimental studies remain essential to understanding the innermost planet. Prior to MESSENGER, most models centered on high-temperature events and formation under highly reducing conditions to explain Mercury's high metal to silicate ratio. These models predicted enrichment in refractory elements and depletion in volatile elements. The inference of formation at highly reducing conditions is supported by MESSENGER results. The low FeO concentration in the crust, implied low FeO contents of the mantle, apparent efficient partitioning of iron into the core, and evidence for Ca- and/or Mg-sulfides from X-Ray Spectrometer data are all consistent with reducing conditions. In contrast, the suggestion that Mercury is highly volatile-depleted has been refuted. Direct evidence for a relatively volatile-rich planet come from Na, K, and S abundances measured on the surface with MESSENGER's XRS and Gamma-Ray Spectrometer and the presence of neutral and ionized Na, K, and S species in the exosphere. Indirect evidence for volatile-rich compositions include the suggestion of volcanic vents with associated mantling pyroclastic deposits, hollows inferred to form by geologically recent volatile loss, and an inferred interior structure that includes a solid iron sulfide layer at the top of Mercury's fluid core. Petrologic and experimental studies of meteorites have played a key role in deciphering orbital data from MESSENGER. Partial melts from an enstatite chondrite assemblage produce S-rich silicate melts that subsequently crystallize Ca,Mg-sulfides and an Fe,Ni-FeS melt rich in Si, consistent with the geochemical characteristics observed or inferred from Mercury. The application of these petrologic principles, derived from the study of highly reduced meteorites, has advanced our understanding of Mercury. With new insights into the geology, mineralogy, and geochemistry of Mercury, the possibility exists that a meteorite launched from Mercury by an impact event could be identified on Earth. If such a link can be forged between a meteorite and Mercury, a new era of exploration, one largely based on isotopic systematics to understand the nature and timing of the geologic evolution of Mercury, could begin.

McCoy, T. J.; Nittler, L. R.; Stockstill-Cahill, K.; Blewett, D. T.

2012-12-01

311

National Geophysical Data Center: PETROS Igneous Petrology Databank version 6.1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Geophysical Data Center's (NGDC) world wide data bank, PETROS, contains "37,300 major element chemical analyses of igneous rocks divided into 307 major groups which represent geographic areas or petrologic provinces." The website offers a series of files describing the organization of the data bank, the identification formats and codes, and the operations system. Users can download a tar file containing the data, codes files, and programs. The site provides a link to the marine geology inventory where users can search through sediment and hardrock data.

312

An outstanding achievement in the study of Petrology of the Fossil Organic Matter in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Publication of the Petrological Atlas of Fossil Organic Matter in Russia in St. Petersburg was one of the remarkable events\\u000a in the history of studying the organic matter. The authors of the atlas (V.I. Vyalov, I.B. Volkova, G.A. Belenitskaya, O.V.\\u000a Petrov, V.N. Volkov, G.M. Volkova, M.V. Golitsyn, A.B. Gurevich, V.M. Bogomazov, A.I. Ginsburg, L.Ya. Kizil’shtein, V.V. Gal’chikov,\\u000a A.P. Zolotov, G.A.

V. F. Shul’ga; A. V. Ivanova; L. B. Zaitseva

2011-01-01

313

Scanning Miniature Microscopes without Lenses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The figure schematically depicts some alternative designs of proposed compact, lightweight optoelectronic microscopes that would contain no lenses and would generate magnified video images of specimens. Microscopes of this type were described previously in Miniature Microscope Without Lenses (NPO - 20218), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 22, No. 8 (August 1998), page 43 and Reflective Variants of Miniature Microscope Without Lenses (NPO 20610), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 9 (September 1999), page 6a. To recapitulate: In the design and construction of a microscope of this type, the focusing optics of a conventional microscope are replaced by a combination of a microchannel filter and a charge-coupled-device (CCD) image detector. Elimination of focusing optics reduces the size and weight of the instrument and eliminates the need for the time-consuming focusing operation. The microscopes described in the cited prior articles contained two-dimensional CCDs registered with two-dimensional arrays of microchannels and, as such, were designed to produce full two-dimensional images, without need for scanning. The microscopes of the present proposal would contain one-dimensional (line image) CCDs registered with linear arrays of microchannels. In the operation of such a microscope, one would scan a specimen along a line perpendicular to the array axis (in other words, one would scan in pushbroom fashion). One could then synthesize a full two-dimensional image of the specimen from the line-image data acquired at one-pixel increments of position along the scan. In one of the proposed microscopes, a beam of unpolarized light for illuminating the specimen would enter from the side. This light would be reflected down onto the specimen by a nonpolarizing beam splitter attached to the microchannels at their lower ends. A portion of the light incident on the specimen would be reflected upward, through the beam splitter and along the microchannels, to form an image on the CCD. If the nonpolarizing beam splitter were replaced by a polarizing one, then the specimen would be illuminated by s-polarized light. Upon reflection from the specimen, some of the s-polarized light would become p-polarized. Only the p-polarized light would contribute to the image on the CCD; in other words, the image would contain information on the polarization rotating characteristic of the specimen.

Wang, Yu

2009-01-01

314

Virtual data in CMS production  

SciTech Connect

Initial applications of the GriPhyN Chimera Virtual Data System have been performed within the context of CMS Production of Monte Carlo Simulated Data. The GriPhyN Chimera system consists of four primary components: (1) a Virtual Data Language, which is used to describe virtual data products, (2) a Virtual Data Catalog, which is used to store virtual data entries, (3) an Abstract Planner, which resolves all dependencies of a particular virtual data product and forms a location and existence independent plan, (4) a Concrete Planner, which maps an abstract, logical plan onto concrete, physical grid resources accounting for staging in/out files and publishing results to a replica location service. A CMS Workflow Planner, MCRunJob, is used to generate virtual data products using the Virtual Data Language. Subsequently, a prototype workflow manager, known as WorkRunner, is used to schedule the instantiation of virtual data products across a grid.

Arbree, A. et al.

2004-08-26

315

Virtual slides: application in pulmonary pathology consultations.  

PubMed

The Virtual Slide (VS) is an interactive microscope emulator that presents a complete digitized tissue section via the Internet. A successful implementation of VS has been observed for educational, research venues and quality control. VS acquisition for consultative pathology is not so common. The purpose of this study was to explore the efficacy and usability of VS in the consultative pulmonary telepathology. 20 lung tumors entered the study. The performance was programmed for 2 medical centers specialized in pulmonary pathology (beginner and advancer in telepathology). A high-quality VSs were prepared by Coolscope (Nikon, Eclipsnet VSL, Japan), and were evaluated via the Internet. The cases were reviewed for the second time with conventional light microscope. VS diagnostic accuracy and the interobserver variability were evaluated. Also the time taken by examiners to render the diagnoses and time needed to scan the microscopic slide were analyzed. Percentage concordance between original glass-slides diagnosis and diagnosis for VSs was very high. Pathologists found the download speed of VSs adequate; experience in telepathology reduced the time of VS diagnosis. VS implementation suggests advantages for teleconsulation and education but also indicate some technical limitations. This is the first Polish trial of VS implementation in telepathology consultative service. PMID:18296275

S?odkowska, Janina; Chyczewski, Lech; Wojciechowski, Micha?

2008-01-01

316

High efficiency virtual impactor  

DOEpatents

Environmental monitoring of atmospheric air is facilitated by a single stage virtual impactor for separating an inlet flow (Q/sub 0/) having particulate contaminants into a coarse particle flow (Q/sub 1/) and a fine particle flow (Q/sub 2/) to enable collection of such particles on different filters for separate analysis. An inlet particle acceleration nozzle and coarse particle collection probe member having a virtual impaction opening are aligned along a single axis and spaced apart to define a flow separation region at which the fine particle flow (Q/sub 2/) is drawn radially outward into a chamber while the coarse particle flow (Q/sub 1/) enters the virtual impaction opening.

Loo, B.W.

1980-03-27

317

Virtual Field Trip  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This immersive multimedia application was developed to provide students with the ability to virtually explore areas on Earth that have been identified as analog sites to regions on Mars. Users zoom in from a global view down to a surface view of a site, where they are placed into a 360 degree spherical virtual reality surface panorama. They can navigate around the site selecting various objects and listening to scientists to learn more about how and why the site was chosen, how it relates to Mars, and why it is of interest. The environment consists of various linked 360 degree spherical stitched virtual reality environments, 3D based layered environments, global fly downs, as well as compressed streaming video files for each area of research. The software is downloadable as compressed files for PC or Mac.

318

Tunable Aqueous Virtual Micropore  

SciTech Connect

A charged microparticle can be trapped in an aqueous environment by forming a narrow virtual pore - a cylindrical space region in which the particle motion in the radial direction is limited by forces emerging from dynamical interactions of the particle charge and dipole moment with an external radiofrequency quadrupole electric field. If the particle satisfies the trap stability criteria, its mean motion is reduced exponentially with time due to the viscosity of the aqueous environment; thereafter the long-time motion of particle is subject only to random, Brownian fluctuations, whose magnitude, influenced by the electrophoretic and dielectrophoretic effects and added to the particle size, determines the radius of the virtual pore, which is demonstrated by comparison of computer simulations and experiment. The measured size of the virtual nanopore could be utilized to estimate the charge of a trapped micro-object.

Park, Jae Hyun nmn [ORNL; Guan, Weihau [Yale University; Reed, Mark A [Yale University; Krstic, Predrag S [ORNL

2012-01-01

319

ATLAS Virtual Visits  

E-print Network

ATLAS Virtual Visits is a project initiated in 2011 for the Education & Outreach program of the ATLAS Experiment at CERN. Its goal is to promote public appreciation of the LHC physics program and particle physics, in general, through direct dialogue between ATLAS physicists and remote audiences. A Virtual Visit is an IP-based videoconference, coupled with a public webcast and video recording, between ATLAS physicists and remote locations around the world, that typically include high school or university classrooms, Masterclasses, science fairs, or other special events, usually hosted by collaboration members. Over the past two years, more than 10,000 people, from all of the world’s continents, have actively participated in ATLAS Virtual Visits, with many more enjoying the experience from the publicly available webcasts and recordings. We present an overview of our experience and discuss potential development for the future.

Goldfarb, Steven; The ATLAS collaboration

2015-01-01

320

Virtual Courseware: Earthquake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Virtual Earthquake is an interactive web-based program designed to introduce the concepts of how an earthquake epicenter is located and how the Richter magnitude of an earthquake is determined. Virtual Earthquake shows the recordings of an earthquake's seismic waves detected by instruments far away from the earthquake. The instrument recording the seismic waves is called a seismograph and the recording is a seismogram. The point of origin of an earthquake is called its focus and the point on the earth's surface directly above the focus is the epicenter. You are to locate the epicenter of an earthquake by making simple measurements on three seismograms that are generated by the Virtual Earthquake program. Additionally, you will be required to determine the Richter Magnitude of that quake from the same recordings. Richter Magnitude is an estimate of the amount of energy released during an earthquake.

Novak, Gary

2000-04-25

321

Virtual Operation of Motor Based on the Virtual Reality Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, it mainly introduces and analyzes the virtual reality technology. It shows a method of 3D products online virtual display based on the 3DS MAX and VRML. Build the 3D modeling of the three-phase asynchronous motors with 3DS MAX, and build its virtual display model of the scene. The combination of VRML virtual interactive technology has become a

Guobin Tao; Xiuyan Zhang; Qinghua Zhang

2010-01-01

322

The virtual tricorder: a uniform interface for virtual reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a new user-interface metaphor for immersive virtual reality — the virtual tricorder. The virtual tricor der visually duplicates a six-degrees-of-freedom input devic e in the virtual environment. Since we map the input device to the tricorder one-to-one at all times, the user identifies the two. Thus, the resulting interface is visual as well as tacti le, multipurpose, and

Matthias M. Wloka; Eliot Greenfield

1995-01-01

323

Intraoperative virtual brain counseling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our objective is to offer online real-tim e intelligent guidance to the neurosurgeon. Different from traditional image-guidance technologies that offer intra-operative visualization of medical images or atlas images, virtual brain counseling goes one step further. It can distinguish related brain structures and provide information about them intra-operatively. Virtual brain counseling is the foundation for surgical planing optimization and on-line surgical reference. It can provide a warning system that alerts the neurosurgeon if the chosen trajectory will pass through eloquent brain areas. In order to fulfill this objective, tracking techniques are involved for intra- operativity. Most importantly, a 3D virtual brian environment, different from traditional 3D digitized atlases, is an object-oriented model of the brain that stores information about different brain structures together with their elated information. An object-oriented hierarchical hyper-voxel space (HHVS) is introduced to integrate anatomical and functional structures. Spatial queries based on position of interest, line segment of interest, and volume of interest are introduced in this paper. The virtual brain environment is integrated with existing surgical pre-planning and intra-operative tracking systems to provide information for planning optimization and on-line surgical guidance. The neurosurgeon is alerted automatically if the planned treatment affects any critical structures. Architectures such as HHVS and algorithms, such as spatial querying, normalizing, and warping are presented in the paper. A prototype has shown that the virtual brain is intuitive in its hierarchical 3D appearance. It also showed that HHVS, as the key structure for virtual brain counseling, efficiently integrates multi-scale brain structures based on their spatial relationships.This is a promising development for optimization of treatment plans and online surgical intelligent guidance.

Jiang, Zhaowei; Grosky, William I.; Zamorano, Lucia J.; Muzik, Otto; Diaz, Fernando

1997-06-01

324

Petrology and Geochemistry of Unbrecciated Harzburgitic Diogenite MIL 07001: A Window Into Vestan Geological Evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is a strong case that asteroid 4 Vesta is the parent of the howardite, eucrite and diogenite (HED) meteorites. Models developed for the geological evolution of Vesta can satisfy the compositions of basaltic eucrites that dominate in the upper crust. The bulk compositional characteristics of diogenites - cumulate harzburgites and orthopyroxenites from the lower crust - do not fit into global magma ocean models that can describe the compositions of basaltic and cumulate eucrites. Recent more detailed formation models do make provision for a more complicated origin for diogenites, but this model has yet to be completely vetted. Compositional studies of bulk samples has led to the hypothesis that many diogenites were formed late by interaction of their parent melts with a eucritic crust, but those observations may alternatively be explained by subsolidus equilibration of trace elements between orthopyroxene and plagioclase and Ca-phosphate in the rocks. Differences in radiogenic Mg-26 content between diogenites and eucrites favors early formation of the former, not later formation. Understanding the origin of diogenites is crucial for understanding the petrologic evolution of Vesta. We have been doing coordinated studies of a suite of diogenites including petrologic investigations, bulk rock major and trace element studies, and in situ trace element analyses of orthopyroxene. Here we will focus on an especially unusual, and potentially key, diogenite, MIL 07001.

Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Peng, Z. X.; Mertzman, S. A.; Mertzman, K. R.

2014-01-01

325

Pet Rock Project: A Semester-long Exercise for Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The pet rock project is a semester-long project in which each student randomly selects an igneous or metamorphic rock from the instructor or brings in a rock from an appropriate locality, and follows all of the steps a petrologist would take to interpret an igneous or metamorphic rock from an unknown area. This project runs in the background of the petrology class during the initial part of the semester while the student acquires the petrologic skills to make more sophisticated interpretations. The culmination of the project is for each student to spend several hours with the instructor using the electron microprobe to identify more difficult minerals with certainty, to produce high quality digital backscattered electron images and to obtain quantitative electron microprobe analyses of selected minerals that aid in the interpretation of the pet rock. Ultimately, the student interprets the rock, generally with the assistance of the instructor, writes a report explaining the process and results and presents the results to the class.

Henry, Darrell

326

Petrological and seismic precursors of the paroxysmal phase of the last Vesuvius eruption on March 1944  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abrupt transitions in style and intensity are common during volcanic eruptions, with an immediate impact on the surrounding territory and its population. Defining the factors trigger such sudden shifts in the eruptive behavior as well as developing methods to predict such changes during volcanic crises are crucial goals in volcanology. In our research, the combined investigation of both petrological and seismic indicators has been applied for the first time to a Vesuvius eruption, that of March 1944 that caused the present dormant state of the volcano. Our results contribute to elucidate the evolution of the conduit dynamics that generated a drastic increase in the Volcanic Explosivity Index, associated to the ejection of huge amount of volcanic ash. Remarkably, our study shows that the main paroxysm was announced by robust changes in petrology consistent with seismology, thus suggesting that the development of monitoring methods to assess the nature of ejected juvenile material combined with conventional geophysical techniques can represent a powerful tool for forecasting the evolution of an eruption towards violent behavior. This in turn is a major goal in volcanology because this evidence can help decision-makers to implement an efficient safety strategy during the emergency (scale and pace of evacuation).

Pappalardo, Lucia; D'Auria, Luca; Cavallo, Andrea; Fiore, Stefano

2014-09-01

327

Interactive computer programs for petrologic modeling with extended Q-mode factor analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An extended form of Q-mode factor analysis may be used if the row-sums of the data matrix are constant and can be helpful especially in developing and testing petrologic-mixing models for igneous systems. The first step is to represent the sample compositions as unit vectors in M-dimensional space and then to project them into space of fewer dimensions (m) as determined to be appropriate from a factor-variance diagram. Compositions thought to be those of possible end-members in the petrologic system then are represented as vectors in the M-dimensional space and projected into the same space as the sample vectors. If these vectors remain close to unity in length after projection, the corresponding compositions can serve as end-member compositions for the model. After m suitable end-member compositions have been identified, each sample composition is expressed as a mixture of the end-members by computation of the composition loadings. The interactive computer programs presented are useful in these procedures because of the trial-and-error nature of the modeling procedures. ?? 1976.

Miesch, A.T.

1976-01-01

328

Care and Feeding of the Compound Microscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab activity from the Biotechnology Alliance for Suncoast Biology Educators is intended to demonstrate appropriate use of a microscope. It covers the basic care and operation of a compound light microscope. The lesson includes information on how a compound microscope works, a diagram of its parts, tips for usage, a practice activity, and a checklist for putting the microscope away.

Keirle, Matt

329

Users Manual Scanning Laser Biological Microscope  

E-print Network

Users Manual Fluoview Scanning Laser Biological Microscope Ver. 1.1 WARNING A Caution: Before using your microscope, the items in this manual Identified by the mark shown to the left should be read Microscope. Before using your microscope, read this manual thoroughly to make sure you obtain full

Kleinfeld, David

330

An Entanglement-Enhanced Microscope  

E-print Network

Among the applications of optical phase measurement, the differential interference contrast microscope is widely used for the evaluation of opaque materials or biological tissues. However, the signal to noise ratio for a given light intensity is limited by the standard quantum limit (SQL), which is critical for the measurements where the probe light intensity is limited to avoid damaging the sample. The SQL can only be beaten by using {\\it N} quantum correlated particles, with an improvement factor of $\\sqrt{N}$. Here we report the first demonstration of an entanglement-enhanced microscope, which is a confocal-type differential interference contrast microscope where an entangled photon pair ({\\it N}=2) source is used for illumination. An image of a Q shape carved in relief on the glass surface is obtained with better visibility than with a classical light source. The signal to noise ratio is 1.35$\\pm$0.12 times better than that limited by the SQL.

Takafumi Ono; Ryo Okamoto; Shigeki Takeuchi

2014-01-31

331

Microscopic characterization of peptide nanostructures.  

PubMed

Peptide-based nanomaterials have been utilized for various applications from regenerative medicine to electronics since they provide several advantages including easy synthesis methods, numerous routes for functionalization and biomimicry of secondary structures of proteins which leads to design of self-assembling peptide molecules to form nanostructures. Microscopic characterization at nanoscale is critical to understand processes directing peptide molecules to self-assemble and identify structure-function relationship of the nanostructures. Here, fundamental studies in microscopic characterization of peptide nanostructures are discussed to provide insights in widely used microscopy tools. In this review, we will encompass characterization studies of peptide nanostructures with modern microscopes, such as TEM, SEM, AFM, and advanced optical microscopy techniques. We will also mention specimen preparation methods and describe interpretation of the images. PMID:21821422

Mammadov, Rashad; Tekinay, Ayse B; Dana, Aykutlu; Guler, Mustafa O

2012-02-01

332

Mosaic of Commemorative Microscope Substrate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Written by electron beam lithography in the Microdevices Laboratory of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, this Optical Microscope substrate helps the Phoenix Mars Mission science team learn how to assemble individual microscope images into a mosaic by aligning rows of text.

Each line is about 0.1 millimeter tall, the average thickness of a human hair. Except for the Mogensen twins, the names are of babies born and team members lost during the original development of MECA (the Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer) for the canceled 2001 Mars lander mission. The plaque also acknowledges the MECA 2001 principal investigator, now retired.

This image was taken by the MECA Optical Microscope on Sol 111, or the 111th day of the Phoenix mission (Sept. 16, 2008).

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

333

Virtual reality in radiology: virtual intervention  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intracranial aneurysms are the primary cause of non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage. Morbidity and mortality remain high even with current endovascular intervention techniques. It is presently impossible to identify which aneurysms will grow and rupture, however hemodynamics are thought to play an important role in aneurysm development. With this in mind, we have simulated blood flow in laboratory animals using three dimensional computational fluid dynamics software. The data output from these simulations is three dimensional, complex and transient. Visualization of 3D flow structures with standard 2D display is cumbersome, and may be better performed using a virtual reality system. We are developing a VR-based system for visualization of the computed blood flow and stress fields. This paper presents the progress to date and future plans for our clinical VR-based intervention simulator. The ultimate goal is to develop a software system that will be able to accurately model an aneurysm detected on clinical angiography, visualize this model in virtual reality, predict its future behavior, and give insight into the type of treatment necessary. An associated database will give historical and outcome information on prior aneurysms (including dynamic, structural, and categorical data) that will be matched to any current case, and assist in treatment planning (e.g., natural history vs. treatment risk, surgical vs. endovascular treatment risks, cure prediction, complication rates).

Harreld, Michael R.; Valentino, Daniel J.; Duckwiler, Gary R.; Lufkin, Robert B.; Karplus, Walter J.

1995-04-01

334

Virtual reality welder training  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document describes the Virtual Reality Simulated MIG Lab (sMIG), a system for Virtual Reality welder training. It is designed to reproduce the experience of metal inert gas (MIG) welding faithfully enough to be used as a teaching tool for beginning welding students. To make the experience as realistic as possible it employs physically accurate and tracked input devices, a real-time welding simulation, real-time sound generation and a 3D display for output. Thanks to being a fully digital system it can go beyond providing just a realistic welding experience by giving interactive and immediate feedback to the student to avoid learning wrong movements from day 1.

White, Steven A.; Reiners, Dirk; Prachyabrued, Mores; Borst, Christoph W.; Chambers, Terrence L.

2010-01-01

335

Astrophysical Virtual Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this website, the European Commission and six European organizations discuss the creation of the Astrophysical Virtual Observatory Project (AVO) for European astronomy. Visitors can discover the function of a Virtual Observatory (VO) as "an international astronomical community-based initiative" aimed at allowing "global electronic access to the available astronomical data archives of space and ground-based observatories." Users can learn about the current problems associated with combining astronomical data collected all over the world and how a VO can streamline this data. The website supplies numerous images illustrating galactic scenarios, AVO prototypes, and AVO goals.

336

Virtual Finance Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Search Partners, a provider of executive financial search services, presents the Virtual Finance Library, a packed collection of links to financial sites. The main page of Virtual Finance Library contains general information including reference and dictionary sites, calculators and converters, and interesting links. The rest of the library is accessible via the table of contents on the left side of the screen. The Websites are organized by topic, geographic location, or subtopic. Each topic begins with a short introduction to the subject, several pages long, and most links are descriptively annotated.

337

Virtual Amateur Astronomer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Virtual Amateur Astronomer is an archive of high-quality images of all varieties of astronomical objects. The images, hosted on the Virtual Amateur Astronomer web site and linked from other web pages, include high- and low-resolution versions (where available), brief descriptions, and links to additional information. They are organized by subject: the solar system, Messier objects, the Milky Way and universe, and a selection of miscellaneous images. There is also a "best of" category, links to other web sites with astronomical imagery, and a selection of images capturing the amateur experience, captured through small telescopes.

338

A VIRTUAL OPERATING SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

Significant progress toward disentangling computing environments from their under lying operating systern has been made. An approach is presented that achieves inter-system uniformity at all three levels of user interface - virtual machine, utilities, and command language. Under specifiable conditions, complete uniformity is achievable without disturbing the underlying operating system. The approach permits accurate computation of the cost to move both people and software to a new system. The cost of moving people is zero, and the cost of moving software is equal to the cost of implementing a virtual machine. Efficiency is achieved through optimization of the primitive functions.

Hall, Dennis E.; Scherrer, Deborah K.; Sventek, Joseph S.

1980-05-01

339

Virtual-Geology.Info  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At virtual-geology.info, Roger Suthren, a professor at Oxford Brookes University, offers educational materials on geologic phenomena throughout the world. Users can take virtual field trips to study the geology of Scotland, Alaska, and France. In the Regional Geology link, visitors can view wonderful pictures of the volcanoes of Germany, Italy, France, and Greece. Educators can find images of sediments and sedimentary rocks which can be used in a variety of classroom exercises. The website supplies descriptions and additional educational links about sedimentology and environmental geology.

340

Virtual bronchoscopic navigation.  

PubMed

Virtual bronchoscopic navigation (VBN) is a method for the guidance of a bronchoscope to peripheral lesions using virtual bronchoscopy (VB) images of the bronchial path. Irrespective of the bronchoscopist's skill level, the bronchoscope can be readily guided to the target in a short time. A system to automatically search for the bronchial path to the target has been developed and clinically applied; this system produces VB images of the path to the fourth- to twelfth- (median, sixth-) generation bronchi, and displays the VB images simultaneously with real bronchoscopic images. In this article, the author discusses VBN and the automatic VBN system, reviews the published literature, and describes its usefulness and limitations. PMID:20172434

Asano, Fumihiro

2010-03-01

341

Advanced Microscopic Integrated Thermocouple Arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this research is to develop and refine a technique for making microscopic thermocouple arrays for use in measuring the temperature gradient across a solid-liquid interface during the solidification process. Current thermocouple technology does not allow for real-time measurements across the interface due to the prohibitive size of available thermocouples. Microscopic thermocouple arrays will offer a much greater accuracy and resolution of temperature measurements across the solid-liquid interface which will lead to a better characterization of the solidification process and interface reaction which affect the properties of the resulting material.

Pettigrew, Penny J.

1999-01-01

342

Microscopic Materials on a Magnet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These images show a comparison of the weak magnet OM7 from the Optical Microscope on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander before (left) and after (right) soil deposition.

The microscope took the left image during Phoenix's Sol 15 (June 10, 2008) and the right image during Sol 21 (Jun 16, 2008).

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

343

JOURNAL OF PETROLOGY VOLUME 40 NUMBER 9 PAGES 13431375 1999 Peridotite Melting at 10 and 15 GPa: an  

E-print Network

JOURNAL OF PETROLOGY VOLUME 40 NUMBER 9 PAGES 1343­1375 1999 Peridotite Melting at 1·0 and 1·5 GPa, 1998; REVISED TYPESCRIPT ACCEPTED APRIL 12, 1999 diamond aggregate trap. We also present peridotite of the use of natural mineral mixes as starting reversals of the 1·0 GPa peridotite melting experiments

344

Petrology and geochemistry of LaPaz Icefield 02205: A new unique low-Ti mare-basalt meteorite  

E-print Network

Petrology and geochemistry of LaPaz Icefield 02205: A new unique low-Ti mare-basalt meteorite low-Ti mare-basalt meteorite that was discovered in the LaPaz Ice Field in Antarctica. This is the first crystalline lunar basalt in the US Antarctic collection and the only 5th unbrecciated mare-basalt

345

Kahoolawe Island, Hawaii: The role of an ‘inaccessible’ shield volcano in the petrology of the Hawaiian islands and plume  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kahoolawe volcano (?10×17km) forms one of the eight major Hawaiian islands. Access for geologic sampling has long been restricted due to military and preservation policies. However, limited visits to Kahoolawe in the 1980s yielded >200 samples, many of which have since been used to study the volcano within the framework of Hawaiian shield and mantle source geochemistry, petrology, mineralogy, and

R. V. Fodor; G. R. Bauer

2010-01-01

346

Mineralogic, petrologic, and geochemical studies of the volcanic rocks at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for high-level waste disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of mineralogy, petrology, and geochemistry at a candidate high-level waste repository site must address three primary concerns: (a) possible future geologic events that can compromise waste isolation, (b) possible conflicting site uses, and (c) the natural ability of the site to contain radionuclide waste. Data are being collected to address these concerns for a potential unsaturated repository location at

D. Vaniman; D. Bish; D. Broxton; F. Byers; B. Carlos; S. Levy; S. Chipera

1988-01-01

347

Petrology, geochemistry, and age of low-Ti mare-basalt meteorite Northeast Africa 003-A: A possible member  

E-print Network

Petrology, geochemistry, and age of low-Ti mare-basalt meteorite Northeast Africa 003-A: A possible member of the Apollo 15 mare basaltic suite Jakub Haloda a,b,*, Patricie Ty´cova´ a,b , Randy L. Korotev for this study, (NEA 003-A) consists of mare-basalt and a smaller adjacent portion ($25 vol%) is a basaltic

348

EXPERIMENTAL PETROLOGY OF THE BASALTIC SHERGOTTITE YAMATO 980459: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE THERMAL STRUCTURE OF THE MARTIAN MANTLE.  

E-print Network

EXPERIMENTAL PETROLOGY OF THE BASALTIC SHERGOTTITE YAMATO 980459: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE THERMAL) is a basalt with abundant olivine megacrysts, i.e., an olivine-phyric shergottite. Because Y98 is the most magnesian shergottite known, it is the most likely, a priori, to represent a primitive mantle-derived basalt

Treiman, Allan H.

349

Hydrothermal alteration and tectonic setting of intrusive rocks from East Brawley, Imperial Valley: an application of petrology to geothermal reservoir analysis  

SciTech Connect

A geothermal well near East Brawley intersected a series of thin (3 to 35m) diabasic to dioritic intrusives. The petrology and chemistry of these meta-igneous rocks can provide insight into the thermal and fluid chemical characteristics of the reservoir and into the processes of magma generation at depth. A description of the rock types and their hydrothermal alteration is presented in order to increase the petrologic data base relating to this important facet of the geothermal potential of the Salton Trough and to provide a case study illustrating how detailed petrologic examination of well cuttings can provide important input in the construction of a geothermal reservoir model.

Keskinen, M.; Sternfeld, J.

1982-01-01

350

Virtual-Channel Flow Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Network throughput,can be increased by dividing the buffer storage associated with each network channel into several virtual channels [DalSei]. Each physical channel is associated with several small queues, virtual channels, rather than a single deep queue. The virtual channels associated with one physical channel,are allocated in- dependently,but compete,with each other for physical bandwidth.,Virtual channels,decouple,buffer resources from transmission resources. This

William J. Dally

1992-01-01

351

Ethnography in a Virtual World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article situates the discussion of virtual ethnography within the larger political/economic changes of twenty-first century consumer capitalism and suggests that increasingly our entire social world is a virtual world and that there were very particular utopian and dystopian framings of virtual community growing out of that history. The…

Shumar, Wesley; Madison, Nora

2013-01-01

352

Constructing Meaning with Virtual Reality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a constructivist rationale for introducing virtual reality in language learning and teaching and describes various virtual reality environments that are available. Ways of implementing constuctivist learning through virtual reality are suggested as well as basic guidelines for successful implementation in the classroom. (Author/VWL)

Iaonnou-Georgiou, Sophie

2002-01-01

353

World Reaction to Virtual Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

DRaW Computing developed virtual reality software for the International Space Station. Open Worlds, as the software has been named, can be made to support Java scripting and virtual reality hardware devices. Open Worlds permits the use of VRML script nodes to add virtual reality capabilities to the user's applications.

1999-01-01

354

When the Virtual Becomes Real  

E-print Network

day, VE students operate a virtual firm, developing and marketing a line of virtual products that teaches students about business by having them create and operate their own virtual firms. The program in the United States. By 2006-07, the VE program was operating in 53 New York City schools and in over 450

Qian, Ning

355

Virtual World Grammar (Extended Abstract)  

E-print Network

Virtual World Grammar (Extended Abstract) Tomas Trescak Artificial Intelligence Research Institute by means of 3D virtual worlds facilitating then the interaction among participants, i.e humans and agents. In this paper we propose a system that can automatically gen- erate a 3D virtual world from formal

Rodríguez, Inmaculada

356

A Virtual Assembly Design Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Virtual Assembly Design Environment (VADE) is a Virtual Reality (VR)-based engineering application that allows engineers to evaluate, analyze, and plan the assembly of mechanical systems. This system focuses on utilizing an immersive, virtual environment tightly coupled with commercial computer aided design (CAD) systems. Salient features of VADE include: 1) data integration (two-way) with a parametric CAD system, 2) realistic

Sankar Jayaram; Yong Wang; Uma Jayaram; Kevin W. Lyons; Peter Hart

1999-01-01

357

[Virtual support for problem gamblers].  

PubMed

Low threshold virtual support is an emerging form of treatment for problem gamblers. The advantages of virtual support are cost-efficacy and good availability. A special advantage of web-environment is the possibility to modify the virtual support programs separately for diverse subgroups of problem gamblers. PMID:24159710

Castrén, Sari; Sjöholm, Markus; Lahti, Tuuli

2013-01-01

358

The virtual time machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A parallel computer architecture is proposed that is based on an optimistic style of execution. Specifically, the Virtual Time Machine (VTM) detects violations of data depen- dence constraints at runtime, and automatically recovers from them. In order to efficiently implement this mecha- nism, a sophisticated, two-dimensional memory system is proposed that is addressed using both a spatial and a tern.

Richard M. Fujimoto

1989-01-01

359

Virtual machine performance benchmarking.  

PubMed

The attractions of virtual computing are many: reduced costs, reduced resources and simplified maintenance. Any one of these would be compelling for a medical imaging professional attempting to support a complex practice on limited resources in an era of ever tightened reimbursement. In particular, the ability to run multiple operating systems optimized for different tasks (computational image processing on Linux versus office tasks on Microsoft operating systems) on a single physical machine is compelling. However, there are also potential drawbacks. High performance requirements need to be carefully considered if they are to be executed in an environment where the running software has to execute through multiple layers of device drivers before reaching the real disk or network interface. Our lab has attempted to gain insight into the impact of virtualization on performance by benchmarking the following metrics on both physical and virtual platforms: local memory and disk bandwidth, network bandwidth, and integer and floating point performance. The virtual performance metrics are compared to baseline performance on "bare metal." The results are complex, and indeed somewhat surprising. PMID:21207096

Langer, Steve G; French, Todd

2011-10-01

360

Virtual reality: An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vqrtual Reality (VR), a technology which began in Air Force and university laboratories more than 20 years ago, is often called Artificial Reality, Cyberspace, or Synthetic Reality. Virtual Reality is a computer-created sensory experience that completely immerses a participant to believe and barely distinguish a \\

Jorge Franchi

1994-01-01

361

Virtual Inquiry Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children in classrooms and scientists in laboratories engage in similar activities: they observe, ask questions, and try to explain phenomena. Video conferencing technology can remove the wall between the classroom and the laboratory, bringing children and scientists together. Virtual experiences and field trips can provide many of the benefits of…

Harlow, Danielle; Nilsen, Katy

2011-01-01

362

Virtual First Impressions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Frequently, a nurse's first and only contact with a graduate school, legislator, public health official, professional organization, or school nursing colleague is made through e-mail. The format, the content, and the appearance of the e-mail create a virtual first impression. Nurses can manage their image and the image of the profession by…

Bergren, Martha Dewey

2005-01-01

363

Virtual Tide Pool  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Virtual Tide Pool features a three dimensional view of a tide pool during both low and high tides. Students can see animals that live under, above, and at the waters surface. This site offers the ability to pan the tide pool for a 360 degree view, with zoom options, and gives descriptions of the animals found during both low and high tides.

Science NetLinks (PBS; )

2003-04-29

364

Fish tank virtual reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The defining characteristics of what we call “Fish Tank Virtual Reality” are a stereo image of a three dimensional (3D) scene viewed on a monitor using a perspective projection coupled to the head position of the observer. We discuss some of the relative merits of this mode of viewing as compared to head mounted stereo displays. In addition, we report

Colin Ware; Kevin Arthur; Kellogg S. Booth

1993-01-01

365

Virtual Reality and Robotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

To a large extent the robotics and the newer virtual reality (VR) research communities have been working in isolation. This article reviews three areas where integration of the two technologies can be beneficial. First we consider VR-enhanced CAD design, robot programming, and plant layout simulation. Subsequently we discuss how VR is being used in supervisory teleoperation, for single operator-single robot

Grigore C. Burdea

366

A virtual environment architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part of MITRE's charter as a Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC) is to objectively evaluate and compare current technologies, and to recommend courses of action for numerous government programs. As such, the authors have been involved in assessing workstation, graphics, and user interface technology. They are currently developing a virtual environment architecture (VEA), to be used as a

David A. Southard; John P. Lee; Richard B. Mitchell; Gorges G. Grinstein

1993-01-01

367

Virtual Campus Tours.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College campus "tours" offered online have evolved to include 360-degree views, live video, animation, talking tour guides, interactive maps with photographic links, and detailed information about buildings, departments, and programs. Proponents feel they should enhance, not replace, real tours. The synergy between the virtual tour and other…

Jarrell, Andrea

1999-01-01

368

Adventures in Virtual Reality  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students look at the topography and cross-section of El Paso Texas and Edwards Aquifer in virtual reality, using historical data of the Edwards Aquifer that contains information on recharge, discharge and precipitation. From this data, conclusions can be made about future discharges of the aquifer.

369

Virtual Beach Manager Toolset  

EPA Science Inventory

The Virtual Beach Manager Toolset (VB) is a set of decision support software tools developed to help local beach managers make decisions as to when beaches should be closed due to predicted high levels of water borne pathogens. The tools are being developed under the umbrella of...

370

Virtual Libraries: Service Realities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses client service issues to be considered when transitioning to a virtual library situation. Themes related to the transitional nature of society in the knowledge era are presented, including: paradox and a contradictory nature; blurring of boundaries; networks, systems, and holistic thinking; process/not product, becoming/not…

Novak, Jan

371

A Virtual, Shoestring Vacation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If there is a discrepancy between the scope of your imagination and the depth of your bank account, this may be the ideal summer to stretch your horizons by diving into a good book. You can take a virtual vacation to almost any place or time by reading. Y

Texley, Juliana

2009-07-01

372

Virtual Knee Surgery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online activity, learners assist in performing a virtual total knee replacement surgery. There is a great deal of information about this procedure specifically as well as general surgical information, along with questions the learner must answer (using information given onscreen) before the surgery can proceed.

Edheads; Cosi

2007-01-01

373

3D virtual colonoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present here a method called 3D virtual colonoscopy, which is an alternative method to existing procedures of imaging the mucosal surface of the colon. Using 3D reconstruction of helical CT data and volume visualization techniques, the authors generate images of the inner surface of the colon as if the viewer's eyes were inside the colon. They also create

Lichan Hong; Arie Kaufman; Yi-Chih Wei; Ajay Viswambharan; M. Wax; Zhengrong Liangs

1995-01-01

374

Virtual Bridge Design Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This design/problem-solving activity challenges students to design a replacement bridge for one that has been designated as either structurally deficient or functionally obsolete. The Aycock MS Technology/STEM Magnet Program Virtual Bridge Design Challenge is an authentic introduction to the engineering design process. It is a socially relevant…

Mitts, Charles R.

2013-01-01

375

Diffy Virtual Manipulative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Diffy is a virtual manipulative that allows students to practice their subtraction facts with whole numbers, integers, fractions, decimals, or money. It is a puzzle of sorts with four black numbers placed at the corners of a black square. The first goal is to fill in the four blanks in the blue circles in the middle of each side of the black square.

University, Utah S.

2011-06-28

376

Rethinking Virtual Reference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Virtual reference services seem a natural extension of libraries digital collections and the emphasis on access to the library anytime, anywhere. If patrons use the library from home, it makes sense to provide them with person-to-person online reference. The Library of Congress (LC), OCLC, and several large library systems have developed and…

Tenopir, Carol

2004-01-01

377

Definition of Virtual Levels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an examination of graphical displays of solutions to time-dependent Schrodinger equation modeling a laser-excited three-level atom. It suggests that an energy level may be regarded as virtual when it is detuned from resonance by more than two Rabi frequencies. (Author/HM)

Shore, Bruce W.

1979-01-01

378

hedesiretovisualizescienceisintense. Whereas telescopes, microscopes and  

E-print Network

T hedesiretovisualizescienceisintense. Whereas telescopes, microscopes and magnetic resonance-intel- ligence or software companies. Despite the wide impact of these programmes in drug discovery, genomic data, providing readers with the same opportunity to explore infor- mation and make their own discoveries

Shneiderman, Ben

379

Microscopic theory of vortex dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach to vortex dynamics is outlined, a new form being obtained for the pair potential forces on a vortex. A microscopic calculation of the vortex inertial mass is presented. Quantum effects on vortex lattice melting are briefly discussed. Partly supported by IFCPAR

D. M. Gaitonde; T. V. Ramakrishnan

1994-01-01

380

Curriculum Guidelines for Microscopic Anatomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for curricula in microscopic anatomy offer an overview of the histology curriculum, note primary educational goals, outline specific content for general and oral histology, suggest prerequisites, and make recommendations for sequencing. Appropriate faculty and facilities are also suggested.…

Journal of Dental Education, 1993

1993-01-01

381

Nature Study with the Microscope.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies specific instruction difficulties, potential problems, solutions, and activities for successful use of microscopes in the classroom. Procedures are outlined for guiding students in creating their own slides with monocotyledon and dicotyledon stems, fern spores, stomata, lichens, and red onions. (MCO)

Sollberger, Dwight E.

1991-01-01

382

Toolmaker's Microscope With Video Monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Display accessories increase resolution and flexibility of use. Toolmaker's microscope equipped with video monitor, auxiliary lighting, and high-resolution readout devices enables noncontacting measurements of tiny slots, indentations, and similar features on parts. Measures places difficult or impossible to reach by mechanical means.

Ahmed, Arif S.

1988-01-01

383

Chasing Meteors With a Microscope.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes types of meteors and micrometeorites that enter the Earth's atmosphere. Presents an activity where students collect micrometeorites with a strip of tape in an undisturbed outdoor area. After 24 hours, they examine the tape by sandwiching it between 2 glass slides and view through a microscope at 100X. (PR)

Jones, Richard C.

1993-01-01

384

Microscopic Origin of Cholesteric Pitch  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a microscopic analysis of the instability of the nematic phase to\\u000achirality when molecular chirality is introduced perturbatively. We show that\\u000apreviously neglected short-range biaxial correlations play a crucial role in\\u000adetermining the cholesteric pitch. We propose an order parameter which\\u000aquantifies the chirality of a molecule.

A. B. Harris; Randall D. Kamien; T. C. Lubensky

1997-01-01

385

Scanning tunneling microscope nanoetching method  

DOEpatents

A method is described for forming uniform nanometer sized depressions on the surface of a conducting substrate. A tunneling tip is used to apply tunneling current density sufficient to vaporize a localized area of the substrate surface. The resulting depressions or craters in the substrate surface can be formed in information encoding patterns readable with a scanning tunneling microscope.

Li, Yun-Zhong (West Lafayette, IN); Reifenberger, Ronald G. (West Lafayette, IN); Andres, Ronald P. (West Lafayette, IN)

1990-01-01

386

The microscope in the hatchery  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Without the aid of the microscope, it is safe to assume that fish Culture would now stand exactly where it did seventy-five years ago when methods of artificial fertilization were first applied. It is also safe to assume that the results from fish culture would be as unsatisfactory as they were at that time when the fishery resources were steadily declining in spite of the increased liberation of advanced fry from the hatcheries. During the past few years the microscope has saved millions of fish in our hatcheries which otherwise would have been sacrificed to disease. Moreover, the microscope has permitted all of the recent work in selective breeding, nutritional requirements, and disease control. This work marks most of the progress fish culture has made during the past twenty-five years. This progress forms the first definite step away from the old system of hatching and distributing fish, a system which was founded by the ancient Chinese. The microscope has been the key which enabled the fish culturist to solve the riddle of success which has stood, unanswered, for 2,500 years.

Fish, F.F.

1935-01-01

387

MEMS optical scanners for microscopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) optical scanners have been around for more than two decades. Various applications have been presented, but few of them have advanced to the commercial level to date due to the difficulties of combination of optics and MEMS devices. This paper presents our activities of investigating MEMS scanner applications related to microscopic imaging. First, we started with developing

Hiroshi Miyajima; Kenzi Murakami; Masahiro Katashiro

2004-01-01

388

The Biggest Microscopic Image Ever  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a mosaic of four individual frames taken by the microscopic imager that have been very carefully stitched together to reveal the entire 5-centimeter-diameter (almost 2-inch) hole left on the rock dubbed 'Humphrey.' The holes were created by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's rock abrasion tool. The mosaic, created on March 7, 2004, is the first of its kind of an abraded surface on Mars, and gave scientists their first ever microscopic imager view of the entire drilled area. While it is easy for the panoramic camera and the navigation cameras to fit an area this size into their field of view, the microscopic imager can only capture a portion of the ground area with each image.

Scientists are interested in many of the small features on 'Humphrey' uncovered by the rock abrasion tool and made visible by the microscopic imager. The sinuous veins within the rock could be evidence that water was trickling through the material while it was deep underground, whereas the dark 'age spots' in the center of the hole may be crystals of the mineral olivine.

2004-01-01

389

Teaching Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry in the 21st Century: Instructional Resources for Geoscience Faculty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineralogy, petrology and geochemistry (MPG) are pillars of the geoscience curriculum because of their relevance in interpreting Earth history and processes, application to geo-hazards, resources, and environmental issues, and contributions to emerging fields such as geology and human health. To keep faculty current in scientific advances in these fields, and in modern instructional methods, the On the Cutting Edge program convened a workshop at the University of Minnesota in August, 2011. This workshop builds on the previous 15 year's work that has been focused on identifying, aggregating, and developing high-quality collections of teaching activities and related resources, and in building a community of scholars in support of excellence in instruction in MPG courses. The goals of the workshop were to: a) develop an integrated, comprehensive and reviewed curriculum for MPG courses, and to seek ways to make connections with the larger geoscience curriculum; b) to explore emerging topics in MPG such as geobiology and climate change; c) demonstrate effective methods in teaching MPG in the context of Earth system science; d) share effective teaching activities and strategies for the classroom, laboratory and field including advances in pedagogy, assessments and research on learning; e) keep faculty current on recent advances in mineralogy, petrology and geochemistry research and to apply these findings to our teaching; f) explore and utilize current societal and global issues that intersect mineralogy, petrology and geochemistry to heighten the relevancy of course content for students; and h) meet colleagues and foster future teaching and research collaborations. A significant outcome of this workshop is a peer reviewed of collection of 300+ existing teaching activities, and a gap analysis to identify teaching activities needed to make these collections comprehensive and coherent. In addition, a series of thematic collections were developed to assist high priority areas of teaching MPG (e.g. MPG in Introductory Geoscience Courses-Beyond "Rocks in a Box"; thermobarometry programs). All demonstrations and presentations made at the workshop are accessible from the workshop webpage, including a wide variety of active learning exercises and demonstrations of modern computer applications (e.g. SHAPE, ATOMS, CrystalMaker, MELTS, Theriak-Domino, Perplex, TWQ, Google Earth and Gigapans, and PHREEQC). A post-workshop field trip to the Precambrian rocks of northern Minnesota focused on effective teaching and learning in the field. We encourage the geoscience community to use these online resources, and please consider contributing additional teaching activities and resources to these collections.

Mogk, D. W.; Beane, R. J.; Whitney, D. L.; Nicolaysen, K. E.; Panero, W. R.; Peck, W. H.

2011-12-01

390

Petrology of Deep Storage, Ingassing, and Outgassing of Terrestrial Carbon (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluxes of carbon between the mantle and the exosphere modulate Earth's atmosphere and climate on short to long time scales. Carbon geochemistry of mantle-derived samples suggests that the fluxes associated with deep cycle are in the order of 1012-13 g C/yr and the reservoir sizes involved in deep carbon are in the order of 1022-23 g C. Petrology of deep storage is critical to this long-term evolution and distribution of terrestrial carbon. Here I synthesize the petrologic constraints that are critical in understanding the evolution of deep terrestrial carbon. Carbon is a volatile, trace element in the Earth's mantle. But unlike most other trace elements including hydrogen, which in the Earth’s mantle is held in dominant silicate minerals, carbon is stored in accessory phases. The accessory phase of interest, with increasing depth, changes typically from fluids/melts ? calcite/dolomite ? magnesite ? diamond/ Fe-rich alloy/ Fe-metal carbide, assuming that the mass balance and oxidation state are buffered solely by silicates. If, however, carbon is sufficiently abundant, locally it may overwhelm the mass balance and redox buffer of the Earth’s interior. For example, carbon may reside as carbonate even in the deep mantle, which otherwise is thought to be reduced and not conducive for carbonate stability. If Earth's deep mantle is Fe-metal saturated, carbon storage in metal alloy and as metal carbide is difficult to avoid for depleted and enriched domains, respectively. Carbon ingassing to the interior is aided by modern subduction of the carbonated oceanic lithosphere, whereas outgassing from the mantle is controlled by decompression melting of carbon-bearing mantle. Carbonated melting at >300 km depth or redox melting of diamond-bearing or metal/metal carbide-bearing mantle at somewhat shallower depth generates carbonatitic and carbonated silicate melts, which are the chief agents for liberating carbon from the solid Earth to the exosphere. Petrology allows net ingassing of carbon into the mantle in the modern Earth, but in the hotter subduction zones that prevailed during the Hadean, Archean, and most of Proterozoic, recycled carbonate likely was released at shallow mantle wedge depths and may have returned to the exosphere more efficiently through arc volcanism. Release of primordial carbon through magmatism was also likely more vigorous owing to deeper intersection of solidi and hotter mantle adiabat. Inefficient ingassing, along with efficient outgassing, may have maintained the ancient mantle carbon-poor. If this is accurate, then the present-day carbon budget of the mantle is likely shaped mostly from NeoProterozoic through Phanerozoic, a time when thermal state of the planet allowed deep subduction of carbonated crustal rocks.

Dasgupta, R.

2010-12-01

391

A Collaborative Approach to Petrologic Monitoring of the Mt. Saint Helens 2004 Eruption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the first 3 weeks of MSH 2004 eruptive activity, petrologic evaluation of small amounts of volcanic ash provided our only direct means to determine if volcanic unrest was magmatic or hydrothermal in origin. Petrologic monitoring began with collection of ash from solar panels and tree leaves proximal to the crater, shortly after the initial phreatic explosive event on October 1. Within days, a network of 21 ash collection stations (later extended to 27stations), consisting of nested 5-gal buckets supported a few feet above ground-level, was deployed around the volcano at distances of 2.4 to 10 km from the vent. Much of the outer ash collection network is accessible by vehicle on forest roads within the designated hazard zone. Near-vent ash-collectors are co-located with GPS or seismic stations to facilitate collection by those monitoring teams. However, ash retrieval from most proximal stations requires helicopter transport and suitable weather conditions. Ash was collected from subsequent and more explosive steam and ash eruptions on October 4 and 5, and from steam plumes rising from the vent between October 6 and 20, at various down-wind stations. These small ash samples, often only 10ths of grams, are the only eruptive products sampled during this period of endogenous and exogenous dome growth within the crater. On October 20, samples from the base of a new lava spine in the vent area were collected using a bucket suspended from a helicopter. After each collection, samples were air-shipped to collaborators at a variety of USGS and university laboratories, and rapid turn-around of petrologic data on eruption products allowed early recognition of juvenile magmatic components. The progressive change from phreatic to magmatic attributes with time was recognized during the early phases of this eruption and helped to constrain eruption models and forecasts of volcanic hazard. An extensive database is being populated with characteristics of ash and rock samples. The MSH04 sample database will also include details of the ash collection network, prevailing winds, distribution of samples for analysis and a compilation of analytical data and images and is intended for release as a USGS open-file report.

Thornber, C.; Rowe, M.; Pallister, J.; Gooding, D.; Ramsey, D.; Ewert, J.; Couchman, M.; Dzurisin, D.; Hoblitt, R.; Clynne, M.; Lowenstern, J.; Vallance, J.; Cashman, K.

2004-12-01

392

Theft of Virtual Property — Towards Security Requirements for Virtual Worlds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article is focused to introduce the topic of information technology security for Virtual Worlds to a security experts’ audience. Virtual Worlds are Web 2.0 applications where the users cruise through the world with their individually shaped avatars to find either amusement, challenges or the next best business deal. People do invest a lot of time but beyond they invest in buying virtual assets like fantasy witcheries, wepaons, armour, houses, clothes,...etc with the power of real world money. Although it is called “virtual” (which is often put on the same level as “not existent”) there is a real value behind it. In November 2007 dutch police arrested a seventeen years old teenager who was suspicted to have stolen virtual items in a Virtual World called Habbo Hotel [Reuters07]. In order to successfully provide security mechanisms into Virtual Worlds it is necessarry to fully understand the domain for which the security mechansims are defined. As Virtual Worlds must be clasified into the domain of Social Software the article starts with an overview of how to understand Web 2.0 and gives a short introduction to Virtual Worlds. The article then provides a consideration of assets of Virtual Worlds participants, describes how these assets can be threatened and gives an overview of appopriate security requirements and completes with an outlook of possible countermeasures.

Beyer, Anja

393

The relationships between petrology, porosity and permeability in the southern Sydney Basin succession, NSW.  

E-print Network

??Petrography of the Illawarra Coal Measures, Narrabeen Group and Hawkesbury Sandstone was described by thin section, scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction techniques. Sandstone composition… (more)

Al gahtani, Fahad Mubarak

2012-01-01

394

21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted... (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical...

2013-04-01

395

21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted... (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical...

2014-04-01

396

21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted... (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical...

2011-04-01

397

21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted... (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical...

2012-04-01

398

21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted... (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical...

2010-04-01

399

Petrology and structure of Pwemain to Jurassic rocks near Yreka, Klamath Mountains, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rocks of the western Paleozoic and Triasic Belt (TrPz belt) of Irwin (1966) in the north eastern Klamath Mountains of California can be subdivided into the same lithotectonic units (terranes) recognized in the southern and central Klamath Mountains. In descending structural order, these are the Fort Jones, North Fork, Salmon River, Havfork and Marble Mountains terranes of Blake and others (1982). Stratigraphic and petrologic regions are consistent with the North Fork, Salmon River and eastern Hayford terranes evolved in close proximity to each other since their origin in Permian time. Faunal and sedimentological evidence suggest that the North Fork terrane was probably at least hundreds of kilometers distant from North America in Permian time, but was close to the continent by early Jurassic time. The structural and metamorphic history of the terranes is consistent with assembly of the TrPz belt in a single, evolving middle and late Jurassic arc/subduction system.

Mortimer, N.

400

Chemistry, mineralogy and petrology of seven greater than 1 mm fragments from Mare Crisium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are summarized for a consortium study of the chemistry, mineralogy, and petrology of seven Luna 24 fragments greater than 1 mm in size and having a mass of about 2 mg each. The fragments include four samples of mare ferrobasalt composition, one vitrophyre with the composition of a Mg-rich VLT mare basalt, one agglutinate, and one plagioclase fragment. It is found that: (1) the ferrobasalt is a highly fractionated mare rock very low in alkalis and TiO2, is similar to the less fractionate Apollo 17 VLT basalts, and is quite low in large-ion lithophile trace-element content; (2) the rare-earth-element patterns of the ferrobasalts are typical of VLT basalt, but some ophitic basalts have positive Eu anomalies, while others have negative Eu anomalies typical of mare basalts; and (3) the agglutinate is feldspathic and similar in composition to soil fines in Fe, Cr, Ca, and Al.

Laul, J. C.; Vaniman, D. T.; Papike, J. J.

1978-01-01

401

Petrology and geochemistry of lithic fragments separated from the Apollo 15 deep-drill core  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Petrological and geochemical analysis of lithic fragments separated from the Apollo 15 deep-drill core showed these fragments to fall into the essentially the same range of rock types as observed in surface soil samples and large rock samples. Three particles are singled out as being of special interest. One sample is a mare basalt containing extremely evolved phases. The particle may represent small-scale imperfect crystal/liquid separation in a lava flow. A green glass particle is not the ultramafic emerald green glass described from the Apollo 15 site, but rather an ANT-like light green color, and has a quite different chemical composition from the ultramafic variety. One mare basalt displays a positive Eu anomaly and is enriched in plagioclase relative to olivine plus pyroxene.

Lindstrom, M. M.; Nielsen, R. L.; Drake, M. J.

1977-01-01

402

Petrology and Geochemistry of Basic Volcanic Rocks from Saveh Region, NW Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of northwestern Iran volcanic belt, Saveh region, some 130 km southwest of Tehran, is dominated by Eocene volcanic rocks. Geochemical studies on the volcanic rocks from different parts of the region have produced around 256 whole rock analyses during the last 30 years. The rocks were mainly analysed for major elements at the laboratories of the Geological Survey of Iran and Grenoble University of France using wet chemistry, XRF, and mass spectrometry techniques. Geochemical variations of the Saveh basic-intermediate volcanic rocks with 45 to 60 wt.% SiO2 content (89 samples-on an anhydrous basis) bear significant petrological implications. Here, these rocks are referred to as "basic volcanic rocks". On oxides vs. silica diagrams, data points representing the basic volcanic rocks appear as two distinct series. One is richer in Al and Ca, but poorer in Si, Na, Fe, Ti, Mn, and P than the other; these two are called Al-rich and Al-poor series respectively. Containing higher than 18 wt.% Al2O3, the Al-rich series is represented by the data contributed by Caillat et al. (1978) and Khan Nazer (1980). Al-poor series that contains less than 18 wt.% Al2O3, is best represented by the data obtained by Mehdizadeh Tehrani (1991) and Moaf Pourian (1996). It is likely that the Al-poor series has undergone a major low pressure plagioclase ñ olivine fractionation, as compared to the Al-rich series which has been affected by a lesser degree of low pressure differentiation if at all. The two series, also show different spatial disrtibution. The Al-rich series corresponds with the samples collected from the western part of the Saveh region, while the Al-poor series is found in the other parts of Saveh region. It looks that the magma supply to the western part of the region has been faciliated by deep-seated plumbing system, while in other parts of the Saveh region, development of low-level magma chambers caused accumulation of magmas in the crust, where they have undergone low-pressure differentiation. Another significant feature of the basic volcanic rocks, concerns with the Al-enrichment trend observed in the Al-rich series in the 46-54 wt.% silica range. A Ca-depletion trend accompanies the Al-enrichment. The Al and Ca trends imply that the series has experienced a high pressure differentiation including clinopyroxene fractionation prior to eruption. Selected References Caillat, C., Dehlavi, P., Martel-Jantin, B. (1978). Geologie de la region de Saveh (Iran), contribution a l etude du volcanisme et du plutonisme tertiares de la zone de Iran Central (these de Doctorat de Specialities). Grenoble University. Khan Nazer, N.H. (1980). Geology and petrology of Razak area (Saveh region). Unpublished M.Sc. thesis, University of Tehran. Mehdizadeh Tehrani, S. (1991). Geology, petrology and geochemistry of volcanic rocks from Mardabad area. Unpublished M.Sc. thesis, University of Tehran. Moaf Pourian, G. (1996). Petrology of volcanic rocks from north Silijerd area (north of Saveh). Unpublished M.Sc. thesis, Shahid Beheshti University.

Ghorbani, M.

2002-05-01

403

Petrology and provenance of the Great Valley Group. Southern Klamath Mountains and northern Sacramento Valley  

SciTech Connect

Lower Cretaceous sandstone and conglomerate of the Great Valley Group rest depositionally on the southern Klamath Mountains at the north end of the Sacramento Valley. Exposures include nonmarine, shallow marine, and deep marine sediments, which are part of the Platina Formation (petrofacies). Approximately 150 sandstone point counts (500 points per section using Gazzi-Dickinson method) and 32 conglomerate clast counts indicate a Klamath provenance of mixed magmatic-arc and recycled orogenic character. Standard triangular plots and multivariate analyses (combined with paleocurrent and paleogeographic data) suggest discrete source areas within the Klamath terrane. However, the general homogeneity of both sandstone and conglomerate petrology is consistent with all of the units being included within the Platina petrofacies.

Short, P.F.; Ingersoll, R.V. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))

1990-05-01

404

Sedimentary petrology and provenance of the upper Jackforth Sandstone (Morrowan) Quachita Mountains, Arkansas, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The upper Jackfork Sandstone of the southern Ouachita Mountains in southwest Arkansas is a moderately to poorly sorted quartz arenite with only minor amounts of altered matrix or feldspar. It was deposited as a thick sequence of turbidites in a complex array of deep water submarine fans adjacent to the southern margin of the North American craton. Post-Paleozoic erosion to the north and sedimentation in the south of the Quachita Mountains have hindered efforts to determine the source area of the Jackfork. Previous workers have suggested northerly (cratonic) and southerly (South American) source regions. The objective of this study has been to determine which of these alternatives is the most plausible, and to characterize the petrology and tectonic setting of the source area. In addition to standard petrographic techniques, this study has determined the statistical distribution of cathodoluminescence colors of quartz from the Jackfork and compared it against those of coeval sandstone units from adjacent basins.

Owen, M. R.

405

California Virtual Campus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

California Virtual Campus is essentially a catalog of every virtual or technology-mediated distance education course or program offered by participating California colleges and universities. Users can search for a particular course or find information about pursuing a complete program of study from certificate level to PhD. The site summarizes important information about each course or program, such as in-state and out-of-state fees, email contacts, and registration details. For example, a search returned a list of 30 art-related course offerings at about 20 different institutions. By clicking on a title, "Visionary Artists: A Brief History of Multimedia," I found I could take this course, offered by San Francisco State University, by registering and paying a fee of $5.

406

Virtual Yeast Cell  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning about the various parts of a cell can be tricky business, but this virtual yeast cell offered by The University of Nottingham will come in handy for biology students and science instructors. This learning resource was created to help students in the brewing science program learn about yeast cytology, though just about anyone with an interest in cells will learn something from visiting the site. After entering the interactive cell, visitors can click on different parts of the cell (such as the cytoplasm or the nucleus) in order to learn more about the importance of each one. Visitors should remember that they can also download the virtual yeast cell and use it in the classroom or just with a group of friends.

407

Virtual reality systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Virtual realities are a type of human-computer interface (HCI) and as such may be understood from a historical perspective. In the earliest era, the computer was a very simple, straightforward machine. Interaction was human manipulation of an inanimate object, little more than the provision of an explicit instruction set to be carried out without deviation. In short, control resided with the user. In the second era of HCI, some level of intelligence and control was imparted to the system to enable a dialogue with the user. Simple context sensitive help systems are early examples, while more sophisticated expert system designs typify this era. Control was shared more equally. In this, the third era of the HCI, the constructed system emulates a particular environment, constructed with rules and knowledge about 'reality'. Control is, in part, outside the realm of the human-computer dialogue. Virtual reality systems are discussed.

Johnson, David W.

1992-01-01

408

Hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope  

DOEpatents

A hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope (AFM) is provided to image solid surfaces in fluids, either liquid or gas, at pressures greater than normal atmospheric pressure. The sample can be heated and its surface imaged in aqueous solution at temperatures greater than 100.degree. C. with less than 1 nm vertical resolution. A gas pressurized microscope base chamber houses the stepper motor and piezoelectric scanner. A chemically inert, flexible membrane separates this base chamber from the sample cell environment and constrains a high temperature, pressurized liquid or gas in the sample cell while allowing movement of the scanner. The sample cell is designed for continuous flow of liquid or gas through the sample environment.

Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA); Boro, Carl O. (Milpitas, CA); Higgins, Steven R. (Laramie, WY); Eggleston, Carrick M. (Laramie, WY)

2002-01-01

409

Hyperbaric Hydrothermal Atomic Force Microscope  

DOEpatents

A hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope (AFM) is provided to image solid surfaces in fluids, either liquid or gas, at pressures greater than normal atmospheric pressure. The sample can be heated and its surface imaged in aqueous solution at temperatures greater than 100.degree. C. with less than 1 nm vertical resolution. A gas pressurized microscope base chamber houses the stepper motor and piezoelectric scanner. A chemically inert, flexible membrane separates this base chamber from the sample cell environment and constrains a high temperature, pressurized liquid or gas in the sample cell while allowing movement of the scanner. The sample cell is designed for continuous flow of liquid or gas through the sample environment.

Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA); Boro, Carl O. (Milpitas, CA); Higgins, Steven R. (Laramie, WY); Eggleston, Carrick M. (Laramie, WY)

2003-07-01

410

The microscope for Beagle 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microscope for the Beagle 2 lander, which was launched as part of the European Space Agency's Mars Express mission on 2 June 2003, will provide images of the Martian surface at around 6 ?m resolution. It will provide optical images of the surface of Mars at a resolution 5 times higher than any other experiment currently planned. The device has a working distance of 12 mm and uses a set of 12 light-emitting diodes which surround the aperture to illuminate the sample in four colours. The target is brought into focus using a stepper motor. This article describes the scientific objectives and the design of the microscope. It also discusses initial results from ground calibration exercises which were designed to validate the system and describes aspects of its operation.

Thomas, N.; Lüthi, B. S.; Hviid, S. F.; Keller, H. U.; Markiewicz, W. J.; Blümchen, T.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Smith, P. H.; Tanner, R.; Oquest, C.; Reynolds, R.; Josset, J.-L.; Beauvivre, S.; Hofmann, B.; Rüffer, P.; Pillinger, C. T.

2004-08-01

411

The Virtual Oil Company  

SciTech Connect

In anticipation of continuing declines in upstream activity levels over the next fifteen years, the Virtual Oil Company model articulates a vision of fewer, leaner, but financially stronger firms that concentrate only on their core competencies, and through well-structured partnering arrangements, outsource the rest. Freed from the {open_quotes}clutter{close_quotes}, these leading companies will be in better position to focus on those opportunities that offer the potential for renewed reserve and revenue growth.

Garibaldi, C.A.; Haney, R.M.; Ross, C.E.

1995-12-31

412

The virtual oil company  

SciTech Connect

In anticipation of continuing declines in upstream activity levels over the next 15 years, the virtual oil company model articulates a vision of fewer, leaner, but financially stronger firms that concentrate only on their core competencies and outsource the rest through well-structured partnering arrangements. Freed from the ``clutter,`` these leading companies will be in better position to focus on those opportunities that offer the potential for renewed reserve and revenue growth.

Garibaldi, C.A.; Haney, R.M.; Ross, C.E. [Arthur D Little, Houston, TX (United States)

1995-09-01

413

DNA Extraction Virtual Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual lab from the Genetic Science Learning Center at the University of Utah provides a simple overview of DNA extraction, including what it's used for, illustrations, and an activity using cheek cells and laboratory equipment to isolate DNA. The lab is followed by a classroom activity that allows students and teachers to Extract DNA from Anything Living, using household items like spinach but not little sister's big toe.

2007-02-02

414

The Virtual Body  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Virtual Body from MEDtropolis.com is an interactive overview of some of the basic structure and function of the human body. The site, available in both English and Spanish, is a mix of information and activities focused on four areas -- the brain, skeleton, heart, and digestive tract. The site's extensive array of diagrams and images, as well as its interactive nature, enhance the site's appeal and educational potential.

1999-01-01

415

Grids, Clouds, and Virtualization  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter introduces and puts in context Grids, Clouds, and Virtualization. Grids promised to deliver computing power on\\u000a demand. However, despite a decade of active research, no viable commercial grid computing provider has emerged. On the other\\u000a hand, it is widely believed—especially in the Business World—that HPC will eventually become a commodity. Just as some commercial\\u000a consumers of electricity have

Massimo Cafaro; Giovanni Aloisio

2011-01-01

416

A Virtual, Shoestring Vacation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If there is a discrepancy between the scope of your imagination and the depth of your bank account, this may be the ideal summer to stretch your horizons by diving into a good book. You can take a virtual vacation to almost any place or time by reading. You will not need to fill your gas tank or empty your pocketbook. Reading has a small carbon…

Texley, Juliana

2009-01-01

417

Virtual Biology Labs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Rutgers University Web site contains a set of online biology labs each so detailed and comprehensive, they could nearly replace the real thing. Each virtual lab contains pages and pages of background information and procedures, helpful images and diagrams, online exercises, and more. Seven labs are currently available: Cell Structure, Cell Reproduction, Protists, Plant Evolution, Angiosperm Reproduction, Transport Systems in Plants, and Chromosome Structure and Meiosis.

418

Lateral variation in geochemistry, petrology, and palynology in the Elswick coal bed, Pike County, Kentucky  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Middle Pennsylvanian/Langsettian (Westphalian A) Elswick coal bed, correlative to the Upper Banner of Virginia, is a rare example of a mined high-sulfur (> 2%) coal in Eastern Kentucky, a region known for low-sulfur coals. To characterize lateral variation in the geochemistry, petrography, and palynology of the Elswick coal bed, three sites were sampled along a southeast-northwest transect within a single mine. At the southeastern site, the lower 101??cm of the 116-cm thick coal is dull, generally dominated by durain and dull clarain. While all benches at this site fit within the previously-defined "mixed palynoflora - moderate/low vitrinite group," suggesting a stressed environment of deposition, the palynology of the benches of the dull interval show greater diversity than might be expected just from the petrology. Lithology is generally similar between the sites, but each site has some differences in the petrology. Overall, the coal bed shows significant lateral variation in properties at the mine scale, some of which can be attributed to the gain or loss of upper and lower lithologies, either through an actual physical merging or through the change in character of lithotypes. Sulfur content varies between the three sites examined for this study. Site 3, located in the northwestern portion of the study area is characterized by a strikingly high sulfur zone (7.45%) in the middle of the coal bed, a feature missing at the other sites. Pyrite and marcasite, in a mid-seam lithotype at the northwestern site (site 3), show signs of overgrowths, indicating multiple generations of sulfide emplacement. The high-sulfur site 3 lithologies all have massive overgrowths of euhedral and framboidal pyrite, fracture- and cleat-fill pyrite, and sulfide emplacement in fusinite lumens. Sulfur is high throughout the mine area, but variations are evident in the extent of secondary growth of sulfides. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Hower, J.C.; Ruppert, L.F.; Eble, C.F.

2007-01-01

419

Magma storage conditions beneath Dabbahu Volcano (Ethiopia) constrained by petrology, seismicity and satellite geodesy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of methods exist to constrain sub-volcanic storage conditions of magmas. Petrological, seismological and satellite geodetic methods are integrated to determine storage conditions of peralkaline magmas beneath Dabbahu Volcano, Afar, Ethiopia. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis of volatile contents in melt inclusions trapped within phenocrysts of alkali feldspar, clinopyroxene and olivine from pantellerite obsidians representing the youngest eruptive phase (<8 ka) show H2O contents ?5.8 wt.% and CO2 contents generally below 500 ppm, although rarely as high as 1,500 ppm. Volatile saturation pressures (at 679-835°C) are in the range 43-207 MPa, consistent with published experimental data for similar pantellerites, which show that the phenocryst assemblage of alkali feldspar + cpx + aenigmatite ± ilmenite is stable at 100 to 150 MPa. Inferred magma storage depths for these historic eruptions are ~1-5 km below sea-level, consistent with the depths of earthquakes, associated with magma chamber deflation following a dyke intrusion in the period Oct 2005-Apr 2006. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data for the same period reveal a broad ~20 km diameter area of uplift. Modelling of different geometries reveals that a series of stacked sills over a 1-5 km depth range best matches the InSAR data. The consistency of depth estimates based on petrological study of ancient eruptions and the seismicity, inflation and deflation of Dabbahu observed in relation to the dyking event of 2005, suggest a small but vertically extensive and potentially long-lived magma storage region.

Field, L.; Blundy, J.; Brooker, R. A.; Wright, T.; Yirgu, G.

2012-07-01

420

Basaltic Magmatism: The Dominant Factor in the Petrologic and Tectonic Evolution of the Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Silicate bodies such as the Moon, Mars, probably Mercury, and possibly Venus, appear to have evolved in three main stages: a first (felsic) differentiation, a late heavy bombardment, and a second (basaltic) differentiation. It has been proposed that the Earth underwent a similar sequence. This paper argues that the second differentiation, basaltic magmatism, has dominated the petrologic and tectonic evolution of the Earth for four billion years. A global andesitic crust, formed during and after accretion of the planet, was disrupted by major impacts that triggered mantle upwelling and sea-floor spreading about 4 billion years ago. The oceanic crust collectively has since been formed by basaltic volcanism, from spreading centers and mantle plumes. However, the continental crust has also been greatly affected. Basaltic underplating has promoted anatexis and diapiric intrusion of granitoids in granite-greenstone terrains, as well as providing heat for regional metamorphism. Basaltic intrusions, such as the Nipissing diabase of the Sudbury area, have added to the thickness of continental crust. Satellite magnetic surveys suggest that there are more such basaltic intrusions than previously realized; examples include the Bangui anomaly of central Africa and the Kentucky anomaly. Basaltic overplating from mafic dike swarms has repeatedly flooded continents; had it not been for erosion, they would be covered with basalt as Venus is today. The tectonic effects of basaltic volcanism on continents have only recently been realized. The World Stress Map project has discovered that continents are under horizontal compressive stress, caused by push from mid-ocean ridges, i.e., by basaltic volcanism. The stress fields are generally uniform over large intraplate areas, and could contribute to intraplate tectonism. Seafloor spreading has demonstrably been effective for at least 200 million years, and ridge push thus a contributor to tectonic activity for that long. Collectively, the petrologic and tectonic evolution of the Earth has been dominated for about 4 billion years by the 'second differentiation,' i.e., by basaltic magmatism.

Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

2003-01-01

421

Hydrochemical monitoring, petrological observation, and geochemical modeling of fault healing after an earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

on hydrochemical monitoring, petrological observations, and geochemical modeling, we identify a mechanism and estimate a time scale for fault healing after an earthquake. Hydrochemical monitoring of groundwater samples from an aquifer, which is at an approximate depth of 1200 m, was conducted over a period of 10 years. Groundwater samples have been taken from a borehole (HU-01) that crosses the Húsavík-Flatey Fault (HFF) near Húsavík town, northern Iceland. After 10 weeks of sampling, on 16 September 2002, an M 5.8 earthquake occurred on the Grimsey Lineament, which is approximately parallel to the HFF. This earthquake caused rupturing of a hydrological barrier resulting in an influx of groundwater from a second aquifer, which was recorded by 15-20% concentration increases for some cations and anions. This was followed by hydrochemical recovery. Based on petrological observations of tectonically exhumed fault rocks, we conclude that hydrochemical recovery recorded fault healing by precipitation of secondary minerals along fractures. Because hydrochemical recovery accelerated with time, we conclude that the growth rate of these minerals was controlled by reaction rates at mineral-water interfaces. Geochemical modeling confirmed that the secondary minerals which formed along fractures were saturated in the sampled groundwater. Fault healing and therefore hydrochemical recovery was periodically interrupted by refracturing events. Supported by field and petrographic evidence, we conclude that these events were caused by changes of fluid pressure probably coupled with earthquakes. These events became successively smaller as groundwater flux decreased with time. Despite refracturing, hydrochemical recovery reached completion 8-10 years after the earthquake.

Wästeby, Niklas; Skelton, Alasdair; Tollefsen, Elin; Andrén, Margareta; Stockmann, Gabrielle; Claesson Liljedahl, Lillemor; Sturkell, Erik; Mörth, Magnus

2014-07-01

422

Volcanological and petrological evolution of Vulcano island (Aeolian Arc, southern Tyrrhenian Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Petrological and geochemical data are reported for volcanic rocks from Vulcano island. The subaerial volcanism (120 ka to present) built up a NW-SE elongated composite structure, affected by two intersecting multistage calderas. Volcanics older than 20 ka consist mostly of high-K calc-alkaline (HKCA) to shoshonitic (SHO) mafic rocks. These magmas interacted significantly with the continental crust, which generated variable Sr isotopic ratios (0.70412-0.70520). However, a major role was also played by input of parental liquids into the magma chamber, which prevented further evolution of the magmas. HKCA, SHO, and potassic (KS) rocks formed from 20 to 8 ka, display a much larger range of SiO2 (from shoshonites to rhyolites) and higher concentrations of incompatible elements with respect to the previous stage. Sr isotopic ratios show small variations (0.70448-0.70486). Mixing of silicic and mafic liquids and fractional crystallization processes (FC) were the main evolutionary processes during this stage. Volcanics younger than 8 ka consist of SHO and leucite-bearing KS mafic rocks, with abundant intermediate and silicic products. Mafic and intermediate rocks display similar incompatible element abundances and Sr isotopic ratios as the previous stage volcanics, whereas higher 87Sr/86Sr (0.70494-0.70583) are observed in some rhyolites. These products originated from a complex interplay of FC, crustal assimilation, and magma mixing processes. The most mafic rocks show increasing incompatible element abundances, Rb/Sr, Rb/Ba, Mg/Al, Mg/Ca, and a decrease in large ion lithophile to high field strength element ratios, passing from older HKCA-SHO to the younger SHO-KS volcanics. These variations suggest a shifting of magma sources from a slightly metasomatized asthenosphere (fertile peridotite) to a more strongly metasomatized lithospheric mantle (residual peridotite). Time-related petrological and geochemical variations have been used to develop a model for the evolution of the Vulcano plumbing system.

de Astis, Gianfilippo; La Volpe, Luigi; Peccerillo, Angelo; Civetta, Lucia

1997-04-01

423

Testing variations within the Tagish Lake meteorite—I: Mineralogy and petrology of pristine samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four samples (TL5b, TL11h, TL11i, and TL11v) from the pristine collection of the Tagish Lake meteorite, an ungrouped C2 chondrite, were studied to characterize and understand its alteration history using EPMA, XRD, and TEM. We determined that samples TL11h and TL11i have a relatively smaller proportion of amorphous silicate material than sample TL5b, which experienced low-temperature hydrous parent-body alteration conditions to preserve this indigenous material. The data suggest that lithic fragments of TL11i experienced higher degrees of aqueous alteration than the rest of the matrix, based on its low porosity and high abundance of coarse- and fine-grained sheet silicates, suggesting that TL11i was present in an area of the parent body where alteration and brecciation were more extensive. We identified a coronal, "flower"-like, microstructure consisting of a fine-grained serpentine core and coarse-grained saponite-serpentine radial arrays, suggesting varied fluid chemistry and crystallization time scales. We also observed pentlandite with different morphologies: an exsolved morphology formed under nebular conditions; a nonexsolved pentlandite along grain boundaries; a "bulls-eye" sulfide morphology and rims around highly altered chondrules that probably formed by multiple precipitation episodes during low-temperature aqueous alteration (?100 °C) on the parent body. On the basis of petrologic and mineralogic observations, we conclude that the Tagish Lake parent body initially contained a heterogeneous mixture of anhydrous precursor minerals of nebular and presolar origin. These materials were subjected to secondary, nonpervasive parent-body alteration, and the samples studied herein represent different stages of that hydrous alteration, i.e., TL5b (the least altered) < TL11h < TL11i (the most altered). Sample TL11v encompasses the petrologic characteristics of the other three specimens.

Blinova, Alexandra I.; Zega, Thomas J.; Herd, Christopher D. K.; Stroud, Rhonda M.

2014-04-01

424

The Distant Morphological and Petrological Features of Shock Melt Veins in the Suizhou L6 Condrite  

SciTech Connect

The morphology and petrology of distinct melt veins in the Suizhou L6 chondrite have been investigated using scanning electron microscopy, electron microprobe analyses, and Raman spectroscopy, synchrotron energy-dispersive diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. It is found that the melt veins in the Suizhou meteorite morphologically are the simplest, straightest, and thinnest among all shock veins known from meteorites. At first glance, these veins look like fine fractures, but petrologically they are solid melt veins of chondritic composition and consist of fully crystalline materials of two distinct lithological assemblages, with no glassy material remaining. The Suizhou melt veins contain the most abundant high-pressure mineral species when compared with all other veins known in chondrites. Thus, these veins in Suizhou are classified as shock veins. All rock-forming and almost all accessory minerals in the Suizhou shock veins have been transformed to their high-pressure polymorphs, and no fragments of the precursor minerals remain in the veins. Among the 11 high-pressure mineral phases identified in the Suizhou veins, three are new high-pressure minerals, namely, tuite after whitlockite, xieite, and the CF phase after chromite. On the basis of transformation of plagioclase into maskelynite, it is estimated that the Suizhou meteorite experienced shock pressures and shock temperatures up to 22 GPa and 1000 C, respectively. Shearing and friction along shock veins raised the temperature up to 1900-2000 C and the pressure up to 24 GPa within the veins. Hence, phase transition and crystallization of high-pressure minerals took place only in the Suizhou shock veins. Fast cooling of the extremely thin shock veins is regarded as the main reason that up to 11 shock-induced high-pressure mineral phases could be preserved in these veins.

X Xie; Z Sun; M Chen

2011-12-31

425

Apparatus Would Stain Microscope Slides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed apparatus meters specific amounts of fluid out of containers at specific times to stain microscope slides. Intended specifically for semiautomated staining of microbiological and hematological samples in microgravity, leakproof apparatus used in other environments in which technicians have little time to allocate to staining procedures and/or exposure to toxic staining agents or to micro-organisms to be stained hazardous. Apparatus adapted to perform almost any staining procedure and accommodates multiple staining reagents, useful for small or remote clinical laboratories.

Breeding, James D.

1993-01-01

426

Gallery of Virtual Topography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Gallery of Virtual Topography features virtual depictions of topography, including 3D perspectives and QuickTime Virtual Reality (QTVR) movies, created from Digital Elevation Models (DEM's). The site showcases QTVR object movies where the user can spin a 3D terrain to view it from different perspectives. It also includes static 3D-perspective images (JPEG files) of the 3D terrains for those users with slower Internet connections. Some movies and images depict only the form of the landscape, but in others topographic contours are draped over the landscape to better illustrate how contours portray different types of topography (cliffs versus badlands, for example). Some animations illustrate the significance of contours, by allowing the user to progressively fill the landscape up with water to see the water interact with different topographic features. The site also contains a topographic contour map for each 3D terrain, so that instructors can develop student exercises, such as locating points on a map and constructing topographic profiles. Some QTVR movies contain numbered topographic features just for this purpose.

Stephen Reynolds

427

Neuroelectric Virtual Devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents recent results in neuroelectric pattern recognition of electromyographic (EMG) signals used to control virtual computer input devices. The devices are designed to substitute for the functions of both a traditional joystick and keyboard entry method. We demonstrate recognition accuracy through neuroelectric control of a 757 class simulation aircraft landing at San Francisco International Airport using a virtual joystick as shown. This is accomplished by a pilot closing his fist in empty air and performing control movements that are captured by a dry electrode array on the arm which are then analyzed and routed through a flight director permitting full pilot outer loop control of the simulation. We then demonstrate finer grain motor pattern recognition through a virtual keyboard by having a typist tap his traders on a typical desk in a touch typist position. The EMG signals are then translated to keyboard presses and displayed. The paper describes the bioelectric pattern recognition methodology common to both examples. Figure 2 depicts raw EMG data from typing, the numeral '8' and the numeral '9'. These two gestures are very close in appearance and statistical properties yet are distinguishable by our hidden Kharkov model algorithms. Extensions of this work to NASA emissions and robotic control are considered.

Wheeler, Kevin; Jorgensen, Charles

2000-01-01

428

The virtual clinical campus.  

PubMed

The increased use of community sites for the clinical training of medical students creates many challenges for educators. Among them is the need to provide students in community settings with access to the same range of educational resources-the medical literature, student colleagues, feedback, and faculty-that are customarily available at academic medical centers. One way to make this access possible is to use information technology to create a "virtual clinical campus," which would allow students to enjoy the best of both worlds: the immersion in primary care offered by the community-based setting and the knowledge-rich resources of the academic medical center, including the all-important library. With a virtual campus in place, students would be able to access most library resources, interact with their peers, ensure that they were meeting the goals of their community rotations, and participate with their colleagues in didactic sessions without having to travel. The virtual campus is technologically feasible and economically within reach. It is possible that the movement of clinical training into the community will make it imperative for all medical students to own their own computers and for medical centers to provide the infrastructure that would enable community sites to have access to a range of educational resources. PMID:9125922

Friedman, C P

1996-06-01

429

Canada Virtual Science Fair  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Real science fairs can be great fun, but there's nothing wrong with a virtual science fair, and in the case of the Canada Virtual Science Fair, there's so much that's right. Started in 1999, the Virtual Science Fair is an annual online science and technology contest open to all Canadian students in grades K-12. While non-Canadians aren't eligible to participate, everyone can benefit from the tremendous science education resources on the site. First off, visitors will want to learn about the past winning projects by clicking on the "All Projects" section on the site. Visitors to this section will learn about each project, their team, and so on. Along the right side of the homepage visitors can view the "Special Awards" area. Here they will find information about interesting projects that include "Harvesting Our Nature's Gas Station", "Ice: A Slippery Topic", and "River Pollutants Effect on River Bacteria". Additionally, visitors should be sure to check out their weblog and their online forum.

2008-01-01

430

High efficiency virtual impactor  

DOEpatents

Environmental monitoring of atmospheric air is facilitated by a single stage virtual impactor (11) for separating an inlet flow (Q.sub.O) having particulate contaminants into a coarse particle flow (Q.sub.1) and a fine particle flow (Q.sub.2) to enable collection of such particles on different filters (19a, 19b) for separate analysis. An inlet particle acceleration nozzle (28) and coarse particle collection probe member (37) having a virtual impaction opening (41) are aligned along a single axis (13) and spaced apart to define a flow separation region (14) at which the fine particle flow (Q.sub.2) is drawn radially outward into a chamber (21) while the coarse particle flow (Q.sub.1) enters the virtual impaction opening (41). Symmetrical outlet means (47) for the chamber (21) provide flow symmetry at the separation region (14) to assure precise separation of particles about a cutpoint size and to minimize losses by wall impaction and gravitational settling. Impulse defocusing means (42) in the probe member (37) provides uniform coarse particle deposition on the filter (19a) to aid analysis. Particle losses of less than 1% for particles in the 0 to 20 micron range may be realized.

Loo, Billy W. (Oakland, CA)

1981-01-01

431

Gelation on the microscopic scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle-tracking methods are used to study gelation in a colloidal suspension of Laponite clay particles. We track the motion of small fluorescent polystyrene spheres added to the suspension, and obtain the micron-scale viscous and elastic moduli of the material from their mean-squared displacement. The fluorescent spheres move subdiffusively due to the microstructure of the suspension, with the diffusive exponent decreasing from close to one at early times to near zero as the material gels. The particle-tracking data show that the system becomes more heterogeneous on the microscopic scale as gelation proceeds. We also determine the bulk-scale moduli using small-amplitude oscillatory shear rheometry. Both the macroscopic and microscopic moduli increase with time, and on both scales we observe a transition from a primarily viscous fluid to an elastic gel. We find that the gel point, determined as the time at which the viscous and elastic moduli are equal, is length-scale dependent—gelation occurs earlier on the bulk scale than on the microscopic scale.

Oppong, Felix K.; Coussot, P.; de Bruyn, John R.

2008-08-01

432

Microscope Image of Scavenged Particles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Optical Microscope shows a strongly magnetic surface which has scavenged particles from within the microscope enclosure before a sample delivery from the lander's Robotic Arm. The particles correspond to the larger grains seen in fine orange material that makes up most of the soil at the Phoenix site. They vary in color, but are of similar size, about one-tenth of a millimeter.

As the microscope's sample wheel moved during operation, these particles also shifted, clearing a thin layer of the finer orange particles that have also been collected. Together with the previous image, this shows that the larger grains are much more magnetic than the fine orange particles with a much larger volume of the grains being collected by the magnet. The image is 2 milimeters across.

It is speculated that the orange material particles are a weathering product from the larger grains, with the weathering process both causing a color change and a loss of magnetism.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

433

Compact Microscope Imaging System Developed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Compact Microscope Imaging System (CMIS) is a diagnostic tool with intelligent controls for use in space, industrial, medical, and security applications. The CMIS can be used in situ with a minimum amount of user intervention. This system, which was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center, can scan, find areas of interest, focus, and acquire images automatically. Large numbers of multiple cell experiments require microscopy for in situ observations; this is only feasible with compact microscope systems. CMIS is a miniature machine vision system that combines intelligent image processing with remote control capabilities. The software also has a user-friendly interface that can be used independently of the hardware for post-experiment analysis. CMIS has potential commercial uses in the automated online inspection of precision parts, medical imaging, security industry (examination of currency in automated teller machines and fingerprint identification in secure entry locks), environmental industry (automated examination of soil/water samples), biomedical field (automated blood/cell analysis), and microscopy community. CMIS will improve research in several ways: It will expand the capabilities of MSD experiments utilizing microscope technology. It may be used in lunar and Martian experiments (Rover Robot). Because of its reduced size, it will enable experiments that were not feasible previously. It may be incorporated into existing shuttle orbiter and space station experiments, including glove-box-sized experiments as well as ground-based experiments.

McDowell, Mark

2001-01-01

434

Science 101 : How Do Microscopes Work?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Microscopes allow scientists to examine everyday objects in extraordinary ways. They provide high-resolution images that show objects in fine detail. This articles includes details on how microscopes work and how they enhance the scientific process.

Sarah Zimov

2004-01-01

435

Improved learning efficiency and increased student collaboration through use of virtual microscopy in the teaching of human pathology.  

PubMed

The implementation of virtual microscopy in the teaching of pathology at the Bloomington, Indiana extension of the Indiana University School of Medicine permitted the assessment of student attitudes, use and academic performance with respect to this new technology. A gradual and integrated approach allowed the parallel assessment with respect to both the virtual and optical microscopes. Student survey data indicated that the virtual imaging technology was enthusiastically received, and aggregate grade comparisons with the previous classes showed no decrease in content mastery. Survey questions assessing a variety of parameters reveal improved time and resource utilization, as well as increased student collaboration. Even so, 50% of the respondents indicated having both optical and virtual microscopes available was preferable. PMID:19109852

Braun, Mark W; Kearns, Katherine D

2008-01-01

436

Virtual water: Virtuous impact? The unsteady state of virtual water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual water,” water needed for crop production, is now being mainstreamed in the water policy world. Relying on virtual\\u000a water in the form of food imports is increasingly recommended as good policy for water-scarce areas. Virtual water globalizes\\u000a discussions on water scarcity, ecological sustainability, food security and consumption. Presently the concept is creating\\u000a much noise in the water and food

Dik Roth; Jeroen Warner

2008-01-01

437

Virtual Humans for Team Training in Virtual Reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the use of virtual humans anddistributed virtual reality to support team training,where students must learn their individual role in theteam as well as how to coordinate their actions withtheir teammates. Students, instructors, and virtualhumans cohabit a 3d, simulated mock-up of their workenvironment, where they can practice together in realisticsituations. The virtual humans can serve asinstructors for individual

Jeff Rickel; W. Lewis Johnson

1999-01-01

438

Thermoreflectance based thermal microscope James Christoffersona  

E-print Network

Thermoreflectance based thermal microscope James Christoffersona and Ali Shakouri Jack Baskin microscope has been built which achieves 34 mK resolution for real time 1 s frames, and 0.34 K resolution is used as the basis for the thermal imag- ing microscope. This system exhibits a speedup factor of 256

439

Short Communication Microscopic analysis of structure stabilities  

E-print Network

. This new combination of two classical methods allows a progressive discovery of the microscopic relevant2005 Short Communication Microscopic analysis of structure stabilities in the ionic compounds B primary order distortion, and thus find the microscopic interactions responsible for the symmetry breaking

Boyer, Edmond

440

Inverted Fluorescent Microscope Procedure Taking an Image  

E-print Network

Inverted Fluorescent Microscope Procedure Taking an Image 1. Load the program "QCapture Pro" 2 on the White Light Source using the button on the main body of the microscope (it is coordinate with the box. Click on the "Preview" Tab. 8. Click on "Start Preview" to get a live feed from the Microscope. 9

441

Cryogenic magnetic force microscope M. Rosemana)  

E-print Network

Cryogenic magnetic force microscope M. Rosemana) and P. Gru¨tter Centre for the Physics for publication 27 June 2000 We describe our cryogenic magnetic force microscope, operating between 4.2 and 300 K. As an effective means of vibration isolation, we suspend the microscope from a soft bellows which attenuates

Grütter, Peter

442

Surgery applications of virtual reality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Virtual reality is a computer-generated technology which allows information to be displayed in a simulated, bus lifelike, environment. In this simulated 'world', users can move and interact as if they were actually a part of that world. This new technology will be useful in many different fields, including the field of surgery. Virtual reality systems can be used to teach surgical anatomy, diagnose surgical problems, plan operations, simulate and perform surgical procedures (telesurgery), and predict the outcomes of surgery. The authors of this paper describe the basic components of a virtual reality surgical system. These components include: the virtual world, the virtual tools, the anatomical model, the software platform, the host computer, the interface, and the head-coupled display. In the chapter they also review the progress towards using virtual reality for surgical training, planning, telesurgery, and predicting outcomes. Finally, the authors present a training system being developed for the practice of new procedures in abdominal surgery.

Rosen, Joseph

1994-01-01

443

Virtual Reality Liver Biopsy Simulator Virtual Reality, Ultrasound-guided Liver Biopsy Simulator  

E-print Network

Virtual Reality Liver Biopsy Simulator Virtual Reality, Ultrasound-guided Liver Biopsy Simulator: Development and Performance Discrimination1 Running head: Virtual Reality Liver Biopsy Simulator Word.1259/bjr/47436030 #12;Virtual Reality Liver Biopsy Simulator ABSTRACT Purpose: Identify and prospectively

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

444

The virtual environment display system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Virtual environment technology is a display and control technology that can surround a person in an interactive computer generated or computer mediated virtual environment. It has evolved at NASA-Ames since 1984 to serve NASA's missions and goals. The exciting potential of this technology, sometimes called Virtual Reality, Artificial Reality, or Cyberspace, has been recognized recently by the popular media, industry, academia, and government organizations. Much research and development will be necessary to bring it to fruition.

Mcgreevy, Michael W.

1991-01-01

445

Selective hardware\\/software memory virtualization  

Microsoft Academic Search

As virtualization becomes a key technique for supporting cloud computing, much effort has been made to reduce virtualization overhead, so a virtualized system can match its native performance. One major overhead is due to memory or page table virtualization. Conventional virtual machines rely on a shadow mechanism to manage page tables, where a shadow page table maintained by the VMM

Xiaolin Wang; Jiarui Zang; Zhenlin Wang; Yingwei Luo; Xiaoming Li

2011-01-01

446

Trust Building in Virtual Communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By using different types of communication networks various groups of people can come together according to their private or business interest forming a Virtual Community. In these communities cooperation and collaboration plays an important role. As trust is the base of all human interactions this fact is even more valid in case of virtual communities. According to different experiments the level of trust in virtual communities is highly influenced by the way/mode of communication and by the duration of contact. The paper discusses the ways of trust building focusing on communication technologies and security aspects in virtual communities.

Mezgár, István

447

Weathering of Igneous, Metamorphic, and Sedimentary Rocks in a Semi-arid Climate - An Engineering Application of Petrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last 10 years, analytical methods have been introduced to students in CSM's undergraduate geological engineering program through a multi-year and multi-course approach. Beginning with principles and simple applications of XRD and SEM in sophomore Mineralogy and building on these skills in subsequent junior and senior year courses, geological engineers acquire proficiency in analytical methods. Essential workplace skills are thus acquired without adding an extra course in the undergraduate program. The following exercise is completed by juniors in an integrated Ig.-Met.-Sed. petrology course. The identification of clay mineral assemblages in soils provides a unique opportunity to demonstrate how basic principles of petrology and geochemistry are applied to engineering design criteria in construction site preparation. Specifically, the problem investigates the conditions leading to the formation of smectite in soils and the resulting construction risk due to soil expansion. Students examine soils developed on igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks near Denver, Colorado. The field locations are areas of suburban growth and several have expansive soil problems. The 2-week exercise includes sample collection, description, and preparation, determining clay mineralogy by XRD, and measurement of Atterberg Plasticity Indices. Teaching materials may be found at: http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/petrology03/. This exercise accomplishes three objectives: First, skills in XRD analysis are developed by introducing students to concepts of particle size separation, particle orientation, and sequential analysis steps which are standard practices in clay characterization. Second, lecture material on the geochemistry of weathering of different rock types is reinforced. Students interpret the origin of clay mineral assemblages developed in soils derived from Precambrian gneisses, lower Paleozoic feldspathic sandstones, upper Paleozoic marine shales, and Tertiary basalts and volcaniclastics. Third, the role of petrologic characterization in site engineering is demonstrated. Students use Atterberg Limits measurements in conjunction with soil mineralogy to assess swelling potential and to design soil treatment needs for each building site.

Harrison, W. J.; Wendlandt, R. F.

2003-12-01

448

Geochemistry and petrology of Oligocene and Miocene ash-flow tuffs of the southeastern Great Basin, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The White River Narrows area of Southeast Nevada contains 18 regionally distributed middle Tertiary dacite to rhyolite ash-flow tuffs. Geochemical data provide an excellent opportunity to study stratigraphic and petrologic relations of these tuffs. Chemical data for each of the tuffs are distinctive and provide a significant addition to other data used to identify and correlate these units. Relatively minor compositional variation within the tuffs is noteworthy.

du Bray, Edward A.

1995-01-01

449

The generation and crystallization conditions of the Proterozoic Harney Peak Leucogranite, Black Hills, South Dakota, USA: Petrologic and geochemical constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mineralogy, petrology and geochemistry of the Proterozoic Harney Peak Granite, Black Hills, South Dakota, were examined in view of experimentally determined phase equilibria applicable to granitic systems in order to place constraints on the progenesis of peraluminous leucogranites and commonly associated rare-element pegmatites. The granite was emplaced at 3–4 kbar as multiple sills and dikes into quartz-mica schists at

P. I. Nabelek; C. Russ-Nabelek; J. R. Denison

1992-01-01

450

Discovery through the computational microscope.  

PubMed

All-atom molecular dynamics simulations have become increasingly popular as a tool to investigate protein function and dynamics. However, researchers are concerned about the short time scales covered by simulations, the apparent impossibility to model large and integral biomolecular systems, and the actual predictive power of the molecular dynamics methodology. Here we review simulations that were in the past both hotly disputed and considered key successes, namely of proteins with mainly mechanical functions (titin, fibrinogen, ankyrin, and cadherin). The simulation work covered shows how state-of-the-art modeling alleviates some of the prior concerns and how unrefuted discoveries are made through the "computational microscope." PMID:19836330

Lee, Eric H; Hsin, Jen; Sotomayor, Marcos; Comellas, Gemma; Schulten, Klaus

2009-10-14

451

Microscopic characteristics of hacking trauma.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine if it is possible to associate machetes, axes, and cleavers with the microscopic parallel striations they leave on the cut surfaces of the bone. Hacking trauma was experimentally inflicted on pig bones using machetes, axes, and cleavers. Negative impressions of both the cut surfaces of the bone and the weapon blades were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. The results of this investigation indicate that it is possible to correlate a class of hacking weapons to trauma inflicted on bone by these weapons. PMID:11305424

Tucker, B K; Hutchinson, D L; Gilliland, M F; Charles, T M; Daniel, H J; Wolfe, L D

2001-03-01

452

Discovery Through the Computational Microscope  

PubMed Central

Summary All-atom molecular dynamics simulations have become increasingly popular as a tool to investigate protein function and dynamics. However, researchers are concerned about the short time scales covered by simulations, the apparent impossibility to model large and integral biomolecular systems, and the actual predictive power of the molecular dynamics methodology. Here we review simulations that were in the past both hotly disputed and considered key successes, namely of proteins with mainly mechanical functions (titin, fibrinogen, ankyrin, and cadherin). The simulation work covered shows how state-of-the-art modeling alleviates some of the prior concerns, and how unrefuted discoveries are made through the “computational microscope". PMID:19836330

Lee, Eric H.; Hsin, Jen; Sotomayor, Marcos; Comellas, Gemma; Schulten, Klaus

2010-01-01

453

Paleomagnetism with the SQUID Microscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rocks should preserve stable remanent magnetizations with useful directional and intensity information at levels down to ~10-15 Am2, about 1000 times below that of the noise level on today's best superconducting moment magnetometers. As a result, a more sensitive magnetometer could dramatically expand the range and variety of rock types amenable to paleomagnetic analysis. Just such an instrument is now on the horizon: the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) Microscope, designed by F. Baudenbacher and J. Wikswo of Vanderbilt University. The SQUID Microscope makes a map of the vertical component of the magnetic field above the surface of a sample held at room temperature and pressure. It achieves this with a spatial resolution of 250 ? m and a moment sensitivity 10,000 times that of the most recent 2G Enterprises Superconducting Rock Magnetometer (2G SRM). It can therefore provide data with a resolution comparable with that of other common petrographic techniques such as optical and electron microscopy. A major reason that the SQUID Microscope has such high sensitivity and resolution compared to the 2G SRM is that it has a much smaller pickup coil. Smaller coils are more sensitive to dipoles because they encompass less of the sample's fringing fields oriented in the opposite sense to its magnetization. Smaller coils also encompass a smaller area above the sample and so also provide higher spatial resolution. Our initial collaborative work on 30-? m thin sections of Martian meteorite ALH84001 has already demonstrated that SQUID Microscopy will enable a whole a new class of paleomagnetic analyses. Conglomerate, baked contact, and fold tests can be performed on extremely small spatial scales, vastly expanding the utility of these critical geological field tests of magnetic stability. A suite of rock-magnetic and paleomagnetic experiments can be done on individual grains in standard petrographic thin sections at very high rates, allowing the observed magnetic components to be matched with the minerals that are present. To be useful for palemagnetic studies, a scheme is needed to invert the SQUID Microscope's output data (a spatial grid of vertical components of the magnetic field) into a three-dimensional vector magnetization pattern within the sample. This problem is similar to that encountered in the inversion of aeromagnetic field data to a map of lithosphere magnetization. We have implemented an equivalent source scheme solved by conjugate gradient analysis and singular value decomposition that gives robust inversions for rock samples with spatially separated dipolar sources.

Weiss, B. P.; Baudenbacher, F. J.; Wikswo, J. P.; Kirschvink, J. L.

2002-05-01

454

Atomic force microscope mediated chromatography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An atomic force microscope (AFM) is presented as an instrument for rapid, miniaturized chromatography. The AFM is used to inject a sample, provide shear driven liquid flow over a functionalized substrate, and detect separated components. The components are then analyzed with surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy using AFM deposition of gold nanoparticles on the separated bands. This AFM mediated chromatography (AFM-MC) is demonstrated using lipophilic dyes and normal phase chemistry. A significant reduction in both size and separation time scales is achieved with 25 ?m length scale and 1 s separation times. AFM-MC has general applications to trace chemical analysis and microfluidics.

Anderson, M. S.

2013-02-01

455

Solid-state optical microscope  

DOEpatents

A solid state optical microscope is described wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. Means for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions are provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

Young, I.T.

1981-01-07

456

Microscopic tubes in igneous rocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microscopic tubes have been observed in several igneous rocks and may be quite common. They occur in single crystals and have either elliptical or circular cross-sections 1 to 5 microns in diameter and are ten to hundreds of microns long. Microtubes may be hollow or partially or completely filled with another phase, but are distinct from acicular crystals of accessory minerals such as rutile. Microtubes can form by at least three processes: (1) the partial annealing of microcracks, (2) the natural etching of dislocations, or (3) the primary inclusion of fluid material during crystal growth.

Richter, D.; Simmons, G.

1977-01-01

457

The Experimental Virtual Environment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Experimental Virtual Environment (EVE) is a project being conducted by the Helsinki University of Technology and the high-performance computing and networking center in Finland. The EVE encloses the user inside three walls and a floor that are rear projection screens, and the user can interact with the environment with a head tracking unit and other sensors. A brief introduction is given on the EVE Web site, followed by examples of applications for the system, its current implementation, and descriptions of past and current projects. A thesis about the EVE implementation goes into much more detail, and there are also several theses and related documents given in the Publications section.

458

"Virtual Feel" Capaciflectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The term "virtual feel" denotes a type of capaciflector (an advanced capacitive proximity sensor) and a methodology for designing and using a sensor of this type to guide a robot in manipulating a tool (e.g., a wrench socket) into alignment with a mating fastener (e.g., a bolt head) or other electrically conductive object. A capaciflector includes at least one sensing electrode, excited with an alternating voltage, that puts out a signal indicative of the capacitance between that electrode and a proximal object.

Vranish, John M.

2006-01-01

459

Virtual rehabilitation after stroke.  

PubMed

The purpose of this project was to investigate the effects of Virtual Reality technology and haptics for stroke rehabilitation. Twenty-nine stroke subjects, 17 women, and 12 men aged 44-85 years, participated in three different studies. All participants responded favorable to the use of the VR activity station. A change of attitude took place after the subjects were exposed to playing computer games. The general experience with the VR application approach suggests that this treatment concept is promising in stroke rehabilitation, with a wide range of applicability. PMID:18487711

Broeren, Jurgen; Bjorkdahl, Ann; Claesson, Lisbeth; Goude, Daniel; Lundgren-Nilsson, Asa; Samuelsson, Hans; Blomstrand, Christian; Sunnerhagen, Katharina S; Rydmark, Martin

2008-01-01

460

Virtual Japanese Rhinoceros Beetle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a 3D virtual reality image of the "Japanese Rhinoceros Beetle," or Allomyrina dichotoma (family Scarabaeidae, subfamily Dynastinae). Menu tools can be used to rotate and/or zoom in on the image. The clarity of the image is excellent, but gets slightly blurry when fully zoomed. This is a high quality resource for teaching, especially for topics involving insect morphology. The Cornell University "Beetle Science" home page (http://www.explore.cornell.edu/scene.cfm?scene=Beetle%20Science) has many more excellent resources for teachers and students. QuickTime 5.0 is required to view it, which possibly could limit users with older or public computers.

0002-11-30

461

Virtual Scarabaeid Beetle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a 3D virtual reality image of the shiny green beetle Chrysophora chrysochlora (family Scarabaeidae). Menu tools can be used to rotate and/or zoom in on the image. The clarity of the image is excellent, but gets slightly blurry when fully zoomed. This is a high quality resource for teaching, especially for topics involving insect morphology. The Cornell University "Beetle Science" home page (http://www.explore.cornell.edu/scene.cfm?scene=Beetle%20Science) has many more excellent resources for teachers and students. QuickTime 5.0 is required to view the image, which possibly could limit users with older or public computers.

0002-11-30

462

The Virtual Terrain Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Virtual Terrain Project (VTP) homepage has a wealth of information about three dimensional environment rendering, as well as links to many different research efforts and papers about the subject. The project's aim "is to foster the creation of tools for easily constructing any part of the real world in interactive, 3D digital form." Several subtopics are addressed, including plant modeling and realistic ground detailing and texturing. An interesting focus is on cultural aspects of terrain rendering, such as roads, buildings, and other infrastructure. Some images of VTP worlds are shown, and three software titles developed with the project can be downloaded upon request.

2005-11-13

463

The Virtual Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advances in technology (telescope design and fabrication, large-scale detector arrays, computing capabilities) are permitting for the first time to explore the Universe in a multi-parameter space. Although this situation should potentially lead to a more complete and less biased understanding of complex astrophysical phenomena, the reality is that the progress in the scientific exploitation is not keeping pace with the exponential growth of data. Two are the major limiting factors: The absence of a real interoperability among astronomical archives and the lack of scalability in the classical methods of retrieving and analyzing astronomical data to tackle the new vast datasets. The Virtual Observatory is an international project aiming to solve this situation by: a) the creation of a federation of astronomical archives that, with the implementation of new technologies and standards, provides an easy and efficient access to the astronomical data (``data grid"). b) the development and implementation of analysis tools by the data centres holding the data (``service grid"). Data mining, as a way to perform an efficient and systematic study of the vast amount of information that will be available from the federation of astronomical archives, constitutes one of the key activities for the Virtual Observatory and where the greatest scientific benefits are expected to come from. Although VO is still an emerging project, it is already considered both from the technical and scientific point of view a basic requirement for the astrophysical research and the framework where to settle in the short-term the astronomical archive-related activities. The biggest data providers (NASA, ESA, ESO, ...) have understood the importance of this initiative and are already displaying their contents under the VO requirements. In this paper I will summarize some of the work areas, both from the technical and scientific point of view, that are being developed in the context of International Virtual Observatory Alliance (http://www.ivoa.net). The last part of this contribution will focus on the Spanish Virtual Observatory and its main lines of research.

Solano, E.

2006-12-01

464

The Impacts of Animated-Virtual Actors' Visual Complexity and Simulator Sickness in Virtual Reality Applications  

E-print Network

The Impacts of Animated-Virtual Actors' Visual Complexity and Simulator Sickness in Virtual Reality Virtual Actors' (AVAs) visual complexity on Simulator Sickness (SS) in Virtual Reality (VR) applications. Keywords-virtual actors; virtual reality; visual complexity; simulation sickness; visualisation I

Cheng, Ken

465

Virtual reality and mixed reality for virtual learning environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores educational uses of virtual learning environment (VLE) concerned with issues of learning, training and entertainment. We analyze the state-of-art research of VLE based on virtual reality and augmented reality. Some examples for the purpose of education and simulation are described. These applications show that VLE can be means of enhancing, motivating and stimulating learners’ understanding of certain

Zhigeng Pan; Adrian David Cheok; Hongwei Yang; Jiejie Zhu; Jiaoying Shia

2006-01-01

466

VIRTUAL VISION Virtual Reality Subserving Computer Vision Research  

E-print Network

Chapter 1 VIRTUAL VISION Virtual Reality Subserving Computer Vision Research for Camera Sensor.qureshi@uoit.ca Abstract Computer vision and sensor networks researchers are increasingly mo- tivated to investigate networks, and computer vision on commodity computers. We demonstrate the usefulness of our approach

Qureshi, Faisal Z.

467

Two-photon calcium imaging in mice navigating a virtual reality environment.  

PubMed

In recent years, two-photon imaging has become an invaluable tool in neuroscience, as it allows for chronic measurement of the activity of genetically identified cells during behavior(1-6). Here we describe methods to perform two-photon imaging in mouse cortex while the animal navigates a virtual reality environment. We focus on the aspects of the experimental procedures that are key to imaging in a behaving animal in a brightly lit virtual environment. The key problems that arise in this experimental setup that we here address are: minimizing brain motion related artifacts, minimizing light leak from the virtual reality projection system, and minimizing laser induced tissue damage. We also provide sample software to control the virtual reality environment and to do pupil tracking. With these procedures and resources it should be possible to convert a conventional two-photon microscope for use in behaving mice. PMID:24637961

Leinweber, Marcus; Zmarz, Pawel; Buchmann, Peter; Argast, Paul; Hübener, Mark; Bonhoeffer, Tobias; Keller, Georg B

2014-01-01

468

Fourier-transform holographic microscope  

SciTech Connect

We describe a holographic microscope with a spatial resolution approaching the diffraction limit. The instrument uses a tiny drop of glycerol as a lens to create the spherically diverging reference illumination necessary for Fourier-transform holography. Measurement of the point-spread function, which is obtained by imaging a knife edge in dark-field illumination, indicates a transverse resolution of 1.4 {mu}m with wavelength {lambda} = 514.5 nm. Longitudinal resolution is obtained from the holograms by the numerical equivalent of optical sectioning. We describe the method of reconstruction and demonstrate the microscope's capability with selected biological specimens. The instrument offers two unique capabilities: (1) it can collect three-dimensional information in a single pulse of light, avoiding specimen damage and bleaching; and (2) it can record three-dimensional motion pictures from a series of light pulses. The conceptual design is applicable to a broad range of wavelengths and we discuss extension to the x-ray regime.

Haddad, W.S.; Cullen, D.; Longworth, J.W.; McPherson, A.; Boyer, K.; Rhodes, C.K. (MCR Technology Corporation, P.O. Box 10084, Chicago, Illinois 60610-0084 (United States)); Solem, J.C. (Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS B210, Los Alamos, N. M. 87545 (United States))

1992-08-20

469

Sensing mode atomic force microscope  

DOEpatents

An atomic force microscope utilizes a pulse release system and improved method of operation to minimize contact forces between a probe tip affixed to a flexible cantilever and a specimen being measured. The pulse release system includes a magnetic particle affixed proximate the probe tip and an electromagnetic coil. When energized, the electromagnetic coil generates a magnetic field which applies a driving force on the magnetic particle sufficient to overcome adhesive forces exhibited between the probe tip and specimen. The atomic force microscope includes two independently displaceable piezo elements operable along a Z-axis. A controller drives the first Z-axis piezo element to provide a controlled approach between the probe tip and specimen up to a point of contact between the probe tip and specimen. The controller then drives the first Z-axis piezo element to withdraw the cantilever from the specimen. The controller also activates the pulse release system which drives the probe tip away from the specimen during withdrawal. Following withdrawal, the controller adjusts the height of the second Z-axis piezo element to maintain a substantially constant approach distance between successive samples.

Hough, Paul V. C. (Port Jefferson, NY); Wang, Chengpu (Upton, NY)

2003-01-01

470

Inspection with Robotic Microscopic Imaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future Mars rover missions will require more advanced onboard autonomy for increased scientific productivity and reduced mission operations cost. One such form of autonomy can be achieved by targeting precise science measurements to be made in a single command uplink cycle. In this paper we present an overview of our solution to the subproblems of navigating a rover into place for microscopic imaging, mapping an instrument target point selected by an operator using far away science camera images to close up hazard camera images, verifying the safety of placing a contact instrument on a sample or finding nearby safe points, and analyzing the data that comes back from the rover. The system developed includes portions used in the Multiple Target Single Cycle Instrument Placement demonstration at NASA Ames in October 2004, and portions of the MI Toolkit delivered to the Athena Microscopic Imager Instrument Team for the MER mission still operating on Mars today. Some of the component technologies are also under consideration for MSL mission infusion.

Pedersen, Liam; Deans, Matthew; Kunz, Clay; Sargent, Randy; Chen, Alan; Mungas, Greg

2005-01-01

471

Microscopic calculation for deformed nuclei  

SciTech Connect

The microscopic basis of the Interacting Boson Model for deformed nuclei is discussed. The IBM Hamiltonian is constructed microscopically in the following two steps. In the first step, the collective nucleon pairs of J = 0/sup +/ (S), 2/sup +/ (D), etc. are mapped onto the corresponding bosons. Nucleon-nucleon interactions are also mapped onto boson-boson interactions. This mapping method for deformed nuclei was proposed recently, and it turned out that this method is consistent with the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov + angular momentum projection calculation. Low-lying collective states primarily consist of S and D pairs. Consequently, the corresponding boson states mainly consist of s and d bosons, while there are some admixture of g-bosons. In the second step, effects of these g-bosons are included within the s-d boson space by a unitary transformation which transforms a combination of d and g bosons into a new d-boson. By minimizing the coupling between new d and g bosons with an appropriate mixing angle, one can neglect the coupling and obtain the IBM Hamiltonian with s and d bosons. It is demonstrated that the s-d Hamiltonian thus derived indeed reproduces spectra of the original s-d-g Hamiltonian.

Otsuka, Takaharu

1984-09-24

472

Martian Magnets Under the Microscope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit acquired this microscopic imager view of its capture magnet on sol 92 (April 6, 2004). Both Spirit and the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity are equipped with a number of magnets. The capture magnet, as seen here, has a stronger charge than its sidekick, the filter magnet. The lower-powered filter magnet captures only the most magnetic airborne dust with the strongest charges, while the capture magnet picks up all magnetic airborne dust.

The magnets' primary purpose is to collect the martian magnetic dust so that scientists can analyze it with the rovers' Moessbauer spectrometers. While there is plenty of dust on the surface of Mars, it is difficult to confirm where it came from, and when it was last airborne. Because scientists are interested in learning about the properties of the dust in the atmosphere, they devised this dust-collection experiment.

The capture magnet is about 4.5 centimeters (1.8 inches) in diameter and is constructed with a central cylinder and three rings, each with alternating orientations of magnetization. Scientists have been monitoring the continual accumulation of dust since the beginning of the mission with panoramic camera and microscopic imager images. They had to wait until enough dust accumulated before they could get a Moessbauer spectrometer analysis. The results of that analysis, performed on sol 92, have not been sent back to Earth yet.

2004-01-01

473

Adapting Virtual Finance to Simulate Financial Information  

E-print Network

, financial information assurance, gambling- gaming, ISP duties, investigations, metadata, money launderingAdapting Virtual Finance to Simulate Financial Information Security Risk Analysis: A Risk.g., virtual banks, virtual financial regulators), these environments fuse gamesmanship with some real

Bagby, John

474

DISTRIBUTED VIRTUAL REALITY ENVIRONMENTS FOR DISTANCE EDUCATION  

E-print Network

DISTRIBUTED VIRTUAL REALITY ENVIRONMENTS OVER WEB FOR DISTANCE EDUCATION Christos Bouras Computer conclude with some recommendations on the construction of Virtual Reality Environments for educational laboratory hardware. The emergence of the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) as a standard method

Bouras, Christos

475

Ergito: Virtual Text  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ergito's Virtual Text, started in 2000, was created to provide a more timely and interactive alternative to printed scientific textbooks at the undergraduate and graduate level. This still-developing Web site covers life science writ large, including molecular biology, cell biology, genetics, biochemistry, immunology, and so on. However, only a small number of features are available free of charge. The first chapter of the molecular biology module -- Genes are DNA -- is available for free, as is Great Experiments, a collection of essays written by authors who conducted original research that has contributed greatly to our understanding of molecular and cellular biology. Great Experiments has a recently added essay by 2001 Nobel Prize winner Paul Nurse, titled "The Discovery of cdc2 as the Key Regulator of the Cell Cycle." These essays are formatted just as the Virtual Text pages are, with downloadable figures, a glossary, an online note-taking feature (notes are automatically compiled with a summary of the essay), glossary, and more. Ergito will soon make available Techniques, another free feature offering descriptions of widely used experimental protocols. Even without free access to the larger body of material in this Web site, Ergito is a fantastic resource for learning about molecular and cellular biology. Users must complete a free registration process to access this Web site.

476

Intelligent Virtual Environments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The research goals of the British-based lab, Intelligent Virtual Environments, of the University of Teesside are to develop "new models of interactivity based on Artificial Intelligence techniques." The website contains access to current projects, past and completed projects, technologies, as well as all publications and a tool to search those publications. Visitors can view the more than two dozen articles, going all the way back to 2000 on the subject of artificial intelligence techniques. On the menu to the left-hand side of the page are the links to the lab's current projects "IRIS", "CALLAS" and "COMPANIONS", and to "ALTERNE", "BARDS" and "CHARBIS", which are the lab's past and completed projects. Visitors especially shouldn't miss learning about the "COMPANIONS" project, which will be a virtual conversation companion in the near future. Watch the "Companions Movie" and check out the "Health and Fitness Companion" and "Senior Companion" demonstrators on the COMPANIONS homepage. There is also a Companions blog, for those interested in reading and responding to various topics related to this personalized type of artificial intelligence.

2009-06-25

477

Intelligent Virtual Environments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The research goals of the British-based lab, Intelligent Virtual Environments, of the University of Teesside are to develop "new models of interactivity based on Artificial Intelligence techniques." The website contains access to current projects, past and completed projects, technologies, as well as all publications and a tool to search those publications. Visitors can view the more than two dozen articles, going all the way back to 2000 on the subject of artificial intelligence techniques. On the menu to the left-hand side of the page are the links to the lab's current projects "IRIS", "CALLAS" and "COMPANIONS", and to "ALTERNE", "BARDS" and "CHARBIS", which are the lab's past and completed projects. Visitors especially shouldn't miss learning about the "COMPANIONS" project, which will be a virtual conversation companion in the near future. Watch the "Companions Movie" and check out the "Health and Fitness Companion" and "Senior Companion" demonstrators on the COMPANIONS homepage. There is also a Companions blog, for those interested in reading and responding to various topics related to this personalized type of artificial intelligence.

478

When Virtual Worlds Expand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The future of a virtual world depends on whether it can grow in subjective size, cultural content, and numbers of human participants. In one form of growth, exemplified by Second Life, the scope of a world increases gradually as new sponsors pay for new territory and inhabitants create content. A very different form of growth is sudden expansion, as when World of Warcraft (WoW) added entire new continents in its Burning Crusade and Lich King expansions (Lummis and Kern 2006, 2008; Corneliussen and Rettberg 2008; Sims et al. 2008). Well-established gamelike worlds have often undergone many expansions. Both the pioneer science fiction game Anarchy Online, which was launched in 2001, and Star Wars Galaxies dating from 2003, have had three, and EVE Online also from 2003 has had nine, although smaller ones. This chapter reports research on WoW's 2008 Lich King expansion, using both quantitative and qualitative methods, in order to develop theoretical ideas of the implications of expansion for virtual worlds.

Bainbridge, William Sims

479

Mineralogy and Petrology of Basement Granites of the Cooper Basin, Central Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineralogy and Petrology of Basement Granites of the Cooper Basin, Central Australia Although the Australian continent is tectonically relatively stable in comparison with other continental settings, the radiogenic heat production within the Australian continental crust is significantly high. One region with particularly elevated heat production is the Cooper Basin. The Cooper basin is an intra-cratonic basin that contains Late Carboniferous to middle Triassic sedimentary rocks which is mainly comprised of non marine sediments. The Cooper Basin overlies granites which have intruded the Warburton Basin Sediments. The Cooper basin in turn is overlain by the Eromanga Basin. This paper focuses on four deep wells in which granites have been intersected. The aim of this study is to characterize the mineralogy and petrology of the granites to further the understanding of heat production. Ten petrographic thin-sections were made from the granites and sampled at different depths in the four geothermal wells. Eight (Big Lake-3507; McLeod-1-3745.2, 3745.9, 3748.3; Moomba-1 2847.75, 2848.7, 2851, 2847.4) of the ten samples exhibit minor to strong alteration, with the other two remaining samples (Jolokia-1 4905 and Moomba-1 2857.4) showing only slight alteration. The predominant mineral in the altered samples is quartz, and a highly birefringent clay mineral (illite from EPMA and XRD) with minor oxides (Goethite, Rutile) sulphides (Galena, Pyrite) and REE-rich silicates (Thorite, Zircon) and phosphates (Apatite, Monazite and Xenotime). The sections exhibiting minor alteration contain plagioclase and K-feldspar in varying stages of decomposition. These feldspars contain varying amounts of illite crystallites. The only altered mineral in the two slightly altered samples is biotite. In Jolokia 1- 4905 the biotite has been completely replaced by a Fe-bearing illite. In Moomba 1- 2857.4 the biotite is only in the early stages of alteration, with the alteration product being Fe-chlorite. Considering all the thin sections, three textures were identified based on mineralogy and grain size. The first texture is the primary granite texture, which is evident in the low alteration samples and is also observed in the altered samples through the large grain size of some quartz grains (> 2mm). The primary quartz in these samples is highly fractured with extensive undulose extinction and planar deformation features. The second texture is an intermediate pseudomorphic texture after the alteration of biotite into a larger, more crystalline illite. This texture is characterized by the clay minerals having a grain size between 200 µm and 1 mm. The third texture is the more pervasive alteration. This is exhibited by the finely (< 100µm) inter-grown clay minerals and associated fine-grained quartz. In addition to the petrology, the illite crystallinity values were measured in the granites and the overlying sediments. They broadly indicate that temperatures during the hydrothermal process in the granite ranged from 250?C (in Moomba 1 and Big Lake 1) to 350?C (in McLeod 1 and Jolokia 1). The crystallinity of the illite in the sedimentary rocks is lower in comparison to those in the granite samples. Together with the occurrence of chlorite and kaolinite in the sediments, this indicates that the sediments and the underlying granite were subjected to different fluid chemistries and temperature regimes. Thin section optical microscopy also shows that the granites have been severely fractured, and that the fracturing was accompanied by significant hydrothermal alteration. Fracturing in the granite occurs mostly as irregular micro-fractures and veining, as well as planar micro-deformation structures in quartz. This indicates that the granite has been subjected to a significantly high stress regime of an unknown origin with subsequent hydrothermal fluid circulation. Hydrothermal alteration mineralogy consists of largely a single phyllosilicate phase (illite). In many cases, all feldspars and micas in the granite have been completely altered

van Zyl, Jaco; Gasparon, Massimo; Uysal, Tonguc

2010-05-01

480

Virtual Interactive Classroom: A New Technology for Distance Learning Developed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Virtual Interactive Classroom (VIC) allows Internet users, specifically students, to remotely control and access data from scientific equipment. This is a significant advantage to school systems that cannot afford experimental equipment, have Internet access, and are seeking to improve science and math scores with current resources. A VIC Development Lab was established at Lewis to demonstrate that scientific equipment can be controlled by remote users over the Internet. Current projects include a wind tunnel, a room camera, a science table, and a microscope.

York, David W.; Babula, Maria

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