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1

NS2 Proteins of GB Virus B and Hepatitis C Virus Share Common Protease Activities and Membrane Topologies  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT GB virus B (GBV-B), which is hepatotropic in experimentally infected small New World primates, is a member of the Hepacivirus genus but phylogenetically relatively distant from hepatitis C virus (HCV). To gain insights into the role and specificity of hepaciviral nonstructural protein 2 (NS2), which is required for HCV polyprotein processing and particle morphogenesis, we investigated whether NS2 structural and functional features are conserved between HCV and GBV-B. We found that GBV-B NS2, like HCV NS2, has cysteine protease activity responsible for cleavage at the NS2/NS3 junction, and we experimentally confirmed the location of this junction within the viral polyprotein. A model for GBV-B NS2 membrane topology was experimentally established by determining the membrane association properties of NS2 segments fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) and their nuclear magnetic resonance structures using synthetic peptides as well as by applying an N-glycosylation scanning approach. Similar glycosylation studies confirmed the HCV NS2 organization. Together, our data show that despite limited amino acid sequence similarity, GBV-B and HCV NS2 proteins share a membrane topology with 3 N-terminal transmembrane segments, which is also predicted to apply to other recently discovered hepaciviruses. Based on these data and using trans-complementation systems, we found that intragenotypic hybrid NS2 proteins with heterologous N-terminal membrane segments were able to efficiently trans-complement an assembly-deficient HCV mutant with a point mutation in the NS2 C-terminal domain, while GBV-B/HCV or intergenotypic NS2 chimeras were not. These studies indicate that virus- and genotype-specific intramolecular interactions between N- and C-terminal domains of NS2 are critically involved in HCV morphogenesis. IMPORTANCE Nonstructural protein 2 (NS2) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a multifunctional protein critically involved in polyprotein processing and virion morphogenesis. To gain insights into NS2 mechanisms of action, we investigated whether NS2 structural and functional features are conserved between HCV and GB virus B (GBV-B), a phylogenetically relatively distant primate hepacivirus. We showed that GBV-B NS2, like HCV NS2, carries cysteine protease activity. We experimentally established a model for GBV-B NS2 membrane topology and demonstrated that despite limited sequence similarity, GBV-B and HCV NS2 share an organization with three N-terminal transmembrane segments. We found that the role of HCV NS2 in particle assembly is genotype specific and relies on critical interactions between its N- and C-terminal domains. This first comparative analysis of NS2 proteins from two hepaciviruses and our structural predictions of NS2 from other newly identified mammal hepaciviruses highlight conserved key features of the hepaciviral life cycle. PMID:24741107

Boukadida, Célia; Marnata, Caroline; Montserret, Roland; Cohen, Lisette; Blumen, Brigitte; Gouttenoire, Jérôme; Moradpour, Darius; Penin, François

2014-01-01

2

Rare Virus Discovered in Common Tick  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Rare Virus Discovered in Common Tick Scientists not yet sure ... FRIDAY, Jan. 16, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- A rare virus has been found in ticks that are common ...

3

Viral Entry of Hepatitis B and D Viruses and Bile Salts Transportation Share Common Molecular Determinants on Sodium Taurocholate Cotransporting Polypeptide  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The liver bile acids transporter sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) is responsible for the majority of sodium-dependent bile salts uptake by hepatocytes. NTCP also functions as a cellular receptor for viral entry of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis D virus (HDV) through a specific interaction between NTCP and the pre-S1 domain of HBV large envelope protein. However, it remains unknown if these two functions of NTCP are independent or if they interfere with each other. Here we show that binding of the pre-S1 domain to human NTCP blocks taurocholate uptake by the receptor; conversely, some bile acid substrates of NTCP inhibit HBV and HDV entry. Mutations of NTCP residues critical for bile salts binding severely impair viral infection by HDV and HBV; to a lesser extent, the residues important for sodium binding also inhibit viral infection. The mutation S267F, corresponding to a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) found in about 9% of the East Asian population, renders NTCP without either taurocholate transporting activity or the ability to support HBV or HDV infection in cell culture. These results demonstrate that molecular determinants critical for HBV and HDV entry overlap with that for bile salts uptake by NTCP, indicating that viral infection may interfere with the normal function of NTCP, and bile acids and their derivatives hold the potential for further development into antiviral drugs. IMPORTANCE Human hepatitis B virus (HBV) and its satellite virus, hepatitis D virus (HDV), are important human pathogens. Available therapeutics against HBV are limited, and there is no drug that is clinically available for HDV infection. A liver bile acids transporter (sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide [NTCP]) critical for maintaining homeostasis of bile acids serves as a functional receptor for HBV and HDV. We report here that the NTCP-binding lipopeptide that originates from the first 47 amino acids of the pre-S1 domain of the HBV L protein blocks taurocholate transport. Some bile salts dose dependently inhibit HBV and HDV infection mediated by NTCP; molecular determinants of NTCP critical for HBV and HDV entry overlap with that for bile acids transport. This work advances our understanding of NTCP-mediated HBV and HDV infection in relation to NTCP's physiological function. Our results also suggest that bile acids or their derivatives hold potential for development into novel drugs against HBV and HDV infection. PMID:24390325

Yan, Huan; Peng, Bo; Liu, Yang; Xu, Guangwei; He, Wenhui; Ren, Bijie; Jing, Zhiyi; Sui, Jianhua

2014-01-01

4

Bean Common Mosaic Virus and Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus (Genus Potyvirus; Potyviridae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are species within the genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae and cause some of the most economically important diseases of legume crops worldwide. Both viruses occur essentially wherever bean and cowpea (including Phaseolus...

5

'Bounce' and Shergotty Share Common Ground  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This illustration compares the spectrum of 'Bounce,' a rock at Meridiani Planum, to that of a martian meteorite found on Earth called Shergotty. Bounce's spectrum, and thus mineral composition, is unique to the rocks studied so far at Merdiani Planum and Gusev Crater, the landings sites of the Mars Exploration Rovers Opportunity and Spirit. However, the results here indicate that Bounce is not a one-of-a-kind rock, but shares origins with Shergotty. Shergotty landed in India in 1865. Bounce's spectra were taken on sol 67 by Opportunity's Moessbauer spectrometer.

2004-01-01

6

Common randomness in information theory and cryptography - I: Secret sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the first part of a study of problems involving common randomness at distance locations, information-theoretic models of secret sharing (generating a common random key at two terminals, without letting an eavesdropper obtain information about this key) are considered. The concept of key-capacity is defined. Single-letter formulas of key-capacity are obtained for several models, and bounds to key-capacity are derived

Rudolph Ahlswede; Imre Csiszár

1993-01-01

7

Metabolism and proliferation share common regulatory pathways in cancer  

E-print Network

Metabolism and proliferation share common regulatory pathways in cancer cells. Vanessa Fritz, proliferation, and cancer inserm-00491405,version1-11Jun2010 Author manuscript, published in "Oncogene 2010;29(31):4369-77" DOI : 10.1038/onc.2010.182 #12;Metabolism, proliferation and cancer Fritz and Fajas 2 Abstract Cancer

Boyer, Edmond

8

Shared office space and the risk of the common cold  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common cold persists as a major economic and public health problem worldwide. Despite its long-established ubiquity, little is yet certain about the determinants of indoor environment in spreading of the infection, and even less about the role of indoor air quality as a mediator. The effect of sharing an office with one or more colleagues on the risk of

Jouni J. K. Jaakkola; Olli P. Heinonen

1995-01-01

9

Expected size of shared haplotypes surrounding a common disease gene  

SciTech Connect

If two persons in a founder population share a rare disease, they may share genes involved in that disease Identical By Descent. We have calculated the probability of the size of the region IBD on either side of a shared common gene. Probabilities are plotted for various values of the meiotic count: the number of independent meioses connecting the persons. Even if this number is quite large, the shared area will, given the present density of markers, contain several markers. To be 95% certain that the area surrounding a gene can be delimited to less than 1 cM, approximately 500 meioses need to be observed. The many generations that are required before a gene is separated from its surrounding polymorphisms indicate that association between disease and marker alleles can be explained as IBD around a common gene. In founder populations apparantly unrelated affected persons will likely share disease genes introduced or mutated between 10 and 40 generations ago. Analyzing the overlap of haplotypes gives excellent opportunities to observe implicitly the many meioses required for genetic fine mapping.

Meerman, G.J. te; Meulen, M.A. van der; Sandkuijl, L.A. [Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands)

1994-09-01

10

Telomeres and viruses: common themes of genome maintenance  

PubMed Central

Genome maintenance mechanisms actively suppress genetic instability associated with cancer and aging. Some viruses provoke genetic instability by subverting the host’s control of genome maintenance. Viruses have their own specialized strategies for genome maintenance, which can mimic and modify host cell processes. Here, we review some of the common features of genome maintenance utilized by viruses and host chromosomes, with a particular focus on terminal repeat (TR) elements. The TRs of cellular chromosomes, better known as telomeres, have well-established roles in cellular chromosome stability. Cellular telomeres are themselves maintained by viral-like mechanisms, including self-propagation by reverse transcription, recombination, and retrotransposition. Viral TR elements, like cellular telomeres, are essential for viral genome stability and propagation. We review the structure and function of viral repeat elements and discuss how they may share telomere-like structures and genome protection functions. We consider how viral infections modulate telomere regulatory factors for viral repurposing and can alter normal host telomere structure and chromosome stability. Understanding the common strategies of viral and cellular genome maintenance may provide new insights into viral–host interactions and the mechanisms driving genetic instability in cancer. PMID:23293769

Deng, Zhong; Wang, Zhuo; Lieberman, Paul M.

2012-01-01

11

Shared mechanisms in stemness and carcinogenesis: lessons from oncogenic viruses  

PubMed Central

A rise in technologies for epigenetic reprogramming of cells to pluripotency, highlights the potential of understanding and manipulating cellular plasticity in unprecedented ways. Increasing evidence points to shared mechanisms between cellular reprogramming and the carcinogenic process, with the emerging possibility to harness these parallels in future therapeutics. In this review, we present a synopsis of recent work from oncogenic viruses which contributes to this body of knowledge, establishing a nexus between infection, cancer, and stemness. PMID:24400225

Iacovides, Demetris; Michael, Stella; Achilleos, Charis; Strati, Katerina

2013-01-01

12

Mapping Resistance to Peanut Mottle Virus in Common Bean  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanut mottle virus (PeMoV) causes severe symptoms of systemic vein necrosis in susceptible snap beans, resembling those caused by Bean common mosaic necrosis virus. During 2008 and 2009, PeMoV was identified in snap bean fields in Frio County, TX. In lieu of the recent PeMoV outbreak, our objectiv...

13

High Diversity and Ancient Common Ancestry of Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus  

PubMed Central

Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is the prototype of the family Arenaviridae. LCMV can be associated with severe disease in humans, and its global distribution reflects the broad dispersion of the primary rodent reservoir, the house mouse (Mus musculus). Recent interest in the natural history of the virus has been stimulated by increasing recognition of LCMV infections during pregnancy, and in clusters of LCMV-associated fatal illness among tissue transplant recipients. Despite its public health importance, little is known regarding the genetic diversity or distribution of virus variants. Genomic analysis of 29 LCMV strains collected from a variety of geographic and temporal sources showed these viruses to be highly diverse. Several distinct lineages exist, but there is little correlation with time or place of isolation. Bayesian analysis estimates the most recent common ancestor to be 1,000–5,000 years old, and this long history is consistent with complex phylogeographic relationships of the extant virus isolates. PMID:20587180

Palacios, Gustavo; Khristova, Marina L.; Erickson, Bobbie R.; Carroll, Serena A.; Comer, James A.; Hui, Jeffrey; Briese, Thomas; St. George, Kirsten; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Lipkin, W. Ian; Nichol, Stuart T.

2010-01-01

14

Explaining Common Variance Shared by Early Numeracy and Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How can it be explained that early literacy and numeracy share variance? We specifically tested whether the correlation between four early literacy skills (rhyming, letter knowledge, emergent writing, and orthographic knowledge) and simple sums (non-symbolic and story condition) reduced after taking into account preschool attention control,…

Davidse, N. J.; De Jong, M. T.; Bus, A. G.

2014-01-01

15

Combining Data Sharing with the Master-Worker Paradigm in the Common Component Architecture  

E-print Network

Combining Data Sharing with the Master-Worker Paradigm in the Common Component Architecture Gabriel. This approach is applied to the Common Component Architecture model. Its benefits are discussed using an image paradigm [3], and support for data sharing among components [4]. Communication between components

Boyer, Edmond

16

Learning What You Need to Know: Using a Common Book as a Fulcrum for Shared  

E-print Network

Learning What You Need to Know: Using a Common Book as a Fulcrum for Shared Experiences among on a common book. We present an approach and analysis centered on the use of a common book in an undergraduate. The experiences highlight the value to educators seeking to include a common book as part of a research course

McCrickard, Scott

17

Antiviral agent blocks breathing of the common cold virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic capsid is critical to the events that shape the viral life cycle; events such as cell attachment, cell entry, and nucleic acid release demand a highly mobile viral surface. Protein mass mapping of the common cold virus, human rhinovirus 14 (HRV14), revealed both viral structural dynamics and the inhibition of such dynamics with an anti- viral agent, WIN

J. KATHLEEN LEWIS; BRIAN BOTHNER; THOMAS J. SMITH; GARY SIUZDAK

1998-01-01

18

Viruses and Bacteria in the Etiology of the Common Cold  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred young adults with common colds were studied during a 10-month period. Virus culture, antigen detection, PCR, and serology with paired samples were used to identify the infection. Viral etiology was es- tablished for 138 of the 200 patients (69%). Rhinoviruses were detected in 105 patients, coronavirus OC43 or 229E infection was detected in 17, influenza A or B

MIKA J. MAKELA; TUOMO PUHAKKA; OLLI RUUSKANEN; MAIJA LEINONEN; PEKKA SAIKKU; MARKO KIMPIMAKI; SOILE BLOMQVIST; TIMO HYYPIA; PERTTI ARSTILA

1998-01-01

19

Shared alterations in NK cell frequency, phenotype, and function in chronic human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus infections.  

PubMed

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) cause clinically important persistent infections. The effects of virus persistence on innate immunity, including NK cell responses, and the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We examined the frequency, phenotype, and function of peripheral blood CD3- CD56+ NK subsets in HIV+ and HCV+ patients and identified significantly reduced numbers of total NK cells and a striking shift in NK subsets, with a marked decrease in the CD56(dim) cell fraction compared to CD56(bright) cells, in both infections. This shift influenced the phenotype and functional capacity (gamma interferon production, killing) of the total NK pool. In addition, abnormalities in the functional capacity of the CD56(dim) NK subset were observed in HIV+ patients. The shared NK alterations were found to be associated with a significant reduction in serum levels of the innate cytokine interleukin 15 (IL-15). In vitro stimulation with IL-15 rescued NK cells of HIV+ and HCV+ patients from apoptosis and enhanced proliferation and functional activity. We hypothesize that the reduced levels of IL-15 present in the serum during HIV and HCV infections might impact NK cell homeostasis, contributing to the common alterations of the NK pool observed in these unrelated infections. PMID:16160163

Meier, Ute-Christiane; Owen, Rachel E; Taylor, Elizabeth; Worth, Andrew; Naoumov, Nikolai; Willberg, Christian; Tang, Kwok; Newton, Phillipa; Pellegrino, Pierre; Williams, Ian; Klenerman, Paul; Borrow, Persephone

2005-10-01

20

Virus-induced gene silencing in soybean and common bean.  

PubMed

Plant viral vectors are useful for transient gene expression as well as for downregulation of gene expression via virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). When used in reverse genetics approaches, VIGS offers a convenient way of transforming genomic information into knowledge of gene function. Efforts to develop and improve plant viral vectors have expanded their applications and have led to substantial advances needed to facilitate gene function studies in major row crops. Here, we describe a DNA-based Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) vector system for both gene expression and VIGS in soybean and common bean. PMID:23386301

Zhang, Chunquan; Whitham, Steven A; Hill, John H

2013-01-01

21

Extensive Host Sharing of Central European Tula Virus ?  

PubMed Central

To examine the host association of Tula virus (TULV), a hantavirus present in large parts of Europe, we investigated a total of 791 rodents representing 469 Microtus arvalis and 322 Microtus agrestis animals from northeast, northwest, and southeast Germany, including geographical regions with sympatric occurrence of both vole species, for the presence of TULV infections. Based on serological investigation, reverse transcriptase PCR, and subsequent sequence analysis of partial small (S) and medium (M) segments, we herein show that TULV is carried not only by its commonly known host M. arvalis but also frequently by M. agrestis in different regions of Germany for a prolonged time period. At one trapping site, TULV was exclusively detected in M. agrestis, suggesting an isolated transmission cycle in this rodent reservoir separate from spillover infections of TULV-carrying M. arvalis. Phylogenetic analysis of the S and M segment sequences demonstrated geographical clustering of the TULV sequences irrespective of the host, M. arvalis or M. agrestis. The novel TULV lineages from northeast, northwest, and southeast Germany described here are clearly separated from each other and from other German, European, or Asian lineages, suggesting their stable geographical localization and fast sequence evolution. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that TULV represents a promiscuous hantavirus with a large panel of susceptible hosts. In addition, this may suggest an alternative evolution mode, other than a strict coevolution, for this virus in its Microtus hosts, which should be proven in further large-scale investigations on sympatric Microtus hosts. PMID:19889769

Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Essbauer, Sandra; Petraityte, Rasa; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Tackmann, Kirsten; Conraths, Franz J.; Sasnauskas, Kestutis; Arikawa, Jiro; Thomas, Astrid; Pfeffer, Martin; Scharninghausen, Jerrold J.; Splettstoesser, Wolf; Wenk, Matthias; Heckel, Gerald; Ulrich, Rainer G.

2010-01-01

22

Hereditary optic neuropathies share a common mitochondrial coupling defect.  

PubMed

Hereditary optic neuropathies are heterogeneous diseases characterized by the degeneration of retinal ganglion cells leading to optic nerve atrophy and impairment of central vision. We found a common coupling defect of oxidative phosphorylation in fibroblasts of patients affected by autosomal dominant optic atrophy (mutations of OPA1), autosomal dominant optic atrophy associated with cataract (mutations of OPA3), and Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy, a disorder associated with point mutations of mitochondrial DNA complex I genes. Interestingly, the energetic defect was significantly more pronounced in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy and autosomal dominant optic atrophy patients with a more complex phenotype, the so-called plus phenotype. PMID:18496845

Chevrollier, Arnaud; Guillet, Virginie; Loiseau, Dominique; Gueguen, Naïg; de Crescenzo, Marie-Anne Pou; Verny, Christophe; Ferre, Marc; Dollfus, Hélène; Odent, Sylvie; Milea, Dan; Goizet, Cyril; Amati-Bonneau, Patrizia; Procaccio, Vincent; Bonneau, Dominique; Reynier, Pascal

2008-06-01

23

Density-dependent effects of multiple predators sharing a common prey in an endophytic habitat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple predator species feeding on a common prey can lead to higher or lower predation than would be expected by simply combining their individual effects. Such emergent multiple predator effects may be especially prevalent if predators share feeding habitat. Despite the prevalence of endophagous insects, no studies have examined how multiple predators sharing an endophytic habitat affect prey or predator

Brian H. Aukema; Murray K. Clayton; Kenneth F. Raffa

2004-01-01

24

Sharing rules for a Common-Pool Resource with private alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agents with ex-ante claims over a common pool resource (CPR) of uncertain size face the risk of resource shortage if the sum of the claims they have over the common pool resource is incompatible with the actual resource size. In case of shortage, a sharing rule or bankruptcy rule is required to organize the restrictions and allocate the available resource

Marianne Lefebvre; Sophie Thoyer; Mabel Tidball; Marc Willinger

2011-01-01

25

CHARACTERIZATION AND PRESENCE OF BEAN COMMON MOSAIC NECROSIS VIRUS IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An outbreak of virus symptoms in the San Juan Valley of the southeastern part of the Dominican Republic during the 1999/2000 dry bean production season was studied. The virus was determined by USDA-ARS at Prosser, WA, to be the NL-8 strain of bean common mosaic necrosis virus. The virus was observed...

26

Revitalization of the shared commons: education for sustainability and marginalized cultures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Education for sustainability provides a vision for revitalizing the environmental commons while preserving cultural traditions and human rights. What happens if the environmental commons is shared by two politically disparate and conflicting cultures? As in many shared common lands, what happens if one culture is dominant and represents a more affluent society with more resources and educational opportunities? In the case of the Tal and Alkaher study (Cult Stud Sci Edu, 2009), asymmetric power differences between the dominant Israeli society and the minority Arab population yielded different environmental narratives and perceptions of students involved in learning about a mediated conflict in national park land. Similarly, marginalized indigenous cultures in Malawi, Africa share common lands with the dominant European landowners but have distinctly different environmental narratives. Although indigenous ways of living with nature contribute to the sustainability of the environment and culture, African funds of knowledge are conspicuously absent from the Eurocentric school science curriculum. In contrast, examples of experiential learning and recent curriculum development efforts in sustainability science in Malawi are inclusive of indigenous knowledge and practices and are essential for revitalizing the shared commons.

Glasson, George E.

2010-06-01

27

Oncogene . Author manuscript Metabolism and proliferation share common regulatory pathways in cancer  

E-print Network

Oncogene . Author manuscript Page /1 9 Metabolism and proliferation share common regulatory to transform the cell. We present herein the view that participation of cell-cycle regulators and oncogenic ; Oncogenes ; Cell-Cycle regulators ; Glycolysis ; de novo Lipogenesis Introduction Over the past decades

Boyer, Edmond

28

Aesthetic preferences for architecture do not rely on commonly shared semantic distinctions  

E-print Network

Aesthetic preferences for architecture do not rely on commonly shared semantic distinctions Alexander H. Denker, G. Gabrielle Starr, Edward A. Vessel New York University What drives our aesthetic. The editor needs to know structures are the most aesthetically pleasing based on how strongly you

Vessel, Edward A.

29

Two closely related endocytic proteins that share a common OCRL-binding motif with APPL1  

E-print Network

Two closely related endocytic proteins that share a common OCRL-binding motif with APPL1 Laura E effector APPL1 (Adaptor Protein containing pleck- strin homology [PH] domain, PTB domain and Leucine zipper motif 1) APPL1 for OCRL binding. Ses binding is mutually exclusive with APPL1 binding, and is disrupted

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

30

Common market, shared problems: time for a coordinated response to biological invasions in Europe?  

E-print Network

), should be developed with a mission to identify, assess and communicate current and emerging threats of emerging invasion threats; initiating responses; supporting training; and communi- cating to the publicCommon market, shared problems: time for a coordinated response to biological invasions in Europe

Richner, Heinz

31

85The Space Shuttle Fly me to the moon? A common misconception shared by  

E-print Network

85The Space Shuttle ­ Fly me to the moon? A common misconception shared by many students, and perhaps some members of the public, is that the Space Shuttle could have been used to travel to the Moon to the other as a series of speed (velocity) changes. For example, the orbit of the Space Shuttle

32

[Experimental infection caused by influenza A (H5N1) virus in common gull (Larus canus)].  

PubMed

The influenza A/common gull/Chany/P/2006 (HSN1) virus strain Isolated from a clinically healthy common gull (Larus canus) caused no death of Its natural host (a common gull). The virus was shown to be capable for effective replication in the tissues of the lung, spleen, and upper respiratory tract and in the intestinal mucosal cells of the common gull with further environmental virus liberation elimination along with mucinous discharges from the cloaca and fauces for 2 weeks. The potential role of this bird species in the circulation of influenza virus is discussed. PMID:23248859

Za?kovskaia, A V; Sharshov, K A; Sherstkov, E A; Iurlov, A K; Shestopalov, A M

2012-01-01

33

Evaluation of the tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) CIAT germplasm collection for response to common bacterial blight and bean common mosaic necrosis virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aphid-transmitted Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus (BCMNV) and Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV) are potyvirus that cause production losses in common and tepary beans. Developing resistance to viruses, specifically BCMV, BCMNV and BGYMV, will be critical for expanding tepary bean production. This stu...

34

Human Parainfluenza Viruses  

MedlinePLUS

... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Share Compartir Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) commonly cause respiratory illnesses in ...

35

Genome of Phaeocystis globosa virus PgV-16T highlights the common ancestry of the largest known DNA viruses infecting eukaryotes  

PubMed Central

Large dsDNA viruses are involved in the population control of many globally distributed species of eukaryotic phytoplankton and have a prominent role in bloom termination. The genus Phaeocystis (Haptophyta, Prymnesiophyceae) includes several high-biomass-forming phytoplankton species, such as Phaeocystis globosa, the blooms of which occur mostly in the coastal zone of the North Atlantic and the North Sea. Here, we report the 459,984-bp-long genome sequence of P. globosa virus strain PgV-16T, encoding 434 proteins and eight tRNAs and, thus, the largest fully sequenced genome to date among viruses infecting algae. Surprisingly, PgV-16T exhibits no phylogenetic affinity with other viruses infecting microalgae (e.g., phycodnaviruses), including those infecting Emiliania huxleyi, another ubiquitous bloom-forming haptophyte. Rather, PgV-16T belongs to an emerging clade (the Megaviridae) clustering the viruses endowed with the largest known genomes, including Megavirus, Mimivirus (both infecting acanthamoeba), and a virus infecting the marine microflagellate grazer Cafeteria roenbergensis. Seventy-five percent of the best matches of PgV-16T–predicted proteins correspond to two viruses [Organic Lake phycodnavirus (OLPV)1 and OLPV2] from a hypersaline lake in Antarctica (Organic Lake), the hosts of which are unknown. As for OLPVs and other Megaviridae, the PgV-16T sequence data revealed the presence of a virophage-like genome. However, no virophage particle was detected in infected P. globosa cultures. The presence of many genes found only in Megaviridae in its genome and the presence of an associated virophage strongly suggest that PgV-16T shares a common ancestry with the largest known dsDNA viruses, the host range of which already encompasses the earliest diverging branches of domain Eukarya. PMID:23754393

Santini, Sebastien; Jeudy, Sandra; Bartoli, Julia; Poirot, Olivier; Lescot, Magali; Abergel, Chantal; Barbe, Valérie; Wommack, K. Eric; Noordeloos, Anna A. M.; Brussaard, Corina P. D.; Claverie, Jean-Michel

2013-01-01

36

Common Mechanism for RNA Encapsidation by Negative-Strand RNA Viruses  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The nucleocapsid of a negative-strand RNA virus is assembled with a single nucleocapsid protein and the viral genomic RNA. The nucleocapsid protein polymerizes along the length of the single-strand genomic RNA (viral RNA) or its cRNA. This process of encapsidation occurs concomitantly with genomic replication. Structural comparisons of several nucleocapsid-like particles show that the mechanism of RNA encapsidation in negative-strand RNA viruses has many common features. Fundamentally, there is a unifying mechanism to keep the capsid protein protomer monomeric prior to encapsidation of viral RNA. In the nucleocapsid, there is a cavity between two globular domains of the nucleocapsid protein where the viral RNA is sequestered. The viral RNA must be transiently released from the nucleocapsid in order to reveal the template RNA sequence for transcription/replication. There are cross-molecular interactions among the protein subunits linearly along the nucleocapsid to stabilize its structure. Empty capsids can form in the absence of RNA. The common characteristics of RNA encapsidation not only delineate the evolutionary relationship of negative-strand RNA viruses but also provide insights into their mechanism of replication. IMPORTANCE What separates negative-strand RNA viruses (NSVs) from the rest of the virosphere is that the nucleocapsid of NSVs serves as the template for viral RNA synthesis. Their viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase can induce local conformational changes in the nucleocapsid to temporarily release the RNA genome so that the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase can use it as the template for RNA synthesis during both transcription and replication. After RNA synthesis at the local region is completed, the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase processes downstream, and the RNA genome is restored in the nucleocapsid. We found that the nucleocapsid assembly of all NSVs shares three essential elements: a monomeric capsid protein protomer, parallel orientation of subunits in the linear nucleocapsid, and a (5H + 3H) motif that forms a proper cavity for sequestration of the RNA. This observation also suggests that all NSVs evolved from a common ancestor that has this unique nucleocapsid. PMID:24429372

Green, Todd J.; Cox, Robert; Tsao, Jun; Rowse, Michael; Qiu, Shihong

2014-01-01

37

Three different macronuclear DNAs in Oxytricha fallax share a common sequence block.  

PubMed Central

The three members of a cross-hybridizing family of macronuclear DNAs (4,890, 2,780, and 1,640 base pairs) from the protozoan Oxytricha fallax have in common a conserved sequence block 1,300 to 1,550 base pairs long. Adjacent to the common block in the two larger DNAs are sequences which are unique to them, whereas the smallest DNA contains few if any additional sequences. The family reappears when the macronucleus is replaced after conjugation and can be detected in another O. fallax subspecies. In a random collection of cloned macronuclear DNAs, 6 of 15 hybridize to macronuclear DNA families. This high frequency suggests that families sharing common sequence blocks have an important role in macronuclear function. Images PMID:6328276

Cartinhour, S W; Herrick, G A

1984-01-01

38

Antiviral agent blocks breathing of the common cold virus.  

PubMed

A dynamic capsid is critical to the events that shape the viral life cycle; events such as cell attachment, cell entry, and nucleic acid release demand a highly mobile viral surface. Protein mass mapping of the common cold virus, human rhinovirus 14 (HRV14), revealed both viral structural dynamics and the inhibition of such dynamics with an antiviral agent, WIN 52084. Viral capsid digestion fragments resulting from proteolytic time-course experiments provided structural information in good agreement with the HRV14 three-dimensional crystal structure. As expected, initial digestion fragments included peptides from the capsid protein VP1. This observation was expected because VP1 is the most external viral protein. Initial digestion fragments also included peptides belonging to VP4, the most internal capsid protein. The mass spectral results together with x-ray crystallography data provide information consistent with a "breathing" model of the viral capsid. Whereas the crystal structure of HRV14 shows VP4 to be the most internal capsid protein, mass spectral results show VP4 fragments to be among the first digestion fragments observed. Taken together this information demonstrates that VP4 is transiently exposed to the viral surface via viral breathing. Comparative digests of HRV14 in the presence and absence of WIN 52084 revealed a dramatic inhibition of digestion. These results indicate that the binding of the antiviral agent not only causes local conformational changes in the drug binding pocket but actually stabilizes the entire viral capsid against enzymatic degradation. Viral capsid mass mapping provides a fast and sensitive method for probing viral structural dynamics as well as providing a means for investigating antiviral drug efficacy. PMID:9618488

Lewis, J K; Bothner, B; Smith, T J; Siuzdak, G

1998-06-01

39

Fatal encephalitis due to BK virus in a patient with common variable immunodeficiency: a case report.  

PubMed

Encephalitis due to BK virus is a rare condition. Here, we describe a young male patient with common variable immunodeficiency who developed fatal encephalitis due to BK virus. The patient presented initially with ocular symptoms that were followed by behavioral changes and spastic quadriparesis. Diagnosis was made by the compatible clinical findings and detection of viral DNA by polymerase chain reaction in the cerebrospinal fluid. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of BK virus encephalitis in a patient with common variable immunodeficiency. We suggest that BK virus should be suspected in cases of encephalitis; particularly in patients with immunodeficiency. PMID:23731846

Bakri, Faris G; Bahou, Yacoub G; Al-Sammarrai, Firas A; Hadidy, Azmy; Gharaibeh, Almutez; Zaid, Ghida K; Mahafzah, Azmi; Samara, Osama A; Ababneh, Nidaa A; Zak, Imad

2013-08-01

40

Plant Disease Note 2007 | First Report of Onion yellow dwarf virus, Leek yellow stripe virus, and Garlic common latent virus in Garlic in Oregon Overview Current Issue Past Issues Search PD Search APS Journals  

E-print Network

Plant Disease Note 2007 | First Report of Onion yellow dwarf virus, Leek yellow stripe virus-2007 The American Phytopathological Society First Report of Onion yellow dwarf virus, Leek yellow stripe virus. With recent findings of Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV), Leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV), and Garlic common

Pappu, Hanu R.

41

Genome-wide Association Study Identifies Shared Risk Loci Common to Two Malignancies in Golden Retrievers.  

PubMed

Dogs, with their breed-determined limited genetic background, are great models of human disease including cancer. Canine B-cell lymphoma and hemangiosarcoma are both malignancies of the hematologic system that are clinically and histologically similar to human B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and angiosarcoma, respectively. Golden retrievers in the US show significantly elevated lifetime risk for both B-cell lymphoma (6%) and hemangiosarcoma (20%). We conducted genome-wide association studies for hemangiosarcoma and B-cell lymphoma, identifying two shared predisposing loci. The two associated loci are located on chromosome 5, and together contribute ~20% of the risk of developing these cancers. Genome-wide p-values for the top SNP of each locus are 4.6×10-7 and 2.7×10-6, respectively. Whole genome resequencing of nine cases and controls followed by genotyping and detailed analysis identified three shared and one B-cell lymphoma specific risk haplotypes within the two loci, but no coding changes were associated with the risk haplotypes. Gene expression analysis of B-cell lymphoma tumors revealed that carrying the risk haplotypes at the first locus is associated with down-regulation of several nearby genes including the proximal gene TRPC6, a transient receptor Ca2+-channel involved in T-cell activation, among other functions. The shared risk haplotype in the second locus overlaps the vesicle transport and release gene STX8. Carrying the shared risk haplotype is associated with gene expression changes of 100 genes enriched for pathways involved in immune cell activation. Thus, the predisposing germ-line mutations in B-cell lymphoma and hemangiosarcoma appear to be regulatory, and affect pathways involved in T-cell mediated immune response in the tumor. This suggests that the interaction between the immune system and malignant cells plays a common role in the tumorigenesis of these relatively different cancers. PMID:25642983

Tonomura, Noriko; Elvers, Ingegerd; Thomas, Rachael; Megquier, Kate; Turner-Maier, Jason; Howald, Cedric; Sarver, Aaron L; Swofford, Ross; Frantz, Aric M; Ito, Daisuke; Mauceli, Evan; Arendt, Maja; Noh, Hyun Ji; Koltookian, Michele; Biagi, Tara; Fryc, Sarah; Williams, Christina; Avery, Anne C; Kim, Jong-Hyuk; Barber, Lisa; Burgess, Kristine; Lander, Eric S; Karlsson, Elinor K; Azuma, Chieko; Modiano, Jaime F; Breen, Matthew; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin

2015-02-01

42

A common solution to group 2 influenza virus neutralization  

PubMed Central

The discovery and characterization of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against influenza viruses have raised hopes for the development of monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based immunotherapy and the design of universal influenza vaccines. Only one human bnAb (CR8020) specifically recognizing group 2 influenza A viruses has been previously characterized that binds to a highly conserved epitope at the base of the hemagglutinin (HA) stem and has neutralizing activity against H3, H7, and H10 viruses. Here, we report a second group 2 bnAb, CR8043, which was derived from a different germ-line gene encoding a highly divergent amino acid sequence. CR8043 has in vitro neutralizing activity against H3 and H10 viruses and protects mice against challenge with a lethal dose of H3N2 and H7N7 viruses. The crystal structure and EM reconstructions of the CR8043-H3 HA complex revealed that CR8043 binds to a site similar to the CR8020 epitope but uses an alternative angle of approach and a distinct set of interactions. The identification of another antibody against the group 2 stem epitope suggests that this conserved site of vulnerability has great potential for design of therapeutics and vaccines. PMID:24335589

Friesen, Robert H. E.; Lee, Peter S.; Stoop, Esther J. M.; Hoffman, Ryan M. B.; Ekiert, Damian C.; Bhabha, Gira; Yu, Wenli; Juraszek, Jarek; Koudstaal, Wouter; Jongeneelen, Mandy; Korse, Hans J. W. M.; Ophorst, Carla; Brinkman-van der Linden, Els C. M.; Throsby, Mark; Kwakkenbos, Mark J.; Bakker, Arjen Q.; Beaumont, Tim; Spits, Hergen; Kwaks, Ted; Vogels, Ronald; Ward, Andrew B.; Goudsmit, Jaap; Wilson, Ian A.

2014-01-01

43

Spread of Avian Influenza Viruses by Common Teal (Anas crecca) in Europe  

E-print Network

Spread of Avian Influenza Viruses by Common Teal (Anas crecca) in Europe Camille Lebarbenchon1. In this study, we investigated potential AIV spread by Common Teal (Anas crecca) from the Camargue area by Common Teal (Anas crecca) in Europe. PLoS ONE 4(10): e7289. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007289 Editor: Immo

Green, Andy J.

44

Knowledge Sharing among University Students Facilitated with a Creative Commons Licensing Mechanism: A Case Study in a Programming Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Creative Commons (CC) mechanism has been suggested as a potential means to foster a reliable environment for online knowledge sharing activity. This study investigates the role of the CC mechanism in supporting knowledge sharing among a group of university students studying programming from the perspectives of social cognitive and social capital…

Liu, Chen-Chung; Lin, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chun-Yi; Chao, Po-Yao

2014-01-01

45

Emerging Theme: Cellular PDZ Proteins as Common Targets of Pathogenic Viruses?  

PubMed Central

More than a decade ago, three viral oncoproteins, adenovirus type 9 E4-ORF1, human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 Tax, and high-risk human papillomavirus E6, were found to encode a related carboxyl-terminal PDZ domain-binding motif (PBM) that mediates interactions with a select group of cellular PDZ proteins. Recent studies have shown that many other viruses also encode PBM-containing proteins that bind to cellular PDZ proteins. Interestingly, these recently recognized viruses include not only some with oncogenic potential (hepatitis B virus, rhesus papillomavirus, cottontail rabbit papillomavirus) but also many without this potential (influenza virus, Dengue virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, rabies virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, human immunodeficiency virus). Examination of the cellular PDZ proteins that are targets of viral PBMs reveals that the viral proteins often interact with the same or similar types of PDZ proteins, most notably Dlg1 and other members of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase protein family, as well as Scribble. In addition, cellular PDZ protein targets of viral PBMs commonly control tight junction formation, cell polarity establishment, and apoptosis. These findings reveal a new theme in virology wherein many different virus families encode proteins that bind and perturb the function of cellular PDZ proteins. The inhibition or perturbation of the function of cellular PDZ proteins appears to be a widely used strategy for viruses to enhance their replication, disseminate in the host, and transmit to new hosts. PMID:21775458

Javier, Ronald T.; Rice, Andrew P.

2011-01-01

46

One size fits all: Eurasian lynx females share a common optimal litter size.  

PubMed

Lack proposed that the average clutch size of altricial species should be determined by the average maximum number of young the parents can raise such that all females in a given population should share a common optimal clutch size. Support for this model remains equivocal and recent studies have suggested that intra-population variation in clutch size is adaptive because each female has its own optimal clutch size associated with its intrinsic ability to raise offspring. Although Lack litter size and condition-dependent litter size are presented as two competing models, both are based on the concept of individual optimization. We propose a unified optimal litter size model (called 'adaptive litter size') and identify a set of conditions under which a common vs. a state-dependent optimal litter size should be observed. We test whether females of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) have a common optimal litter size, or whether they adjust their litter size according to their state. We used a detailed individual-based data set collected from contrasting populations of Eurasian lynx in Scandinavia. Observed reproductive patterns in female lynx provide strong support for the existence of a common optimal litter size. Litter size did not vary according to female body mass or reproductive category, or among contrasted populations and years. A litter size of 2 was associated with a higher fitness than both smaller and larger litters, and thus corresponded to the 'adaptive litter size' for female lynx. We suggest that the reproductive pattern of female lynx might correspond to a risk avoidance tactic common to all individuals, which has evolved in response to strong environmental constraints generated by a highly unpredictable food supply during lactation. PMID:23859302

Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Nilsen, Erlend B; Odden, John; Andrén, Henrik; Linnell, John D C

2014-01-01

47

Modularity in the mammalian dentition: Mice and monkeys share a common dental genetic architecture  

PubMed Central

The concept of modularity provides a useful tool for exploring the relationship between genotype and phenotype. Here, we use quantitative genetics to identify modularity within the mammalian dentition, connecting the genetics of organogenesis to the genetics of population-level variation for a phenotype well represented in the fossil record. We estimated the correlations between dental traits due to the shared additive effects of genes (pleiotropy) and compared the pleiotropic relationships among homologous traits in two evolutionary distant taxa – mice and baboons. We find that in both mice and baboons, who shared a common ancestor >60 Ma, incisor size variation is genetically independent of molar size variation. Furthermore, baboon premolars show independent genetic variation from incisors, suggesting that a modular architecture separates incisors from these posterior teeth as well. Such genetic independence between modules provides an explanation for the extensive diversity of incisor size variation seen throughout mammalian evolution--variation uncorrelated with equivalent levels of postcanine tooth size variation. The modularity identified here is supported by the odontogenic homeobox code proposed for the patterning of the rodent dentition. The baboon postcanine pattern of incomplete pleiotropy is also consistent with predictions from the morphogenetic field model. PMID:20922775

Hlusko, Leslea J.; Sage, Richard D.; Mahaney, Michael C.

2010-01-01

48

Instrument Monitoring, Data Sharing, and Archiving Using Common Instrument Middleware Architecture (CIMA)  

SciTech Connect

The Common Instrument Middleware Architecture (CIMA) aims at Grid-enabling a wide range of scientific instruments and sensors to enable easy access to and sharing and storage of data produced by these instruments and sensors. This paper describes the implementation of CIMA applied to the field of single-crystal X-ray crystallography. To allow the researchers to easily view the current and past data streams from the instruments or sensors in a laboratory, a crystallography portal and associated portlets were developed for this application. The CIMA-based crystallography system provides an opportunity for anyone with Web access to observe and use crystallographic and other data from laboratories that previously had only limited access.

Bramley, Randall; Chiu, Kenneth; Devadithya, Tharaka; Gupta, Nisha; Hart, Charles; Huffman, John C.; Huffman, Kianosh; Ma, Yu; McMullen, Donald F. (SUNY); (Indiana)

2008-10-03

49

Recombinants of bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and genetic determinants of BCMV involved in overcoming resistance in common bean.  

PubMed

Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) exists as a complex of strains classified by reactions to resistance genes found in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); seven BCMV pathotypes have been distinguished thus far, numbered I to VII. Virus genetic determinants involved in pathogenicity interactions with resistance genes have not yet been identified. Here, we describe the characterization of two novel field isolates of BCMV that helped to narrow down these genetic determinants interacting with specific P. vulgaris resistance factors. Based on a biological characterization on common bean differentials, both isolates were classified as belonging to pathotype VII, similar to control isolate US10, and both isolates exhibited the B serotype. The whole genome was sequenced for both isolates and found to be 98 to 99% identical to the BCMV isolate RU1 (pathotype VI), and a single name was retained: BCMV RU1-OR. To identify a genetic determinant of BCMV linked to the BCMV pathotype VII, the whole genome was also sequenced for two control isolates, US10 and RU1-P. Inspection of the nucleotide sequences for BCMV RU1-OR and US10 (both pathotype VII) and three closely related sequences of BCMV (RU1-P, RU1-D, and RU1-W, all pathotype VI) revealed that RU1-OR originated through a series of recombination events between US10 and an as-yet-unidentified BCMV parental genome, resulting in changes in virus pathology. The data obtained suggest that a fragment of the RU1-OR genome between positions 723 and 1,961 nucleotides that is common to US10 and RU1-OR in the P1-HC-Pro region of the BCMV genome may be responsible for the ability to overcome resistance in bean conferred by the bc-2(2) gene. This is the first report of a virus genetic determinant responsible for overcoming a specific BCMV resistance gene in common bean. PMID:24915430

Feng, Xue; Poplawsky, Alan R; Nikolaeva, Olga V; Myers, James R; Karasev, Alexander V

2014-07-01

50

Mycorrhizal networks: common goods of plants shared under unequal terms of trade.  

PubMed

Plants commonly live in a symbiotic association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). They invest photosynthetic products to feed their fungal partners, which, in return, provide mineral nutrients foraged in the soil by their intricate hyphal networks. Intriguingly, AMF can link neighboring plants, forming common mycorrhizal networks (CMNs). What are the terms of trade in such CMNs between plants and their shared fungal partners? To address this question, we set up microcosms containing a pair of test plants, interlinked by a CMN of Glomus intraradices or Glomus mosseae. The plants were flax (Linum usitatissimum; a C(3) plant) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor; a C(4) plant), which display distinctly different (13)C/(12)C isotope compositions. This allowed us to differentially assess the carbon investment of the two plants into the CMN through stable isotope tracing. In parallel, we determined the plants' "return of investment" (i.e. the acquisition of nutrients via CMN) using (15)N and (33)P as tracers. Depending on the AMF species, we found a strong asymmetry in the terms of trade: flax invested little carbon but gained up to 94% of the nitrogen and phosphorus provided by the CMN, which highly facilitated growth, whereas the neighboring sorghum invested massive amounts of carbon with little return but was barely affected in growth. Overall biomass production in the mixed culture surpassed the mean of the two monocultures. Thus, CMNs may contribute to interplant facilitation and the productivity boosts often found with intercropping compared with conventional monocropping. PMID:22517410

Walder, Florian; Niemann, Helge; Natarajan, Mathimaran; Lehmann, Moritz F; Boller, Thomas; Wiemken, Andres

2012-06-01

51

Mycorrhizal Networks: Common Goods of Plants Shared under Unequal Terms of Trade1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Plants commonly live in a symbiotic association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). They invest photosynthetic products to feed their fungal partners, which, in return, provide mineral nutrients foraged in the soil by their intricate hyphal networks. Intriguingly, AMF can link neighboring plants, forming common mycorrhizal networks (CMNs). What are the terms of trade in such CMNs between plants and their shared fungal partners? To address this question, we set up microcosms containing a pair of test plants, interlinked by a CMN of Glomus intraradices or Glomus mosseae. The plants were flax (Linum usitatissimum; a C3 plant) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor; a C4 plant), which display distinctly different 13C/12C isotope compositions. This allowed us to differentially assess the carbon investment of the two plants into the CMN through stable isotope tracing. In parallel, we determined the plants’ “return of investment” (i.e. the acquisition of nutrients via CMN) using 15N and 33P as tracers. Depending on the AMF species, we found a strong asymmetry in the terms of trade: flax invested little carbon but gained up to 94% of the nitrogen and phosphorus provided by the CMN, which highly facilitated growth, whereas the neighboring sorghum invested massive amounts of carbon with little return but was barely affected in growth. Overall biomass production in the mixed culture surpassed the mean of the two monocultures. Thus, CMNs may contribute to interplant facilitation and the productivity boosts often found with intercropping compared with conventional monocropping. PMID:22517410

Walder, Florian; Niemann, Helge; Natarajan, Mathimaran; Lehmann, Moritz F.; Boller, Thomas; Wiemken, Andres

2012-01-01

52

Viruses and Fullerenes - Symmetry as a Common Thread?  

E-print Network

We apply here the principle of affine symmetry to the nested fullerene cages (carbon onions) that arise in the context of carbon chemistry. Previous work on affine extensions of the icosahedral group has revealed a new organisational principle in virus structure and assembly. We adapt this group theoretic framework here to the physical requirements dictated by carbon chemistry, and show that we can derive mathematical models for carbon onions within this affine symmetry approach. This suggests the applicability of affine symmetry in a wider context in Nature, as well as offering a novel perspective on the geometric principles underpinning carbon chemistry.

Dechant, Pierre-Philippe; Keef, Tom; Twarock, Reidun

2014-01-01

53

Viruses and Fullerenes - Symmetry as a Common Thread?  

E-print Network

We apply here the principle of affine symmetry to the nested fullerene cages (carbon onions) that arise in the context of carbon chemistry. Previous work on affine extensions of the icosahedral group has revealed a new organisational principle in virus structure and assembly. We adapt this group theoretic framework here to the physical requirements dictated by carbon chemistry, and show that we can derive mathematical models for carbon onions within this affine symmetry approach. This suggests the applicability of affine symmetry in a wider context in Nature, as well as offering a novel perspective on the geometric principles underpinning carbon chemistry.

Pierre-Philippe Dechant; Jess Wardman; Tom Keef; Reidun Twarock

2014-02-18

54

Studies on Parainfluenza Type 2 and 4 Viruses Obtained from Patients with Common Colds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four agents which were obtained from adults with common colds were cultivated and identified—one was influenza type B and the others were parainfluenza viruses of types 2 and 4. Their cultivation was assisted by the use of organ cultures of human embryo tracheal or nasal epithelium. They infected and caused typical common colds in volunteers.

D. A. J. Tyrrell; M. L. Bynoe

1969-01-01

55

Density-dependent effects of multiple predators sharing a common prey in an endophytic habitat.  

PubMed

Multiple predator species feeding on a common prey can lead to higher or lower predation than would be expected by simply combining their individual effects. Such emergent multiple predator effects may be especially prevalent if predators share feeding habitat. Despite the prevalence of endophagous insects, no studies have examined how multiple predators sharing an endophytic habitat affect prey or predator reproduction. We investigated density-dependent predation of Thanasimus dubius (Coleoptera: Cleridae) and Platysoma cylindrica (Coleoptera: Histeridae) on a bark beetle prey, Ips pini (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), in a laboratory assay. I. pini utilize aggregation pheromones to group-colonize and reproduce within the stems of conifers. T. dubius and P. cylindrica exploit these aggregation pheromones to arrive simultaneously with the herbivore. Adult T. dubius prey exophytically, while P. cylindrica adults enter and prey within the bark beetle galleries. Larvae of both predators prey endophytically. We used a multiple regression analysis, which avoids confounding predator composition with density, to examine the effects of varying predator densities alone and in combination on herbivore establishment, herbivore reproduction, and predator reproduction. Predators reduced colonization success by both sexes, and decreased I. pini reproduction on a per male and per female basis. The combined effects of these predators did not enhance or reduce prey establishment or reproduction in unexpected manners, and these predators were entirely substitutable. The herbivore's net replacement rate was never reduced significantly below one at prey and predator densities emulating field conditions. Similar numbers of each predator species emerged from the logs, but predator reproduction suffered from high intraspecific interference. The net replacement rate of P. cylindrica was not affected by conspecifics or T. dubius. In contrast, the net replacement rate of T. dubius decreased with the presence of conspecifics or P. cylindrica. Combinations of both predators led to an emergent effect, a slightly increased net replacement rate of T. dubius. This may have been due to predation by larval T. dubius on pupal P. cylindrica, as P. cylindrica develops more rapidly than T. dubius within this shared habitat. PMID:14968356

Aukema, Brian H; Clayton, Murray K; Raffa, Kenneth F

2004-05-01

56

Occurrance in Korea of three major soybean viruses, Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYCMV), and Soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV) revealed by a nationwide survey of soybean fields  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV) and soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV) were recently isolated in Korea, and it hasn’t been reported how these two viruses were dispersed in Korea. In 2012, we performed a nationwide survey of subsistence soybean farms in Korea. Leaves that appeared ...

57

Spread of Avian Influenza Viruses by Common Teal (Anas crecca) in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the recent spread of highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 subtypes, avian influenza virus (AIV) dispersal has become an increasing focus of research. As for any other bird-borne pathogen, dispersal of these viruses is related to local and migratory movements of their hosts. In this study, we investigated potential AIV spread by Common Teal (Anas crecca) from the Camargue area, in

Camille Lebarbenchon; Frédéric Albespy; Anne-Laure Brochet; Viviane Grandhomme; François Renaud; Hervé Fritz; Andy J. Green; Frédéric Thomas; Sylvie van der Werf; Philippe Aubry; Matthieu Guillemain; Michel Gauthier-Clerc

2009-01-01

58

Recognition of Conserved Amino Acid Motifs of Common Viruses and Its Role in Autoimmunity  

PubMed Central

The triggers of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) remain elusive. Epidemiological studies suggest that common pathogens can exacerbate and also induce MS, but it has been difficult to pinpoint individual organisms. Here we demonstrate that in vivo clonally expanded CD4+ T cells isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid of a MS patient during disease exacerbation respond to a poly-arginine motif of the nonpathogenic and ubiquitous Torque Teno virus. These T cell clones also can be stimulated by arginine-enriched protein domains from other common viruses and recognize multiple autoantigens. Our data suggest that repeated infections with common pathogenic and even nonpathogenic viruses could expand T cells specific for conserved protein domains that are able to cross-react with tissue-derived and ubiquitous autoantigens. PMID:16362076

2005-01-01

59

Real-time Motion Planning of Multiple Mobile Manipulators with a Common Task Objective in Shared Work  

E-print Network

with a common task objective. It presents a distributed, real-time algorithm to plan motion trajectory for each roles for different robots. The focus is often not on planning actual physical motions of the robots that no two robots share the same workspace. There is relatively little research on real-time motion planning

Xiao, Jing

60

Two Zebrafish Alcohol Dehydrogenases Share Common Ancestry with Mammalian Class I, II, IV, and V Alcohol Dehydrogenase  

E-print Network

functional properties. Fetal alcohol syndrome in children born to women who con- sumed alcohol during pregnancy was first described by Jones and colleagues in 1973 (1). Fetal alcohol syndrome is charac- terizedTwo Zebrafish Alcohol Dehydrogenases Share Common Ancestry with Mammalian Class I, II, IV, and V

Tullos, Desiree

61

A national HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) database that facilitates data sharing  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this communication is to stimulate discussion on a National Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Database that facilitates and coordinates data sharing. We argue for the creation of a new database because significant gaps exists in the type of information that are available on HIV. Databases that extensively survey the published literature on HIV are widely available, however, databases that contain either raw data or that describe ongoing HIV research efforts are not widely available. For epidemiologists, sociologists and mathematical modelers, who need to draw on raw epidemiologic and behavior data from a broad range of fields, the existing databases are inadequate. In this paper we emphasize the particular requirements of epidemiologists, sociologists and modelers, and suggest a plan to accommodate their database needs.

Layne, S.P.; Marr, T.G.; Stanley, E.A.; Hyman, J.M.; Colgate, S.A.

1988-01-01

62

Blueberry scorch virus Blueberry shock virus (BlShV) causes shock, a common  

E-print Network

the growing point dies (Fig. 4). All blueberry cultivars are susceptible to blueberry shock virus and exhibit. Just before bloom, blossoms and young vegetative shoots die suddenly (Figs. 1, 2). This may happen infected blueberry pollen carried by bees (Photo by R. Isaacs). Yield losses of 34 to 90% due to blueberry

Isaacs, Rufus

63

Spread of avian influenza viruses by common teal (Anas crecca) in Europe.  

PubMed

Since the recent spread of highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 subtypes, avian influenza virus (AIV) dispersal has become an increasing focus of research. As for any other bird-borne pathogen, dispersal of these viruses is related to local and migratory movements of their hosts. In this study, we investigated potential AIV spread by Common Teal (Anas crecca) from the Camargue area, in the South of France, across Europe. Based on bird-ring recoveries, local duck population sizes and prevalence of infection with these viruses, we built an individual-based spatially explicit model describing bird movements, both locally (between wintering areas) and at the flyway scale. We investigated the effects of viral excretion duration and inactivation rate in water by simulating AIV spread with varying values for these two parameters. The results indicate that an efficient AIV dispersal in space is possible only for excretion durations longer than 7 days. Virus inactivation rate in the environment appears as a key parameter in the model because it allows local persistence of AIV over several months, the interval between two migratory periods. Virus persistence in water thus represents an important component of contamination risk as ducks migrate along their flyway. Based on the present modelling exercise, we also argue that HP H5N1 AIV is unlikely to be efficiently spread by Common Teal dispersal only. PMID:19802387

Lebarbenchon, Camille; Albespy, Frédéric; Brochet, Anne-Laure; Grandhomme, Viviane; Renaud, François; Fritz, Hervé; Green, Andy J; Thomas, Frédéric; van der Werf, Sylvie; Aubry, Philippe; Guillemain, Matthieu; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel

2009-01-01

64

Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) A parent's guide to condition and treatment information A A A Though more common near the lips, grouped blisters (vesicles) can occur anywhere in herpes infections. Overview The first eruption of skin or ...

65

Independent isolates of the emerging subgroup J avian leukosis virus derive from a common ancestor.  

PubMed

A new subgroup of avian leukosis virus (ALV) that includes a unique env gene, designated J, was identified recently in England. Sequence analysis of prototype English isolate HPRS-103 revealed several other unique genetic characteristics of this strain and provided information that it arose by recombination between exogenous and endogenous virus sequences. In the past several years, ALV J type viruses (ALV-J) have been isolated from broiler breeder flocks in the United States. We were interested in determining the relationship between the U.S. and English isolates of ALV-J. Based on sequence data from two independently derived U.S. field isolates, we conclude that the U.S. and English isolates of ALV-J derive from a common ancestor and are not the result of independent recombination events. PMID:9811780

Benson, S J; Ruis, B L; Garbers, A L; Fadly, A M; Conklin, K F

1998-12-01

66

Execution Architecture Terms of Use: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5  

E-print Network

Communicate by shared data structures Visible to most O/S utilities Not so visible #12;5 Activity stereotypes, which may be both static and dynamic Concurrent subsystems view Contains only concurrent subsystems" processes May be more palatable to traditional systems designers - ? #12;8 Dynamic concurrency Processes

Boutilier, Craig

67

Genome-wide association study of 14,000 cases of seven common diseases and 3,000 shared controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing evidence that genome-wide association (GWA) studies represent a powerful approach to the identification of genes involved in common human diseases. We describe a joint GWA study (using the Affymetrix GeneChip 500K Mapping Array Set) undertaken in the British population, which has examined ~2,000 individuals for each of 7 major diseases and a shared set of ~3,000 controls.

Paul R. Burton; David G. Clayton; Lon R. Cardon; Nick Craddock; Panos Deloukas; Audrey Duncanson; Dominic P. Kwiatkowski; Mark I. McCarthy; Willem H. Ouwehand; Nilesh J. Samani; John A. Todd; Peter Donnelly; Jeffrey C. Barrett; Dan Davison; Doug Easton; David Evans; Hin-Tak Leung; Jonathan L. Marchini; Andrew P. Morris; Chris C. A. Spencer; Martin D. Tobin; Antony P. Attwood; James P. Boorman; Barbara Cant; Ursula Everson; Judith M. Hussey; Jennifer D. Jolley; Alexandra S. Knight; Kerstin Koch; Elizabeth Meech; Sarah Nutland; Christopher V. Prowse; Helen E. Stevens; Niall C. Taylor; Graham R. Walters; Neil M. Walker; Nicholas A. Watkins; Thilo Winzer; Richard W. Jones; Wendy L. McArdle; Susan M. Ring; David P. Strachan; Marcus Pembrey; Gerome Breen; David St Clair; Sian Caesar; Katherine Gordon-Smith; Lisa Jones; Christine Fraser; Elaine K. Green; Detelina Grozeva; Marian L. Hamshere; Peter A. Holmans; Ian R. Jones; George Kirov; Valentina Moskvina; Ivan Nikolov; Michael C. O'Donovan; Michael J. Owen; David A. Collier; Amanda Elkin; Anne Farmer; Richard Williamson; Peter McGuffin; Allan H. Young; I. Nicol Ferrier; Stephen G. Ball; Anthony J. Balmforth; Jennifer H. Barrett; D. Timothy Bishop; Mark M. Iles; Azhar Maqbool; Nadira Yuldasheva; Alistair S. Hall; Peter S. Braund; Richard J. Dixon; Massimo Mangino; Suzanne Stevens; John R. Thompson; Francesca Bredin; Mark Tremelling; Miles Parkes; Hazel Drummond; Charles W. Lees; Elaine R. Nimmo; Jack Satsangi; Sheila A. Fisher; Alastair Forbes; Cathryn M. Lewis; Clive M. Onnie; Natalie J. Prescott; Jeremy Sanderson; Christopher G. Mathew; Jamie Barbour; M. Khalid Mohiuddin; Catherine E. Todhunter; John C. Mansfield; Tariq Ahmad; Fraser R. Cummings; Derek P. Jewell; John Webster; Morris J. Brown; G. Mark Lathrop; John Connell; Anna Dominiczak; Carolina A. Braga Marcano; Beverley Burke; Richard Dobson; Johannie Gungadoo; Kate L. Lee; Patricia B. Munroe; Stephen J. Newhouse; Abiodun Onipinla; Chris Wallace; Mingzhan Xue; Mark Caulfield; Martin Farrall; Anne Barton; Ian N. Bruce; Hannah Donovan; Steve Eyre; Paul D. Gilbert; Samantha L. Hider; Anne M. Hinks; Sally L. John; Catherine Potter; Alan J. Silman; Deborah P. M. Symmons; Wendy Thomson; Jane Worthington; David B. Dunger; Barry Widmer; Timothy M. Frayling; Rachel M. Freathy; Hana Lango; John R. B. Perry; Beverley M. Shields; Michael N. Weedon; Andrew T. Hattersley; Graham A. Hitman; Mark Walker; Kate S. Elliott; Christopher J. Groves; Cecilia M. Lindgren; Nigel W. Rayner; Nicholas J. Timpson; Eleftheria Zeggini; Melanie Newport; Giorgio Sirugo; Emily Lyons; Fredrik Vannberg; Adrian V. S. Hill; Linda A. Bradbury; Claire Farrar; Jennifer J. Pointon; Paul Wordsworth; Matthew A. Brown; Jayne A. Franklyn; Joanne M. Heward; Matthew J. Simmonds; Stephen C. L. Gough; Sheila Seal; Michael R. Stratton; Nazneen Rahman; Maria Ban; An Goris; Stephen J. Sawcer; Alastair Compston; David Conway; Muminatou Jallow; Kirk A. Rockett; Suzannah J. Bumpstead; Amy Chaney; Kate Downes; Mohammed J. R. Ghori; Rhian Gwilliam; Sarah E. Hunt; Michael Inouye; Andrew Keniry; Emma King; Ralph McGinnis; Simon Potter; Rathi Ravindrarajah; Pamela Whittaker; Claire Widden; David Withers; Niall J. Cardin; Teresa Ferreira; Joanne Pereira-Gale; Ingileif B. Hallgrimsdóttir; Bryan N. Howie; Zhan Su; Yik Ying Teo; Damjan Vukcevic; David Bentley; Alistair Compston

2007-01-01

68

Structured representation for core elements of common clinical decision support interventions to facilitate knowledge sharing.  

PubMed

At present, there are no widely accepted, standard approaches for representing computer-based clinical decision support (CDS) intervention types and their structural components. This study aimed to identify key requirements for the representation of five widely utilized CDS intervention types: alerts and reminders, order sets, infobuttons, documentation templates/forms, and relevant data presentation. An XML schema was proposed for representing these interventions and their core structural elements (e.g., general metadata, applicable clinical scenarios, CDS inputs, CDS outputs, and CDS logic) in a shareable manner. The schema was validated by building CDS artifacts for 22 different interventions, targeted toward guidelines and clinical conditions called for in the 2011 Meaningful Use criteria. Custom style sheets were developed to render the XML files in human-readable form. The CDS knowledge artifacts were shared via a public web portal. Our experience also identifies gaps in existing standards and informs future development of standards for CDS knowledge representation and sharing. PMID:23920543

Zhou, Li; Hongsermeier, Tonya; Boxwala, Aziz; Lewis, Janet; Kawamoto, Kensaku; Maviglia, Saverio; Gentile, Douglas; Teich, Jonathan M; Rocha, Roberto; Bell, Douglas; Middleton, Blackford

2013-01-01

69

The bean common mosaic virus lineage of potyviruses: where did it arise and when?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are more than 30 species in the bean common mosaic virus lineage of the genus Potyvirus. We have used their partial coat protein gene sequences to infer their phylogenies and have compared these with host and\\u000a provenance information. Members of six species of the lineage have been isolated from crops distributed around the world,\\u000a but three of these show

A. J. Gibbs; J. W. H. Trueman; M. J. Gibbs

2008-01-01

70

New hosts of Potato virus Y (PVY) among common wild plants in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The infection capacity of Potato virus Y (PVY, genus Potyvirus) for wild-living plants, commonly occurring as arable weeds in Europe and native to or naturalised in other continents, was\\u000a evaluated. In total, 3,712 and 802 seedlings representing 21 weed species were aphid and sap-inoculated with PVY, respectively.\\u000a Experimentally-inoculated plants of Erodium cicutarium, Geranium pusillum, Lactuca serriola and Lamium purpureum tested

Agnieszka Kaliciak; Jerzy Syller

2009-01-01

71

Caenorhabditis elegans LET-767 is able to metabolize androgens and estrogens and likely shares common ancestor with human types 3 and  

E-print Network

common ancestor with human types 3 and 12 17b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases Serge Desnoyers1 , Pierre selectivity strongly suggests that LET-767 shares a common ancestor with human 17b-HSD3 and 12. Journal analysis indicates that LET-767 shares the highest homology with human types 3 and 12 17b

Baillie, David

72

Experimental Infection of Rhesus Macaques and Common Marmosets with a European Strain of West Nile Virus  

PubMed Central

West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that infects humans and other mammals. In some cases WNV causes severe neurological disease. During recent years, outbreaks of WNV are increasing in worldwide distribution and novel genetic variants of the virus have been detected. Although a substantial amount of data exists on WNV infections in rodent models, little is known about early events during WNV infection in primates, including humans. To gain a deeper understanding of this process, we performed experimental infections of rhesus macaques and common marmosets with a virulent European WNV strain (WNV-Ita09) and monitored virological, hematological, and biochemical parameters. WNV-Ita09 productively infected both monkey species, with higher replication and wider tissue distribution in common marmosets compared to rhesus macaques. The animals in this study however, did not develop clinical signs of WNV disease, nor showed substantial deviations in clinical laboratory parameters. In both species, the virus induced a rapid CD56dimCD16bright natural killer response, followed by IgM and IgG antibody responses. The results of this study show that healthy rhesus macaques and common marmosets are promising animal models to study WNV-Ita09 infection. Both models may be particularly of use to evaluate potential vaccine candidates or to investigate WNV pathogenesis. PMID:24743302

Verstrepen, Babs E.; Fagrouch, Zahra; van Heteren, Melanie; Buitendijk, Hester; Haaksma, Tom; Beenhakker, Niels; Palù, Giorgio; Richner, Justin M.; Diamond, Michael S.; Bogers, Willy M.; Barzon, Luisa; Chabierski, Stefan; Ulbert, Sebastian; Kondova, Ivanela; Verschoor, Ernst J.

2014-01-01

73

GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF DIFFERENTIAL REACTIONS AMONG HOS GROUP 3 COMMON BEAN CULTIVARS TO NL-3K STRAIN OF BEAN COMMON MOSAIC NECROSIS VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A previously unrecognized recessive resistance gene was identified in three putative Host Group 3 common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultivars: Olathe, Victor, and UI 37; based on genetic analysis of plants from five populations screened with the NL-3 K strain of bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCM...

74

Glass sponges and bilaterian animals share derived mitochondrial genomic features: a common ancestry or parallel evolution?  

PubMed

Glass sponges (Hexactinellida) are a group of deep-water benthic animals that have a unique syncytial organization and possess a characteristic siliceous skeleton. Although hexactinellids are traditionally grouped with calcareous and demosponges in the phylum Porifera, the monophyly of sponges and the phylogenetic position of the Hexactinellida remain contentious. We determined and analyzed the nearly complete mitochondrial genome sequences of the hexactinellid sponges Iphiteon panicea and Sympagella nux. Unexpectedly, our analysis revealed several mitochondrial genomic features shared between glass sponges and bilaterian animals, including an Arg --> Ser change in the genetic code, a characteristic secondary structure of one of the serine tRNAs, highly derived tRNA and rRNA genes, and the presence of a single large noncoding region. At the same time, glass sponge mtDNA contains atp9, a gene previously found only in the mtDNA of demosponges (among animals), and encodes a tRNA(Pro);(UGG) with an atypical A11-U24 pair that is also found in demosponges and placozoans. Most of our sequence-based phylogenetic analyses place Hexactinellida as the sister group to the Bilateria; however, these results are suspect given accelerated rates of mitochondrial sequence evolution in these groups. Thus, it remains an open question whether shared mitochondrial genomic features in glass sponges and bilaterian animals reflect their close phylogenetic affinity or provide a remarkable example of parallel evolution. PMID:17434903

Haen, Karri M; Lang, B Franz; Pomponi, Shirley A; Lavrov, Dennis V

2007-07-01

75

Genotype Characterization of Commonly Used Newcastle Disease Virus Vaccine Strains of India  

PubMed Central

Newcastle disease is an avian pathogen causing severe economic losses to the Indian poultry industry due to recurring outbreaks in vaccinated and unvaccinated flocks. India being an endemic country, advocates vaccination against the virus using lentogenic and mesogenic strains. Two virus strains which are commonly used for vaccination are strain F (a lentogenic virus) and strain R2B (a mesogenic virus). Strain F is given to 0–7 days old chicks and R2B is given to older birds which are around 6–8 weeks old. To understand the genetic makeup of these two strains, a complete genome study and phylogenetic analysis of the F, HN genes of these vaccine strains were carried out. Both the viral strains had a genome length of 15,186 nucleotides and consisted of six genes with conserved complimentary 3' leader and 5' trailer regions. The fusion protein cleavage site of strain F is GGRQGRL and strain R2B is RRQKRF. Although both the viral strains had different virulence attributes, the length of the HN protein was similar with 577 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of F, HN and complete genome sequences grouped these two strains in genotype II category which are considered as early genotypes and corroborated with their years of isolation. PMID:24897503

Gaikwad, Satish; Kataria, Jag Mohan; Vakharia, Vikram N.

2014-01-01

76

Experimental respiratory Marburg virus haemorrhagic fever infection in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)  

PubMed Central

Marburg virus causes a highly infectious and lethal haemorrhagic fever in primates and may be exploited as a potential biothreat pathogen. To combat the infection and threat of Marburg haemorrhagic fever, there is a need to develop and license appropriate medical countermeasures. To determine whether the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) would be an appropriate model to assess therapies against Marburg haemorrhagic fever, initial susceptibility, lethality and pathogenesis studies were performed. Low doses of virus, between 4 and 28 TCID50, were sufficient to cause a lethal, reproducible infection. Animals became febrile between days 5 and 6, maintaining a high fever before succumbing to disease between 8 and 11 days postchallenge. Typical signs of Marburg virus infection were observed including haemorrhaging and a transient rash. In pathogenesis studies, virus was isolated from the animals’ lungs from day 3 postchallenge and from the liver, spleen and blood from day 5 postchallenge. Early signs of histopathology were apparent in the kidney and liver from day 3. The most striking features were observed in animals exhibiting severe clinical signs, which included high viral titres in all organs, with the highest levels in the blood, increased levels in liver function enzymes and blood clotting times, decreased levels in platelets, multifocal moderate-to-severe hepatitis and perivascular oedema. PMID:23441639

Smither, Sophie J; Nelson, Michelle; Eastaugh, Lin; Laws, Thomas R; Taylor, Christopher; Smith, Simon A; Salguero, Francisco J; Lever, Mark S

2013-01-01

77

Multistate outbreak of Norwalk-like virus gastroenteritis associated with a common caterer.  

PubMed

In February 2000, an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred among employees of a car dealership in New York. The same meal was also supplied to 52 dealerships nationwide, and 13 states reported illness at dealerships where the banquet was served. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to identify risk factors associated with the illness. Stool samples were collected to detect Norwalk-like virus, and sera were drawn and tested for immunoglobulin A antibodies to the outbreak strain. By univariate analysis, illness was significantly associated with consumption of any of four salads served at the banquet (relative risk = 3.8, 95% confidence interval: 2.5, 5.6). Norwalk-like virus was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay in 32 of 59 stool samples from eight states. Nucleotide sequences of a 213-base pair fragment from 16 stool specimens collected from cases in eight states were identical, confirming a common source outbreak. Two of 15 workers at caterer A had elevated immunoglobulin A titers to an antigenically related Norwalk-like virus strain. This study highlights the value of molecular techniques to complement classic epidemiologic methods in outbreak investigations and underscores the critical role of food handlers in the spread of foodborne disease associated with Norwalk-like virus. PMID:11724717

Anderson, A D; Garrett, V D; Sobel, J; Monroe, S S; Fankhauser, R L; Schwab, K J; Bresee, J S; Mead, P S; Higgins, C; Campana, J; Glass, R I

2001-12-01

78

Genotype characterization of commonly used Newcastle disease virus vaccine strains of India.  

PubMed

Newcastle disease is an avian pathogen causing severe economic losses to the Indian poultry industry due to recurring outbreaks in vaccinated and unvaccinated flocks. India being an endemic country, advocates vaccination against the virus using lentogenic and mesogenic strains. Two virus strains which are commonly used for vaccination are strain F (a lentogenic virus) and strain R2B (a mesogenic virus). Strain F is given to 0-7 days old chicks and R2B is given to older birds which are around 6-8 weeks old. To understand the genetic makeup of these two strains, a complete genome study and phylogenetic analysis of the F, HN genes of these vaccine strains were carried out. Both the viral strains had a genome length of 15,186 nucleotides and consisted of six genes with conserved complimentary 3' leader and 5' trailer regions. The fusion protein cleavage site of strain F is GGRQGRL and strain R2B is RRQKRF. Although both the viral strains had different virulence attributes, the length of the HN protein was similar with 577 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of F, HN and complete genome sequences grouped these two strains in genotype II category which are considered as early genotypes and corroborated with their years of isolation. PMID:24897503

Dey, Sohini; Chellappa, Madhan Mohan; Gaikwad, Satish; Kataria, Jag Mohan; Vakharia, Vikram N

2014-01-01

79

An effective virus-based gene silencing method for functional genomics studies in common bean  

PubMed Central

Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a crop of economic and nutritious importance in many parts of the world. The lack of genomic resources have impeded the advancement of common bean genomics and thereby crop improvement. Although concerted efforts from the "Phaseomics" consortium have resulted in the development of several genomic resources, functional studies have continued to lag due to the recalcitrance of this crop for genetic transformation. Results Here we describe the use of a bean pod mottle virus (BPMV)-based vector for silencing of endogenous genes in common bean as well as for protein expression. This BPMV-based vector was originally developed for use in soybean. It has been successfully employed for both protein expression and gene silencing in this species. We tested this vector for applications in common bean by targeting common bean genes encoding nodulin 22 and stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase for silencing. Our results indicate that the BPMV vector can indeed be employed for reverse genetics studies of diverse biological processes in common bean. We also used the BPMV-based vector for expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) in common bean and demonstrate stable GFP expression in all common bean tissues where BPMV was detected. Conclusions The availability of this vector is an important advance for the common bean research community not only because it provides a rapid means for functional studies in common bean, but also because it does so without generating genetically modified plants. Here we describe the detailed methodology and provide essential guidelines for the use of this vector for both gene silencing and protein expression in common bean. The entire VIGS procedure can be completed in 4-5 weeks. PMID:21668993

2011-01-01

80

Experimental infection of common garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) with West Nile virus.  

PubMed

The role of various reptilian species in the infectious cycle of several arboviruses is documented, but their role in that of West Nile virus (WNV) is uncertain. Common garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) were infected subcutaneously with 10(5) plaque forming units (PFU) WNV-Isr 98, five of nine snakes became viremic, and five exhibited persistent low levels of neutralizing antibodies. Four of the parentally infected snakes died and high titers of virus were found in multiple organ samples. In contrast, orally infected garter snakes did not become viremic, but viral RNA was detected in cloacal swabs. Since oral infection of predator birds by WNV is known, their ingestion of infected snakes may also result in their becoming infected. PMID:17187570

Steinman, Amir; Banet-Noach, Caroline; Simanov, Lubov; Grinfeld, Nurit; Aizenberg, Zachi; Levi, Ohad; Lahav, Dan; Malkinson, Mertyn; Perk, Shimon; Shpigel, Nahum Y

2006-01-01

81

Common fronto-parietal activity in attention, memory, and consciousness: shared demands on integration?  

PubMed

Fronto-parietal activity has been frequently observed in fMRI and PET studies of attention, working memory, and episodic memory retrieval. Several recent fMRI studies have also reported fronto-parietal activity during conscious visual perception. A major goal of this review was to assess the degree of anatomical overlap among activation patterns associated with these four functions. A second goal was to shed light on the possible cognitive relationship of processes that relate to common brain activity across functions. For all reviewed functions we observed a consistent and overlapping pattern of brain activity. The overlap was most pronounced for the bilateral parietal cortex (BA 7 and BA 40; close to the intraparietal sulcus), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (right BA 9 and left BA 6). The common fronto-parietal activity will be discussed in terms of processes related to integration of distributed representations in the brain. PMID:15950889

Naghavi, Hamid Reza; Nyberg, Lars

2005-06-01

82

Humidity sensation, cockroaches, worms and humans: are common sensory mechanisms for hygrosensation shared across species?  

PubMed

Although the ability to detect humidity (i.e. hygrosensation) represents an important sensory attribute in many animal species (including humans), the neurophysiological and molecular bases of such sensory ability remain largely unknown in many animals. Recently, Russell and colleagues (Russell J, Vidal-Gadea AG, Makay A, Lanam C, Pierce-Shimomura JT. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111: 8269-8274, 2014) provided for the first time neuromolecular evidence for the sensory integration of thermal and mechanical sensory cues which underpin the hygrosensation strategy of an animal (i.e. the free-living roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans) which lacks specific sensory organs for humidity detection (i.e. hygroreceptors). Due to the remarkable similarities in the hygrosensation transduction mechanisms used by hygroreceptor-provided (e.g. insects) and hygroreceptor-lacking species (e.g. roundworms and humans), Russell and colleagues' findings highlight potentially universal mechanisms for humidity detection which could be shared across a wide range of species, including humans. PMID:25318766

Filingeri, Davide

2014-10-15

83

A common feature pharmacophore for FDA-approved drugs inhibiting the Ebola virus  

PubMed Central

We are currently faced with a global infectious disease crisis which has been anticipated for decades. While many promising biotherapeutics are being tested, the search for a small molecule has yet to deliver an approved drug or therapeutic for the Ebola or similar filoviruses that cause haemorrhagic fever. Two recent high throughput screens published in 2013 did however identify several hits that progressed to animal studies that are FDA approved drugs used for other indications. The current computational analysis uses these molecules from two different structural classes to construct a common features pharmacophore. This ligand-based pharmacophore implicates a possible common target or mechanism that could be further explored. A recent structure based design project yielded nine co-crystal structures of pyrrolidinone inhibitors bound to the viral protein 35 (VP35). When receptor-ligand pharmacophores based on the analogs of these molecules and the protein structures were constructed, the molecular features partially overlapped with the common features of solely ligand-based pharmacophore models based on FDA approved drugs. These previously identified FDA approved drugs with activity against Ebola were therefore docked into this protein. The antimalarials chloroquine and amodiaquine docked favorably in VP35. We propose that these drugs identified to date as inhibitors of the Ebola virus may be targeting VP35. These computational models may provide preliminary insights into the molecular features that are responsible for their activity against Ebola virus in vitro and in vivo and we propose that this hypothesis could be readily tested. PMID:25653841

Ekins, Sean; Freundlich, Joel S.; Coffee, Megan

2014-01-01

84

Legal agreements and the governance of research commons: lessons from materials sharing in mouse genomics.  

PubMed

Omics research infrastructure such as databases and bio-repositories requires effective governance to support pre-competitive research. Governance includes the use of legal agreements, such as Material Transfer Agreements (MTAs). We analyze the use of such agreements in the mouse research commons, including by two large-scale resource development projects: the International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) and International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC). We combine an analysis of legal agreements and semi-structured interviews with 87 members of the mouse model research community to examine legal agreements in four contexts: (1) between researchers; (2) deposit into repositories; (3) distribution by repositories; and (4) exchanges between repositories, especially those that are consortium members of the IKMC and IMPC. We conclude that legal agreements for the deposit and distribution of research reagents should be kept as simple and standard as possible, especially when minimal enforcement capacity and resources exist. Simple and standardized legal agreements reduce transactional bottlenecks and facilitate the creation of a vibrant and sustainable research commons, supported by repositories and databases. PMID:24552652

Mishra, Amrita; Bubela, Tania

2014-04-01

85

Legal Agreements and the Governance of Research Commons: Lessons from Materials Sharing in Mouse Genomics  

PubMed Central

Abstract Omics research infrastructure such as databases and bio-repositories requires effective governance to support pre-competitive research. Governance includes the use of legal agreements, such as Material Transfer Agreements (MTAs). We analyze the use of such agreements in the mouse research commons, including by two large-scale resource development projects: the International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) and International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC). We combine an analysis of legal agreements and semi-structured interviews with 87 members of the mouse model research community to examine legal agreements in four contexts: (1) between researchers; (2) deposit into repositories; (3) distribution by repositories; and (4) exchanges between repositories, especially those that are consortium members of the IKMC and IMPC. We conclude that legal agreements for the deposit and distribution of research reagents should be kept as simple and standard as possible, especially when minimal enforcement capacity and resources exist. Simple and standardized legal agreements reduce transactional bottlenecks and facilitate the creation of a vibrant and sustainable research commons, supported by repositories and databases. PMID:24552652

Mishra, Amrita

2014-01-01

86

Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III shares sequence homology with a family of pathogenic lentiviruses.  

PubMed Central

The etiologic agent of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome, human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III), has recently been shown to morphologically resemble and share sequence homology with visna virus, a pathogenic lentivirus. Molecular hybridization, heteroduplex mapping, and DNA sequence analyses were used to compare HTLV-III to other lentiviruses of domestic animals, including visna, caprine arthritis encephalitis, and equine infectious anemia viruses. Hybridization results showed that a substantial amount of sequence homology exists between each of these viruses and HTLV-III. In addition, a closer relationship was found between visna and caprine arthritis encephalitis viruses than for any of the other lentiviruses studied. These results, along with nucleotide and amino acid sequence comparisons, have been used in a comprehensive effort to derive a systematic relationship for lentiviruses and to provide further evidence for classifying HTLV-III with the Lentivirinae subfamily of retroviruses. This relationship predicts that similarities in biology and disease process can be expected between HTLV-III and other Lentivirinae members. Images PMID:2424014

Gonda, M A; Braun, M J; Clements, J E; Pyper, J M; Wong-Staal, F; Gallo, R C; Gilden, R V

1986-01-01

87

Type VI secretion apparatus and phage tail-associated protein complexes share a common evolutionary origin  

PubMed Central

Protein secretion is a common property of pathogenic microbes. Gram-negative bacterial pathogens use at least 6 distinct extracellular protein secretion systems to export proteins through their multilayered cell envelope and in some cases into host cells. Among the most widespread is the newly recognized Type VI secretion system (T6SS) which is composed of 15–20 proteins whose biochemical functions are not well understood. Using crystallographic, biochemical, and bioinformatic analyses, we identified 3 T6SS components, which are homologous to bacteriophage tail proteins. These include the tail tube protein; the membrane-penetrating needle, situated at the distal end of the tube; and another protein associated with the needle and tube. We propose that T6SS is a multicomponent structure whose extracellular part resembles both structurally and functionally a bacteriophage tail, an efficient machine that translocates proteins and DNA across lipid membranes into cells. PMID:19251641

Leiman, Petr G.; Basler, Marek; Ramagopal, Udupi A.; Bonanno, Jeffrey B.; Sauder, J. Michael; Pukatzki, Stefan; Burley, Stephen K.; Almo, Steven C.; Mekalanos, John J.

2009-01-01

88

Dissection of the interferon gamma-MHC class II signal transduction pathway reveals that type I and type II interferon systems share common signalling component(s).  

PubMed Central

We have used a herpes virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) based metabolic selection system to isolate mutants defective in the interferon gamma mediated induction of the MHC class II promoter. All the mutations act in trans and result in no detectable induction of MHC and invariant chain (Ii) gene expression. Scatchard analysis indicates that the mutants have a normal number of surface IFN gamma receptors with the same affinity constant. The mutants fall into two broad categories. One class of mutants is still able to induce MHC class I, IRF-1, 9-27, 1-8 and GBP genes by IFN gamma. A second class of mutants is defective for the IFN gamma induction of all the genes tested; surprisingly, the IFN alpha/beta induction of MHC class I, 9-27, ISG54 and ISG15 genes is also defective in these mutants, although different members of this class can be discriminated by the response of the GBP and IRF-1 genes to type I interferons. These data demonstrate that the signalling pathways of both type I and type II interferon systems share common signal transduction component(s). These mutants will be useful for the study of IFN gamma regulation of class II genes and Ii chain, and to elucidate molecular components of type I and type II interferon signal transduction. Images PMID:1314162

Loh, J E; Chang, C H; Fodor, W L; Flavell, R A

1992-01-01

89

Mild ring 17 syndrome shares common phenotypic features irrespective of the chromosomal breakpoints location.  

PubMed

Ring 17 syndrome is a rare disorder with clinical features influenced by the presence or deletion of the Miller-Dieker critical region (MDCR). Presence of the MDCR is associated with a mild phenotype, including growth delay (GD), mental retardation (MR), seizures, cafè au lait skin (CALS) spots and minor facial dysmorphisms. Previous studies have been mainly focused on this locus providing poor information about the role of other genes located on the p- and q-arms. Here, we used bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)/P1 artificial chromosome (PAC) and fosmid clones as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes to perform a cyto-molecular analysis of a ring 17 case and found that the breakpoints were close to the telomeric ends. METRNL is the sole gene located on the q-arm terminal end, whereas two open reading frames and the RPH3AL gene are located on the terminal p-arm. To detect possibly unrevealed small deletions involving the transcription units, we used subcloned FISH probes obtained by long-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which showed that the investigated regions were preserved. Comparing our findings with other reports, it emerges that different breakpoints, involving (or not) large genomic deletions, present overlapping clinical aspects. In conclusion, our data suggest that a mechanism based on gene expression control besides haploinsufficiency should be considered to explain the common phenotypic features found in the mild ring 17 syndrome. PMID:19793054

Surace, C; Piazzolla, S; Sirleto, P; Digilio, M C; Roberti, M C; Lombardo, A; D'Elia, G; Tomaiuolo, A C; Petrocchi, S; Capolino, R; El Hachem, M; Claps Sepulveda, D; Sgura, A; Angioni, A

2009-09-01

90

Dopaminergic cell death induced by MPP(+), oxidant and specific neurotoxicants shares the common molecular mechanism.  

PubMed

Recent etiological study in twins (Tanner et al. 1999) strongly suggests that environmental factors play an important role in typical, non-familial Parkinson's disease (PD), beginning after age 50. Epidemiological risk factor analyses of typical PD cases have identified several neurotoxicants, including MPP(+) (the active metabolite of MPTP), paraquat, dieldrin, manganese and salsolinol. Here, we tested the hypothesis that these neurotoxic agents might induce cell death in our nigral dopaminergic cell line, SN4741 (Son et al. 1999) through a common molecular mechanism. Our initial experiments revealed that treatment with both MPP(+) and the other PD-related neurotoxicants induced apoptotic cell death in SN4741 cells, following initial increases of H(2)O(2)-related ROS activity and subsequent activation of JNK1/2 MAP kinases. Moreover, we have demonstrated that during dopaminergic cell death cascades, MPP(+), the neurotoxicants and an oxidant, H(2)O(2) equally induce the ROS-dependent events. Remarkably, the oxidant treatment alone induced similar sequential molecular events: ROS increase, activation of JNK MAP kinases, activation of the PITSLRE kinase, p110, by both Caspase-1 and Caspase-3-like activities and apoptotic cell death. Pharmacological intervention using the combination of the antioxidant Trolox and a pan-caspase inhibitor Boc-(Asp)-fmk (BAF) exerted significant neuroprotection against ROS-induced dopaminergic cell death. Finally, the high throughput cDNA microarray screening using the current model identified downstream response genes, such as heme oxygenase-1, a constituent of Lewy bodies, that can be the useful biomarkers to monitor the pathological conditions of dopaminergic neurons under neurotoxic insult. PMID:11181820

Chun, H S; Gibson, G E; DeGiorgio, L A; Zhang, H; Kidd, V J; Son, J H

2001-02-01

91

Capsid Antibodies to Different Adeno-Associated Virus Serotypes Bind Common Regions  

PubMed Central

Interactions between viruses and the host antibody immune response are critical in the development and control of disease, and antibodies are also known to interfere with the efficacy of viral vector-based gene delivery. The adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) being developed as vectors for corrective human gene delivery have shown promise in clinical trials, but preexisting antibodies are detrimental to successful outcomes. However, the antigenic epitopes on AAV capsids remain poorly characterized. Cryo-electron microscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction were used to define the locations of epitopes to which monoclonal fragment antibodies (Fabs) against AAV1, AAV2, AAV5, and AAV6 bind. Pseudoatomic modeling showed that, in each serotype, Fabs bound to a limited number of sites near the protrusions surrounding the 3-fold axes of the T=1 icosahedral capsids. For the closely related AAV1 and AAV6, a common Fab exhibited substoichiometric binding, with one Fab bound, on average, between two of the three protrusions as a consequence of steric crowding. The other AAV Fabs saturated the capsid and bound to the walls of all 60 protrusions, with the footprint for the AAV5 antibody extending toward the 5-fold axis. The angle of incidence for each bound Fab on the AAVs varied and resulted in significant differences in how much of each viral capsid surface was occluded beyond the Fab footprints. The AAV-antibody interactions showed a common set of footprints that overlapped some known receptor-binding sites and transduction determinants, thus suggesting potential mechanisms for virus neutralization by the antibodies. PMID:23760240

Gurda, Brittney L.; DiMattia, Michael A.; Miller, Edward B.; Bennett, Antonette; McKenna, Robert; Weichert, Wendy S.; Nelson, Christian D.; Chen, Wei-jun; Muzyczka, Nicholas; Olson, Norman H.; Sinkovits, Robert S.; Chiorini, John A.; Zolotutkhin, Sergei; Kozyreva, Olga G.; Samulski, R. Jude; Baker, Timothy S.; Parrish, Colin R.

2013-01-01

92

Genome-wide association study of 14,000 cases of seven common diseases and 3,000 shared controls  

PubMed Central

There is increasing evidence that genome-wide association (GWA) studies represent a powerful approach to the identification of genes involved in common human diseases. We describe a joint GWA study (using the Affymetrix GeneChip 500K Mapping Array Set) undertaken in the British population, which has examined ~2,000 individuals for each of 7 major diseases and a shared set of ~3,000 controls. Case-control comparisons identified 24 independent association signals at P<5×10-7: 1 in bipolar disorder, 1 in coronary artery disease, 9 in Crohn’s disease, 3 in rheumatoid arthritis, 7 in type 1 diabetes and 3 in type 2 diabetes. On the basis of prior findings and replication studies thus-far completed, almost all of these signals reflect genuine susceptibility effects. We observed association at many previously identified loci, and found compelling evidence that some loci confer risk for more than one of the diseases studied. Across all diseases, we identified a large number of further signals (including 58 loci with single-point P values between 10-5 and 5×10-7) likely to yield additional susceptibility loci. The importance of appropriately large samples was confirmed by the modest effect sizes observed at most loci identified. This study thus represents a thorough validation of the GWA approach. It has also demonstrated that careful use of a shared control group represents a safe and effective approach to GWA analyses of multiple disease phenotypes; has generated a genome-wide genotype database for future studies of common diseases in the British population; and shown that, provided individuals with non-European ancestry are excluded, the extent of population stratification in the British population is generally modest. Our findings offer new avenues for exploring the pathophysiology of these important disorders. We anticipate that our data, results and software, which will be widely available to other investigators, will provide a powerful resource for human genetics research. PMID:17554300

2009-01-01

93

Five HLA-DP Molecules Frequently Expressed in the Worldwide Human Population Share a Common HLA Supertypic Binding Specificity  

PubMed Central

Compared with DR and DQ, knowledge of the binding repertoires and specificities of HLA-DP alleles is somewhat limited. However, a growing body of literature has indicated the importance of DP-restricted responses in the context of cancer, allergy, and infectious disease. In the current study, we developed high-throughput binding assays for the five most common HLA-DPB1 alleles in the general worldwide population. Using these assays on a comprehensive panel of single-substitution analogs and large peptide libraries, we derived novel detailed binding motifs for DPB1*0101 and DPB1*0501. We also derived more detailed quantitative motifs for DPB1*0201, DPB1*0401, and DPB1*0402, which were previously characterized on the basis of sets of eluted ligands and/or limited sets of substituted peptides. Unexpectedly, all five DP molecules, originally selected only on the basis of their frequency in human populations, were found to share largely overlapping peptide motifs. Testing panels of known DP epitopes and a panel of peptides spanning a set of Phleum pratense Ags revealed that these molecules also share largely overlapping peptide-binding repertoires. This demonstrates that a previously hypothesized DP supertype extends far beyond what was originally envisioned and includes at least three additional very common DP specificities. Taken together, these DP supertype molecules are found in >90% of the human population. Thus, these findings have important implications for epitope-identification studies and monitoring of human class II-restricted immune responses. PMID:20139279

Sidney, John; Steen, Amiyah; Moore, Carrie; Ngo, Sandy; Chung, Jolan; Peters, Bjoern; Sette, Alessandro

2010-01-01

94

Five HLA-DP molecules frequently expressed in the worldwide human population share a common HLA supertypic binding specificity.  

PubMed

Compared with DR and DQ, knowledge of the binding repertoires and specificities of HLA-DP alleles is somewhat limited. However, a growing body of literature has indicated the importance of DP-restricted responses in the context of cancer, allergy, and infectious disease. In the current study, we developed high-throughput binding assays for the five most common HLA-DPB1 alleles in the general worldwide population. Using these assays on a comprehensive panel of single-substitution analogs and large peptide libraries, we derived novel detailed binding motifs for DPB1*0101 and DPB1*0501. We also derived more detailed quantitative motifs for DPB1*0201, DPB1*0401, and DPB1*0402, which were previously characterized on the basis of sets of eluted ligands and/or limited sets of substituted peptides. Unexpectedly, all five DP molecules, originally selected only on the basis of their frequency in human populations, were found to share largely overlapping peptide motifs. Testing panels of known DP epitopes and a panel of peptides spanning a set of Phleum pratense Ags revealed that these molecules also share largely overlapping peptide-binding repertoires. This demonstrates that a previously hypothesized DP supertype extends far beyond what was originally envisioned and includes at least three additional very common DP specificities. Taken together, these DP supertype molecules are found in >90% of the human population. Thus, these findings have important implications for epitope-identification studies and monitoring of human class II-restricted immune responses. PMID:20139279

Sidney, John; Steen, Amiyah; Moore, Carrie; Ngo, Sandy; Chung, Jolan; Peters, Bjoern; Sette, Alessandro

2010-03-01

95

Identification of Common Biological Pathways and Drug Targets Across Multiple Respiratory Viruses Based on Human Host Gene Expression Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Pandemic and seasonal respiratory viruses are a major global health concern. Given the genetic diversity of respiratory viruses and the emergence of drug resistant strains, the targeted disruption of human host-virus interactions is a potential therapeutic strategy for treating multi-viral infections. The availability of large-scale genomic datasets focused on host-pathogen interactions can be used to discover novel drug targets as well as potential opportunities for drug repositioning. Methods/Results In this study, we performed a large-scale analysis of microarray datasets involving host response to infections by influenza A virus, respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, SARS-coronavirus, metapneumonia virus, coxsackievirus and cytomegalovirus. Common genes and pathways were found through a rigorous, iterative analysis pipeline where relevant host mRNA expression datasets were identified, analyzed for quality and gene differential expression, then mapped to pathways for enrichment analysis. Possible repurposed drugs targets were found through database and literature searches. A total of 67 common biological pathways were identified among the seven different respiratory viruses analyzed, representing fifteen laboratories, nine different cell types, and seven different array platforms. A large overlap in the general immune response was observed among the top twenty of these 67 pathways, adding validation to our analysis strategy. Of the top five pathways, we found 53 differentially expressed genes affected by at least five of the seven viruses. We suggest five new therapeutic indications for existing small molecules or biological agents targeting proteins encoded by the genes F3, IL1B, TNF, CASP1 and MMP9. Pathway enrichment analysis also identified a potential novel host response, the Parkin-Ubiquitin Proteasomal System (Parkin-UPS) pathway, which is known to be involved in the progression of neurodegenerative Parkinson's disease. Conclusions Our study suggests that multiple and diverse respiratory viruses invoke several common host response pathways. Further analysis of these pathways suggests potential opportunities for therapeutic intervention. PMID:22432004

Smith, Steven B.; Dampier, William; Tozeren, Aydin; Brown, James R.; Magid-Slav, Michal

2012-01-01

96

Structure of Flexible Filamentous Plant Viruses  

SciTech Connect

Flexible filamentous viruses make up a large fraction of the known plant viruses, but in comparison with those of other viruses, very little is known about their structures. We have used fiber diffraction, cryo-electron microscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy to determine the symmetry of a potyvirus, soybean mosaic virus; to confirm the symmetry of a potexvirus, potato virus X; and to determine the low-resolution structures of both viruses. We conclude that these viruses and, by implication, most or all flexible filamentous plant viruses share a common coat protein fold and helical symmetry, with slightly less than 9 subunits per helical turn.

Kendall, Amy; McDonald, Michele; Bian, Wen; Bowles, Timothy; Baumgarten, Sarah C.; Shi, Jian; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Bullitt, Esther; Gore, David; Irving, Thomas C.; Havens, Wendy M.; Ghabrial, Said A.; Wall, Joseph S.; Stubbs, Gerald (IIT); (BU-M); (Vanderbilt); (Kentucky); (BNL)

2008-10-23

97

Sharing of Prey: Coinfection of a Bacterium by a Virus and a Prokaryotic Predator  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Rarely, if ever, has a single bacterial cell been confirmed to simultaneously host two fundamentally different predators. Two such predators are viruses and the predatory prokaryotes known as Bdellovibrio and like organisms. Viruses or bacteriophage are particles requiring prey cells in an active metabolic state to complete their life cycle. The Bdellovibrio and like organisms, unlike viruses, are bacteria that can efficiently infect and grow in prey which are in stationary phase. In this study, electron microscopic examination revealed an unprecedented coinfection by the two agents of Vibrio vulnificus, introducing a new bacterial predation paradigm. Rather than the viruses and Bdellovibrio and like organisms competing for a single prey cell, both can survive in the same cell and successfully reproduce themselves. This is an especially valuable mechanism when the prey is in short supply, and the survival of the predators may be at stake. PMID:22511350

Chen, Huan; Williams, Henry N.

2012-01-01

98

Shared Usage of the Chemokine Receptor CXCR4 by the Feline and Human Immunodeficiency Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) induces a disease state in the domestic cat that is similar to AIDS in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. As with HIV, FIV can be divided into primary and cell culture-adapted isolates. Adaptation of FIV to replicate and form syncytia in the Crandell feline kidney (CrFK) cell line is accompanied by an increase in the net

BRIAN J. WILLETT; LAURENT PICARD; MARGARET J. HOSIE; JULIE D. TURNER; KAREN ADEMA; PAUL R. CLAPHAM

1997-01-01

99

Teratogen-Induced, Dietary and Genetic Models of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Share a Common Mechanism of Pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a frequently occurring, major congenital abnormality that has high mortality and significant morbidity in survivors. Currently, the pathogenesis of CDH is poorly understood. In this study, we have compared the anatomical characteristics of diaphragm defects in the well-described nitrofen model with the pathogenesis of CDH in vitamin A-deficient rats and wt1 null-mutant mice, representing teratogen-induced, dietary and genetic models of CDH, respectively. Our histological investigations, aided by three-dimensional reconstruction of the developing diaphragm, revealed a common pathogenic mechanism with regards to the location of the diaphragm defect in the foramen of Bochdalek (posterolateral diaphragm) and specific abnormalities within the primordial diaphragm. Furthermore, our analysis of postmortem specimens highlighted similarities in human cases of CDH and these animal models, supporting our hypothesis that CDH in humans arises from a defect in the primordial diaphragm. Immunohistochemical data were consistent with the defect in the primordial diaphragm being in the nonmuscular component. Importantly, these data show that very distinct models of CDH all share a common pathogenic mechanism and, together with supporting evidence from pathological specimens, highlight our proposed pathogenic model for CDH. PMID:17071579

Clugston, Robin D.; Klattig, Jürgen; Englert, Chistoph; Clagett-Dame, Margaret; Martinovic, Jelena; Benachi, Alexandra; Greer, John J.

2006-01-01

100

Successful infection of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) with human varicella-zoster virus.  

PubMed Central

The common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus, can be infected with human varicella-zoster virus (VZV), both wild-type strain KMcC and attenuated vaccine strain Oka/Merck. Infection was accomplished with either whole-cell-associated or cell extract VZV by combined oral-nasal-conjunctival application and was characterized by substantial and persistent anti-VZV antibody responses. The infectivity of VZV for marmosets was destroyed by treatment of inocula with heat or UV light. Diluted inocula with as few as 40 PFU/ml were infectious for marmosets. The lungs were demonstrated to be a major site of viral replication; both the presence of viral antigens and signs of pneumonia were demonstrated in lung tissues. Four serial passages of VZV KMcC were carried out in C. jacchus by a process of in vitro isolation and culturing of VZV from infected lung tissue and reapplication of the cultured isolates to fresh animals. The isolated viruses were identified as VZV both serologically and by restriction endonuclease analyses. The C. jacchus infectivity model should prove useful for determining the efficacy of subunit and live recombinant VZV vaccines as well as for the study of zoster. PMID:3041014

Provost, P J; Keller, P M; Banker, F S; Keech, B J; Klein, H J; Lowe, R S; Morton, D H; Phelps, A H; McAleer, W J; Ellis, R W

1987-01-01

101

The Genome Sequence of the Emerging Common Midwife Toad Virus Identifies an Evolutionary Intermediate within Ranaviruses  

PubMed Central

Worldwide amphibian population declines have been ascribed to global warming, increasing pollution levels, and other factors directly related to human activities. These factors may additionally be favoring the emergence of novel pathogens. In this report, we have determined the complete genome sequence of the emerging common midwife toad ranavirus (CMTV), which has caused fatal disease in several amphibian species across Europe. Phylogenetic and gene content analyses of the first complete genomic sequence from a ranavirus isolated in Europe show that CMTV is an amphibian-like ranavirus (ALRV). However, the CMTV genome structure is novel and represents an intermediate evolutionary stage between the two previously described ALRV groups. We find that CMTV clusters with several other ranaviruses isolated from different hosts and locations which might also be included in this novel ranavirus group. This work sheds light on the phylogenetic relationships within this complex group of emerging, disease-causing viruses. PMID:22301140

Mavian, Carla; López-Bueno, Alberto; Balseiro, Ana; Casais, Rosa; Alcamí, Antonio

2012-01-01

102

Shared genetic susceptibility to ischemic stroke and coronary artery disease – a genome-wide analysis of common variants  

PubMed Central

Summary Background and Purpose Ischemic stroke (IS) and coronary artery disease (CAD) share several risk factors and each have a substantial heritability. We conducted a genome-wide analysis to evaluate the extent of shared genetic determination of the two diseases. Methods Genome-wide association data were obtained from the METASTROKE, CARDIoGRAM, and C4D consortia. We first analyzed common variants reaching a nominal threshold of significance (p<0.01) for CAD for their association with IS and vice versa. We then examined specific overlap across phenotypes for variants that reached a high threshold of significance. Finally, we conducted a joint meta-analysis on the combined phenotype of IS or CAD. Corresponding analyses were performed restricted to the 2,167 individuals with the ischemic large artery stroke (LAS) subtype. Results Common variants associated with CAD at p<0.01 were associated with a significant excess risk for IS and for LAS and vice versa. Among the 42 known genome-wide significant loci for CAD, three and five loci were significantly associated with IS and LAS, respectively. In the joint meta-analyses, 15 loci passed genome-wide significance (p<5×10-8) for the combined phenotype of IS or CAD and 17 loci passed genome-wide significance for LAS or CAD. Since these loci had prior evidence for genome-wide significance for CAD we specifically analyzed the respective signals for IS and LAS and found evidence for association at chr12q24/SH2B3 (pIS=1.62×10-07) and ABO (pIS =2.6×10-4) as well as at HDAC9 (pLAS=2.32×10-12), 9p21 (pLAS =3.70×10-6), RAI1-PEMT-RASD1 (pLAS =2.69×10-5), EDNRA (pLAS =7.29×10-4), and CYP17A1-CNNM2-NT5C2 (pLAS =4.9×10-4). Conclusions Our results demonstrate substantial overlap in the genetic risk of ischemic stroke and particularly the large artery stroke subtype with coronary artery disease. PMID:24262325

Dichgans, Martin; Malik, Rainer; König, Inke R.; Rosand, Jonathan; Clarke, Robert; Gretarsdottir, Solveig; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Levi, Christopher; O?Donnell, Christopher J.; Fornage, Myriam; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Psaty, Bruce M.; Hengstenberg, Christian; Seshadri, Sudha; Erdmann, Jeanette; Bis, Joshua C.; Peters, Annette; Boncoraglio, Giorgio B.; März, Winfried; Meschia, James F.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Ikram, M. Arfan; McPherson, Ruth; Stefansson, Kari; Sudlow, Cathie; Reilly, Muredach P.; Thompson, John R.; Sharma, Pankaj; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Chambers, John C.; Watkins, Hugh; Rothwell, Peter M.; Roberts, Robert; Markus, Hugh S.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Farrall, Martin; Schunkert, Heribert

2014-01-01

103

Recombination and pseudorecombination driving the evolution of the begomoviruses Tomato severe rugose virus (ToSRV) and Tomato rugose mosaic virus (ToRMV): two recombinant DNA-A components sharing the same DNA-B  

PubMed Central

Background Begomoviruses are dicot-infecting, whitefly-transmitted viruses with a genome comprised of one or two molecules of circular, single-stranded DNA. In Brazil, tomato-infecting begomoviruses have emerged as serious pathogens since the introduction of a new biotype of the insect vector in the mid-1990’s. Tomato rugose mosaic virus (ToRMV) and Tomato severe rugose virus (ToSRV) are often found in tomato fields. The complete sequence of the DNA-B components of ToSRV and ToRMV show an identity of 98.2%. Additionally, the high nucleotide identity (96.2%) between their common regions indicates that these two viruses may share the same DNA-B. Methods Tomato seedlings were biolistically inoculated with ToSRV (DNA-A and DNA-B) and ToRMV (DNA-A and DNA-B) infectious clones in every possible combination of single or mixed infection. Symptom expression was evaluated for up to 35 days post-inoculation (dpi). DNA was extracted at 28 dpi and the presence of each viral genomic component was examined by rolling circle amplification (RCA) followed by digestion, as well as by quantitative, real-time PCR. Sequence comparisons, recombination and phylogenetic analyzes were performed using EMBOSS needle, RDP program and maximum likelihood inference, respectively. Results Symptoms in tomato plants inoculated with the different combinations of ToRMV and ToSRV DNA-A and DNA-B components consisted of a typical mosaic in all combinations. Pseudorecombinants were formed in all possible combinations. When two DNA-A or two DNA-B components were inoculated simultaneously, the ToRMV components were detected preferentially in relation to the ToSRV components. The combination of minor changes in both the Rep protein and the CR may be involved in the preferential replication of ToRMV components. Recombination and phylogenetic analyzes support the exchange of genetic material between ToRMV and ToSRV. Conclusions ToRMV and ToSRV form viable pseudorecombinants in their natural host (Solanum lycopersicum) and share the same DNA-B. ToRMV DNA components are preferentially replicated over ToSRV components. These results indicate that the emergence of ToRMV involved both recombination and pseudorecombination, further highlighting the importance of these mechanisms in the emergence and adaptation of begomoviruses. PMID:24708727

2014-01-01

104

The three-dimensional structure of carnocyclin A reveals that many circular bacteriocins share a common structural motif.  

PubMed

Carnocyclin A (CclA) is a potent antimicrobial peptide from Carnobacterium maltaromaticum UAL307 that displays a broad spectrum of activity against numerous Gram-positive organisms. An amide bond links the N and C termini of this bacteriocin, imparting stability and structural integrity to this 60-amino acid peptide. CclA interacts with lipid bilayers in a voltage-dependent manner and forms anion selective pores. Several other circular bacteriocins have been reported, yet only one (enterocin AS-48) has been structurally characterized. We have now determined the solution structure of CclA by NMR and further examined its anion binding and membrane channel properties. The results reveal that CclA preferentially binds halide anions and has a structure that is surprisingly similar to that of AS-48 despite low sequence identity, different oligomeric state, and disparate function. CclA folds into a compact globular bundle, comprised of four helices surrounding a hydrophobic core. NMR studies show two fluoride ion binding modes for CclA. Our findings suggest that although other circular bacteriocins are likely to have diverse mechanisms of action, many may have a common structural motif. This shared three-dimensional arrangement resembles the fold of mammalian saposins, peptides that either directly lyse membranes or serve as activators of lipid-degrading enzymes. PMID:19692336

Martin-Visscher, Leah A; Gong, Xiandi; Duszyk, Marek; Vederas, John C

2009-10-16

105

The Three-dimensional Structure of Carnocyclin A Reveals That Many Circular Bacteriocins Share a Common Structural Motif*  

PubMed Central

Carnocyclin A (CclA) is a potent antimicrobial peptide from Carnobacterium maltaromaticum UAL307 that displays a broad spectrum of activity against numerous Gram-positive organisms. An amide bond links the N and C termini of this bacteriocin, imparting stability and structural integrity to this 60-amino acid peptide. CclA interacts with lipid bilayers in a voltage-dependent manner and forms anion selective pores. Several other circular bacteriocins have been reported, yet only one (enterocin AS-48) has been structurally characterized. We have now determined the solution structure of CclA by NMR and further examined its anion binding and membrane channel properties. The results reveal that CclA preferentially binds halide anions and has a structure that is surprisingly similar to that of AS-48 despite low sequence identity, different oligomeric state, and disparate function. CclA folds into a compact globular bundle, comprised of four helices surrounding a hydrophobic core. NMR studies show two fluoride ion binding modes for CclA. Our findings suggest that although other circular bacteriocins are likely to have diverse mechanisms of action, many may have a common structural motif. This shared three-dimensional arrangement resembles the fold of mammalian saposins, peptides that either directly lyse membranes or serve as activators of lipid-degrading enzymes. PMID:19692336

Martin-Visscher, Leah A.; Gong, Xiandi; Duszyk, Marek; Vederas, John C.

2009-01-01

106

Coffee and tomato share common gene repertoires as revealed by deep sequencing of seed and cherry transcripts  

PubMed Central

An EST database has been generated for coffee based on sequences from approximately 47,000 cDNA clones derived from five different stages/tissues, with a special focus on developing seeds. When computationally assembled, these sequences correspond to 13,175 unigenes, which were analyzed with respect to functional annotation, expression profile and evolution. Compared with Arabidopsis, the coffee unigenes encode a higher proportion of proteins related to protein modification/turnover and metabolism—an observation that may explain the high diversity of metabolites found in coffee and related species. Several gene families were found to be either expanded or unique to coffee when compared with Arabidopsis. A high proportion of these families encode proteins assigned to functions related to disease resistance. Such families may have expanded and evolved rapidly under the intense pathogen pressure experienced by a tropical, perennial species like coffee. Finally, the coffee gene repertoire was compared with that of Arabidopsis and Solanaceous species (e.g. tomato). Unlike Arabidopsis, tomato has a nearly perfect gene-for-gene match with coffee. These results are consistent with the facts that coffee and tomato have a similar genome size, chromosome karyotype (tomato, n=12; coffee n=11) and chromosome architecture. Moreover, both belong to the Asterid I clade of dicot plant families. Thus, the biology of coffee (family Rubiacaeae) and tomato (family Solanaceae) may be united into one common network of shared discoveries, resources and information. PMID:16273343

Lin, Chenwei; Mueller, Lukas A.; Carthy, James Mc; Crouzillat, Dominique; Pétiard, Vincent

2005-01-01

107

GeneScan Reverse Transcription-PCR Assay for Detection of Six Common Respiratory Viruses in Young Children Hospitalized with Acute Respiratory Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assay based on automated fluorescent capillary electrophoresis and GeneScan software analysis was developed to detect six common respiratory viruses in clinical specimens from young children. Assays for human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV); human parainfluenza viruses 1, 2, and 3 (HPIV1, -2, and -3, respectively); and influenza A and B viruses were incorporated into a single standard

Dean D. Erdman; Geoffrey A. Weinberg; Kathryn M. Edwards; Frances J. Walker; Barbara C. Anderson; Jorn Winter; Monica Gonzalez; Larry J. Anderson

2003-01-01

108

Antigenic profile of African horse sickness virus serotype 4 VP5 and identification of a neutralizing epitope shared with bluetongue virus and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus.  

PubMed

African horse sickness virus (AHSV) causes a fatal disease in horses. The virus capsid is composed of a double protein layer, the outermost of which is formed by two proteins: VP2 and VP5. VP2 is known to determine the serotype of the virus and to contain the neutralizing epitopes. The biological function of VP5, the other component of the capsid, is unknown. In this report, AHSV VP5, expressed in insect cells alone or together with VP2, was able to induce AHSV-specific neutralizing antibodies. Moreover, two VP5-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that were able to neutralize the virus in a plaque reduction assay were generated. To dissect the antigenic structure of AHSV VP5, the protein was cloned in Escherichia coli using the pET3 system. The immunoreactivity of both MAbs, and horse and rabbit polyclonal antisera, with 17 overlapping fragments from VP5 was analyzed. The most immunodominant region was found in the N-terminal 330 residues of VP5, defining two antigenic regions, I (residues 151-200) and II (residues 83-120). The epitopes were further defined by PEPSCAN analysis with 12mer peptides, which determined eight antigenic sites in the N-terminal half of the molecule. Neutralizing epitopes were defined at positions 85-92 (PDPLSPGE) for MAb 10AE12 and at 179-185 (EEDLRTR) for MAb 10AC6. Epitope 10AE12 is highly conserved between the different orbiviruses. MAb 10AE12 was able to recognize bluetongue virus VP5 and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus VP5 by several techniques. These data will be especially useful for vaccine development and diagnostic purposes. PMID:10329555

Martínez-Torrecuadrada, J L; Langeveld, J P; Venteo, A; Sanz, A; Dalsgaard, K; Hamilton, W D; Meloen, R H; Casal, J I

1999-05-10

109

Microbial Gutta-Percha Degradation Shares Common Steps with Rubber Degradation by Nocardia nova SH22a  

PubMed Central

Nocardia nova SH22a, a bacterium capable of degrading gutta-percha (GP) and natural rubber (NR), was used to investigate the GP degradation mechanism and the relations between the GP and NR degradation pathways. For this strain, a protocol of electroporation was systematically optimized, and an efficiency of up to 4.3 × 107 CFU per ?g of plasmid DNA was achieved. By applying this optimized protocol to N. nova SH22a, a Tn5096-based transposon mutagenesis library of this bacterium was constructed. Among about 12,000 apramycin-resistant transformants, we identified 76 stable mutants defective in GP or NR utilization. Whereas 10 mutants were specifically defective in GP utilization, the growth of the other 66 mutants was affected on both GP and NR. This indicated that the two degradation pathways are quite similar and share many common steps. The larger number of GP-degrading defective mutants could be explained in one of two ways: either (i) the GP pathway is more complex and harbors more specific steps or (ii) the steps for both pathways are almost identical, but in the case of GP degradation there are fewer enzymes involved in each step. The analysis of transposition loci and genetic studies on interesting genes confirmed the crucial role of an ?-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase in the degradation of both GP and NR. We also demonstrated the probable involvement of enzymes participating in oxidoreduction reactions, ?-oxidation, and the synthesis of complex cell envelope lipids in the degradation of GP. PMID:23220954

Luo, Quan; Hiessl, Sebastian; Poehlein, Anja

2013-01-01

110

Comparison of the Oilseed rape mosaic virus and Tobacco mosaic virus movement proteins (MP) reveals common and dissimilar MP functions for tobamovirus spread.  

PubMed

Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is a longstanding model for studying virus movement and macromolecular transport through plasmodesmata (PD). Its movement protein (MP) interacts with cortical microtubule (MT)-associated ER sites (C-MERs) to facilitate the formation and transport of ER-associated viral replication complexes (VRCs) along the ER-actin network towards PD. To investigate whether this movement mechanism might be conserved between tobamoviruses, we compared the functions of Oilseed rape mosaic virus (ORMV) MP with those of MP(TMV). We show that MP(ORMV) supports TMV movement more efficiently than MP(TMV). Moreover, MP(ORMV) localizes to C-MERs like MP(TMV) but accumulates to lower levels and does not localize to larger inclusions/VRCs or along MTs, patterns regularly seen for MP(TMV). Our findings extend the role of C-MERs in viral cell-to-cell transport to a virus commonly used for functional genomics in Arabidopsis. Moreover, accumulation of tobamoviral MP in inclusions or along MTs is not required for virus movement. PMID:24889224

Niehl, Annette; Pasquier, Adrien; Ferriol, Inmaculada; Mély, Yves; Heinlein, Manfred

2014-05-01

111

Microarray profiling analysis uncovers common molecular mechanisms of rubella virus, human cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus type 2 infections in ECV304 cells.  

PubMed

To study the common molecular mechanisms of various viruses infections that might result in congential cardiovascular diseases in perinatal period, changes in mRNA expression levels of ECV304 cells infected by rubella virus (RUBV), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) were analyzed using a microarray system representing 18,716 human genes. 99 genes were found to exhibit differential expression (80 up-regulated and 19 down-regulated). Biological process analysis showed that 33 signaling pathways including 22 genes were relevant significantly to RV, HCMV and HSV-II infections. Of these 33 biological processes, 28 belong to one-gene biological processes and 5 belong to multiple-gene biological processes. Gene annotation indicated that the 5 multiple-gene biological processes including regulation of cell growth, collagen fibril organization, mRNA transport, cell adhesion and regulation of cell shape, and seven down- or up-regulated genes [CRIM1 (cysteine rich transmembrane BMP regulator 1), WISP2 (WNT1 inducible signaling pathway protein 2), COL12A1 (collagen, type XII, alpha 1), COL11A2 (collagen, type XI, alpha 2), CNTN5 (contactin 5), DDR1 (discoidin domain receptor tyrosine kinase 1), VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor precursor)], are significantly correlated to RUBV, HCMV and HSV-2 infections in ECV304 cells. The results obtained in this study suggested the common molecular mechanisms of viruses infections that might result in congential cardiovascular diseases. PMID:21663589

Mo, X; Xu, L; Yang, Q; Feng, H; Peng, J; Zhang, Y; Yuan, W; Wang, Y; Li, Y; Deng, Y; Wan, Y; Chen, Z; Li, F; Wu, X

2011-08-01

112

Identification and Partial Characterisation of Lettuce big-vein associated virus and Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus in Common Weeds Found Amongst Spanish Lettuce Crops and their Role in Lettuce Big-vein Disease Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential role of 10 frequently occurring weed species found amongst Spanish lettuce crops as host plants for the two\\u000a viruses associated with the lettuce big-vein disease, Lettuce big-vein associated virus (LBVaV) and Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus (MLBVV), was studied. The results showed that both viruses can infect naturally growing Sonchus oleraceus (common sowthistle) plants, the unique susceptible species detected

Jose A. Navarro; Francisco Botella; Antonio Marhuenda; Pedro Sastre; M. Amelia Sánchez-Pina; Vicente Pallas

2005-01-01

113

An siRNA Screen of Membrane Trafficking Genes Highlights Pathways Common to HIV-1 and M-PMV Virus Assembly and Release  

PubMed Central

The assembly and release of retroviruses from the host cells requires a coordinated series of interactions between viral structural proteins and cellular trafficking pathways. Although a number of cellular factors involved in retrovirus assembly have been identified, it is likely that retroviruses utilize additional trafficking factors to expedite their assembly and budding that have not yet been defined. We performed a screen using an siRNA library targeting host membrane trafficking genes in order to identify new host factors that contribute to retrovirus assembly or release. We utilized two retroviruses that follow very distinct assembly pathways, HIV-1 and Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (M-PMV) in order to identify host pathways that are generally applicable in retrovirus assembly versus those that are unique to HIV or M-PMV. Here we report the identification of 24 host proteins identified in the screen and subsequently validated in follow-up experiments as contributors to the assembly or release of both viruses. In addition to identifying a number of previously unsuspected individual trafficking factors, we noted multiple hits among proteins involved in modulation of the actin cytoskeleton, clathrin-mediated transport pathways, and phosphoinositide metabolism. Our study shows that distant genera of retroviruses share a number of common interaction strategies with host cell trafficking machinery, and identifies new cellular factors involved in the late stages of retroviral replication. PMID:25187981

Wen, Xiaoyun; Ding, Lingmei; Hunter, Eric; Spearman, Paul

2014-01-01

114

REGISTRATION OF THREE EARLY MATURING ANASAZI TYPE COMMON BEAN GERMPLASMS WITH RESISTANCE TO BEAN COMMON MOSAIC VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

CO-32948, CO-32977, and CO-40696 are three Anasazi-type common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) germplasm lines developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station. Anasazi-type dry beans are grown commercially in the southwestern J.S. The predominant Anasazi-type cultivar grown in the Four-Corn...

115

Evaluation of Commercially Available Serologic Diagnostic Tests for Chikungunya Virus  

PubMed Central

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is present or emerging in dengue virus–endemic areas. Infections caused by these viruses share some common signs/symptoms, but prognosis, patient care, and persistent symptoms differ. Thus, accurate diagnostic methods are essential for differentiating the infections. We evaluated 4 CHIKV serologic diagnostic tests, 2 of which showed poor sensitivity and specificity. PMID:25418184

Flusin, Olivier; Panella, Amanda; Tenebray, Bernard; Lanciotti, Robert; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle

2014-01-01

116

Evaluation of commercially available serologic diagnostic tests for chikungunya virus.  

PubMed

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is present or emerging in dengue virus-endemic areas. Infections caused by these viruses share some common signs/symptoms, but prognosis, patient care, and persistent symptoms differ. Thus, accurate diagnostic methods are essential for differentiating the infections. We evaluated 4 CHIKV serologic diagnostic tests, 2 of which showed poor sensitivity and specificity. PMID:25418184

Prat, Christine M; Flusin, Olivier; Panella, Amanda; Tenebray, Bernard; Lanciotti, Robert; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle

2014-12-01

117

Characterization of a Type-Common Human Recombinant Monoclonal Antibody to Herpes Simplex Virus with High Therapeutic Potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the characterization of a type-common human recombinant monoclonal antibody previously isolated by antigen selection from a phage-displayed combinatorial antibody library established from a herpes simplex virus (HSV)-seropositive individual. Competition with well-characterized murine monoclonal anti- bodies and immunodetection of gD truncations revealed that this antibody recognizes the group Ib antigenic site of glycoprotein D, a highly conserved and protective

ALESSANDRO DE LOGU; R. ANTHONY WILLIAMSON; ROMAN ROZENSHTEYN; FERNANDO RAMIRO-IBANEZ; CINDY D. SIMPSON; DENNIS R. BURTON; PIETRO PAOLO SANNA

1998-01-01

118

Value and Usefulness of a Collaborative Information Sharing Forum: Findings from the “Common Ground” Conference Evaluation Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the value, usefulness, and impact of the “Common Ground, Common Language, Common Goals (CCC): Bringing Substance Abuse Practice and Research Together” conference, which was held April 2001 in Los Angeles, participants were surveyed regarding the effectiveness of the conference overall, the impact of the conference on attendees' collaborative behaviors, and the quality of the roundtable discussion sessions and

Natasha De Veauuse Brown

2002-01-01

119

Common Genetic and Non-shared Environmental Factors Contribute to the Association between Socioemotional Dispositions and the Externalizing Factor in Children  

PubMed Central

Background Childhood behavioral disorders including conduct disorder (CD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. Prior twin research shows that common sets of genetic and environmental factors are associated with these various disorders and they form a latent factor called Externalizing. The developmental propensity model posits that CD develops in part from socioemotional dispositions of Prosociality, Negative Emotionality, and Daring, and recent research has supported the expected genetic and environmental associations between these dispositions and CD. This study examined the developmental propensity model in relation to the broader Externalizing factor that represents the covariance among behavior disorders in children. Methods Parents of 686 6- to 12-year-old twin pairs rated them on symptoms of CD, ADHD, and ODD using the Disruptive Behavior Disorder scale and on Prosociality, Negative Emotionality, and Daring using the Child and Adolescent Dispositions Scale. A latent factor multivariate Cholesky model was used with each disposition latent factor comprised of respective questionnaire items and the Externalizing factor comprised of symptom dimensions of CD, ADHD inattention, ADHD hyperactivity/impulsivity, and ODD. Results Results supported the hypothesis that the socioemotional dispositions and the Externalizing factor have genetic factors in common, but there was not a single genetic factor associated with all of the constructs. As expected, non-shared environment factors were shared by the dispositions and Externalizing factor but, again, no single non-shared environmental factor was common to all constructs. A shared environmental factor was associated with both Negative Emotionality and Externalizing. Conclusions The developmental propensity model was supported and appears to extend to the broader externalizing spectrum of childhood disorders. Socioemotional dispositions of prosociality, negative emotionality, and (to a lesser extent) daring may contribute to the covariation among behavioral disorders and perhaps to their comorbid expression through common sets of primarily genetic but also environmental factors. PMID:23017065

Taylor, Jeanette; Allan, Nicholas; Mikolajewski, Amy J.; Hart, Sara A.

2012-01-01

120

Cross-protective effect of antisense oligonucleotide developed against the common 3' NCR of influenza A virus genome.  

PubMed

The influenza A virus (IAV) has eight segmented single-stranded RNA genome containing a common and evolutionarily conserved non-coding region (NCRs) at 5' and 3' ends that are important for the virus replication. In this study, we designed an antisense oligonucleotide against the 3' NCR of vital segments of the IAV genome to inhibit its replication. The results demonstrated that the co-transfection of Madine Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells with the antisense oligonucleotide and the plasmids encoding the viral genes led to the down-regulation of the viral gene expression. The designed antisense molecules reduced the cytopathic effect caused by A/PR/8/34 (H1N1), A/Udorn/307/72 (H3N2), and A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1) strains of IAV for almost 48 h. Furthermore, the intra-venous delivery of this oligonucleotide significantly reduced the viral titers in the lungs of infected mice and protected the mice from lethal effects of all the strains of influenza virus. The study demonstrated that the antisense oligonucleotide designed against the NCR region inhibits the expression of the viral genome. The decrease of the cytopathic effect in the MDCK cells and increase in survival of mice confirmed the reduction of virus multiplication and pathogenesis in the presence of antisense oligonucleotide. Thus, we demonstrate that a single antisense oligonucleotide is capable of providing protection against more than one strains of the IAV. PMID:23729285

Kumar, Prashant; Kumar, Binod; Rajput, Roopali; Saxena, Latika; Banerjea, Akhil C; Khanna, Madhu

2013-11-01

121

The potential distance of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus dispersal by mallard, common teal and Eurasian pochard.  

PubMed

Waterbirds represent the major natural reservoir for low pathogenic (LP) avian influenza viruses (AIV). Among the wide diversity of subtypes that have been described, two of them (H5 and H7) may become highly pathogenic (HP) after their introduction into domestic bird populations and cause severe outbreaks, as is the case for HP H5N1 in South-Eastern Asia. Recent experimental studies demonstrated that HP H5N1 AIV infection in ducks does not necessarily have significant pathological effects. These results suggest that wild migratory ducks may asymptomatically carry HP AIV and potentially spread viruses over large geographical distances. In this study, we investigated the potential spreading distance of HP AIV by common teal (Anas crecca), mallard (A. platyrhynchos), and Eurasian pochard (Aythya ferina). Based on capture-mark-recapture method, we characterized their wintering movements from a western Mediterranean wetland (Camargue, South of France) and identified the potential distance and direction of virus dispersal. Such data may be crucial in determining higher-risk areas in the case of HP AIV infection detection in this major wintering quarter, and may serve as a valuable reference for virus outbreaks elsewhere. PMID:20112048

Brochet, Anne-Laure; Guillemain, Matthieu; Lebarbenchon, Camille; Simon, Géraldine; Fritz, Hervé; Green, Andy J; Renaud, François; Thomas, Frédéric; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel

2009-09-01

122

Complete Genome Sequence of a Common Midwife Toad Virus-Like Ranavirus Associated with Mass Mortalities in Wild Amphibians in the Netherlands  

PubMed Central

A ranavirus associated with mass mortalities in wild water frogs (Pelophylax spp.) and other amphibians in the Netherlands since 2010 was isolated, and its complete genome sequence was determined. The virus has a genome of 107,772 bp and shows 96.5% sequence identity with the common midwife toad virus from Spain. PMID:25540340

Hughes, Joseph; Saucedo, Bernardo; Rijks, Jolianne; Kik, Marja; Haenen, Olga L. M.; Engelsma, Marc Y.; Gröne, Andrea; Verheije, M. Helene; Wilkie, Gavin

2014-01-01

123

Complete genome sequence of a common midwife toad virus-like ranavirus associated with mass mortalities in wild amphibians in the Netherlands.  

PubMed

A ranavirus associated with mass mortalities in wild water frogs (Pelophylax spp.) and other amphibians in the Netherlands since 2010 was isolated, and its complete genome sequence was determined. The virus has a genome of 107,772 bp and shows 96.5% sequence identity with the common midwife toad virus from Spain. PMID:25540340

van Beurden, Steven J; Hughes, Joseph; Saucedo, Bernardo; Rijks, Jolianne; Kik, Marja; Haenen, Olga L M; Engelsma, Marc Y; Gröne, Andrea; Verheije, M Helene; Wilkie, Gavin

2014-01-01

124

Role of a Common Frame of Reference in Cognitive Cooperation: Sharing Tasks between Agents in Air Traffic Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   This study deals with cognitive cooperation in the context of the design of cooperative computer support for sharing aircraft\\u000a conflict detection and resolution tasks between human and machine in air traffic control. In order to specify some necessary\\u000a cooperative capabilities of such a system, we have observed an artificial situation on a simulator where two radar controllers\\u000a (RCs) had

Jean-michel Hoc; X. Carlier

2002-01-01

125

Common Origins and Host-Dependent Diversity of Plant and Animal Viromes  

PubMed Central

Many viruses infecting animals and plants share common cores of homologous genes involved in the key processes of viral replication. In contrast, genes that mediate virus – host interactions including in many cases capsid protein genes are markedly different. There are three distinct scenarios for the origin of related viruses of plants and animals: i) evolution from a common ancestral virus predating the divergence of plants and animals; ii) horizontal transfer of viruses, for example, through insect vectors; iii) parallel origin from related genetic elements. We present evidence that each of these scenarios contributed, to a varying extent, to the evolution of different groups of viruses. PMID:22408703

Dolja, Valerian V.; Koonin, Eugene V.

2012-01-01

126

Common origins and host-dependent diversity of plant and animal viromes.  

PubMed

Many viruses infecting animals and plants share common cores of homologous genes involved in the key processes of viral replication. In contrast, genes that mediate virus–host interactions including in many cases capsid protein (CP) genes are markedly different. There are three distinct scenarios for the origin of related viruses of plants and animals: first, evolution from a common ancestral virus predating the divergence of plants and animals; second, horizontal transfer of viruses, for example, through insect vectors; third, parallel origin from related genetic elements. We present evidence that each of these scenarios contributed, to a varying extent, to the evolution of different groups of viruses. PMID:22408703

Dolja, Valerian V; Koonin, Eugene V

2011-11-01

127

A neutralizable epitope common to the envelope glycoproteins of ecotropic, polytropic, xenotropic, and amphotropic murine leukemia viruses.  

PubMed Central

An epitope common to all classes of murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs) was detected by reactivity of MuLVs with a rat monoclonal antibody (MAb) termed 83A25. The antibody is of the immunoglobulin G2a isotype and was derived after fusion of NS-1 myeloma cells with spleen cells from a Fischer rat immunized with a Friend polytropic MuLV. The antibody reacted with nearly all members of the ecotropic, polytropic, xenotropic, and amphotropic classes of MuLVs. Unreactive viruses were limited to the Friend ecotropic MuLV, Rauscher MuLV, and certain recombinant derivatives of Friend ecotropic MuLV. The presence of an epitope common to nearly all MuLVs facilitated a direct quantitative focal immunofluorescence assay for MuLVs, including the amphotropic MuLVs for which no direct assay has been previously available. Previously described MAbs which react with all classes of MuLVs have been limited to those which react with virion core or transmembrane proteins. In contrast, protein immunoblot and immunoprecipitation analyses established that the epitope reactive with MAb 83A25 resides in the envelope glycoproteins of the viruses. Structural comparisons of reactive and nonreactive Friend polytropic viruses localized the epitope near the carboxyl terminus of the glycoprotein. The epitope served as a target for neutralization of all classes of MuLV with MAb 83A25. The efficiency of neutralization varied with different MuLV isolates but did not correlate with MuLV interference groups. Images PMID:1700832

Evans, L H; Morrison, R P; Malik, F G; Portis, J; Britt, W J

1990-01-01

128

Metagenomic Analysis of the Viromes of Three North American Bat Species: Viral Diversity among Different Bat Species That Share a Common Habitat?  

PubMed Central

Effective prediction of future viral zoonoses requires an in-depth understanding of the heterologous viral population in key animal species that will likely serve as reservoir hosts or intermediates during the next viral epidemic. The importance of bats as natural hosts for several important viral zoonoses, including Ebola, Marburg, Nipah, Hendra, and rabies viruses and severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV), has been established; however, the large viral population diversity (virome) of bats has been partially determined for only a few of the ?1,200 bat species. To assess the virome of North American bats, we collected fecal, oral, urine, and tissue samples from individual bats captured at an abandoned railroad tunnel in Maryland that is cohabitated by 7 to 10 different bat species. Here, we present preliminary characterization of the virome of three common North American bat species, including big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), tricolored bats (Perimyotis subflavus), and little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus). In samples derived from these bats, we identified viral sequences that were similar to at least three novel group 1 CoVs, large numbers of insect and plant virus sequences, and nearly full-length genomic sequences of two novel bacteriophages. These observations suggest that bats encounter and disseminate a large assortment of viruses capable of infecting many different animals, insects, and plants in nature. PMID:20926577

Donaldson, Eric F.; Haskew, Aimee N.; Gates, J. Edward; Huynh, Jeremy; Moore, Clea J.; Frieman, Matthew B.

2010-01-01

129

Redefinition of tropism of common macrophage-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1.  

PubMed

Previous studies have suggested that the abilities of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) to infect primary macrophages and transformed T cell lines are mutually exclusive and define an important biological distinction among HIV-1 strains. In a survey of eight macrophage-tropic HIV-1 strains and nine T cell lines, all frequently used in studies of tropism, we have found that six virus strains replicate in one or more T cell lines and that four T cell lines are highly susceptible to macrophage-tropic HIV-1. Passage through T cell lines did not affect the tropism or the env V3 sequence of monocytotropic HIV-1 strains. We conclude that HIV-1 replication in transformed T cells and primary macrophages are not mutually exclusive, and that as such, these definitions of tropism per se are not generally useful markers for other biological properties of HIV-1. PMID:8679290

Chowdhury, I H; Potash, M J; Volsky, D J

1995-12-01

130

Symbionts Commonly Provide Broad Spectrum Resistance to Viruses in Insects: A Comparative Analysis of Wolbachia Strains  

PubMed Central

In the last decade, bacterial symbionts have been shown to play an important role in protecting hosts against pathogens. Wolbachia, a widespread symbiont in arthropods, can protect Drosophila and mosquito species against viral infections. We have investigated antiviral protection in 19 Wolbachia strains originating from 16 Drosophila species after transfer into the same genotype of Drosophila simulans. We found that approximately half of the strains protected against two RNA viruses. Given that 40% of terrestrial arthropod species are estimated to harbour Wolbachia, as many as a fifth of all arthropods species may benefit from Wolbachia-mediated protection. The level of protection against two distantly related RNA viruses – DCV and FHV – was strongly genetically correlated, which suggests that there is a single mechanism of protection with broad specificity. Furthermore, Wolbachia is making flies resistant to viruses, as increases in survival can be largely explained by reductions in viral titer. Variation in the level of antiviral protection provided by different Wolbachia strains is strongly genetically correlated to the density of the bacteria strains in host tissues. We found no support for two previously proposed mechanisms of Wolbachia-mediated protection — activation of the immune system and upregulation of the methyltransferase Dnmt2. The large variation in Wolbachia's antiviral properties highlights the need to carefully select Wolbachia strains introduced into mosquito populations to prevent the transmission of arboviruses. PMID:25233341

Martinez, Julien; Longdon, Ben; Bauer, Simone; Chan, Yuk-Sang; Miller, Wolfgang J.; Bourtzis, Kostas; Teixeira, Luis; Jiggins, Francis M.

2014-01-01

131

Symbionts commonly provide broad spectrum resistance to viruses in insects: a comparative analysis of Wolbachia strains.  

PubMed

In the last decade, bacterial symbionts have been shown to play an important role in protecting hosts against pathogens. Wolbachia, a widespread symbiont in arthropods, can protect Drosophila and mosquito species against viral infections. We have investigated antiviral protection in 19 Wolbachia strains originating from 16 Drosophila species after transfer into the same genotype of Drosophila simulans. We found that approximately half of the strains protected against two RNA viruses. Given that 40% of terrestrial arthropod species are estimated to harbour Wolbachia, as many as a fifth of all arthropods species may benefit from Wolbachia-mediated protection. The level of protection against two distantly related RNA viruses--DCV and FHV--was strongly genetically correlated, which suggests that there is a single mechanism of protection with broad specificity. Furthermore, Wolbachia is making flies resistant to viruses, as increases in survival can be largely explained by reductions in viral titer. Variation in the level of antiviral protection provided by different Wolbachia strains is strongly genetically correlated to the density of the bacteria strains in host tissues. We found no support for two previously proposed mechanisms of Wolbachia-mediated protection--activation of the immune system and upregulation of the methyltransferase Dnmt2. The large variation in Wolbachia's antiviral properties highlights the need to carefully select Wolbachia strains introduced into mosquito populations to prevent the transmission of arboviruses. PMID:25233341

Martinez, Julien; Longdon, Ben; Bauer, Simone; Chan, Yuk-Sang; Miller, Wolfgang J; Bourtzis, Kostas; Teixeira, Luis; Jiggins, Francis M

2014-09-01

132

[Possible commonality of origin of the RNA polymerase genes of plus-RNA-containing viruses of bacteria, plants and animals].  

PubMed

The data given testify that picornavirus RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase, RNA-polymerase encoded by the genome of MS2 phage and the certain polypeptides involved in the replication of RNA genomes of alphaviruses, tobamoviruses and tricornaviruses include the homologous stretches of the amino acids. The common sequences are located in the COOH-terminal regions of the viral proteins. These sequences have been found to be conserved also in RNA-replicase MS2 phage. The similarity of the primary structure between the RNA-polymerase phages and proteins of eucaryotic plus-RNA-containing viruses testifies in favour of the hypothesis on possible ancestral relationship of virus RNA-polymerases genes. These data point out that it is possible to localize an indispensable functional domain conserved upon evolutionary divergence of an ancestral RNA-polymerase gene. Such conservative region is recently found in the composition of RNA-dependent DNA-polymerases animals and plants virus. An attention is drawn to the region of protein similarity between conservative domains of viral RNA-dependent DNA-polymerases and RNA-polymerases. PMID:4063407

Morozov, S Iu; Rupasov, V V

1985-01-01

133

Populational survey of arthropods on transgenic common bean expressing the rep gene from Bean golden mosaic virus.  

PubMed

Genetically modified (GM) crops is considered the fastest adopted crop technology in the history of modern agriculture. However, possible undesirable and unintended effects must be considered during the research steps toward development of a commercial product. In this report we evaluated effects of a common bean virus resistant line on arthropod populations, considered as non-target organisms. This GM bean line (named M1/4) was modified for resistance against Bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV) by expressing a mutated REP protein, which is essential for virus replication. Biosafety studies were performed for a period of three years under field conditions. The abundance of some species was significantly higher in specific treatments in a particular year, but not consistently different in other years. A regular pattern was not observed in the distribution of insects between genetically modified and conventional treatments. Data analyses showed that minor differences observed can be attributed to random variation and were not consistent enough to conclude that the treatments were different. Therefore the present study indicates that the relative abundance of species are similar in transgenic and non-transgenic fields. PMID:24922280

Pinheiro, Patrícia V; Quintela, Eliane D; Junqueira, Ana Maria R; Aragão, Francisco J L; Faria, Josias C

2014-01-01

134

Diverse strategies engaged in establishing stereotypic wiring patterns among neurons sharing a common input at the visual system's first synapse.  

PubMed

Sensory circuits use common strategies, such as convergence and divergence, typically at different synapses, to pool or distribute inputs. Inputs from different presynaptic cell types converge onto a common postsynaptic cell, acting together to shape neuronal output (Klausberger and Somogyi, 2008). Also, individual presynaptic cells contact several postsynaptic cell types, generating divergence of signals. Attaining such complex wiring patterns relies on the orchestration of many events across development, including axonal and dendritic growth and synapse formation and elimination (reviewed by Waites et al., 2005; Sanes and Yamagata, 2009). Recent work has focused on how distinct presynaptic cell types form stereotypic connections with an individual postsynaptic cell (Morgan et al., 2011; Williams et al., 2011), but how a single presynaptic cell type diverges to form distinct wiring patterns with multiple postsynaptic cell types during development remains unexplored. Here we take advantage of the compactness of the visual system's first synapse to observe development of such a circuit in mouse retina. By imaging three types of postsynaptic bipolar cells and their common photoreceptor targets across development, we found that distinct bipolar cell types engage in disparate dendritic growth behaviors, exhibit targeted or exploratory approaches to contact photoreceptors, and adhere differently to the synaptotropic model of establishing synaptic territories. Furthermore each type establishes its final connectivity patterns with the same afferents on separate time scales. We propose that such differences in strategy and timeline could facilitate the division of common inputs among multiple postsynaptic cell types to create parallel circuits with diverse function. PMID:22836264

Dunn, Felice A; Wong, Rachel O L

2012-07-25

135

Discovering Common Ground: How Future Search Conferences Bring People Together To Achieve Breakthrough Innovation, Empowerment, Shared Vision, and Collaborative Action.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 35 papers about planning and holding future search conferences, as well as their benefits and likely future directions. The following papers are included: "Applied Common Sense" (Weisbord); "Inventing the Search Conference" (Weisbord); "Building Collaborative Communities" (Schindler-Rainman, Lippitt); "Parallel Paths to…

Weisbord, Marvin R.; And Others

136

Common Cold Self Care The "common cold" is inflammation of the upper respiratory tract caused a variety of different viruses. Antibiotics do not  

E-print Network

a variety of different viruses. Antibiotics do not cure viral infections and, in fact, may be harmful for 3 to 4 weeks. Cold viruses are spread from person to person through coughs, sneezes, and mucus-the-counter medications may help you feel better while your body's own defenses are combating the virus. If you have fever

137

Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Coinfection: Epidemiology, Natural History, Therapeutic Options and Clinical Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to shared risk factors for transmission, coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a very common event. The prevalence of HCV infection among HIV-positive patients averages about 35% in the United States and Europe, but in clinical populations where there is a great prevalence of intravenous drug use as a risk factor for acquiring

G. Verucchi; L. Calza; R. Manfredi; F. Chiodo

2004-01-01

138

Symbionts Commonly Provide Broad Spectrum Resistance to Viruses in Insects: A Comparative Analysis of Wolbachia Strains  

E-print Network

viral infection. We took 19 strains of Wolbachia from different species of Drosophila fruit flies, transferred them into Drosophila simulans, and then infected these flies with two different viruses. We found that about half of the strains slowed... ), dipped into viral or Ringer’s solution as in [92]. Twenty stabbed flies were placed in a vial of fly cornmeal medium and dead flies were recorded every day for 25 days after infection. Flies were transferred into fresh vials of food every 3 days...

Martinez, Julien; Longdon, Ben; Bauer, Simone; Chan, Yuk-Sang; Miller, Wolfgang J.; Bourtzis, Kostas; Teixeira, Luis; Jiggins, Francis M.

2014-09-18

139

The evolution of fibrillar collagens: a sea-pen collagen shares common features with vertebrate type V collagen.  

PubMed

The extracellular matrix of marine primitive invertebrates (sponges, polyps and jellyfishes) contains collagen fibrils with narrow diameters. From various data, it has been hypothesized that these primitive collagens could represent ancestral forms of the vertebrate minor collagens, i.e., types V or XI. Recently we have isolated a primitive collagen from the soft tissues of the sea-pen Veretillum cynomorium. This report examines whether the sea-pen collagen shares some features with vertebrate type V collagen. Rotary shadowed images of acid-soluble collagen molecules extracted from beta-APN treated animals, positive staining of segment-long-spacing crystallites precipitated from pepsinized collagen, Western blots of the pepsinized alpha1 and alpha2 chains with antibodies to vertebrate types I, III and V collagens, and in situ gold immunolabeling of ECM collagen fibrils were examined. Our results showed that the tissue form of the sea-pen collagen is a 340-nm threadlike molecule, which is close to the vertebrate type V collagen with its voluminous terminal globular domain, the distribution of most of its polar amino-acid residues, and its antigenic properties. PMID:8653581

Tillet, E; Franc, J M; Franc, S; Garrone, R

1996-02-01

140

Aerosolized Rift Valley Fever Virus Causes Fatal Encephalitis in African Green Monkeys and Common Marmosets  

PubMed Central

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a veterinary and human disease in Africa and the Middle East. The causative agent, RVF virus (RVFV), can be naturally transmitted by mosquito, direct contact, or aerosol. We sought to develop a nonhuman primate (NHP) model of severe RVF in humans to better understand the pathogenesis of RVF and to use for evaluation of medical countermeasures. NHP from four different species were exposed to aerosols containing RVFV. Both cynomolgus and rhesus macaques developed mild fevers after inhalation of RVFV, but no other clinical signs were noted and no macaque succumbed to RVFV infection. In contrast, both marmosets and African green monkeys (AGM) proved susceptible to aerosolized RVF virus. Fever onset was earlier with the marmosets and had a biphasic pattern similar to what has been reported in humans. Beginning around day 8 to day 10 postexposure, clinical signs consistent with encephalitis were noted in both AGM and marmosets; animals of both species succumbed between days 9 and 11 postexposure. Marmosets were susceptible to lower doses of RVFV than AGM. Histological examination confirmed viral meningoencephalitis in both species. Hematological analyses indicated a drop in platelet counts in both AGM and marmosets suggestive of thrombosis, as well as leukocytosis that consisted mostly of granulocytes. Both AGM and marmosets would serve as useful models of aerosol infection with RVFV. PMID:24335307

Hartman, Amy L.; Powell, Diana S.; Bethel, Laura M.; Caroline, Amy L.; Schmid, Richard J.; Oury, Tim

2013-01-01

141

A family of wound-induced genes in Populus shares common features with genes encoding vegetative storage proteins.  

PubMed

Two wound-inducible cDNAs from poplar leaves show sequence identity to vegetative storage proteins (VSP) that accumulate seasonally in poplar bark tissues. We have compared the genomic organization, cDNA sequences and expression of the genes encoding the wound-inducible cDNAs (win4) with that of a bark VSP (called bark storage protein, or BSP). There appear to be several win4 genes in the poplar genome which segregate as a single locus and are therefore likely to be clustered. The same is true of the BSP genes. The win4 locus is linked (map distance of 5 cM) to the BSP locus, consistent with a common evolutionary origin of the genes. A near full-length win4 cDNA shows 75% sequence identity to BSP cDNAs. Both win4 and BSP are systemically wound-inducible; win4 transcripts accumulate in leaves and stems, whereas BSP transcripts accumulate almost exclusively in stems. A phloem transport-dependent signaling mechanism appears to be involved in systemic win4 expression after wounding. In contrast to BSP gene expression, win4 genes are not expressed in response to short day conditions. The data indicate win4 and BSP genes are differentially regulated, and their products may play important roles in the storage and reallocation of nitrogen in perennial plants. PMID:8106009

Davis, J M; Egelkrout, E E; Coleman, G D; Chen, T H; Haissig, B E; Riemenschneider, D E; Gordon, M P

1993-10-01

142

The Potential Distance of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Dispersal by Mallard, Common Teal and Eurasian  

E-print Network

investigated the potential spreading distance of HP AIV by common teal (Anas crecca), mallard (A. platyrhynchos Don~ana-CSIC, C/ Ame´rico Vespucio s/n, 41092 Sevilla, Spain Abstract: Waterbirds represent the major, approximately 1­5% of migratory mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and other dabbling ducks are infected with LP AIV

Green, Andy J.

143

Different fecal shedding patterns of two common strains of hepatitis E virus at three Japanese swine farms.  

PubMed

Zoonotic infections caused by eating the meat of deer, wild boar, and pig have been suggested in Japan, a country that is not epidemic for hepatitis E caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV). This virus is widely spread in domestic pigs in both epidemic and non-epidemic countries. We studied fecal HEV shedding patterns on three Japanese farms that had two common genotype III HEV strains. Two of the three farms had high shedding peaks (75% and 100%) in pigs 1-3 months of age, suggesting that these animals had the highest risk of spreading HEV through feces. Another farm had a low shedding rate in animals six months of age and a low prevalence of the IgG antibody to HEV. Fecal IgA antibody to HEV was found in sucking pigs < 13 days of age on farms that had high and low shedding patterns. A small fraction of pigs (3 of 43 [7%]) at the finishing stage (5-6 months of age) still shed HEV on the three farms. PMID:17172388

Nakai, Izumi; Kato, Kanako; Miyazaki, Ayako; Yoshii, Masaaki; Li, Tian-Cheng; Takeda, Naokazu; Tsunemitsu, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Hidetoshi

2006-12-01

144

Experimental Infection of Common Warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus) and Bushpigs (Potamochoerus larvatus) with Classical Swine Fever Virus. I: Susceptibility and Transmission.  

PubMed

An incursion of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) into the domestic pig population in South Africa, identified in 2005, raised the concern that infection might spread to wildlife species and be maintained in these hosts. This study sought to determine whether two wildlife Suidae species present in South Africa, the bushpig (Potamochoerus larvatus) and the common warthog (Phacochoerus africanus), could support productive CSFV infection. Both species could be infected with CSFV and transmitted infection to in-contact animals of the same species. Viral antigen and RNA genome were detected in blood/serum and animals that survived initial infection seroconverted approximately 10-14?days post-inoculation. Viral RNA remained detectable in nasal and saliva secretions for prolonged periods until monitoring ended at 42-44?days after initial challenge. These data suggest that both Suidae species could serve to spread circulating CSFV within wild populations, with implications for disease control. PMID:21294855

Everett, H; Crooke, H; Gurrala, R; Dwarka, R; Kim, J; Botha, B; Lubisi, A; Pardini, A; Gers, S; Vosloo, W; Drew, T

2011-02-01

145

Long-term follow up of HIV-1-infected Korean haemophiliacs, after infection from a common source of virus.  

PubMed

In the early 1990s, 20 haemophiliacs (HPs) were infected with a common source of HIV-1 viruses through the contaminated clotting factor IX. The aim of this study is to review 20 HPs infected with a common source of virus. The enrolled patients have been consecutively treated with Korean red ginseng (KRG), zidovudine (ZDV) or two-drug therapy and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We determined full-length pol gene over 20 years and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I with peripheral blood mononuclear cells and reviewed medical records. Eighteen HPs experienced various opportunistic infections or clinical manifestations. There were significant inverse correlations between the HLA prognostic score and the annual decrease in CD4+ T-cell counts prior to HAART (AD) (P < 0.05) and the amount of KRG and the AD (P < 0.01). From 1998, the HPs had been treated with HAART. Each of the two patients died without and with HAART regimen respectively. At present, 16 HPs have been alive with HAART. Among the 16 HPs, 12 and 4 are on HAART-plus-KRG and HAART only respectively. Eleven HPs including 2 HPs with G-to-A hypermutations had revealed resistance mutations. Ten and two HPs have shown poor adherence and incomplete viral suppres-sion on HAART respectively. Virological failure based on WHO guidelines was not observed on KRG-plus-HAART. Two HPs revealed additional resistance mutations against two classes on KRG-plus-HAART. As a nationwide study, we first report overall features on clinical course of Korean haemophiliacs. Further education on the importance of drug adherence is needed. PMID:25545303

Kim, B-R; Kim, J-E; Sung, H; Cho, Y-K

2015-01-01

146

Achieving visibility? Use of non-verbal communication in interactions between patients and pharmacists who do not share a common language  

PubMed Central

Despite the seemingly insatiable interest in healthcare professional–patient communication, less attention has been paid to the use of non-verbal communication in medical consultations. This article considers pharmacists? and patients? use of non-verbal communication to interact directly in consultations in which they do not share a common language. In total, 12 video-recorded, interpreted pharmacy consultations concerned with a newly prescribed medication or a change in medication were analysed in detail. The analysis focused on instances of direct communication initiated by either the patient or the pharmacist, despite the presence of a multilingual pharmacy assistant acting as an interpreter. Direct communication was shown to occur through (i) the demonstration of a medical device, (ii) the indication of relevant body parts and (iii) the use of limited English. These connections worked to make patients and pharmacists visible to each other and thus to maintain a sense of mutual involvement in consultations within which patients and pharmacists could enact professionally and socially appropriate roles. In a multicultural society this work is important in understanding the dynamics involved in consultations in situations in which language is not shared and thus in considering the development of future research and policy. PMID:24641161

Stevenson, Fiona

2014-01-01

147

Achieving visibility? Use of non-verbal communication in interactions between patients and pharmacists who do not share a common language.  

PubMed

Despite the seemingly insatiable interest in healthcare professional-patient communication, less attention has been paid to the use of non-verbal communication in medical consultations. This article considers pharmacists' and patients' use of non-verbal communication to interact directly in consultations in which they do not share a common language. In total, 12 video-recorded, interpreted pharmacy consultations concerned with a newly prescribed medication or a change in medication were analysed in detail. The analysis focused on instances of direct communication initiated by either the patient or the pharmacist, despite the presence of a multilingual pharmacy assistant acting as an interpreter. Direct communication was shown to occur through (i) the demonstration of a medical device, (ii) the indication of relevant body parts and (iii) the use of limited English. These connections worked to make patients and pharmacists visible to each other and thus to maintain a sense of mutual involvement in consultations within which patients and pharmacists could enact professionally and socially appropriate roles. In a multicultural society this work is important in understanding the dynamics involved in consultations in situations in which language is not shared and thus in considering the development of future research and policy. PMID:24641161

Stevenson, Fiona

2014-06-01

148

Novel Common Integration Sites Targeted by Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus Insertion in Mammary Tumors Have Oncogenic Activity  

PubMed Central

Non-acute transforming retroviruses like mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) cause cancer, at least in part, through integration near cellular genes involved in growth control, thereby de-regulating their expression. It is well-established that MMTV commonly integrates near and activates expression of members of the Wnt and Fgf pathways in mammary tumors. However, there are a significant number of tumors for which the proviral integration sites have not been identified. Here, we used high through-put screening to identify common integration sites (CISs) in MMTV-induced tumors from C3H/HeN and BALB/c mice. As expected, members of both the Wnt and Fgf families were identified in this screen. In addition, a number of novel CISs were found, including Tcf7l2, Antxr1/Tem8, and Arhgap18. We show here that expression of these three putative oncogenes in normal murine mammary gland cells altered their growth kinetics and caused their morphological transformation when grown in three dimensional cultures. Additionally, expression of Tcf7l2 and Antxr1/Tem8 sensitized cells to exogenous WNT ligand. As Tcf7l2, Antxr1/Tem8, and Arhgap18 have been associated with human breast and other cancers, these data demonstrate that MMTV-induced insertional mutation remains an important means for identifying genes involved in breast cancer. PMID:22087314

Kim, Hyoung H.; van den Heuvel, A. Pieter J.; Schmidt, John W.; Ross, Susan R.

2011-01-01

149

Determination of seed-born percentages of bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) in three genotypes of Phaseolus vulgaris.  

PubMed

Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) is one of the most damaging viruses of bean that naturally transmitted by aphid in non persistent manner and through the seeds. BCMNV belongs to the genus Potyvirus and the family Potyviridae. During the growing season of 2004, bean leaf samples with viral symptoms were collected from Tehran province, Karaj region. DAS-ELISA by using BCMNV polyclonal antiserum (AS-0239, prepared in DSMZ, Germany) was conducted and samples with viral infection were distinguished. IC-RT-PCR was done to amplify the cp gene of isolates. The nucleotide sequence of one isolate was determined and analysis of this and other published sequences confirmed this isolate as BCMNV. The confirmed isolate was inoculated on three bean genotypes (butter bean ks-21478, kidney bean ks-31170, navy bean ks-41235) using 0.01 M Potassium phosphate buffer (pH = 7). After appearance of symptoms, the inoculated plants were tested by DAS-ELISA and IC-RT-PCR. In DAS-ELISA test, 68% infection of butter bean and kidney bean genotypes and only 7% infection of navy bean genotype were confirmed. In IC-RT-PCR by using specific primers (NL3), a 922 bp fragment was amplified in all genotypes, even symptomless plants and the ones which were negative in ELISA test. To determine the percentages of infected seed, harvested seeds were planted. Most of the seedlings in two-leaf stage died with black root symptoms. All seedlings were tested by DAS-ELISA and IC-RT-PCR. The results of these assays showed that the percentage of seed infected was 78%. PMID:17390883

Peyambari, M; Habibi, M Koohi; Mosahebi, Gh; Izadpanah, K

2006-01-01

150

Epidemiologic Relationship between Toscana Virus Infection and Leishmania infantum Due to Common Exposure to Phlebotomus perniciosus Sandfly Vector  

PubMed Central

Sand flies are recognised vectors of parasites in the genus Leishmania and a number of arthropod-borne viruses, in particular viruses within the genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae. In southern France, Toscana phlebovirus (TOSV) is recognized as a prominent cause of summer meningitis. Since Leishmania and TOSV have a common vector (Phlebotomus perniciosus), an epidemiologic link has been assumed for a long time. However, there is no scientific evidence of such a link between human leishmaniosis and phleboviral infections. To identify a possible link, we investigated the presence and distribution of antibodies against these two microorganisms (i) in individuals and (ii) at a spatial level in the city of Marseille (south-eastern France). Five hundred sera were selected randomly in the biobank of the Department of Parasitology of the Public Hospitals of Marseille. All sera were previously tested for IgG against Leishmania by Western Blotting, and TOSV IgG were detected by indirect immunofluorescence. The seropositivity rates were 21.4% for TOSV and 28% for Leishmania. Statistical analysis demonstrated that seropositivity for one pathogen was significantly associated with seropositivity to the other pathogen. This result provided the first robust evidence for the existence of an epidemiological relationship between Leishmania infantum and TOSV. Addresses of tested patients were geolocalized and integrated into Geographical Information System software, in order to test spatial relationship between the two pathogens. Spatial analysis did not allow to identify (i) specific patterns for the spatial distribution of positive serological results for TOSV or Leishmania, and (ii) a spatial relationship between Leishmania and TOSV positive serological results. This may reflect the fact that the sample studied was not powerful enough to demonstrate either a spatial clustering or co-location, i.e. that the actual risk exposure area is smaller than the mean of distance between patients in our study (245 m). PMID:21949894

Bichaud, Laurence; Souris, Marc; Mary, Charles; Ninove, Laëtitia; Thirion, Laurence; Piarroux, Raphaël P.; Piarroux, Renaud; De Lamballerie, Xavier; Charrel, Rémi N.

2011-01-01

151

Common Vision--Shared Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been only a few years since the state of Montana adopted revised standards for Information Literacy/Library Media. In the years since their adoption, the district's curriculum review team, made up of K-12 school librarians, defined the local curriculum directly from these standards. As Montana's school librarians reflect on their…

Olszewski, Chris M.

2014-01-01

152

Plant Disease Note 2005 | First Report of Onion yellow dwarf virus, Leek ye... stripe virus, and Garlic common latent virus in Garlic in Washington State Overview Current Issue Past Issues Search PD Search APS Journals  

E-print Network

Plant Disease Note 2005 | First Report of Onion yellow dwarf virus, Leek ye... stripe virus-2006 The American Phytopathological Society First Report of Onion yellow dwarf virus, Leek yellow stripe virus but one had Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV), whereas one sample had a mixed infection of OYDV and Leek

Pappu, Hanu R.

153

A Glimpse of the genomic diversity of haloarchaeal tailed viruses  

PubMed Central

Tailed viruses are the most common isolates infecting prokaryotic hosts residing in hypersaline environments. Archaeal tailed viruses represent only a small portion of all characterized tailed viruses of prokaryotes. But even this small dataset revealed that archaeal tailed viruses have many similarities to their counterparts infecting bacteria, the bacteriophages. Shared functional homologs and similar genome organizations suggested that all microbial tailed viruses have common virion architectural and assembly principles. Recent structural studies have provided evidence justifying this thereby grouping archaeal and bacterial tailed viruses into a single lineage. Currently there are 17 haloarchaeal tailed viruses with entirely sequenced genomes. Nine viruses have at least one close relative among the 17 viruses and, according to the similarities, can be divided into three groups. Two other viruses share some homologs and therefore are distantly related, whereas the rest of the viruses are rather divergent (or singletons). Comparative genomics analysis of these viruses offers a glimpse into the genetic diversity and structure of haloarchaeal tailed virus communities. PMID:24659986

Sen?ilo, Ana; Roine, Elina

2014-01-01

154

Identification of Common Biological Pathways and Drug Targets Across Multiple Respiratory Viruses Based on Human Host Gene Expression Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPandemic and seasonal respiratory viruses are a major global health concern. Given the genetic diversity of respiratory viruses and the emergence of drug resistant strains, the targeted disruption of human host-virus interactions is a potential therapeutic strategy for treating multi-viral infections. The availability of large-scale genomic datasets focused on host-pathogen interactions can be used to discover novel drug targets as

Steven B. Smith; William Dampier; Aydin Tozeren; James R. Brown; Michal Magid-Slav

2012-01-01

155

ECHO virus  

MedlinePLUS

Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that lead to gastrointestinal infection and skin rashes. ... Echovirus is one of several families of viruses that affect the ... are common. In the US, they are most common in the summer and ...

156

Phylogenetic analysis of spring virema of carp virus reveals distinct subgroups with common origins for recent isolates in North America and the UK.  

PubMed

Genetic relationships between 35 spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) genogroup Ia isolates were determined based on the nucleotide sequences of the phosphoprotein (P) gene and glycoprotein (G) genes. Phylogenetic analysis based on P gene sequences revealed 2 distinct subgroups within SVCV genogroup Ia, designated SVCV Iai and Iaii, and suggests at least 2 independent introductions of the virus into the USA in 2002. Combined P- and G-sequence data support the emergence of SVCV in Illinois, USA, and in Lake Ontario, Canada, from the initial outbreak in Wisconsin, USA, and demonstrate a close genetic link to viruses isolated during routine import checks on fish brought into the UK from Asia. The data also showed a genetic link between SVCV isolations made in Missouri and Washington, USA, in 2004 and the earlier isolation made in North Carolina, USA, in 2002. However, based on the close relationship to a 2004 UK isolate, the data suggest than the Washington isolate represents a third introduction into the US from a common source, rather than a reemergence from the 2002 isolate. There was strong phylogenetic support for an Asian origin for 9 of 16 UK viruses isolated either from imported fish, or shown to have been in direct contact with fish imported from Asia. In one case, there was 100% nucleotide identity in the G-gene with a virus isolated in China. PMID:17803105

Miller, O; Fuller, F J; Gebreyes, W A; Lewbart, G A; Shchelkunov, I S; Shivappa, R B; Joiner, C; Woolford, G; Stone, D M; Dixon, P F; Raley, M E; Levine, J F

2007-07-16

157

Temperature-dependent innate defense against the common cold virus limits viral replication at warm temperature in mouse airway cells.  

PubMed

Most isolates of human rhinovirus, the common cold virus, replicate more robustly at the cool temperatures found in the nasal cavity (33-35 °C) than at core body temperature (37 °C). To gain insight into the mechanism of temperature-dependent growth, we compared the transcriptional response of primary mouse airway epithelial cells infected with rhinovirus at 33 °C vs. 37 °C. Mouse airway cells infected with mouse-adapted rhinovirus 1B exhibited a striking enrichment in expression of antiviral defense response genes at 37 °C relative to 33 °C, which correlated with significantly higher expression levels of type I and type III IFN genes and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) at 37 °C. Temperature-dependent IFN induction in response to rhinovirus was dependent on the MAVS protein, a key signaling adaptor of the RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs). Stimulation of primary airway cells with the synthetic RLR ligand poly I:C led to greater IFN induction at 37 °C relative to 33 °C at early time points poststimulation and to a sustained increase in the induction of ISGs at 37 °C relative to 33 °C. Recombinant type I IFN also stimulated more robust induction of ISGs at 37 °C than at 33 °C. Genetic deficiency of MAVS or the type I IFN receptor in infected airway cells permitted higher levels of viral replication, particularly at 37 °C, and partially rescued the temperature-dependent growth phenotype. These findings demonstrate that in mouse airway cells, rhinovirus replicates preferentially at nasal cavity temperature due, in part, to a less efficient antiviral defense response of infected cells at cool temperature. PMID:25561542

Foxman, Ellen F; Storer, James A; Fitzgerald, Megan E; Wasik, Bethany R; Hou, Lin; Zhao, Hongyu; Turner, Paul E; Pyle, Anna Marie; Iwasaki, Akiko

2015-01-20

158

Studies of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells. I. Evidence using novel monoclonal antibodies that most human LAK precursor cells share a common surface marker  

PubMed Central

Separation of LAK precursor (LAKp) cells (as defined by LAK effector generation after incubation with IL-2 for 7 d) from cells with NK activity/LGL morphology was achieved on Percoll gradients using a longer, slower centrifugation than that used for optimal NK enrichment. mAb were generated using the various Percoll fractions as the immunizing cells and used for separation and depletion studies. Two mAbs DM-1 (IgM,k) and DM-2 (IgM,k) recognizing 2-15% and 15-30% of PBL, respectively, abrogated a large proportion of LAK generative potential after complement depletion, but had little effect on NK or LAK effector activity. Cell sorting experiments indicated that the majority of LAKp cells are found within the DM-1+ population and that DM-1+ cells are not simply an accessory cell required for LAKp generation. Further, these two mAbs do not recognize cells that are responsible for generating cytotoxicity during MLC or co-culture with the PR-1 EBV lymphoblastoid cell line. Western blot analysis indicated that DM-1 and DM-2 recognize a 38,000 and 44,000 dalton moiety, respectively. The frequency of cells bearing these antigens and the intensity of cell surface staining decreased during the 7-d culture period, suggesting that these antibodies recognize determinants found only at the precursor level. These findings indicate that cells other than NK effectors or mature T cells are capable of generating a LAK cell response. These LAK precursor cells share a common differentiation surface antigen and are different from AK or antigen-specific CTL precursors. The possibility exists that these cells are identical to, or include, the NK precursor cell. PMID:2784480

1989-01-01

159

The capsid protein p38 of turnip crinkle virus is associated with the suppression of cucumber mosaic virus in Arabidopsis thaliana co-infected with cucumber mosaic virus and turnip crinkle virus.  

PubMed

Infection of plants by multiple viruses is common in nature. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) belong to different families, but Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana are commonly shared hosts for both viruses. In this study, we found that TCV provides effective resistance to infection by CMV in Arabidopsis plants co-infected by both viruses, and this antagonistic effect is much weaker when the two viruses are inoculated into different leaves of the same plant. However, similar antagonism is not observed in N. benthamiana plants. We further demonstrate that disrupting the RNA silencing-mediated defense of the Arabidopsis host does not affect this antagonism, but capsid protein (CP or p38)-defective mutant TCV loses the ability to repress CMV, suggesting that TCV CP plays an important role in the antagonistic effect of TCV toward CMV in Arabidopsis plants co-infected with both viruses. PMID:25092463

Chen, Ying-Juan; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Jian; Deng, Xing-Guang; Zhang, Ping; Zhu, Tong; Chen, Li-Juan; Bao, Wei-Kai; Xi, De-Hui; Lin, Hong-Hui

2014-08-01

160

Detection of multiple potato viruses using an oligo(dT) as a common cDNA primer in multiplex RT-PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel usage of multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (m-RT-PCR) for simultaneous detection of multiple viruses is reported. By use of an oligo(dT), as a common primer, nearly full-length cDNAs can be synthesized. Furthermore, combining an oligo(dT) primer with a specific antisense primer can be used to simultaneously prime reverse transcription of both polyadenylated and non-polyadenylated RNAs. Four viral

Xianzhou Nie; Rudra P Singh

2000-01-01

161

Density-Controlled Growth of Aligned ZnO Nanowires Sharing a Common Contact: A Simple, Low-Cost, and Mask-Free Technique for Large-Scale Applications  

E-print Network

Density-Controlled Growth of Aligned ZnO Nanowires Sharing a Common Contact: A Simple, Low-Cost ReceiVed: January 17, 2006; In Final Form: March 1, 2006 An effective, low cost, simple, and mask for growing nanowires because of its relatively low cost and simple procedure.4-8 Metal-organic chemical vapor

Wang, Zhong L.

162

Multi-event capture–recapture modeling of host–pathogen dynamics among European rabbit populations exposed to myxoma and Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Viruses: common and heterogeneous patterns  

PubMed Central

Host–pathogen epidemiological processes are often unclear due both to their complexity and over-simplistic approaches used to quantify them. We applied a multi-event capture–recapture procedure on two years of data from three rabbit populations to test hypotheses about the effects on survival of, and the dynamics of host immunity to, both myxoma virus and Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (MV and RHDV). Although the populations shared the same climatic and management conditions, MV and RHDV dynamics varied greatly among them; MV and RHDV seroprevalences were positively related to density in one population, but RHDV seroprevalence was negatively related to density in another. In addition, (i) juvenile survival was most often negatively related to seropositivity, (ii) RHDV seropositives never had considerably higher survival, and (iii) seroconversion to seropositivity was more likely than the reverse. We suggest seropositivity affects survival depending on trade-offs among antibody protection, immunosuppression and virus lethality. Negative effects of seropositivity might be greater on juveniles due to their immature immune system. Also, while RHDV directly affects survival through the hemorrhagic syndrome, MV lack of direct lethal effects means that interactions influencing survival are likely to be more complex. Multi-event modeling allowed us to quantify patterns of host–pathogen dynamics otherwise difficult to discern. Such an approach offers a promising tool to shed light on causative mechanisms. PMID:24708296

2014-01-01

163

Computer Viruses. Technology Update.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides general information on computer viruses, how to help protect a computer network from them, measures to take if a computer becomes infected. Highlights include the origins of computer viruses; virus contraction; a description of some common virus types (File Virus, Boot Sector/Partition Table Viruses, Trojan Horses, and…

Ponder, Tim, Comp.; Ropog, Marty, Comp.; Keating, Joseph, Comp.

164

Facts about the Common Cold  

MedlinePLUS

... Disease > Influenza > In-Depth-Resources Facts About the Common Cold What Is a Cold? Colds are minor infections ... for 10 to 40 percent of colds. Other common cold viruses include coronavirus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). ...

165

Outbreak of common midwife toad virus in alpine newts (Mesotriton alpestris cyreni) and common midwife toads (Alytes obstetricans) in northern Spain: a comparative pathological study of an emerging ranavirus.  

PubMed

This report describes the isolation and characterisation of the common midwife toad virus (CMTV) from juvenile alpine newts (Mesotriton alpestris cyreni) and common midwife toad (CMT) tadpoles (Alytes obstetricans) in the Picos de Europa National Park in Northern Spain in August 2008. A comparative pathological and immunohistochemical study was carried out using anti-CMTV polyclonal serum. In the kidneys, glomeruli had the most severe histological lesions in CMT tadpoles, while both glomeruli and renal tubular epithelial cells exhibited foci of necrosis in juvenile alpine newts. Viral antigens were detected by immunohistochemical labelling mainly in the kidneys of CMT tadpoles and in ganglia of juvenile alpine newts. This is the first report of ranavirus infection in the alpine newt, the second known species to be affected by CMTV in the past 2 years. PMID:19703784

Balseiro, Ana; Dalton, Kevin P; del Cerro, Ana; Márquez, Isabel; Parra, Francisco; Prieto, José M; Casais, R

2010-11-01

166

Psychology and common sense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examines the nature of the relationship between psychology and common sense. It is postulated that common sense may be categorized in 3 ways: (a) as a set of shared fundamental assumptions, (b) as a set of maxims or shared beliefs, and (c) as a shared way of thinking. It is argued that psychology has and should have a different relationship

Garth J. Fletcher

1984-01-01

167

Genetic characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in elite controllers: lack of gross genetic defects or common amino acid changes.  

PubMed

Despite reports of viral genetic defects in persons who control human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in the absence of antiviral therapy, the extent to which such defects contribute to the long-term containment of viremia is not known. Most previous studies examining for such defects have involved small numbers of subjects, primarily focused on subjects expressing HLA-B57, or have examined single viral genes, and they have focused on cellular proviral DNA rather than plasma viral RNA sequences. Here, we attempted viral sequencing from 95 HIV-1 elite controllers (EC) who maintained plasma viral loads of <50 RNA copies/ml in the absence of therapy, the majority of whom did not express HLA-B57. HIV-1 gene fragments were obtained from 94% (89/95) of the EC, and plasma viral sequences were obtained from 78% (61/78), the latter indicating the presence of replicating virus in the majority of EC. Of 63 persons for whom nef was sequenced, only three cases of nef deletions were identified, and gross genetic defects were rarely observed in other HIV-1 coding genes. In a codon-by-codon comparison between EC and persons with progressive infection, correcting for HLA bias and coevolving secondary mutations, a significant difference was observed at only three codons in Gag, all three of which represented the historic population consensus amino acid at the time of infection. These results indicate that the spontaneous control of HIV replication is not attributable to shared viral genetic defects or shared viral polymorphisms. PMID:18562530

Miura, Toshiyuki; Brockman, Mark A; Brumme, Chanson J; Brumme, Zabrina L; Carlson, Jonathan M; Pereyra, Florencia; Trocha, Alicja; Addo, Marylyn M; Block, Brian L; Rothchild, Alissa C; Baker, Brett M; Flynn, Theresa; Schneidewind, Arne; Li, Bin; Wang, Yaoyu E; Heckerman, David; Allen, Todd M; Walker, Bruce D

2008-09-01

168

SHARE and Share Alike  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a reading comprehension program adopted at J. E. Cosgriff Memorial Catholic School in Salt Lake City, Utah. The program is called SHARE: Students Helping Achieve Reading Excellence, and involves seventh and eighth grade students teaching first and second graders reading comprehension strategies learned in middle school…

Baird, Jeffrey Marshall

2006-01-01

169

The Potential Distance of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Dispersal by Mallard, Common Teal and Eurasian Pochard  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waterbirds represent the major natural reservoir for low pathogenic (LP) avian influenza viruses (AIV). Among the wide diversity\\u000a of subtypes that have been described, two of them (H5 and H7) may become highly pathogenic (HP) after their introduction into\\u000a domestic bird populations and cause severe outbreaks, as is the case for HP H5N1 in South-Eastern Asia. Recent experimental\\u000a studies demonstrated

Anne-Laure Brochet; Matthieu Guillemain; Camille Lebarbenchon; Géraldine Simon; Hervé Fritz; Andy J. Green; François Renaud; Frédéric Thomas; Michel Gauthier-Clerc

2009-01-01

170

Acute Posttransfusion Hepatitis C: Identification of a Common Hepatitis C Virus Strain in Donor and Recipient Using Polymorphism Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An 11-year-old Thai boy who had received multiple blood transfusions from 12 different donors for treatment of Dengue shock\\u000a syndrome presented with symptoms of acute hepatitis 5 weeks thereafter. He was found positive for antibodies to hepatitis\\u000a C virus (HCV) and HCV-RNA was detected by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). When his alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level\\u000a peaked at 1,879 U\\/l in

T. Chinchai; S. Noppornpanth; A. Theamboonlers; V. Chongsrisawat; Y. Poovorawan

2001-01-01

171

Identification of a common viral integration region in Cas-Br-E murine leukemia virus-induced non-T-, non-B-cell lymphomas.  

PubMed Central

The Cas-Br-E murine leukemia virus is a nondefective retrovirus that induces non-T-, non-B-cell lymphomas in susceptible NIH/Swiss mice. By using a DNA probe derived from Cas-Br-E provirus-flanking sequences, we identified a DNA region, originally called Sic-1, rearranged in 16 of 24 tumors analyzed (67%). All proviruses were integrated in a DNA segment smaller than 100 bp and were in the same 5'-to-3' orientation. Ecotropic as well as mink cell focus-forming virus types were found integrated in that specific DNA region. On the basis of Southern blot analysis of somatic cell hybrids and progeny of an interspecies backcross, the Sic-1 region was localized on mouse chromosome 9 near the previously described proto-oncogenes or common viral integration sites: Ets-1, Cbl-2, Tpl-1, and Fli-1. Restriction map analysis shows that this region is identical to the Fli-1 locus identified in Friend murine leukemia virus-induced erythroleukemia cell lines and thus may contain sequences also responsible for the development of mouse non-T-, non-B-cell lymphomas. Images PMID:1845910

Bergeron, D; Poliquin, L; Kozak, C A; Rassart, E

1991-01-01

172

Response of Hepatitis C Virus to Long-Term Passage in the Presence of Alpha Interferon: Multiple Mutations and a Common Phenotype  

PubMed Central

Cell culture-produced hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been subjected to up to 100 serial passages in human hepatoma cells in the absence or presence of different doses of alpha interferon (IFN-?). Virus survival, genetic changes, fitness levels, and phenotypic traits have been examined. While high initial IFN-? doses (increasing from 1 to 4 IU/ml) did not allow HCV survival beyond passage 40, a gradual exposure (from 0.25 to 10 IU/ml) allowed the virus to survive for at least 100 passages. The virus passaged in the presence of IFN-? acquired IFN-? resistance as evidenced by enhanced progeny production and viral protein expression in an IFN-? environment. A partial IFN-? resistance was also noted in populations passaged in the absence of IFN-?. All lineages acquired adaptative mutations, and multiple, nonsynonymous mutations scattered throughout the genome were present in IFN-?-selected populations. Comparison of consensus sequences indicates a dominance of synonymous versus nonsynonymous substitutions. IFN-?-resistant populations displayed decreased sensitivity to a combination of IFN-? and ribavirin. A phenotypic trait common to all assayed viral populations is the ability to increase shutoff host cell protein synthesis, accentuated in infections with IFN-?-selected populations carried out in the presence of IFN-?. The trait was associated with enhanced phosphorylation of protein kinase R (PKR) and eIF2?, although other contributing factors are likely. The results suggest that multiple, independent mutational pathways can confer IFN-? resistance to HCV and might explain why no unified picture has been obtained regarding IFN-? resistance in vivo. PMID:23637397

Perales, Celia; Beach, Nathan M.; Gallego, Isabel; Soria, Maria Eugenia; Quer, Josep; Esteban, Juan Ignacio; Rice, Charles

2013-01-01

173

Common Cold  

MedlinePLUS

... en español] National Library of Medicine, Medline Plus Common Cold Skip Content Marketing Share this: JavaScript is disabled in your browser. To view this content, please enable JavaScript and refresh the page. Click here for instructions on how to enable JavaScript in your browser. ...

174

Obesity Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Obesity has many causes, but there is growing evidence that common viruses may contribute to the condition in some people. Recently, Nikhil Dhurandhar and his colleagues at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center infected human stem cells with Ad-36, a common virus known to be associated with obesity in humans. They found that the cells they exposed to the virus accumulated a much higher amount of fat than uninfected cells.

Science Update (AAAS;)

2007-06-12

175

Genome-wide association study of CNVs in 16,000 cases of eight common diseases and 3,000 shared controls.  

PubMed

Copy number variants (CNVs) account for a major proportion of human genetic polymorphism and have been predicted to have an important role in genetic susceptibility to common disease. To address this we undertook a large, direct genome-wide study of association between CNVs and eight common human diseases. Using a purpose-designed array we typed approximately 19,000 individuals into distinct copy-number classes at 3,432 polymorphic CNVs, including an estimated approximately 50% of all common CNVs larger than 500 base pairs. We identified several biological artefacts that lead to false-positive associations, including systematic CNV differences between DNAs derived from blood and cell lines. Association testing and follow-up replication analyses confirmed three loci where CNVs were associated with disease-IRGM for Crohn's disease, HLA for Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis and type 1 diabetes, and TSPAN8 for type 2 diabetes-although in each case the locus had previously been identified in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based studies, reflecting our observation that most common CNVs that are well-typed on our array are well tagged by SNPs and so have been indirectly explored through SNP studies. We conclude that common CNVs that can be typed on existing platforms are unlikely to contribute greatly to the genetic basis of common human diseases. PMID:20360734

Craddock, Nick; Hurles, Matthew E; Cardin, Niall; Pearson, Richard D; Plagnol, Vincent; Robson, Samuel; Vukcevic, Damjan; Barnes, Chris; Conrad, Donald F; Giannoulatou, Eleni; Holmes, Chris; Marchini, Jonathan L; Stirrups, Kathy; Tobin, Martin D; Wain, Louise V; Yau, Chris; Aerts, Jan; Ahmad, Tariq; Andrews, T Daniel; Arbury, Hazel; Attwood, Anthony; Auton, Adam; Ball, Stephen G; Balmforth, Anthony J; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Barroso, Inês; Barton, Anne; Bennett, Amanda J; Bhaskar, Sanjeev; Blaszczyk, Katarzyna; Bowes, John; Brand, Oliver J; Braund, Peter S; Bredin, Francesca; Breen, Gerome; Brown, Morris J; Bruce, Ian N; Bull, Jaswinder; Burren, Oliver S; Burton, John; Byrnes, Jake; Caesar, Sian; Clee, Chris M; Coffey, Alison J; Connell, John M C; Cooper, Jason D; Dominiczak, Anna F; Downes, Kate; Drummond, Hazel E; Dudakia, Darshna; Dunham, Andrew; Ebbs, Bernadette; Eccles, Diana; Edkins, Sarah; Edwards, Cathryn; Elliot, Anna; Emery, Paul; Evans, David M; Evans, Gareth; Eyre, Steve; Farmer, Anne; Ferrier, I Nicol; Feuk, Lars; Fitzgerald, Tomas; Flynn, Edward; Forbes, Alistair; Forty, Liz; Franklyn, Jayne A; Freathy, Rachel M; Gibbs, Polly; Gilbert, Paul; Gokumen, Omer; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Gray, Emma; Green, Elaine; Groves, Chris J; Grozeva, Detelina; Gwilliam, Rhian; Hall, Anita; Hammond, Naomi; Hardy, Matt; Harrison, Pile; Hassanali, Neelam; Hebaishi, Husam; Hines, Sarah; Hinks, Anne; Hitman, Graham A; Hocking, Lynne; Howard, Eleanor; Howard, Philip; Howson, Joanna M M; Hughes, Debbie; Hunt, Sarah; Isaacs, John D; Jain, Mahim; Jewell, Derek P; Johnson, Toby; Jolley, Jennifer D; Jones, Ian R; Jones, Lisa A; Kirov, George; Langford, Cordelia F; Lango-Allen, Hana; Lathrop, G Mark; Lee, James; Lee, Kate L; Lees, Charlie; Lewis, Kevin; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Maisuria-Armer, Meeta; Maller, Julian; Mansfield, John; Martin, Paul; Massey, Dunecan C O; McArdle, Wendy L; McGuffin, Peter; McLay, Kirsten E; Mentzer, Alex; Mimmack, Michael L; Morgan, Ann E; Morris, Andrew P; Mowat, Craig; Myers, Simon; Newman, William; Nimmo, Elaine R; O'Donovan, Michael C; Onipinla, Abiodun; Onyiah, Ifejinelo; Ovington, Nigel R; Owen, Michael J; Palin, Kimmo; Parnell, Kirstie; Pernet, David; Perry, John R B; Phillips, Anne; Pinto, Dalila; Prescott, Natalie J; Prokopenko, Inga; Quail, Michael A; Rafelt, Suzanne; Rayner, Nigel W; Redon, Richard; Reid, David M; Renwick; Ring, Susan M; Robertson, Neil; Russell, Ellie; St Clair, David; Sambrook, Jennifer G; Sanderson, Jeremy D; Schuilenburg, Helen; Scott, Carol E; Scott, Richard; Seal, Sheila; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Shields, Beverley M; Simmonds, Matthew J; Smyth, Debbie J; Somaskantharajah, Elilan; Spanova, Katarina; Steer, Sophia; Stephens, Jonathan; Stevens, Helen E; Stone, Millicent A; Su, Zhan; Symmons, Deborah P M; Thompson, John R; Thomson, Wendy; Travers, Mary E; Turnbull, Clare; Valsesia, Armand; Walker, Mark; Walker, Neil M; Wallace, Chris; Warren-Perry, Margaret; Watkins, Nicholas A; Webster, John; Weedon, Michael N; Wilson, Anthony G; Woodburn, Matthew; Wordsworth, B Paul; Young, Allan H; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Carter, Nigel P; Frayling, Timothy M; Lee, Charles; McVean, Gil; Munroe, Patricia B; Palotie, Aarno; Sawcer, Stephen J; Scherer, Stephen W; Strachan, David P; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Brown, Matthew A; Burton, Paul R; Caulfield, Mark J; Compston, Alastair; Farrall, Martin; Gough, Stephen C L; Hall, Alistair S; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hill, Adrian V S; Mathew, Christopher G; Pembrey, Marcus; Satsangi, Jack; Stratton, Michael R; Worthington, Jane; Deloukas, Panos; Duncanson, Audrey; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P; McCarthy, Mark I; Ouwehand, Willem; Parkes, Miles; Rahman, Nazneen; Todd, John A; Samani, Nilesh J; Donnelly, Peter

2010-04-01

176

Experimental Infection of Common Warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus) and Bushpigs (Potamochoerus larvatus) with Classical Swine Fever Virus II: A Comparative Histopathological Study.  

PubMed

Wild African Suidae, the common warthog (Phacochoerus africanus) and bushpig (Potamochoerus larvatus), were experimentally infected with classical swine fever (CSF) virus following the diagnosis of CSF subtype 2.1 in domestic pigs in South Africa in 2005. No data regarding the susceptibility or potential lesions of these African wild suids are available. Seven subadult warthogs and six bushpigs were captured and infected intranasally with the South African isolate. Two in-contact control animals of the same species in each experiment verified intra-species transmission. Surviving animals were euthanized after 44?days. Formalin-fixed tissue samples collected from them as well as animals euthanized during the trial were evaluated for histological lesions. The warthogs, which were clinically normal throughout the study, developed histological lesions that were inconsistently present and sometimes subtle. Three individuals, including one in-contact control, developed distinct lympho-plasmacytic cuffing in their brains. Subtle lesions included scant lympho-plasmacytic infiltration of various organs, occasionally accompanied by perivascular cuffing. In contrast, the bushpigs developed overt clinical signs similar to CSF in domestic pigs. Four of six animals, including two in-contact controls, died or were euthanized during the trial. On postmortem examination, intestinal necrosis and ulceration, purulent rhinitis and pneumonia were present. Affected animals developed lymphoid necrosis and depletion whilst surviving individuals showed perivascular cuffing in multiple organs. From the present work, we conclude that these wild Suidae are susceptible to CSF virus and intra-species transmission under experimental conditions can occur. PMID:21176120

Gers, S; Vosloo, W; Drew, T; Lubisi, A B; Pardini, A; Williams, M

2010-12-22

177

Common mechanisms of DNA translocation motors in bacteria and viruses using one-way revolution mechanism without rotation.  

PubMed

Biomotors were once described into two categories: linear motor and rotation motor. Recently, a third type of biomotor with revolution mechanism without rotation has been discovered. By analogy, rotation resembles the Earth rotating on its axis in a complete cycle every 24h, while revolution resembles the Earth revolving around the Sun one circle per 365 days (see animations http://nanobio.uky.edu/movie.html). The action of revolution that enables a motor free of coiling and torque has solved many puzzles and debates that have occurred throughout the history of viral DNA packaging motor studies. It also settles the discrepancies concerning the structure, stoichiometry, and functioning of DNA translocation motors. This review uses bacteriophages Phi29, HK97, SPP1, P22, T4, and T7 as well as bacterial DNA translocase FtsK and SpoIIIE or the large eukaryotic dsDNA viruses such as mimivirus and vaccinia virus as examples to elucidate the puzzles. These motors use ATPase, some of which have been confirmed to be a hexamer, to revolve around the dsDNA sequentially. ATP binding induces conformational change and possibly an entropy alteration in ATPase to a high affinity toward dsDNA; but ATP hydrolysis triggers another entropic and conformational change in ATPase to a low affinity for DNA, by which dsDNA is pushed toward an adjacent ATPase subunit. The rotation and revolution mechanisms can be distinguished by the size of channel: the channels of rotation motors are equal to or smaller than 2 nm, that is the size of dsDNA, whereas channels of revolution motors are larger than 3 nm. Rotation motors use parallel threads to operate with a right-handed channel, while revolution motors use a left-handed channel to drive the right-handed DNA in an anti-chiral arrangement. Coordination of several vector factors in the same direction makes viral DNA-packaging motors unusually powerful and effective. Revolution mechanism that avoids DNA coiling in translocating the lengthy genomic dsDNA helix could be advantageous for cell replication such as bacterial binary fission and cell mitosis without the need for topoisomerase or helicase to consume additional energy. PMID:24913057

Guo, Peixuan; Zhao, Zhengyi; Haak, Jeannie; Wang, Shaoying; Wu, Dong; Meng, Bing; Weitao, Tao

2014-01-01

178

An evaluation of ultraviolet light (UV254) as a means to inactivate porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on common farm surfaces and materials.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to assess the effect of UV(254) on the concentration and viability of PRRSV on surfaces and materials commonly encountered on swine farms. A standard quantity (5 × 10(6)TCID(50), total dose) of a PRRSV modified live vaccine virus was inoculated onto 2 matched sets of surfaces/materials including wood, plastic, latex, rubber, styrofoam, metal, leather, cloth, concrete, cardboard, glass and paper. One set was exposed to UV(254) radiation (treatments) and the other to incandescent light (controls) for a 24h period. During this time, treatments and controls were swabbed at 10 min intervals from 0 to 60 min post-inoculation (PI) and again at 24h PI. The quantity of PRRSV RNA on each item at each sampling time was calculated by RT-PCR and the presence of viable PRRSV in each sample was determined by swine bioassay. A significant reduction (p<0.0001) in the quantity of PRRSV RNA was demonstrated at 24h PI independent of treatment. In addition, a significant reduction (p=0.012) in the number of UV(254)-treated surfaces which harbored viable virus was observed at 60 min (0/12 positive) when compared to control surfaces (5/12 positive). In addition, all UV(254) treated samples collected between 10 and 50 min PI were bioassay negative. These results suggest that UV(254) is an effective means to inactivate PRRSV on commonly encountered farm surfaces and materials and inactivation can be accomplished following 10 min of exposure. PMID:21330067

Dee, Scott; Otake, Satoshi; Deen, John

2011-05-12

179

Immunity related genes in dipterans share common enrichment of AT-rich motifs in their 5' regulatory regions that are potentially involved in nucleosome formation  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding the transcriptional regulation mechanisms in response to environmental challenges is of fundamental importance in biology. Transcription factors associated to response elements and the chromatin structure had proven to play important roles in gene expression regulation. We have analyzed promoter regions of dipteran genes induced in response to immune challenge, in search for particular sequence patterns involved in their transcriptional regulation. Results 5' upstream regions of D. melanogaster and A. gambiae immunity-induced genes and their corresponding orthologous genes in 11 non-melanogaster drosophilid species and Ae. aegypti share enrichment in AT-rich short motifs. AT-rich motifs are associated with nucleosome formation as predicted by two different algorithms. In A. gambiae and D. melanogaster, many immunity genes 5' upstream sequences also showed NF?B response elements, located within 500 bp from the transcription start site. In A. gambiae, the frequency of ATAA motif near the NF?B response elements was increased, suggesting a functional link between nucleosome formation/remodelling and NF?B regulation of transcription. Conclusion AT-rich motif enrichment in 5' upstream sequences in A. gambiae, Ae. aegypti and the Drosophila genus immunity genes suggests a particular pattern of nucleosome formation/chromatin organization. The co-occurrence of such motifs with the NF?B response elements suggests that these sequence signatures may be functionally involved in transcriptional activation during dipteran immune response. AT-rich motif enrichment in regulatory regions in this group of co-regulated genes could represent an evolutionary constrained signature in dipterans and perhaps other distantly species. PMID:18613977

Hernandez-Romano, Jesus; Carlos-Rivera, Francisco J; Salgado, Heladia; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Hector; Valverde-Garduño, Veronica; Rodriguez, Mario H; Martinez-Barnetche, Jesus

2008-01-01

180

About sharing  

E-print Network

This thesis is about multidominance or sharing in syntax. The term sharing is used in a technical sense, to refer to a situation where a syntactic node has more than one mother. I assume that multidominance is allowed by ...

Gra?anin Yuksek, Martina

2007-01-01

181

Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans  

MedlinePLUS

... Submit Button Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans Language: English Español Share Compartir On this Page Background Reporting Additional Information Key Facts about Human Infections with Variant Viruses (Swine Origin Influenza Viruses ...

182

FAQ: West Nile Virus and Dead Birds  

MedlinePLUS

... Virus Share Compartir FAQ: West Nile Virus & Dead Birds How do birds get infected with West Nile ... dead bird sightings to local authorities. How do birds get infected with West Nile virus? West Nile ...

183

Shared Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you're interested in checking out the social media shares for various websites, the Shared Count tool is a nice find. Visitors just need to enter the URL in question and then can find out how often the site has been shared on a range of social media platforms. This version is compatible with all operating systems.

Kumar, Neeraj

2014-03-27

184

Common Cold  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site provides comprehensive information, selected by medical doctors, about the common cold. "The goal is to provide a framework for critical thinking which will allow informed decisions about medical care for the common cold." The section entitled Understanding Colds gives a detailed overview of how the cold virus invades the human body and how cold symptoms are caused. Information about preventing colds, and some of the complications that can occur are also included. The Special Features section includes one of the most interesting parts of the site -- Myths of the Common Cold. This site should be interesting to almost anyone, but perhaps more so for those of us who have recently had a cold.

185

Common Host-Derived Chemicals Increase Catches of Disease-Transmitting Mosquitoes and Can Improve Early Warning Systems for Rift Valley Fever Virus  

PubMed Central

Rift Valley fever (RVF), a mosquito-borne zoonosis, is a major public health and veterinary problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Surveillance to monitor mosquito populations during the inter-epidemic period (IEP) and viral activity in these vectors is critical to informing public health decisions for early warning and control of the disease. Using a combination of field bioassays, electrophysiological and chemical analyses we demonstrated that skin-derived aldehydes (heptanal, octanal, nonanal, decanal) common to RVF virus (RVFV) hosts including sheep, cow, donkey, goat and human serve as potent attractants for RVFV mosquito vectors. Furthermore, a blend formulated from the four aldehydes and combined with CO2-baited CDC trap without a light bulb doubled to tripled trap captures compared to control traps baited with CO2 alone. Our results reveal that (a) because of the commonality of the host chemical signature required for attraction, the host-vector interaction appears to favor the mosquito vector allowing it to find and opportunistically feed on a wide range of mammalian hosts of the disease, and (b) the sensitivity, specificity and superiority of this trapping system offers the potential for its wider use in surveillance programs for RVFV mosquito vectors especially during the IEP. PMID:23326620

Tchouassi, David P.; Sang, Rosemary; Sole, Catherine L.; Bastos, Armanda D. S.; Teal, Peter E. A.; Borgemeister, Christian; Torto, Baldwyn

2013-01-01

186

Diverse circular ssDNA viruses discovered in dragonflies (Odonata: Epiprocta).  

PubMed

Viruses with circular ssDNA genomes that encode a replication initiator protein (Rep) are among the smallest viruses known to infect both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. In the past few years an overwhelming diversity of novel circular Rep-encoding ssDNA (CRESS-DNA) viruses has been unearthed from various hosts and environmental sources. Since there is limited information regarding CRESS-DNA viruses in invertebrates, this study explored the diversity of CRESS-DNA viruses circulating among insect populations by targeting dragonflies (Epiprocta), top insect predators that accumulate viruses from their insect prey over space and time. Using degenerate PCR and rolling circle amplification coupled with restriction digestion, 17 CRESS-DNA viral genomes were recovered from eight different dragonfly species collected in tropical and temperate regions. Nine of the genomes are similar to cycloviruses and represent five species within this genus, suggesting that cycloviruses are commonly associated with insects. Three of the CRESS-DNA viruses share conserved genomic features with recently described viruses similar to the mycovirus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirulence-associated DNA virus 1, leading to the proposal of the genus Gemycircularvirus. The remaining viruses are divergent species representing four novel CRESS-DNA viral genera, including a gokushovirus-like prokaryotic virus (microphage) and three eukaryotic viruses with Reps similar to circoviruses. The novelty of CRESS-DNA viruses identified in dragonflies using simple molecular techniques indicates that there is an unprecedented diversity of ssDNA viruses among insect populations. PMID:22915694

Rosario, Karyna; Dayaram, Anisha; Marinov, Milen; Ware, Jessica; Kraberger, Simona; Stainton, Daisy; Breitbart, Mya; Varsani, Arvind

2012-12-01

187

“Megavirales”, a proposed new order for eukaryotic nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses  

PubMed Central

The nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) comprise a monophyletic group of viruses that infect animals and diverse unicellular eukaryotes. The NCLDV group includes the families Poxviridae, Asfarviridae, Iridoviridae, Ascoviridae, Phycodnaviridae, Mimiviridae and the proposed family “Marseilleviridae”. The family Mimiviridae includes the largest known viruses, with genomes in excess of one megabase, whereas the genome size in the other NCLDV families varies from 100 to 400 kilobase pairs. Most of the NCLDVs replicate in the cytoplasm of infected cells, within so-called virus factories. The NCLDVs share a common ancient origin, as demonstrated by evolutionary reconstructions that trace approximately 50 genes encoding key proteins involved in viral replication and virion formation to the last common ancestor of all these viruses. Taken together, these characteristics lead us to propose assigning an official taxonomic rank to the NCLDVs as the order “Megavirales”, in reference to the large size of the virions and genomes of these viruses. PMID:23812617

Colson, Philippe; De Lamballerie, Xavier; Yutin, Natalya; Asgari, Sassan; Bigot, Yves; Bideshi, Dennis K.; Cheng, Xiao-Wen; Federici, Brian A.; Van Etten, James L.; Koonin, Eugene V.; La Scola, Bernard; Raoult, Didier

2014-01-01

188

A series of eIF4E alleles at the Bc-3 locus are associated with recessive resistance to Clover yellow vein virus in common bean.  

PubMed

Clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV) is capable of causing severe damage to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production worldwide. The snap bean market class is particularly vulnerable because infection may lead to distortion and necrosis of the fresh green pods and rejection of the harvest. Three putatively independent recessive genes (cyv, desc, bc-3) have been reported to condition resistance to ClYVV; however, their allelic relationships have not been resolved. We identified, evaluated, and characterized the phenotypic and molecular genetic variation present in 21 informative common bean genotypes for resistance to ClYVV. Allelism testing phenotypes from multiple populations provided clear evidence that the three genes were a series of recessive alleles at the Bc-3 locus that condition unique potyvirus strain- and species-specific resistance spectra. Candidate gene analysis revealed complete association between the recessive resistance alleles and unique patterns of predicted amino acid substitutions in P. vulgaris eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (PveIF4E). This led to the discovery and characterization of two novel PveIF4E alleles associated with resistance to ClYVV, PveIF4E (3) , and PveIF4E (4) . We developed KASPar allele-specific SNP genotyping assays and demonstrated their ability to accurately detect and differentiate all of the PveIF4E haplotypes present in the germplasm, allelism testing, and in three separate segregating populations. The results contribute to an enhanced understanding and accessibility of the important potyvirus resistance conditioned by recessive alleles at Bc-3. The KASPar assays should be useful to further enable germplasm exploration, allelic discrimination, and marker-assisted introgression of bc-3 alleles in common bean. PMID:23933781

Hart, John P; Griffiths, Phillip D

2013-11-01

189

Structural Analysis of DFG-in and DFG-out Dual Src-Abl Inhibitors Sharing a Common Vinyl Purine Template  

SciTech Connect

Bcr-Abl is the oncogenic protein tyrosine kinase responsible for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Treatment of the disease with imatinib (Gleevec) often results in drug resistance via kinase mutations at the advanced phases of the disease, which has necessitated the development of new mutation-resistant inhibitors, notably against the T315I gatekeeper mutation. As part of our efforts to discover such mutation resistant Abl inhibitors, we have focused on optimizing purine template kinase inhibitors, leading to the discovery of potent DFG-in and DFG-out series of Abl inhibitors that are also potent Src inhibitors. Here we present crystal structures of Abl bound by two such inhibitors, based on a common N9-arenyl purine, and that represent both DFG-in and -out binding modes. In each structure the purine template is bound deeply in the adenine pocket and the novel vinyl linker forms a non-classical hydrogen bond to the gatekeeper residue, Thr315. Specific template substitutions promote either a DFG-in or -out binding mode, with the kinase binding site adjusting to optimize molecular recognition. Bcr-Abl T315I mutant kinase is resistant to all currently marketed Abl inhibitors, and is the focus of intense drug discovery efforts. Notably, our DFG-out inhibitor, AP24163, exhibits modest activity against this mutant, illustrating that this kinase mutant can be inhibited by DFG-out class inhibitors. Furthermore our DFG-out inhibitor exhibits dual Src-Abl activity, absent from the prototypical DFG-out inhibitor, imatinib as well as its analog, nilotinib. The data presented here provides structural guidance for the further design of novel potent DFG-out class inhibitors against Src, Abl and Abl T315I mutant kinases.

Zhou, Tianjun; Commodore, Lois; Huang, Wei-Sheng; Wang, Yihan; Sawyer, Tomi K.; Shakespeare, William C.; Clackson, Tim; Zhu, Xiaotian; Dalgarno, David C. (ARIAD)

2010-09-30

190

Campylobacter Infection in Children in Malawi Is Common and Is Frequently Associated with Enteric Virus Co-Infections  

PubMed Central

Background Campylobacter species are the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the developed world. However, comparatively few studies have determined the epidemiological features of campylobacteriosis in resource-poor settings. Methods A total of 1,941 faecal specimens collected from symptomatic (diarrhoeic) children and 507 specimens from asymptomatic (non-diarrhoeic) children hospitalised in Blantyre, Malawi, between 1997 and 2007, and previously tested for the presence of rotavirus and norovirus, was analysed for C. jejuni and C. coli using a real time PCR assay. Results Campylobacter species were detected in 415/1,941 (21%) of diarrhoeic children, with C. jejuni accounting for 85% of all cases. The median age of children with Campylobacter infection was 11 months (range 0.1–55 months), and was significantly higher than that for children with rotavirus and norovirus (6 months and 7 months respectively; P<0.001). Co-infection with either rotavirus or norovirus was noted in 41% of all cases in the diarrhoeic group. In contrast, the detection rate of Campylobacter in the non-diarrhoeic group was 14%, with viral co-infection identified in 16% of children with Campylobacter. There was no association between Campylobacter detection rate and season over the 10 year period. Discussion Using molecular detection methodology in hospitalised Malawian children, we have demonstrated a high prevalence of Campylobacter infection, with frequent viral co-infection. The burden of Campylobacter infection in young African children may be greater than previously recognised. PMID:23555739

Mason, Jenifer; Iturriza-Gomara, Miren; O’Brien, Sarah J.; Ngwira, Bagrey M.; Dove, Winifred; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Cunliffe, Nigel A.

2013-01-01

191

The DNA Element Controlling Expression of the Varicella-Zoster Virus Open Reading Frame 28 and 29 Genes Consists of Two Divergent Unidirectional Promoters Which Have a Common USF Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of the divergent expression of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) ORF 28 and ORF 29 genes from a common intergenic DNA element, the ORF 28\\/29 promoter, is of interest based on the observation that both genes are expressed during VZV lytic infection but only the ORF 29 gene is expressed in latently infected neurons. In the work presented here,

Min Yang; John Hay; William T. Ruyechan

2004-01-01

192

About Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs)  

MedlinePLUS

... Diagnosis HPIV Seasons Resources & References About Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Share Compartir Overview Describes HPIVs, who is at risk, symptoms, how the viruses spread... Symptoms & Illnesses Lists symptoms and illnesses caused ...

193

A genomic survey of thirty soybean-infecting bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) isolates from China pointed BCMV as a potential threat to soybean production.  

PubMed

Widely known as a severe pathogen of bean plants, the bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) has been reported to infect soybeans only sporadically and the involved strains were all found in China regions. To explore variations among soybean-infecting BCMV strains, hundreds of soybean mosaic leave samples were collected throughout China, with a total of 30 BCMV isolates detected and their genomes sequenced. These newly obtained genomes, together with 16 other BCMV genomes available in GenBank were examined from multiple aspects to characterize BCMV evolutionary processes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that both soybean-infecting BCMVs (group I) and peanut-infecting BCMVs (group II) are distantly related to other BCMVs, suggesting ancestral differentiation and host adaptation. Genetic variation analysis showed that P1, P3 and 6K2 genes and the beginning portion of CP gene showed higher levels of variation relative to other genes. Moreover, selection analyses further confirmed that a number of sites within the P1 and P3 genes have suffered positive selection. These obtained BCMV sequences also exhibit high recombination frequencies, indicating a more dynamic evolutionary history. Finally, 12 different soybean cultivars were challenged with two BCMV isolates (DXH015 and HZZB011), with most of the cultivars successfully infected. These findings suggest that BCMV is indeed a potential threat to soybean production. PMID:25107622

Zhou, Guang-Can; Wu, Xiao-Yi; Zhang, Yan-Mei; Wu, Ping; Wu, Xun-Zong; Liu, Li-Wei; Wang, Qiang; Hang, Yue-Yu; Yang, Jia-Yin; Shao, Zhu-Qing; Wang, Bin; Chen, Jian-Qun

2014-10-13

194

Identification of a common antigenic site in the nucleocapsid protein of European and North American isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) nucleocapsid (N) protein has been identified as the most immunodominant viral protein. The N protein genes from two PRRSV isolates Olot/91 (European) and Quebec 807/94 (North American) were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli using the pET3x system. The antigenic structure of the PRRSV N protein was dissected using seven monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and overlapping fragments of the protein expressed in E.coli. Three antigenic sites were found. Four MAbs recognized two discontinuous epitopes that were present in the partially folded protein or at least a large fragment comprising the first 78 residues, respectively. The other three MAbs revealed the presence of a common antigenic site localized in the central region of the protein (amino acids 50 to 66). This hydrophillic region is well conserved among different isolates of European and North American origin. However, since this epitope is not recognized by many pig sera, it is not adequate for diagnostic purposes. Moreover, none of the N protein fragments were able to mimic the antigenicity of the entire N protein. PMID:9782317

Casal, J I; Rodriguez, M J; Sarraseca, J; Garcia, J; Plana-Duran, J; Sanz, A

1998-01-01

195

'Berries' and Rock Share Common Origins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This false-color composite image, taken at a region of the rock outcrop dubbed 'Shoemaker's Patio' near the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's landing site, shows finely layered sediments, which have been accentuated by erosion. The sphere-like grains or 'blueberries' distributed throughout the outcrop can be seen lining up with individual layers. This observation indicates that the spherules are geologic features called concretions, which form in pre-existing wet sediments. Other sphere-like grains, such as impact spherules or volcanic lapilli (fragments of material etween 2 and 64 millimeters or .08 and 2.5 inches in maximum dimension that are ejected from a volcano) are thought to be deposited with sediments and thus would form layers distinct from those of the rocks. This image was captured by the rover's panoramic camera on the 50th martian day, or sol, of the mission. Data from the camera's infrared, green and violet filters were used to create this false-color picture.

2004-01-01

196

Canonical Commonality Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Commonality analysis is a method of partitioning variance that has advantages over more traditional "OVA" methods. Commonality analysis indicates the amount of explanatory power that is "unique" to a given predictor variable and the amount of explanatory power that is "common" to or shared with at least one predictor variable. This paper outlines…

Leister, K. Dawn

197

Sharing code  

PubMed Central

Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF). GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing. PMID:25165519

Kubilius, Jonas

2014-01-01

198

A common RNA motif in the 3« end of the genomes of astroviruses, avian infectious bronchitis virus and an equine rhinovirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 3« non-coding region of the genomes of infectious bronchitis virus, an avian coronavirus and the picornavirus equine rhinovirus serotype 2, there is a motif with remarkable similarity, both in sequence and folding, to the second RNA stem-loop from the 3« end of the genomes of human astro- viruses. This motif was also found in astroviruses of sheep, pig

Christine Monceyron Jonassen; Bjørn Grinde

1998-01-01

199

Sharing Reservoirs  

E-print Network

Large reservoirs such as oil fields are typically split into exploratory blocks for different consortia. Although space demarcation at the surface level is a standard process, finding the corresponding effective extents of the shares is not simple. We introduce a theoretical framework to identify the effectively exploitable volumes and characterize their boundaries, based on the number of consortia. For three consortia, we show that in an uncorrelated medium the set of shared regions is a fractal of dimension $d_\\text{tot}=1.69\\pm0.02$. The subset of these shared sites spanning the entire medium has fractal dimension $d_\\text{lc}=1.55\\pm0.03$. The peculiar topological properties of the emerging clusters of shared sites are analyzed and the model is shown to exhibit a tricritical crossover involving also a negative exponent at criticality.

Schrenk, K J; Herrmann, H J

2012-01-01

200

NF-?B directly mediates epigenetic deregulation of common microRNAs in Epstein-Barr virus-mediated transformation of B-cells and in lymphomas.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have negative effects on gene expression and are major players in cell function in normal and pathological conditions. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of resting B lymphocytes results in their growth transformation and associates with different B cell lymphomas. EBV-mediated B cell transformation involves large changes in gene expression, including cellular miRNAs. We performed miRNA expression analysis in growth transformation of EBV-infected B cells. We observed predominant downregulation of miRNAs and upregulation of a few miRNAs. We observed similar profiles of miRNA expression in B cells stimulated with CD40L/IL-4, and those infected with EBNA-2- and LMP-1-deficient EBV particles, suggesting the implication of the NF-kB pathway, common to all four situations. In fact, the NF-kB subunit p65 associates with the transcription start site (TSS) of both upregulated and downregulated miRNAs following EBV infection This occurs together with changes at histone H3K27me3 and histone H3K4me3. Inhibition of the NF-kB pathway impairs changes in miRNA expression, NF-kB binding and changes at the above histone modifications near the TSS of these miRNA genes. Changes in expression of these miRNAs also occurred in diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCL), which are strongly NF-kB dependent. Our results highlight the relevance of the NF-kB pathway in epigenetically mediated miRNA control in B cell transformation and DLBCL. PMID:25200074

Vento-Tormo, Roser; Rodríguez-Ubreva, Javier; Lisio, Lorena Di; Islam, Abul B M M K; Urquiza, Jose M; Hernando, Henar; López-Bigas, Nuria; Shannon-Lowe, Claire; Martínez, Nerea; Montes-Moreno, Santiago; Piris, Miguel A; Ballestar, Esteban

2014-01-01

201

Identification and Characterization of a Shared TNFR-Related Receptor for Subgroup B, D, and E Avian Leukosis Viruses Reveal Cysteine Residues Required Specifically for Subgroup E Viral Entry  

PubMed Central

Genetic and receptor interference data have indicated the presence of one or more cellular receptors for subgroup B, D, and E avian leukosis viruses (ALV) encoded by the s1 allele of the chicken tvb locus. Despite the prediction that these viruses use the same receptor, they exhibit a nonreciprocal receptor interference pattern: ALV-B and ALV-D can interfere with infection by all three viral subgroups, but ALV-E only interferes with infection by subgroup E viruses. We identified a tvbs1 cDNA clone which encodes a tumor necrosis factor receptor-related receptor for ALV-B, -D, and -E. The nonreciprocal receptor interference pattern was reconstituted in transfected human 293 cells by coexpressing the cloned receptor with the envelope (Env) proteins of either ALV-B or ALV-E. This pattern of interference was also observed when soluble ALV surface (SU)-immunoglobulin fusion proteins were bound to this cellular receptor before viral challenge. These data demonstrate that viral Env-receptor interactions can account for the nonreciprocal interference between ALV subgroups B, D, and E. Furthermore, they indicate that a single chicken gene located at tvbs1 encodes receptors for these three viral subgroups. The TVBS1 protein differs exclusively at residue 62 from the published subgroup B- and D-specific receptor, encoded by the s3 allele of tvb. Residue 62 is a cysteine in TVBS1 but is a serine in TVBS3, giving TVBS1 an even number of cysteines in the extracellular domain. We present evidence for a disulfide bond requirement in TVBS1 for ALV-E infection but not for ALV-B infection. Thus, ALV-B and ALV-E interact in fundamentally different ways with this shared receptor, a finding that may account for the observed biological differences between these two ALV subgroups. PMID:10729132

Adkins, Heather B.; Brojatsch, Jürgen; Young, John A. T.

2000-01-01

202

Virus induced gene silencing in Brachypodium distachyon , a model organism for cereals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brachypodium distachyon is emerging as a model organism for crops as a better alternative to Oryzae sativa. It shares common characteristics of a model plant with its small genome, small physical plant size, a short lifecycle, and\\u000a less demanding growth requirements similar to Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we are reporting for the first time, an implementation of virus induced

Turan Demircan; Mahinur S. Akkaya

2010-01-01

203

Complete nucleotide sequence of Rose yellow leaf virus, a new member of the family Tombusviridae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genome of the Rose yellow leaf virus (RYLV) has been determined to be 3918 nucleotides containing seven open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 encodes a 27 kDa peptide (p27). ORF2 shares a common start codon with ORF1 and continues through the amber stop codon of p27 to encode a 87 kDa (p87) protein t...

204

Where Are the Commonalities Among the Therapeutic Common Factors?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is little convergence or empirical research on factors shared by diverse psychotherapies. We reviewed 50 publications to discern commonalities among proposed therapeutic common factors. The number of factors per publication ranged from 1 to 20, with 89 different commonalities proposed in all. Analyses revealed that 41% of proposed commonalities were change processes; by contrast, only 6% of articulated commonalities

Lisa M. Grencavage; John C. Norcross

1990-01-01

205

The MYC, TERT, and ZIC1 Genes Are Common Targets of Viral Integration and Transcriptional Deregulation in Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup J-Induced Myeloid Leukosis  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The integration of retroviruses into the host genome following nonrandom genome-wide patterns may lead to the deregulation of gene expression and oncogene activation near the integration sites. Slow-transforming retroviruses have been widely used to perform genetic screens for the identification of genes involved in cancer. To investigate the involvement of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) integration in myeloid leukosis (ML) in chickens, we utilized an ALV-J insertional identification platform based on hybrid capture target enrichment and next-generation sequencing (NGS). Using high-definition mapping of the viral integration sites in the chicken genome, 241 unique insertion sites were obtained from six different ALV-J-induced ML samples. On the basis of previous statistical definitions, MYC, TERT, and ZIC1 genes were identified as common insertion sites (CIS) of provirus integration in tumor cells; these three genes have previously been shown to be involved in the malignant transformation of different human cell types. Compared to control samples, the expression levels of all three CIS genes were significantly upregulated in chicken ML samples. Furthermore, they were frequently, but not in all field ML cases, deregulated at the mRNA level as a result of ALV-J infection. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the relationship between multipathotypes associated with ALV-J infection and the molecular background of tumorigenesis. IMPORTANCE ALV-Js have been successfully eradicated from chicken breeding flocks in the poultry industries of developed countries, and the control and eradication of ALV-J in China are now progressing steadily. To further study the pathogenesis of ALV-J infections, it will be necessary to elucidate the in vivo viral integration and tumorigenesis mechanism. In this study, 241 unique insertion sites were obtained from six different ALV-J-induced ML samples. In addition, MYC, TERT, and ZIC1 genes were identified as the CIS of ALV-J in tumor cells, which might be a putative “driver” for the activation of the oncogene. In addition, the CIS genes showed deregulated expression compared to nontumor samples. These results have potentially important implications for the mechanism of viral carcinogenesis. PMID:24371071

Li, Yuhao; Liu, Xuemei; Yang, Zhen; Xu, Chenggang; Liu, Di; Qin, Jianru; Dai, Manman; Hao, Jianyong; Feng, Min; Huang, Xiaorong; Tan, Liqiang

2014-01-01

206

Shared Recklessness  

E-print Network

of Master of Fine Arts. ________________________________ Chairperson Tom Lorenz, M.F.A. ________________________________ Laura Moriarty, M.A. ________________________________ Sonya Satinsky, Ph.D. Date... Defended: 4/5/2012 ii The Thesis Committee for Danya L. Goodman certifies that this is the approved version of the following thesis: SHARED RECKLESSNESS ________________________________ Chairperson Tom Lorenz, M.F...

Goodman, Danya Laura

2012-05-31

207

Fair Shares  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use this activity to build division and number sense into any snack time or whenever there are a limited set of things to share among a group: If we deal these out, could everyone get two pieces? five pieces? more? Predict how much everyone will get, then try it and see. For a harder variation, try to find a way to divide up the food so that there is just one item left. Available as a web page, downloadable pdf, and in Spanish.

2010-01-01

208

About Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)  

MedlinePLUS

... Providers Laboratory Testing References & Resources About Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Share Compartir On this Page Symptoms Transmission Diagnosis Prevention & Treatment Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), also known as human herpesvirus 4, is ...

209

Virus Movement Maintains Local Virus Population Diversity  

SciTech Connect

Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material.

J. Snyder; B. Wiedenheft; M. Lavin; F. Roberto; J. Spuhler; A. Ortmann; T. Douglas; M. Young

2007-11-01

210

Relative Dominance of Epitope-Specific Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Responses in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Persons with Shared HLA Alleles  

PubMed Central

Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) target multiple epitopes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons, and are thought to influence the viral set point. The extent to which HLA class I allele expression predicts the epitopes targeted has not been determined, nor have the relative contributions of responses restricted by different class I alleles within a given individual. In this study, we performed a detailed analysis of the CTL response to optimally defined CTL epitopes restricted by HLA class I A and B alleles in individuals who coexpressed HLA A2, A3, and B7. The eight HIV-1-infected subjects studied included two subjects with acute HIV infection, five subjects with chronic HIV infection, and one long-term nonprogressor. Responses were heterogeneous with respect to breadth and magnitude of CTL responses in individuals of the same HLA type. Of the 27 tested epitopes that are presented by A2, A3, and B7, 25 were targeted by at least one person. However, there was wide variation in the number of epitopes targeted, ranging from 2 to 17. The A2-restricted CTL response, which has been most extensively studied in infected persons, was found to be narrowly directed in most individuals, and in no cases was it the dominant contributor to the total HIV-1-specific CTL response. These results indicate that HLA type alone does not predict CTL responses and that numerous potential epitopes may not be targeted by CTL in a given individual. These data also provide a rationale for boosting both the breadth and the magnitude of HIV-1-specific CTL responses by immunotherapy in persons with chronic HIV-1 infection. PMID:11413294

Day, Cheryl L.; Shea, Amy K.; Altfeld, Marcus A.; Olson, Douglas P.; Buchbinder, Susan P.; Hecht, Frederick M.; Rosenberg, Eric S.; Walker, Bruce D.; Kalams, Spyros A.

2001-01-01

211

Common promoter deletion is associated with 3.9-fold differential transcription of ovine CCR5 and reduced proviral level of ovine progressive pneumonia virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

CCR5 is a chemokine receptor that regulates immune cell recruitment in inflammation and serves as a coreceptor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A human CCR5 coding deletion (termed delta-32) results in strong resistance to HIV infection, and polymorphisms in CCR5 regulatory regions have been ...

212

Molecular Epidemiology of Vesicular Stomatitis New Jersey Virus from the 2004-2005 United States Outbreak Indicates a Common Origin with Mexico Strains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Outbreaks of vesicular stomatitis occur at 8-10 year intervals in the southwestern United States (US) with the most recent outbreak starting in 2004 and continuing in 2005. Phylogenetic relationships among 116 vesicular stomatitis-New Jersey virus (VSNJV) isolates obtained from this outbreak and end...

213

Antigenic determinants in influenza virus hemagglutinin.  

PubMed Central

Three antigenic determinants were revealed in H3 hemagglutinin of influenza A viruses isolated from 1968 to 1975. One of them was common for all viruses, and two others specified differences between the viruses possessing H3 hemagglutinin. PMID:89090

Rovnova, Z I; Kosyakov, P N; Berezina, O N; Isayeva, E I; Zhdanov, V M

1979-01-01

214

Ocular Tropism of Respiratory Viruses  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Respiratory viruses (including adenovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus) cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from mild influenza-like symptoms to acute respiratory failure. While species D adenoviruses and subtype H7 influenza viruses are known to possess an ocular tropism, documented human ocular disease has been reported following infection with all principal respiratory viruses. In this review, we describe the anatomical proximity and cellular receptor distribution between ocular and respiratory tissues. All major respiratory viruses and their association with human ocular disease are discussed. Research utilizing in vitro and in vivo models to study the ability of respiratory viruses to use the eye as a portal of entry as well as a primary site of virus replication is highlighted. Identification of shared receptor-binding preferences, host responses, and laboratory modeling protocols among these viruses provides a needed bridge between clinical and laboratory studies of virus tropism. PMID:23471620

Rota, Paul A.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

2013-01-01

215

Donkey Orchid Symptomless Virus: A Viral ‘Platypus’ from Australian Terrestrial Orchids  

PubMed Central

Complete and partial genome sequences of two isolates of an unusual new plant virus, designated Donkey orchid symptomless virus (DOSV) were identified using a high-throughput sequencing approach. The virus was identified from asymptomatic plants of Australian terrestrial orchid Diuris longifolia (Common donkey orchid) growing in a remnant forest patch near Perth, western Australia. DOSV was identified from two D. longifolia plants of 264 tested, and from at least one plant of 129 Caladenia latifolia (pink fairy orchid) plants tested. Phylogenetic analysis of the genome revealed open reading frames (ORF) encoding seven putative proteins of apparently disparate origins. A 69-kDa protein (ORF1) that overlapped the replicase shared low identity with MPs of plant tymoviruses (Tymoviridae). A 157-kDa replicase (ORF2) and 22-kDa coat protein (ORF4) shared 32% and 40% amino acid identity, respectively, with homologous proteins encoded by members of the plant virus family Alphaflexiviridae. A 44-kDa protein (ORF3) shared low identity with myosin and an autophagy protein from Squirrelpox virus. A 27-kDa protein (ORF5) shared no identity with described proteins. A 14-kDa protein (ORF6) shared limited sequence identity (26%) over a limited region of the envelope glycoprotein precursor of mammal-infecting Crimea-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (Bunyaviridae). The putative 25-kDa movement protein (MP) (ORF7) shared limited (27%) identity with 3A-like MPs of members of the plant-infecting Tombusviridae and Virgaviridae. Transmissibility was shown when DOSV systemically infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Structure and organization of the domains within the putative replicase of DOSV suggests a common evolutionary origin with ‘potexvirus-like’ replicases of viruses within the Alphaflexiviridae and Tymoviridae, and the CP appears to be ancestral to CPs of allexiviruses (Alphaflexiviridae). The MP shares an evolutionary history with MPs of dianthoviruses, but the other putative proteins are distant from plant viruses. DOSV is not readily classified in current lower order virus taxa. PMID:24223974

Wylie, Stephen J.; Li, Hua; Jones, Michael G. K.

2013-01-01

216

Donkey orchid symptomless virus: a viral 'platypus' from Australian terrestrial orchids.  

PubMed

Complete and partial genome sequences of two isolates of an unusual new plant virus, designated Donkey orchid symptomless virus (DOSV) were identified using a high-throughput sequencing approach. The virus was identified from asymptomatic plants of Australian terrestrial orchid Diuris longifolia (Common donkey orchid) growing in a remnant forest patch near Perth, western Australia. DOSV was identified from two D. longifolia plants of 264 tested, and from at least one plant of 129 Caladenia latifolia (pink fairy orchid) plants tested. Phylogenetic analysis of the genome revealed open reading frames (ORF) encoding seven putative proteins of apparently disparate origins. A 69-kDa protein (ORF1) that overlapped the replicase shared low identity with MPs of plant tymoviruses (Tymoviridae). A 157-kDa replicase (ORF2) and 22-kDa coat protein (ORF4) shared 32% and 40% amino acid identity, respectively, with homologous proteins encoded by members of the plant virus family Alphaflexiviridae. A 44-kDa protein (ORF3) shared low identity with myosin and an autophagy protein from Squirrelpox virus. A 27-kDa protein (ORF5) shared no identity with described proteins. A 14-kDa protein (ORF6) shared limited sequence identity (26%) over a limited region of the envelope glycoprotein precursor of mammal-infecting Crimea-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (Bunyaviridae). The putative 25-kDa movement protein (MP) (ORF7) shared limited (27%) identity with 3A-like MPs of members of the plant-infecting Tombusviridae and Virgaviridae. Transmissibility was shown when DOSV systemically infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Structure and organization of the domains within the putative replicase of DOSV suggests a common evolutionary origin with 'potexvirus-like' replicases of viruses within the Alphaflexiviridae and Tymoviridae, and the CP appears to be ancestral to CPs of allexiviruses (Alphaflexiviridae). The MP shares an evolutionary history with MPs of dianthoviruses, but the other putative proteins are distant from plant viruses. DOSV is not readily classified in current lower order virus taxa. PMID:24223974

Wylie, Stephen J; Li, Hua; Jones, Michael G K

2013-01-01

217

Oxylipin Biosynthesis Genes Positively Regulate Programmed Cell Death during Compatible Infections with the Synergistic Pair Potato Virus X-Potato Virus Y and Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus  

PubMed Central

One of the most severe symptoms caused by compatible plant-virus interactions is systemic necrosis, which shares common attributes with the hypersensitive response to incompatible pathogens. Although several studies have identified viral symptom determinants responsible for systemic necrosis, mechanistic models of how they contribute to necrosis in infected plants remain scarce. Here, we examined the involvement of different branches of the oxylipin biosynthesis pathway in the systemic necrosis response caused either by the synergistic interaction of Potato virus X with Potato virus Y (PVX-PVY) or by Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in Nicotiana benthamiana. Silencing either 9-lipoxygenase (LOX), 13-LOX, or ?-dioxygenase-1 (?-DOX-1) attenuated the programmed cell death (PCD)-associated symptoms caused by infection with either PVX-PVY or TSWV. In contrast, silencing of the jasmonic acid perception gene, COI1 (Coronatine insensitive 1), expedited cell death during infection with compatible viruses. This correlated with an enhanced expression of oxylipin biosynthesis genes and dioxygenase activity in PVX-PVY-infected plants. Moreover, the Arabidopsis thaliana double lox1 ?-dox-1 mutant became less susceptible to TSWV infection. We conclude that oxylipin metabolism is a critical component that positively regulates the process of PCD during compatible plant-virus interactions but does not play a role in restraining virus accumulation in planta. PMID:23487466

García-Marcos, Alberto; Pacheco, Remedios; Manzano, Aranzazu; Aguilar, Emmanuel

2013-01-01

218

Complete sequence of the RNA genome of human rhinovirus 16, a clinically useful common cold virus belonging to the ICAM-1 receptor group  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report here the complete nucleotide sequence and predicted polyprotein sequence of HeLa cell-adapted human rhinovirus 16 (HRV16). This virus is more suitable than human rhinovirus 14 (HRV14) for clinical studies, and its growth and physical properties are favorable for biochemical and crystallographic analysis. The complete message-sense RNA genome of HRV16 is composed of 7124 bases, not including the poly(A)

Wai-Ming Lee; Wensheng Wang; Roland R. Rueckert

1995-01-01

219

COMMON CABBAGE VARIETAL TRIAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven common cabbage varieties from 6 different seed companies were evaluated for their yield and other agronomic characters in order to select the good cabbage varieties that have high and stable yield, early and uniform maturity and resistant to soft rot, black rot and mosaic virus diseases. The experiment was conducted from November 23, 1989 to February 12, 1990 in

NGUYEN VAN EM

220

Deformed Wing Virus Implicated in Overwintering Honeybee Colony Losses ?  

PubMed Central

The worldwide decline in honeybee colonies during the past 50 years has often been linked to the spread of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and its interaction with certain honeybee viruses. Recently in the United States, dramatic honeybee losses (colony collapse disorder) have been reported; however, there remains no clear explanation for these colony losses, with parasitic mites, viruses, bacteria, and fungal diseases all being proposed as possible candidates. Common characteristics that most failing colonies share is a lack of overt disease symptoms and the disappearance of workers from what appears to be normally functioning colonies. In this study, we used quantitative PCR to monitor the presence of three honeybee viruses, deformed wing virus (DWV), acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), and black queen cell virus (BQCV), during a 1-year period in 15 asymptomatic, varroa mite-positive honeybee colonies in Southern England, and 3 asymptomatic colonies confirmed to be varroa mite free. All colonies with varroa mites underwent control treatments to ensure that mite populations remained low throughout the study. Despite this, multiple virus infections were detected, yet a significant correlation was observed only between DWV viral load and overwintering colony losses. The long-held view has been that DWV is relatively harmless to the overall health status of honeybee colonies unless it is in association with severe varroa mite infestations. Our findings suggest that DWV can potentially act independently of varroa mites to bring about colony losses. Therefore, DWV may be a major factor in overwintering colony losses. PMID:19783750

Highfield, Andrea C.; El Nagar, Aliya; Mackinder, Luke C. M.; Noël, Laure M.-L. J.; Hall, Matthew J.; Martin, Stephen J.; Schroeder, Declan C.

2009-01-01

221

Deformed wing virus implicated in overwintering honeybee colony losses.  

PubMed

The worldwide decline in honeybee colonies during the past 50 years has often been linked to the spread of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and its interaction with certain honeybee viruses. Recently in the United States, dramatic honeybee losses (colony collapse disorder) have been reported; however, there remains no clear explanation for these colony losses, with parasitic mites, viruses, bacteria, and fungal diseases all being proposed as possible candidates. Common characteristics that most failing colonies share is a lack of overt disease symptoms and the disappearance of workers from what appears to be normally functioning colonies. In this study, we used quantitative PCR to monitor the presence of three honeybee viruses, deformed wing virus (DWV), acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), and black queen cell virus (BQCV), during a 1-year period in 15 asymptomatic, varroa mite-positive honeybee colonies in Southern England, and 3 asymptomatic colonies confirmed to be varroa mite free. All colonies with varroa mites underwent control treatments to ensure that mite populations remained low throughout the study. Despite this, multiple virus infections were detected, yet a significant correlation was observed only between DWV viral load and overwintering colony losses. The long-held view has been that DWV is relatively harmless to the overall health status of honeybee colonies unless it is in association with severe varroa mite infestations. Our findings suggest that DWV can potentially act independently of varroa mites to bring about colony losses. Therefore, DWV may be a major factor in overwintering colony losses. PMID:19783750

Highfield, Andrea C; El Nagar, Aliya; Mackinder, Luke C M; Noël, Laure M-L J; Hall, Matthew J; Martin, Stephen J; Schroeder, Declan C

2009-11-01

222

Mobile Proactive secret sharing  

E-print Network

This thesis describes mobile proactive secret sharing (MPSS), an extension of proactive secret sharing. Mobile proactive secret sharing is much more flexible than proactive secret sharing in terms of group membership: ...

Schultz, David Andrew

2007-01-01

223

What Are Common Symptoms of Down Syndrome?  

MedlinePLUS

... Publications En Español What are common symptoms of Down syndrome? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content The symptoms of Down syndrome vary from person to person, and people with ...

224

What Are Common Treatments for Down Syndrome?  

MedlinePLUS

... Publications En Español What are common treatments for Down syndrome? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... Content There is no single, standard treatment for Down syndrome. Treatments are based on each individual's physical and ...

225

What Are Common Treatments for Turner Syndrome?  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources and Publications What are common treatments for Turner syndrome? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Although there is no cure for Turner syndrome, some treatments can help minimize its symptoms. These ...

226

Comparative genomic analysis of hyperthermophilic archaeal fuselloviridae viruses  

SciTech Connect

The complete genome sequences of two Sulfolobus spindle-shaped viruses (SSVs) from acidic hot springs in Kamchatka (Russia) and Yellowstone National Park (United States) have been determined. These nonlytic temperate viruses were isolated from hyperthermophilic Sulfolobus hosts, and both viruses share the spindleshaped morphology characteristic of the Fuselloviridae family. These two genomes, in combination with the previously determined SSV1 genome from Japan and the SSV2 genome from Iceland, have allowed us to carry out a phylogenetic comparison of these geographically distributed hyperthermal viruses. Each virus contains a circular double-stranded DNA genome of _15 kbp with approximately 34 open reading frames (ORFs). These Fusellovirus ORFs show little or no similarity to genes in the public databases. In contrast, 18 ORFs are common to all four isolates and may represent the minimal gene set defining this viral group. In general, ORFs on one half of the genome are colinear and highly conserved, while ORFs on the other half are not. One shared ORF among all four genomes is an integrase of the tyrosine recombinase family. All four viral genomes integrate into their host tRNA genes. The specific tRNA gene used for integration varies, and one genome integrates into multiple loci. Several unique ORFs are found in the genome of each isolate.

B. Wiedenheft; K. Stedman; F. Roberto; D. Willits; A. K. Gleske; L. Zoeller; J. Snyder; T. Douglas; M. Young

2004-02-01

227

Co-infections with Chikungunya Virus and Dengue Virus in Delhi, India  

PubMed Central

Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are common vectors for dengue virus and chikungunya virus. In areas where both viruses cocirculate, they can be transmitted together. During a dengue outbreak in Delhi in 2006, 17 of 69 serum samples were positive for chikungunya virus by reverse transcription–PCR; 6 samples were positive for both viruses. PMID:19624923

Chahar, Harendra S.; Bharaj, Preeti; Dar, Lalit; Guleria, Randeep; Kabra, Sushil K.

2009-01-01

228

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV): Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... enabling JavaScript. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Symptoms Most children ... that can be heard High fever Cough with green or yellow mucus back to top Last Updated ...

229

The Common Cold  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When winter rolls around and we begin to spend more time indoors, the common cold becomes an unfortunate reality for many of us. But for something as common as the cold, misconceptions about it are remarkably common as well. The following collection of Web sites provides an in-depth look at the cold and the cold virus.The first site (1) comes from the Common Cold Care Center of Cardiff University in Wales, and offers a thorough and highly readable introduction to the common cold, including sections on conventional and alternative cold medications. Readers can brush up on their basic virology with the next Web site from HowStuffWorks to get a clear, general idea of how the cold virus infects the body (2). This site also explains why antibiotics have no effect on a virus, and includes numerous hypertext links to related HowStuffWorks Web pages. KidsHealth for Parents, a service of the Nemours Foundation, provides a straightforward guide to the symptoms of cold vs. flu, while also offering information on flu treatment options (3). The next Web site, from University of Guelph, contains an easy-to-understand comparison of bacteria and viruses (4). Readers can learn more about rhinoviruses, the family of viruses which account for about one-third of all colds, in the following Web site from the University of South Carolina's Microbiology and Immunology Online (5). The next Web site offers visitors a close-up look at human rhinovirus 14 with over a dozen 3-D images and movies from the University of Wisconsin-Madison Bock Laboratory (6). The following site describes the findings, as detailed in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, of a Purdue University research team that has analyzed on an atomic scale the structure of the cellular receptor that binds cold-causing viruses (7). And finally, find out about common cold clinical trials with ClinicalTrial.gov, a service of the National Institutes of Health (8).

Sohmer, Rachel.

2003-01-01

230

Muju Virus, Harbored by Myodes regulus in Korea, Might Represent a Genetic Variant of Puumala Virus, the Prototype Arvicolid Rodent-Borne Hantavirus  

PubMed Central

The genome of Muju virus (MUJV), identified originally in the royal vole (Myodes regulus) in Korea, was fully sequenced to ascertain its genetic and phylogenetic relationship with Puumala virus (PUUV), harbored by the bank vole (My. glareolus), and a PUUV-like virus, named Hokkaido virus (HOKV), in the grey red-backed vole (My. rufocanus) in Japan. Whole genome sequence analysis of the 6544-nucleotide large (L), 3652-nucleotide medium (M) and 1831-nucleotide small (S) segments of MUJV, as well as the amino acid sequences of their gene products, indicated that MUJV strains from different capture sites might represent genetic variants of PUUV, the prototype arvicolid rodent-borne hantavirus in Europe. Distinct geographic-specific clustering of MUJV was found in different provinces in Korea, and phylogenetic analyses revealed that MUJV and HOKV share a common ancestry with PUUV. A better understanding of the taxonomic classification and pathogenic potential of MUJV must await its isolation in cell culture. PMID:24736214

Lee, Jin Goo; Gu, Se Hun; Baek, Luck Ju; Shin, Ok Sarah; Park, Kwang Sook; Kim, Heung-Chul; Klein, Terry A.; Yanagihara, Richard; Song, Jin-Won

2014-01-01

231

Muju virus, harbored by Myodes regulus in Korea, might represent a genetic variant of Puumala virus, the prototype arvicolid rodent-borne hantavirus.  

PubMed

The genome of Muju virus (MUJV), identified originally in the royal vole (Myodes regulus) in Korea, was fully sequenced to ascertain its genetic and phylogenetic relationship with Puumala virus (PUUV), harbored by the bank vole (My. glareolus), and a PUUV-like virus, named Hokkaido virus (HOKV), in the grey red-backed vole (My. rufocanus) in Japan. Whole genome sequence analysis of the 6544-nucleotide large (L), 3652-nucleotide medium (M) and 1831-nucleotide small (S) segments of MUJV, as well as the amino acid sequences of their gene products, indicated that MUJV strains from different capture sites might represent genetic variants of PUUV, the prototype arvicolid rodent-borne hantavirus in Europe. Distinct geographic-specific clustering of MUJV was found in different provinces in Korea, and phylogenetic analyses revealed that MUJV and HOKV share a common ancestry with PUUV. A better understanding of the taxonomic classification and pathogenic potential of MUJV must await its isolation in cell culture. PMID:24736214

Lee, Jin Goo; Gu, Se Hun; Baek, Luck Ju; Shin, Ok Sarah; Park, Kwang Sook; Kim, Heung-Chul; Klein, Terry A; Yanagihara, Richard; Song, Jin-Won

2014-04-01

232

Molecular Evolution of Viruses of the Family Filoviridae Based on 97 Whole-Genome Sequences  

PubMed Central

Viruses in the Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus genera (family Filoviridae) have been associated with large outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever in human and nonhuman primates. The first documented cases occurred in primates over 45 years ago, but the amount of virus genetic diversity detected within bat populations, which have recently been identified as potential reservoir hosts, suggests that the filoviruses are much older. Here, detailed Bayesian coalescent phylogenetic analyses are performed on 97 whole-genome sequences, 55 of which are newly reported, to comprehensively examine molecular evolutionary rates and estimate dates of common ancestry for viruses within the family Filoviridae. Molecular evolutionary rates for viruses belonging to different species range from 0.46 × 10?4 nucleotide substitutions/site/year for Sudan ebolavirus to 8.21 × 10?4 nucleotide substitutions/site/year for Reston ebolavirus. Most recent common ancestry can be traced back only within the last 50 years for Reston ebolavirus and Zaire ebolavirus species and suggests that viruses within these species may have undergone recent genetic bottlenecks. Viruses within Marburg marburgvirus and Sudan ebolavirus species can be traced back further and share most recent common ancestors approximately 700 and 850 years before the present, respectively. Examination of the whole family suggests that members of the Filoviridae, including the recently described Lloviu virus, shared a most recent common ancestor approximately 10,000 years ago. These data will be valuable for understanding the evolution of filoviruses in the context of natural history as new reservoir hosts are identified and, further, for determining mechanisms of emergence, pathogenicity, and the ongoing threat to public health. PMID:23255795

Carroll, Serena A.; Towner, Jonathan S.; Sealy, Tara K.; McMullan, Laura K.; Khristova, Marina L.; Burt, Felicity J.; Swanepoel, Robert; Rollin, Pierre E.

2013-01-01

233

Structural Studies of the Parainfluenza Virus 5 Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase Tetramer in Complex with Its Receptor, Sialyllactose  

SciTech Connect

The paramyxovirus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) functions in virus attachment to cells, cleavage of sialic acid from oligosaccharides, and stimulating membrane fusion during virus entry into cells. The structural basis for these diverse functions remains to be fully understood. We report the crystal structures of the parainfluenza virus 5 (SV5) HN and its complexes with sialic acid, the inhibitor DANA, and the receptor sialyllactose. SV5 HN shares common structural features with HN of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and human parainfluenza 3 (HPIV3), but unlike the previously determined HN structures, the SV5 HN forms a tetramer in solution, which is thought to be the physiological oligomer. The sialyllactose complex reveals intact receptor within the active site, but no major conformational changes in the protein. The SV5 HN structures do not support previously proposed models for HN action in membrane fusion and suggest alternative mechanisms by which HN may promote virus entry into cells.

Yuan, Ping; Thompson, Thomas B.; Wurzburg, Beth A.; Paterson, Reay G.; Lamb, Robert A.; Jardetzky, Theodore S. (NWU)

2010-03-08

234

Common Cold  

MedlinePLUS

... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...

235

Immunology of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 500 million people worldwide are persistently infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and\\/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) and are at risk of developing chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite many common features in the pathogenesis of HBV- and HCV-related liver disease, these viruses markedly differ in their virological properties and in their immune escape and

Michelina Nascimbeni; Barbara Rehermann

2005-01-01

236

Spectrum sharing for unlicensed bands  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study a spectrum sharing problem in an unlicensed band where multiple systems coexist and interfere with each other. We first analyze a cooperative setting where all the systems collaborate to achieve a common goal. Under the assumptions that the systems communicate with Gaussian signals and treat interference as noise, we study the structure of the optimal power allocations. We

Raul Etkin; Abhay Parekh; David Tse

2007-01-01

237

Spectrum sharing for unlicensed bands  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study a spectrum sharing problem in an unlicensed band where multiple systems coexist and interfere with each other. We first analyze a cooperative setting where all the systems collaborate to achieve a common goal. Under the assumptions that the systems communicate with Gaussian signals and treat interference as noise, we study the structure of the optimal power allocations. We

Raul Etkin; Abhay Parekh; David Tse

2005-01-01

238

A New Common Integration Site, Int7, for the Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus in Mouse Mammary Tumors Identifies a Gene Whose Product Has Furin-Like and Thrombospondin-Like Sequences  

PubMed Central

A novel common integration site for the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) was identified (designated Int7) in five independently arising mouse mammary tumors. The insertion sites all cluster within a 1-kb region that is 2 to 3 kb 5? of the transcription initiation site of a gene, 2610028F08RIK, whose gene product contains furin-like and thrombospondin-like sequences. Expression of Int7 is normally very low or silent during various stages of mammary gland development, but MMTV integration at this site results in the activation of high steady-state levels of expression of the gene. These five tumors were also found to have two or three additional viral insertions, which in each case occurred flanking a member of either the Wnt and/or FGF gene family. Reverse transcriptase PCR results demonstrated that each of the viral insertions led to elevated expression of the presumed target flanking genes. PMID:16014973

Lowther, William; Wiley, Korah; Smith, Gilbert H.; Callahan, Robert

2005-01-01

239

Characterization of the Archaeal Thermophile Sulfolobus Turreted Icosahedral Virus Validates an Evolutionary Link among Double-Stranded DNA Viruses from All Domains of Life  

PubMed Central

Icosahedral nontailed double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses are present in all three domains of life, leading to speculation about a common viral ancestor that predates the divergence of Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea. This suggestion is supported by the shared general architecture of this group of viruses and the common fold of their major capsid protein. However, limited information on the diversity and replication of archaeal viruses, in general, has hampered further analysis. Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus (STIV), isolated from a hot spring in Yellowstone National Park, was the first icosahedral virus with an archaeal host to be described. Here we present a detailed characterization of the components forming this unusual virus. Using a proteomics-based approach, we identified nine viral and two host proteins from purified STIV particles. Interestingly, one of the viral proteins originates from a reading frame lacking a consensus start site. The major capsid protein (B345) was found to be glycosylated, implying a strong similarity to proteins from other dsDNA viruses. Sequence analysis and structural predication of virion-associated viral proteins suggest that they may have roles in DNA packaging, penton formation, and protein-protein interaction. The presence of an internal lipid layer containing acidic tetraether lipids has also been confirmed. The previously presented structural models in conjunction with the protein, lipid, and carbohydrate information reported here reveal that STIV is strikingly similar to viruses associated with the Bacteria and Eukarya domains of life, further strengthening the hypothesis for a common ancestor of this group of dsDNA viruses from all domains of life. PMID:16840341

Maaty, Walid S. A.; Ortmann, Alice C.; Dlaki?, Mensur; Schulstad, Katie; Hilmer, Jonathan K.; Liepold, Lars; Weidenheft, Blake; Khayat, Reza; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark J.; Bothner, Brian

2006-01-01

240

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection Information for adults A A A When HIV is first contracted, there may be ... 1–6 weeks following exposure to HIV (the human immunodeficiency virus). Chronic infection with this virus can ...

241

The Icsbp locus is a common proviral insertion site in mature B-cell lymphomas/plasmacytomas induced by exogenous murine leukemia virus  

SciTech Connect

ICSBP (interferon consensus sequence binding protein)/IRF8 (interferon regulatory factor 8) is an interferon gamma-inducible transcription factor expressed predominantly in hematopoietic cells, and down-regulation of this factor has been observed in chronic myelogenous leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia in man. By screening about 1200 murine leukemia virus (MLV)-induced lymphomas, we found proviral insertions at the Icsbp locus in 14 tumors, 13 of which were mature B-cell lymphomas or plasmacytomas. Only one was a T-cell lymphoma, although such tumors constituted about half of the samples screened. This indicates that the Icsbp locus can play a specific role in the development of mature B-lineage malignancies. Two proviral insertions in the last Icsbp exon were found to act by a poly(A)-insertion mechanism. The remaining insertions were found within or outside Icsbp. Since our results showed expression of Icsbp RNA and protein in all end-stage tumor samples, a simple tumor suppressor function of ICSBP is not likely. Interestingly, proviral insertions at Icsbp have not been reported from previous extensive screenings of mature B-cell lymphomas induced by endogenous MLVs. We propose that ICSBP might be involved in an early modulation of an immune response to exogenous MLVs that might also play a role in proliferation of the mature B-cell lymphomas.

Ma Shiliang [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Aarhus, C.F. Mollers Alle, Bldg. 130, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Sorensen, Annette Balle [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Aarhus, C.F. Mollers Alle, Bldg. 130, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Kunder, Sandra [Institute of Pathology, GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Sorensen, Karina Dalsgaard [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Aarhus, C.F. Mollers Alle, Bldg. 130, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia [Institute of Pathology, GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Morris, David W. [Sagres Discovery, Davis, CA 95617 (United States); Schmidt, Joerg [Department of Comparative Medicine, GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Pedersen, Finn Skou [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Aarhus, C.F. Mollers Alle, Bldg. 130, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)]. E-mail: fsp@mb.au.dk

2006-09-01

242

Viruses of botrytis.  

PubMed

Botrytis cinerea (gray mold) is one of the most widespread and destructive fungal diseases of horticultural crops. Propagation and dispersal is usually by asexual conidia but the sexual stage (Botryotinia fuckeliana (de Bary) Whetzel) also occurs in nature. DsRNAs, indicative of virus infection, are common in B. cinerea, but only four viruses (Botrytis virus F (BVF), Botrytis virus X (BVX), Botrytis cinerea mitovirus 1 (BcMV1), and Botrytis porri RNA virus) have been sequenced. BVF and BVX are unusual mycoviruses being ssRNA flexous rods and have been designated the type species of the genera Mycoflexivirus and Botrexvirus (family Betaflexivirdae), respectively. The reported effects of viruses on Botrytis range from negligible to severe, with Botrytis cinerea mitovirus 1 causing hypovirulence. Little is currently known about the effects of viruses on Botrytis metabolism but recent complete sequencing of the B. cinerea genome now provides an opportunity to investigate the host-pathogen interactions at the molecular level. There is interest in the possible use of mycoviruses as biological controls for Botrytis because of the common problem of fungicide resistance. Unfortunately, hyphal anastomosis is the only known mechanism of horizontal virus transmission and the large number of vegetative incompatibility groups in Botrytis is a potential constraint on the spread of an introduced virus. Although some Botrytis viruses, such as BVF and BVX, are known to have international distribution, there is a distinct lack of epidemiological data and the means of spread are unknown. PMID:23498909

Pearson, Michael N; Bailey, Andrew M

2013-01-01

243

Lettuce Necrotic Yellows Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A DESTRUCTIVE virus disease of lettuce, causing extensive crop losses sometimes as high as 100 per cent, was recognized in Victoria in 1954 as being distinct from the lettuce mosaic disease. Until 1959, however, all attempts to transmit the virus to lettuce with aphids which commonly infest lettuce, with thrips, leaf-hoppers and sap inoculation methods were unsuccessful. In that year

L. L. Stubbs; R. G. GROGAN

1963-01-01

244

Cost Sharing What is Cost Sharing?  

E-print Network

agency x Tracking of committed cost share is required to meet federal regulations (OMB A-110) x UCSD has has been met #12;2 Cost Sharing System Components and Functions x Search Locate award with cost;3 Cost Sharing Steps Search for & Create a Bin Search Results Display Select AWARD Type the correct data

Tsien, Roger Y.

245

Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV)  

MedlinePLUS

... 7 days after being bitten by an infected mosquito • The most common symptoms are fever and severe ... to prevent chikungunya virus infection or disease • Reduce mosquito exposure o Use air conditioning or window/door ...

246

Why Do We Keep Catching the Common Cold?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes activities for biology teachers that will stimulate discussions on virus structure, cell biology, rhino viruses, and new trends in treating the common cold. Provides opportunity for inquiry and problem solving in exercises that emphasize an understanding of how common cold viruses might pack inside nasal epithelial cells. (14 references)…

Gillen, Alan L.; Mayor, Heather D.

1995-01-01

247

Safe Computing: An Overview of Viruses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computer virus is a program that replicates itself, in conjunction with an additional program that can harm a computer system. Common viruses include boot-sector, macro, companion, overwriting, and multipartite. Viruses can be fast, slow, stealthy, and polymorphic. Anti-virus products are described. (MLH)

Wodarz, Nan

2001-01-01

248

Black like Me: A Shared Ethnography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focused on a concept entitled shared ethnography. The researcher and youth participants share race in common. Critical Race Theory was used to analyze the reflective journal. An after school science program in a high poverty urban environment provided the context for this study. The findings of the study suggested that when researcher…

Catlin, Janell N.

2008-01-01

249

How Are Pelvic Floor Disorders Commonly Treated?  

MedlinePLUS

... Trials Resources and Publications En Español How are pelvic floor disorders commonly treated? Skip sharing on social ... Treatment Nonsurgical treatments commonly used for PFDs include: Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT). Also called Kegel (pronounced ...

250

Milk is a common ingredient in many fried foods. Allergen cross contact can occur through the use of shared frying oil. Analytical methods are needed to determine the level of protein contamination in re-used oil. This study  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT Milk is a common ingredient in many fried foods. Allergen cross contact can occur through with a total protein assay for detection of milk protein residues in spiked oils that have been subjected to frying at different temperatures. NIST non-fat milk powder standard reference material #1549

Heller, Barbara

251

Shared versus distributed memory multiprocessors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The question of whether multiprocessors should have shared or distributed memory has attracted a great deal of attention. Some researchers argue strongly for building distributed memory machines, while others argue just as strongly for programming shared memory multiprocessors. A great deal of research is underway on both types of parallel systems. Special emphasis is placed on systems with a very large number of processors for computation intensive tasks and considers research and implementation trends. It appears that the two types of systems will likely converge to a common form for large scale multiprocessors.

Jordan, Harry F.

1991-01-01

252

Characterization ofpal-1, a Common Proviral Insertion Site in Murine Leukemia Virus-Induced Lymphomas of c-myc andPim-1Transgenic Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

InsertionalmutagenesiswithMoloneymurineleukemiavirus(MoMLV)inc-mycandPim-1transgenicmice permits the identification of oncogenes that collaborate with the transgenes in lymphomagenesis. The recently identified common insertion sitepal-1, in MoMLV-induced lymphomas, is located in a region in which several independentintegrationclustersarefound:eis-1,gfi-1,andevi-5.ProviralinsertionsofMoMLVinthedifferent integration clusters upregulate the transcriptional activity of theGfi-1gene, which is located within thepal-1 locus.Theeis-1\\/pal-1\\/gfi-1\\/evi-5locusservesasatargetforMoMLVproviralinsertionsinpre-B-celllymphomas of Em-myctransgenic mice (20%) and in T-cell lymphomas ofH-2K-myc(75%) and Em-pim-1(93%) transgenic mice. Many tumors

BLANCA SCHEIJEN; JOS JONKERS; DENNIS ACTON; ANDANTON BERNS

1997-01-01

253

Share with Charm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The statistical hadronization model predicts particle production in hadronization of quark-gluon plasma [1]. In LHC-ion 2.76 TeV per nucleon collision, a rather large yield of charm is expected, produced in initial hard parton collisions before the QGP phase emerges. Using statistical hadronization method, we predict the expected charmed hadron yields [2]. Our effort is to include charm hadron decay contributions in final hadron yields. Based on experimental decay data, symmetry principles and plausibility arguments, we prepare a complete decay table of all charmed hadrons. CHARM module adds charm decay hadron multiplicity into SHARE [1]. SHARE with CHARM utility uses the charm yield as an additional fit parameter when analyzing hadron production in HI-collisions, which works even without charmed hadron input. Based on precise non-charm hadron yields data, a prediction of charmed hadron production is obtained. About 20% of charm is bound to strangeness and thus charm decays contribute a significant fraction of multistrange hadron yields: a 30% fraction of ?, 25% of ? and 30% of ? is produced by charm decays whereas e.g. ? yield increases by 10%, (taking as a scaling benchmark 100 charm pairs and a common set of chemical non-equilibrium SHM parameters).[4pt] [1] G. Torrieri, et al., Comp.Phys.Comm. 167,229(2005); ibid.175, 635(2006)[0pt] [2] I. Kuznetsova and J. Rafelski, Eur.Phys.J. C 51,113(2007)

Petran, Michal; Rafelski, Johann

2013-04-01

254

Cost Sharing Basics Definitions  

E-print Network

the project costs. Cost sharing is defined as project costs not borne by the sponsor. Cost sharing funds may directly benefit that project and are generally counted as cost sharing. Direct-cost cost sharing support, and other resources as direct support for the project, as well as related indirect costs

Finley Jr., Russell L.

255

Range-wide genetic population structure of common pochard (Aythya ferina): a potentially important vector of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses  

PubMed Central

An understanding of the distribution and spatial structure of the natural vectors of zoonothic pathogens is of interest for effective disease control and prevention. Here, we investigate the range-wide population genetic structure of common pochard (Aythya ferina), a long-distance migratory duck and potential vector of highly pathogenic avian influenza. We collected several hundred samples from breeding and wintering grounds across Eurasia including some H5N1-positive individuals and generated partial sequences of the mitochondrial control region and multilocus microsatellite genotypes. Genetic differentiation among breeding populations was significant for both marker types but higher for maternally inherited mtDNA than for biparentally inherited nuclear markers. There was only weak genetic divergence between ducks sampled in Europe and East Asia, and genetic differentiation between populations was not generally associated with geographical distance. No evidence of genetic substructure was detected for ducks sampled on the European wintering grounds. Our results suggest limited breeding-site fidelity, especially in females, but extensive population admixture on the wintering grounds. The specific role of pochards as natural vectors of zoonotic pathogens and in particular H5N1 remains to be clarified but our results point to wintering grounds as potential hotspots for disease transmission. PMID:22393520

Liu, Yang; Keller, Irene; Heckel, Gerald

2011-01-01

256

Full Genome Characterization of the Culicoides-Borne Marsupial Orbiviruses: Wallal Virus, Mudjinbarry Virus and Warrego Viruses  

PubMed Central

Viruses belonging to the species Wallal virus and Warrego virus of the genus Orbivirus were identified as causative agents of blindness in marsupials in Australia during 1994/5. Recent comparisons of nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) sequences have provided a basis for the grouping and classification of orbivirus isolates. However, full-genome sequence data are not available for representatives of all Orbivirus species. We report full-genome sequence data for three additional orbiviruses: Wallal virus (WALV); Mudjinabarry virus (MUDV) and Warrego virus (WARV). Comparisons of conserved polymerase (Pol), sub-core-shell ‘T2’ and core-surface ‘T13’ proteins show that these viruses group with other Culicoides borne orbiviruses, clustering with Eubenangee virus (EUBV), another orbivirus infecting marsupials. WARV shares <70% aa identity in all three conserved proteins (Pol, T2 and T13) with other orbiviruses, consistent with its classification within a distinct Orbivirus species. Although WALV and MUDV share <72.86%/67.93% aa/nt identity with other orbiviruses in Pol, T2 and T13, they share >99%/90% aa/nt identities with each other (consistent with membership of the same virus species - Wallal virus). However, WALV and MUDV share <68% aa identity in their larger outer capsid protein VP2(OC1), consistent with membership of different serotypes within the species - WALV-1 and WALV-2 respectively. PMID:25299687

Belaganahalli, Manjunatha N.; Maan, Sushila; Maan, Narender S.; Pritchard, Ian; Kirkland, Peter D.; Brownlie, Joe; Attoui, Houssam; Mertens, Peter P. C.

2014-01-01

257

Deep sequencing of small RNAs in tomato for virus and viroid identification and strain differentiation.  

PubMed

Small RNAs (sRNA), including microRNAs (miRNA) and small interfering RNAs (siRNA), are produced abundantly in plants and animals and function in regulating gene expression or in defense against virus or viroid infection. Analysis of siRNA profiles upon virus infection in plant may allow for virus identification, strain differentiation, and de novo assembly of virus genomes. In the present study, four suspected virus-infected tomato samples collected in the U.S. and Mexico were used for sRNA library construction and deep sequencing. Each library generated between 5-7 million sRNA reads, of which more than 90% were from the tomato genome. Upon in-silico subtraction of the tomato sRNAs, the remaining highly enriched, virus-like siRNA pools were assembled with or without reference virus or viroid genomes. A complete genome was assembled for Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) using siRNA alone. In addition, a near complete virus genome (98%) also was assembled for Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV). A common mixed infection of two strains of PepMV (EU and US1), which shared 82% of genome nucleotide sequence identity, also could be differentially assembled into their respective genomes. Using de novo assembly, a novel potyvirus with less than 60% overall genome nucleotide sequence identity to other known viruses was discovered and its full genome sequence obtained. Taken together, these data suggest that the sRNA deep sequencing technology will likely become an efficient and powerful generic tool for virus identification in plants and animals. PMID:22623984

Li, Rugang; Gao, Shan; Hernandez, Alvaro G; Wechter, W Patrick; Fei, Zhangjun; Ling, Kai-Shu

2012-01-01

258

Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus dual infection.  

PubMed

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) share common mode of transmission and both are able to induce a chronic infection. Dual HBV/HCV chronic coinfection is a fairly frequent occurrence, especially in high endemic areas and among individuals at high risk of parenterally transmitted infections. The intracellular interplay between HBV and HCV has not yet been sufficiently clarified, also due to the lack of a proper in vitro cellular model. Longitudinal evaluation of serum HBV DNA and HCV RNA amounts has revealed that complex virological profiles may be present in coinfected patients. Dual HBV/HCV infection has been associated to a severe course of the liver disease and to a high risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite the clinical importance, solid evidence and clear guidelines for treatment of this special population are still lacking. This review summarizes the available data on the virological and clinical features as well as the therapeutic options of the dual HBV/HCV infection, and highlights the aspects that need to be better clarified. PMID:25356020

Caccamo, Gaia; Saffioti, Francesca; Raimondo, Giovanni

2014-10-28

259

Genome of brown tide virus (AaV), the little giant of the Megaviridae, elucidates NCLDV genome expansion and host-virus coevolution.  

PubMed

Aureococcus anophagefferens causes economically and ecologically destructive "brown tides" in the United States, China and South Africa. Here we report the 370,920bp genomic sequence of AaV, a virus capable of infecting and lysing A. anophagefferens. AaV is a member of the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV) group, harboring 377 putative coding sequences and 8 tRNAs. Despite being an algal virus, AaV shows no phylogenetic affinity to the Phycodnaviridae family, to which most algae-infecting viruses belong. Core gene phylogenies, shared gene content and genome-wide similarities suggest AaV is the smallest member of the emerging clade "Megaviridae". The genomic architecture of AaV demonstrates that the ancestral virus had an even smaller genome, which expanded through gene duplication and assimilation of genes from diverse sources including the host itself - some of which probably modulate important host processes. AaV also harbors a number of genes exclusive to phycodnaviruses - reinforcing the hypothesis that Phycodna- and Mimiviridae share a common ancestor. PMID:25035289

Moniruzzaman, Mohammad; LeCleir, Gary R; Brown, Christopher M; Gobler, Christopher J; Bidle, Kay D; Wilson, William H; Wilhelm, Steven W

2014-10-01

260

Giant viruses in the oceans : the 4th Algal Virus Workshop  

E-print Network

Giant viruses in the oceans : the 4th Algal Virus Workshop Jean-Michel Claverie Structural viruses (such as record breaking Acanthamoeba polyphaga Mimivirus), with particle sizes of 0.2 to 0.6 µm mystery. They challenge the common vision of viruses, traditionally seen as highly streamlined genomes

Boyer, Edmond

261

Assessment of Genetic Associations between Common Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in RIG-I-Like Receptor and IL-4 Signaling Genes and Severe Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Children: A Candidate Gene Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

The majority of cases of severe pediatric respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection occur in otherwise healthy infants who have no identifiable risk factors, suggesting that additional subclinical factors, such as population genetic variation, influence the course of RSV infection. The objective of this study was to test if common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding for immune signalling components of the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) and IL-4-signalling pathways affect the outcome of RSV infection in early life. We genotyped 8 SNPs using allele-specific probes combined with real-time PCR. Each of the SNPs tested had previously been established to have a functional impact on immune responsiveness and two of the SNPs in the IL4 and IL4R genes had previously been associated with severe RSV bronchiolitis. Association with susceptibility to severe RSV infection was tested by statistically comparing genotype and allele frequencies in infants and young children hospitalized with severe RSV bronchiolitis (n?=?140) with two control groups—children who tested positive for RSV but did not require hospitalization (n?=?100), and a general population control group (n?=?285). Our study was designed with sufficient power (>80%) to detect clinically-relevant associations with effect sizes ?1.5. However, we detected no statistically significant differences in allele and genotype frequencies of the investigated SNPs between the inpatient and control groups. To conclude, we could not replicate the previously reported association with SNPs in the IL4 and IL4R genes in our independent cohort, nor did we find that common SNPs in genes encoding for RLRs and the downstream adapter MAVS were associated with susceptibility to severe RSV infections. Despite the existing evidence demonstrating a functional immunological impact of these SNPs, our data suggest that the biological effect of each individual SNP is unlikely to affect clinical outcomes of RSV infection. PMID:24949794

Marr, Nico; Hirschfeld, Aaron F.; Lam, Angie; Wang, Shirley; Lavoie, Pascal M.; Turvey, Stuart E.

2014-01-01

262

Common cold  

MedlinePLUS

The common cold usually causes a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing. You may also have a sore throat, cough, ... It is called the “common cold” for good reason. There are over one billion colds in the United States each year. You and your children will ...

263

Common Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A web resource that contains Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Numbers for approximately 7,800 chemicals of widespread general public interest. Common Chemistry is helpful to non-chemists who know either a name or CAS Registry Number® of a common chemical and want to pair both pieces of information.

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)

264

A new species of nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV) associated with mortalities in Manitoba lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens.  

PubMed

A newly discovered virus, Namao virus, associated with morbidity and mortality, was detected among juvenile lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens being propagated by a conservation stocking program for this endangered species in Manitoba, Canada. The outbreaks resulted in cumulative mortalities of 62 to 99.6% among progeny of wild Winnipeg River or Nelson River lake sturgeon and occurred at 2 geographically separate facilities. Namao virus was detected in almost 94% of the moribund or dead lake sturgeon according to a conventional polymerase chain reaction (cPCR) test that is based upon amplification of a 219 bp fragment of the virus major capsid protein (MCP). The virus itself was large (242 to 282 nm) and icosahedral-shaped with 2 capsids and a condensed bar-shaped core. It was found in virus factories within the host cell cytoplasm and displayed a tropism for the integument. Namao virus caused cellular changes characterized by enlarged eosinophilic epithelial cells in the gills and skin. Samples suspected of containing Namao virus did not have cytopathic effects on primary lake sturgeon or established white sturgeon cell lines. However, viral nucleic acid was detected in the former after prolonged incubation periods. Using primers designed from conserved regions of the MCP from NCLDVs, an estimated 95 to 96% of the Namao virus MCP open reading frame was captured. Phylogenetic analysis using the MCP of Namao virus and 27 other NCLDVs suggested that Namao virus and white sturgeon iridovirus share a common evolutionary past and might be members of the family Mimiviridae or a new, as yet unrecognized, virus family. PMID:23446969

Clouthier, Sharon C; Vanwalleghem, Elissa; Copeland, Shelagh; Klassen, Cheryl; Hobbs, Gary; Nielsen, Ole; Anderson, Eric D

2013-02-28

265

Sinusitis in the common cold  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Acute community-acquired sinusitis is considered a bacterial complication of the common cold. Radiologic abnormalities in sinuses occur, however, in most patients with upper respiratory virus infections.Objective: Assessment of the occurrence, clinical profile, laboratory findings, and outcome of radiologically confirmed sinusitis was carried out as part of a common cold study in young adults.Methods: Clinical examinations and radiography of the

Tuomo Puhakka; Mika J. Mäkelä; Anu Alanen; Timo Kallio; Leo Korsoff; Pertti Arstila; Maija Leinonen; Markku Pulkkinen; Jouko Suonpää; Jussi Mertsola; Olli Ruuskanen

1998-01-01

266

The games plant viruses play.  

PubMed

Mixed virus infections in plants are common in nature. The outcome of such virus-virus interactions ranges from cooperation and coexistence (synergism) to mutual exclusion (antagonism). A priori, the outcome of mixed infections is hard to predict. To date, the analyses of plant virus mixed infections were limited to reports of emerging symptoms and/or to qualitative, at best quantitative, descriptions of the accumulation of both viruses. Here, we show that evolutionary game theory provides an adequate theoretical framework to analyze mixed viral infections and to predict the long-term evolution of the mixed populations. PMID:25062019

Elena, Santiago F; Bernet, Guillermo P; Carrasco, José L

2014-10-01

267

Cost Sharing Policy  

NSF Publications Database

... Guidance Regarding Implementation of the Revised NSF Cost Sharing Policy October 19, 2004 NSF has ... are available to date with respect to the revised NSB- approved cost sharing policy: 1. The new cost ...

268

[The great virus comeback].  

PubMed

Viruses have been considered for a long time as by-products of biological evolution. This view is changing now as a result of several recent discoveries. Viral ecologists have shown that viral particles are the most abundant biological entities on our planet, whereas metagenomic analyses have revealed an unexpected abundance and diversity of viral genes in the biosphere. Comparative genomics have highlighted the uniqueness of viral sequences, in contradiction with the traditional view of viruses as pickpockets of cellular genes. On the contrary, cellular genomes, especially eukaryotic ones, turned out to be full of genes derived from viruses or related elements (plasmids, transposons, retroelements and so on). The discovery of unusual viruses infecting archaea has shown that the viral world is much more diverse than previously thought, ruining the traditional dichotomy between bacteriophages and viruses. Finally, the discovery of giant viruses has blurred the traditional image of viruses as small entities. Furthermore, essential clues on virus history have been obtained in the last ten years. In particular, structural analyses of capsid proteins have uncovered deeply rooted homologies between viruses infecting different cellular domains, suggesting that viruses originated before the last universal common ancestor (LUCA). These studies have shown that several lineages of viruses originated independently, i.e., viruses are polyphyletic. From the time of LUCA, viruses have coevolved with their hosts, and viral lineages can be viewed as lianas wrapping around the trunk, branches and leaves of the tree of life. Although viruses are very diverse, with genomes encoding from one to more than one thousand proteins, they can all be simply defined as organisms producing virions. Virions themselves can be defined as infectious particles made of at least one protein associated with the viral nucleic acid, endowed with the capability to protect the viral genome and ensure its delivery to the infected cell. These definitions, which clearly distinguish viruses from plasmids, suggest that infectious RNA molecules that only encode an RNA replicase presently classified among viruses by the ICTV (International Committee for the Taxonomy of Viruses) into families of Endornaviridae and Hypoviridae are in fact RNA plasmids. Since a viral genome should encode for at least one structural protein, these definitions also imply that viruses originated after the emergence of the ribosome in an RNA-protein cellular world. Although virions are the hallmarks of viruses, viruses and virions should not be confused. The infection transforms the ribocell (cell encoding ribosomes and dividing by binary fission) into a virocell (cell producing virions) or ribovirocell (cell that produces virions but can still divide by binary fission). In the ribovirocell, two different organisms, defined by their distinct evolutionary histories, coexist in symbiosis in the same cell. The virocells or ribovirocells are the living forms of the virus, which can be in fine considered to be a living organism. In the virocell, the metabolism is reorganized for the production of virions, while the ability to capture and store free energy is retained, as in other cellular organisms. In the virocell, viral genomes replicate, recombine and evolve, leading to the emergence of new viral proteins and potentially novel functions. Some of these new functions can be later on transferred to the cell, explaining how viruses can play a major (often underestimated) role in the evolution of cellular organisms. The virocell concept thus helps to understand recent hypotheses suggesting that viruses played a critical role in major evolutionary transitions, such as the origin of DNA genomes or else the origin of the eukaryotic nucleus. Finally, it is more and more recognized that viruses are the major source of variation and selection in living organisms (both viruses and cells), the two pillars of darwinism. One can thus conclude that the continuous interaction between viruses and cells, all along

Forterre, Patrick

2013-01-01

269

Mixed Programming Mataphors in a Shared Dataspace Model of Concurrency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term shared dataspace refers to the general class of models and languages in which the principal means of communication is a common, content-addressable data structure called a dataspace. Swarm is a simple language we have used as a vehicle for the investigation of the shared dataspace approach to concurrent computation. It is the rst shared dataspace lan- guage to

Gruia-catalin Roman; H. Conrad Cunningham

1990-01-01

270

Public sharing of research datasets: A pilot study of associations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The public sharing of primary research datasets potentially benefits the research community but is not yet common practice. In this pilot study, we analyzed whether data sharing frequency was associated with funder and publisher requirements, journal impact factor, or investigator experience and impact. Across 397 recent biomedical microarray studies, we found investigators were more likely to publicly share their raw

Heather A. Piwowar; Wendy Webber Chapman

2010-01-01

271

DATA SHARING WORKBOOK Introduction  

E-print Network

DATA SHARING WORKBOOK · Introduction · Protecting the Rights and Privacy of Human Subjects · Protecting Proprietary Data · Examples of Data Sharing o Data Archives o Federated Data Systems o Data ______________________________________________________________________________ INTRODUCTION Scientists working in many different areas are already sharing their data through a variety

Baker, Chris I.

272

How Common is Male Infertility, and What Are Its Causes?  

MedlinePLUS

... Trials Resources and Publications How common is male infertility, and what are its causes? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Infertility is defined clinically in women and men who ...

273

What Conditions or Disorders are Commonly Associated with Down Syndrome?  

MedlinePLUS

... What conditions or disorders are commonly associated with Down syndrome? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... addition to intellectual and developmental disabilities, children with Down syndrome are at an increased risk for certain health ...

274

When information sharing is not enough.  

PubMed

This paper explores information sharing in multidisciplinary clinical collaboration between three hospitals. Our study draws on qualitative interviews with surgeons and radiologists in two county hospitals and one university hospital. The analysis shows that the actors shared a restricted amount of information about the patients they have in common and that different actors used the shared information in different ways. However, much communication was still needed to clarify and negotiate the meaning of shared data and its implications for collaborative care. To conclude, while the arguments for a shared information space may appear convincing, the communication practice observed should illustrate that IS also needs to support the communicative process in clinical collaborative work. PMID:21893773

Brattheim, Berit; Faxvaag, Arild; Toussaint, Pieter

2011-01-01

275

Discovery of a Novel Single-Stranded DNA Virus from a Sea Turtle Fibropapilloma by Using Viral Metagenomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral metagenomics, consisting of viral particle purification and shotgun sequencing, is a powerful technique for discovering viruses associated with diseases with no definitive etiology, viruses that share limited homology with known viruses, or viruses that are not culturable. Here we used viral metagenomics to examine viruses associated with sea turtle fibropapillomatosis (FP), a debilitating neoplastic disease affecting sea turtles worldwide.

Terry Fei Fan Ng; Charles Manire; Kelly Borrowman; Tammy Langer; Llewellyn Ehrhart; Mya Breitbart

2009-01-01

276

DISTRIBUTION OF OLIVE TREE VIRUSES IN ITALY AS REVEALED BY ONE-STEP RT-PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY We have used a one-step RT-PCR protocol to detect and identify each of the eight viruses most commonly found in olive trees namely: Arabis mosaic virus (Ar- MV), Cherry leaf roll virus (CLRV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Olive leaf yellowing associated virus (OLYaV), Olive latent ring spot virus (OLRSV), Olive latent virus-1 (OLV-1), Olive latent virus-2 (OLV-2), and Strawberry

F. Faggioli; L. Ferretti; G. Albanese; R. Sciarroni; G. Pasquini; V. Lumia; M. Barba; Piazza S. Francesco

2005-01-01

277

Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses  

PubMed Central

Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts. PMID:24750692

Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

2014-01-01

278

Bat flight and zoonotic viruses  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts.

O'Shea, Thomas; Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

2014-01-01

279

Common Randomness Amplification: A Constructive View  

E-print Network

probabilistic game over the Internet requires some randomness shared among the players. This common randomnessCommon Randomness Amplification: A Constructive View Gr´egory Demay Ueli Maurer Department of Computer Science, ETH Z¨urich, Switzerland Email: {demayg,maurer}@inf.ethz.ch Abstract--Common randomness

Maurer, Ueli

280

Common Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents K-12 and college common areas considered outstanding in a competition, which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent two days reviewing projects, highlighting concepts and ideas that made them exceptional. For each citation, the article offers information on the firm, client,…

American School & University, 2003

2003-01-01

281

Common Chuckwalla  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Common Chuckwalla is primarily found across the Mojave and Sonoran deserts of the United States and Mexico, at elevations ranging from sea level to 1,370 m. This large (125–180 mm) lizard is dorsoventrally flattened and has wrinkles on its belly and neck. Chuckwallas are strongly associa...

282

Simian Varicella Virus DNA in Dorsal Root Ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical, pathological, immunological, and virological evidence suggests that simian varicella virus (SVV) infection of primates is the counterpart of varicella-zoster virus infection of humans. To determine whether these two viruses share similarities in their properties during latency, we analyzed ganglia and brain of an African green monkey experimentally infected with SVV for the presence of viral nucleic acid using the

Ravi Mahalingam; Diana Smith; Mary Wellish; William Wolf; Aud N. Dueland; Randall Cohrs; Kenneth Soike; Donald Gilden

1991-01-01

283

Optimization of cottontail rabbit papilloma virus challenge technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disease induced by Cottontail Rabbit Papilloma Virus (CRPV) scarification in domestic rabbits shares many attributes with disease induced by human papilloma virus (HPV). CRPV induces squamous papillomas in domestic rabbits, of which ?70% transform into invasive carcinomas. In advanced tumors, virus is often undetectable, and occasionally, some rabbits undergo spontaneous regression of papillomas. Techniques utilized to scarify rabbit skin are

Jon D Reuter; Daniel Gomez; Janet L Brandsma; John K Rose; Anjeanette Roberts

2001-01-01

284

Identification and Comparative Analysis of Hepatitis C Virus-Host Cell Protein Interactions  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) alters the global behavior of the host cell to create an environment conducive to its own replication, but much remains unknown about how HCV proteins elicit these changes. Thus, a better understanding of the interface between the virus and host cell is required. Here we report the results of a large-scale yeast two-hybrid screen to identify protein-protein interactions between HCV genotype 2a (strain JFH1) and cellular factors. Our study identified 112 unique interactions between 7 HCV and 94 human proteins, over 40% of which have been linked to HCV infection by other studies. These interactions develop a more complete picture of HCV infection, providing insight into HCV manipulation of pathways, such as lipid and cholesterol metabolism, that were previously linked to HCV infection and implicating novel targets within microtubule-organizing centers, the complement system and cell cycle regulatory machinery. In an effort to understand the relationship between HCV and related viruses, we compared the HCV 2a interactome to those of other HCV genotypes and to the related dengue virus. Greater overlap was observed between HCV and dengue virus targets than between HCV genotypes, demonstrating the value of parallel screening approaches when comparing virus-host cell interactomes. Using siRNAs to inhibit expression of cellular proteins, we found that five of the ten shared targets tested (CUL7, PCM1, RILPL2, RNASET2, and TCF7L2) were required for replication of both HCV and dengue virus. These shared interactions provide insight into common features of the viral life cycles of the family Flaviviridae. PMID:24136289

Dolan, Patrick T.; Zhang, Chaoying; Khadka, Sudip; Arumugaswami, Vaithilingaraja; Vangeloff, Abbey D.; Heaton, Nicholas S.; Sahasrabudhe, Sudhir; Randall, Glenn; Sun, Ren; LaCount, Douglas J.

2014-01-01

285

Profiling mRNAs of two Cuscuta species reveals possible candidate transcripts shared by parasitic plants.  

PubMed

Dodders are among the most important parasitic plants that cause serious yield losses in crop plants. In this report, we sought to unveil the genetic basis of dodder parasitism by profiling the trancriptomes of Cuscuta pentagona and C. suaveolens, two of the most common dodder species using a next-generation RNA sequencing platform. De novo assembly of the sequence reads resulted in more than 46,000 isotigs and contigs (collectively referred to as expressed sequence tags or ESTs) for each species, with more than half of them predicted to encode proteins that share significant sequence similarities with known proteins of non-parasitic plants. Comparing our datasets with transcriptomes of 12 other fully sequenced plant species confirmed a close evolutionary relationship between dodder and tomato. Using a rigorous set of filtering parameters, we were able to identify seven pairs of ESTs that appear to be shared exclusively by parasitic plants, thus providing targets for tailored management approaches. In addition, we also discovered ESTs with sequences similarities to known plant viruses, including cryptic viruses, in the dodder sequence assemblies. Together this study represents the first comprehensive transcriptome profiling of parasitic plants in the Cuscuta genus, and is expected to contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of parasitic plant-host plant interactions. PMID:24312295

Jiang, Linjian; Wijeratne, Asela J; Wijeratne, Saranga; Fraga, Martina; Meulia, Tea; Doohan, Doug; Li, Zhaohu; Qu, Feng

2013-01-01

286

Profiling mRNAs of Two Cuscuta Species Reveals Possible Candidate Transcripts Shared by Parasitic Plants  

PubMed Central

Dodders are among the most important parasitic plants that cause serious yield losses in crop plants. In this report, we sought to unveil the genetic basis of dodder parasitism by profiling the trancriptomes of Cuscuta pentagona and C. suaveolens, two of the most common dodder species using a next-generation RNA sequencing platform. De novo assembly of the sequence reads resulted in more than 46,000 isotigs and contigs (collectively referred to as expressed sequence tags or ESTs) for each species, with more than half of them predicted to encode proteins that share significant sequence similarities with known proteins of non-parasitic plants. Comparing our datasets with transcriptomes of 12 other fully sequenced plant species confirmed a close evolutionary relationship between dodder and tomato. Using a rigorous set of filtering parameters, we were able to identify seven pairs of ESTs that appear to be shared exclusively by parasitic plants, thus providing targets for tailored management approaches. In addition, we also discovered ESTs with sequences similarities to known plant viruses, including cryptic viruses, in the dodder sequence assemblies. Together this study represents the first comprehensive transcriptome profiling of parasitic plants in the Cuscuta genus, and is expected to contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of parasitic plant-host plant interactions. PMID:24312295

Wijeratne, Saranga; Fraga, Martina; Meulia, Tea; Doohan, Doug; Li, Zhaohu; Qu, Feng

2013-01-01

287

Hepatitis C virus infection in the human immunodeficiency virus infected patient  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) share the same transmission routes; therefore, coinfection is frequent. An estimated 5-10 million individuals alone in the western world are infected with both viruses. The majority of people acquire HCV by injection drug use and, to a lesser extent, through blood transfusion and blood products. Recently, there has been an increase in HCV infections among men who have sex with men. In the context of effective antiretroviral treatment, liver-related deaths are now more common than Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome-related deaths among HIV-HCV coinfected individuals. Morbidity and mortality rates from chronic HCV infection will increase because the infection incidence peaked in the mid-1980s and because liver disease progresses slowly and is clinically silent to cirrhosis and end-stage-liver disease over a 15-20 year time period for 15%-20% of chronically infected individuals. HCV treatment has rapidly changed with the development of new direct-acting antiviral agents; therefore, cure rates have greatly improved because the new treatment regimens target different parts of the HCV life cycle. In this review, we focus on the epidemiology, diagnosis and the natural course of HCV as well as current and future strategies for HCV therapy in the context of HIV-HCV coinfection in the western world. PMID:25232248

Clausen, Louise Nygaard; Lundbo, Lene Fogt; Benfield, Thomas

2014-01-01

288

Foodborne viruses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Testing for human pathogenic viruses in foods represents a formidable task requiring the extraction, concentration, and assay of a host of viruses from a wide range of food matrices. The enteric viruses, particularly genogroup I and II (GI and GII) noroviruses and hepatitis A virus, are the princip...

289

Development and regeneration of hair cells share common functional features  

PubMed Central

The structural phenotype of neural connections in the auditory brainstem is sculpted by spontaneous and stimulus-induced neural activities during development. However, functional and molecular mechanisms of spontaneous action potentials (SAPs) in the developing cochlea are unknown. Additionally, it is unclear how regenerating hair cells establish their neural ranking in the constellation of neurons in the brainstem. We have demonstrated that a transient Ca2+ current produced by the Cav3.1 channel is expressed early in development to initiate spontaneous Ca2+ spikes. Cav1.3 currents, typical of mature hair cells, appeared later in development. Moreover, there is a surprising disappearance of the Cav3.1 current that coincides with the attenuation of the transient Ca2+ current as the electrical properties of hair cells transition to the mature phenotype. Remarkably, this process is recapitulated during hair-cell regeneration, suggesting that the transient expression of Cav3.1 and the ensuing SAPs are signatures of hair cell development and regeneration. PMID:18025474

Levic, Snezana; Nie, Liping; Tuteja, Dipika; Harvey, Margaret; Sokolowski, Bernd H. A.; Yamoah, Ebenezer N.

2007-01-01

290

Common Techniques in FaultTolerance and Security 1 Common Techniques in  

E-print Network

look. The threat to security is usually a human or processes (or programs) that trace their ancestry, auditing, testing or monitoring by site administrators, virus scanners, integrity checking #12; Common

California at Davis, University of

291

PROTECTED SHARED LIBRARIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protected shared libraries are a new mechanism for building fast user-level operating system services. They retain the isolation properties of other user- level implementation approaches with improved performance and flexibility. The approach can be used with either microkernel-based or monolithic oper- ating systems. Operating system services are built as shared libraries that can be linked into client tasks. However, the

Arindam Banerji; David L. Cohn

292

Winter Infections: Influenza, Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)  

E-print Network

in Children #12;Symptoms of RSV is similar to the common cold A person with an RSV infection might cough) ­ Antibiotics do not help! #12;Common Cold (Rhinovirus) Picture: bubblews.com #12;Common Cold Most common viral not give you the common cold! Viruses can be contagious for up to 2-3 weeks!! http://www.cdc.gov/ge

Goldman, Steven A.

293

DETECTION OF AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS IN OIL EMULSION VACCINES BY REAL-TIME RT-PCR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Contamination of poultry vaccines with adventitious agents (i.e. reticuloendotheliosis virus, chicken anemia virus) has been previously reported. Contaminating agents may be introduced at various stages during production, whether through propagation systems or shared equipment. Contamination of ina...

294

COMMON MISCONCEPTIONS  

E-print Network

Children with sexual behavior problems (SBPs) are children 12 years and under who demonstrate developmentally inappropriate or aggressive sexual behavior. This definition includes self-focused sexual behavior, such as excessive masturbation, and aggressive sexual behavior towards others that may include coercion or force. Recognizing these children and understanding the causes, impact, and treatment of the sexual behavior problems is a relatively new area of research and clinical practice. Some early assumptions about children with SBPs have not been supported by current research. This Fact Sheet will examine common misconceptions of children with SBPs along with the most recent findings.

unknown authors

295

Enteric hepatitis viruses  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis viruses are infectious agents that can infect liver and cause inflammation. The infection triggers immune response against infected cells that leads to the destruction of hepatic cells. This destruction has two consequences: leaking ALT and AST liver enzymes which increases during the course of disease and accumulation of bilirubin- a red pigmented compound released from dead red cells- which causes the yellow coloration of eyes and skin. These viruses transmit through diverse routes i.e. blood transfusion, sexual contacts and consuming water or food contaminated by feces. Enteric hepatitis viruses use the latter route for transmission; hence their outbreaks are more common in underdeveloped countries. There are currently two distinguished enteric hepatitis viruses, hepatitis A and hepatitis E. These viruses belong to different family of viruses and their epidemiological characteristics are different. These infections can be diagnosed by an ELISA for IgM antibody. A vaccine has been developed in last decade of twentieth century for hepatitis A virus, which is administered mostly in the developed world i.e. U.S and Japan. Treatment for these infections is mostly supportive; however, in the case of fulminant hepatitis the liver transplantation might be necessary. PMID:24834192

Tahaei, Seyed Mohammad Ebrahim; Zali, Mohammad Reza

2012-01-01

296

Virus Ultra Structure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Linda Stannard of the University of Capetown, South Africa, has composed a page which, although it was intended to serve as an introductory manual for students of virology, can be appreciated by a wide audience. A section on the principles of virus architecture uses text and outstanding graphics to provide an introduction to why viruses look the way they do. Other parts of the site emphasize how virus shapes and structures are "seen" and recorded with sections on negative staining and electron microscopy of DNA- and RNA-containing viruses. This site's success relies on the use of well-chosen graphics and the inclusion of interesting factoids such as the following: "The head of a dress-maker's pin can provide seating accommodation for five hundred million rhinoviruses (cause of the common cold)!".

297

RACE pulls for shared control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maintaining and supporting an aircraft fleet, in a climate of reduced manpower and financial resources, dictates effective utilization of robotics and automation technologies. To help develop a winning robotics and automation program the Air Force Logistics Command created the Robotics and Automation Center of Excellence (RACE). RACE is a command wide focal point. Race is an organic source of expertise to assist the Air Logistic Center (ALC) product directorates in improving process productivity through the judicious insertion of robotics and automation technologies. RACE is a champion for pulling emerging technologies into the aircraft logistic centers. One of those technology pulls is shared control. Small batch sizes, feature uncertainty, and varying work load conspire to make classic industrial robotic solutions impractical. One can view ALC process problems in the context of space robotics without the time delay. The ALC's will benefit greatly from the implementation of a common architecture that supports a range of control actions from fully autonomous to teleoperated. Working with national laboratories and private industry, we hope to transition shared control technology to the depot floor. This paper provides an overview of the RACE internal initiatives and customer support, with particular emphasis on production processes that will benefit from shared control technology.

Leahy, M. B., Jr.; Cassiday, B. K.

1993-01-01

298

Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of deformed wing viruses isolated from South Korea.  

PubMed

Deformed wing virus (DWV) is one of the most common viral infection in honeybees. Phylogenetic trees were constructed for 16 partial nucleotide sequences of the structural polyprotein region and the RNA helicase region of South Korean DWVs. The sequences were compared with 10 previously reported DWV sequences from different countries and the sequences of two closely related viruses, Kakugo virus (KGV) and Varroa destructor virus-1 (VDV-1). The phylogeny based on these two regions, the Korean DWV genomes were highly conserved with 95-100% identity, while they also shared 93-97% similarity with genotypes from other countries, although they formed a separate cluster. To investigate this phenomenon in more detail, the complete DWV genome sequences of Korea-1 and Korea-2 were determined and aligned with six previously reported complete DWV genome sequences from different countries, as well as KGV and VDV-1, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed. The two Korean DWVs shared 96.4% similarity. Interestingly, the Korea-2 genome was more similar to the USA (96.5%) genome than the Korea-1. The Korean genotypes highly conserved with USA (96%) but low similarity with the United Kingdom3 (UK3) genome (89%). The end of the 5' untranslated region (UTR), the start of the open reading frame (ORF) region, and the 3' UTR were variable and contained several substitutions/transitions. This phenomenon may be explained by intramolecular recombination between the Korean and other DWV genotypes. PMID:24035266

Reddy, Kondreddy Eswar; Noh, Jin Hyeong; Yoo, Mi-Sun; Kim, Young-Ha; Kim, Nam-Hee; Doan, Huong Thi Thanh; Ramya, Mummadireddy; Jung, Suk-Chan; Van Quyen, Dong; Kang, Seung-Won

2013-12-27

299

Most parsimonious haplotype allele sharing determination  

PubMed Central

Background The "common disease – common variant" hypothesis and genome-wide association studies have achieved numerous successes in the last three years, particularly in genetic mapping in human diseases. Nevertheless, the power of the association study methods are still low, in particular on quantitative traits, and the description of the full allelic spectrum is deemed still far from reach. Given increasing density of single nucleotide polymorphisms available and suggested by the block-like structure of the human genome, a popular and prosperous strategy is to use haplotypes to try to capture the correlation structure of SNPs in regions of little recombination. The key to the success of this strategy is thus the ability to unambiguously determine the haplotype allele sharing status among the members. The association studies based on haplotype sharing status would have significantly reduced degrees of freedom and be able to capture the combined effects of tightly linked causal variants. Results For pedigree genotype datasets of medium density of SNPs, we present two methods for haplotype allele sharing status determination among the pedigree members. Extensive simulation study showed that both methods performed nearly perfectly on breakpoint discovery, mutation haplotype allele discovery, and shared chromosomal region discovery. Conclusion For pedigree genotype datasets, the haplotype allele sharing status among the members can be deterministically, efficiently, and accurately determined, even for very small pedigrees. Given their excellent performance, the presented haplotype allele sharing status determination programs can be useful in many downstream applications including haplotype based association studies. PMID:19379528

Cai, Zhipeng; Sabaa, Hadi; Wang, Yining; Goebel, Randy; Wang, Zhiquan; Xu, Jiaofen; Stothard, Paul; Lin, Guohui

2009-01-01

300

Infotech. Cyber security. Health care learns to share scares and solutions.  

PubMed

Health care information technology leaders and others are coming together to share scary experiences and develop best practices to guard against crippling computer viruses, scheming hackers and other cyber threats. PMID:15192882

Colias, Mike

2004-05-01

301

Molecular epidemiology of respiratory viruses in virus-induced asthma  

PubMed Central

Acute respiratory illness (ARI) due to various viruses is not only the most common cause of upper respiratory infection in humans but is also a major cause of morbidity and mortality, leading to diseases such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Previous studies have shown that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human rhinovirus (HRV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human parainfluenza virus (HPIV), and human enterovirus infections may be associated with virus-induced asthma. For example, it has been suggested that HRV infection is detected in the acute exacerbation of asthma and infection is prolonged. Thus it is believed that the main etiological cause of asthma is ARI viruses. Furthermore, the number of asthma patients in most industrial countries has greatly increased, resulting in a morbidity rate of around 10-15% of the population. However, the relationships between viral infections, host immune response, and host factors in the pathophysiology of asthma remain unclear. To gain a better understanding of the epidemiology of virus-induced asthma, it is important to assess both the characteristics of the viruses and the host defense mechanisms. Molecular epidemiology enables us to understand the pathogenesis of microorganisms by identifying specific pathways, molecules, and genes that influence the risk of developing a disease. However, the epidemiology of various respiratory viruses associated with virus-induced asthma is not fully understood. Therefore, in this article, we review molecular epidemiological studies of RSV, HRV, HPIV, and HMPV infection associated with virus-induced asthma. PMID:24062735

Ishioka, Taisei; Noda, Masahiro; Kozawa, Kunihisa; Kimura, Hirokazu

2013-01-01

302

THE ROLE OF THE MAREK'S DISEASE VIRUS UL13 GENE IN GENERATING CELL-FREE VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV) and Marek's disease virus (MDV) share many biological characteristics. Both alpha-herpesviruses are initially taken up by macrophages or dendritic cells in the lungs, and quickly spread to CD4+ T-lymphocytes. They are both strongly cell-associated. VZV only produces cell...

303

Isolation from the Asian Mouse Mus caroli of an Endogenous Type C Virus Related to Infectious Primate Type C Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of a cell line derived from the Asian feral mouse Mus caroli with 5-bromodeoxyuridine induces an infectious, xenotropic type C virus. This virus shares strongly cross-reactive reverse transcriptase (RNA-dependent DNA polymerase) and p30 antigens and cross-interferes with type C viruses isolated from a woolly monkey (SSAV) and gibbon apes (GALV). By similar criteria, the caroli virus is much less

Michael M. Lieber; Charles J. Sherr; George J. Todaro; Raoul E. Benveniste; Robert Callahan; Hayden G. Coon

1975-01-01

304

Genetic Evolution of H7N9 Virus in China, 2013  

MedlinePLUS

... H7N9 virus. These events may have occurred in habitats shared by wild and domestic birds and/or ... 2013 Domestic Ducks Wild Birds Domestic Poultry Setting: Habitats shared by wild and domestic birds and/or ...

305

Bacteriophage P23-77 Capsid Protein Structures Reveal the Archetype of an Ancient Branch from a Major Virus Lineage  

PubMed Central

Summary It has proved difficult to classify viruses unless they are closely related since their rapid evolution hinders detection of remote evolutionary relationships in their genetic sequences. However, structure varies more slowly than sequence, allowing deeper evolutionary relationships to be detected. Bacteriophage P23-77 is an example of a newly identified viral lineage, with members inhabiting extreme environments. We have solved multiple crystal structures of the major capsid proteins VP16 and VP17 of bacteriophage P23-77. They fit the 14 Å resolution cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction of the entire virus exquisitely well, allowing us to propose a model for both the capsid architecture and viral assembly, quite different from previously published models. The structures of the capsid proteins and their mode of association to form the viral capsid suggest that the P23-77-like and adeno-PRD1 lineages of viruses share an extremely ancient common ancestor. PMID:23623731

Rissanen, Ilona; Grimes, Jonathan M.; Pawlowski, Alice; Mäntynen, Sari; Harlos, Karl; Bamford, Jaana K.H.; Stuart, David I.

2013-01-01

306

Instrumental support to facilitate hepatitis C treatment adherence: Working around shortfalls in shared-care.  

PubMed

Adherence to treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with the successful eradication of infection. However, patients often have difficulty adhering to HCV treatment because of factors such as the psychiatric side effects of regimens and social disadvantage. Commonly, health professionals including specialist physicians, nurses, social workers and psychologists work together under a multidisciplinary model of shared-care to support patients' adherence to HCV treatment. In some HCV treatment clinics, shared-care is not always available, or only partially implemented and this has implications for patient adherence. To explore the facilitators of adherence, an interview-based study was conducted in 2012 with a purposive sample of Australian physicians and nurses (N?=?20). The findings reveal that when comprehensive shared-care was limited or unavailable, physicians and nurses filled in the gaps by assuming roles outside of their expertise to help patients adhere to HCV treatment. Physicians and nurses applied instrumental support strategies based on psychosocial interventions, namely patient advocacy, pragmatic problem-solving, treatment engagement and emotional support. These strategies were provided by dedicated physicians and nurses to address shortfalls in multidisciplinary shared-care. Although these interventions were reported to assist adherence, there is an increased risk of complications when physicians and nurses move beyond the bounds of their disciplinary training, for example, to assess and manage patients' psychiatric side effects or advocate on their behalf for social services. Future research should measure the effectiveness of instrumental support strategies on HCV treatment adherence, and explore the costs associated with physicians and nurses providing instrumental support in the absence of comprehensive multidisciplinary shared-care. PMID:24998883

Sublette, Victoria A; Hopwood, Max; George, Jacob; Smith, Sian K; Nicholson Perry, Kathryn; McCaffery, Kirsten; Douglas, Mark W

2015-03-01

307

HydroShare: An online, collaborative environment for the sharing of hydrologic data and models (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HydroShare is an online, collaborative system being developed for sharing hydrologic data and models. The goal of HydroShare is to enable scientists to easily discover and access data and models, retrieve them to their desktop or perform analyses in a distributed computing environment that may include grid, cloud or high performance computing model instances as necessary. Scientists may also publish outcomes (data, results or models) into HydroShare, using the system as a collaboration platform for sharing data, models and analyses. HydroShare is expanding the data sharing capability of the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System by broadening the classes of data accommodated, creating new capability to share models and model components, and taking advantage of emerging social media functionality to enhance information about and collaboration around hydrologic data and models. One of the fundamental concepts in HydroShare is that of a Resource. All content is represented using a Resource Data Model that separates system and science metadata and has elements common to all resources as well as elements specific to the types of resources HydroShare will support. These will include different data types used in the hydrology community and models and workflows that require metadata on execution functionality. HydroShare will use the integrated Rule-Oriented Data System (iRODS) to manage federated data content and perform rule-based background actions on data and model resources, including parsing to generate metadata catalog information and the execution of models and workflows. This presentation will introduce the HydroShare functionality developed to date, describe key elements of the Resource Data Model and outline the roadmap for future development.

Tarboton, D. G.; Idaszak, R.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Ames, D.; Goodall, J. L.; Band, L. E.; Merwade, V.; Couch, A.; Arrigo, J.; Hooper, R. P.; Valentine, D. W.; Maidment, D. R.

2013-12-01

308

New evidence that Deformed Wing Virus and Black Queen Cell Virus are Multi-host pathogens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The host-range breadth of pathogens can have important consequences for pathogens’ long term evolution and virulence, and play critical roles in the emergence and spread of the new diseases. Black queen cell virus (BQCV) and Deformed wing virus (DWV) are the two most common and prevalent viruses in...

309

Measles virus for cancer therapy  

PubMed Central

Measles virus offers an ideal platform from which to build a new generation of safe, effective oncolytic viruses. Occasional "spontaneous" tumor regressions have occurred during natural measles infections, but common tumors do not express SLAM, the wild-type MV receptor, and are therefore not susceptible to the virus. Serendipitously, attenuated vaccine strains of measles virus have adapted to use CD46, a regulator of complement activation that is expressed in higher abundance on human tumor cells than on their non transformed counterparts. For this reason, attenuated measles viruses are potent and selective oncolytic agents showing impressive antitumor activity in mouse xenograft models. The viruses can be engineered to enhance their tumor specificity, increase their antitumor potency and facilitate noninvasive in vivo monitoring of their spread. A major impediment to the successful deployment of oncolytic measles viruses as anticancer agents is the high prevalence of pre-existing anti measles immunity, which impedes bloodstream delivery and curtails intratumoral virus spread. It is hoped that these problems can be addressed by delivering the virus inside measles-infected cell carriers and/or by concomitant administration of immunosuppressive drugs. From a safety perspective, population immunity provides an excellent defense against measles spread from patient to carers and, in fifty years of human experience, reversion of attenuated measles to a wild type pathogenic phenotype has not been observed. Clinical trials testing oncolytic measles viruses as an experimental cancer therapy are currently underway. PMID:19203112

Russell, Stephen J.; Whye Peng, Kah

2014-01-01

310

Accelerating Spectrum Sharing Technologies  

SciTech Connect

Spectrum sharing potentially holds the promise of solving the emerging spectrum crisis. However, technology innovators face the conundrum of developing spectrum sharing technologies without the ability to experiment and test with real incumbent systems. Interference with operational incumbents can prevent critical services, and the cost of deploying and operating an incumbent system can be prohibitive. Thus, the lack of incumbent systems and frequency authorization for technology incubation and demonstration has stymied spectrum sharing research. To this end, industry, academia, and regulators all require a test facility for validating hypotheses and demonstrating functionality without affecting operational incumbent systems. This article proposes a four-phase program supported by our spectrum accountability architecture. We propose that our comprehensive experimentation and testing approach for technology incubation and demonstration will accelerate the development of spectrum sharing technologies.

Juan D. Deaton; Lynda L. Brighton; Rangam Subramanian; Hussein Moradi; Jose Loera

2013-09-01

311

A Sharing Proposition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how the University of Vermont and St. Michael's College in Burlington, Vermont cooperated to share a single card access system. Discusses the planning, financial, and marketplace advantages of the cooperation. (EV)

Sturgeon, Julie

2002-01-01

312

Shared Groundwater Resources Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transboundary water sharing between states results in conflicts originnated from water use, water quantity and quality issues.\\u000a To avoid conflicts between countries that share transboundary groundwater resources, cooperation and negotiation, prevention,\\u000a equitable water allocation and utilization, as well as exchange of information and data between states are essential. This\\u000a chapter presents the groundwater resources management principles based on sustainable exploitation

Christophe J. G. Darnault

313

Systemic Spread and Propagation of a Plant-Pathogenic Virus in European Honeybees, Apis mellifera  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Emerging and reemerging diseases that result from pathogen host shifts are a threat to the health of humans and their domesticates. RNA viruses have extremely high mutation rates and thus represent a significant source of these infectious diseases. In the present study, we showed that a plant-pathogenic RNA virus, tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), could replicate and produce virions in honeybees, Apis mellifera, resulting in infections that were found throughout the entire body. Additionally, we showed that TRSV-infected individuals were continually present in some monitored colonies. While intracellular life cycle, species-level genetic variation, and pathogenesis of the virus in honeybee hosts remain to be determined, the increasing prevalence of TRSV in conjunction with other bee viruses from spring toward winter in infected colonies was associated with gradual decline of host populations and winter colony collapse, suggesting the negative impact of the virus on colony survival. Furthermore, we showed that TRSV was also found in ectoparasitic Varroa mites that feed on bee hemolymph, but in those instances the virus was restricted to the gastric cecum of Varroa mites, suggesting that Varroa mites may facilitate the spread of TRSV in bees but do not experience systemic invasion. Finally, our phylogenetic analysis revealed that TRSV isolates from bees, bee pollen, and Varroa mites clustered together, forming a monophyletic clade. The tree topology indicated that the TRSVs from arthropod hosts shared a common ancestor with those from plant hosts and subsequently evolved as a distinct lineage after transkingdom host alteration. This study represents a unique example of viruses with host ranges spanning both the plant and animal kingdoms. PMID:24449751

Li, Ji Lian; Cornman, R. Scott; Evans, Jay D.; Pettis, Jeffery S.; Zhao, Yan; Murphy, Charles; Peng, Wen Jun; Wu, Jie; Hamilton, Michele; Boncristiani, Humberto F.; Zhou, Liang; Hammond, John; Chen, Yan Ping

2014-01-01

314

Complete genome sequence of arracacha mottle virus.  

PubMed

Arracacha mottle virus (AMoV) is the only potyvirus reported to infect arracacha (Arracacia xanthorrhiza) in Brazil. Here, the complete genome sequence of an isolate of AMoV was determined to be 9,630 nucleotides in length, excluding the 3' poly-A tail, and encoding a polyprotein of 3,135 amino acids and a putative P3N-PIPO protein. Its genomic organization is typical of a member of the genus Potyvirus, containing all conserved motifs. Its full genome sequence shared 56.2 % nucleotide identity with sunflower chlorotic mottle virus and verbena virus Y, the most closely related viruses. PMID:23001696

Orílio, Anelise F; Lucinda, Natalia; Dusi, André N; Nagata, Tatsuya; Inoue-Nagata, Alice K

2013-01-01

315

Bench-to-bedside review: Rare and common viral infections in the intensive care unit – linking pathophysiology to clinical presentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral infections are common causes of respiratory tract disease in the outpatient setting but much less common in the intensive care unit. However, a finite number of viral agents cause respiratory tract disease in the intensive care unit. Some viruses, such as influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and varicella-zoster virus (VZV), are relatively common. Others, such as adenovirus,

Nicholas Stollenwerk; Richart W Harper; Christian E Sandrock

2008-01-01

316

Application and management of commonality within NASA systems  

E-print Network

Commonality can be defined as the sharing of assets such as components, designs, processes, technologies, interfaces, and/or infrastructure across systems. Through commonality, NASA has the opportunity to develop, produce, ...

Rhodes, Richard Alexander

2010-01-01

317

Hepadna viruses  

SciTech Connect

This book examines the molecular biology, disease pathogenesis, epidemiology, and clinical features of hepadna and other viruses with hepatic tropism and outlines future directions and approaches for their management. The volume's six sections provide a review of the various features, mechanisms, and functions of these viruses, ranging from hepadna virus replication and regulation of gene expression to the structure and function of hepadna-virus gene products.

Robinson, W.; Koike, K.; Will, H.

1987-01-01

318

Towards a Common Framework for Multimodal Generation  

E-print Network

Towards a Common Framework for Multimodal Generation: The Behavior Markup Language Stefan Kopp1 among the approaches. To avoid replication of work, as well as to allow for sharing modules, a push was initiated to develop a common specification. In April 2005, a group of researchers in the area of multimodal

319

MoBlogs, Sharing Situations, and Lived Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter considers shared encounters through blogging in the light of John Urry’s new mobilities paradigm. We review relevant\\u000a literature on mobile blogging (moblogging) – blogging, pervasive image capture and sharing, moblogging and video blogging\\u000a – and describe common issues with these digital content sharing practices. We then document some features of how technology\\u000a affords “reflexive encounters” through the description

Connor Graham; Mark Rouncefield; Christine Satchell

2010-01-01

320

The genome of Oryctes rhinoceros nudivirus provides novel insight into the evolution of nuclear arthropod-specific large circular double-stranded DNA viruses.  

PubMed

The Oryctes rhinoceros nudivirus (OrNV) is a dsDNA virus with enveloped, rod-shaped virions. Its genome is 127,615 bp in size and contains 139 predicted protein-coding open reading frames (ORFs). In-depth genome sequence comparisons revealed a varying number of shared gene homologues, not only with other nudiviruses (NVs) and baculoviruses, but also with other arthropod-specific large dsDNA viruses, including the so-called Monodon baculovirus (MBV), the salivary gland hypertrophy viruses (SGHVs) and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Nudivirus genomes contain 20 baculovirus core gene homologues associated with transcription (p47, lef-8, lef-9, lef-4, vlf-1, and lef-5), replication (dnapol and helicase), virus structure (p74, pif-1, pif-2, pif-3, 19kda/pif-4, odv-e56/pif-5, vp91, vp39, and 38K), and unknown functions (ac68, ac81, and p33). Most strikingly, a set of homologous genes involved in peroral infection (p74, pif-1, pif-2, and pif-3) are common to baculoviruses, nudiviruses, SGHVs, and WSSV indicating an ancestral mode of infection in these highly diverged viruses. A gene similar to polyhedrin/granulin encoding the baculovirus occlusion body protein was identified in non-occluded NVs and in Musca domestica SGHV evoking the question of the evolutionary origin of the baculovirus polyhedrin/granulin gene. Based on gene homologies, we further propose that the shrimp MBV is an occluded member of the nudiviruses. We conclude that baculoviruses, NVs and the shrimp MBV, the SGHVs and WSSV share the significant number of conserved genetic functions, which may point to a common ancestry of these viruses. PMID:21380757

Wang, Yongjie; Bininda-Emonds, Olaf R P; van Oers, Monique M; Vlak, Just M; Jehle, Johannes A

2011-06-01

321

The structure of a thermophilic archaeal virus shows a double-stranded DNA viral capsid type that spans all domains of life  

PubMed Central

Of the three domains of life (Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea), the least understood is Archaea and its associated viruses. Many Archaea are extremophiles, with species that are capable of growth at some of the highest temperatures and extremes of pH of all known organisms. Phylogenetic rRNA-encoding DNA analysis places many of the hyperthermophilic Archaea (species with an optimum growth ?80°C) at the base of the universal tree of life, suggesting that thermophiles were among the first forms of life on earth. Very few viruses have been identified from Archaea as compared to Bacteria and Eukarya. We report here the structure of a hyperthermophilic virus isolated from an archaeal host found in hot springs in Yellowstone National Park. The sequence of the circular double-stranded DNA viral genome shows that it shares little similarity to other known genes in viruses or other organisms. By comparing the tertiary and quaternary structures of the coat protein of this virus with those of a bacterial and an animal virus, we find conformational relationships among all three, suggesting that some viruses may have a common ancestor that precedes the division into three domains of life >3 billion years ago. PMID:15123802

Rice, George; Tang, Liang; Stedman, Kenneth; Roberto, Francisco; Spuhler, Josh; Gillitzer, Eric; Johnson, John E.; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark

2004-01-01

322

Study of different load dependencies among shared redundant systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents features and implementation of a shared redundant approach to increase the reliability of networked control systems. Common approaches based on redundant components in control system use passive or active redundancy. We deal with quasi-redundant subsystems (shared redundancy) whereas basic features are introduced in the paper. This type of redundancy oers several important advantages such as minimizing the

Jan Galdun; Jean-Marc Thiriet; Jan Ligus

2008-01-01

323

Supporting Informal Collaboration in Shared-Workspace Groupware  

E-print Network

Supporting Informal Collaboration in Shared-Workspace Groupware Carl Gutwin, Saul Greenberg, Roger Science, University of Calgary HCI-TR-2005-01 Abstract. Shared-workspace groupware has not become common. To support informal collaboration, groupware must be designed and built differently. We introduce the idea

Greenberg, Saul

324

Virus World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the Institute for Molecular Virology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, this Web site offers high quality virus images that may be used for seminar presentations or any other noncommercial use. Users can choose from American Society for Virology conference poster images, enhanced EM pictures, and images of virology-related book and journal covers. Images may be searched by virus name; the results page will provide links to summary information from the Protein Data Bank and to the Scripps Research Institute's Virus Particle Explorer. Movie animations and relevant links are provided for some of the virus images. Users can also access tutorials on virus structure and other topics.

2005-12-14

325

Young Children's Understanding of Cultural Common Ground  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Human social interaction depends on individuals identifying the common ground they have with others, based both on personally shared experiences and on cultural common ground that all members of the group share. We introduced 3- and 5-year-old children to a culturally well-known object and a novel object. An experimenter then entered and asked,…

Liebal, Kristin; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

2013-01-01

326

The Sharing Tree: Preschool Children Learn to Share.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a learning activity in which preschool children learn cooperative skills and metacognitive strategies as they master sharing strategies guided by leaves on a "sharing tree." Leaf colors (red, yellow, green) cue the child to stop, slow down and think about sharing and playing with others, and go ahead with a sharing activity.…

Wolf, Arlene; Fine, Elaine

1996-01-01

327

A Unified Formalization of Four Shared-Memory Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a shared-memory model, data-race-free-1, that unifiesfour earlier models: weak order- ing, release consistency (with sequentially consistent special operations), the VAX memory model, and data- race-free-0. The most intuitive and commonly assumed shared-memory model, sequential consistency, limits per- formance. The models of weak ordering, release consistency, the VAX, and data-race-free-0 are based on the common intuition that if

Sarita V. Adve; Mark D. Hill

1993-01-01

328

Laser Capture Microdissection Assessment of Virus Compartmentalization in the Central Nervous Systems of Macaques Infected with Neurovirulent Simian Immunodeficiency Virus  

PubMed Central

Nonhuman primate-simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) models are powerful tools for studying the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in the brain. Our laboratory recently isolated a neuropathogenic viral swarm, SIVsmH804E, a derivative of SIVsmE543-3, which was the result of sequential intravenous passages of viruses isolated from the brains of rhesus macaques with SIV encephalitis. Animals infected with SIVsmH804E or its precursor (SIVsmH783Br) developed SIV meningitis and/or encephalitis at high frequencies. Since we observed macaques with a combination of meningitis and encephalitis, as well as animals in which meningitis or encephalitis was the dominant component, we hypothesized that distinct mechanisms could be driving the two pathological states. Therefore, we assessed viral populations in the meninges and the brain parenchyma by laser capture microdissection. Viral RNAs were isolated from representative areas of the meninges, brain parenchyma, terminal plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and from the inoculum, and the SIV envelope fragment was amplified by PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of envelope sequences from the conventional progressors revealed compartmentalization of viral populations between the meninges and the parenchyma. In one of these animals, viral populations in meninges were closely related to those from CSF and shared signature truncations in the cytoplasmic domain of gp41, consistent with a common origin. Apart from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging, CSF is the most accessible assess to the central nervous system for HIV-1-infected patients. However, our results suggest that the virus in the CSF may not always be representative of viral populations in the brain and that caution should be applied in extrapolating between the properties of viruses in these two compartments. PMID:23720733

Matsuda, Kenta; Brown, Charles R.; Foley, Brian; Goeken, Robert; Whitted, Sonya; Dang, Que; Wu, Fan; Plishka, Ronald; Buckler-White, Alicia

2013-01-01

329

Viruses of Haloarchaea  

PubMed Central

In hypersaline environments, haloarchaea (halophilic members of the Archaea) are the dominant organisms, and the viruses that infect them, haloarchaeoviruses are at least ten times more abundant. Since their discovery in 1974, described haloarchaeoviruses include head-tailed, pleomorphic, spherical and spindle-shaped morphologies, representing Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, Pleolipoviridae, Sphaerolipoviridae and Fuselloviridae families. This review overviews current knowledge of haloarchaeoviruses, providing information about classification, morphotypes, macromolecules, life cycles, genetic manipulation and gene regulation, and host-virus responses. In so doing, the review incorporates knowledge from laboratory studies of isolated viruses, field-based studies of environmental samples, and both genomic and metagenomic analyses of haloarchaeoviruses. What emerges is that some haloarchaeoviruses possess unique morphological and life cycle properties, while others share features with other viruses (e.g., bacteriophages). Their interactions with hosts influence community structure and evolution of populations that exist in hypersaline environments as diverse as seawater evaporation ponds, to hot desert or Antarctic lakes. The discoveries of their wide-ranging and important roles in the ecology and evolution of hypersaline communities serves as a strong motivator for future investigations of both laboratory-model and environmental systems. PMID:25402735

Luk, Alison W. S.; Williams, Timothy J.; Erdmann, Susanne; Papke, R. Thane; Cavicchioli, Ricardo

2014-01-01

330

Viruses of haloarchaea.  

PubMed

In hypersaline environments, haloarchaea (halophilic members of the Archaea) are the dominant organisms, and the viruses that infect them, haloarchaeoviruses are at least ten times more abundant. Since their discovery in 1974, described haloarchaeoviruses include head-tailed, pleomorphic, spherical and spindle-shaped morphologies, representing Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, Pleolipoviridae, Sphaerolipoviridae and Fuselloviridae families. This review overviews current knowledge of haloarchaeoviruses, providing information about classification, morphotypes, macromolecules, life cycles, genetic manipulation and gene regulation, and host-virus responses. In so doing, the review incorporates knowledge from laboratory studies of isolated viruses, field-based studies of environmental samples, and both genomic and metagenomic analyses of haloarchaeoviruses. What emerges is that some haloarchaeoviruses possess unique morphological and life cycle properties, while others share features with other viruses (e.g., bacteriophages). Their interactions with hosts influence community structure and evolution of populations that exist in hypersaline environments as diverse as seawater evaporation ponds, to hot desert or Antarctic lakes. The discoveries of their wide-ranging and important roles in the ecology and evolution of hypersaline communities serves as a strong motivator for future investigations of both laboratory-model and environmental systems. PMID:25402735

Luk, Alison W S; Williams, Timothy J; Erdmann, Susanne; Papke, R Thane; Cavicchioli, Ricardo

2014-01-01

331

New Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infecting De Brazza's Monkeys (Cercopithecus neglectus): Evidence for a Cercopithecus Monkey Virus Clade  

PubMed Central

Nearly complete sequences of simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) infecting 18 different nonhuman primate species in sub-Saharan Africa have now been reported; yet, our understanding of the origins, evolutionary history, and geographic distribution of these viruses still remains fragmentary. Here, we report the molecular characterization of a lentivirus (SIVdeb) naturally infecting De Brazza's monkeys (Cercopithecus neglectus). Complete SIVdeb genomes (9,158 and 9,227 bp in length) were amplified from uncultured blood mononuclear cell DNA of two wild-caught De Brazza's monkeys from Cameroon. In addition, partial pol sequences (650 bp) were amplified from four offspring of De Brazza's monkeys originally caught in the wild in Uganda. Full-length (9,068 bp) and partial pol (650 bp) SIVsyk sequences were also amplified from Sykes's monkeys (Cercopithecus albogularis) from Kenya. Analysis of these sequences identified a new SIV clade (SIVdeb), which differed from previously characterized SIVs at 40 to 50% of sites in Pol protein sequences. The viruses most closely related to SIVdeb were SIVsyk and members of the SIVgsn/SIVmus/SIVmon group of viruses infecting greater spot-nosed monkeys (Cercopithecus nictitans), mustached monkeys (Cercopithecus cephus), and mona monkeys (Cercopithecus mona), respectively. In phylogenetic trees of concatenated protein sequences, SIVdeb, SIVsyk, and SIVgsn/SIVmus/SIVmon clustered together, and this relationship was highly significant in all major coding regions. Members of this virus group also shared the same number of cysteine residues in their extracellular envelope glycoprotein and a high-affinity AIP1 binding site (YPD/SL) in their p6 Gag protein, as well as a unique transactivation response element in their viral long terminal repeat; however, SIVdeb and SIVsyk, unlike SIVgsn, SIVmon, and SIVmus, did not encode a vpu gene. These data indicate that De Brazza's monkeys are naturally infected with SIVdeb, that this infection is prevalent in different areas of the species' habitat, and that geographically diverse SIVdeb strains cluster in a single virus group. The consistent clustering of SIVdeb with SIVsyk and the SIVmon/SIVmus/SIVgsn group also suggests that these viruses have evolved from a common ancestor that likely infected a Cercopithecus host in the distant past. The vpu gene appears to have been acquired by a subset of these Cercopithecus viruses after the divergence of SIVdeb and SIVsyk. PMID:15220449

Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Bailes, Elizabeth; Gao, Feng; Pourrut, Xavier; Barlow, Katrina L.; Clewley, Jonathan P.; Mwenda, Jason M.; Langat, Daudi K.; Chege, Gerald K.; McClure, Harold M.; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine; Shaw, George M.; Sharp, Paul M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.

2004-01-01

332

Common effector processing mediates cell-specific responses to stimuli  

E-print Network

LETTERS Common effector processing mediates cell-specific responses to stimuli Kathryn Miller components of many signalling pathways are common to all cells1­3 . However, stimulating or perturbing share a common `effector-processing' mechanism. Partial-least-squares regression models based on common

333

Sharing Research Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are many ways to share a collection of data and students' thinking about that data. Explaining the results of science inquiry is important--working scientists and amateurs both contribute information to the body of scientific knowledge. Students can collect data about an activity that is already happening in a classroom (e.g., the qualities…

Ashbrook, Peggy

2011-01-01

334

Hints on Sharing Books.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the realization that each child must be given the opportunity to develop as a unique individual and that exposure to books expands a child's world, stimulating his creative thinking and his desire for new experiences, this booklet presents in outline form a variety of suggestions for encouraging children to share the books they have read.…

Dorsey, Mary E., Comp.; Horne, Ulysses G., Comp.

335

Share this with Headquarters  

E-print Network

this with your peers At-A-Glance AT&T Web Security Service helps ensure a safe and productive InternetShare this with your peers HTTP HTTP Corporate Headquarters Roaming User Support Branch Office Web Filtering Millions of URLs, over 75 categories, fully granular Web Malware Scanning Malware protection

Fisher, Kathleen

336

Sharing Books with Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied the interactions, goals, and purposes of four mothers as they shared two narrative and two expository texts with their preschoolers. Results suggest that there is no one path to becoming literate, nor one single "correct" model of development. Literacy learning is an activity that involves the collaboration of parents and teachers as they…

Lennox, Sandra

1995-01-01

337

Think before You Share  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in the US are increasingly discovering that online socializing is far from private and that sharing personal details on social-networking Web sites, such as Facebook, can have unintended consequences. A growing number of colleges are moving to disabuse students of the notion that the Internet is their private playground and what they type…

Read, Brock

2006-01-01

338

Learning to Share  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the tug-of-war between researchers and IT for supercomputing resources, a centralized approach can help both sides get more bang for their buck. As 2010 began, the University of Washington was preparing to launch its first shared high-performance computing cluster, a 1,500-node system called Hyak, dedicated to research activities. Like other…

Raths, David

2010-01-01

339

Share | Like Lawyer Directory  

E-print Network

Share | Like Justia.com Lawyer Directory Legal Answers Law Blogs Supreme Court more Sign In Enter. A statute of Oklahoma provides for the sterilization, by vasectomy or salpingectomy, of "habitual criminals" -- an habitual criminal being defined therein as any person who, having been convicted two or more times

340

Sharing Expertise: Consulting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A special breed of superintendents who have developed expertise in a particular area find ways of sharing it in other venues as outside consultants. They pull extra duty to put their special skills into practice, to give back to their communities, to stay current and grounded in the field, or to enhance their professional reputations. They teach…

Graves, Bill

2011-01-01

341

The Shared Information Network.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of shared information networks within organizations to decrease information hoarding and maximize operating efficiencies. Network development issues discussed include choosing the department responsible for development, selecting information to be included in the network, designing the information format, distribution strategies,…

Stanat, Ruth

1990-01-01

342

Globalization and Risk Sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a theoretical study of the e¤ects of globalization on risk sharing and welfare. We model globalization as a gradual and exogenous increase in the fraction of goods that are tradable. In the absence of frictions, globalization opens new goods markets and raises welfare. We assume, however, that countries cannot commit to pay their debts. Unlike the previous

Jaume Ventura; Fernando A. Broner

2006-01-01

343

Globalization and Risk Sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the eects of globalization on risk sharing and welfare. Like previous literature, we assume that countries cannot commit to repay their debts. Unlike previous literature, we assume that countries cannot discriminate between domestic and foreign creditors when repaying their debts. This creates novel interactions between domestic and international trade in assets. (i) Increases in domestic trade raise the

Fernando A. Broner; Jaume Venturay

1989-01-01

344

Shared Governance of Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shared decision-making can help schools keep sight of their true goals. In the educational sector the conflicts that arise in collective bargaining disputes can be destructive to the organization. Schools require more than the mere coexistence of labor and management. They require cooperation and strong, supportive relationships. To establish a…

Thomas, M. Donald

345

Shared Health Governance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health and Social Justice (Ruger 2009a) developed the “health capability paradigm,” a conception of justice and health in domestic societies. This idea undergirds an alternative framework of social cooperation called “shared health governance” (SHG). SHG puts forth a set of moral responsibilities, motivational aspirations, and institutional arrangements, and apportions roles for implementation in striving for health justice. This article develops

Jennifer Prah Ruger

2011-01-01

346

Information Hiding: Sharing Secrets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity about cryptographic techniques illustrates a situation where information is shared, and yet none of it is revealed. A group of learners will calculate their average age without anyone revealing their own age. Use this activity to introduce learners to cryptographic protocols and internet security/privacy issues. Variations, extensions, background information, and further reading suggestions are included in the PDF.

Bell, Tim; Witten, Ian; Fellows, Mike

1998-01-01

347

CHLORELLA VIRUSES  

PubMed Central

Chlorella viruses or chloroviruses are large, icosahedral, plaque?forming, double?stranded?DNA—containing viruses that replicate in certain strains of the unicellular green alga Chlorella. DNA sequence analysis of the 330?kbp genome of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV?1), the prototype of this virus family (Phycodnaviridae), predict ?366 protein?encoding genes and 11 tRNA genes. The predicted gene products of ?50% of these genes resemble proteins of known function, including many that are completely unexpected for a virus. In addition, the chlorella viruses have several features and encode many gene products that distinguish them from most viruses. These products include: (1) multiple DNA methyltransferases and DNA site?specific endonucleases, (2) the enzymes required to glycosylate their proteins and synthesize polysaccharides such as hyaluronan and chitin, (3) a virus?encoded K+ channel (called Kcv) located in the internal membrane of the virions, (4) a SET domain containing protein (referred to as vSET) that dimethylates Lys27 in histone 3, and (5) PBCV?1 has three types of introns; a self?splicing intron, a spliceosomal processed intron, and a small tRNA intron. Accumulating evidence indicates that the chlorella viruses have a very long evolutionary history. This review mainly deals with research on the virion structure, genome rearrangements, gene expression, cell wall degradation, polysaccharide synthesis, and evolution of PBCV?1 as well as other related viruses. PMID:16877063

Yamada, Takashi; Onimatsu, Hideki; Van Etten, James L.

2007-01-01

348

Limits in virus filtration capability? Impact of virus quality and spike level on virus removal with xenotropic murine leukemia virus.  

PubMed

Virus filtration (VF) is a key step in an overall viral clearance process since it has been demonstrated to effectively clear a wide range of mammalian viruses with a log reduction value (LRV)?>?4. The potential to achieve higher LRV from virus retentive filters has historically been examined using bacteriophage surrogates, which commonly demonstrated a potential of?>?9 LRV when using high titer spikes (e.g. 10(10) PFU/mL). However, as the filter loading increases, one typically experiences significant decreases in performance and LRV. The 9 LRV value is markedly higher than the current expected range of 4-5 LRV when utilizing mammalian retroviruses on virus removal filters (Miesegaes et al., Dev Biol (Basel) 2010;133:3-101). Recent values have been reported in the literature (Stuckey et al., Biotech Progr 2014;30:79-85) of LRV in excess of 6 for PPV and XMuLV although this result appears to be atypical. LRV for VF with therapeutic proteins could be limited by several factors including process limits (flux decay, load matrix), virus spike level and the analytical methods used for virus detection (i.e. the Limits of Quantitation), as well as the virus spike quality. Research was conducted using the Xenotropic-Murine Leukemia Virus (XMuLV) for its direct relevance to the most commonly cited document, the International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) Q5A (International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use, Geneva, Switzerland, 1999) for viral safety evaluations. A unique aspect of this work is the independent evaluation of the impact of retrovirus quality and virus spike level on VF performance and LRV. The VF studies used XMuLV preparations purified by either ultracentrifugation (Ultra 1) or by chromatographic processes that yielded a more highly purified virus stock (Ultra 2). Two monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) with markedly different filtration characteristics and with similar levels of aggregate (<1.5%) were evaluated with the Ultra 1 and Ultra 2 virus preparations utilizing the Planova 20 N, a small virus removal filter. Impurities in the virus preparation ultimately limited filter loading as measured by determining the volumetric loading condition where 75% flux decay is observed versus initial conditions (V75 ). This observation occurred with both Mabs with the difference in virus purity more pronounced when very high spike levels were used (>5 vol/vol %). Significant differences were seen for the process performance over a number of lots of the less-pure Ultra 1 virus preparations. Experiments utilizing a developmental lot of the chromatographic purified XMuLV (Ultra 2 Development lot) that had elevated levels of host cell residuals (vs. the final Ultra 2 preparations) suggest that these contaminant residuals can impact virus filter fouling, even if the virus prep is essentially monodisperse. Process studies utilizing an Ultra 2 virus with substantially less host cell residuals and highly monodispersed virus particles demonstrated superior performance and an LRV in excess of 7.7 log10 . A model was constructed demonstrating the linear dependence of filtration flux versus filter loading which can be used to predict the V75 for a range of virus spike levels conditions using this highly purified virus. Fine tuning the virus spike level with this model can ultimately maximize the LRV for the virus filter step, essentially adding the LRV equivalent of another process step (i.e. protein A or CEX chromatography). © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2014. PMID:25395156

Roush, David J; Myrold, Adam; Burnham, Michael S; And, Joseph V; Hughes, Joseph V

2014-11-14

349

Sharing Medicine: The Candidacy of Medicines and Other Household Items for Sharing, Dominican Republic  

PubMed Central

Background People share medicines and problems can result from this behavior. Successful interventions to change sharing behavior will require understanding people’s motives and purposes for sharing medicines. Better information about how medicines fit into the gifting and reciprocity system could be useful in designing interventions to modify medicine sharing behavior. However, it is uncertain how people situate medicines among other items that might be shared. This investigation is a descriptive study of how people sort medicines and other shareable items. Methods and Findings This study in the Dominican Republic examined how a convenience sample (31 people) sorted medicines and rated their shareability in relation to other common household items. We used non-metric multidimensional scaling to produce association maps in which the distances between items offer a visual representation of the collective opinion of the participants regarding the relationships among the items. In addition, from a pile sort constrained by four categories of whether sharing or loaning the item was acceptable (on a scale from not shareable to very shareable), we assessed the degree to which the participants rated the medicines as shareable compared to other items. Participants consistently grouped medicines together in all pile sort activities; yet, medicines were mixed with other items when rated by their candidacy to be shared. Compared to the other items, participants had more variability of opinion as to whether medicines should be shared. Conclusions People think of medicines as a distinct group, suggesting that interventions might be designed to apply to medicines as a group. People’s differing opinions as to whether it was appropriate to share medicines imply a degree of uncertainty or ambiguity that health promotion interventions might exploit to alter attitudes and behaviors. These findings have implications for the design of health promotion interventions to impact medicine sharing behavior. PMID:24971939

Dohn, Michael N.; Pilkington, Hugo

2014-01-01

350

Policy enabled information sharing system  

DOEpatents

A technique for dynamically sharing information includes executing a sharing policy indicating when to share a data object responsive to the occurrence of an event. The data object is created by formatting a data file to be shared with a receiving entity. The data object includes a file data portion and a sharing metadata portion. The data object is encrypted and then automatically transmitted to the receiving entity upon occurrence of the event. The sharing metadata portion includes metadata characterizing the data file and referenced in connection with the sharing policy to determine when to automatically transmit the data object to the receiving entity.

Jorgensen, Craig R.; Nelson, Brian D.; Ratheal, Steve W.

2014-09-02

351

Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) in Infants and Babies  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) A parent's guide for infants and babies A A A This image displays grouped blisters within an inflamed area of skin typical of herpes simplex. Overview Herpes infections are caused by both ...

352

Engineered plant virus resistance.  

PubMed

Virus diseases are among the key limiting factors that cause significant yield loss and continuously threaten crop production. Resistant cultivars coupled with pesticide application are commonly used to circumvent these threats. One of the limitations of the reliance on resistant cultivars is the inevitable breakdown of resistance due to the multitude of variable virus populations. Similarly, chemical applications to control virus transmitting insect vectors are costly to the farmers, cause adverse health and environmental consequences, and often result in the emergence of resistant vector strains. Thus, exploiting strategies that provide durable and broad-spectrum resistance over diverse environments are of paramount importance. The development of plant gene transfer systems has allowed for the introgression of alien genes into plant genomes for novel disease control strategies, thus providing a mechanism for broadening the genetic resources available to plant breeders. Genetic engineering offers various options for introducing transgenic virus resistance into crop plants to provide a wide range of resistance to viral pathogens. This review examines the current strategies of developing virus resistant transgenic plants. PMID:25438782

Galvez, Leny C; Banerjee, Joydeep; Pinar, Hasan; Mitra, Amitava

2014-11-01

353

Virus Crystallography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crystallography provides a means of visualizing intact virus particles as well as their isolated constituent proteins and enzymes (1-3) at near-atomic resolution, and is thus an extraordinarily powerful tool in the pursuit of a fuller understanding of the functioning of these simple biological systems. We have already expanded our knowledge of virus evolution, assembly, antigenic variation, and host-cell interactions; further studies will no doubt reveal much more. Although the rewards are enormous, an intact virus structure determination is not a trivial undertaking and entails a significant scaling up in terms of time and resources through all stages of data collection and processing compared to a traditional protein crystallographic structure determination. It is the methodology required for such studies that will be the focus of this chapter. The computational requirements were satisfied in the late 1970s, and when combined with the introduction of phase improvement techniques utilizing the virus symmetry (4,5), the application of crystallography to these massive macromolecular assemblies became feasible. This led to the determination of the first virus structure (the small RNA plant virus, tomato bushy stunt virus), by Harrison and coworkers in 1978 (6). The structures of two other plant viruses followed rapidly (7,8). In the 1980s, a major focus of attention was a family of animal RNA viruses; the Picornaviridae.

Fry, Elizabeth; Logan, Derek; Stuart, David

354

A simple tool for neuroimaging data sharing  

PubMed Central

Data sharing is becoming increasingly common, but despite encouragement and facilitation by funding agencies, journals, and some research efforts, most neuroimaging data acquired today is still not shared due to political, financial, social, and technical barriers to sharing data that remain. In particular, technical solutions are few for researchers that are not a part of larger efforts with dedicated sharing infrastructures, and social barriers such as the time commitment required to share can keep data from becoming publicly available. We present a system for sharing neuroimaging data, designed to be simple to use and to provide benefit to the data provider. The system consists of a server at the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility (INCF) and user tools for uploading data to the server. The primary design principle for the user tools is ease of use: the user identifies a directory containing Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) data, provides their INCF Portal authentication, and provides identifiers for the subject and imaging session. The user tool anonymizes the data and sends it to the server. The server then runs quality control routines on the data, and the data and the quality control reports are made public. The user retains control of the data and may change the sharing policy as they need. The result is that in a few minutes of the user’s time, DICOM data can be anonymized and made publicly available, and an initial quality control assessment can be performed on the data. The system is currently functional, and user tools and access to the public image database are available at http://xnat.incf.org/. PMID:24904398

Haselgrove, Christian; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Kennedy, David N.

2014-01-01

355

Lactoferrin for prevention of common viral infections.  

PubMed

Although lactoferrin has many biological functions, the host-protective effects against pathogenic microorganisms including bacteria, fungi, and viruses are regarded as one of the most important. Here, we review research on the protective role of lactoferrin administration against common viral infections. Many studies have shown the in vitro antiviral activity of lactoferrin against viral pathogens that cause common infections such as the common cold, influenza, gastroenteritis, summer cold, and herpes, where lactoferrin inhibits mainly viral attachment to the target cells. Recently, studies indicating the in vivo protective effects of lactoferrin by oral administration against common viral infections have been increasing. For instance, norovirus is an extremely important emerging human pathogen that causes a majority of gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide that may be a target candidate for lactoferrin. Lactoferrin consumption reduced the incidence of noroviral gastroenteritis in children and a similar effect was observed in a wide range of ages in a preliminary survey. A recent in vitro study reported that lactoferrin inhibits both cellular attachment of the murine norovirus, a virus closely-related to the human norovirus, and viral replication in the cells by inducing antiviral cytokines interferon (IFN)-?/?. Lactoferrin administration also enhances NK cell activity and Th1 cytokine responses, which lead to protection against viral infections. In conclusion, lactoferrin consumption may protect the host from viral infections through inhibiting the attachment of a virus to the cells, replication of the virus in the cells, and enhancement of systemic immune functions. PMID:25182867

Wakabayashi, Hiroyuki; Oda, Hirotsugu; Yamauchi, Koji; Abe, Fumiaki

2014-11-01

356

Shared Health Governance  

PubMed Central

Health and Social Justice (Ruger 2009a) developed the “health capability paradigm,” a conception of justice and health in domestic societies. This idea undergirds an alternative framework of social cooperation called “shared health governance” (SHG). SHG puts forth a set of moral responsibilities, motivational aspirations, and institutional arrangements, and apportions roles for implementation in striving for health justice. This article develops further the SHG framework and explains its importance and implications for governing health domestically. PMID:21745082

Ruger, Jennifer Prah

2014-01-01

357

Dare to Share Fairly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This iOS app from Math Playground is a visual math tool for children who are learning how to divide larger numbers. Children drag place value blocks, which model the given dividend to individual mats, which represent the divisor to demonstrate fair sharing. If needed, there is a place value exchange section and a bin for remainders. The standard division algorithm is presented for comparison.

King, Colleen

2013-06-13

358

Sharing quantum secrets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss sharing quantum secrets via optical interferometry and squeezing. A secret quantum state for a single-mode field is encoded into a multimode field as an entangled state and distributed to a set of players so that certain subsets can decode the secret states, and others cannot learn anything about the state. In particular, we discuss the (k,n)-threshold scheme for

Barry C. Sanders; Tomas Tyc; David J. Rowe

2004-01-01

359

Bonobos Share with Strangers  

PubMed Central

Humans are thought to possess a unique proclivity to share with others – including strangers. This puzzling phenomenon has led many to suggest that sharing with strangers originates from human-unique language, social norms, warfare and/or cooperative breeding. However, bonobos, our closest living relative, are highly tolerant and, in the wild, are capable of having affiliative interactions with strangers. In four experiments, we therefore examined whether bonobos will voluntarily donate food to strangers. We show that bonobos will forego their own food for the benefit of interacting with a stranger. Their prosociality is in part driven by unselfish motivation, because bonobos will even help strangers acquire out-of-reach food when no desirable social interaction is possible. However, this prosociality has its limitations because bonobos will not donate food in their possession when a social interaction is not possible. These results indicate that other-regarding preferences toward strangers are not uniquely human. Moreover, language, social norms, warfare and cooperative breeding are unnecessary for the evolution of xenophilic sharing. Instead, we propose that prosociality toward strangers initially evolves due to selection for social tolerance, allowing the expansion of individual social networks. Human social norms and language may subsequently extend this ape-like social preference to the most costly contexts. PMID:23300956

Tan, Jingzhi; Hare, Brian

2013-01-01

360

Viruses and neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are chronic degenerative diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), which affect 37 million people worldwide. As the lifespan increases, the NDs are the fourth leading cause of death in the developed countries and becoming increasingly prevalent in developing countries. Despite considerable research, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Although the large majority of studies do not show support for the involvement of pathogenic aetiology in classical NDs, a number of emerging studies show support for possible association of viruses with classical neurodegenerative diseases in humans. Space does not permit for extensive details to be discussed here on non-viral-induced neurodegenerative diseases in humans, as they are well described in literature. Viruses induce alterations and degenerations of neurons both directly and indirectly. Their ability to attack the host immune system, regions of nervous tissue implies that they can interfere with the same pathways involved in classical NDs in humans. Supporting this, many similarities between classical NDs and virus-mediated neurodegeneration (non-classical) have been shown at the anatomic, sub-cellular, genomic and proteomic levels suggesting that viruses can explain neurodegenerative disorders mechanistically. The main objective of this review is to provide readers a detailed snapshot of similarities viral and non-viral neurodegenerative diseases share, so that mechanistic pathways of neurodegeneration in human NDs can be clearly understood. Viruses can guide us to unveil these pathways in human NDs. This will further stimulate the birth of new concepts in the biological research, which is needed for gaining deeper insights into the treatment of human NDs and delineate mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration. PMID:23724961

2013-01-01

361

Reconstruction of the Transmission History of RNA Virus Outbreaks Using Full Genome Sequences: Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Bulgaria in 2011  

PubMed Central

Improvements to sequencing protocols and the development of computational phylogenetics have opened up opportunities to study the rapid evolution of RNA viruses in real time. In practical terms, these results can be combined with field data in order to reconstruct spatiotemporal scenarios that describe the origin and transmission pathways of viruses during an epidemic. In the case of notifiable diseases, such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), these analyses provide important insights into the epidemiology of field outbreaks that can support disease control programmes. This study reconstructs the origin and transmission history of the FMD outbreaks which occurred during 2011 in Burgas Province, Bulgaria, a country that had been previously FMD-free-without-vaccination since 1996. Nineteen full genome sequences (FGS) of FMD virus (FMDV) were generated and analysed, including eight representative viruses from all of the virus-positive outbreaks of the disease in the country and 11 closely-related contemporary viruses from countries in the region where FMD is endemic (Turkey and Israel). All Bulgarian sequences shared a single putative common ancestor which was closely related to the index case identified in wild boar. The closest relative from outside of Bulgaria was a FMDV collected during 2010 in Bursa (Anatolia, Turkey). Within Bulgaria, two discrete genetic clusters were detected that corresponded to two episodes of outbreaks that occurred during January and March-April 2011. The number of nucleotide substitutions that were present between, and within, these separate clusters provided evidence that undetected FMDV infection had occurred. These conclusions are supported by laboratory data that subsequently identified three additional FMDV-infected livestock premises by serosurveillance, as well as a number of antibody positive wild boar on both sides of the border with Turkish Thrace. This study highlights how FGS analysis can be used as an effective on-the-spot tool to support and help direct epidemiological investigations of field outbreaks. PMID:23226216

Valdazo-González, Begoña; Polihronova, Lilyana; Alexandrov, Tsviatko; Normann, Preben; Knowles, Nick J.; Hammond, Jef M.; Georgiev, Georgi K.; Özyörük, Fuat; Sumption, Keith J.; Belsham, Graham J.; King, Donald P.

2012-01-01

362

Phylogenetic and biological characterization of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses (Vietnam 2005) in chickens and ducks virus research  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Analysis of Asian H5N1 avian influenza (AI) virus hemagglutinin (HA) genes shows a common origin, but the virus has evolved into at least three major clades (clades 0, 1, and 2) over the last 11 years. Previous reports of Vietnam viruses have documented predominantly clade 1 viruses. Unexpectedly,...

363

Studies of two cucumber mosaic virus isolates from spinach in the winter garden area of Texas  

E-print Network

chrysanthemum aspermy virus (87, 113) because chrysanthemum is a very common host, although the virus was first described from diseased tomato plants ( 12). This virus is widespread in countries throughout the world where chrysanthemums are grown (87... group. These v1ruses are chrysanthemum mild mottle virus, which appears to be a strain of TAV, and robinia mosaic virus ( 169), presently cons1dered to be a strain of PSV ( 161). Cucumber mosaic virus deserves special treatment in this review because...

Wilson, Alphus Dan

2012-06-07

364

Human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus/hepatitis B virus co-infection in Southern Brazil: clinical and epidemiological evaluation.  

PubMed

Hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus share a similar transmission pathway and are often diagnosed in the same patient. These patients tend to have a faster progression of hepatic fibrosis. This cross-sectional study describes the demographic features and clinical profile of human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis co-infected patients in Paraná, Southern Brazil. A total of 93 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients attending a tertiary care academic hospital in Southern Brazil were included. Clinical, demographic and epidemiological data were evaluated. Hepatitis B virus and/or hepatitis C virus positive serology was found in 6.6% of patients. The anti-hepatitis C virus serum test was positive in 85% (79/93) of patients, and the infection was confirmed in 72% of the cases. Eighteen patients (19%) were human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis B virus positive (detectable HBsAg). Among co-infected patients, there was a high frequency of drug use, and investigations for the detection of co-infection were conducted late. A low number of patients were eligible for treatment and, although the response to antiretroviral therapy was good, there was a very poor response to hepatitis therapy. Our preliminary findings indicate the need for protocols aimed at systematic investigation of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, thus allowing for early detection and treatment of co-infected patients. PMID:25019374

Raboni, Sonia Mara; Tuon, Felipe Francisco; Beloto, Nayara Carvalho Polido; Demeneck, Henrique; Oliveira, Andre; Largura, Denis; Sagrado, Andressa Gervasoni; Lima, Bárbara Perdonsini; Franzoni, João Paulo; Pedroso, Maria Lucia

2014-01-01

365

Directed-Graph Epidemiological Models of Computer Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The strong analogy between biological viruses and their computational counterparts has motivated the authors to adapt the techniques of mathematical epidemiology to the study of computer virus propagation. In order to allow for the most general patterns of program sharing, a standard epidemiological model is extended by placing it on a directed graph and a combination of analysis and simulation

Jeffrey O. Kephart; Steve R. White

1991-01-01

366

Complete Genome of Hepatitis E Virus from Laboratory Ferrets  

PubMed Central

The complete genome of hepatitis E virus (HEV) from laboratory ferrets imported from the United States was identified. This virus shared only 82.4%–82.5% nt sequence identities with strains from the Netherlands, which indicated that the ferret HEV genome is genetically diverse. Some laboratory ferrets were contaminated with HEV. PMID:24655541

Yang, Tingting; Ami, Yasushi; Suzaki, Yuriko; Shirakura, Masayuki; Kishida, Noriko; Asanuma, Hideki; Takeda, Naokazu; Takaji, Wakita

2014-01-01

367

Student Perceptions of Computer Viruses: 1991 versus 1993.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparison of responses from 181 (of 196) business students surveyed in 1991 with those from 155 (of 175) surveyed in 1993 showed the latter group more aware of computer viruses and more active in detection and prevention. No differences were found in understanding of the dangers of disk sharing and of getting viruses from vendor packages. (SK)

Jones, Mary C.

1994-01-01

368

Antibodies against prM protein distinguish between previous infection with dengue and Japanese encephalitis viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In Southeast Asia, dengue viruses often co-circulate with other flaviviruses such as Japanese encephalitis virus, and due to the presence of shared antigenic epitopes it is often difficult to use serological methods to distinguish between previous infections by these flaviviruses. RESULTS: Convalescent sera from 69 individuals who were known to have had dengue or Japanese encephalitis virus infection were

Mary Jane Cardosa; Seok Mui Wang; Magdline Sia H Sum; Phaik Hooi Tio

2002-01-01

369

A Virus Attacking Lettuce and Dandelion  

Microsoft Academic Search

DURING the last three years lettuces have been seen in different parts of Britain suffering from a severe disease, the symptoms suggesting infection with a virus. The cause has now been found to be a virus that is also responsible for the chlorotic rings and spots so commonly seen in dandelion (Taraxacum officinale).

B. Kassanis

1944-01-01

370

Secret sharing using artificial neural network  

E-print Network

.................................................. 5 1.4 Dissertation Outline.................................................................. 7 II SECRET SHARING ? STATE OF THE ART.................................... 9 2.1 General Model for Secret Sharing Schemes... Builder Share holder 1 Shareholder 2 Share holder 7 Share holder 8 Share holder 3 Share holder 4Shareholder 5 Share holder 6 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 Figure 3: Share builder distribute shares to eight shareholders 12 2.1.3 Secret...

Alkharobi, Talal M.

2004-11-15

371

The Evolution of Viruses and Worms Thomas M. Chen  

E-print Network

1 The Evolution of Viruses and Worms Thomas M. Chen Dept. of Electrical Engineering SMU PO Box-marc.robert@alcatel.com Abstract - Computer viruses and network worms have evolved through a continuous series of innovations and recent outbreaks leads to a number of observations. First, while viruses were more common than worms

Chen, Thomas M.

372

Mutational escape of CD8+ T cell epitopes: implications for prevention and therapy of persistent hepatitis virus infections.  

PubMed

Over the past two decades, much has been learned about how human viruses evade T cell immunity to establish persistent infection. The lessons are particularly relevant to two hepatotropic viruses, HBV and HCV, that are very significant global public health problems. Although HCV and HBV are very different, the natural history of persistent infections with these viruses in humans shares some common features including failure of T cell immunity. During recent years, large sequence studies of HCV have characterized intra-host evolution as well as sequence diversity between hosts in great detail. Combined with studies of CD8+ T cell phenotype and function, it is now apparent that the T cell response shapes viral evolution. In turn, HCV sequence diversity influences the quality of the CD8+ T cell response and thus infection outcome. Here, we review published studies of CD8+ T cell selection pressure and mutational escape of the virus. Potential consequences for therapeutic strategies to restore T cell immunity against persistent human viruses, most notably HBV, are discussed. PMID:25537849

Timm, Joerg; Walker, Christopher M

2015-02-01

373

Extensive Mutagenesis of the Conserved Box E Motif in Duck Hepatitis B Virus P Protein Reveals Multiple Functions in Replication and a Common Structure with the Primer Grip in HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase  

PubMed Central

Hepadnaviruses, including the pathogenic hepatitis B virus (HBV), replicate their small DNA genomes through protein-primed reverse transcription, mediated by the terminal protein (TP) domain in their P proteins and an RNA stem-loop, ?, on the pregenomic RNA (pgRNA). No direct structural data are available for P proteins, but their reverse transcriptase (RT) domains contain motifs that are conserved in all RTs (box A to box G), implying a similar architecture; however, experimental support for this notion is limited. Exploiting assays available for duck HBV (DHBV) but not the HBV P protein, we assessed the functional consequences of numerous mutations in box E, which forms the DNA primer grip in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RT. This substructure coordinates primer 3?-end positioning and RT subdomain movements during the polymerization cycle and is a prime target for nonnucleosidic RT inhibitors (NNRTIs) of HIV-1 RT. Box E was indeed critical for DHBV replication, with the mutations affecting the folding, ? RNA interactions, and polymerase activity of the P protein in a position- and amino acid side chain-dependent fashion similar to that of HIV-1 RT. Structural similarity to HIV-1 RT was underlined by molecular modeling and was confirmed by the replication activity of chimeric P proteins carrying box E, or even box C to box E, from HIV-1 RT. Hence, box E in the DHBV P protein and likely the HBV P protein forms a primer grip-like structure that may provide a new target for anti-HBV NNRTIs. PMID:22514339

Wang, Yong-Xiang; Luo, Cheng; Zhao, Dan; Beck, Jürgen

2012-01-01

374

Share with Charm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SHARE with CHARM program (SHAREv3) implements the statistical hadronization model description of particle production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Given a set of statistical parameters, SHAREv3 program evaluates yields and therefore also ratios, and furthermore, statistical particle abundance fluctuations. The physical bulk properties of the particle source are evaluated based on all hadrons produced, including the fitted yields. The bulk properties can be prescribed as a fit input complementing and/or replacing the statistical parameters. The modifications and improvements in the SHARE suite of programs are oriented towards recent and forthcoming LHC hadron production results including charm hadrons. This SHAREv3 release incorporates all features seen previously in SHAREv1.x and v2.x and, beyond, we include a complete treatment of charm hadrons and their decays, which further cascade and feed lighter hadron yields. This article is a complete and self-contained manual explaining and introducing both the conventional and the extended capabilities of SHARE with CHARM. We complement the particle list derived from the Particle Data Group tabulation (Beringer, 2012) composed of up, down, strange u,d,s quarks (including resonances) with hadrons containing charm c,c¯ quarks. We provide a table of the charm hadron decays including partial widths. The branching ratios of each charm hadron decay add to unity, which is achieved by including some charm hadron decay channels based on theoretical consideration in the absence of direct experimental information. A very successful interpretation of all available LHC results has been already obtained using this program.

Petran, M.; Letessier, J.; Rafelski, J.; Torrieri, G.

2014-07-01

375

Supporting social presence through lightweight photo sharing on and off the desktop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lightweight photo sharing, particularly via mobile devices, is fast becoming a common communication medium used for maintaining a presence in the lives of friends and family. How should such systems be designed to maximize this social presence while maintaining simplicity? An experimental photo sharing system was developed and tested that, compared to current systems, offers highly simplified, group-centric sharing, automatic

Scott Counts; Eric Fellheimer

2004-01-01

376

46 CFR 535.311 - Low market share agreements-exemption.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT...a) Low market share agreement means any agreement among ocean common carriers which contains none of the...

2013-10-01

377

46 CFR 535.311 - Low market share agreements-exemption.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT...a) Low market share agreement means any agreement among ocean common carriers which contains none of the...

2012-10-01

378

46 CFR 535.311 - Low market share agreements-exemption.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT...a) Low market share agreement means any agreement among ocean common carriers which contains none of the...

2011-10-01

379

46 CFR 535.311 - Low market share agreements-exemption.  

...AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT...a) Low market share agreement means any agreement among ocean common carriers which contains none of the...

2014-10-01

380

46 CFR 535.311 - Low market share agreements-exemption.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT...a) Low market share agreement means any agreement among ocean common carriers which contains none of the...

2010-10-01

381

Wanna Share Issue 2  

E-print Network

J Welcome to SHarecon October, 1990 Welcome to WANNA SHARE? #2. And welcome to our second SHarecon of 1990. We know it's been difficult for alot of you to get to this event, just as it's been alittle difficult for us to organize it all again... s partner. TABLE OF COrfTEHTS MILES TO GO AND PROMISES TO KEEP by Ellen Morris 1 SURVIVING HEIRS OF RUSSIAN CZARS byTabby Davis 6 1 FALLING by Theresa Kyle 8 * A STORY by David Michael Starsky 11 , CANADIAN COCKTAIL by Elizabeth Lowry 14 LOCAL TALENT...

Multiple Contributors

1990-01-01

382

Sharing of drug preparation equipment as a risk factor for hepatitis C.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the sharing of drug preparation equipment as a possible route of hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission. METHODS: HCV seroconversion was measured in a cohort of 317 injection drug users who tested negative for HCV antibody at recruitment. RESULTS: Cumulative HCV incidence was 16.7% per year. Among those who did not share syringes, HCV seroconversion was associated with sharing drug cookers and filtration cotton (adjusted risk ratio = 5.9; 95% confidence interval = 1.1, 31.7); 54% of HCV infections in injection drug users who did not share syringes were attributable to cooker/cotton sharing. CONCLUSIONS: Among injection drug users who do not share syringes, an important proportion of HCV infections may be attributed to cooker/cotton sharing. PMID:11189822

Hagan, H; Thiede, H; Weiss, N S; Hopkins, S G; Duchin, J S; Alexander, E R

2001-01-01

383

Fractions: How to Fair Share  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children learn from a very early age what it means to get their "fair share." Whether it is candy or birthday cake, many children successfully create equal-size groups or parts of a collection or whole but later struggle to create fair shares of multiple wholes, such as fairly sharing four pies among a family of seven. Recent research suggests…

Wilson, P. Holt; Edgington, Cynthia P.; Nguyen, Kenny H.; Pescosolido, Ryan S.; Confrey, Jere

2011-01-01

384

School Nurses Share a Job.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Job sharing is a relatively new idea in which two or more people share the hours, the work, and the responsibilities of one job. Advantages and disadvantages to this situation are discussed in relation to the experiences of two nurses who shared a position as district nurse. (JN)

Merwin, Elizabeth G.; Voss, Sondra

1981-01-01

385

Assured Information Sharing Life Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes our approach to assured information sharing. The research is being carried out under a MURI 9Multiuniversity Research Initiative) project funded by the air force office of scientific research (AFOSR). The main objective of our project is: define, design and develop an assured information sharing lifecycle (AISL) that realizes the DoD's information sharing value chain. In this paper

Tim Finin; Anupam Joshi; Hillol Kargupta; Yelena Yesha; Joel Sachs; Elisa Bertino; Ninghui Li; Chris Clifton; Gene Spafford; Bhavani M. Thuraisingham; Murat Kantarcioglu; Alain Bensoussan; Nathan Berg; Latifur Khan; Jiawei Han; ChengXiang Zhai; Ravi S. Sandhu; Shouhuai Xu; Jim Massaro; Lada A. Adamic

2009-01-01

386

Food Sharing and Social Cognition  

E-print Network

is shared with infants by conspecific 305 helpers68. The shared food tends to consist of invertebrates and the quantity of the food shared 306 is linked to the offspring’s life time reproductive success69. A significant proportion of an adult 307 meerkat...

Legg, Edward William; Ostoji?, Ljerka; Clayton, Nicola Susan

2014-12-03

387

Lagos Bat Virus in Kenya?  

PubMed Central

During lyssavirus surveillance, 1,221 bats of at least 30 species were collected from 25 locations in Kenya. One isolate of Lagos bat virus (LBV) was obtained from a dead Eidolon helvum fruit bat. The virus was most similar phylogenetically to LBV isolates from Senegal (1985) and from France (imported from Togo or Egypt; 1999), sharing with these viruses 100% nucleoprotein identity and 99.8 to 100% glycoprotein identity. This genome conservancy across space and time suggests that LBV is well adapted to its natural host species and that populations of reservoir hosts in eastern and western Africa have sufficient interactions to share pathogens. High virus concentrations, in addition to being detected in the brain, were detected in the salivary glands and tongue and in an oral swab, suggesting that LBV is transmitted in the saliva. In other extraneural organs, the virus was generally associated with innervations and ganglia. The presence of infectious virus in the reproductive tract and in a vaginal swab implies an alternative opportunity for transmission. The isolate was pathogenic for laboratory mice by the intracerebral and intramuscular routes. Serologic screening demonstrated the presence of LBV-neutralizing antibodies in E. helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus fruit bats. In different colonies the seroprevalence ranged from 40 to 67% and 29 to 46% for E. helvum and R. aegyptiacus, respectively. Nested reverse transcription-PCR did not reveal the presence of viral RNA in oral swabs of bats in the absence of brain infection. Several large bat roosts were identified in areas of dense human populations, raising public health concerns for the potential of lyssavirus infection. PMID:18305130

Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Niezgoda, Michael; Franka, Richard; Agwanda, Bernard; Markotter, Wanda; Beagley, Janet C.; Urazova, Olga Y.; Breiman, Robert F.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

2008-01-01

388

Hendra virus.  

PubMed

Hendra virus infection of horses occurred sporadically between 1994 and 2010 as a result of spill-over from the viral reservoir in Australian mainland flying-foxes, and occasional onward transmission to people also followed from exposure to affected horses. An unprecedented number of outbreaks were recorded in 2011 leading to heightened community concern. Release of an inactivated subunit vaccine for horses against Hendra virus represents the first commercially available product that is focused on mitigating the impact of a Biosafety Level 4 pathogen. Through preventing the development of acute Hendra virus disease in horses, vaccine use is also expected to reduce the risk of transmission of infection to people. PMID:25281398

Middleton, Deborah

2014-12-01

389

Computer viruses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The worm, Trojan horse, bacterium, and virus are destructive programs that attack information stored in a computer's memory. Virus programs, which propagate by incorporating copies of themselves into other programs, are a growing menace in the late-1980s world of unprotected, networked workstations and personal computers. Limited immunity is offered by memory protection hardware, digitally authenticated object programs,and antibody programs that kill specific viruses. Additional immunity can be gained from the practice of digital hygiene, primarily the refusal to use software from untrusted sources. Full immunity requires attention in a social dimension, the accountability of programmers.

Denning, Peter J.

1988-01-01

390

Efficient vaccine against the virus causing a lethal disease in cultured Cyprinus carpio  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have isolated a virus, which causes a mortal disease in cultured ornamental Koi and Common carps (Cyprinus carpio) in many countries worldwide. This unclassified virus, which causes nephritis and gill necrosis, and so has been given the name carp nephritis and gill necrosis virus (CNGV), has a morphology resembling the herpes virus, but bears a genomic DNA of ca

Ariel Ronen; Ayana Perelberg; Julia Abramowitz; Marina Hutoran; Simon Tinman; Izhak Bejerano; Michael Steinitz; Moshe Kotler

2003-01-01

391

Improved detection of human enteric viruses in foods by RT-PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human enteric viruses (including hepatitis A virus (HAV) and Norwalk-like viruses (NLVs)) are now recognized as common causes of foodborne disease. While methods to detect these agents in clinical specimens have improved significantly over the last 10 years, applications to food samples have progressed more slowly. In an effort to improve the sensitivity and speed of virus detection from non-shellfish

Arnie I Sair; Doris H D'Souza; Christine L Moe; Lee-Ann Jaykus

2002-01-01

392

Analysis of the RdRp, intergenic and structural polyprotein regions, and the complete genome sequence of Kashmir bee virus from infected honeybees (Apis mellifera) in Korea.  

PubMed

Kashmir bee virus (KBV) is one of the most common viral infections in honeybees. In this study, a phylogenetic analysis was performed using nine partial nucleotide sequences of RdRp and the structural polyprotein regions of South Korean KBV genotypes, as well as nine previously reported KBV genotypes from various countries and two closely related genotypes of Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) and Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV). The Korean KBV genotypes were highly conserved with 94-99 % shared identity, but they also shared 88-95 % identity with genotypes from various countries, and they formed a separate KBV cluster in the phylogenetic tree. The complete genome sequence of Korean KBV was also determined and aligned with previously reported complete reference genome sequences of KBV, IAPV, and ABPV to compare different genomic regions. The complete Korean KBV genome shared 93, 79, and 71 % similarity with the complete reference genomes of KBV, IAPV, and ABPV, respectively. The Korean KBV was highly conserved relative to the reference KBV genomes in the intergenic and 3' untranslated region (UTR), but it had a highly variable 5' UTR, whereas there was little divergence in the helicase and 3C-protease of the nonstructural protein, and the external domains of the structural polyprotein region. Thus, genetic recombination and geographical distance may explain the genomic variations between the Korean and reference KBV genotypes. PMID:24824301

Reddy, Kondreddy Eswar; Yoo, Mi-Sun; Kim, Young-Ha; Kim, Nam-Hee; Jung, Ha-Na; Thao, Le Thi Bich; Ramya, Mummadireddy; Doan, Huong Thi Thanh; Nguyen, Lien Thi Kim; Jung, Suk-Chan; Kang, Seung-Won

2014-08-01

393

Inefficient Noncooperation in Networking Games of Common-Pool Resources  

E-print Network

for sharing resources of a common pool among users, wherein each user strives to maximize its own utility1 Inefficient Noncooperation in Networking Games of Common-Pool Resources Hisao Kameda, Fellow equilibrium is Pareto inefficient, which are similar to the `tragedy of the commons' in economics. As examples

394

A formal test of the theory of universal common ancestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Universal common ancestry (UCA) is a central pillar of modern evolutionary theory. As first suggested by Darwin, the theory of UCA posits that all extant terrestrial organisms share a common genetic heritage, each being the genealogical descendant of a single species from the distant past. The classic evidence for UCA, although massive, is largely restricted to `local' common ancestry-for example,

Douglas L. Theobald

2010-01-01

395

Tools for the Common Core Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bill McCallum, a leader in the development of the Common Core State Standards for mathematics, maintains this blog to share news about the progress of some tools and projects being developed to support implementation of the CCSS. From the Tools page he has linked a downloadable hyperlinked version of the mathematics standards, which facilitates navigation.

396

Tragedy of the commons in Melipona bees  

E-print Network

on a TOC occurring in Melipona bee societies. Keywords: caste conflict; tragedy of the commons; stingless that rational individuals benefit from increasing their share, even if this depletes the resource on which females from developing into queens by controlling their access to food (`nutritional caste determination

Wenseleers, Tom

397

Origin of giant viruses from smaller DNA viruses not from a fourth domain of cellular life.  

PubMed

The numerous and diverse eukaryotic viruses with large double-stranded DNA genomes that at least partially reproduce in the cytoplasm of infected cells apparently evolved from a single virus ancestor. This major group of viruses is known as Nucleocytoplasmic Large DNA Viruses (NCLDV) or the proposed order Megavirales. Among the "Megavirales", there are three groups of giant viruses with genomes exceeding 500kb, namely Mimiviruses, Pithoviruses, and Pandoraviruses that hold the current record of viral genome size, about 2.5Mb. Phylogenetic analysis of conserved, ancestral NLCDV genes clearly shows that these three groups of giant viruses have three distinct origins within the "Megavirales". The Mimiviruses constitute a distinct family that is distantly related to Phycodnaviridae, Pandoraviruses originate from a common ancestor with Coccolithoviruses within the Phycodnaviridae family, and Pithoviruses are related to Iridoviridae and Marseilleviridae. Maximum likelihood reconstruction of gene gain and loss events during the evolution of the "Megavirales" indicates that each group of giant viruses evolved from viruses with substantially smaller and simpler gene repertoires. Initial phylogenetic analysis of universal genes, such as translation system components, encoded by some giant viruses, in particular Mimiviruses, has led to the hypothesis that giant viruses descend from a fourth, probably extinct domain of cellular life. The results of our comprehensive phylogenomic analysis of giant viruses refute the fourth domain hypothesis and instead indicate that the universal genes have been independently acquired by different giant viruses from their eukaryotic hosts. PMID:25042053

Yutin, Natalya; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V

2014-10-01

398

Sharing a disparate landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Working across boundaries of power, identity, and political geography is fraught with difficulties and contradictions. In Tali Tal and Iris Alkaher's, " Collaborative environmental projects in a multicultural society: Working from within separate or mutual landscapes?" the authors describe their efforts to do this in the highly charged atmosphere of Israel. This forum article offers a response to their efforts. Writing from a framework of critical pedagogy, I use the concepts of space and time to anchor my analysis, as I examine the issue of power in this Jew/Arab collaborative environmental project. This response problematizes "sharing" in a landscape fraught with disparities. It also looks to further Tal and Alkaher's work by geographically and politically grounding it in the broader current conflict and by juxtaposing sustainability with equity.

Ali-Khan, Carolyne

2010-06-01

399

SHARED TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER PROGRAM  

SciTech Connect

The program established a collaborative process with domestic industries for the purpose of sharing Navy-developed technology. Private sector businesses were educated so as to increase their awareness of the vast amount of technologies that are available, with an initial focus on technology applications that are related to the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies (Hydrogen) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. Specifically, the project worked to increase industry awareness of the vast technology resources available to them that have been developed with taxpayer funding. NAVSEA-Carderock and the Houston Advanced Research Center teamed with Nicholls State University to catalog NAVSEA-Carderock unclassified technologies, rated the level of readiness of the technologies and established a web based catalog of the technologies. In particular, the catalog contains technology descriptions, including testing summaries and overviews of related presentations.

GRIFFIN, JOHN M. HAUT, RICHARD C.

2008-03-07

400

West Nile Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... virus is a virus that can infect humans, birds, horses and mosquitoes. Infection from this virus is ... spread by mosquitoes. Mosquitoes become infected by biting birds that carry the virus. People can get West ...

401

Simulation analysis of data sharing in shared-memory multiprocessors  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation examines shared memory reference patterns in parallel programs that run on bus-based, shared memory multiprocessors. The study reveals two distinct modes of sharing behavior. In sequential sharing, a processor makes multiple, sequential writes to the words within a block, uninterrupted by accesses from other processors. Under fine-grain sharing, processors contend for these words, and the number of per-processor sequential writes is low. Whether a program exhibits sequential of fine-grain sharing affects several factors relating to multiprocessor performance: the accuracy of sharing models that predict cache coherency overhead, the cache miss ratio and bus utilization of parallel programs, and the choice of coherency protocol. An architecture-independent model of write sharing was developed, based on the inter-processor activity to write-shared data. The model was used to predict the relative coherency overhead of write-invalidate and write-broadcast protocols. Architecturally detailed simulations validated the model for write-broadcast. Successive refinements, incorporating architecture-dependent parameters, most importantly cache block size, produced acceptable predictions for write-invalidate. Block size was crucial for modeling write-invalidate, because the pattern of memory references within a block determines protocol performance. The cache and bus behavior of parallel programs running under write-invalidate protocols was evaluated over various block and cache sizes. The analysis determined the effect of shared memory accesses on cache miss ratio and bus utilization by focusing on the sharing component of these metrics. The studies show that parallel programs incur substantially higher miss ratios and bus utilization than comparable uniprocessor programs. The sharing component of the metrics proportionally increases with cache and block size.

Eggers, S.J.

1989-01-01

402

Data sharing in neuroimaging research  

PubMed Central

Significant resources around the world have been invested in neuroimaging studies of brain function and disease. Easier access to this large body of work should have profound impact on research in cognitive neuroscience and psychiatry, leading to advances in the diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric and neurological disease. A trend toward increased sharing of neuroimaging data has emerged in recent years. Nevertheless, a number of barriers continue to impede momentum. Many researchers and institutions remain uncertain about how to share data or lack the tools and expertise to participate in data sharing. The use of electronic data capture (EDC) methods for neuroimaging greatly simplifies the task of data collection and has the potential to help standardize many aspects of data sharing. We review here the motivations for sharing neuroimaging data, the current data sharing landscape, and the sociological or technical barriers that still need to be addressed. The INCF Task Force on Neuroimaging Datasharing, in conjunction with several collaborative groups around the world, has started work on several tools to ease and eventually automate the practice of data sharing. It is hoped that such tools will allow researchers to easily share raw, processed, and derived neuroimaging data, with appropriate metadata and provenance records, and will improve the reproducibility of neuroimaging studies. By providing seamless integration of data sharing and analysis tools within a commodity research environment, the Task Force seeks to identify and minimize barriers to data sharing in the field of neuroimaging. PMID:22493576

Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Breeze, Janis L.; Ghosh, Satrajit; Gorgolewski, Krzysztof; Halchenko, Yaroslav O.; Hanke, Michael; Haselgrove, Christian; Helmer, Karl G.; Keator, David B.; Marcus, Daniel S.; Poldrack, Russell A.; Schwartz, Yannick; Ashburner, John; Kennedy, David N.

2012-01-01

403

Lateral Gene Transfer of Family A DNA Polymerases between Thermophilic Viruses, Aquificae, and Apicomplexa  

PubMed Central

Bioinformatics and functional screens identified a group of Family A-type DNA Polymerase (polA) genes encoded by viruses inhabiting circumneutral and alkaline hot springs in Yellowstone National Park and the US Great Basin. The proteins encoded by these viral polA genes (PolAs) shared no significant sequence similarity with any known viral proteins but were remarkably similar to PolAs encoded by two of three families of the bacterial phylum Aquificae and by several apicoplast-targeted PolA-like proteins found in the eukaryotic phylum Apicomplexa, which includes the obligate parasites Plasmodium, Babesia, and Toxoplasma. The viral gene products share signature elements previously associated only with Aquificae and Apicomplexa PolA-like proteins and were similar to proteins encoded by prophage elements of a variety of otherwise unrelated Bacteria, each of which additionally encoded a prototypical bacterial PolA. Unique among known viral DNA polymerases, the viral PolA proteins of this study share with the Apicomplexa proteins large amino-terminal domains with putative helicase/primase elements but low primary sequence similarity. The genomic context and distribution, phylogeny, and biochemistry of these PolA proteins suggest that thermophilic viruses transferred polA genes to the Apicomplexa, likely through secondary endosymbiosis of a virus-infected proto-apicoplast, and to the common ancestor of two of three Aquificae families, where they displaced the orthologous cellular polA gene. On the basis of biochemical activity, gene structure, and sequence similarity, we speculate that the xenologous viral-type polA genes may have functions associated with diversity-generating recombination in both Bacteria and Apicomplexa. PMID:23608703

Schoenfeld, Thomas W.; Murugapiran, Senthil K.; Dodsworth, Jeremy A.; Floyd, Sally; Lodes, Michael; Mead, David A.; Hedlund, Brian P.

2013-01-01

404

Who Let the Virus In?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fifty-second monthly installment of our "What A Year!" website project, introducing life science breakthroughs to middle and high school students and their teachers. Respiratory syncytial virus, RSV for short, is so common that almost every child in the United States under two years of age has been infected once, and that half of children under three have been infected at least twice.

2011-11-01

405

Prevalence of antibodies against Saint Louis encephalitis and Jamestown Canyon viruses in California horses.  

PubMed

Jamestown Canyon (JC) and Saint Louis encephalitis (SLE) viruses are mosquito-transmitted viruses that have long been present in California. The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of these two viruses in horses prior to the introduction of West Nile (WN) virus. Approximately 15% of serum samples collected in 1998 from 425 horses on 44 equine operations horses throughout California had serum antibodies to JC virus, whereas antibodies were not detected to SLE virus. The results indicate that horses in California were commonly infected prior to 1998 with mosquito-transmitted Bunyaviruses that are identical or closely related to JC virus, but not with SLE virus. The different seroprevalence of SLE and JC viruses in horses likely reflects the unique ecology of each virus, and it is predicted that WN virus will have a wider distribution in California than closely related SLE virus. PMID:15001316

Nelson, Dana M; Gardner, Ian A; Chiles, Robert F; Balasuriya, Udeni B; Eldridge, Bruce F; Scott, Thomas W; Reisen, William K; Maclachlan, N James

2004-05-01

406

Vaccination Can Cut Rates of Common Infection in Infants  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Vaccination Can Cut Rates of Common Infection in Infants ... However, a new U.S. study finds that widespread vaccination against rotavirus cuts children's rates of infection. In ...

407

Sharing the Preservation Burden  

SciTech Connect

Preserving digitally encoded information which is not just to be rendered, as a document, but which must processed, like data, is even harder than one might think, because understandability of the information which is encoded in the digital object(s) is what is required. Information about Nuclear Waste will include both documents as well as data. Moreover one must be able to understand the relationship between the many individual pieces of information. Furthermore the volume of information involved will require us to allow automated processing of such information. Preserving the ability to understand and process digitally encoded information over long periods of time is especially hard when so many things will change, including hardware, software, environment and the tacit and implicit knowledge that people have. Since we cannot predict these changes this cannot be just a one-off action; continued effort is required. However it seems reasonable to say that no organization, project or person can ever say for certain that their ability to provide this effort is going to last forever. What can be done? Can anything be guaranteed? Probably not guaranteed - but at least one can try to reduce the risk of losing the information. We argue that if no single organization, project or person can guarantee funding or effort (or even interest), then somehow we must share the 'preservation load', and this is more than a simple chain of preservation consisting of handing on the collection of bits from one holder to the next. Clearly the bits must be passed on (but may be transformed along the way), however something more is required - because of the need to maintain understandability, not just access. This paper describes the tools, techniques and infrastructure components which the CASPAR project is producing to help in sharing the preservation burden. In summary: CASPAR is attempting to use OAIS concepts rigorously and to the fullest extent possible, supplementing these where appropriate. Based on these fundamental ideas about digital preservation, a number of components, tools and techniques are being created in order to provide a broadly applicable infrastructure to allow the spreading of the burden of preserving the understandability and usability of digitally encoded information. In the process the limits of the applicability of these OAIS concepts are themselves being tested. Most importantly a number of validation metrics have been produced. Further details are available from the CASPAR web site http://www.casparpreserves.eu. (authors)

Giaretta, D. [STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

2008-07-01

408

Posture sharing in dyadic interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of posture sharing in the development of a positive relationship is generally acknowledged as a critical aspect of\\u000a dance therapy. Often noted is the distinction between “mimicking” of body positions and “sharing” of movement quality (effort\\u000a in Laban’s Effort system). This experiment investigates posture sharing in an interview dyad, defining the movement unit so\\u000a that it includes not

Davida Navarre

1982-01-01

409

Chimeric viruses containing the N-terminal ectodomains of GP5 and M proteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome do not change the cellular tropism of equine arteritis virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Equine arteritis virus (EAV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are members of family Arteriviridae; they share many biological properties but differ significantly in cellular tropism. Using an infectious cDNA clone of EAV, we engineered a panel of six chimeric viruses b...

410

Common Waste and Materials  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Wastes Resource Conservation Common Wastes & Materials Common Waste and Materials Related Links Universal Waste Comprehensive Procurement Guidelines (CPG) Environmentally Preferable Purchasing (EPP) ...

411

Common sense representations of common illnesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from 320 undergraduates provide evidence that common sense representations of common illnesses involve 5 components: (1) a label, (2) consequences, (3) a time line, (4) a cause, and (5) a cure. The content of schemas for a person's most recent illness is shown to have small but significant effects on changes in health locus of control beliefs but not

Richard R. Lau; Karen A. Hartman

1983-01-01

412

Recombinant Marek's disease virus (MDV) lacking Meq oncogene confers protection against challenge with a very virulent plus strain of MDV  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Marek’s disease virus (MDV) encodes a basic leucine-zipper protein, Meq that shares homology with Jun/Fos family of transcriptional factors. Evidence that Meq is an oncogene of MDV came from the recent studies of a Meq-null virus, rMd5'Meq. This virus replicated well in vitro, but was non-oncogenic ...

413

Another Really, Really Big Virus  

PubMed Central

Viruses with genomes larger than 300 kb and up to 1.2 Mb, which encode hundreds of proteins, are being discovered and characterized with increasing frequency. Most, but not all, of these large viruses (often referred to as giruses) infect protists that live in aqueous environments. Bioinformatic analyses of metagenomes of aqueous samples indicate that large DNA viruses are quite common in nature and await discovery. One issue that is perhaps not appreciated by the virology community is that large viruses, even those classified in the same family, can differ significantly in morphology, lifestyle, and gene complement. This brief commentary, which will mention some of these unique properties, was stimulated by the characterization of the newest member of this club, virus CroV (Fischer, M.G.; Allen, M.J.; Wilson, W.H.; Suttle, C.A. Giant virus with a remarkable complement of genes infects marine zooplankton. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2010, 107, 19508–19513 [1]). CroV has a 730 kb genome (with ?544 protein-encoding genes) and infects the marine microzooplankton Cafeteria roenbergensis producing a lytic infection. PMID:21994725

Van Etten, James L.

2011-01-01

414

A DNA Virus of Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the viruses infecting most species. Even in groups as well-studied as Drosophila, only a handful of viruses have been well-characterized. A viral metagenomic approach was used to explore viral diversity in 83 wild-caught Drosophila innubila, a mushroom feeding member of the quinaria group. A single fly that was injected with, and died from, Drosophila C Virus (DCV) was added to the sample as a control. Two-thirds of reads in the infected sample had DCV as the best BLAST hit, suggesting that the protocol developed is highly sensitive. In addition to the DCV hits, several sequences had Oryctes rhinoceros Nudivirus, a double-stranded DNA virus, as a best BLAST hit. The virus associated with these sequences was termed Drosophila innubila Nudivirus (DiNV). PCR screens of natural populations showed that DiNV was both common and widespread taxonomically and geographically. Electron microscopy confirms the presence of virions in fly fecal material similar in structure to other described Nudiviruses. In 2 species, D. innubila and D. falleni, the virus is associated with a severe (?80–90%) loss of fecundity and significantly decreased lifespan. PMID:22053195

Unckless, Robert L.

2011-01-01

415

The Effects of Task Structure on Time-sharing Efficiency and Resource Allocation Optimality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A distinction was made between two aspects of time sharing performance: time sharing efficiency and attention allocation optimality. A secondary task technique was employed to evaluate the effects of the task structures of the component time shared tasks on both aspects of the time sharing performance. Five pairs of dual tasks differing in their structural configurations were investigated. The primary task was a visual/manual tracking task which requires spatial processing. The secondary task was either another tracking task or a verbal memory task with one of four different input/output configurations. Congruent to a common finding, time-sharing efficiency was observed to decrease with an increasing overlap of resources utilized by the time shared tasks. Research also tends to support the hypothesis that resource allocation is more optimal when the time shared tasks placed heavy demands on common processing resources than when they utilized separate resources.

Tsang, P. S.; Wickens, C. D.

1984-01-01

416

Speakers' Use of Interactive Gestures as Markers of Common Ground  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This study experimentally manipulates common ground (the knowledge, beliefs and assumptions interlocutors mutually share [6])\\u000a and measures the effect on speakers’ use of interactive gestures to mark common ground. The data consist of narratives based\\u000a on a video of which selected scenes were known to both speaker and addressee (common ground condition) or to only the speaker\\u000a (no common ground

Judith Holler

2009-01-01

417

Bed sharing and the sudden infant death syndrome.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To determine whether infants who died of the sudden infant death syndrome routinely shared their parents' bed more commonly than control infants. DESIGN--Case-control study. SETTING--Southern California. SUBJECTS--200 white, African-American, Latin American, and Asian infants who died and 200 living controls, matched by birth hospital, date of birth, sex, and race. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Routine bedding (for example, crib, cradle), day and night time sleeping arrangement (for example, alone or sharing a bed); for cases only, sleeping arrangement at death. Differences in bed sharing practices among races. RESULTS--Of the infants who died of the syndrome, 45 (22.4%) were sharing a bed. Daytime bed sharing was more common in African-American (P < 0.001) and Latin American families (P < 0.001) than in white families. The overall adjusted odds ratio for the syndrome and routine bed sharing in the daytime was 1.38 (95% confidence interval 0.59 to 3.22) and for night was 1.21 (0.59 to 2.48). These odds ratios were adjusted for routine sleep position, passive smoking, breast feeding, intercom use, infant birth weight, medical conditions at birth, and maternal age and education. There was no interaction between bed sharing and passive smoking or alcohol use by either parent. CONCLUSIONS--Although there was a significant difference between bed sharing among African-American and Latin American parents compared with white parents, there was no significant relation between routine bed sharing and the sudden infant death syndrome. PMID:7496236

Klonoff-Cohen, H.; Edelstein, S. L.

1995-01-01

418

Limited Delegation (Without Sharing Secrets)  

E-print Network

page... In a situation like that the small man tries to pick the big man's brains. -Raymond Chandler for being amusing, sharing their opinions often without being asked, and keeping the coffee machine running thoughts. For example, sharing passwords can be surprisingly useful. Sometimes your computer breaks down

419

Information Sharing in Credit Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present a model with adverse selection where information sharing between lenders arises endogenously. Lenders' incentives to share information about borrowers are positively related to the mobility and heterogeneity of borrowers, to the size of the credit market, and to advances in information technology; such incentives are instead reduced by the fear of competition from potential entrants. In addition,

Marco Pagano; Tullio Jappelli

1993-01-01

420

Sharing Space Situational Awareness Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Commander, United States Strategic Command (CDRUSSTRATCOM) accepted responsibility for sharing space situational awareness (SSA) information\\/services with commercial & foreign entities from the US Air Force on 22 Dec 09 (formerly the Commercial & Foreign Entities Pilot Program). The requirement to share SSA services with non-US Government (USG) entities is derived from Title 10, United States Code, Section 2274 (2010)

D. Bird

2010-01-01

421

Different Approaches to Shared Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Divided into four major sections, this collection of articles addresses the sharing of services in California by school districts or by districts and other agencies. The section on advertising and recruitment makes a case for districts to share in the purchase of employment ads or in the hiring of a recruiter. A reprint of an article about a…

Hall, Calvin W.

422

47 CFR 25.259 - Time sharing between NOAA meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-geostationary...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...259 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25...sharing between NOAA meteorological satellite systems and non-voice,...

2012-10-01

423

47 CFR 25.259 - Time sharing between NOAA meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-geostationary...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...259 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25...sharing between NOAA meteorological satellite systems and non-voice,...

2013-10-01

424

47 CFR 25.259 - Time sharing between NOAA meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-geostationary...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...259 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25...sharing between NOAA meteorological satellite systems and non-voice,...

2011-10-01

425

47 CFR 25.259 - Time sharing between NOAA meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-geostationary...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...259 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25...sharing between NOAA meteorological satellite systems and non-voice,...

2010-10-01

426

Dominant resistance against plant viruses  

PubMed Central

To establish a successful infection plant viruses have to overcome a defense system composed of several layers. This review will overview the various strategies plants employ to combat viral infections with main emphasis on the current status of single dominant resistance (R) genes identified against plant viruses and the corresponding avirulence (Avr) genes identified so far. The most common models to explain the mode of action of dominant R genes will be presented. Finally, in brief the hypersensitive response (HR) and extreme resistance (ER), and the functional and structural similarity of R genes to sensors of innate immunity in mammalian cell systems will be described. PMID:25018765

de Ronde, Dryas; Butterbach, Patrick; Kormelink, Richard

2014-01-01

427

Virus Information Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Symantec Corporation's AntiVirus Research Center has recently released a virus information database that includes over 10,000 computer viruses. The searchable and browseable database can include information about aliases for each virus, infection length, area of infection, likelihood of infection, region reported, characteristics, target platform and target date, in addition to a brief description of how the virus works. The site also provides a basic tutorial on viruses. Symantec, under the Norton name, produces several anti-virus products.

428

Virus and Spam Protection Virus Protection  

E-print Network

Virus and Spam Protection Virus Protection On November 14, 2002, we installed software that detects and protects our I-Mail from viruses. This software works in the following way: If someone sends a piece, for some reason, actually wants the quarantined file we will make this (virus infected) file available

California at Santa Barbara, University of

429

DIVA vaccination strategies for avian influenza virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vaccination for both low pathogenic and highly pathogenic avian influenza is commonly used for countries that have been endemic for avian influenza influenza virus, but stamping out policies are common for countries that are normally free of the disease. Stamping out policies of euthanizing infecte...

430

Characterisation of three novel giant viruses reveals huge diversity among viruses infecting Prymnesiales (Haptophyta).  

PubMed

We have isolated three novel lytic dsDNA-viruses from Raunefjorden (Norway) that are putative members of the Mimiviridae family, namely Haptolina ericina virus RF02 (HeV RF02), Prymnesium kappa virus RF01 (PkV RF01), and Prymnesium kappa virus RF02 (PkV RF02). Each of the novel haptophyte viruses challenges the common conceptions of algal viruses with respect to host range, phylogenetic affiliation and size. PkV RF01 has a capsid of ~310 nm and is the largest algal virus particle ever reported while PkV RF01 and HeV RF02 were able to infect different species, even belonging to different genera. Moreover, PkV RF01 and HeV RF02 infected the same hosts, but phylogenetic analysis placed them in different groups. Our results reveal large variation among viruses infecting closely related microalgae, and challenge the common conception that algal viruses have narrow host range, and phylogeny reflecting their host affiliation. PMID:25546253

Johannessen, Torill Vik; Bratbak, Gunnar; Larsen, Aud; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Egge, Elianne S; Edvardsen, Bente; Eikrem, Wenche; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne

2015-02-01

431

Plant virus HC-Pro is a determinant of eriophyid mite transmission.  

PubMed

The eriophyid mite transmitted Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV; genus Tritimovirus, family Potyviridae) shares a common genome organization with aphid transmitted species of the genus Potyvirus. Although both tritimoviruses and potyviruses encode helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) homologues (required for nonpersistent aphid transmission of potyviruses), sequence conservation is low (amino acid identity, approximately 16%), and a role for HC-Pro in semipersistent transmission of WSMV by the wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella [Keifer]) has not been investigated. Wheat curl mite transmissibility was abolished by replacement of WSMV HC-Pro with homologues of an aphid transmitted potyvirus (Turnip mosaic virus), a rymovirus (Agropyron mosaic virus) vectored by a different eriophyid mite, or a closely related tritimovirus (Oat necrotic mottle virus; ONMV) with no known vector. In contrast, both WSMV-Sidney 81 and a chimeric WSMV genome bearing HC-Pro of a divergent strain (WSMV-El Batán 3; 86% amino acid sequence identity) were efficiently transmitted by A. tosichella. Replacing portions of WSMV-Sidney 81 HC-Pro with the corresponding regions from ONMV showed that determinants of wheat curl mite transmission map to the 5'-proximal half of HC-Pro. WSMV genomes bearing HC-Pro of heterologous species retained the ability to form virions, indicating that loss of vector transmissibility was not a result of failure to encapsidate. Although titer in systemically infected leaves was reduced for all chimeric genomes relative to WSMV-Sidney 81, titer was not correlated with loss of vector transmissibility. Collectively, these results demonstrate for the first time that HC-Pro is required for virus transmission by a vector other than aphids. PMID:15994799

Stenger, Drake C; Hein, Gary L; Gildow, Frederick E; Horken, Kempton M; French, Roy

2005-07-01

432

Plant Virus HC-Pro Is a Determinant of Eriophyid Mite Transmission  

PubMed Central

The eriophyid mite transmitted Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV; genus Tritimovirus, family Potyviridae) shares a common genome organization with aphid transmitted species of the genus Potyvirus. Although both tritimoviruses and potyviruses encode helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) homologues (required for nonpersistent aphid transmission of potyviruses), sequence conservation is low (amino acid identity, ?16%), and a role for HC-Pro in semipersistent transmission of WSMV by the wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella [Keifer]) has not been investigated. Wheat curl mite transmissibility was abolished by replacement of WSMV HC-Pro with homologues of an aphid transmitted potyvirus (Turnip mosaic virus), a rymovirus (Agropyron mosaic virus) vectored by a different eriophyid mite, or a closely related tritimovirus (Oat necrotic mottle virus; ONMV) with no known vector. In contrast, both WSMV-Sidney 81 and a chimeric WSMV genome bearing HC-Pro of a divergent strain (WSMV-El Batán 3; 86% amino acid sequence identity) were efficiently transmitted by A. tosichella. Replacing portions of WSMV-Sidney 81 HC-Pro with the corresponding regions from ONMV showed that determinants of wheat curl mite transmission map to the 5?-proximal half of HC-Pro. WSMV genomes bearing HC-Pro of heterologous species retained the ability to form virions, indicating that loss of vector transmissibility was not a result of failure to encapsidate. Although titer in systemically infected leaves was reduced for all chimeric genomes relative to WSMV-Sidney 81, titer was not correlated with loss of vector transmissibility. Collectively, these results demonstrate for the first time that HC-Pro is required for virus transmission by a vector other than aphids. PMID:15994799

Stenger, Drake C.; Hein, Gary L.; Gildow, Frederick E.; Horken, Kempton M.; French, Roy

2005-01-01

433

Merkel cell polyomavirus: a newly discovered human virus with oncogenic potential.  

PubMed

A marked escalation in the rate of discovery of new types of human polyomavirus has occurred over the last five years largely owing to recent technological advances in their detection. Among the newly discovered viruses, Merkel Cell Polyomavirus (MCPyV or MCV) has gained the most attention due to its link with a rare human cancer. Infection with MCPyV is common in the human population, and the virus is detected in several anatomical locations, but most frequently in skin. Study of MCPyV molecular virology has been complicated by the lack of straightforward cell culture models, but recent in vitro studies are making strides towards understanding the virus life cycle, its cellular tropism, and mode of transmission. While MCPyV shares several traditional traits with other human polyomaviruses, the burst of research since its discovery reveals insight into a virus with many unique genetic and mechanistic features. The evidence for a causal link between MCPyV and the rare neuroendocrine cancer, Merkel Cell Carcinoma (MCC), is compelling. A majority of MCCs contain clonally integrated viral DNA, express viral T antigen transcripts and protein, and exhibit an addiction to the viral large T and small t antigen oncoproteins. The MCPyV large T antigen contains MCC tumor-specific mutations that ablate its replication capacity but preserve its oncogenic functions, and the small t antigen promotes an environment favorable for cap-dependent translation. The mechanisms of MCPyV-induced transformation have not been fully elucidated, but the likely etiological role of this new polyomavirus in human cancer provides a strong opportunity to expand knowledge of virus-host interactions and viral oncology. PMID:23217622

Spurgeon, Megan E; Lambert, Paul F

2013-01-01

434

Structure of the Acidianus Filamentous Virus 3 and Comparative Genomics of Related Archaeal Lipothrixviruses?  

PubMed Central

Four novel filamentous viruses with double-stranded DNA genomes, namely, Acidianus filamentous virus 3 (AFV3), AFV6, AFV7, and AFV8, have been characterized from the hyperthermophilic archaeal genus Acidianus, and they are assigned to the Betalipothrixvirus genus of the family Lipothrixviridae. The structures of the approximately 2-?m-long virions are similar, and one of them, AFV3, was studied in detail. It consists of a cylindrical envelope containing globular subunits arranged in a helical formation that is unique for any known double-stranded DNA virus. The envelope is 3.1 nm thick and encases an inner core with two parallel rows of protein subunits arranged like a zipper. Each end of the virion is tapered and carries three short filaments. Two major structural proteins were identified as being common to all betalipothrixviruses. The viral genomes were sequenced and analyzed, and they reveal a high level of conservation in both gene content and gene order over large regions, with this similarity extending partly to the earlier described betalipothrixvirus Sulfolobus islandicus filamentous virus. A few predicted gene products of each virus, in addition to the structural proteins, could be assigned specific functions, including a putative helicase involved in Holliday junction branch migration, a nuclease, a protein phosphatase, transcriptional regulators, and glycosyltransferases. The AFV7 genome appears to have undergone intergenomic recombination with a large section of an AFV2-like viral genome, apparently resulting in phenotypic changes, as revealed by the presence of AFV2-like termini in the AFV7 virions. Shared features of the genomes include (i) large inverted terminal repeats exhibiting conserved, regularly spaced direct repeats; (ii) a highly conserved operon encoding the two major structural proteins; (iii) multiple overlapping open reading frames, which may be indicative of gene recoding; (iv) putative 12-bp genetic elements; and (v) partial gene sequences corresponding closely to spacer sequences of chromosomal repeat clusters. PMID:17942536

Vestergaard, Gisle; Aramayo, Ricardo; Basta, Tamara; Häring, Monika; Peng, Xu; Brügger, Kim; Chen, Lanming; Rachel, Reinhard; Boisset, Nicolas; Garrett, Roger A.; Prangishvili, David

2008-01-01

435

Rate of divergence of cellular sequences homologous to segments of Moloney sarcoma virus.  

PubMed Central

The RNA genome of the Moloney isolate of murine sarcoma virus (M-MSV) consists of two parts--a sarcoma-specific region with no homology to known leukemia viral RNAs, and a shared region present also in Moloney murine leukemia virus RNA. Complementary DNA was isolated which was specific for each part of the M-MSV genome. The DNA of a number of mammalian species was examined for the presence of nucleotide sequences homologous with the two M-MSV regions. Both sets of viral sequences had homologous nucleotide sequences present in normal mouse cellular DNA. MSV-specific sequences found in mouse cellular DNA closely matched those nucleotide sequences found in M-MSV as seen by comparisons of thermal denaturation profiles. In all normal mouse cells tested, the cellular set of M-MSV-specific nucleotide sequences was present in DNA as one to a few copies per cell. The rate of base substitution of M-MSV nucleotide sequences was compared with the rate of evolution of both unique sequences and the hemoglobin gene of various species. Conservation of MSV-specific nucleotide sequences among species was similar to that of mouse globin gene(s) and greater than that of average unique cellular sequences. In contrast, cellular nucleotide sequences that are homologous to the M-MSV-murine leukemia virus "common" nucleotide region were present in multiple copies in mouse cells and were less well matched, as seen by reduced melting profiles of the hybrids. The cellular common nucleotide sequences diverged very rapidly during evolution, with a base substitution rate similar to that reported for some primate and avian endogenous virogenes. The observation that two sets of covalently linked viral sequences evolved at very different rates suggests that the origin of M-MSV may be different from endogenous helper viruses and that cellular sequences homologous to MSV-specific nucleotide sequences may be important to survival. PMID:189062

Frankel, A E; Fischinger, P J

1977-01-01

436

Nobel Prizes and the emerging virus concept.  

PubMed

The existence of infectious agents smaller than bacteria was demonstrated already during the 1890s. After this discovery it took more than 50 years before a resilient definition of viruses could be given. There were separate developments of knowledge concerning plant viruses, bacterial viruses and animal viruses. In the mid-1930s, Wendell Stanley at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research at Princeton described the purification and crystallization of tobacco mosaic virus. The finding of an "infectious protein" led to him receiving a Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1946. In studies initiated at the end of the 1930s, bacteriophages were used as a model for replicating genes. They led to important insights into the unique characteristics of virus-cell interactions. However, an understanding of the chemical nature of animal virus particles and their mode of replication was slow in coming. Not until the early 1950s did tissue culture techniques become available, which allowed studies also of an extended number of animal viruses. This article discusses the emergence of concepts which eventually allowed a description of viruses. The unique real-time analyses of the state of knowledge provided by the Nobel Prize archives were used in the investigation. These archives remain secret for 50 years. Besides all of the underlying documents of the Prize to Stanley, comprehensive investigations made in the mid 1950s of Seymour E. Cohen, Max Delbrück, Alfred D. Hershey and Salvador D. Luria (the latter three received a Prize in Medicine in 1969) and of André Lwoff (he shared a Prize in Medicine with Francois Jacob and Jaques Monod in 1965) were reviewed. The final phase of the evolution of our understanding of the virus concept closely paralleled the eventual insight into the chemical nature of the genetic material. Understanding the principle nature of barriers to the development of new concepts is of timeless value for fostering and facilitating new discoveries in science. PMID:18446425

Norrby, Erling

2008-01-01

437

Social Networks Shape the Transmission Dynamics of Hepatitis C Virus  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects 170 million people worldwide, and is a major public health problem in Brazil, where over 1% of the population may be infected and where multiple viral genotypes co-circulate. Chronically infected individuals are both the source of transmission to others and are at risk for HCV-related diseases, such as liver cancer and cirrhosis. Before the adoption of anti-HCV control measures in blood banks, this virus was mainly transmitted via blood transfusion. Today, needle sharing among injecting drug users is the most common form of HCV transmission. Of particular importance is that HCV prevalence is growing in non-risk groups. Since there is no vaccine against HCV, it is important to determine the factors that control viral transmission in order to develop more efficient control measures. However, despite the health costs associated with HCV, the factors that determine the spread of virus at the epidemiological scale are often poorly understood. Here, we sequenced partial NS5b gene sequences sampled from blood samples collected from 591 patients in São Paulo state, Brazil. We show that different viral genotypes entered São Paulo at different times, grew at different rates, and are associated with different age groups and risk behaviors. In particular, subtype 1b is older and grew more slowly than subtypes 1a and 3a, and is associated with multiple age classes. In contrast, subtypes 1a and 3b are associated with younger people infected more recently, possibly with higher rates of sexual transmission. The transmission dynamics of HCV in São Paulo therefore vary by subtype and are determined by a combination of age, risk exposure and underlying social network. We conclude that social factors may play a key role in determining the rate and pattern of HCV spread, and should influence future intervention policies. PMID:20585651

Romano, Camila Malta; de Carvalho-Mello, Isabel M. V. Guedes; Jamal, Leda F.; de Melo, Fernando Lucas; Iamarino, Atila; Motoki, Marco; Pinho, João Renato Rebello; Holmes, Edward C.; de Andrade Zanotto, Paolo Marinho

2010-01-01

438

Nonlinear secret image sharing scheme.  

PubMed

Over the past decade, most of secret image sharing schemes have been proposed by using Shamir's technique. It is based on a linear combination polynomial arithmetic. Although Shamir's technique based secret image sharing schemes are efficient and scalable for various environments, there exists a security threat such as Tompa-Woll attack. Renvall and Ding proposed a new secret sharing technique based on nonlinear combination polynomial arithmetic in order to solve this threat. It is hard to apply to the secret image sharing. In this paper, we propose a (t, n)-threshold nonlinear secret image sharing scheme with steganography concept. In order to achieve a suitable and secure secret image sharing scheme, we adapt a modified LSB embedding technique with XOR Boolean algebra operation, define a new variable m, and change a range of prime p in sharing procedure. In order to evaluate efficiency and security of proposed scheme, we use the embedding capacity and PSNR. As a result of it, average value of PSNR and embedding capacity are 44.78 (dB) and 1.74t?log2 m? bit-per-pixel (bpp), respectively. PMID:25140334

Shin, Sang-Ho; Lee, Gil-Je; Yoo, Kee-Young

2014-01-01

439

Nonlinear Secret Image Sharing Scheme  

PubMed Central

Over the past decade, most of secret image sharing schemes have been proposed by using Shamir's technique. It is based on a linear combination polynomial arithmetic. Although Shamir's technique based secret image sharing schemes are efficient and scalable for various environments, there exists a security threat such as Tompa-Woll attack. Renvall and Ding proposed a new secret sharing technique based on nonlinear combination polynomial arithmetic in order to solve this threat. It is hard to apply to the secret image sharing. In this paper, we propose a (t, n)-threshold nonlinear secret image sharing scheme with steganography concept. In order to achieve a suitable and secure secret image sharing scheme, we adapt a modified LSB embedding technique with XOR Boolean algebra operation, define a new variable m, and change a range of prime p in sharing procedure. In order to evaluate efficiency and security of proposed scheme, we use the embedding capacity and PSNR. As a result of it, average value of PSNR and embedding capacity are 44.78 (dB) and 1.74t?log2?m? bit-per-pixel (bpp), respectively. PMID:25140334

Shin, Sang-Ho; Yoo, Kee-Young

2014-01-01

440

Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work - Common Cold and Runny Nose  

MedlinePLUS

... Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work Share Compartir Common Cold and Runny Nose On this Page Overview Causes ... y la secreción nasal o moqueo Overview of Common Cold A cold usually includes a runny nose, sore ...

441

Arthropods as a source of new RNA viruses.  

PubMed

The discovery and development of methods for isolation, characterisation and taxonomy of viruses represents an important milestone in the study, treatment and control of virus diseases during the 20th century. Indeed, by the late-1950s, it was becoming common belief that most human and veterinary pathogenic viruses had been discovered. However, at that time, knowledge of the impact of improved commercial transportation, urbanisation and deforestation, on disease emergence, was in its infancy. From the late 1960s onwards viruses, such as hepatitis virus (A, B and C) hantavirus, HIV, Marburg virus, Ebola virus and many others began to emerge and it became apparent that the world was changing, at least in terms of virus epidemiology, largely due to the influence of anthropological activities. Subsequently, with the improvement of molecular biotechnologies, for amplification of viral RNA, genome sequencing and proteomic analysis the arsenal of available tools for virus discovery and genetic characterization opened up new and exciting possibilities for virological discovery. Many recently identified but "unclassified" viruses are now being allocated to existing genera or families based on whole genome sequencing, bioinformatic and phylogenetic analysis. New species, genera and families are also being created following the guidelines of the International Committee for the Taxonomy of Viruses. Many of these newly discovered viruses are vectored by arthropods (arboviruses) and possess an RNA genome. This brief review will focus largely on the discovery of new arthropod-borne viruses. PMID:25239874

Bichaud, L; de Lamballerie, X; Alkan, C; Izri, A; Gould, E A; Charrel, R N

2014-12-01

442

Serological and molecular studies of a novel virus isolate causing yellow mosaic of Patchouli [Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth].  

PubMed

Here we have identified and characterized a devastating virus capable of inducing yellow mosaic on the leaves of Patchouli [Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth]. The diagnostic tools used were host range, transmission studies, cytopathology, electron microscopy, serology and partial coat protein (CP) gene sequencing. Evidence from biological, serological and sequence data suggested that the causal virus belonged to genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae. The isolate, designated as Patchouli Yellow Mosaic Virus (PaYMV), was transmitted through grafting, sap and the insect Myzus persicae (Sulz.). Flexuous rod shaped particles with a mean length of 800 nm were consistently observed in leaf-dip preparations from natural as well as alternate hosts, and in purified preparation. Cytoplasmic cylindrical inclusions, pinwheels and laminar aggregates were observed in ultra-thin sections of infected patchouli leaves. The purified capsid protein has a relative mass of 43 kDa. Polyclonal antibodies were raised in rabbits against the coat protein separated on SDS - PAGE; which were used in ELISA and western blotting. Using specific antibodies in ELISA, PaYMV was frequently detected at patchouli plantations at Lucknow and Bengaluru. Potyvirus-specific degenerate primer pair (U335 and D335) had consistently amplified partial CP gene from crude preparations of infected tissues by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Comparison of the PCR product sequence (290 bp) with the corresponding regions of established potyviruses showed 78-82% and 91-95% sequence similarity at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. The results clearly established that the virus under study has close homology with watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) in the coat protein region and therefore could share a common ancestor family. Further studies are required to authenticate the identity of PaYMV as a distinct virus or as an isolate of WMV. PMID:24386278

Zaim, Mohammad; Ali, Ashif; Joseph, Jomon; Khan, Feroz

2013-01-01

443

Serological and Molecular Studies of a Novel Virus Isolate Causing Yellow Mosaic of Patchouli [Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth  

PubMed Central

Here we have identified and characterized a devastating virus capable of inducing yellow mosaic on the leaves of Patchouli [Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth]. The diagnostic tools used were host range, transmission studies, cytopathology, electron microscopy, serology and partial coat protein (CP) gene sequencing. Evidence from biological, serological and sequence data suggested that the causal virus belonged to genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae. The isolate, designated as Patchouli Yellow Mosaic Virus (PaYMV), was transmitted through grafting, sap and the insect Myzus persicae (Sulz.). Flexuous rod shaped particles with a mean length of 800 nm were consistently observed in leaf-dip preparations from natural as well as alternate hosts, and in purified preparation. Cytoplasmic cylindrical inclusions, pinwheels and laminar aggregates were observed in ultra-thin sections of infected patchouli leaves. The purified capsid protein has a relative mass of 43 kDa. Polyclonal antibodies were raised in rabbits against the coat protein separated on SDS – PAGE; which were used in ELISA and western blotting. Using specific antibodies in ELISA, PaYMV was frequently detected at patchouli plantations at Lucknow and Bengaluru. Potyvirus-specific degenerate primer pair (U335 and D335) had consistently amplified partial CP gene from crude preparations of infected tissues by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Comparison of the PCR product sequence (290 bp) with the corresponding regions of established potyviruses showed 78–82% and 91–95% sequence similarity at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. The results clearly established that the virus under study has close homology with watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) in the coat protein region and therefore could share a common ancestor family. Further studies are required to authenticate the identity of PaYMV as a distinct virus or as an isolate of WMV. PMID:24386278

Zaim, Mohammad; Ali, Ashif; Joseph, Jomon; Khan, Feroz

2013-01-01

444

Expansible quantum secret sharing network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the practical applications, member expansion is a usual demand during the development of a secret sharing network. However, there are few consideration and discussion on network expansibility in the existing quantum secret sharing schemes. We propose an expansible quantum secret sharing scheme with relatively simple and economical quantum resources and show how to split and reconstruct the quantum secret among an expansible user group in our scheme. Its trait, no requirement of any agent's assistant during the process of member expansion, can help to prevent potential menaces of insider cheating. We also give a discussion on the security of this scheme from three aspects.

Sun, Ying; Xu, Sheng-Wei; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Niu, Xin-Xin; Yang, Yi-