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1

NS2 Proteins of GB Virus B and Hepatitis C Virus Share Common Protease Activities and Membrane Topologies  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT GB virus B (GBV-B), which is hepatotropic in experimentally infected small New World primates, is a member of the Hepacivirus genus but phylogenetically relatively distant from hepatitis C virus (HCV). To gain insights into the role and specificity of hepaciviral nonstructural protein 2 (NS2), which is required for HCV polyprotein processing and particle morphogenesis, we investigated whether NS2 structural and functional features are conserved between HCV and GBV-B. We found that GBV-B NS2, like HCV NS2, has cysteine protease activity responsible for cleavage at the NS2/NS3 junction, and we experimentally confirmed the location of this junction within the viral polyprotein. A model for GBV-B NS2 membrane topology was experimentally established by determining the membrane association properties of NS2 segments fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) and their nuclear magnetic resonance structures using synthetic peptides as well as by applying an N-glycosylation scanning approach. Similar glycosylation studies confirmed the HCV NS2 organization. Together, our data show that despite limited amino acid sequence similarity, GBV-B and HCV NS2 proteins share a membrane topology with 3 N-terminal transmembrane segments, which is also predicted to apply to other recently discovered hepaciviruses. Based on these data and using trans-complementation systems, we found that intragenotypic hybrid NS2 proteins with heterologous N-terminal membrane segments were able to efficiently trans-complement an assembly-deficient HCV mutant with a point mutation in the NS2 C-terminal domain, while GBV-B/HCV or intergenotypic NS2 chimeras were not. These studies indicate that virus- and genotype-specific intramolecular interactions between N- and C-terminal domains of NS2 are critically involved in HCV morphogenesis. IMPORTANCE Nonstructural protein 2 (NS2) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a multifunctional protein critically involved in polyprotein processing and virion morphogenesis. To gain insights into NS2 mechanisms of action, we investigated whether NS2 structural and functional features are conserved between HCV and GB virus B (GBV-B), a phylogenetically relatively distant primate hepacivirus. We showed that GBV-B NS2, like HCV NS2, carries cysteine protease activity. We experimentally established a model for GBV-B NS2 membrane topology and demonstrated that despite limited sequence similarity, GBV-B and HCV NS2 share an organization with three N-terminal transmembrane segments. We found that the role of HCV NS2 in particle assembly is genotype specific and relies on critical interactions between its N- and C-terminal domains. This first comparative analysis of NS2 proteins from two hepaciviruses and our structural predictions of NS2 from other newly identified mammal hepaciviruses highlight conserved key features of the hepaciviral life cycle. PMID:24741107

Boukadida, Célia; Marnata, Caroline; Montserret, Roland; Cohen, Lisette; Blumen, Brigitte; Gouttenoire, Jérôme; Moradpour, Darius; Penin, François

2014-01-01

2

Vibrio chromosomes share common history  

PubMed Central

Background While most gamma proteobacteria have a single circular chromosome, Vibrionales have two circular chromosomes. Horizontal gene transfer is common among Vibrios, and in light of this genetic mobility, it is an open question to what extent the two chromosomes themselves share a common history since their formation. Results Single copy genes from each chromosome (142 genes from chromosome I and 42 genes from chromosome II) were identified from 19 sequenced Vibrionales genomes and their phylogenetic comparison suggests consistent phylogenies for each chromosome. Additionally, study of the gene organization and phylogeny of the respective origins of replication confirmed the shared history. Conclusions Thus, while elements within the chromosomes may have experienced significant genetic mobility, the backbones share a common history. This allows conclusions based on multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) for one chromosome to be applied equally to both chromosomes. PMID:20459749

2010-01-01

3

Vibrio chromosomes share common history  

E-print Network

Abstract Background While most gamma proteobacteria have a single circular chromosome, Vibrionales have two circular chromosomes. Horizontal gene transfer is common among Vibrios, and in light of this genetic mobility, it ...

Kirkup, Benjamin C.

4

Vibrio chromosomes share common history  

E-print Network

Background: While most gamma proteobacteria have a single circular chromosome, Vibrionales have two circular chromosomes. Horizontal gene transfer is common among Vibrios, and in light of this genetic mobility, it is an ...

Kirkup, Benjamin C.

5

Rare Virus Discovered in Common Tick  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Rare Virus Discovered in Common Tick Scientists not yet sure ... FRIDAY, Jan. 16, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- A rare virus has been found in ticks that are common ...

6

Common randomness in information theory and cryptography - I: Secret sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the first part of a study of problems involving common randomness at distance locations, information-theoretic models of secret sharing (generating a common random key at two terminals, without letting an eavesdropper obtain information about this key) are considered. The concept of key-capacity is defined. Single-letter formulas of key-capacity are obtained for several models, and bounds to key-capacity are derived

Rudolph Ahlswede; Imre Csiszár

1993-01-01

7

Shared office space and the risk of the common cold  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common cold persists as a major economic and public health problem worldwide. Despite its long-established ubiquity, little is yet certain about the determinants of indoor environment in spreading of the infection, and even less about the role of indoor air quality as a mediator. The effect of sharing an office with one or more colleagues on the risk of

Jouni J. K. Jaakkola; Olli P. Heinonen

1995-01-01

8

Order and Magnitude Share a Common Representation in Parietal Cortex  

E-print Network

Order and Magnitude Share a Common Representation in Parietal Cortex Michael S. Franklin1 and John magnitude is well established. Recently, there has also been speculation that the IPS is involved in the rep paradigms in which participants make judgments about either magnitude and/or order result in a behavioral

Jonides, John

9

Metabolism and proliferation share common regulatory pathways in cancer  

E-print Network

Metabolism and proliferation share common regulatory pathways in cancer cells. Vanessa Fritz, proliferation, and cancer inserm-00491405,version1-11Jun2010 Author manuscript, published in "Oncogene 2010;29(31):4369-77" DOI : 10.1038/onc.2010.182 #12;Metabolism, proliferation and cancer Fritz and Fajas 2 Abstract Cancer

Boyer, Edmond

10

Expected size of shared haplotypes surrounding a common disease gene  

SciTech Connect

If two persons in a founder population share a rare disease, they may share genes involved in that disease Identical By Descent. We have calculated the probability of the size of the region IBD on either side of a shared common gene. Probabilities are plotted for various values of the meiotic count: the number of independent meioses connecting the persons. Even if this number is quite large, the shared area will, given the present density of markers, contain several markers. To be 95% certain that the area surrounding a gene can be delimited to less than 1 cM, approximately 500 meioses need to be observed. The many generations that are required before a gene is separated from its surrounding polymorphisms indicate that association between disease and marker alleles can be explained as IBD around a common gene. In founder populations apparantly unrelated affected persons will likely share disease genes introduced or mutated between 10 and 40 generations ago. Analyzing the overlap of haplotypes gives excellent opportunities to observe implicitly the many meioses required for genetic fine mapping.

Meerman, G.J. te; Meulen, M.A. van der; Sandkuijl, L.A. [Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands)

1994-09-01

11

Virus sharing, genetic sequencing, and global health security.  

PubMed

This Perspective focuses on the future of the Pandemic Influenza Preparedness (PIP) Framework, which was initially established to promote the fair sharing of public health-related pandemic influenza samples between countries. We examine the changes that need to be made to address the growing likelihood that genetic sequence data might be shared instead of physical virus samples, as well as the need to expand the PIP framework's scope and to improve its fairness. PMID:25214618

Gostin, Lawrence O; Phelan, Alexandra; Stoto, Michael A; Kraemer, John D; Reddy, K Srinath

2014-09-12

12

Destruction of Human Cancers by an Altered Common Cold Virus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on what appears to be a promising approach to the treatment and spread of cancer. Utilizes a mutant of the common cold virus that appears to kill many kinds of cancer cells but not normal cells. (DDR)

Oppenheimer, Steven B.

1998-01-01

13

Shared mechanisms in stemness and carcinogenesis: lessons from oncogenic viruses  

PubMed Central

A rise in technologies for epigenetic reprogramming of cells to pluripotency, highlights the potential of understanding and manipulating cellular plasticity in unprecedented ways. Increasing evidence points to shared mechanisms between cellular reprogramming and the carcinogenic process, with the emerging possibility to harness these parallels in future therapeutics. In this review, we present a synopsis of recent work from oncogenic viruses which contributes to this body of knowledge, establishing a nexus between infection, cancer, and stemness. PMID:24400225

Iacovides, Demetris; Michael, Stella; Achilleos, Charis; Strati, Katerina

2013-01-01

14

Viruses and Bacteria in the Etiology of the Common Cold  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred young adults with common colds were studied during a 10-month period. Virus culture, antigen detection, PCR, and serology with paired samples were used to identify the infection. Viral etiology was es- tablished for 138 of the 200 patients (69%). Rhinoviruses were detected in 105 patients, coronavirus OC43 or 229E infection was detected in 17, influenza A or B

MIKA J. MAKELA; TUOMO PUHAKKA; OLLI RUUSKANEN; MAIJA LEINONEN; PEKKA SAIKKU; MARKO KIMPIMAKI; SOILE BLOMQVIST; TIMO HYYPIA; PERTTI ARSTILA

1998-01-01

15

Antiviral agent blocks breathing of the common cold virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic capsid is critical to the events that shape the viral life cycle; events such as cell attachment, cell entry, and nucleic acid release demand a highly mobile viral surface. Protein mass mapping of the common cold virus, human rhinovirus 14 (HRV14), revealed both viral structural dynamics and the inhibition of such dynamics with an anti- viral agent, WIN

J. KATHLEEN LEWIS; BRIAN BOTHNER; THOMAS J. SMITH; GARY SIUZDAK

1998-01-01

16

Multicultural organizations: common language, knowledge sharing and performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Multicultural organizations are often argued to hold potential knowledge resources that can be used to increase performance. However, while only a few studies have been undertaken on the subject, linguistic differences are argued to make the use of knowledge and the sharing of knowledge a challenge in multicultural organizations. This study seeks to explore the relationships between language,

Jakob Lauring; Jan Selmer

2011-01-01

17

Extensive host sharing of central European Tula virus.  

PubMed

To examine the host association of Tula virus (TULV), a hantavirus present in large parts of Europe, we investigated a total of 791 rodents representing 469 Microtus arvalis and 322 Microtus agrestis animals from northeast, northwest, and southeast Germany, including geographical regions with sympatric occurrence of both vole species, for the presence of TULV infections. Based on serological investigation, reverse transcriptase PCR, and subsequent sequence analysis of partial small (S) and medium (M) segments, we herein show that TULV is carried not only by its commonly known host M. arvalis but also frequently by M. agrestis in different regions of Germany for a prolonged time period. At one trapping site, TULV was exclusively detected in M. agrestis, suggesting an isolated transmission cycle in this rodent reservoir separate from spillover infections of TULV-carrying M. arvalis. Phylogenetic analysis of the S and M segment sequences demonstrated geographical clustering of the TULV sequences irrespective of the host, M. arvalis or M. agrestis. The novel TULV lineages from northeast, northwest, and southeast Germany described here are clearly separated from each other and from other German, European, or Asian lineages, suggesting their stable geographical localization and fast sequence evolution. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that TULV represents a promiscuous hantavirus with a large panel of susceptible hosts. In addition, this may suggest an alternative evolution mode, other than a strict coevolution, for this virus in its Microtus hosts, which should be proven in further large-scale investigations on sympatric Microtus hosts. PMID:19889769

Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Essbauer, Sandra; Petraityte, Rasa; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Tackmann, Kirsten; Conraths, Franz J; Sasnauskas, Kestutis; Arikawa, Jiro; Thomas, Astrid; Pfeffer, Martin; Scharninghausen, Jerrold J; Splettstoesser, Wolf; Wenk, Matthias; Heckel, Gerald; Ulrich, Rainer G

2010-01-01

18

Revitalization of the Shared Commons: Education for Sustainability and Marginalized Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education for sustainability provides a vision for revitalizing the environmental commons while preserving cultural traditions and human rights. What happens if the environmental commons is shared by two politically disparate and conflicting cultures? As in many shared common lands, what happens if one culture is dominant and represents a more…

Glasson, George E.

2010-01-01

19

Shared catalysis in virus entry and bacterial cell wall depolymerization  

PubMed Central

Summary Bacterial virus entry and cell wall depolymerization require the breakdown of peptidoglycan (PG), the peptide cross-linked polysaccharide matrix that surrounds bacterial cells. Structural studies of lysostaphin, a PG lytic enzyme (autolysin), have suggested that residues in the active site facilitate hydrolysis, but a clear mechanism for this reaction has remained unsolved. The active site residues and a structural pattern of ?-sheets are conserved among lysostaphin homologs (such as LytM of Staphylococcus aureus) and the C-terminal domain of gene product 13 (gp13), a protein at the tail tip of the Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage ?29. gp13 activity on PG and muropeptides was assayed using high performance liquid chromatography, and gp13 was found to be a D,D-endopeptidase that cleaved the peptide cross-link. Computational modeling of the B. subtilis cross-linked peptide into the gp13 active site suggested that Asp195 may facilitate scissile bond activation and His247 is oriented to mediate nucleophile generation. This is the first model of a Zn2+-metallopeptidase and its substrate to our knowledge. Residue Asp195 of gp13 was found to be critical for Zn2+-binding and catalysis by substitution mutagenesis with Ala or Cys. Circular dichroism and particle induced X-ray emission spectroscopy showed that the general protein folding and Zn2+-binding was maintained in the Cys mutant but reduced in the Ala mutant. These findings together support a model where the Asp195 and His247 in gp13 and homologous residues in the LytM and lysostaphin active sites facilitate hydrolysis of the peptide substrate that cross-links PG. Thus, these autolysins and phage entry enzymes have a shared chemical mechanism of action. PMID:19361422

Cohen, Daniel N.; Sham, Yuk Y.; Haugstad, Greg D.; Xiang, Ye; Rossmann, Michael G.; Anderson, Dwight L.; Popham, David L.

2009-01-01

20

Cell polarity proteins: common targets for tumorigenic human viruses  

PubMed Central

Loss of polarity and disruption of cell junctions are common features of epithelial-derived cancer cells, and mounting evidence indicates that such defects have a direct function in the pathology of cancer. Supporting this idea, results with several different human tumor viruses indicate that their oncogenic potential depends in part on a common ability to inactivate key cell polarity proteins. For example, adenovirus (Ad) type 9 is unique among human Ads by causing exclusively estrogen-dependent mammary tumors in experimental animals and in having E4 region-encoded open reading frame 1 (E4-ORF1) as its primary oncogenic determinant. The 125-residue E4-ORF1 protein consists of two separate protein-interaction elements, one of which defines a PDZ domain-binding motif (PBM) required for E4-ORF1 to induce both cellular transformation in vitro and tumorigenesis in vivo. Most notably, the E4-ORF1 PBM mediates interactions with a selected group of cellular PDZ proteins, three of which include the cell polarity proteins Dlg1, PATJ and ZO-2. Data further indicate that these interactions promote disruption of cell junctions and a loss of cell polarity. In addition, one or more of the E4-ORF1-interacting cell polarity proteins, as well as the cell polarity protein Scribble, are common targets for the high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 or human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax oncoproteins. Underscoring the significance of these observations, in humans, high-risk HPV and HTLV-1 are causative agents for cervical cancer and adult T-cell leukemia, respectively. Consequently, human tumor viruses should serve as powerful tools for deciphering mechanisms whereby disruption of cell junctions and loss of cell polarity contribute to the development of many human cancers. This review article discusses evidence supporting this hypothesis, with an emphasis on the human Ad E4-ORF1 oncoprotein. PMID:19029943

Javier, RT

2012-01-01

21

Song type sharing in common nightingales, Luscinia megarhynchos, and its implications for cultural evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sharing of song types between males of the same local population is a common phenomenon in some songbird species. One presumed advantage of such sharing is that it enables ‘song matching’ (i.e. responding to an interactant with the song he just sang or another song of the interactant’s repertoire). Song sharing probably arises through song learning, whereby males of

Philipp Sprau; Roger Mundry

2010-01-01

22

Collaborating with Staff: Sharing a Common Philosophy, Working To Achieve Common Goals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A well-understood camp philosophy motivates the entire staff to work toward a common purpose, which is more meaningful than money. Camp administrators can ensure that staff members implement the camp philosophy by interviewing prospective staff members with the mission in mind, teaching staff the camp's vision, praising staff with specifics,…

Salzman, Jeff

1999-01-01

23

What is the Deaf Community? A community is a group of people who share common interests and a common  

E-print Network

CARD 9 #12;skills. As technology brings changes, the Deaf Community has accepted cochlear implants· What is the Deaf Community? A community is a group of people who share common interests factors, including communication and culture. · What is Deaf Culture? A culture is generally defined

O'Toole, Alice J.

24

Behavioural Brain Research 125 (2001) 133140 Rats and mice share common ethologically relevant parameters of  

E-print Network

Behavioural Brain Research 125 (2001) 133­140 Rats and mice share common ethologically relevant that a considerable number of rat patterns are also present in the mouse. These ethologically-relevant patterns have

Golani, Ilan

25

Aesthetic preferences for architecture do not rely on commonly shared semantic distinctions  

E-print Network

Aesthetic preferences for architecture do not rely on commonly shared semantic distinctions that aesthetic preferences for architecture do not rely on culturally shared semantic distinctions. 2 Alexander H. Denker, G. Gabrielle Starr, Edward A. Vessel New York University What drives our aesthetic

Vessel, Edward A.

26

[Experimental infection caused by influenza A (H5N1) virus in common gull (Larus canus)].  

PubMed

The influenza A/common gull/Chany/P/2006 (HSN1) virus strain Isolated from a clinically healthy common gull (Larus canus) caused no death of Its natural host (a common gull). The virus was shown to be capable for effective replication in the tissues of the lung, spleen, and upper respiratory tract and in the intestinal mucosal cells of the common gull with further environmental virus liberation elimination along with mucinous discharges from the cloaca and fauces for 2 weeks. The potential role of this bird species in the circulation of influenza virus is discussed. PMID:23248859

Za?kovskaia, A V; Sharshov, K A; Sherstkov, E A; Iurlov, A K; Shestopalov, A M

2012-01-01

27

Symbionts Commonly Provide Broad Spectrum Resistance to Viruses in Insects: A Comparative Analysis  

E-print Network

Symbionts Commonly Provide Broad Spectrum Resistance to Viruses in Insects: A Comparative Analysis simulans. We found that approximately half of the strains protected against two RNA viruses. Given that 40 RNA viruses ­ DCV and FHV ­ was strongly genetically correlated, which suggests that there is a single

Jiggins, Francis

28

Spread of Avian Influenza Viruses by Common Teal (Anas crecca) in Europe  

E-print Network

Spread of Avian Influenza Viruses by Common Teal (Anas crecca) in Europe Camille Lebarbenchon1 influenza virus (AIV) dispersal has become an increasing focus of research. As for any other bird: Lebarbenchon C, Albespy F, Brochet A-L, Grandhomme V, Renaud F, et al. (2009) Spread of Avian Influenza Viruses

Green, Andy J.

29

Cucurbit leaf crumple virus Identified in Common Bean in Florida  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Detection of Cucurbit leaf crumple virus in green beans in Florida suggests that this virus may be more widely distributed than previously known in the state and that green bean (and potentially other legumes) are potential reservoirs for Cucurbit leaf crumple virus....

30

Marburg Virus Infection Detected in a Common African Bat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marburg and Ebola viruses can cause large hemorrhagic fever (HF) outbreaks with high case fatality (80–90%) in human and great apes. Identification of the natural reservoir of these viruses is one of the most important topics in this field and a fundamental key to understanding their natural history. Despite the discovery of this virus family almost 40 years ago, the

Jonathan S. Towner; Xavier Pourrut; César G. Albariño; Chimène Nze Nkogue; Brian H. Bird; Gilda Grard; Thomas G. Ksiazek; Jean-Paul Gonzalez; Stuart T. Nichol; Eric M. Leroy; Philip Stevenson

2007-01-01

31

Detection of sweet potato viruses in Yunnan and genetic diversity analysis of the common viruses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two hundred seventy-nine samples with virus-like symptoms collected from 16 regions in Yunnan Province were tested by RT-PCR/PCR using virus-specific primers for 8 sweet potato viruses. Six viruses, Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV), Sweet Potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), Sweet potato ...

32

Evaluation of the tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) CIAT germplasm collection for response to common bacterial blight and bean common mosaic necrosis virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aphid-transmitted Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus (BCMNV) and Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV) are potyvirus that cause production losses in common and tepary beans. Developing resistance to viruses, specifically BCMV, BCMNV and BGYMV, will be critical for expanding tepary bean production. This stu...

33

Revitalization of the shared commons: education for sustainability and marginalized cultures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Education for sustainability provides a vision for revitalizing the environmental commons while preserving cultural traditions and human rights. What happens if the environmental commons is shared by two politically disparate and conflicting cultures? As in many shared common lands, what happens if one culture is dominant and represents a more affluent society with more resources and educational opportunities? In the case of the Tal and Alkaher study (Cult Stud Sci Edu, 2009), asymmetric power differences between the dominant Israeli society and the minority Arab population yielded different environmental narratives and perceptions of students involved in learning about a mediated conflict in national park land. Similarly, marginalized indigenous cultures in Malawi, Africa share common lands with the dominant European landowners but have distinctly different environmental narratives. Although indigenous ways of living with nature contribute to the sustainability of the environment and culture, African funds of knowledge are conspicuously absent from the Eurocentric school science curriculum. In contrast, examples of experiential learning and recent curriculum development efforts in sustainability science in Malawi are inclusive of indigenous knowledge and practices and are essential for revitalizing the shared commons.

Glasson, George E.

2010-06-01

34

Two closely related endocytic proteins that share a common OCRL-binding motif with APPL1  

E-print Network

Two closely related endocytic proteins that share a common OCRL-binding motif with APPL1 Laura E effector APPL1 (Adaptor Protein containing pleck- strin homology [PH] domain, PTB domain and Leucine zipper motif 1) APPL1 for OCRL binding. Ses binding is mutually exclusive with APPL1 binding, and is disrupted

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

35

Common market, shared problems: time for a coordinated response to biological invasions in Europe?  

E-print Network

Common market, shared problems: time for a coordinated response to biological invasions in Europe successfully introduced is higher now than at any time in the past. For Europe to address biological invasions with a specific remit to manage biological invasions is needed. At the same time, the knowledge base resulting

Richner, Heinz

36

Common Mechanism of Pore Opening Shared by Five Different Potassium Channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fundamental question associated with the function of ion channels is the conformational changes that allow for reversibly opening\\/occluding the pore through which the cations permeate. The recently elucidated crystal structures of potassium channels reveal similar structural motifs at their pore-forming regions, suggesting that they share a common gating mechanism. The validity of this hypothesis is explored by analyzing the

Indira H. Shrivastava; Ivet Bahar

2006-01-01

37

Oncogene . Author manuscript Metabolism and proliferation share common regulatory pathways in cancer  

E-print Network

Oncogene . Author manuscript Page /1 9 Metabolism and proliferation share common regulatory to transform the cell. We present herein the view that participation of cell-cycle regulators and oncogenic ; Oncogenes ; Cell-Cycle regulators ; Glycolysis ; de novo Lipogenesis Introduction Over the past decades

Boyer, Edmond

38

Antiviral agent blocks breathing of the common cold virus.  

PubMed

A dynamic capsid is critical to the events that shape the viral life cycle; events such as cell attachment, cell entry, and nucleic acid release demand a highly mobile viral surface. Protein mass mapping of the common cold virus, human rhinovirus 14 (HRV14), revealed both viral structural dynamics and the inhibition of such dynamics with an antiviral agent, WIN 52084. Viral capsid digestion fragments resulting from proteolytic time-course experiments provided structural information in good agreement with the HRV14 three-dimensional crystal structure. As expected, initial digestion fragments included peptides from the capsid protein VP1. This observation was expected because VP1 is the most external viral protein. Initial digestion fragments also included peptides belonging to VP4, the most internal capsid protein. The mass spectral results together with x-ray crystallography data provide information consistent with a "breathing" model of the viral capsid. Whereas the crystal structure of HRV14 shows VP4 to be the most internal capsid protein, mass spectral results show VP4 fragments to be among the first digestion fragments observed. Taken together this information demonstrates that VP4 is transiently exposed to the viral surface via viral breathing. Comparative digests of HRV14 in the presence and absence of WIN 52084 revealed a dramatic inhibition of digestion. These results indicate that the binding of the antiviral agent not only causes local conformational changes in the drug binding pocket but actually stabilizes the entire viral capsid against enzymatic degradation. Viral capsid mass mapping provides a fast and sensitive method for probing viral structural dynamics as well as providing a means for investigating antiviral drug efficacy. PMID:9618488

Lewis, J K; Bothner, B; Smith, T J; Siuzdak, G

1998-06-01

39

Antiviral agent blocks breathing of the common cold virus  

PubMed Central

A dynamic capsid is critical to the events that shape the viral life cycle; events such as cell attachment, cell entry, and nucleic acid release demand a highly mobile viral surface. Protein mass mapping of the common cold virus, human rhinovirus 14 (HRV14), revealed both viral structural dynamics and the inhibition of such dynamics with an antiviral agent, WIN 52084. Viral capsid digestion fragments resulting from proteolytic time-course experiments provided structural information in good agreement with the HRV14 three-dimensional crystal structure. As expected, initial digestion fragments included peptides from the capsid protein VP1. This observation was expected because VP1 is the most external viral protein. Initial digestion fragments also included peptides belonging to VP4, the most internal capsid protein. The mass spectral results together with x-ray crystallography data provide information consistent with a “breathing” model of the viral capsid. Whereas the crystal structure of HRV14 shows VP4 to be the most internal capsid protein, mass spectral results show VP4 fragments to be among the first digestion fragments observed. Taken together this information demonstrates that VP4 is transiently exposed to the viral surface via viral breathing. Comparative digests of HRV14 in the presence and absence of WIN 52084 revealed a dramatic inhibition of digestion. These results indicate that the binding of the antiviral agent not only causes local conformational changes in the drug binding pocket but actually stabilizes the entire viral capsid against enzymatic degradation. Viral capsid mass mapping provides a fast and sensitive method for probing viral structural dynamics as well as providing a means for investigating antiviral drug efficacy. PMID:9618488

Lewis, J. Kathleen; Bothner, Brian; Smith, Thomas J.; Siuzdak, Gary

1998-01-01

40

Plant Disease Note 2007 | First Report of Onion yellow dwarf virus, Leek yellow stripe virus, and Garlic common latent virus in Garlic in Oregon Overview Current Issue Past Issues Search PD Search APS Journals  

E-print Network

Plant Disease Note 2007 | First Report of Onion yellow dwarf virus, Leek yellow stripe virus-2007 The American Phytopathological Society First Report of Onion yellow dwarf virus, Leek yellow stripe virus. With recent findings of Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV), Leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV), and Garlic common

Pappu, Hanu R.

41

Common Mechanism for RNA Encapsidation by Negative-Strand RNA Viruses  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The nucleocapsid of a negative-strand RNA virus is assembled with a single nucleocapsid protein and the viral genomic RNA. The nucleocapsid protein polymerizes along the length of the single-strand genomic RNA (viral RNA) or its cRNA. This process of encapsidation occurs concomitantly with genomic replication. Structural comparisons of several nucleocapsid-like particles show that the mechanism of RNA encapsidation in negative-strand RNA viruses has many common features. Fundamentally, there is a unifying mechanism to keep the capsid protein protomer monomeric prior to encapsidation of viral RNA. In the nucleocapsid, there is a cavity between two globular domains of the nucleocapsid protein where the viral RNA is sequestered. The viral RNA must be transiently released from the nucleocapsid in order to reveal the template RNA sequence for transcription/replication. There are cross-molecular interactions among the protein subunits linearly along the nucleocapsid to stabilize its structure. Empty capsids can form in the absence of RNA. The common characteristics of RNA encapsidation not only delineate the evolutionary relationship of negative-strand RNA viruses but also provide insights into their mechanism of replication. IMPORTANCE What separates negative-strand RNA viruses (NSVs) from the rest of the virosphere is that the nucleocapsid of NSVs serves as the template for viral RNA synthesis. Their viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase can induce local conformational changes in the nucleocapsid to temporarily release the RNA genome so that the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase can use it as the template for RNA synthesis during both transcription and replication. After RNA synthesis at the local region is completed, the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase processes downstream, and the RNA genome is restored in the nucleocapsid. We found that the nucleocapsid assembly of all NSVs shares three essential elements: a monomeric capsid protein protomer, parallel orientation of subunits in the linear nucleocapsid, and a (5H + 3H) motif that forms a proper cavity for sequestration of the RNA. This observation also suggests that all NSVs evolved from a common ancestor that has this unique nucleocapsid. PMID:24429372

Green, Todd J.; Cox, Robert; Tsao, Jun; Rowse, Michael; Qiu, Shihong

2014-01-01

42

A common solution to group 2 influenza virus neutralization.  

PubMed

The discovery and characterization of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against influenza viruses have raised hopes for the development of monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based immunotherapy and the design of universal influenza vaccines. Only one human bnAb (CR8020) specifically recognizing group 2 influenza A viruses has been previously characterized that binds to a highly conserved epitope at the base of the hemagglutinin (HA) stem and has neutralizing activity against H3, H7, and H10 viruses. Here, we report a second group 2 bnAb, CR8043, which was derived from a different germ-line gene encoding a highly divergent amino acid sequence. CR8043 has in vitro neutralizing activity against H3 and H10 viruses and protects mice against challenge with a lethal dose of H3N2 and H7N7 viruses. The crystal structure and EM reconstructions of the CR8043-H3 HA complex revealed that CR8043 binds to a site similar to the CR8020 epitope but uses an alternative angle of approach and a distinct set of interactions. The identification of another antibody against the group 2 stem epitope suggests that this conserved site of vulnerability has great potential for design of therapeutics and vaccines. PMID:24335589

Friesen, Robert H E; Lee, Peter S; Stoop, Esther J M; Hoffman, Ryan M B; Ekiert, Damian C; Bhabha, Gira; Yu, Wenli; Juraszek, Jarek; Koudstaal, Wouter; Jongeneelen, Mandy; Korse, Hans J W M; Ophorst, Carla; Brinkman-van der Linden, Els C M; Throsby, Mark; Kwakkenbos, Mark J; Bakker, Arjen Q; Beaumont, Tim; Spits, Hergen; Kwaks, Ted; Vogels, Ronald; Ward, Andrew B; Goudsmit, Jaap; Wilson, Ian A

2014-01-01

43

A common solution to group 2 influenza virus neutralization  

PubMed Central

The discovery and characterization of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against influenza viruses have raised hopes for the development of monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based immunotherapy and the design of universal influenza vaccines. Only one human bnAb (CR8020) specifically recognizing group 2 influenza A viruses has been previously characterized that binds to a highly conserved epitope at the base of the hemagglutinin (HA) stem and has neutralizing activity against H3, H7, and H10 viruses. Here, we report a second group 2 bnAb, CR8043, which was derived from a different germ-line gene encoding a highly divergent amino acid sequence. CR8043 has in vitro neutralizing activity against H3 and H10 viruses and protects mice against challenge with a lethal dose of H3N2 and H7N7 viruses. The crystal structure and EM reconstructions of the CR8043-H3 HA complex revealed that CR8043 binds to a site similar to the CR8020 epitope but uses an alternative angle of approach and a distinct set of interactions. The identification of another antibody against the group 2 stem epitope suggests that this conserved site of vulnerability has great potential for design of therapeutics and vaccines. PMID:24335589

Friesen, Robert H. E.; Lee, Peter S.; Stoop, Esther J. M.; Hoffman, Ryan M. B.; Ekiert, Damian C.; Bhabha, Gira; Yu, Wenli; Juraszek, Jarek; Koudstaal, Wouter; Jongeneelen, Mandy; Korse, Hans J. W. M.; Ophorst, Carla; Brinkman-van der Linden, Els C. M.; Throsby, Mark; Kwakkenbos, Mark J.; Bakker, Arjen Q.; Beaumont, Tim; Spits, Hergen; Kwaks, Ted; Vogels, Ronald; Ward, Andrew B.; Goudsmit, Jaap; Wilson, Ian A.

2014-01-01

44

Seed storage proteins of spermatophytes share a common ancestor with desiccation proteins of fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The legumin- and vicilin-like seed storage globulins of spermatophytes are specifically accumulated during embryogenesis and seed development. Previous studies have shown that a precursor common to both legumin and vicilin genes might have evolved by duplication from a single-domain ancestral gene. We here report that amino acid sequences of legumin and vicilin domains share statistically significant similarity to the germination-specific

H. Bäumlein; H. Braun; I. A. Kakhovskaya; A. D. Shutov

1995-01-01

45

EVALUATION OF COMMON BEAN FOR RESISTANCE TO CLOVER YELLOW VEIN VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV) is a problematic virus causing the chocolate pod disease of common bean that has been plaguing bean production in the Great Lakes region since the rapid increase of soybean aphid (Aphis glycines) populations in 2000. Resistance to ClYVV is not well understood. We s...

46

No evidence for shared genetic basis of common variants in multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

Genome-wide association studies have been successful in identifying common variants that influence the susceptibility to complex diseases. From these studies, it has emerged that there is substantial overlap in susceptibility loci between diseases. In line with those findings, we hypothesized that shared genetic pathways may exist between multiple sclerosis (MS) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). While both diseases may have inflammatory and neurodegenerative features, epidemiological studies have indicated an increased co-occurrence within individuals and families. To this purpose, we combined genome-wide data from 4088 MS patients, 3762 ALS patients and 12 030 healthy control individuals in whom 5 440 446 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were successfully genotyped or imputed. We tested these SNPs for the excess association shared between MS and ALS and also explored whether polygenic models of SNPs below genome-wide significance could explain some of the observed trait variance between diseases. Genome-wide association meta-analysis of SNPs as well as polygenic analyses fails to provide evidence in favor of an overlap in genetic susceptibility between MS and ALS. Hence, our findings do not support a shared genetic background of common risk variants in MS and ALS. PMID:24234648

Goris, An; van Setten, Jessica; Diekstra, Frank; Ripke, Stephan; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A; Sawcer, Stephen J; van Es, Michael; Andersen, Peter M; Melki, Judith; Meininger, Vincent; Hardiman, Orla; Landers, John E; Brown, Robert H; Shatunov, Aleksey; Leigh, Nigel; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Shaw, Christopher E; Traynor, Bryan J; Chiò, Adriano; Restagno, Gabriella; Mora, Gabriele; Ophoff, Roel A; Oksenberg, Jorge R; Van Damme, Philip; Compston, Alastair; Robberecht, Wim; Dubois, Bénédicte; van den Berg, Leonard H; De Jager, Philip L; Veldink, Jan H; de Bakker, Paul I W

2014-04-01

47

STUDIES ON THE COMMON COLD : VI. CULTIVATION OF THE VIRUS IN TISSUE MEDIUM.  

PubMed

1. Studies of the cultivation of the virus of common cold in tissue medium, and the capacity of the culture virus to induce infection in human volunteers are reported. 2. Detailed descriptions are given of the methods employed to isolate the virus, preserve and cultivate it, and to test its activity in human volunteers. 3. The virus of common cold can easily be isolated from properly selected patients and cultivated in tissue medium. 4. When kept in the original nasopharyngeal washings, the virus will survive at ice box temperature under anaerobic conditions for at least 13 days. 5. If the nasopharyngeal washings are frozen and dried in vacuo, the virus retains its activity for at least 4 months. 6. The virus of common cold has been proven to multiply in medium containing chick embryo tissue. Such cultures retain their capacity to produce typical infections in human beings for many transfers involving a period of several months. Attempts to cultivate the virus have been successful in seven out of eight instances. 7. Prolonged cultivation of the virus in tissue medium eventually leads to a loss of activity. 8. Strains of virus under cultivation maintain their potency best when transfers are made at 2 and 3 day intervals. 9. After removal from the incubator a culture of virus rapidly becomes inactive whether it be kept under seal in the ice box or frozen and dried in vacuo. 10. The destructive action of the medium can be prevented if the culture is mixed with gum acacia before freezing and drying in vacuo. PMID:19870490

Dochez, A R; Mills, K C; Kneeland, Y

1936-03-31

48

People who share a culture share language, customs, history, and values and pass on those attributes to their children. The reality of being Deaf * encompasses a whole set of shared experiences with a common  

E-print Network

People who share a culture share language, customs, history, and values and pass on those grown up with the mainstream culture of their Hearing families and have not shared the customs, language and cultural group that share a common language and set of values. Many Hard of Hearing people as well

49

Distribution of baboon endogenous virus among species of African monkeys suggests multiple ancient cross-species transmissions in shared habitats.  

PubMed Central

PCR amplification of baboon endogenous virus (BaEV) long terminal repeat, reverse transcriptase gene, and env fragments from 24 different species of African monkeys indicates that BaEV is less widespread than was formerly thought. Instead of being present in every species of African primates, BaEV can be found only in baboons, geladas, and mangabeys (all belonging to the Papionini tribe) and in African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops)subspecies. BaEV, which can be activated from baboon and gelada tissues, was most likely introduced in the germ line only recently (less than a few million years ago) and has not been inherited from a common ancestor of all extant African monkeys. Neighbor-joining and maximum-likelihood analyses of the sequences obtained showed that two distinct virus clusters can be distinguished: the first containing baboon, gelada, and African green monkey BaEV sequences and the second consisting of mandrill and mangabey BaEV sequences. This viral evolutionary tree does not follow host phylogeny, indicating the cross-species transmissions and multiple germ line fixations of the virus must have occurred in the past. BaEV sequences are found in monkeys inhabiting savannas (baboons, geladas, and African green monkeys) as well as forests (managabeys and mandrills) and cluster according to the habitats of their hosts, providing evidence for cross-species transmission in shared habitats. PMID:7494300

van der Kuyl, A C; Dekker, J T; Goudsmit, J

1995-01-01

50

Viruses and Fullerenes - Symmetry as a Common Thread?  

E-print Network

We apply here the principle of affine symmetry to the nested fullerene cages (carbon onions) that arise in the context of carbon chemistry. Previous work on affine extensions of the icosahedral group has revealed a new organisational principle in virus structure and assembly. We adapt this group theoretic framework here to the physical requirements dictated by carbon chemistry, and show that we can derive mathematical models for carbon onions within this affine symmetry approach. This suggests the applicability of affine symmetry in a wider context in Nature, as well as offering a novel perspective on the geometric principles underpinning carbon chemistry.

Dechant, Pierre-Philippe; Keef, Tom; Twarock, Reidun

2014-01-01

51

Viruses and Fullerenes - Symmetry as a Common Thread?  

E-print Network

We apply here the principle of affine symmetry to the nested fullerene cages (carbon onions) that arise in the context of carbon chemistry. Previous work on affine extensions of the icosahedral group has revealed a new organisational principle in virus structure and assembly. We adapt this group theoretic framework here to the physical requirements dictated by carbon chemistry, and show that we can derive mathematical models for carbon onions within this affine symmetry approach. This suggests the applicability of affine symmetry in a wider context in Nature, as well as offering a novel perspective on the geometric principles underpinning carbon chemistry.

Pierre-Philippe Dechant; Jess Wardman; Tom Keef; Reidun Twarock

2014-02-18

52

Studies on Parainfluenza Type 2 and 4 Viruses Obtained from Patients with Common Colds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four agents which were obtained from adults with common colds were cultivated and identified—one was influenza type B and the others were parainfluenza viruses of types 2 and 4. Their cultivation was assisted by the use of organ cultures of human embryo tracheal or nasal epithelium. They infected and caused typical common colds in volunteers.

D. A. J. Tyrrell; M. L. Bynoe

1969-01-01

53

Genetic diversity and phylogeography of Seewis virus in the Eurasian common shrew in Finland and Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent identification of a newfound hantavirus, designated Seewis virus (SWSV), in the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), captured in Switzerland, corroborates decades-old reports of hantaviral antigens in this shrew species from Russia. To ascertain the spatial or geographic variation of SWSV, archival liver tissues from 88 Eurasian common shrews, trapped in Finland in 1982 and in Hungary during 1997, 1999

Hae Ji Kang; Satoru Arai; Andrew G Hope; Jin-Won Song; Joseph A Cook; Richard Yanagihara

2009-01-01

54

One size fits all: Eurasian lynx females share a common optimal litter size.  

PubMed

Lack proposed that the average clutch size of altricial species should be determined by the average maximum number of young the parents can raise such that all females in a given population should share a common optimal clutch size. Support for this model remains equivocal and recent studies have suggested that intra-population variation in clutch size is adaptive because each female has its own optimal clutch size associated with its intrinsic ability to raise offspring. Although Lack litter size and condition-dependent litter size are presented as two competing models, both are based on the concept of individual optimization. We propose a unified optimal litter size model (called 'adaptive litter size') and identify a set of conditions under which a common vs. a state-dependent optimal litter size should be observed. We test whether females of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) have a common optimal litter size, or whether they adjust their litter size according to their state. We used a detailed individual-based data set collected from contrasting populations of Eurasian lynx in Scandinavia. Observed reproductive patterns in female lynx provide strong support for the existence of a common optimal litter size. Litter size did not vary according to female body mass or reproductive category, or among contrasted populations and years. A litter size of 2 was associated with a higher fitness than both smaller and larger litters, and thus corresponded to the 'adaptive litter size' for female lynx. We suggest that the reproductive pattern of female lynx might correspond to a risk avoidance tactic common to all individuals, which has evolved in response to strong environmental constraints generated by a highly unpredictable food supply during lactation. PMID:23859302

Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Nilsen, Erlend B; Odden, John; Andrén, Henrik; Linnell, John D C

2014-01-01

55

Occurrance in Korea of three major soybean viruses, Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYCMV), and Soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV) revealed by a nationwide survey of soybean fields  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV) and soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV) were recently isolated in Korea, and it hasn’t been reported how these two viruses were dispersed in Korea. In 2012, we performed a nationwide survey of subsistence soybean farms in Korea. Leaves that appeared ...

56

Genome-wide Association Study Identifies Shared Risk Loci Common to Two Malignancies in Golden Retrievers.  

PubMed

Dogs, with their breed-determined limited genetic background, are great models of human disease including cancer. Canine B-cell lymphoma and hemangiosarcoma are both malignancies of the hematologic system that are clinically and histologically similar to human B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and angiosarcoma, respectively. Golden retrievers in the US show significantly elevated lifetime risk for both B-cell lymphoma (6%) and hemangiosarcoma (20%). We conducted genome-wide association studies for hemangiosarcoma and B-cell lymphoma, identifying two shared predisposing loci. The two associated loci are located on chromosome 5, and together contribute ~20% of the risk of developing these cancers. Genome-wide p-values for the top SNP of each locus are 4.6×10-7 and 2.7×10-6, respectively. Whole genome resequencing of nine cases and controls followed by genotyping and detailed analysis identified three shared and one B-cell lymphoma specific risk haplotypes within the two loci, but no coding changes were associated with the risk haplotypes. Gene expression analysis of B-cell lymphoma tumors revealed that carrying the risk haplotypes at the first locus is associated with down-regulation of several nearby genes including the proximal gene TRPC6, a transient receptor Ca2+-channel involved in T-cell activation, among other functions. The shared risk haplotype in the second locus overlaps the vesicle transport and release gene STX8. Carrying the shared risk haplotype is associated with gene expression changes of 100 genes enriched for pathways involved in immune cell activation. Thus, the predisposing germ-line mutations in B-cell lymphoma and hemangiosarcoma appear to be regulatory, and affect pathways involved in T-cell mediated immune response in the tumor. This suggests that the interaction between the immune system and malignant cells plays a common role in the tumorigenesis of these relatively different cancers. PMID:25642983

Tonomura, Noriko; Elvers, Ingegerd; Thomas, Rachael; Megquier, Kate; Turner-Maier, Jason; Howald, Cedric; Sarver, Aaron L; Swofford, Ross; Frantz, Aric M; Ito, Daisuke; Mauceli, Evan; Arendt, Maja; Noh, Hyun Ji; Koltookian, Michele; Biagi, Tara; Fryc, Sarah; Williams, Christina; Avery, Anne C; Kim, Jong-Hyuk; Barber, Lisa; Burgess, Kristine; Lander, Eric S; Karlsson, Elinor K; Azuma, Chieko; Modiano, Jaime F; Breen, Matthew; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin

2015-02-01

57

Evidence for a shared nuclear pore complex architecture that is conserved from the last common eukaryotic ancestor  

E-print Network

, karyopherin; LCEA, last common eukaryotic ancestor; NE, nuclear envelope; NPC, nuclear pore complex; Nup conserved throughout the eukaryota, and was already established in the last common eukaryotic ancestor1 Evidence for a shared nuclear pore complex architecture that is conserved from the last common

Chait, Brian T.

58

Hepatitis E virus: identification of type-common epitopes.  

PubMed Central

Large epidemic outbreaks of enterically transmitted non-A, non-B viral hepatitis (ET-NANBH) have been documented in developing countries. A molecular clone derived from the causative agent, the hepatitis E virus (HEV), has recently been described (G.R. Reyes, M.A. Purdy, J.P. Kim, K.-C. Luk, L.M. Young, K.E. Fry, and D. Bradley, Science 247:1335-1339, 1990). We now report the isolation, by serologic screening, of two cDNA clones derived from a fecal sample collected during a 1986 outbreak of ET-NANBH in Telixtac, Mexico. The cDNA clones encode epitopes that specifically reacted with acute- and convalescent-phase sera collected during five different ET-NANBH epidemics and represent the initial cloning of the Mexico strain of HEV. Recombinant fusion proteins expressed from these clones were also recognized by antibodies from cynomolgus macaques experimentally infected with HEV. The cDNA clones were shown to be derived from HEV by their specific hybridization to the previously recognized full-length genomic RNA transcript of approximately 7.5 kb. In addition, however, subgenomic polyadenylated transcripts of approximately 2.0 and approximately 3.7 kb were also identified in HEV-infected cynomolgus monkey liver. Sequences homologous to the epitope clones were isolated from the Burma strain of the virus, and these demonstrated reactivity comparable to that seen with the Mexico strain epitopes. When compared with the available full-length sequence of the Burma strain of HEV, it was discovered that the cDNA clones were encoded in different open reading frames (ORFs). The comparison between Mexico and Burma HEV strains indicated amino acid homologies of 90.5 and 73.5% for these epitope-encoding clones derived from ORF2 and ORF3, respectively. The identification of these clones not only has provided insight into the expression strategy of HEV but has also resulted in a source of recombinant protein useful in the diagnosis of HEV-induced hepatitis. Images PMID:1717709

Yarbough, P O; Tam, A W; Fry, K E; Krawczynski, K; McCaustland, K A; Bradley, D W; Reyes, G R

1991-01-01

59

The mammary gland-specific marsupial ELP and eutherian CTI share a common ancestral gene  

PubMed Central

Background The marsupial early lactation protein (ELP) gene is expressed in the mammary gland and the protein is secreted into milk during early lactation (Phase 2A). Mature ELP shares approximately 55.4% similarity with the colostrum-specific bovine colostrum trypsin inhibitor (CTI) protein. Although ELP and CTI both have a single bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI)-Kunitz domain and are secreted only during the early lactation phases, their evolutionary history is yet to be investigated. Results Tammar ELP was isolated from a genomic library and the fat-tailed dunnart and Southern koala ELP genes cloned from genomic DNA. The tammar ELP gene was expressed only in the mammary gland during late pregnancy (Phase 1) and early lactation (Phase 2A). The opossum and fat-tailed dunnart ELP and cow CTI transcripts were cloned from RNA isolated from the mammary gland and dog CTI from cells in colostrum. The putative mature ELP and CTI peptides shared 44.6%-62.2% similarity. In silico analyses identified the ELP and CTI genes in the other species examined and provided compelling evidence that they evolved from a common ancestral gene. In addition, whilst the eutherian CTI gene was conserved in the Laurasiatherian orders Carnivora and Cetartiodactyla, it had become a pseudogene in others. These data suggest that bovine CTI may be the ancestral gene of the Artiodactyla-specific, rapidly evolving chromosome 13 pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (PTI), spleen trypsin inhibitor (STI) and the five placenta-specific trophoblast Kunitz domain protein (TKDP1-5) genes. Conclusions Marsupial ELP and eutherian CTI evolved from an ancestral therian mammal gene before the divergence of marsupials and eutherians between 130 and 160 million years ago. The retention of the ELP gene in marsupials suggests that this early lactation-specific milk protein may have an important role in the immunologically naïve young of these species. PMID:22681678

2012-01-01

60

THE Bct-1 LOCUS FOR RESISTANCE TO BEET CURLY TOP VIRUS IS ASSOCIATED WITH QUANTITATIVE RESISTANCE TO BEAN DWARF MOSAIC VIRUS IN COMMON BEAN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Host resistance provides effective control of some diseases induced by geminiviruses in common bean. A recessive gene bgm-1 conditions resistance to Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) and is located on linkage group B3 near the bc-12 gene for resistance to Bean common mosaic virus. The dominan...

61

Common Genetic Determinants of Uveitis Shared with Other Autoimmune Disorders1  

PubMed Central

Uveitis is a complex multifactorial autoimmune disease of the eye characterized by inflammation of the uvea and retina, degeneration of the retina, and blindness in genetically predisposed patients. Using the rat model of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU), we previously identified three quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with EAU on rat chromosomes 4, 12, and 10 (Eau1, Eau2, and Eau3). The primary goal of the current study is to delineate additional non-MHC chromosomal regions that control susceptibility to EAU, and to identify any QTLs that overlap with the QTLs of other autoimmune diseases. Using a set of informative microsatellite markers and F2 generations of resistant and susceptible MHC class II-matched rat strains (F344 and LEW), we have identified several new significant or suggestive QTLs on rat chromosomes 2, 3, 7, 10, and 19 that control susceptibility to EAU. A protective allele was identified in the susceptible LEW strain in the Eau5 locus at D7Wox18, and epistatic interactions between QTLs were found to influence the severity of disease. The newly identified regions (Eau4 through Eau9) colocalize with the genetic determinants of other autoimmune disease models, and to disease-regulating syntenic regions identified in autoimmune patients on human chromosomes 4q21-31, 5q31-33, 16q22-24, 17p11-q12, 20q11-13, and 22q12-13. Our results suggest that uveitis shares some of the pathogenic mechanisms associated with other autoimmune diseases, and lends support to the “common gene, common pathway” hypothesis for autoimmune disorders. PMID:18453595

Mattapallil, Mary J.; Sahin, Azize; Silver, Phyllis B.; Sun, Shu-Hui; Chan, Chi-Chao; Remmers, Elaine F.; Hejtmancik, J. Fielding; Caspi, Rachel R.

2008-01-01

62

Intraoral herpes simplex virus infection in a patient with common variable immunodeficiency.  

PubMed

We report a challenging case of an atypical presentation of recrudescent herpes simplex virus infection in a patient with common variable immunodeficiency. Oral infections in immunosuppressed patients may present with unusual clinical features that can mimic non-infectious diseases. This report discusses the diagnostic steps necessary for definitive diagnosis and to guide appropriate and effective management. PMID:23933299

Villa, Alessandro; Treister, Nathaniel S

2013-10-01

63

Inheritance of resistance to Beet curly top virus in G122 common bean landrace  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Beet curly top virus (BCTV) is a devastating disease of common bean in the Western U.S. Genetic resistance provides effective control but can be difficult to discern in early generations. G122, an Andean landrace from India, known as Jatu Rong, appears to possess resistance independent of Bct-1 gen...

64

The viral transmembrane superfamily: possible divergence of Arenavirus and Filovirus glycoproteins from a common RNA virus ancestor  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Recent studies of viral entry proteins from influenza, measles, human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1), and Ebola virus have shown, first with molecular modeling, and then X-ray crystallographic or other biophysical studies, that these disparate viruses share a coiled-coil type of entry protein. RESULTS: Structural models of the transmembrane glycoproteins (GP-2) of the Arenaviruses, lymphochoriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and Lassa

William R. Gallaher; Christopher DiSimone; Michael J. Buchmeier

2001-01-01

65

Needle sharing with known and diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus-infected injecting drug users.  

PubMed

The annual number of reported cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among injecting drug users (IDUs) in Sweden has been about 20 for more than 5 y, but in 2001 36 new cases were reported. Risk behaviour for contracting HIV infection was studied in 21 of 24 identified and evaluable IDUs with diagnosed HIV infection in the metropolitan area of Stockholm in 2001 and in 23 of 30 evaluable consecutive controls. HIV status was associated with general needle sharing (p = 0.04) and needle sharing with an HIV-positive individual (p = 0.0001), despite extensive information on possible transmission routes for HIV. These results indicate that efforts for reducing transmission of HIV should focus on HIV-negative and HIV-positive individuals with risk behaviour. PMID:12693564

Nordén, Lillebil; Lidman, Christer

2003-01-01

66

Knowledge Sharing among University Students Facilitated with a Creative Commons Licensing Mechanism: A Case Study in a Programming Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Creative Commons (CC) mechanism has been suggested as a potential means to foster a reliable environment for online knowledge sharing activity. This study investigates the role of the CC mechanism in supporting knowledge sharing among a group of university students studying programming from the perspectives of social cognitive and social capital…

Liu, Chen-Chung; Lin, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chun-Yi; Chao, Po-Yao

2014-01-01

67

Spread of Avian Influenza Viruses by Common Teal (Anas crecca) in Europe  

PubMed Central

Since the recent spread of highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 subtypes, avian influenza virus (AIV) dispersal has become an increasing focus of research. As for any other bird-borne pathogen, dispersal of these viruses is related to local and migratory movements of their hosts. In this study, we investigated potential AIV spread by Common Teal (Anas crecca) from the Camargue area, in the South of France, across Europe. Based on bird-ring recoveries, local duck population sizes and prevalence of infection with these viruses, we built an individual-based spatially explicit model describing bird movements, both locally (between wintering areas) and at the flyway scale. We investigated the effects of viral excretion duration and inactivation rate in water by simulating AIV spread with varying values for these two parameters. The results indicate that an efficient AIV dispersal in space is possible only for excretion durations longer than 7 days. Virus inactivation rate in the environment appears as a key parameter in the model because it allows local persistence of AIV over several months, the interval between two migratory periods. Virus persistence in water thus represents an important component of contamination risk as ducks migrate along their flyway. Based on the present modelling exercise, we also argue that HP H5N1 AIV is unlikely to be efficiently spread by Common Teal dispersal only. PMID:19802387

Lebarbenchon, Camille; Albespy, Frédéric; Brochet, Anne-Laure; Grandhomme, Viviane; Renaud, François; Fritz, Hervé; Green, Andy J.; Thomas, Frédéric; van der Werf, Sylvie; Aubry, Philippe; Guillemain, Matthieu; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel

2009-01-01

68

Genetics of resistance to the geminivirus, Bean dwarf mosaic virus , and the role of the hypersensitive response in common bean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bean dwarf mosaic virus (BDMV) is a single-stranded DNA virus (genus: Begomovirus, family: Geminiviridae) that infects common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and causes stunted plant growth, and mosaic and mottle symptoms in leaves. BDMV shows differential pathogenicity in common bean, infecting germplasm of the Andean gene pool (e.g., the snap bean cultivar Topcrop), but not that of the Middle

Y.-S. Seo; P. Gepts; R. L. Gilbertson

2004-01-01

69

Bovine Rhinitis Viruses Are Common in U.S. Cattle with Bovine Respiratory Disease  

PubMed Central

Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) diagnostic submission from Kansas identified contigs with approximately 90% nucleotide similarity to BRAV2 and BRBV. A combination of de novo and templated assemblies using reference genomes yielded near complete BRAV2 and BRBV genomes. The near complete genome of bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) was also determined from a historical isolate to enable further molecular epidemiological studies. A 5’-nuclease reverse transcription PCR assay targeting the 3D polymerase gene was designed and used to screen 204 archived BRD clinical specimens. Thirteen (6.4%) were positive. Metagenomic sequencing of six positive samples identified mixed BRAV1/BRAV2, BRAV1/BRBV and BRAV2/BRBV infections for five samples. One sample showed infection only with BRAV1. Seroprevalence studies using a cell culture adapted BRBV found immunofluorescence assay-reactive antibodies were common in the herds analyzed. Altogether, these results demonstrate that BRV infections are common in cattle with respiratory disease and that BRAV1, BRAV2 and BRBV co-circulate in U.S. cattle and have high similarity to viruses isolated more than 30 years ago from diverse locations. PMID:25789939

Hause, Ben M.; Collin, Emily A.; Anderson, Joe; Hesse, Richard A.; Anderson, Gary

2015-01-01

70

A national HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) database that facilitates data sharing  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this communication is to stimulate discussion on a National Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Database that facilitates and coordinates data sharing. We argue for the creation of a new database because significant gaps exists in the type of information that are available on HIV. Databases that extensively survey the published literature on HIV are widely available, however, databases that contain either raw data or that describe ongoing HIV research efforts are not widely available. For epidemiologists, sociologists and mathematical modelers, who need to draw on raw epidemiologic and behavior data from a broad range of fields, the existing databases are inadequate. In this paper we emphasize the particular requirements of epidemiologists, sociologists and modelers, and suggest a plan to accommodate their database needs.

Layne, S.P.; Marr, T.G.; Stanley, E.A.; Hyman, J.M.; Colgate, S.A.

1988-01-01

71

Benefit Share Mechanism in Small Retail Enterprises Common Logistics Based on Shapely Value  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under two sides pressure of profit atrophy and the competition intensify, the choice of small retail enterprises to imply common logistics is the inevitable tendency. To carry out the common logistics, the small retail enterprises can get two kinds of benefits: the directly benefits and indirectly benefits. The directly benefits including the logistics operation cost saving, the sale enlarging. The

Fuhua Huang; Min Zhou; Yangxiaoxun Ou

2009-01-01

72

New hosts of Potato virus Y (PVY) among common wild plants in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The infection capacity of Potato virus Y (PVY, genus Potyvirus) for wild-living plants, commonly occurring as arable weeds in Europe and native to or naturalised in other continents, was\\u000a evaluated. In total, 3,712 and 802 seedlings representing 21 weed species were aphid and sap-inoculated with PVY, respectively.\\u000a Experimentally-inoculated plants of Erodium cicutarium, Geranium pusillum, Lactuca serriola and Lamium purpureum tested

Agnieszka Kaliciak; Jerzy Syller

2009-01-01

73

The bean common mosaic virus lineage of potyviruses: where did it arise and when?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are more than 30 species in the bean common mosaic virus lineage of the genus Potyvirus. We have used their partial coat protein gene sequences to infer their phylogenies and have compared these with host and\\u000a provenance information. Members of six species of the lineage have been isolated from crops distributed around the world,\\u000a but three of these show

A. J. Gibbs; J. W. H. Trueman; M. J. Gibbs

2008-01-01

74

Seewis virus, a genetically distinct hantavirus in the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus)  

PubMed Central

More than 20 years ago, hantaviral antigens were reported in tissues of the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens) and common mole (Talpa europea), suggesting that insectivores, or soricomorphs, might serve as reservoirs of unique hantaviruses. Using RT-PCR, sequences of a genetically distinct hantavirus, designated Seewis virus (SWSV), were amplified from lung tissue of a Eurasian common shrew, captured in October 2006 in Graubünden, Switzerland. Pair-wise analysis of the full-length S and partial M and L segments of SWSV indicated approximately 55%–72% similarity with hantaviruses harbored by Murinae, Arvicolinae, Neotominae and Sigmodontinae rodents. Phylogenetically, SWSV grouped with other recently identified shrew-borne hantaviruses. Intensified efforts are underway to clarify the genetic diversity of SWSV throughout the geographic range of the Eurasian common shrew, as well as to determine its relevance to human health. PMID:17967200

Song, Jin-Won; Gu, Se Hun; Bennett, Shannon N; Arai, Satoru; Puorger, Maria; Hilbe, Monika; Yanagihara, Richard

2007-01-01

75

The African American Network (AAN) is a voluntary associa-tion of people who share a common interest in embracing  

E-print Network

The African American Network (AAN) is a voluntary associa- tion of people who share a common the quality of life for ALL at the Univer- sity of Rochester. The African American Network is not reserved Information Technology and executive champion for the African American Network, received a plaque at last year

Portman, Douglas

76

Two Zebrafish Alcohol Dehydrogenases Share Common Ancestry with Mammalian Class I, II, IV, and V Alcohol Dehydrogenase  

E-print Network

Two Zebrafish Alcohol Dehydrogenases Share Common Ancestry with Mammalian Class I, II, IV, and V to many vertebrates. We are utilizing zebrafish as a model system to determine whether the isolation and characterization of two cDNAs encoding zebrafish alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs). Phylogenetic

Tullos, Desiree

77

Multistate outbreak of Norwalk-like virus gastroenteritis associated with a common caterer.  

PubMed

In February 2000, an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred among employees of a car dealership in New York. The same meal was also supplied to 52 dealerships nationwide, and 13 states reported illness at dealerships where the banquet was served. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to identify risk factors associated with the illness. Stool samples were collected to detect Norwalk-like virus, and sera were drawn and tested for immunoglobulin A antibodies to the outbreak strain. By univariate analysis, illness was significantly associated with consumption of any of four salads served at the banquet (relative risk = 3.8, 95% confidence interval: 2.5, 5.6). Norwalk-like virus was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay in 32 of 59 stool samples from eight states. Nucleotide sequences of a 213-base pair fragment from 16 stool specimens collected from cases in eight states were identical, confirming a common source outbreak. Two of 15 workers at caterer A had elevated immunoglobulin A titers to an antigenically related Norwalk-like virus strain. This study highlights the value of molecular techniques to complement classic epidemiologic methods in outbreak investigations and underscores the critical role of food handlers in the spread of foodborne disease associated with Norwalk-like virus. PMID:11724717

Anderson, A D; Garrett, V D; Sobel, J; Monroe, S S; Fankhauser, R L; Schwab, K J; Bresee, J S; Mead, P S; Higgins, C; Campana, J; Glass, R I

2001-12-01

78

Experimental respiratory Marburg virus haemorrhagic fever infection in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)  

PubMed Central

Marburg virus causes a highly infectious and lethal haemorrhagic fever in primates and may be exploited as a potential biothreat pathogen. To combat the infection and threat of Marburg haemorrhagic fever, there is a need to develop and license appropriate medical countermeasures. To determine whether the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) would be an appropriate model to assess therapies against Marburg haemorrhagic fever, initial susceptibility, lethality and pathogenesis studies were performed. Low doses of virus, between 4 and 28 TCID50, were sufficient to cause a lethal, reproducible infection. Animals became febrile between days 5 and 6, maintaining a high fever before succumbing to disease between 8 and 11 days postchallenge. Typical signs of Marburg virus infection were observed including haemorrhaging and a transient rash. In pathogenesis studies, virus was isolated from the animals’ lungs from day 3 postchallenge and from the liver, spleen and blood from day 5 postchallenge. Early signs of histopathology were apparent in the kidney and liver from day 3. The most striking features were observed in animals exhibiting severe clinical signs, which included high viral titres in all organs, with the highest levels in the blood, increased levels in liver function enzymes and blood clotting times, decreased levels in platelets, multifocal moderate-to-severe hepatitis and perivascular oedema. PMID:23441639

Smither, Sophie J; Nelson, Michelle; Eastaugh, Lin; Laws, Thomas R; Taylor, Christopher; Smith, Simon A; Salguero, Francisco J; Lever, Mark S

2013-01-01

79

Genotype Characterization of Commonly Used Newcastle Disease Virus Vaccine Strains of India  

PubMed Central

Newcastle disease is an avian pathogen causing severe economic losses to the Indian poultry industry due to recurring outbreaks in vaccinated and unvaccinated flocks. India being an endemic country, advocates vaccination against the virus using lentogenic and mesogenic strains. Two virus strains which are commonly used for vaccination are strain F (a lentogenic virus) and strain R2B (a mesogenic virus). Strain F is given to 0–7 days old chicks and R2B is given to older birds which are around 6–8 weeks old. To understand the genetic makeup of these two strains, a complete genome study and phylogenetic analysis of the F, HN genes of these vaccine strains were carried out. Both the viral strains had a genome length of 15,186 nucleotides and consisted of six genes with conserved complimentary 3' leader and 5' trailer regions. The fusion protein cleavage site of strain F is GGRQGRL and strain R2B is RRQKRF. Although both the viral strains had different virulence attributes, the length of the HN protein was similar with 577 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of F, HN and complete genome sequences grouped these two strains in genotype II category which are considered as early genotypes and corroborated with their years of isolation. PMID:24897503

Gaikwad, Satish; Kataria, Jag Mohan; Vakharia, Vikram N.

2014-01-01

80

Taken-as-shared: a review of common assumptions about mathematical tasks in teacher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taken as shared The call for outline papers to be considered for inclusion in this special issue elicited 111 offers. This presented a formidable problem for the three editors, ourselves and Orit Zaslavsky who contributes the final paper in this collection. During our reading of the submissions we identified many aspects of working on mathematical tasks with teachers which seem

Anne Watson; John Mason

2007-01-01

81

QualityCommons In many areas, people collectively develop shared representations of the quality of arte-  

E-print Network

shared opinions about what is good and bad, which they transmit to their offspring. Collaborative behind their production is intrinsically social. Competing evaluations of the quality of the same . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Alex Bentley Food Quality as a Public Good: Cooperation Dynamics and Economic Development

Doran, Simon J.

82

ecosystems: do engineer species sharing common features have generalized or idiosyncratic effects on species diversity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim To integrate the effects of ecosystem engineers (organisms that create, maintain or destroy habitat for other species) sharing the same archetype on species diversity, and assess whether different engineer species have generalized or idiosyncratic effects across environmentally similar ecosystems. Location High-Andean habitats of Chile and Argentina, from 23? St o 41? S. Methods We measured and compared the effects

Ernesto I. Badano; Lohengrin A. Cavieres

83

Genetic diversity and phylogeography of Seewis virus in the Eurasian common shrew in Finland and Hungary  

PubMed Central

Recent identification of a newfound hantavirus, designated Seewis virus (SWSV), in the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), captured in Switzerland, corroborates decades-old reports of hantaviral antigens in this shrew species from Russia. To ascertain the spatial or geographic variation of SWSV, archival liver tissues from 88 Eurasian common shrews, trapped in Finland in 1982 and in Hungary during 1997, 1999 and 2000, were analyzed for hantavirus RNAs by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. SWSV RNAs were detected in 12 of 22 (54.5%) and 13 of 66 (19.7%) Eurasian common shrews from Finland and Hungary, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of S- and L-segment sequences of SWSV strains, using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, revealed geographic-specific genetic variation, similar to the phylogeography of rodent-borne hantaviruses, suggesting long-standing hantavirus-host co-evolutionary adaptation. PMID:19930716

2009-01-01

84

Specific and common changes in Nicotiana benthamiana gene expression in response to infection by enveloped viruses.  

PubMed

Microarrays derived from Solanum tuberosum expressed sequence tags were used to test the hypothesis that genetically distinct enveloped viruses elicit unique changes in Nicotiana benthamiana gene expression. The results of our study, which included Sonchus yellow net virus (SYNV), a plant rhabdovirus that replicates in the nucleus of infected cells, and Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV), a plant bunyavirus that replicates in the cytoplasm, were consistent with this hypothesis. Statistically significant changes (P< or =0.01) in the expression of 275, 2646 and 4165 genes were detected in response to INSV at 2, 4 and 5 days post-inoculation (d.p.i.), respectively. In contrast, 35, 665 and 1458 genes were expressed differentially in response to SYNV at 5, 11 and 14 d.p.i., respectively. The microarray results were verified by Northern hybridization using a subset of these genes as probes. Notably, INSV, but not SYNV, induced expression of small heat-shock protein genes to high levels. In contrast to SYNV, infection by INSV resulted in downregulation of all histone genes, of which the downregulation of histone 2b expression to very low levels was confirmed by Northern hybridization. The expression of a putative WRKY transcription factor at 11 d.p.i., but not at 5 or 14 d.p.i., in SYNV-infected tissue suggested that the temporal response to virus infection was identified readily using our experimental design. Overall, infection by INSV resulted in larger fold changes in host gene expression relative to infection by SYNV. Taken together, the present data demonstrate differential responses of a common host to two genetically distinct viruses. PMID:16099921

Senthil, G; Liu, H; Puram, V G; Clark, A; Stromberg, A; Goodin, M M

2005-09-01

85

A common feature pharmacophore for FDA-approved drugs inhibiting the Ebola virus  

PubMed Central

We are currently faced with a global infectious disease crisis which has been anticipated for decades. While many promising biotherapeutics are being tested, the search for a small molecule has yet to deliver an approved drug or therapeutic for the Ebola or similar filoviruses that cause haemorrhagic fever. Two recent high throughput screens published in 2013 did however identify several hits that progressed to animal studies that are FDA approved drugs used for other indications. The current computational analysis uses these molecules from two different structural classes to construct a common features pharmacophore. This ligand-based pharmacophore implicates a possible common target or mechanism that could be further explored. A recent structure based design project yielded nine co-crystal structures of pyrrolidinone inhibitors bound to the viral protein 35 (VP35). When receptor-ligand pharmacophores based on the analogs of these molecules and the protein structures were constructed, the molecular features partially overlapped with the common features of solely ligand-based pharmacophore models based on FDA approved drugs. These previously identified FDA approved drugs with activity against Ebola were therefore docked into this protein. The antimalarials chloroquine and amodiaquine docked favorably in VP35. We propose that these drugs identified to date as inhibitors of the Ebola virus may be targeting VP35. These computational models may provide preliminary insights into the molecular features that are responsible for their activity against Ebola virus in vitro and in vivo and we propose that this hypothesis could be readily tested. PMID:25653841

Ekins, Sean; Freundlich, Joel S.; Coffee, Megan

2014-01-01

86

Spread of Influenza Virus A (H5N1) Clade 2.3.2.1 to Bulgaria in Common Buzzards  

PubMed Central

On March 15, 2010, a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus was isolated from the carcass of a common buzzard (Buteo buteo) in Bulgaria. Phylogenetic analyses of the virus showed a close genetic relationship with influenza virus A (H5N1) clade 2.3.2.1 viruses isolated from wild birds in the Tyva Republic and Mongolia during 2009–2010. Designated A/common buzzard/Bulgaria/38WB/2010, this strain was highly pathogenic in chickens but had low pathogenicity in mice and ferrets and no molecular markers of increased pathogenicity in mammals. The establishment of clade 2.3.2.1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H5N1 subtype in wild birds in Europe would increase the likelihood of health threats to humans and poultry in the region. PMID:23017273

Marinova-Petkova, Atanaska; Georgiev, Georgi; Seiler, Patrick; Darnell, Daniel; Franks, John; Krauss, Scott; Webby, Richard J.

2012-01-01

87

Legal Agreements and the Governance of Research Commons: Lessons from Materials Sharing in Mouse Genomics  

PubMed Central

Abstract Omics research infrastructure such as databases and bio-repositories requires effective governance to support pre-competitive research. Governance includes the use of legal agreements, such as Material Transfer Agreements (MTAs). We analyze the use of such agreements in the mouse research commons, including by two large-scale resource development projects: the International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) and International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC). We combine an analysis of legal agreements and semi-structured interviews with 87 members of the mouse model research community to examine legal agreements in four contexts: (1) between researchers; (2) deposit into repositories; (3) distribution by repositories; and (4) exchanges between repositories, especially those that are consortium members of the IKMC and IMPC. We conclude that legal agreements for the deposit and distribution of research reagents should be kept as simple and standard as possible, especially when minimal enforcement capacity and resources exist. Simple and standardized legal agreements reduce transactional bottlenecks and facilitate the creation of a vibrant and sustainable research commons, supported by repositories and databases. PMID:24552652

Mishra, Amrita

2014-01-01

88

ATF4 activity: a common feature shared by many kinds of slow-aging mice.  

PubMed

ATF4, a DNA-binding factor that modulates responses to amino acid availability and ribosomal function, has been shown to be altered in both liver and fibroblasts from two strains of long-lived mice, i.e. Snell dwarf and PAPP-A knockout mice. New data now show elevated ATF4 levels, and elevation of ATF4-dependent proteins and mRNAs, in liver of mice treated with acarbose or rapamycin, calorically restricted mice, methionine-restricted mice, and mice subjected to litter crowding. Elevation of ATF4, at least in liver, thus seems to be a shared feature of diets, drugs, genes, and developmental alterations that extend maximum lifespan in mice. PMID:25156122

Li, Weiquan; Li, Xinna; Miller, Richard A

2014-12-01

89

ATF4 activity: a common feature shared by many kinds of slow-aging mice  

PubMed Central

ATF4, a DNA-binding factor that modulates responses to amino acid availability and ribosomal function, has been shown to be altered in both liver and fibroblasts from two strains of long-lived mice, i.e. Snell dwarf and PAPP-A knockout mice. New data now show elevated ATF4 levels, and elevation of ATF4-dependent proteins and mRNAs, in liver of mice treated with acarbose or rapamycin, calorically restricted mice, methionine-restricted mice, and mice subjected to litter crowding. Elevation of ATF4, at least in liver, thus seems to be a shared feature of diets, drugs, genes, and developmental alterations that extend maximum lifespan in mice. PMID:25156122

Li, Weiquan; Li, Xinna; Miller, Richard A

2014-01-01

90

Type VI secretion apparatus and phage tail-associated protein complexes share a common evolutionary origin  

SciTech Connect

Protein secretion is a common property of pathogenic microbes. Gram-negative bacterial pathogens use at least 6 distinct extracellular protein secretion systems to export proteins through their multilayered cell envelope and in some cases into host cells. Among the most widespread is the newly recognized Type VI secretion system (T6SS) which is composed of 15--20 proteins whose biochemical functions are not well understood. Using crystallographic, biochemical, and bioinformatic analyses, we identified 3 T6SS components, which are homologous to bacteriophage tail proteins. These include the tail tube protein; the membrane-penetrating needle, situated at the distal end of the tube; and another protein associated with the needle and tube. We propose that T6SS is a multicomponent structure whose extracellular part resembles both structurally and functionally a bacteriophage tail, an efficient machine that translocates proteins and DNA across lipid membranes into cells.

Leiman, Petr G.; Basler, Marek; Ramagopal, Udupi A.; Bonanno, Jeffrey B.; Sauder, J. Michael; Pukatzki, Stefan; Burley, Stephen K.; Almo, Steven C.; Mekalanos, John J.; (Harvard-Med); (SGX); (Alberta); (Einstein); (Purdue)

2009-04-22

91

Type VI secretion apparatus and phage tail-associated protein complexes share a common evolutionary origin  

PubMed Central

Protein secretion is a common property of pathogenic microbes. Gram-negative bacterial pathogens use at least 6 distinct extracellular protein secretion systems to export proteins through their multilayered cell envelope and in some cases into host cells. Among the most widespread is the newly recognized Type VI secretion system (T6SS) which is composed of 15–20 proteins whose biochemical functions are not well understood. Using crystallographic, biochemical, and bioinformatic analyses, we identified 3 T6SS components, which are homologous to bacteriophage tail proteins. These include the tail tube protein; the membrane-penetrating needle, situated at the distal end of the tube; and another protein associated with the needle and tube. We propose that T6SS is a multicomponent structure whose extracellular part resembles both structurally and functionally a bacteriophage tail, an efficient machine that translocates proteins and DNA across lipid membranes into cells. PMID:19251641

Leiman, Petr G.; Basler, Marek; Ramagopal, Udupi A.; Bonanno, Jeffrey B.; Sauder, J. Michael; Pukatzki, Stefan; Burley, Stephen K.; Almo, Steven C.; Mekalanos, John J.

2009-01-01

92

Shedding of a Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus in a Common Synanthropic Mammal – The Cottontail Rabbit  

PubMed Central

Background Cottontails (Sylvilagus spp.) are common mammals throughout much of the U.S. and are often found in peridomestic settings, potentially interacting with livestock and poultry operations. If these animals are susceptible to avian influenza virus (AIV) infections and shed the virus in sufficient quantities they may pose a risk for movement of avian influenza viruses between wildlife and domestic animals in certain situations. Methodology/Principal Findings To assess the viral shedding potential of AIV in cottontails, we nasally inoculated fourteen cottontails with a low pathogenic AIV (H4N6). All inoculated cottontails shed relatively large quantities of viral RNA both nasally (?106.94 PCR EID50 equivalents/mL) and orally (?105.09 PCR EID50 equivalents/mL). However, oral shedding tended to decline more quickly than did nasal shedding. No animals showed any obvious signs of disease throughout the study. Evidence of a serological response was found in all infected rabbits at 22 days post infection in convalescent sera. Conclusions/Significance To our knowledge, cottontails have not been previously assessed for AIV shedding. However, it was obvious that they shed AIV RNA extensively via the nasal and oral routes. This is significant, as cottontails are widely distributed throughout the U.S. and elsewhere. These mammals are often found in highly peridomestic situations, such as farms, parks, and suburban neighborhoods, often becoming habituated to human activities. Thus, if infected these mammals could easily transport AIVs short distances. PMID:25111780

Root, J. Jeffrey; Shriner, Susan A.; Bentler, Kevin T.; Gidlewski, Thomas; Mooers, Nicole L.; Spraker, Terry R.; VanDalen, Kaci K.; Sullivan, Heather J.; Franklin, Alan B.

2014-01-01

93

Genome-wide association study of 14,000 cases of seven common diseases and 3,000 shared controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing evidence that genome-wide association (GWA) studies represent a powerful approach to the identification of genes involved in common human diseases. We describe a joint GWA study (using the Affymetrix GeneChip 500K Mapping Array Set) undertaken in the British population, which has examined ~2,000 individuals for each of 7 major diseases and a shared set of ~3,000 controls.

Paul R. Burton; David G. Clayton; Lon R. Cardon; Nick Craddock; Panos Deloukas; Audrey Duncanson; Dominic P. Kwiatkowski; Mark I. McCarthy; Willem H. Ouwehand; Nilesh J. Samani; John A. Todd; Peter Donnelly; Jeffrey C. Barrett; Dan Davison; Doug Easton; David Evans; Hin-Tak Leung; Jonathan L. Marchini; Andrew P. Morris; Chris C. A. Spencer; Martin D. Tobin; Antony P. Attwood; James P. Boorman; Barbara Cant; Ursula Everson; Judith M. Hussey; Jennifer D. Jolley; Alexandra S. Knight; Kerstin Koch; Elizabeth Meech; Sarah Nutland; Christopher V. Prowse; Helen E. Stevens; Niall C. Taylor; Graham R. Walters; Neil M. Walker; Nicholas A. Watkins; Thilo Winzer; Richard W. Jones; Wendy L. McArdle; Susan M. Ring; David P. Strachan; Marcus Pembrey; Gerome Breen; David St Clair; Sian Caesar; Katherine Gordon-Smith; Lisa Jones; Christine Fraser; Elaine K. Green; Detelina Grozeva; Marian L. Hamshere; Peter A. Holmans; Ian R. Jones; George Kirov; Valentina Moskvina; Ivan Nikolov; Michael C. O'Donovan; Michael J. Owen; David A. Collier; Amanda Elkin; Anne Farmer; Richard Williamson; Peter McGuffin; Allan H. Young; I. Nicol Ferrier; Stephen G. Ball; Anthony J. Balmforth; Jennifer H. Barrett; D. Timothy Bishop; Mark M. Iles; Azhar Maqbool; Nadira Yuldasheva; Alistair S. Hall; Peter S. Braund; Richard J. Dixon; Massimo Mangino; Suzanne Stevens; John R. Thompson; Francesca Bredin; Mark Tremelling; Miles Parkes; Hazel Drummond; Charles W. Lees; Elaine R. Nimmo; Jack Satsangi; Sheila A. Fisher; Alastair Forbes; Cathryn M. Lewis; Clive M. Onnie; Natalie J. Prescott; Jeremy Sanderson; Christopher G. Mathew; Jamie Barbour; M. Khalid Mohiuddin; Catherine E. Todhunter; John C. Mansfield; Tariq Ahmad; Fraser R. Cummings; Derek P. Jewell; John Webster; Morris J. Brown; G. Mark Lathrop; John Connell; Anna Dominiczak; Carolina A. Braga Marcano; Beverley Burke; Richard Dobson; Johannie Gungadoo; Kate L. Lee; Patricia B. Munroe; Stephen J. Newhouse; Abiodun Onipinla; Chris Wallace; Mingzhan Xue; Mark Caulfield; Martin Farrall; Anne Barton; Ian N. Bruce; Hannah Donovan; Steve Eyre; Paul D. Gilbert; Samantha L. Hider; Anne M. Hinks; Sally L. John; Catherine Potter; Alan J. Silman; Deborah P. M. Symmons; Wendy Thomson; Jane Worthington; David B. Dunger; Barry Widmer; Timothy M. Frayling; Rachel M. Freathy; Hana Lango; John R. B. Perry; Beverley M. Shields; Michael N. Weedon; Andrew T. Hattersley; Graham A. Hitman; Mark Walker; Kate S. Elliott; Christopher J. Groves; Cecilia M. Lindgren; Nigel W. Rayner; Nicholas J. Timpson; Eleftheria Zeggini; Melanie Newport; Giorgio Sirugo; Emily Lyons; Fredrik Vannberg; Adrian V. S. Hill; Linda A. Bradbury; Claire Farrar; Jennifer J. Pointon; Paul Wordsworth; Matthew A. Brown; Jayne A. Franklyn; Joanne M. Heward; Matthew J. Simmonds; Stephen C. L. Gough; Sheila Seal; Michael R. Stratton; Nazneen Rahman; Maria Ban; An Goris; Stephen J. Sawcer; Alastair Compston; David Conway; Muminatou Jallow; Kirk A. Rockett; Suzannah J. Bumpstead; Amy Chaney; Kate Downes; Mohammed J. R. Ghori; Rhian Gwilliam; Sarah E. Hunt; Michael Inouye; Andrew Keniry; Emma King; Ralph McGinnis; Simon Potter; Rathi Ravindrarajah; Pamela Whittaker; Claire Widden; David Withers; Niall J. Cardin; Teresa Ferreira; Joanne Pereira-Gale; Ingileif B. Hallgrimsdóttir; Bryan N. Howie; Zhan Su; Yik Ying Teo; Damjan Vukcevic; David Bentley; Alistair Compston

2007-01-01

94

Humidity sensation, cockroaches, worms and humans: are common sensory mechanisms for hygrosensation shared across species?  

PubMed

Although the ability to detect humidity (i.e. hygrosensation) represents an important sensory attribute in many animal species (including humans), the neurophysiological and molecular bases of such sensory ability remain largely unknown in many animals. Recently, Russell and colleagues (Russell J, Vidal-Gadea AG, Makay A, Lanam C, Pierce-Shimomura JT. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111: 8269-8274, 2014) provided for the first time neuromolecular evidence for the sensory integration of thermal and mechanical sensory cues which underpin the hygrosensation strategy of an animal (i.e. the free-living roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans) which lacks specific sensory organs for humidity detection (i.e. hygroreceptors). Due to the remarkable similarities in the hygrosensation transduction mechanisms used by hygroreceptor-provided (e.g. insects) and hygroreceptor-lacking species (e.g. roundworms and humans), Russell and colleagues' findings highlight potentially universal mechanisms for humidity detection which could be shared across a wide range of species, including humans. PMID:25318766

Filingeri, Davide

2014-10-15

95

Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone and Adipokinetic Hormone Signaling Systems Share a Common Evolutionary Origin  

PubMed Central

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a critical and central hormone that regulates vertebrate reproduction. The high conservation of GnRH signaling within the chordates (deuterostomians) raises the important question as to whether its appearance might date back prior to the divergence of protostomian and deuterostomian lineages, about 700 million years ago. This leads to several important questions regarding the evolution of the GnRH family. Has GnRH been retained in most protostomian lineages? And was regulation of reproduction already a function of ancestral GnRH? The first question can undoubtedly be answered affirmatively since several GnRH-like sequences have been found in wide variety of protostomian and deuterostomian phyla. However, based on their different primary functions in different phyla – which implies a less unanimous answer on the second question – consistency in the nomenclature of this peptide family has been lost. A comparative and phylogenetic approach shows that the ecdysozoan adipokinetic hormones (AKHs), lophotrochozoan GnRHs and chordate GnRHs are structurally related and suggests that they all originate from a common ancestor. This review supports the view that the AKH–GnRH signaling system probably arose very early in metazoan evolution, prior to the divergence of protostomians and deuterostomians. PMID:22649364

Lindemans, Marleen; Janssen, Tom; Beets, Isabel; Temmerman, Liesbet; Meelkop, Ellen; Schoofs, Liliane

2011-01-01

96

Mild ring 17 syndrome shares common phenotypic features irrespective of the chromosomal breakpoints location.  

PubMed

Ring 17 syndrome is a rare disorder with clinical features influenced by the presence or deletion of the Miller-Dieker critical region (MDCR). Presence of the MDCR is associated with a mild phenotype, including growth delay (GD), mental retardation (MR), seizures, cafè au lait skin (CALS) spots and minor facial dysmorphisms. Previous studies have been mainly focused on this locus providing poor information about the role of other genes located on the p- and q-arms. Here, we used bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)/P1 artificial chromosome (PAC) and fosmid clones as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes to perform a cyto-molecular analysis of a ring 17 case and found that the breakpoints were close to the telomeric ends. METRNL is the sole gene located on the q-arm terminal end, whereas two open reading frames and the RPH3AL gene are located on the terminal p-arm. To detect possibly unrevealed small deletions involving the transcription units, we used subcloned FISH probes obtained by long-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which showed that the investigated regions were preserved. Comparing our findings with other reports, it emerges that different breakpoints, involving (or not) large genomic deletions, present overlapping clinical aspects. In conclusion, our data suggest that a mechanism based on gene expression control besides haploinsufficiency should be considered to explain the common phenotypic features found in the mild ring 17 syndrome. PMID:19793054

Surace, C; Piazzolla, S; Sirleto, P; Digilio, M C; Roberti, M C; Lombardo, A; D'Elia, G; Tomaiuolo, A C; Petrocchi, S; Capolino, R; El Hachem, M; Claps Sepulveda, D; Sgura, A; Angioni, A

2009-09-01

97

Capsid Antibodies to Different Adeno-Associated Virus Serotypes Bind Common Regions  

PubMed Central

Interactions between viruses and the host antibody immune response are critical in the development and control of disease, and antibodies are also known to interfere with the efficacy of viral vector-based gene delivery. The adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) being developed as vectors for corrective human gene delivery have shown promise in clinical trials, but preexisting antibodies are detrimental to successful outcomes. However, the antigenic epitopes on AAV capsids remain poorly characterized. Cryo-electron microscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction were used to define the locations of epitopes to which monoclonal fragment antibodies (Fabs) against AAV1, AAV2, AAV5, and AAV6 bind. Pseudoatomic modeling showed that, in each serotype, Fabs bound to a limited number of sites near the protrusions surrounding the 3-fold axes of the T=1 icosahedral capsids. For the closely related AAV1 and AAV6, a common Fab exhibited substoichiometric binding, with one Fab bound, on average, between two of the three protrusions as a consequence of steric crowding. The other AAV Fabs saturated the capsid and bound to the walls of all 60 protrusions, with the footprint for the AAV5 antibody extending toward the 5-fold axis. The angle of incidence for each bound Fab on the AAVs varied and resulted in significant differences in how much of each viral capsid surface was occluded beyond the Fab footprints. The AAV-antibody interactions showed a common set of footprints that overlapped some known receptor-binding sites and transduction determinants, thus suggesting potential mechanisms for virus neutralization by the antibodies. PMID:23760240

Gurda, Brittney L.; DiMattia, Michael A.; Miller, Edward B.; Bennett, Antonette; McKenna, Robert; Weichert, Wendy S.; Nelson, Christian D.; Chen, Wei-jun; Muzyczka, Nicholas; Olson, Norman H.; Sinkovits, Robert S.; Chiorini, John A.; Zolotutkhin, Sergei; Kozyreva, Olga G.; Samulski, R. Jude; Baker, Timothy S.; Parrish, Colin R.

2013-01-01

98

Do deep dyslexia, dysphasia and dysgraphia share a common phonological impairment?  

PubMed Central

This study directly compared four patients who, to varying degrees, showed the characteristics of deep dyslexia, dysphasia and/or dysgraphia – i.e., they made semantic errors in oral reading, repetition and/or spelling to dictation. The “primary systems” hypothesis proposes that these different conditions result from severe impairment to a common phonological system, rather than damage to task-specific mechanisms (i.e. grapheme-phoneme conversion). By this view, deep dyslexic/dysphasic patients should show overlapping deficits but previous studies have not directly compared them. All four patients in the current study showed poor phonological production across different tasks, including repetition, reading aloud and spoken picture naming, in line with the primary systems hypothesis. They also showed severe deficits in tasks that required the manipulation of phonology, such as phoneme addition and deletion. Some of the characteristics of the deep syndromes – namely lexicality and imageability effects – were typically observed in all of the tasks, regardless of whether semantic errors occurred or not, suggesting that the patients’ phonological deficits impacted on repetition, reading aloud and spelling to dictation in similar ways. Differences between the syndromes were accounted for by variation in other primary systems – particularly auditory processing. Deep dysphasic symptoms occurred when the impact of phonological input on spoken output was disrupted or reduced, either as a result of auditory/phonological impairment, or for patients with good phonological input analysis, when repetition was delayed. ‘Deep’ disorders of reading aloud, repetition and spelling can therefore be explained in terms of damage to interacting primary systems such as phonology, semantics and vision, with phonology playing a critical role. PMID:17227679

Jefferies, Elizabeth; Sage, Karen; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

2007-01-01

99

A resistance gene in common bean to Clover yellow vein virus is tightly linked with bc-3 gene which confers resistance to Bean common mosaic virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A strain of Clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV) that causes severe mosaic, top necrosis, stunting, and pod necrosis on infected plants has been plaguing snap bean production in the Great Lakes and Northeastern regions of the US since 2003. In preliminary virus screening experiments to identify resistan...

100

Heartland Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD) NCEZID Share Compartir Heartland virus On this Page What is Heartland virus? How ... Do I Need to Know? What is Heartland virus? Heartland virus belongs to a family of viruses ...

101

Shared Usage of the Chemokine Receptor CXCR4 by the Feline and Human Immunodeficiency Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) induces a disease state in the domestic cat that is similar to AIDS in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. As with HIV, FIV can be divided into primary and cell culture-adapted isolates. Adaptation of FIV to replicate and form syncytia in the Crandell feline kidney (CrFK) cell line is accompanied by an increase in the net

BRIAN J. WILLETT; LAURENT PICARD; MARGARET J. HOSIE; JULIE D. TURNER; KAREN ADEMA; PAUL R. CLAPHAM

1997-01-01

102

Identification of Common Biological Pathways and Drug Targets Across Multiple Respiratory Viruses Based on Human Host Gene Expression Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Pandemic and seasonal respiratory viruses are a major global health concern. Given the genetic diversity of respiratory viruses and the emergence of drug resistant strains, the targeted disruption of human host-virus interactions is a potential therapeutic strategy for treating multi-viral infections. The availability of large-scale genomic datasets focused on host-pathogen interactions can be used to discover novel drug targets as well as potential opportunities for drug repositioning. Methods/Results In this study, we performed a large-scale analysis of microarray datasets involving host response to infections by influenza A virus, respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, SARS-coronavirus, metapneumonia virus, coxsackievirus and cytomegalovirus. Common genes and pathways were found through a rigorous, iterative analysis pipeline where relevant host mRNA expression datasets were identified, analyzed for quality and gene differential expression, then mapped to pathways for enrichment analysis. Possible repurposed drugs targets were found through database and literature searches. A total of 67 common biological pathways were identified among the seven different respiratory viruses analyzed, representing fifteen laboratories, nine different cell types, and seven different array platforms. A large overlap in the general immune response was observed among the top twenty of these 67 pathways, adding validation to our analysis strategy. Of the top five pathways, we found 53 differentially expressed genes affected by at least five of the seven viruses. We suggest five new therapeutic indications for existing small molecules or biological agents targeting proteins encoded by the genes F3, IL1B, TNF, CASP1 and MMP9. Pathway enrichment analysis also identified a potential novel host response, the Parkin-Ubiquitin Proteasomal System (Parkin-UPS) pathway, which is known to be involved in the progression of neurodegenerative Parkinson's disease. Conclusions Our study suggests that multiple and diverse respiratory viruses invoke several common host response pathways. Further analysis of these pathways suggests potential opportunities for therapeutic intervention. PMID:22432004

Smith, Steven B.; Dampier, William; Tozeren, Aydin; Brown, James R.; Magid-Slav, Michal

2012-01-01

103

The Genome Sequence of the Emerging Common Midwife Toad Virus Identifies an Evolutionary Intermediate within Ranaviruses  

PubMed Central

Worldwide amphibian population declines have been ascribed to global warming, increasing pollution levels, and other factors directly related to human activities. These factors may additionally be favoring the emergence of novel pathogens. In this report, we have determined the complete genome sequence of the emerging common midwife toad ranavirus (CMTV), which has caused fatal disease in several amphibian species across Europe. Phylogenetic and gene content analyses of the first complete genomic sequence from a ranavirus isolated in Europe show that CMTV is an amphibian-like ranavirus (ALRV). However, the CMTV genome structure is novel and represents an intermediate evolutionary stage between the two previously described ALRV groups. We find that CMTV clusters with several other ranaviruses isolated from different hosts and locations which might also be included in this novel ranavirus group. This work sheds light on the phylogenetic relationships within this complex group of emerging, disease-causing viruses. PMID:22301140

Mavian, Carla; López-Bueno, Alberto; Balseiro, Ana; Casais, Rosa; Alcamí, Antonio

2012-01-01

104

Sharing a Common Interest  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The philosopher's job is to provide humanity with practical solutions to reality's intrinsic problems. Many students from historically under-represented groups overlook philosophy as a career or academic major because they do not view it as a lucrative profession. The lack of role models in the discipline is another reason minority students do not…

Nealy, Michelle

2005-01-01

105

Veterinary Virologists Share Avian AVIAN INFLUENZA INFECTIONS CAUSED BY VIRUSES OF THE ASIAN HPAI  

E-print Network

OF THE ASIAN HPAI H5N1 subtype have spread from East and Southeast Asia to Europe, the Middle East, and Africa available for genome nucleotide sequencing H5N1 contemporary isolates from several countries and relevant, and the full genetic sequences will be available in GenBank. The Asian HPAI H5N1 virus is spreading very

Kalueff, Allan V.

106

Respiratory Syncytial Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Skip Content Marketing Share this: ... common. The infection can progress to the lower respiratory tract to cause more severe illness such as ...

107

Indigenous hepatitis E virus infection in England: More common than it seems  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIndigenous hepatitis E virus (HEV) is increasingly diagnosed in England due to a better awareness and understanding of the virus. However, the true burden of infection and therefore its implication to public health remains undefined.

Samreen Ijaz; Andrew J. Vyse; Dilys Morgan; Richard G. Pebody; Richard S. Tedder; David Brown

2009-01-01

108

Isolation of an influenza virus, similar to A\\/Port Chalmers\\/1\\/73 (H3N2) from a common murre at Sakhalin Island in U.S.S.R (Strain A\\/CommonMurre\\/Sakhalin\\/1\\/74)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary An influenza A virus isolated from the cloaca of a common murre was characterized antigenically as H3N2 and was most closely related to the A\\/Port Chalmers\\/1\\/73 strain. Serological studies of sera collected from common murres in the area of virus isolation showed that 21 per cent of the birds had antibodies to Hong Kong influenza virus.

A. A. Sazonov; D. K. Lvov; R. G. Webster; T. V. Sokolova; N. A. Braude; N. V. Portyanko

1977-01-01

109

Symbionts Commonly Provide Broad Spectrum Resistance to Viruses in Insects: A Comparative Analysis of Wolbachia Strains  

E-print Network

the mechanisms of protection acting against these parasites are the same that are involved in protection against viruses. Antiviral protection by Wolbachia could potentially be used to control vector-borne diseases such as dengue fever [37,38]. When artificially... introduced into Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue virus, Wolbachia was shown to limit the replication of dengue virus as well as chikungunya, yellow fever and West Nile viruses [29,39,40]. Furthermore, when Wolbachia infected mos- quitoes were released...

Martinez, Julien; Longdon, Ben; Bauer, Simone; Chan, Yuk-Sang; Miller, Wolfgang J.; Bourtzis, Kostas; Teixeira, Luis; Jiggins, Francis M.

2014-09-18

110

Comprehensive Mapping of Common Immunodominant Epitopes in the West Nile Virus Nonstructural Protein 1 Recognized by Avian Antibody Responses  

PubMed Central

West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that primarily infects birds but occasionally infects humans and horses. Certain species of birds, including crows, house sparrows, geese, blue jays and ravens, are considered highly susceptible hosts to WNV. The nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of WNV can elicit protective immune responses, including NS1-reactive antibodies, during infection of animals. The antigenicity of NS1 suggests that NS1-reactive antibodies could provide a basis for serological diagnostic reagents. To further define serological reagents for diagnostic use, the antigenic sites in NS1 that are targeted by host immune responses need to be identified and the potential diagnostic value of individual antigenic sites also needs to be defined. The present study describes comprehensive mapping of common immunodominant linear B-cell epitopes in the WNV NS1 using avian WNV NS1 antisera. We screened antisera from chickens, ducks and geese immunized with purified NS1 for reactivity against 35 partially overlapping peptides covering the entire WNV NS1. This study identified twelve, nine and six peptide epitopes recognized by chicken, duck and goose antibody responses, respectively. Three epitopes (NS1-3, 14 and 24) were recognized by antibodies elicited by immunization in all three avian species tested. We also found that NS1-3 and 24 were WNV-specific epitopes, whereas the NS1-14 epitope was conserved among the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) serocomplex viruses based on the reactivity of avian WNV NS1 antisera against polypeptides derived from the NS1 sequences of viruses of the JEV serocomplex. Further analysis showed that the three common polypeptide epitopes were not recognized by antibodies in Avian Influenza Virus (AIV), Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), Duck Plague Virus (DPV) and Goose Parvovirus (GPV) antisera. The knowledge and reagents generated in this study have potential applications in differential diagnostic approaches and subunit vaccines development for WNV and other viruses of the JEV serocomplex. PMID:22347477

Sun, Encheng; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Nihong; Yang, Tao; Xu, Qingyuan; Qin, Yongli; Bu, Zhigao; Yang, Yinhui; Lunt, Ross A.; Wang, Linfa; Wu, Donglai

2012-01-01

111

Primary glomerulonephritis with isolated C3 deposits: a new entity which shares common genetic risk factors with haemolytic uraemic syndrome  

PubMed Central

Introduction Abnormal control of the complement alternative pathway (CAP) (factor H, factor I and membrane cofactor protein (MCP) deficiencies) is a well established risk factor for the occurrence of haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS). In some instances, HUS may be associated with an unusual glomerulonephritis with isolated C3 deposits (glomerulonephritis C3). We determined whether HUS and glomerulonephritis C3 share common genetic susceptibility factors. Methods We identified 19 patients with glomerulonephritis C3. We measured levels of circulating complement components, performed assays for the detection of C3 nephritic factor (C3NeF) and screened factor H, factor I and MCP coding genes for the presence of mutations. Results Patients were divided in two groups based on renal pathology findings: group I (n?=?13) had typical features of type I membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (glomerulonephritis C3 with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN)) and group II (n?=?6) was characterised by mesangial and epimembranous C3 deposits in the absence of mesangial proliferation (glomerulonephritis C3 without MPGN). Mutations in complement regulatory genes were detected in 4/6 patients with glomerulonephritis C3 without MPGN (heterozygous mutations in factor H gene (two patients) with low factor H antigenic level in one case, heterozygous mutations in factor I gene (two patients)) and in only 2/13 patients with glomerulonephritis C3 with MPGN (heterozygous mutations in factor H gene (one patient) and double heterozygous mutation in CD 46 gene (one patient)). In contrast, C3NeF was present in 5/13 patients with glomerulonephritis C3 with MPGN and in 2/6 patients with glomerulonephritis C3 without MPGN, one of whom had a factor H mutation. Conclusion HUS and glomerulonephritis C3 without MPGN share common genetic risk factors. Constitutional or acquired dysregulation of the CAP is probably associated with a wide spectrum of diseases, ranging from HUS to glomerulonephritis C3 with MPGN. PMID:17018561

Servais, Aude; Frémeaux?Bacchi, Véronique; Lequintrec, Moglie; Salomon, Rémi; Blouin, Jacques; Knebelmann, Bertrand; Grünfeld, Jean?Pierre; Lesavre, Philippe; Noël, Laure?Hélène; Fakhouri, Fadi

2007-01-01

112

Genome-wide association study of 14,000 cases of seven common diseases and 3,000 shared controls  

PubMed Central

There is increasing evidence that genome-wide association (GWA) studies represent a powerful approach to the identification of genes involved in common human diseases. We describe a joint GWA study (using the Affymetrix GeneChip 500K Mapping Array Set) undertaken in the British population, which has examined ~2,000 individuals for each of 7 major diseases and a shared set of ~3,000 controls. Case-control comparisons identified 24 independent association signals at P<5×10-7: 1 in bipolar disorder, 1 in coronary artery disease, 9 in Crohn’s disease, 3 in rheumatoid arthritis, 7 in type 1 diabetes and 3 in type 2 diabetes. On the basis of prior findings and replication studies thus-far completed, almost all of these signals reflect genuine susceptibility effects. We observed association at many previously identified loci, and found compelling evidence that some loci confer risk for more than one of the diseases studied. Across all diseases, we identified a large number of further signals (including 58 loci with single-point P values between 10-5 and 5×10-7) likely to yield additional susceptibility loci. The importance of appropriately large samples was confirmed by the modest effect sizes observed at most loci identified. This study thus represents a thorough validation of the GWA approach. It has also demonstrated that careful use of a shared control group represents a safe and effective approach to GWA analyses of multiple disease phenotypes; has generated a genome-wide genotype database for future studies of common diseases in the British population; and shown that, provided individuals with non-European ancestry are excluded, the extent of population stratification in the British population is generally modest. Our findings offer new avenues for exploring the pathophysiology of these important disorders. We anticipate that our data, results and software, which will be widely available to other investigators, will provide a powerful resource for human genetics research. PMID:17554300

2009-01-01

113

Lack of skin test reactivity to common mycobacterial antigens in human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals with high CD4 counts  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: T cell response to mycobacterial antigens may be directed against those antigens common to all mycobacteria (group i), those restricted to slow (group ii) or fast growers (group iii), or those which are species- or subspecies-specific (group iv). These responses were assessed by skin testing patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and healthy controls with reagents derived

S. H. Khoo; E. G. Wilkins; I. S. Fraser; A. A. Hamour; J. L. Stanford

1996-01-01

114

Do human bile salt stimulated lipase and colipase-dependent pancreatic lipase share a common heparin-containing receptor?  

PubMed

Bile salt stimulated lipase (BSSL), a lipolytic enzyme secreted with pancreatic juice and with human milk, is in concert with colipase-dependent pancreatic lipase, important for the intestinal digestion of dietary lipids. BSSL may also facilitate uptake of free cholesterol from the intestinal lumen, while colipase-dependent lipase has a similar role for fatty acids. According to this theory, the two lipases bind to the intestinal mucosa via a common heparin-involving receptor. In the present study, binding of the two lipases to heparin was explored in vitro using purified human lipases and heparin molecules varying in both chain length and charge density. Native, but not denatured, BSSL bound avidly to heparin and several of the heparin variants. In contrast, at physiologic salt concentration, colipase-dependent lipase did not bind to heparin. Thus, our data do not support the view that the two lipases share a common intestinal heparin-like receptor. Hence, it seems unlikely that such binding could be of physiologic relevance for colipase-dependent lipase, although for BSSL the data are supportive. PMID:11368341

Fält, H; Hernell, O; Bläckberg, L

2001-02-15

115

The T cell response to persistent herpes virus infections in common variable immunodeficiency  

PubMed Central

We show that at least half of patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) have circulating CD8+ T cells specific for epitopes derived from cytomegalovirus (CMV) and/or the Epstein–Barr virus (EBV). Compared to healthy age-matched subjects, more CD8+ T cells in CVID patients were committed to CMV. Despite previous reports of defects in antigen presentation and cellular immunity in CVID, specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells produced interferon (IFN)-? after stimulation with CMV peptides, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells secreted perforin in response to these antigens. In CVID patients we found an association between a high percentage of circulating CD8+ CD57+ T cells containing perforin, CMV infection and a low CD4/CD8 ratio, suggesting that CMV may have a major role in the T cell abnormalities described previously in this disease. We also show preliminary evidence that CMV contributes to the previously unexplained severe enteropathy that occurs in about 5% of patients. PMID:17034575

Raeiszadeh, M; Kopycinski, J; Paston, S J; Diss, T; Lowdell, M; Hardy, G A D; Hislop, A D; Workman, S; Dodi, A; Emery, V; Webster, A D

2006-01-01

116

Identification and Partial Characterisation of Lettuce big-vein associated virus and Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus in Common Weeds Found Amongst Spanish Lettuce Crops and their Role in Lettuce Big-vein Disease Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential role of 10 frequently occurring weed species found amongst Spanish lettuce crops as host plants for the two\\u000a viruses associated with the lettuce big-vein disease, Lettuce big-vein associated virus (LBVaV) and Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus (MLBVV), was studied. The results showed that both viruses can infect naturally growing Sonchus oleraceus (common sowthistle) plants, the unique susceptible species detected

Jose A. Navarro; Francisco Botella; Antonio Marhuenda; Pedro Sastre; M. Amelia Sánchez-Pina; Vicente Pallas

2005-01-01

117

Shared clonality in distinctive lesions of lymphomatoid papulosis and mycosis fungoides occurring in the same patients suggests a common origin.  

PubMed

Lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP) lies within the spectrum of primary cutaneous CD30-positive lymphoproliferative disorders. Approximately 10% to 15% of patients with LyP develop other lymphomas, most commonly mycosis fungoides (MF), suggesting a biological relationship between these distinctive diseases. Here, we describe the clinical and histopathologic features of 11 patients who had both LyP and MF, including a total of 30 biopsy specimens (14 LyP and 16 MF). Clinically, LyP lesions were characterized by clustered papules undergoing spontaneous regression and were classified as type A (n = 11), type C (n = 2), or type D (n = 1). All cases of MF were characterized clinically by patch/plaque disease, were stage I or II at the time of diagnosis, and consisted of a CD4-predominant epidermotropic T-cell infiltrate. We used polymerase chain reaction-based methods to assess the TCR-? chain (TCRB) and TCR-? chain (TCRG) in both LyP and MF lesions of all patients. Monoclonal TCR gene rearrangements were detected in 13 LyP lesions from 10 of 11 patients and in 14 MF lesions from 10 of 11 patients. All 10 patients in whom their skin lesions carried monoclonal TCR gene rearrangements exhibited overlapping clones in both their LyP and MF lesions; additional non-overlapping clones were identified in 3 LyP lesions from 2 patients and 1 MF lesion from another patient. The demonstration of shared monoclonal T-cell receptor gene rearrangements in LyP and MF lesions in almost all patients suggests a common origin between these distinctive clinicopathological diseases. PMID:25666664

de la Garza Bravo, Maria M; Patel, Keyur P; Loghavi, Sanam; Curry, Jonathan L; Torres Cabala, Carlos A; Cason, Ronald C; Gangar, Pamela; Prieto, Victor G; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Duvic, Madeleine; Tetzlaff, Michael T

2015-04-01

118

Serologic survey in a colony of captive common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) after infection with herpes simplex type 1-like virus.  

PubMed

An outbreak of herpesvirus caused the death of four of five common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) in a private colony. Gross lesions included acute ulcerative gingivitis, glossitis, and enlarged mandibular lymph nodes. Histologically, all fatal cases showed meningoencephalitis and eosinophilia with intranuclear inclusion bodies in neurons and glial cells. A herpes simplex-like virus was cultured from the brain and was identified as herpes simplex type 1 virus or a closely related virus by immunofluorescence. Serologic testing (complement fixation test) indicated that the surviving adult female was serologically positive for more than 4 yr and that the offspring she produced was seronegative. The most likely source of the outbreak was the owner who mouth fed hand-raised offspring. PMID:15526895

Hatt, Jean-Michel; Grest, Paula; Posthaus, Horst; Bossart, Walter

2004-09-01

119

Coffee and tomato share common gene repertoires as revealed by deep sequencing of seed and cherry transcripts.  

PubMed

An EST database has been generated for coffee based on sequences from approximately 47,000 cDNA clones derived from five different stages/tissues, with a special focus on developing seeds. When computationally assembled, these sequences correspond to 13,175 unigenes, which were analyzed with respect to functional annotation, expression profile and evolution. Compared with Arabidopsis, the coffee unigenes encode a higher proportion of proteins related to protein modification/turnover and metabolism-an observation that may explain the high diversity of metabolites found in coffee and related species. Several gene families were found to be either expanded or unique to coffee when compared with Arabidopsis. A high proportion of these families encode proteins assigned to functions related to disease resistance. Such families may have expanded and evolved rapidly under the intense pathogen pressure experienced by a tropical, perennial species like coffee. Finally, the coffee gene repertoire was compared with that of Arabidopsis and Solanaceous species (e.g. tomato). Unlike Arabidopsis, tomato has a nearly perfect gene-for-gene match with coffee. These results are consistent with the facts that coffee and tomato have a similar genome size, chromosome karyotype (tomato, n=12; coffee n=11) and chromosome architecture. Moreover, both belong to the Asterid I clade of dicot plant families. Thus, the biology of coffee (family Rubiacaeae) and tomato (family Solanaceae) may be united into one common network of shared discoveries, resources and information. PMID:16273343

Lin, Chenwei; Mueller, Lukas A; Mc Carthy, James; Crouzillat, Dominique; Pétiard, Vincent; Tanksley, Steven D

2005-12-01

120

Coffee and tomato share common gene repertoires as revealed by deep sequencing of seed and cherry transcripts  

PubMed Central

An EST database has been generated for coffee based on sequences from approximately 47,000 cDNA clones derived from five different stages/tissues, with a special focus on developing seeds. When computationally assembled, these sequences correspond to 13,175 unigenes, which were analyzed with respect to functional annotation, expression profile and evolution. Compared with Arabidopsis, the coffee unigenes encode a higher proportion of proteins related to protein modification/turnover and metabolism—an observation that may explain the high diversity of metabolites found in coffee and related species. Several gene families were found to be either expanded or unique to coffee when compared with Arabidopsis. A high proportion of these families encode proteins assigned to functions related to disease resistance. Such families may have expanded and evolved rapidly under the intense pathogen pressure experienced by a tropical, perennial species like coffee. Finally, the coffee gene repertoire was compared with that of Arabidopsis and Solanaceous species (e.g. tomato). Unlike Arabidopsis, tomato has a nearly perfect gene-for-gene match with coffee. These results are consistent with the facts that coffee and tomato have a similar genome size, chromosome karyotype (tomato, n=12; coffee n=11) and chromosome architecture. Moreover, both belong to the Asterid I clade of dicot plant families. Thus, the biology of coffee (family Rubiacaeae) and tomato (family Solanaceae) may be united into one common network of shared discoveries, resources and information. PMID:16273343

Lin, Chenwei; Mueller, Lukas A.; Carthy, James Mc; Crouzillat, Dominique; Pétiard, Vincent

2005-01-01

121

REGISTRATION OF THREE EARLY MATURING ANASAZI TYPE COMMON BEAN GERMPLASMS WITH RESISTANCE TO BEAN COMMON MOSAIC VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

CO-32948, CO-32977, and CO-40696 are three Anasazi-type common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) germplasm lines developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station. Anasazi-type dry beans are grown commercially in the southwestern J.S. The predominant Anasazi-type cultivar grown in the Four-Corn...

122

Recombination and pseudorecombination driving the evolution of the begomoviruses Tomato severe rugose virus (ToSRV) and Tomato rugose mosaic virus (ToRMV): two recombinant DNA-A components sharing the same DNA-B  

PubMed Central

Background Begomoviruses are dicot-infecting, whitefly-transmitted viruses with a genome comprised of one or two molecules of circular, single-stranded DNA. In Brazil, tomato-infecting begomoviruses have emerged as serious pathogens since the introduction of a new biotype of the insect vector in the mid-1990’s. Tomato rugose mosaic virus (ToRMV) and Tomato severe rugose virus (ToSRV) are often found in tomato fields. The complete sequence of the DNA-B components of ToSRV and ToRMV show an identity of 98.2%. Additionally, the high nucleotide identity (96.2%) between their common regions indicates that these two viruses may share the same DNA-B. Methods Tomato seedlings were biolistically inoculated with ToSRV (DNA-A and DNA-B) and ToRMV (DNA-A and DNA-B) infectious clones in every possible combination of single or mixed infection. Symptom expression was evaluated for up to 35 days post-inoculation (dpi). DNA was extracted at 28 dpi and the presence of each viral genomic component was examined by rolling circle amplification (RCA) followed by digestion, as well as by quantitative, real-time PCR. Sequence comparisons, recombination and phylogenetic analyzes were performed using EMBOSS needle, RDP program and maximum likelihood inference, respectively. Results Symptoms in tomato plants inoculated with the different combinations of ToRMV and ToSRV DNA-A and DNA-B components consisted of a typical mosaic in all combinations. Pseudorecombinants were formed in all possible combinations. When two DNA-A or two DNA-B components were inoculated simultaneously, the ToRMV components were detected preferentially in relation to the ToSRV components. The combination of minor changes in both the Rep protein and the CR may be involved in the preferential replication of ToRMV components. Recombination and phylogenetic analyzes support the exchange of genetic material between ToRMV and ToSRV. Conclusions ToRMV and ToSRV form viable pseudorecombinants in their natural host (Solanum lycopersicum) and share the same DNA-B. ToRMV DNA components are preferentially replicated over ToSRV components. These results indicate that the emergence of ToRMV involved both recombination and pseudorecombination, further highlighting the importance of these mechanisms in the emergence and adaptation of begomoviruses. PMID:24708727

2014-01-01

123

Microbial Gutta-Percha Degradation Shares Common Steps with Rubber Degradation by Nocardia nova SH22a  

PubMed Central

Nocardia nova SH22a, a bacterium capable of degrading gutta-percha (GP) and natural rubber (NR), was used to investigate the GP degradation mechanism and the relations between the GP and NR degradation pathways. For this strain, a protocol of electroporation was systematically optimized, and an efficiency of up to 4.3 × 107 CFU per ?g of plasmid DNA was achieved. By applying this optimized protocol to N. nova SH22a, a Tn5096-based transposon mutagenesis library of this bacterium was constructed. Among about 12,000 apramycin-resistant transformants, we identified 76 stable mutants defective in GP or NR utilization. Whereas 10 mutants were specifically defective in GP utilization, the growth of the other 66 mutants was affected on both GP and NR. This indicated that the two degradation pathways are quite similar and share many common steps. The larger number of GP-degrading defective mutants could be explained in one of two ways: either (i) the GP pathway is more complex and harbors more specific steps or (ii) the steps for both pathways are almost identical, but in the case of GP degradation there are fewer enzymes involved in each step. The analysis of transposition loci and genetic studies on interesting genes confirmed the crucial role of an ?-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase in the degradation of both GP and NR. We also demonstrated the probable involvement of enzymes participating in oxidoreduction reactions, ?-oxidation, and the synthesis of complex cell envelope lipids in the degradation of GP. PMID:23220954

Luo, Quan; Hiessl, Sebastian; Poehlein, Anja

2013-01-01

124

Psychological Factors Determining Individual Compliance with Rules for Common Pool Resource Management: The Case of a Cuban Community Sharing a Solar Energy System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on individuals’ subjective reasons for complying with rules for common pool resource management. We examine\\u000a the topic of individual rule compliance, which the commons literature has addressed only marginally, and outline recent empirical\\u000a findings. Hypotheses are derived based on rule compliance theory and explored using data gathered in a Cuban community sharing\\u000a a solar energy system. The

Annette Jenny; Fernando Hechavarria Fuentes; Hans-Joachim Mosler

2007-01-01

125

Disparate epitopes mediating protective heterologous immunity to unrelated viruses share peptide-MHC structural features recognized by cross-reactive T cells.  

PubMed

Closely related peptide epitopes can be recognized by the same T cells and contribute to the immune response against pathogens encoding those epitopes, but sometimes cross-reactive epitopes share little homology. The degree of structural homology required for such disparate ligands to be recognized by cross-reactive TCRs remains unclear. In this study, we examined the mechanistic basis for cross-reactive T cell responses between epitopes from unrelated and pathogenic viruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and vaccinia virus. Our results show that the LCMV cross-reactive T cell response toward vaccinia virus is dominated by a shared asparagine residue, together with other shared structural elements conserved in the crystal structures of K(b)-VV-A11R and K(b)-LCMV-gp34. Based on analysis of the crystal structures and the specificity determinants for the cross-reactive T cell response, we were able to manipulate the degree of cross-reactivity of the T cell response, and to predict and generate a LCMV cross-reactive response toward a variant of a null OVA-derived peptide. These results indicate that protective heterologous immune responses can occur for disparate epitopes from unrelated viruses. PMID:24127554

Shen, Zu T; Nguyen, Tina T; Daniels, Keith A; Welsh, Raymond M; Stern, Lawrence J

2013-11-15

126

Comprehensive mapping of common immunodominant epitopes in the eastern equine encephalitis virus E2 protein recognized by avian antibody responses.  

PubMed

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne virus that can cause both human and equine encephalitis with high case fatality rates. EEEV can also be widespread among birds, including pheasants, ostriches, emu, turkeys, whooping cranes and chickens. The E2 protein of EEEV and other Alphaviruses is an important immunogenic protein that elicits antibodies of diagnostic value. While many therapeutic and diagnostic applications of E2 protein-specific antibodies have been reported, the specific epitopes on E2 protein recognized by the antibody responses of different susceptible hosts, including avian species, remain poorly defined. In the present study, the avian E2-reactive polyclonal antibody (PAb) response was mapped to linear peptide epitopes using PAbs elicited in chickens and ducks following immunization with recombinant EEEV E2 protein and a series of 42 partially overlapping peptides covering the entire EEEV E2 protein. We identified 12 and 13 peptides recognized by the chicken and duck PAb response, respectively. Six of these linear peptides were commonly recognized by PAbs elicited in both avian species. Among them five epitopes recognized by both avian, the epitopes located at amino acids 211-226 and 331-352 were conserved among the EEEV antigenic complex, but not other associated alphaviruses, whereas the epitopes at amino acids 11-26, 30-45 and 151-166 were specific to EEEV subtype I. The five common peptide epitopes were not recognized by avian PAbs against Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) and Duck Plague Virus (DPV). The identification and characterization of EEEV E2 antibody epitopes may be aid the development of diagnostic tools and facilitate the design of epitope-based vaccines for EEEV. These results also offer information with which to study the structure of EEEV E2 protein. PMID:23922704

Sun, Encheng; Zhao, Jing; Sun, Liang; Xu, Qingyuan; Yang, Tao; Qin, Yongli; Wang, Wenshi; Wei, Peng; Sun, Jing; Wu, Donglai

2013-01-01

127

Characterization of LORF11, a unique gene common to the three Marek's disease virus serotypes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

DNA sequence data of the GA and Md5 strains of Marek's disease virus (MDV) revealed a large open reading frame (LORF11) located in the unique long region of MDV genome comprising 2711 nucleotides in length encoding a protein of 903 amino acids. Sequence comparison between MDV serotypes revealed tha...

128

Response of BGMV and BGYMV resistant common bean to beet curly top virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Crop losses can be severe when susceptible large-seeded Andean dry and green bean cultivars are planted early in dry areas with a history of curly top caused by Beet curly top virus (BCTV) and closely related species. In order to assess the level of curly top resistance in 65 diverse dry and green ...

129

Ecological Routes of Avian Influenza Virus Transmission to a Common Mesopredator: An Experimental Evaluation of Alternatives  

PubMed Central

Background Wild raccoons have been shown to be naturally exposed to avian influenza viruses (AIV). However, the mechanisms associated with these natural exposures are not well-understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We experimentally tested three alternative routes (water, eggs, and scavenged waterfowl carcasses) of AIV transmission that may explain how raccoons in the wild are exposed to AIV. Raccoons were exposed to 1) water and 2) eggs spiked with an AIV (H4N6), as well as 3) mallard carcasses experimentally inoculated with the same virus. Three of four raccoons exposed to the high dose water treatment yielded apparent nasal shedding of >102.0 PCR EID50 equivalent/mL. Little to no shedding was observed from the fecal route. The only animals yielding evidence of serologic activity during the study period were three animals associated with the high dose water treatment. Conclusions/Significance Overall, our results indicate that virus-laden water could provide a natural exposure route of AIV for raccoons and possibly other mammals associated with aquatic environments. However, this association appears to be related to AIV concentration in the water, which would constitute an infective dose. In addition, strong evidence of infection was only detected in three of four animals exposed to a high dose (e.g., 105.0 EID50/mL) of AIV in water. As such, water-borne transmission to raccoons may require repeated exposures to water with high concentrations of virus. PMID:25127468

Root, J. Jeffrey; Bentler, Kevin T.; Shriner, Susan A.; Mooers, Nicole L.; VanDalen, Kaci K.; Sullivan, Heather J.; Franklin, Alan B.

2014-01-01

130

Diversity of viruses detected by deep sequencing in pigs from a common background  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The trial was successful in identifying a number of viruses in the feces of the pigs demonstrating the application of this technology to determine the background noise in the animals. The findings in this study are similar to the fecal virome in pigs from a typical commercial swine farm in the Unite...

131

Bean common mosaic virus isolates causing different symptoms in asparagus bean in China differ greatly in the 5'-parts of their genomes.  

PubMed

Potyvirus isolates from asparagus bean ( Vigna sesquipedalis) plants in Zhejiang province, China, caused either rugose and vein banding mosaic symptoms (isolate R) or severe yellowing (isolate Y) in this host, but were otherwise similar in host range. Both isolates were completely sequenced and shown to be isolates of Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV). The complete sequences were 9992 (R) or 10062 (Y) nucleotides long and shared 91.7% identical nucleotides (93.2% identical amino acids) in their genomes and were more distantly related to the BCMV-Peanut stripe virus sequence (PStV). The isolates were much less similar to one another in the 5'-UTR and the N-terminal region of the P1 protein. In the P1, isolate Y was closer to PStV (76.1% identical amino acids) than to isolate R (64.8%). Phylogenetic analyses of the coat protein region showed that the new isolates grouped with other isolates from Vigna spp., forming the blackeye cowpea mosaic strain subgroup of BCMV with 94-98% nucleotides (96-99% amino acids) identical to one another and about 90% identity to other BCMV isolates. Other significant subgroupings amongst published BCMV isolates were detected. PMID:12111434

Zheng, Hongying; Chen, Jiong; Chen, Jianping; Adams, Michael J; Hou, Mingsheng

2002-06-01

132

An siRNA Screen of Membrane Trafficking Genes Highlights Pathways Common to HIV-1 and M-PMV Virus Assembly and Release  

PubMed Central

The assembly and release of retroviruses from the host cells requires a coordinated series of interactions between viral structural proteins and cellular trafficking pathways. Although a number of cellular factors involved in retrovirus assembly have been identified, it is likely that retroviruses utilize additional trafficking factors to expedite their assembly and budding that have not yet been defined. We performed a screen using an siRNA library targeting host membrane trafficking genes in order to identify new host factors that contribute to retrovirus assembly or release. We utilized two retroviruses that follow very distinct assembly pathways, HIV-1 and Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (M-PMV) in order to identify host pathways that are generally applicable in retrovirus assembly versus those that are unique to HIV or M-PMV. Here we report the identification of 24 host proteins identified in the screen and subsequently validated in follow-up experiments as contributors to the assembly or release of both viruses. In addition to identifying a number of previously unsuspected individual trafficking factors, we noted multiple hits among proteins involved in modulation of the actin cytoskeleton, clathrin-mediated transport pathways, and phosphoinositide metabolism. Our study shows that distant genera of retroviruses share a number of common interaction strategies with host cell trafficking machinery, and identifies new cellular factors involved in the late stages of retroviral replication. PMID:25187981

Wen, Xiaoyun; Ding, Lingmei; Hunter, Eric; Spearman, Paul

2014-01-01

133

Multidisciplinary teams, and parents, negotiating common ground in shared-care of children with long-term conditions: A mixed methods study  

PubMed Central

Background Limited negotiation around care decisions is believed to undermine collaborative working between parents of children with long-term conditions and professionals, but there is little evidence of how they actually negotiate their respective roles. Using chronic kidney disease as an exemplar this paper reports on a multi-method study of social interaction between multidisciplinary teams and parents as they shared clinical care. Methods Phases 1 and 2: a telephone survey mapping multidisciplinary teams’ parent-educative activities, and qualitative interviews with 112 professionals (Clinical-psychologists, Dietitians, Doctors, Nurses, Play-specialists, Pharmacists, Therapists and Social-workers) exploring their accounts of parent-teaching in the 12 British children’s kidney units. Phase 3: six ethnographic case studies in two units involving observations of professional/parent interactions during shared-care, and individual interviews. We used an analytical framework based on concepts drawn from Communities of Practice and Activity Theory. Results Professionals spoke of the challenge of explaining to each other how they are aware of parents’ understanding of clinical knowledge, and described three patterns of parent-educative activity that were common across MDTs: Engaging parents in shared practice; Knowledge exchange and role negotiation, and Promoting common ground. Over time, professionals had developed a shared repertoire of tools to support their negotiations with parents that helped them accomplish common ground during the practice of shared-care. We observed mutual engagement between professionals and parents where a common understanding of the joint enterprise of clinical caring was negotiated. Conclusions For professionals, making implicit knowledge explicit is important as it can provide them with a language through which to articulate more clearly to each other what is the basis of their intuition-based hunches about parents’ support needs, and may help them to negotiate with parents and accelerate parents’ learning about shared caring. Our methodology and results are potentially transferrable to shared management of other conditions. PMID:23835151

2013-01-01

134

Metagenomic analysis of the viromes of three North American bat species: viral diversity among different bat species that share a common habitat.  

PubMed

Effective prediction of future viral zoonoses requires an in-depth understanding of the heterologous viral population in key animal species that will likely serve as reservoir hosts or intermediates during the next viral epidemic. The importance of bats as natural hosts for several important viral zoonoses, including Ebola, Marburg, Nipah, Hendra, and rabies viruses and severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV), has been established; however, the large viral population diversity (virome) of bats has been partially determined for only a few of the ?1,200 bat species. To assess the virome of North American bats, we collected fecal, oral, urine, and tissue samples from individual bats captured at an abandoned railroad tunnel in Maryland that is cohabitated by 7 to 10 different bat species. Here, we present preliminary characterization of the virome of three common North American bat species, including big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), tricolored bats (Perimyotis subflavus), and little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus). In samples derived from these bats, we identified viral sequences that were similar to at least three novel group 1 CoVs, large numbers of insect and plant virus sequences, and nearly full-length genomic sequences of two novel bacteriophages. These observations suggest that bats encounter and disseminate a large assortment of viruses capable of infecting many different animals, insects, and plants in nature. PMID:20926577

Donaldson, Eric F; Haskew, Aimee N; Gates, J Edward; Huynh, Jeremy; Moore, Clea J; Frieman, Matthew B

2010-12-01

135

Populational survey of arthropods on transgenic common bean expressing the rep gene from Bean golden mosaic virus.  

PubMed

Genetically modified (GM) crops is considered the fastest adopted crop technology in the history of modern agriculture. However, possible undesirable and unintended effects must be considered during the research steps toward development of a commercial product. In this report we evaluated effects of a common bean virus resistant line on arthropod populations, considered as non-target organisms. This GM bean line (named M1/4) was modified for resistance against Bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV) by expressing a mutated REP protein, which is essential for virus replication. Biosafety studies were performed for a period of three years under field conditions. The abundance of some species was significantly higher in specific treatments in a particular year, but not consistently different in other years. A regular pattern was not observed in the distribution of insects between genetically modified and conventional treatments. Data analyses showed that minor differences observed can be attributed to random variation and were not consistent enough to conclude that the treatments were different. Therefore the present study indicates that the relative abundance of species are similar in transgenic and non-transgenic fields. PMID:24922280

Pinheiro, Patrícia V; Quintela, Eliane D; Junqueira, Ana Maria R; Aragão, Francisco J L; Faria, Josias C

2014-01-01

136

Symbionts Commonly Provide Broad Spectrum Resistance to Viruses in Insects: A Comparative Analysis of Wolbachia Strains  

PubMed Central

In the last decade, bacterial symbionts have been shown to play an important role in protecting hosts against pathogens. Wolbachia, a widespread symbiont in arthropods, can protect Drosophila and mosquito species against viral infections. We have investigated antiviral protection in 19 Wolbachia strains originating from 16 Drosophila species after transfer into the same genotype of Drosophila simulans. We found that approximately half of the strains protected against two RNA viruses. Given that 40% of terrestrial arthropod species are estimated to harbour Wolbachia, as many as a fifth of all arthropods species may benefit from Wolbachia-mediated protection. The level of protection against two distantly related RNA viruses – DCV and FHV – was strongly genetically correlated, which suggests that there is a single mechanism of protection with broad specificity. Furthermore, Wolbachia is making flies resistant to viruses, as increases in survival can be largely explained by reductions in viral titer. Variation in the level of antiviral protection provided by different Wolbachia strains is strongly genetically correlated to the density of the bacteria strains in host tissues. We found no support for two previously proposed mechanisms of Wolbachia-mediated protection — activation of the immune system and upregulation of the methyltransferase Dnmt2. The large variation in Wolbachia's antiviral properties highlights the need to carefully select Wolbachia strains introduced into mosquito populations to prevent the transmission of arboviruses. PMID:25233341

Martinez, Julien; Longdon, Ben; Bauer, Simone; Chan, Yuk-Sang; Miller, Wolfgang J.; Bourtzis, Kostas; Teixeira, Luis; Jiggins, Francis M.

2014-01-01

137

Discovering Common Ground: How Future Search Conferences Bring People Together To Achieve Breakthrough Innovation, Empowerment, Shared Vision, and Collaborative Action.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 35 papers about planning and holding future search conferences, as well as their benefits and likely future directions. The following papers are included: "Applied Common Sense" (Weisbord); "Inventing the Search Conference" (Weisbord); "Building Collaborative Communities" (Schindler-Rainman, Lippitt); "Parallel Paths to…

Weisbord, Marvin R.; And Others

138

Population structure within lineages of Wheat streak mosaic virus derived from a common founding event exhibits stochastic variation inconsistent with the deterministic quasi-species model  

SciTech Connect

Structure of Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) populations derived from a common founding event and subjected to serial passage at high multiplicity of infection (MOI) was evaluated. The founding population was generated by limiting dilution inoculation. Lineages of known pedigree were sampled at passage 9 (two populations) and at passage 15, with (three populations) or without mixing (four populations) of lineages at passage 10. Polymorphism within each population was assessed by sequencing 17-21 clones containing a 1371 nt region (WSMV-Sidney 81 nts 8001-9371) encompassing the entire coat protein cistron and flanking regions. Mutation frequency averaged {approx}5.0 x 10{sup -4}/nt across all populations and ranged from 2.4 to 11.6 x 10{sup -4}/nt within populations, but did not consistently increase or decrease with the number of passages removed from the founding population. Shared substitutions (19 nonsynonymous, 10 synonymous, and 3 noncoding) occurred at 32 sites among 44 haplotypes. Only four substitutions became fixed (frequency = 100%) within a population and nearly one third (10/32) never achieved a frequency of 10% or greater in any sampled population. Shared substitutions were randomly distributed with respect to genome position, with transitions outnumbering transversions 5.4:1 and a clear bias for A to G and U to C substitutions. Haplotype composition of each population was unique with complexity of each population varying unpredictably, in that the number and frequency of haplotypes within a lineage were not correlated with number of passages removed from the founding population or whether the population was derived from a single or mixed lineage. The simplest explanation is that plant virus lineages, even those propagated at high MOI, are subject to frequent, narrow genetic bottlenecks during systemic movement that result in low effective population size and stochastic changes in population structure upon serial passage.

French, Roy [Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture and Department of Plant Pathology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583 (United States); Stenger, Drake C. [Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture and Department of Plant Pathology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583 (United States)]. E-mail: dstenger@unlnotes.unl.edu

2005-12-20

139

Role of a Common Frame of Reference in Cognitive Cooperation: Sharing Tasks between Agents in Air Traffic Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   This study deals with cognitive cooperation in the context of the design of cooperative computer support for sharing aircraft\\u000a conflict detection and resolution tasks between human and machine in air traffic control. In order to specify some necessary\\u000a cooperative capabilities of such a system, we have observed an artificial situation on a simulator where two radar controllers\\u000a (RCs) had

Jean-michel Hoc; X. Carlier

2002-01-01

140

Genetics of resistance to the geminivirus, Bean dwarf mosaic virus, and the role of the hypersensitive response in common bean.  

PubMed

Bean dwarf mosaic virus (BDMV) is a single-stranded DNA virus (genus: Begomovirus, family: Geminiviridae) that infects common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and causes stunted plant growth, and mosaic and mottle symptoms in leaves. BDMV shows differential pathogenicity in common bean, infecting germplasm of the Andean gene pool (e.g., the snap bean cultivar Topcrop), but not that of the Middle American gene pool (e.g., the pinto bean cultivar Othello). Resistance to BDMV in Othello is associated with development of a hypersensitive response (HR) in vascular (phloem) tissues. In this study, Middle American germplasm representing the four recognized races (i.e., Durango, Guatemala, Jalisco, and Mesoamerica) and the parents of Othello were inoculated with BDMV and a BDMV-green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter. All genotypes showed partial or complete resistance to BDMV and BDMV-GFP, indicating the widespread distribution of resistance in the Middle American gene pool. A number of BDMV-resistant germplasm did not show the HR, indicating it is not correlated with resistance. In the F(1), F(2), and F(3) of reciprocal crosses between Othello and Topcrop, a single dominant allele, Bdm, conferred BDMV resistance. PMID:14625673

Seo, Y-S; Gepts, P; Gilbertson, R L

2004-03-01

141

Shared VH1-46 gene usage by pemphigus vulgaris autoantibodies indicates common humoral immune responses among patients  

PubMed Central

Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a potentially fatal blistering disease caused by autoantibodies against desmoglein 3 (Dsg3). Here, we clone anti-Dsg3 antibodies from four PV patients and identify pathogenic VH1-46 autoantibodies from all four patients. Unexpectedly, VH1-46 autoantibodies had relatively few replacement mutations. We reverted antibody somatic mutations to their germline sequences to determine the requirement of mutations for autoreactivity. Three of five VH1-46 germline-reverted antibodies maintain Dsg3 binding, compared to zero of five non-VH1-46 germline-reverted antibodies. Site-directed mutagenesis of VH1-46 antibodies demonstrate that acidic amino acid residues introduced by somatic mutation or heavy chain VDJ recombination are necessary and sufficient for Dsg3 binding. Our data suggest that VH1-46 autoantibody gene usage is commonly found in PV because VH1-46 antibodies require few to no mutations to acquire Dsg3 autoreactivity, which may favor their early selection. Common VH gene usage indicates common humoral immune responses, even among unrelated patients. PMID:24942562

Cho, Michael Jeffrey; Lo, Agnes S.Y.; Mao, Xuming; Nagler, Arielle R.; Ellebrecht, Christoph T.; Mukherjee, Eric M.; Hammers, Christoph M.; Choi, Eun-Jung; Sharma, Preety M.; Uduman, Mohamed; Li, Hong; Rux, Ann H.; Farber, Sara A.; Rubin, Courtney B.; Kleinstein, Steven H.; Sachais, Bruce S.; Posner, Marshall R.; Cavacini, Lisa A.; Payne, Aimee S.

2014-01-01

142

Aerosolized Rift Valley Fever Virus Causes Fatal Encephalitis in African Green Monkeys and Common Marmosets  

PubMed Central

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a veterinary and human disease in Africa and the Middle East. The causative agent, RVF virus (RVFV), can be naturally transmitted by mosquito, direct contact, or aerosol. We sought to develop a nonhuman primate (NHP) model of severe RVF in humans to better understand the pathogenesis of RVF and to use for evaluation of medical countermeasures. NHP from four different species were exposed to aerosols containing RVFV. Both cynomolgus and rhesus macaques developed mild fevers after inhalation of RVFV, but no other clinical signs were noted and no macaque succumbed to RVFV infection. In contrast, both marmosets and African green monkeys (AGM) proved susceptible to aerosolized RVF virus. Fever onset was earlier with the marmosets and had a biphasic pattern similar to what has been reported in humans. Beginning around day 8 to day 10 postexposure, clinical signs consistent with encephalitis were noted in both AGM and marmosets; animals of both species succumbed between days 9 and 11 postexposure. Marmosets were susceptible to lower doses of RVFV than AGM. Histological examination confirmed viral meningoencephalitis in both species. Hematological analyses indicated a drop in platelet counts in both AGM and marmosets suggestive of thrombosis, as well as leukocytosis that consisted mostly of granulocytes. Both AGM and marmosets would serve as useful models of aerosol infection with RVFV. PMID:24335307

Hartman, Amy L.; Powell, Diana S.; Bethel, Laura M.; Caroline, Amy L.; Schmid, Richard J.; Oury, Tim

2013-01-01

143

Murine leukemia virus envelope gp70 is a shared biomarker for the high-sensitivity quantification of murine tumor burden  

PubMed Central

The preclinical development of anticancer drugs including immunotherapeutics and targeted agents relies on the ability to detect minimal residual tumor burden as a measure of therapeutic efficacy. Real-time quantitative (qPCR) represents an exquisitely sensitive method to perform such an assessment. However, qPCR-based applications are limited by the availability of a genetic defect associated with each tumor model under investigation. Here, we describe an off-the-shelf qPCR-based approach to detect a broad array of commonly used preclinical murine tumor models. In particular, we report that the mRNA coding for the envelope glycoprotein 70 (gp70) encoded by the endogenous murine leukemia virus (MuLV) is universally expressed in 22 murine cancer cell lines of disparate histological origin but is silent in 20 out of 22 normal mouse tissues. Further, we detected the presence of as few as 100 tumor cells in whole lung extracts using qPCR specific for gp70, supporting the notion that this detection approach has a higher sensitivity as compared with traditional tissue histology methods. Although gp70 is expressed in a wide variety of tumor cell lines, it was absent in inflamed tissues, non-transformed cell lines, or pre-cancerous lesions. Having a high-sensitivity biomarker for the detection of a wide range of murine tumor cells that does not require additional genetic manipulations or the knowledge of specific genetic alterations present in a given neoplasm represents a unique experimental tool for investigating metastasis, assessing antitumor therapeutic interventions, and further determining tumor recurrence or minimal residual disease. PMID:24482753

Scrimieri, Francesca; Askew, David; Corn, David J; Eid, Saada; Bobanga, Iuliana D; Bjelac, Jaclyn A; Tsao, Matthew L; Allen, Frederick; Othman, Youmna S; Wang, Shih-Chung G; Huang, Alex Y

2013-01-01

144

Measuring enactment of innovations and the factors that affect implementation and sustainability: moving toward common language and shared conceptual understanding.  

PubMed

This article describes research that focuses on the concern that researchers are unable to fully realize the potential value of their collective efforts because they do not have shared conceptual or operational tools for communicating assumptions, ideas, research strategies, or findings with others outside, or even within their disciplines. This research, through the lens of measuring implementation of educational programs, has taken steps toward bringing researchers' varied pictures of understanding into a coherent landscape. This article describes a conceptual framework for describing aspects of implementation, a conceptual framework for describing the factors that affect implementation, and tools for measuring each. It describes the challenges addressed in the development of these approaches, and the application of these approaches to current studies in education and other fields in the social sciences. In doing so, it demonstrates that meaningful communication between researchers and accumulation of knowledge across fields is possible, and necessary. PMID:22948708

Century, Jeanne; Cassata, Amy; Rudnick, Mollie; Freeman, Cassie

2012-10-01

145

Ashkenazi Parkinson's disease patients with the LRRK2 G2019S mutation share a common founder dating from the second to fifth centuries.  

PubMed

The LRRK2 G2019S mutation is a major genetic determinant of Parkinson's disease (PD) across the world that occurs at an elevated frequency in Ashkenazi Jews. We determined the LRRK2 haplotypes in 77 G2019S carriers, mostly Ashkenazi Jews, and in 50 noncarrier Ashkenazi PD patients, using 16 genetic markers. A single haplotype was detected in all mutation carriers, indicating that these individuals share a common founder. Using a maximum-likelihood method, we estimate that Ashkenazi Jews with G2019S share a common ancestor who lived approximately 1,830 (95% CI 1,560-2,160) years ago, around the second century, after the second Jewish Diaspora. PMID:19283415

Bar-Shira, Anat; Hutter, Carolyn M; Giladi, Nir; Zabetian, Cyrus P; Orr-Urtreger, Avi

2009-10-01

146

The evolution of fibrillar collagens: a sea-pen collagen shares common features with vertebrate type V collagen.  

PubMed

The extracellular matrix of marine primitive invertebrates (sponges, polyps and jellyfishes) contains collagen fibrils with narrow diameters. From various data, it has been hypothesized that these primitive collagens could represent ancestral forms of the vertebrate minor collagens, i.e., types V or XI. Recently we have isolated a primitive collagen from the soft tissues of the sea-pen Veretillum cynomorium. This report examines whether the sea-pen collagen shares some features with vertebrate type V collagen. Rotary shadowed images of acid-soluble collagen molecules extracted from beta-APN treated animals, positive staining of segment-long-spacing crystallites precipitated from pepsinized collagen, Western blots of the pepsinized alpha1 and alpha2 chains with antibodies to vertebrate types I, III and V collagens, and in situ gold immunolabeling of ECM collagen fibrils were examined. Our results showed that the tissue form of the sea-pen collagen is a 340-nm threadlike molecule, which is close to the vertebrate type V collagen with its voluminous terminal globular domain, the distribution of most of its polar amino-acid residues, and its antigenic properties. PMID:8653581

Tillet, E; Franc, J M; Franc, S; Garrone, R

1996-02-01

147

Distinct function of 2 chromatin remodeling complexes that share a common subunit, Williams syndrome transcription factor (WSTF)  

PubMed Central

A number of nuclear complexes modify chromatin structure and operate as functional units. However, the in vivo role of each component within the complexes is not known. ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes form several types of protein complexes, which reorganize chromatin structure cooperatively with histone modifiers. Williams syndrome transcription factor (WSTF) was biochemically identified as a major subunit, along with 2 distinct complexes: WINAC, a SWI/SNF-type complex, and WICH, an ISWI-type complex. Here, WSTF?/? mice were generated to investigate its function in chromatin remodeling in vivo. Loss of WSTF expression resulted in neonatal lethality, and all WSTF?/? neonates and ?10% of WSTF+/? neonates suffered cardiovascular abnormalities resembling those found in autosomal-dominant Williams syndrome patients. Developmental analysis of WSTF?/? embryos revealed that Gja5 gene regulation is aberrant from E9.5, conceivably because of inappropriate chromatin reorganization around the promoter regions where essential cardiac transcription factors are recruited. In vitro analysis in WSTF?/? mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells also showed impaired transactivation functions of cardiac transcription activators on the Gja5 promoter, but the effects were reversed by overexpression of WINAC components. Likewise in WSTF?/? MEF cells, recruitment of Snf2h, an ISWI ATPase, to PCNA and cell survival after DNA damage were both defective, but were ameliorated by overexpression of WICH components. Thus, the present study provides evidence that WSTF is shared and is a functionally indispensable subunit of the WICH complex for DNA repair and the WINAC complex for transcriptional control. PMID:19470456

Yoshimura, Kimihiro; Kitagawa, Hirochika; Fujiki, Ryoji; Tanabe, Masahiko; Takezawa, Shinichiro; Takada, Ichiro; Yamaoka, Ikuko; Yonezawa, Masayoshi; Kondo, Takeshi; Furutani, Yoshiyuki; Yagi, Hisato; Yoshinaga, Shin; Masuda, Takeyoshi; Fukuda, Toru; Yamamoto, Yoko; Ebihara, Kanae; Li, Dean Y.; Matsuoka, Rumiko; Takeuchi, Jun K.; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Kato, Shigeaki

2009-01-01

148

Salient features of otoacoustic emissions are common across tetrapod groups and suggest shared properties of generation mechanisms.  

PubMed

Otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) are faint sounds generated by healthy inner ears that provide a window into the study of auditory mechanics. All vertebrate classes exhibit OAEs to varying degrees, yet the biophysical origins are still not well understood. Here, we analyzed both spontaneous (SOAE) and stimulus-frequency (SFOAE) otoacoustic emissions from a bird (barn owl, Tyto alba) and a lizard (green anole, Anolis carolinensis). These species possess highly disparate macromorphologies of the inner ear relative to each other and to mammals, thereby allowing for novel insights into the biomechanical mechanisms underlying OAE generation. All ears exhibited robust OAE activity, and our chief observation was that SFOAE phase accumulation between adjacent SOAE peak frequencies clustered about an integral number of cycles. Being highly similar to published results from human ears, we argue that these data indicate a common underlying generator mechanism of OAEs across all vertebrates, despite the absence of morphological features thought essential to mammalian cochlear mechanics. We suggest that otoacoustic emissions originate from phase coherence in a system of coupled oscillators, which is consistent with the notion of "coherent reflection" but does not explicitly require a mammalian-type traveling wave. Furthermore, comparison between SFOAE delays and auditory nerve fiber responses for the barn owl strengthens the notion that most OAE delay can be attributed to tuning. PMID:25737537

Bergevin, Christopher; Manley, Geoffrey A; Köppl, Christine

2015-03-17

149

A family of wound-induced genes in Populus shares common features with genes encoding vegetative storage proteins.  

PubMed

Two wound-inducible cDNAs from poplar leaves show sequence identity to vegetative storage proteins (VSP) that accumulate seasonally in poplar bark tissues. We have compared the genomic organization, cDNA sequences and expression of the genes encoding the wound-inducible cDNAs (win4) with that of a bark VSP (called bark storage protein, or BSP). There appear to be several win4 genes in the poplar genome which segregate as a single locus and are therefore likely to be clustered. The same is true of the BSP genes. The win4 locus is linked (map distance of 5 cM) to the BSP locus, consistent with a common evolutionary origin of the genes. A near full-length win4 cDNA shows 75% sequence identity to BSP cDNAs. Both win4 and BSP are systemically wound-inducible; win4 transcripts accumulate in leaves and stems, whereas BSP transcripts accumulate almost exclusively in stems. A phloem transport-dependent signaling mechanism appears to be involved in systemic win4 expression after wounding. In contrast to BSP gene expression, win4 genes are not expressed in response to short day conditions. The data indicate win4 and BSP genes are differentially regulated, and their products may play important roles in the storage and reallocation of nitrogen in perennial plants. PMID:8106009

Davis, J M; Egelkrout, E E; Coleman, G D; Chen, T H; Haissig, B E; Riemenschneider, D E; Gordon, M P

1993-10-01

150

Salient features of otoacoustic emissions are common across tetrapod groups and suggest shared properties of generation mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) are faint sounds generated by healthy inner ears that provide a window into the study of auditory mechanics. All vertebrate classes exhibit OAEs to varying degrees, yet the biophysical origins are still not well understood. Here, we analyzed both spontaneous (SOAE) and stimulus-frequency (SFOAE) otoacoustic emissions from a bird (barn owl, Tyto alba) and a lizard (green anole, Anolis carolinensis). These species possess highly disparate macromorphologies of the inner ear relative to each other and to mammals, thereby allowing for novel insights into the biomechanical mechanisms underlying OAE generation. All ears exhibited robust OAE activity, and our chief observation was that SFOAE phase accumulation between adjacent SOAE peak frequencies clustered about an integral number of cycles. Being highly similar to published results from human ears, we argue that these data indicate a common underlying generator mechanism of OAEs across all vertebrates, despite the absence of morphological features thought essential to mammalian cochlear mechanics. We suggest that otoacoustic emissions originate from phase coherence in a system of coupled oscillators, which is consistent with the notion of “coherent reflection” but does not explicitly require a mammalian-type traveling wave. Furthermore, comparison between SFOAE delays and auditory nerve fiber responses for the barn owl strengthens the notion that most OAE delay can be attributed to tuning. PMID:25737537

Bergevin, Christopher; Manley, Geoffrey A.; Köppl, Christine

2015-01-01

151

The promoters of the survival motor neuron gene (SMN) and its copy (SMNc) share common regulatory elements.  

PubMed Central

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a common autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder characterized by degeneration of motor neurons of the spinal cord. The survival motor neuron gene (SMN) has been recognized as the disease-causing gene. SMN is duplicated, and the almost identical copy gene (SMNc) remains functional in patients with SMA. The expression level of SMNc is tightly correlated with the clinical severity of the disease. Here, we define the transcription initiation site, delineate the region containing promoter activity, and analyze the sequence of the promoter region of both SMN and SMNc. We show that the promoter sequence and activity of the two genes are quasi identical, providing strong evidence for similar transcription regulation of the two genes. Therefore, the difference in the level of protein encoded by SMN and SMNc is the result of either different regulatory region(s) further apart or different posttranscriptional regulation. Interestingly, sequence analysis of the promoter region revealed several consensus binding sites for transcription factors. Therefore, the identification of transcription factors involved in the regulation of SMNc gene expression may lead to attractive strategies for therapy in SMA. PMID:10205267

Echaniz-Laguna, A; Miniou, P; Bartholdi, D; Melki, J

1999-01-01

152

First Report of Spring Viremia of Carp Virus (SVCV) in Wild Common Carp in North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spring 2002, an estimated 1,500 common carp Cyprinus carpio in Cedar Lake, northwestern Wisconsin, died over a 6-week period from late April through the first week in June. Three moribund carp were necropsied and had signs consistent with spring viremia of carp (SVC) disease, including petechiae and ecchymotic hemorrhages on the skin, ascites, and edematous kidney and spleen. A

Audrey L. Dikkeboom; Craig Radi; Kathy Toohey-Kurth; Susan Marcquenski; Marty Engel; Andrew E. Goodwin; David M. Stone; Clare Longshaw

2004-01-01

153

Long-term follow up of HIV-1-infected Korean haemophiliacs, after infection from a common source of virus.  

PubMed

In the early 1990s, 20 haemophiliacs (HPs) were infected with a common source of HIV-1 viruses through the contaminated clotting factor IX. The aim of this study is to review 20 HPs infected with a common source of virus. The enrolled patients have been consecutively treated with Korean red ginseng (KRG), zidovudine (ZDV) or two-drug therapy and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We determined full-length pol gene over 20 years and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I with peripheral blood mononuclear cells and reviewed medical records. Eighteen HPs experienced various opportunistic infections or clinical manifestations. There were significant inverse correlations between the HLA prognostic score and the annual decrease in CD4+ T-cell counts prior to HAART (AD) (P < 0.05) and the amount of KRG and the AD (P < 0.01). From 1998, the HPs had been treated with HAART. Each of the two patients died without and with HAART regimen respectively. At present, 16 HPs have been alive with HAART. Among the 16 HPs, 12 and 4 are on HAART-plus-KRG and HAART only respectively. Eleven HPs including 2 HPs with G-to-A hypermutations had revealed resistance mutations. Ten and two HPs have shown poor adherence and incomplete viral suppres-sion on HAART respectively. Virological failure based on WHO guidelines was not observed on KRG-plus-HAART. Two HPs revealed additional resistance mutations against two classes on KRG-plus-HAART. As a nationwide study, we first report overall features on clinical course of Korean haemophiliacs. Further education on the importance of drug adherence is needed. PMID:25545303

Kim, B-R; Kim, J-E; Sung, H; Cho, Y-K

2015-01-01

154

Potent Neutralization of Vaccinia Virus by Divergent Murine Antibodies Targeting a Common Site of Vulnerability in L1 Protein  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Vaccinia virus (VACV) L1 is an important target for viral neutralization and has been included in multicomponent DNA or protein vaccines against orthopoxviruses. To further understand the protective mechanism of the anti-L1 antibodies, we generated five murine anti-L1 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), which clustered into 3 distinct epitope groups. While two groups of anti-L1 failed to neutralize, one group of 3 MAbs potently neutralized VACV in an isotype- and complement-independent manner. This is in contrast to neutralizing antibodies against major VACV envelope proteins, such as H3, D8, or A27, which failed to completely neutralize VACV unless the antibodies are of complement-fixing isotypes and complement is present. Compared to nonneutralizing anti-L1 MAbs, the neutralization antibodies bound to the recombinant L1 protein with a significantly higher affinity and also could bind to virions. By using a variety of techniques, including the isolation of neutralization escape mutants, hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry, and X-ray crystallography, the epitope of the neutralizing antibodies was mapped to a conformational epitope with Asp35 as the key residue. This epitope is similar to the epitope of 7D11, a previously described potent VACV neutralizing antibody. The epitope was recognized mainly by CDR1 and CDR2 of the heavy chain, which are highly conserved among antibodies recognizing the epitope. These antibodies, however, had divergent light-chain and heavy-chain CDR3 sequences. Our study demonstrates that the conformational L1 epitope with Asp35 is a common site of vulnerability for potent neutralization by a divergent group of antibodies. IMPORTANCE Vaccinia virus, the live vaccine for smallpox, is one of the most successful vaccines in human history, but it presents a level of risk that has become unacceptable for the current population. Studying the immune protection mechanism of smallpox vaccine is important for understanding the basic principle of successful vaccines and the development of next-generation, safer vaccines for highly pathogenic orthopoxviruses. We studied antibody targets in smallpox vaccine by developing potent neutralizing antibodies against vaccinia virus and comprehensively characterizing their epitopes. We found a site in vaccinia virus L1 protein as the target of a group of highly potent murine neutralizing antibodies. The analysis of antibody-antigen complex structure and the sequences of the antibody genes shed light on how these potent neutralizing antibodies are elicited from immunized mice. PMID:25031354

Kaever, Thomas; Meng, Xiangzhi; Matho, Michael H.; Schlossman, Andrew; Li, Sheng; Sela-Culang, Inbal; Ofran, Yanay; Buller, Mark; Crump, Ryan W.; Parker, Scott; Frazier, April; Crotty, Shane; Zajonc, Dirk M.; Peters, Bjoern

2014-01-01

155

Virus Membrane Fusion Proteins: Biological Machines that Undergo a Metamorphosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusion proteins from a group of widely disparate viruses, including the paramyxovirus F protein, the HIV and SIV gp160 proteins, the retroviral Env protein, the Ebola virus Gp, and the influenza virus haemagglutinin, share a number of common features. All contain multiple glycosylation sites, and must be trimeric and undergo proteolytic cleavage to be fusogenically active. Subsequent to proteolytic cleavage,

Rebecca Ellis Dutch; Theodore S. Jardetzky; Robert A. Lamb

2000-01-01

156

Evaluation of Commercially Available Serologic Diagnostic Tests for Chikungunya Virus  

PubMed Central

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is present or emerging in dengue virus–endemic areas. Infections caused by these viruses share some common signs/symptoms, but prognosis, patient care, and persistent symptoms differ. Thus, accurate diagnostic methods are essential for differentiating the infections. We evaluated 4 CHIKV serologic diagnostic tests, 2 of which showed poor sensitivity and specificity. PMID:25418184

Flusin, Olivier; Panella, Amanda; Tenebray, Bernard; Lanciotti, Robert; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle

2014-01-01

157

Unusual Haplotypic Structure of IL8, a Susceptibility Locus for a Common Respiratory Virus  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-8 (IL8) is believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of bronchiolitis, a common viral disease of infancy, and a recent U.K. family study identified an association between this disease and the IL8?251A allele. In the present study we report data, from a different set of families, which replicate this finding; combined analysis of 194 nuclear families through use of the transmission/disequilibrium test gives P=.001. To explore the underlying genetic cause, we identified nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a 7.6-kb segment spanning the IL8 gene and its promoter region and used six of these SNPs to define the haplotypic structure of the IL8 locus. The IL8?251A allele resides on two haplotypes, only one of which is associated with disease, suggesting that this may not be the functional allele. Europeans show an unusual haplotype genealogy that is dominated by two common haplotypes differing at multiple sites, whereas Africans have much greater haplotypic diversity. These marked haplotype-frequency differences give an FST of .25, and, in the European sample, both Tajima’s D statistic (D=2.58,P=.007) and the Hudson/Kreitman/Aguade test (?2=4.9,P=.03) reject neutral equilibrium, suggesting that selective pressure may have acted on this locus. PMID:11431705

Hull, Jeremy; Ackerman, Hans; Isles, Kate; Usen, Stanley; Pinder, Margaret; Thomson, Anne; Kwiatkowski, Dominic

2001-01-01

158

Plant Disease Note 2005 | First Report of Onion yellow dwarf virus, Leek ye... stripe virus, and Garlic common latent virus in Garlic in Washington State Overview Current Issue Past Issues Search PD Search APS Journals  

E-print Network

Plant Disease Note 2005 | First Report of Onion yellow dwarf virus, Leek ye... stripe virus-2006 The American Phytopathological Society First Report of Onion yellow dwarf virus, Leek yellow stripe virus but one had Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV), whereas one sample had a mixed infection of OYDV and Leek

Pappu, Hanu R.

159

Comparison of common genotypes of chinese H7 avian influenza viruses for replication and transmission in chickens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 2013 an outbreak of H7N9 was detected in humans and in poultry in China. Additionally H7N7 virus was also found in poultry in China. Both groups viruses appeared to be reassortant viruses having picked 6 internal gene segments from the poultry adapted H9N2 that is endemic in China and having li...

160

Effect of actinomycin D on the expression of herpes simplex virus-common surface antigen in cells transformed by herpes simplex virus type 2.  

PubMed Central

Using rabbit antiserum hyperimmune to herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1, the expression of HSV-common surface antigen(s) was studied by indirect immunofluorescence tests in cells transformed by HSV type 2 and in derived tumor cells. The following results were obtained. (i) Antiserum to HSV type 1 reacted specifically with surface antigen present on the plasma membrane of both HSV type 2-infected and HSV type 2-transformed hamster cells. (ii) The expression of this antigen was enhanced in the absence of active protein synthesis in transformed cells, but not in tumor cells, after culture for 3 to 5 h at 37 degrees C. (iii) This enhancement of expression was maintained for 20 h in the presence of actinomycin D, but this prolonged expression required active protein synthesis. (iv) The enhancing effect observed in the presence of actinomycin D continued for some time after removal of the drug, for example, for 20 h after 5 h of treatment with 2 microgram/ml of actinomycin D per ml. Actinomycin D had no detectable effect on antigen expression in tumor cells. (v) The protease inhibitor antipain inhibited the actinomycin D-enhanced expression without causing significant cell damage but did not modify the transient enhanced expression of antigen when cells were seeded in the absence of actinomycin D. These results indicate that in transformed cells antigen expression can be enhanced in at least two ways. Images PMID:219215

Kimura, S; Okazaki, K; Yoshida, N; Ohnishi, Y

1979-01-01

161

Epidemiologic Relationship between Toscana Virus Infection and Leishmania infantum Due to Common Exposure to Phlebotomus perniciosus Sandfly Vector  

PubMed Central

Sand flies are recognised vectors of parasites in the genus Leishmania and a number of arthropod-borne viruses, in particular viruses within the genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae. In southern France, Toscana phlebovirus (TOSV) is recognized as a prominent cause of summer meningitis. Since Leishmania and TOSV have a common vector (Phlebotomus perniciosus), an epidemiologic link has been assumed for a long time. However, there is no scientific evidence of such a link between human leishmaniosis and phleboviral infections. To identify a possible link, we investigated the presence and distribution of antibodies against these two microorganisms (i) in individuals and (ii) at a spatial level in the city of Marseille (south-eastern France). Five hundred sera were selected randomly in the biobank of the Department of Parasitology of the Public Hospitals of Marseille. All sera were previously tested for IgG against Leishmania by Western Blotting, and TOSV IgG were detected by indirect immunofluorescence. The seropositivity rates were 21.4% for TOSV and 28% for Leishmania. Statistical analysis demonstrated that seropositivity for one pathogen was significantly associated with seropositivity to the other pathogen. This result provided the first robust evidence for the existence of an epidemiological relationship between Leishmania infantum and TOSV. Addresses of tested patients were geolocalized and integrated into Geographical Information System software, in order to test spatial relationship between the two pathogens. Spatial analysis did not allow to identify (i) specific patterns for the spatial distribution of positive serological results for TOSV or Leishmania, and (ii) a spatial relationship between Leishmania and TOSV positive serological results. This may reflect the fact that the sample studied was not powerful enough to demonstrate either a spatial clustering or co-location, i.e. that the actual risk exposure area is smaller than the mean of distance between patients in our study (245 m). PMID:21949894

Bichaud, Laurence; Souris, Marc; Mary, Charles; Ninove, Laëtitia; Thirion, Laurence; Piarroux, Raphaël P.; Piarroux, Renaud; De Lamballerie, Xavier; Charrel, Rémi N.

2011-01-01

162

Common Vision--Shared Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been only a few years since the state of Montana adopted revised standards for Information Literacy/Library Media. In the years since their adoption, the district's curriculum review team, made up of K-12 school librarians, defined the local curriculum directly from these standards. As Montana's school librarians reflect on their…

Olszewski, Chris M.

2014-01-01

163

A viral resistance gene from common bean functions across plant families and is up-regulated in a non-virus-specific manner.  

PubMed

Genes involved in a viral resistance response in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Othello) were identified by inoculating a geminivirus reporter (Bean dwarf mosaic virus expressing the green fluorescent protein), extracting RNA from tissue undergoing the defense response, and amplifying sequences with degenerate R gene primers. One such gene (a TIR-NBS-LRR gene, RT4-4) was selected for functional analysis in which transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana were generated and screened for resistance to a range of viruses. This analysis revealed that RT4-4 did not confer resistance to the reporter geminivirus; however, it did activate a resistance-related response (systemic necrosis) to seven strains of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) from pepper or tomato, but not to a CMV strain from common bean. Of these eight CMV strains, only the strain from common bean systemically infected common bean cv. Othello. Additional evidence that RT4-4 is a CMV R gene came from the detection of resistance response markers in CMV-challenged leaves of RT4-4 transgenic plants, and the identification of the CMV 2a gene product as the elicitor of the necrosis response. These findings indicate that RT4-4 functions across two plant families and is up-regulated in a non-virus-specific manner. This experimental approach holds promise for providing insights into the mechanisms by which plants activate resistance responses against pathogens. PMID:16880399

Seo, Young-Su; Rojas, Maria R; Lee, Jung-Youn; Lee, Sang-Won; Jeon, Jong-Seong; Ronald, Pamela; Lucas, William J; Gilbertson, Robert L

2006-08-01

164

A viral resistance gene from common bean functions across plant families and is up-regulated in a non-virus-specific manner  

PubMed Central

Genes involved in a viral resistance response in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Othello) were identified by inoculating a geminivirus reporter (Bean dwarf mosaic virus expressing the green fluorescent protein), extracting RNA from tissue undergoing the defense response, and amplifying sequences with degenerate R gene primers. One such gene (a TIR-NBS-LRR gene, RT4-4) was selected for functional analysis in which transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana were generated and screened for resistance to a range of viruses. This analysis revealed that RT4-4 did not confer resistance to the reporter geminivirus; however, it did activate a resistance-related response (systemic necrosis) to seven strains of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) from pepper or tomato, but not to a CMV strain from common bean. Of these eight CMV strains, only the strain from common bean systemically infected common bean cv. Othello. Additional evidence that RT4-4 is a CMV R gene came from the detection of resistance response markers in CMV-challenged leaves of RT4-4 transgenic plants, and the identification of the CMV 2a gene product as the elicitor of the necrosis response. These findings indicate that RT4-4 functions across two plant families and is up-regulated in a non-virus-specific manner. This experimental approach holds promise for providing insights into the mechanisms by which plants activate resistance responses against pathogens. PMID:16880399

Seo, Young-Su; Rojas, Maria R.; Lee, Jung-Youn; Lee, Sang-Won; Jeon, Jong-Seong; Ronald, Pamela; Lucas, William J.; Gilbertson, Robert L.

2006-01-01

165

2007. Two genes from Phaseolus coccineus L. confer resistance to Bean golden yellow mosaic virus in common bean. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 132:530-533  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV), caused by a whitefly (Bemisia spp.) transmitted geminivirus, is an important disease that can limit common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production in Central America, the Caribbean and southern Florida. Only a few genes are currently deployed in BGYMV resista...

166

Using Common Spatial Distributions of Atoms to Relate Functionally Divergent Influenza Virus N10 and N11 Protein Structures to Functionally Characterized Neuraminidase Structures, Toxin Cell Entry Domains, and Non-Influenza Virus Cell Entry Domains  

PubMed Central

The ability to identify the functional correlates of structural and sequence variation in proteins is a critical capability. We related structures of influenza A N10 and N11 proteins that have no established function to structures of proteins with known function by identifying spatially conserved atoms. We identified atoms with common distributed spatial occupancy in PDB structures of N10 protein, N11 protein, an influenza A neuraminidase, an influenza B neuraminidase, and a bacterial neuraminidase. By superposing these spatially conserved atoms, we aligned the structures and associated molecules. We report spatially and sequence invariant residues in the aligned structures. Spatially invariant residues in the N6 and influenza B neuraminidase active sites were found in previously unidentified spatially equivalent sites in the N10 and N11 proteins. We found the corresponding secondary and tertiary structures of the aligned proteins to be largely identical despite significant sequence divergence. We found structural precedent in known non-neuraminidase structures for residues exhibiting structural and sequence divergence in the aligned structures. In N10 protein, we identified staphylococcal enterotoxin I-like domains. In N11 protein, we identified hepatitis E E2S-like domains, SARS spike protein-like domains, and toxin components shared by alpha-bungarotoxin, staphylococcal enterotoxin I, anthrax lethal factor, clostridium botulinum neurotoxin, and clostridium tetanus toxin. The presence of active site components common to the N6, influenza B, and S. pneumoniae neuraminidases in the N10 and N11 proteins, combined with the absence of apparent neuraminidase function, suggests that the role of neuraminidases in H17N10 and H18N11 emerging influenza A viruses may have changed. The presentation of E2S-like, SARS spike protein-like, or toxin-like domains by the N10 and N11 proteins in these emerging viruses may indicate that H17N10 and H18N11 sialidase-facilitated cell entry has been supplemented or replaced by sialidase-independent receptor binding to an expanded cell population that may include neurons and T-cells. PMID:25706124

Weininger, Arthur; Weininger, Susan

2015-01-01

167

Using common spatial distributions of atoms to relate functionally divergent influenza virus N10 and N11 protein structures to functionally characterized neuraminidase structures, toxin cell entry domains, and non-influenza virus cell entry domains.  

PubMed

The ability to identify the functional correlates of structural and sequence variation in proteins is a critical capability. We related structures of influenza A N10 and N11 proteins that have no established function to structures of proteins with known function by identifying spatially conserved atoms. We identified atoms with common distributed spatial occupancy in PDB structures of N10 protein, N11 protein, an influenza A neuraminidase, an influenza B neuraminidase, and a bacterial neuraminidase. By superposing these spatially conserved atoms, we aligned the structures and associated molecules. We report spatially and sequence invariant residues in the aligned structures. Spatially invariant residues in the N6 and influenza B neuraminidase active sites were found in previously unidentified spatially equivalent sites in the N10 and N11 proteins. We found the corresponding secondary and tertiary structures of the aligned proteins to be largely identical despite significant sequence divergence. We found structural precedent in known non-neuraminidase structures for residues exhibiting structural and sequence divergence in the aligned structures. In N10 protein, we identified staphylococcal enterotoxin I-like domains. In N11 protein, we identified hepatitis E E2S-like domains, SARS spike protein-like domains, and toxin components shared by alpha-bungarotoxin, staphylococcal enterotoxin I, anthrax lethal factor, clostridium botulinum neurotoxin, and clostridium tetanus toxin. The presence of active site components common to the N6, influenza B, and S. pneumoniae neuraminidases in the N10 and N11 proteins, combined with the absence of apparent neuraminidase function, suggests that the role of neuraminidases in H17N10 and H18N11 emerging influenza A viruses may have changed. The presentation of E2S-like, SARS spike protein-like, or toxin-like domains by the N10 and N11 proteins in these emerging viruses may indicate that H17N10 and H18N11 sialidase-facilitated cell entry has been supplemented or replaced by sialidase-independent receptor binding to an expanded cell population that may include neurons and T-cells. PMID:25706124

Weininger, Arthur; Weininger, Susan

2015-01-01

168

Novel BRCA1 deleterious mutation (c.1918C>T) in familial breast and ovarian cancer syndrome who share a common ancestry.  

PubMed

Mutations in breast cancer susceptibility (BRCA) genes lead to defects in DNA repair processes resulting in elevated genome instability and predisposing to breast and ovarian cancer. We report a novel mutation (c.1918C>T) in the exon 11 of the BRCA1 gene that consists of a nonsense mutation that causes a stop codon downstream in the 640 position of the protein. The mutation was present in two Spanish unrelated families and was associated with four breast cancer cases, including two bilateral breast cancer (one of them synchronous). The median age/mean age (range) was 48.5/44.25 years (27-53). This finding led us to perform haplotype analysis in all family carriers. Four highly polymorphic microsatellite markers were used (17-3858, 17-3930, D17S855, D17S1326) to establish whether or not all these families had a common ancestor. This analysis showed that all mutation carriers of these families had a common haplotype. None of the noncarriers of the mutation or of the 24 healthy controls showed this haplotype. Therefore, the c.1918C>T mutation carriers from these two families allows us to assert that all analyzed mutation carriers share a common ancestry. PMID:24633894

Gabaldó Barrios, Xavier; Sarabia Meseguer, María Desamparados; Alonso Romero, José Luis; Marín Vera, Miguel; Marín Zafra, Gema; Sánchez Henarejos, Pilar; Sánchez Bermúdez, Ana Isabel; Ruiz Espejo, Francisco

2014-09-01

169

Crystal Structures of the Staphylococcal Toxin SSL5 in Complex With Sialyl-Lewis X Reveal a Conserved Binding Site That Shares Common Features With Viral And Bacterial Sialic Acid-Binding Proteins  

SciTech Connect

Staphylococcus aureus is a significant human pathogen. Among its large repertoire of secreted toxins is a group of staphylococcal superantigen-like proteins (SSLs). These are homologous to superantigens but do not have the same activity. SSL5 is shown here to bind to human granulocytes and to the cell surface receptors for human IgA (Fc alphaRI) and P-selectin [P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1)] in a sialic acid (Sia)-dependent manner. Co-crystallization of SSL5 with the tetrasaccharide sialyl Lewis X (sLe(X)), a key determinant of PSGL-1 binding to P-selectin, led to crystal structures of the SSL5-sLe(X) complex at resolutions of 1.65 and 2.75 A for crystals at two pH values. In both structures, sLe(X) bound to a specific site on the surface of the C-terminal domain of SSL5 in a conformation identical with that bound by P-selectin. Conservation of the key carbohydrate binding residues indicates that this ability to bind human glycans is shared by a substantial subgroup of the SSLs, including SSL2, SSL3, SSL4, SSL5, SSL6, and SSL11. This indicates that the ability to target human glycans is an important property of this group of toxins. Structural comparisons also showed that the Sia binding site in SSL5 contains a substructure that is shared by other Sia binding proteins from bacteria as well as viruses and represents a common binding motif.

Baker, H.M.; Basu, I.; Chung, M.C.; Caradoc-Davies, T.; Fraser, J.D.; Baker, E.N.

2009-06-02

170

ECHO virus  

MedlinePLUS

Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that lead to gastrointestinal infection and skin rashes. ... Echovirus is one of several families of viruses that affect the ... are common. In the US, they are most common in the summer and ...

171

The Unknown Computer Viruses Detection Based on Similarity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New computer viruses are continually being generated and they cause damage all over the world. In general, current anti-virus software detects viruses by matching a pattern based on the signature; thus, unknown viruses without any signature cannot be detected. Although there are some static analysis technologies that do not depend on signatures, virus writers often use code obfuscation techniques, which make it difficult to execute a code analysis. As is generally known, unknown viruses and known viruses share a common feature. In this paper we propose a new static analysis technology that can circumvent code obfuscation to extract the common feature and detect unknown viruses based on similarity. The results of evaluation experiments demonstrated that this technique is able to detect unknown viruses without false positives.

Liu, Zhongda; Nakaya, Naoshi; Koui, Yuuji

172

Achieving visibility? Use of non-verbal communication in interactions between patients and pharmacists who do not share a common language.  

PubMed

Despite the seemingly insatiable interest in healthcare professional-patient communication, less attention has been paid to the use of non-verbal communication in medical consultations. This article considers pharmacists' and patients' use of non-verbal communication to interact directly in consultations in which they do not share a common language. In total, 12 video-recorded, interpreted pharmacy consultations concerned with a newly prescribed medication or a change in medication were analysed in detail. The analysis focused on instances of direct communication initiated by either the patient or the pharmacist, despite the presence of a multilingual pharmacy assistant acting as an interpreter. Direct communication was shown to occur through (i) the demonstration of a medical device, (ii) the indication of relevant body parts and (iii) the use of limited English. These connections worked to make patients and pharmacists visible to each other and thus to maintain a sense of mutual involvement in consultations within which patients and pharmacists could enact professionally and socially appropriate roles. In a multicultural society this work is important in understanding the dynamics involved in consultations in situations in which language is not shared and thus in considering the development of future research and policy. PMID:24641161

Stevenson, Fiona

2014-06-01

173

Temperature-dependent innate defense against the common cold virus limits viral replication at warm temperature in mouse airway cells.  

PubMed

Most isolates of human rhinovirus, the common cold virus, replicate more robustly at the cool temperatures found in the nasal cavity (33-35 °C) than at core body temperature (37 °C). To gain insight into the mechanism of temperature-dependent growth, we compared the transcriptional response of primary mouse airway epithelial cells infected with rhinovirus at 33 °C vs. 37 °C. Mouse airway cells infected with mouse-adapted rhinovirus 1B exhibited a striking enrichment in expression of antiviral defense response genes at 37 °C relative to 33 °C, which correlated with significantly higher expression levels of type I and type III IFN genes and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) at 37 °C. Temperature-dependent IFN induction in response to rhinovirus was dependent on the MAVS protein, a key signaling adaptor of the RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs). Stimulation of primary airway cells with the synthetic RLR ligand poly I:C led to greater IFN induction at 37 °C relative to 33 °C at early time points poststimulation and to a sustained increase in the induction of ISGs at 37 °C relative to 33 °C. Recombinant type I IFN also stimulated more robust induction of ISGs at 37 °C than at 33 °C. Genetic deficiency of MAVS or the type I IFN receptor in infected airway cells permitted higher levels of viral replication, particularly at 37 °C, and partially rescued the temperature-dependent growth phenotype. These findings demonstrate that in mouse airway cells, rhinovirus replicates preferentially at nasal cavity temperature due, in part, to a less efficient antiviral defense response of infected cells at cool temperature. PMID:25561542

Foxman, Ellen F; Storer, James A; Fitzgerald, Megan E; Wasik, Bethany R; Hou, Lin; Zhao, Hongyu; Turner, Paul E; Pyle, Anna Marie; Iwasaki, Akiko

2015-01-20

174

Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Coinfection: Epidemiology, Natural History, Therapeutic Options and Clinical Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to shared risk factors for transmission, coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a very common event. The prevalence of HCV infection among HIV-positive patients averages about 35% in the United States and Europe, but in clinical populations where there is a great prevalence of intravenous drug use as a risk factor for acquiring

G. Verucchi; L. Calza; R. Manfredi; F. Chiodo

2004-01-01

175

Viruses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lytic bacteriophages, viruses which infect and lyse bacterial cells, can provide a natural method to reduce bacterial pathogens on produce commodities. The use of multi-phage cocktails is most likely to be effective against bacterial pathogens on produce commodities, and minimize the development of...

176

Retroviral Insertions in Evi12, a Novel Common Virus Integration Site Upstream of Tra1/Grp94, Frequently Coincide with Insertions in the Gene Encoding the Peripheral Cannabinoid Receptor Cnr2  

PubMed Central

The common virus integration site (VIS) Evi11 was recently identified within the gene encoding the hematopoietic G-protein-coupled peripheral cannabinoid receptor Cnr2 (also referred to as Cb2). Here we show that Cnr2 is a frequent target (12%) for insertion of Cas-Br-M murine leukemia virus (MuLV) in primary tumors in NIH/Swiss mice. Multiple provirus insertions in Evi11 were cloned and shown to be located within the 3? untranslated region of the candidate proto-oncogene Cnr2. These results suggest that proviral insertion in the Cnr2 gene is an important step in Cas-Br-M MuLV-induced leukemogenesis in NIH/Swiss mice. To isolate Evi11/Cnr2 collaborating proto-oncogenes, we searched for novel common VISs in the Cas-Br-M MuLV-induced primary tumors and identified a novel frequent common VIS, Evi12 (14%). Interestingly, 54% of the Evi11/Cnr2-rearranged primary tumors contained insertions in Evi12 as well, which suggests cooperative action of the target genes in these two common VISs in leukemogenesis. By interspecific backcross analysis it was shown that Evi12 resides on mouse chromosome 10 in a region that shares homology with human chromosomes 12q and 19p. Sequence analysis demonstrated that Evi12 is located upstream of the gene encoding the molecular chaperone Tra1/Grp94, which was previously mapped to mouse chromosome 10 and human chromosome 12q22–24. Thus, Tra1/Grp94 is a candidate target gene for retroviral activation or inactivation in Evi12. However, Northern and Western blot analyses did not provide evidence that proviral insertion had altered the expression of Tra1/Grp94. Additional studies are required to determine whether Tra1/Grp94 or another candidate proto-oncogene in Evi12 is involved in leukemogenesis. PMID:10196250

Valk, Peter J. M.; Vankan, Yolanda; Joosten, Marieke; Jenkins, Nancy A.; Copeland, Neal G.; Löwenberg, Bob; Delwel, Ruud

1999-01-01

177

Cell-to-cell fusion as a link between viruses and cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to fuse cells is shared by many viruses, including common human pathogens and several endogenous viruses. Here we will discuss how cell fusion can link viruses to cancer, what types of cancers it can affect, how the existence of this link can be tested and how the hypotheses that we propose might affect the search for human oncogenic

Dominik Duelli; Yuri Lazebnik

2007-01-01

178

Computer Viruses. Technology Update.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides general information on computer viruses, how to help protect a computer network from them, measures to take if a computer becomes infected. Highlights include the origins of computer viruses; virus contraction; a description of some common virus types (File Virus, Boot Sector/Partition Table Viruses, Trojan Horses, and…

Ponder, Tim, Comp.; Ropog, Marty, Comp.; Keating, Joseph, Comp.

179

Identification of radically different variants of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Eastern Europe: towards a common ancestor for European and American viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined 22 partial porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) ORF5 sequences, representing pathogenic field strains mainly from Poland and Lithuania, and two currently available European-type live PRRSV vaccines. Also, the complete ORF7 of two Lithuanian and two Polish strains was sequenced. We found that Polish, and in particular Lithuanian, PRRSV sequences were exceptionally different from the European prototype,

T. Stadejek; A. Stankevicius; T. Storgaard; M. B. Oleksiewicz; S. Bela; T. W. Drew; Z. Pejsak

180

Quantitative Resistance to Bean dwarf mosaic virus in Common Bean is Associated with the Bct gene for Resistance to Beet curly top virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The dominant resistance gene, Bct, confers qualitative resistance to Beet curly top virus, a leafhopper-transmitted geminivirus in the genus Curtovirus. To determine whether this gene confers resistance to other geminiviruses, plants of a recombinant inbred population were sap-inoculated with BDMV, ...

181

Dana Nau: CMSC 421, U. of Maryland Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/  

E-print Network

Dana Nau: CMSC 421, U. of Maryland Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/ 1 Automated Planning Dana S. Nau CMSC 421, Spring 2010 #12;Dana Nau: CMSC 421, U. of Maryland Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution

Nau, Dana S.

182

eIF4G and CBP80 share a common origin and similar domain organization: implications for the structure and function of eIF4G.  

PubMed

Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) plays a critical role in protein expression, and is at the center of a complex regulatory network. Together with the cap-binding protein eIF4E, it recruits the small ribosomal subunit to the 5'-end of mRNA and promotes the assembly of a functional translation initiation complex, which scans along the mRNA to the translation start codon. Human eIF4G contains three consecutive HEAT domains, as well as long unstructured regions involved in multiple protein-protein interactions. Despite the accumulating data about the structure and function of eIF4G, the mechanisms of coordination and regulation of its interactions with other factors have remained largely unknown. Here, we present evidence that eIF4G and the large subunit of the nuclear cap-binding complex, CBP80, share a common origin and domain structure. We propose that the organization of the individual domains in eIF4G and CBP80 could also be conserved. The structure of CBP80, in complex with the nuclear cap-binding protein CBP20, is used to build a model for the mutual orientation of the domains in eIF4G and their interactions with other factors. The organization of the CBP80-CBP20 complex suggests how the activity of eIF4G in translation initiation could be regulated through a dynamic network of overlapping intra- and intermolecular interactions centered around the eIF4G HEAT domains. PMID:16156639

Marintchev, Assen; Wagner, Gerhard

2005-09-20

183

Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) as a Nonhuman Primate Model To Assess the Virulence of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) produces the most severe human arboviral disease in North America (NA) and is a potential biological weapon. However, genetically and antigenically distinct strains from South America (SA) have seldom been associated with human disease or mortality despite serological evidence of infection. Because mice and other small rodents do not respond differently to the NA versus

A. Paige Adams; Judith F. Aronson; Suzette D. Tardif; Jean L. Patterson; Kathleen M. Brasky; Robert Geiger; M. de la Garza; R. Carrion; S. C. Weaver

2008-01-01

184

A conserved locus conditioning Soil-borne wheat mosaic virus resistance on 5DL in common wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil-borne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV) is considered one of the most important diseases in winter wheat regions of the central and southeastern United States. Utilization of resistant cultivars is the only practical and environmentally friendly means of control. To identify QTL for SBWMV resistance, ...

185

The most common Chinese rhesus macaque MHC class I molecule shares peptide binding repertoire with the HLA-B7 supertype  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the two rhesus macaque subspecies used for AIDS studies, the Simian immunodeficiency virus-infected Indian rhesus macaque\\u000a (Macaca mulatta) is the most established model of HIV infection, providing both insight into pathogenesis and a system for testing novel\\u000a vaccines. Despite the Chinese rhesus macaque potentially being a more relevant model for AIDS outcomes than the Indian rhesus\\u000a macaque, the Chinese-origin

Christopher Solomon; Scott Southwood; Ilka Hoof; Richard Rudersdorf; Bjoern Peters; John Sidney; Clemencia Pinilla; Maria Cecilia Garibaldi Marcondes; Binhua Ling; Preston Marx; Alessandro Sette; Bianca R. Mothé

2010-01-01

186

Multi-event capture–recapture modeling of host–pathogen dynamics among European rabbit populations exposed to myxoma and Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Viruses: common and heterogeneous patterns  

PubMed Central

Host–pathogen epidemiological processes are often unclear due both to their complexity and over-simplistic approaches used to quantify them. We applied a multi-event capture–recapture procedure on two years of data from three rabbit populations to test hypotheses about the effects on survival of, and the dynamics of host immunity to, both myxoma virus and Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (MV and RHDV). Although the populations shared the same climatic and management conditions, MV and RHDV dynamics varied greatly among them; MV and RHDV seroprevalences were positively related to density in one population, but RHDV seroprevalence was negatively related to density in another. In addition, (i) juvenile survival was most often negatively related to seropositivity, (ii) RHDV seropositives never had considerably higher survival, and (iii) seroconversion to seropositivity was more likely than the reverse. We suggest seropositivity affects survival depending on trade-offs among antibody protection, immunosuppression and virus lethality. Negative effects of seropositivity might be greater on juveniles due to their immature immune system. Also, while RHDV directly affects survival through the hemorrhagic syndrome, MV lack of direct lethal effects means that interactions influencing survival are likely to be more complex. Multi-event modeling allowed us to quantify patterns of host–pathogen dynamics otherwise difficult to discern. Such an approach offers a promising tool to shed light on causative mechanisms. PMID:24708296

2014-01-01

187

Do childhood excess weight and family food insecurity share common risk factors in the local environment? An examination using a Quebec birth cohort.  

PubMed

Childhood excess weight and family food insecurity are food-system related public health problems that exist in Canada. Since both relate to issues of food accessibility, availability and utilization, which have elements of "place", they may share common risk factors in the local environment that are amenable to intervention. In this area of research, the literature derives mostly from an American context, and there is a dearth of high-quality evidence, specifically from longitudinal studies. The main objectives of this thesis were to examine the adjusted associations between the place factors: material deprivation, social deprivation, social cohesion, disorder, and living location, with change in child body mass index (BMI) Z score and with change in family food insecurity status in a Canadian cohort of children. The Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development was used to meet the main objectives of this thesis. Response data from 6 collection cycles (4-10 years of age) were used in 3 main analyses. The first analysis examined change in child BMI Z score as a function of the place factors using mixed models regression. The second analysis examined change in child BMI Z score as a function of place factors using group-based trajectory modeling. The third and final analysis examined change in family food insecurity status as a function of the place factors using generalized estimating equations. Social deprivation, social cohesion and disorder were strongly and positively associated with family food insecurity, increasing the odds by 45%-76%. These place factors, on the other hand, were not consistently associated with child weight status. Material deprivation was not important for either outcome, except for a slight positive association in the mixed models analysis of child weight status. Living location was not important in explaining family food insecurity. On the other hand, it was associated with child weight status in both analyses, but the nature of the relationship is still unclear. Results do not suggest that addressing similar place factors may alleviate both child excess weight and family food insecurity. More high-quality longitudinal and experimental studies are needed to clarify relationships between the local environment and child weight status and family food insecurity. PMID:24552390

Carter, Megan Ann

2014-03-01

188

A common structural core in the internal ribosome entry sites of picornavirus, hepatitis C virus, and pestivirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cap-independent translations of viral RNAs of enteroviruses and rhinoviruses, cardioviruses and aphthoviruses, hepatitis A and C viruses (HAV and HCV), and pestivirus are initiated by the direct binding of 40S ribosomal subunits to acis-acting genetic element termed theinternal ribosome entry site (IRES) orribosome landing pad (RLP) in the 5' noncoding region (5'NCR). RNA higher ordered structure models for these IRES

Shu-Yun Le; Aleem Siddiqui; Jacob V. Maizel

1996-01-01

189

Genome organization of ageratum yellow vein virus, a monopartite whitefly-transmitted geminivirus isolated from a common weed  

Microsoft Academic Search

A full-length copy of a single genomic component of the whitefly-transmitted geminivirus ageratum yellow vein virus (AYVV) has been cloned from an extract of infected Ageratum conyzoides originating from Singapore. Sequence analysis shows that the genomic component encodes two virion-sense (V1 and V2) and four complementary-sense open reading frames (C1-C4), Phaseolus vulgaris and Lycopersicon esculentum when introduced into plants by

Priscilla H. N. Tan; Sek Man Wong; Mian Wu; Ian D. Bedford; Keith Saunders; John Stanley

1995-01-01

190

Identification of a common viral integration region in Cas-Br-E murine leukemia virus-induced non-T-, non-B-cell lymphomas.  

PubMed Central

The Cas-Br-E murine leukemia virus is a nondefective retrovirus that induces non-T-, non-B-cell lymphomas in susceptible NIH/Swiss mice. By using a DNA probe derived from Cas-Br-E provirus-flanking sequences, we identified a DNA region, originally called Sic-1, rearranged in 16 of 24 tumors analyzed (67%). All proviruses were integrated in a DNA segment smaller than 100 bp and were in the same 5'-to-3' orientation. Ecotropic as well as mink cell focus-forming virus types were found integrated in that specific DNA region. On the basis of Southern blot analysis of somatic cell hybrids and progeny of an interspecies backcross, the Sic-1 region was localized on mouse chromosome 9 near the previously described proto-oncogenes or common viral integration sites: Ets-1, Cbl-2, Tpl-1, and Fli-1. Restriction map analysis shows that this region is identical to the Fli-1 locus identified in Friend murine leukemia virus-induced erythroleukemia cell lines and thus may contain sequences also responsible for the development of mouse non-T-, non-B-cell lymphomas. Images PMID:1845910

Bergeron, D; Poliquin, L; Kozak, C A; Rassart, E

1991-01-01

191

Parents Sharing Books with Young Deaf Children in Spoken English and in BSL: The Common and Diverse Features of Different Language Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twelve parents of young deaf children were recorded sharing books with their deaf child--six from families using British Sign Language (BSL) and six from families using spoken English. Although all families were engaged in sharing books with their deaf child and concerned to promote literacy development, they approached the task differently and…

Swanwick, Ruth; Watson, Linda

2007-01-01

192

Obesity Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Obesity has many causes, but there is growing evidence that common viruses may contribute to the condition in some people. Recently, Nikhil Dhurandhar and his colleagues at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center infected human stem cells with Ad-36, a common virus known to be associated with obesity in humans. They found that the cells they exposed to the virus accumulated a much higher amount of fat than uninfected cells.

Science Update (AAAS; )

2007-06-12

193

Response of Hepatitis C Virus to Long-Term Passage in the Presence of Alpha Interferon: Multiple Mutations and a Common Phenotype  

PubMed Central

Cell culture-produced hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been subjected to up to 100 serial passages in human hepatoma cells in the absence or presence of different doses of alpha interferon (IFN-?). Virus survival, genetic changes, fitness levels, and phenotypic traits have been examined. While high initial IFN-? doses (increasing from 1 to 4 IU/ml) did not allow HCV survival beyond passage 40, a gradual exposure (from 0.25 to 10 IU/ml) allowed the virus to survive for at least 100 passages. The virus passaged in the presence of IFN-? acquired IFN-? resistance as evidenced by enhanced progeny production and viral protein expression in an IFN-? environment. A partial IFN-? resistance was also noted in populations passaged in the absence of IFN-?. All lineages acquired adaptative mutations, and multiple, nonsynonymous mutations scattered throughout the genome were present in IFN-?-selected populations. Comparison of consensus sequences indicates a dominance of synonymous versus nonsynonymous substitutions. IFN-?-resistant populations displayed decreased sensitivity to a combination of IFN-? and ribavirin. A phenotypic trait common to all assayed viral populations is the ability to increase shutoff host cell protein synthesis, accentuated in infections with IFN-?-selected populations carried out in the presence of IFN-?. The trait was associated with enhanced phosphorylation of protein kinase R (PKR) and eIF2?, although other contributing factors are likely. The results suggest that multiple, independent mutational pathways can confer IFN-? resistance to HCV and might explain why no unified picture has been obtained regarding IFN-? resistance in vivo. PMID:23637397

Perales, Celia; Beach, Nathan M.; Gallego, Isabel; Soria, Maria Eugenia; Quer, Josep; Esteban, Juan Ignacio; Rice, Charles

2013-01-01

194

The capsid protein p38 of turnip crinkle virus is associated with the suppression of cucumber mosaic virus in Arabidopsis thaliana co-infected with cucumber mosaic virus and turnip crinkle virus.  

PubMed

Infection of plants by multiple viruses is common in nature. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) belong to different families, but Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana are commonly shared hosts for both viruses. In this study, we found that TCV provides effective resistance to infection by CMV in Arabidopsis plants co-infected by both viruses, and this antagonistic effect is much weaker when the two viruses are inoculated into different leaves of the same plant. However, similar antagonism is not observed in N. benthamiana plants. We further demonstrate that disrupting the RNA silencing-mediated defense of the Arabidopsis host does not affect this antagonism, but capsid protein (CP or p38)-defective mutant TCV loses the ability to repress CMV, suggesting that TCV CP plays an important role in the antagonistic effect of TCV toward CMV in Arabidopsis plants co-infected with both viruses. PMID:25092463

Chen, Ying-Juan; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Jian; Deng, Xing-Guang; Zhang, Ping; Zhu, Tong; Chen, Li-Juan; Bao, Wei-Kai; Xi, De-Hui; Lin, Hong-Hui

2014-08-01

195

Viral uncoating is directional: exit of the genomic RNA in a common cold virus starts with the poly-(A) tail at the 3'-end.  

PubMed

Upon infection, many RNA viruses reorganize their capsid for release of the genome into the host cell cytosol for replication. Often, this process is triggered by receptor binding and/or by the acidic environment in endosomes. In the genus Enterovirus, which includes more than 150 human rhinovirus (HRV) serotypes causing the common cold, there is persuasive evidence that the viral RNA exits single-stranded through channels formed in the protein shell. We have determined the time-dependent emergence of the RNA ends from HRV2 on incubation of virions at 56°C using hybridization with specific oligonucleotides and detection by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. We report that psoralen UV crosslinking prevents complete RNA release, allowing for identification of the sequences remaining inside the capsid. We also present the structure of uncoating intermediates in which parts of the RNA are condensed and take the form of a rod that is directed roughly towards a two-fold icosahedral axis, the presumed RNA exit point. Taken together, in contrast to schemes frequently depicted in textbooks and reviews, our findings demonstrate that exit of the RNA starts from the 3'-end. This suggests that packaging also occurs in an ordered manner resulting in the 3'-poly-(A) tail becoming located close to a position of pore formation during conversion of the virion into a subviral particle. This directional genome release may be common to many icosahedral non-enveloped single-stranded RNA viruses. PMID:23592991

Harutyunyan, Shushan; Kumar, Mohit; Sedivy, Arthur; Subirats, Xavier; Kowalski, Heinrich; Köhler, Gottfried; Blaas, Dieter

2013-01-01

196

Viral Uncoating Is Directional: Exit of the Genomic RNA in a Common Cold Virus Starts with the Poly-(A) Tail at the 3?-End  

PubMed Central

Upon infection, many RNA viruses reorganize their capsid for release of the genome into the host cell cytosol for replication. Often, this process is triggered by receptor binding and/or by the acidic environment in endosomes. In the genus Enterovirus, which includes more than 150 human rhinovirus (HRV) serotypes causing the common cold, there is persuasive evidence that the viral RNA exits single-stranded through channels formed in the protein shell. We have determined the time-dependent emergence of the RNA ends from HRV2 on incubation of virions at 56°C using hybridization with specific oligonucleotides and detection by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. We report that psoralen UV crosslinking prevents complete RNA release, allowing for identification of the sequences remaining inside the capsid. We also present the structure of uncoating intermediates in which parts of the RNA are condensed and take the form of a rod that is directed roughly towards a two-fold icosahedral axis, the presumed RNA exit point. Taken together, in contrast to schemes frequently depicted in textbooks and reviews, our findings demonstrate that exit of the RNA starts from the 3?-end. This suggests that packaging also occurs in an ordered manner resulting in the 3?-poly-(A) tail becoming located close to a position of pore formation during conversion of the virion into a subviral particle. This directional genome release may be common to many icosahedral non-enveloped single-stranded RNA viruses. PMID:23592991

Sedivy, Arthur; Subirats, Xavier; Kowalski, Heinrich; Köhler, Gottfried; Blaas, Dieter

2013-01-01

197

The interaction of hepatitis A virus (HAV) with soluble forms of its cellular receptor 1 (HAVCR1) share the physiological requirements of infectivity in cell culture  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatitis A virus (HAV), an atypical Picornaviridae that causes acute hepatitis in humans, usurps the HAV cellular receptor 1 (HAVCR1) to infect cells. HAVCR1 is a class 1 integral membrane glycoprotein that contains two extracellular domains: a virus-binding immunoglobulin-like (IgV) domain and a mucin-like domain that extends the IgV from the cell membrane. Soluble forms of HAVCR1 bind, alter, and neutralize cell culture-adapted HAV, which is attenuated for humans. However, the requirements of the HAV-HAVCR1 interaction have not been fully characterized, and it has not been determined whether HAVCR1 also serves as a receptor for wild-type (wt) HAV. Here, we used HAV soluble receptor neutralization and alteration assays to study the requirements of the HAV-HAVCR1 interaction and to determine whether HAVCR1 is also a receptor for wt HAV. Results Treatment of HAV with a soluble form of HAVCR1 that contained the IgV and two-thirds of the mucin domain fused to the Fc fragment of human IgG1 (D1 muc-Fc), altered particles at 37°C but left a residual level of unaltered particles at 4°C. The kinetics of neutralization of HAV by D1 muc-Fc was faster at 37°C than at 4°C. Alteration of HAV particles by D1 muc-Fc required Ca, which could not be replaced by Li, Na, Mg, Mn, or Zn. Neutralization of HAV by D1 muc-Fc occurred at pH 5 to 8 but was more efficient at pH 6 to 7. D1 muc-Fc neutralized wt HAV as determined by a cell culture system that allows the growth of wt HAV. Conclusion The interaction of HAV with soluble forms of HAVCR1 shares the temperature, Ca, and pH requirements for infectivity in cell culture and therefore mimics the cell entry process of HAV. Since soluble forms of HAVCR1 also neutralized wt HAV, this receptor may play a significant role in pathogenesis of HAV. PMID:19860892

Silberstein, Erica; Konduru, Krishnamurthy; Kaplan, Gerardo G

2009-01-01

198

This is the only state-wide family business program, which allows businesses to share ideas and concerns that are common to most family-owned businesses. The program also provides  

E-print Network

This is the only state-wide family business program, which allows businesses to share ideas and concerns that are common to most family-owned businesses. The program also provides recognition to pioneering families through the Family Business of the Year Awards Program. Program History Family Business

Maxwell, Bruce D.

199

SHARE and Share Alike  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a reading comprehension program adopted at J. E. Cosgriff Memorial Catholic School in Salt Lake City, Utah. The program is called SHARE: Students Helping Achieve Reading Excellence, and involves seventh and eighth grade students teaching first and second graders reading comprehension strategies learned in middle school…

Baird, Jeffrey Marshall

2006-01-01

200

Parents sharing books with young deaf children in spoken english and in BSL: the common and diverse features of different language settings.  

PubMed

Twelve parents of young deaf children were recorded sharing books with their deaf child--six from families using British Sign Language (BSL) and six from families using spoken English. Although all families were engaged in sharing books with their deaf child and concerned to promote literacy development, they approached the task differently and had different expectations in terms of outcome. The sign bilingual families concentrated on using the book to promote BSL development, engaging in discussion around the book but without referring to the text, whereas the spoken language families were focused on features of the text and less inclined to use the book to promote wider knowledge. Implications for early intervention and support are drawn from the data. PMID:17434904

Swanwick, Ruth; Watson, Linda

2007-01-01

201

Different functions of the common P/V/W and V-specific domains of rinderpest virus V protein in blocking IFN signalling  

PubMed Central

The V proteins of paramyxoviruses are composed of two evolutionarily distinct domains, the N-terminal 75?% being common to the viral P, V and W proteins, and not highly conserved between viruses, whilst the remaining 25?% consists of a cysteine-rich V-specific domain, which is conserved across almost all paramyxoviruses. There is evidence supporting a number of different functions of the V proteins of morbilliviruses in blocking the signalling pathways of type I and II IFNs, but it is not clear which domains of V are responsible for which activities and whether all these activities are required for effective blockade of IFN signalling. We have shown here that the two domains of rinderpest virus V protein have distinct functions: the N-terminal domain acted to bind STAT1, whilst the C-terminal V-specific domain interacted with the IFN receptor-associated kinases Jak1 and Tyk2. Effective blockade of IFN signalling required the intact V protein. PMID:24158397

Chinnakannan, Senthil K.; Holzer, Barbara; Bernardo, Beatriz Sanz; Nanda, Sambit K.

2014-01-01

202

The genes encoding the peripheral cannabinoid receptor and alpha-L-fucosidase are located near a newly identified common virus integration site, Evi11.  

PubMed Central

A new common region of virus integration, Evi11, has been identified in two retrovirally induced murine myeloid leukemia cell lines, NFS107 and NFS78. By interspecific backcross analysis, it was shown that Evi11 is located at the distal end of mouse chromosome 4, in a region that shows homology with human 1p36. The genes encoding the peripheral cannabinoid receptor (Cnr2) and alpha-L-fucosidase (Fuca1) were identified near the integration site by using a novel exon trapping system. Cnr2 is suggested to be the target gene for viral interference in Evi11, since proviruses are integrated in the first intron of Cnr2 and retroviral integrations alter mRNA expression of Cnr2 in NFS107 and NFS78. In addition, proviral integrations were demonstrated within the 3' untranslated region of Cnr2 in five independent newly derived CasBrM-MuLV (mouse murine leukemia virus) tumors, CSL13, CSL14, CSL16, CSL27, and CSL97. The Cnr2 gene encodes a seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptor which is normally expressed in hematopoietic tissues. Our data suggest that the peripheral cannabinoid receptor gene might be involved in leukemogenesis as a result of aberrant expression of Cnr2 due to retroviral integration in Evi11. PMID:9261404

Valk, P J; Hol, S; Vankan, Y; Ihle, J N; Askew, D; Jenkins, N A; Gilbert, D J; Copeland, N G; de Both, N J; Löwenberg, B; Delwel, R

1997-01-01

203

Remotely Operated Aircraft (ROA) Impact on the National Airspace System (NAS) Work Package: Data Modeling and Sharing Perspective for Development of a Common Operating Picture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents analyses that were performed in support of Task #3 of Work Package #3 (WP3), ROA Impact on the NAS. The purpose of the overall work package was to determine if there are any serious issues that would prevent or prohibit ROA's flying in the NAS on a routine basis, and if so, what actions should be taken to address them. The purpose of Task #3 was to look at this problem from the perspective of data modeling and sharing.

2007-01-01

204

Assay of type-specific and type-common antibodies to herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in human sera.  

PubMed Central

A reliable and reproducible method for determining specific reactivity to herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) in human sera has been developed. Human sera were used to immunoprecipitate HSV-specific glycoprotein antigens from both HSV-1- and HSV-2-infected cell extracts. The viral glycoproteins precipitated from these extracts were then analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to detect specific reactivity of the sera with distinct type-specific antigens of HSV-1, HSV-2, or both as well as with type-common glycoprotein antigens. By examining a large number of human sera, this method was found to be more reliable than the standard microneutralization test in discriminating between single-positive (positive for HSV-1 or HSV-2) and double-positive (positive for HSV-1 and HSV-2) sera. Images PMID:6262247

Eberle, R; Courtney, R J

1981-01-01

205

High Affinity Peptide Inhibitors of the Hepatitis C Virus NS3-4A Protease Refractory to Common Resistant Mutants  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3-4A protease is essential for viral replication. All current small molecular weight drugs against NS3-4A are substrate peptidomimetics that have a similar binding and resistance profile. We developed inhibitory peptides (IPs) capping the active site and binding via a novel “tyrosine” finger at an alternative NS3-4A site that is of particular interest for further HCV drug development. The peptides are not cleaved due to a combination of geometrical constraints and impairment of the oxyanion hole function. Selection and optimization through combinatorial phagemid display, protein crystallography, and further modifications resulted in a 32-amino acid peptide with a Ki of 0.53 nm. Inhibition of viral replication in cell culture was demonstrated by fusion to a cell-penetrating peptide. Negligible susceptibility to known (A156V and R155K) resistance mutations of the NS3-4A protease was observed. This work shows for the first time that antiviral peptides can target an intracellular site and reveals a novel druggable site on the HCV protease. PMID:22965230

Kügler, Jonas; Schmelz, Stefan; Gentzsch, Juliane; Haid, Sibylle; Pollmann, Erik; van den Heuvel, Joop; Franke, Raimo; Pietschmann, Thomas; Heinz, Dirk W.; Collins, John

2012-01-01

206

flvi-1, a common integration domain of feline leukemia virus in naturally occurring lymphomas of a particular type.  

PubMed Central

A locus in feline DNA, termed flvi-1, which may play an important role in the natural induction of lymphomas by feline leukemia virus (FeLV) was identified. Examination of a bank of 21 naturally occurring FeLV-positive feline lymphomas revealed that FeLV proviral integration occurs at flvi-1 in four independent tumors (19%). Independent integrations occurred within a 2.4-kilobase region of flvi-1, the probability of which by random chance can be estimated as 10(-16). Several lines of evidence, including sequence analysis of the long terminal repeat, demonstrated that proviruses integrated at flvi-1 are exogenously acquired and are oriented in the same transcriptional direction with respect to the locus. Molecularly cloned flvi-1 did not hybridize with probes representing several previously described proviral integration domains or with probes representing 10 oncogenes. The natural feline lymphomas examined in this study were heterogeneous with respect to tissue of origin, cell type, and number of monoclonal proviral integrations. The four tumors in which flvi-1 is interrupted were classified as members of a phenotypic subgroup containing seven lymphomas, i.e., at least four (57%) of seven lymphomas of this type contained FeLV proviral integration at flvi-1. Members of this phenotypic subgroup are non-T-cell lymphomas isolated from the spleen and contain an average of three proviruses, compared with an average of eight among all of the tumors examined. The small number of proviral integrations in tumors of this subgroup suggests that an early proviral integration event into flvi-1 can induce malignant change. Images PMID:2161948

Levesque, K S; Bonham, L; Levy, L S

1990-01-01

207

Stability and compatibility of recombinant adeno-associated virus under conditions commonly encountered in human gene therapy trials.  

PubMed

Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors are rapidly becoming the first choice for human gene therapy studies, as clinical efficacy has been demonstrated in several human trials and proof-of-concept data have been demonstrated for correction of many others. When moving into human use under the auspices of an FDA Investigational New Drug (IND) application, it is necessary to demonstrate the stability of vector material under various conditions of storage, dilution, and administration when used in humans. Limited data are currently available in the literature regarding vector compatibility and stability, leading most IND sponsors to repeat all necessary studies. The current study addresses this issue with an rAAV vector (rAAV1-CB-chAATmyc) containing AAV2-inverted terminal repeat sequences packaged into an AAV1 capsid. Aliquots of vector were exposed to a variety of temperatures, diluents, container constituents, and other environmental conditions, and its functional biological activity (after these various treatments) was assessed by measuring transgene expression after intramuscular injection in mice. rAAV was found to be remarkably stable at temperatures ranging from 4°C to 55°C (with only partial loss of potency after 20?min at 70°C), at pH ranging from 5.5 to 8.5, after contact with mouse or human serum (with or without complement depletion) or with gadolinium and after contact with glass, polystyrene, polyethylene, polypropylene, and stainless steel. The only exposure resulting in near-total loss of vector activity (10,000-fold loss) was UV exposure for 10?min. The stability of rAAV1 preparations bodes well for future dissemination of this therapeutic modality. PMID:25819833

Gruntman, Alisha M; Su, Lin; Su, Qin; Gao, Guangping; Mueller, Christian; Flotte, Terence R

2015-04-01

208

Pasteurella multocida Heddleston Serovar 3 and 4 Strains Share a Common Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis Locus but Display both Inter- and Intrastrain Lipopolysaccharide Heterogeneity  

PubMed Central

Pasteurella multocida is a Gram-negative multispecies pathogen and the causative agent of fowl cholera, a serious disease of poultry which can present in both acute and chronic forms. The major outer membrane component lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is both an important virulence factor and a major immunogen. Our previous studies determined the LPS structures expressed by different P. multocida strains and revealed that a number of strains belonging to different serovars contain the same LPS biosynthesis locus but express different LPS structures due to mutations within glycosyltransferase genes. In this study, we report the full LPS structure of the serovar 4 type strain, P1662, and reveal that it shares the same LPS outer core biosynthesis locus, L3, with the serovar 3 strains P1059 and Pm70. Using directed mutagenesis, the role of each glycosyltransferase gene in LPS outer core assembly was determined. LPS structural analysis of 23 Australian field isolates that contain the L3 locus revealed that at least six different LPS outer core structures can be produced as a result of mutations within the LPS glycosyltransferase genes. Moreover, some field isolates produce multiple but related LPS glycoforms simultaneously, and three LPS outer core structures are remarkably similar to the globo series of vertebrate glycosphingolipids. Our in-depth analysis showing the genetics and full range of P. multocida lipopolysaccharide structures will facilitate the improvement of typing systems and the prediction of the protective efficacy of vaccines. PMID:23974032

Harper, Marina; St. Michael, Frank; John, Marietta; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Steen, Jennifer A.; van Dorsten, Lieke; Steen, Jason A.; Turni, Conny; Blackall, Patrick J.; Adler, Ben; Cox, Andrew D.

2013-01-01

209

Common Cold  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site provides comprehensive information, selected by medical doctors, about the common cold. "The goal is to provide a framework for critical thinking which will allow informed decisions about medical care for the common cold." The section entitled Understanding Colds gives a detailed overview of how the cold virus invades the human body and how cold symptoms are caused. Information about preventing colds, and some of the complications that can occur are also included. The Special Features section includes one of the most interesting parts of the site -- Myths of the Common Cold. This site should be interesting to almost anyone, but perhaps more so for those of us who have recently had a cold.

210

Structural Analysis of DFG-in and DFG-out Dual Src-Abl Inhibitors Sharing a Common Vinyl Purine Template  

SciTech Connect

Bcr-Abl is the oncogenic protein tyrosine kinase responsible for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Treatment of the disease with imatinib (Gleevec) often results in drug resistance via kinase mutations at the advanced phases of the disease, which has necessitated the development of new mutation-resistant inhibitors, notably against the T315I gatekeeper mutation. As part of our efforts to discover such mutation resistant Abl inhibitors, we have focused on optimizing purine template kinase inhibitors, leading to the discovery of potent DFG-in and DFG-out series of Abl inhibitors that are also potent Src inhibitors. Here we present crystal structures of Abl bound by two such inhibitors, based on a common N9-arenyl purine, and that represent both DFG-in and -out binding modes. In each structure the purine template is bound deeply in the adenine pocket and the novel vinyl linker forms a non-classical hydrogen bond to the gatekeeper residue, Thr315. Specific template substitutions promote either a DFG-in or -out binding mode, with the kinase binding site adjusting to optimize molecular recognition. Bcr-Abl T315I mutant kinase is resistant to all currently marketed Abl inhibitors, and is the focus of intense drug discovery efforts. Notably, our DFG-out inhibitor, AP24163, exhibits modest activity against this mutant, illustrating that this kinase mutant can be inhibited by DFG-out class inhibitors. Furthermore our DFG-out inhibitor exhibits dual Src-Abl activity, absent from the prototypical DFG-out inhibitor, imatinib as well as its analog, nilotinib. The data presented here provides structural guidance for the further design of novel potent DFG-out class inhibitors against Src, Abl and Abl T315I mutant kinases.

Zhou, Tianjun; Commodore, Lois; Huang, Wei-Sheng; Wang, Yihan; Sawyer, Tomi K.; Shakespeare, William C.; Clackson, Tim; Zhu, Xiaotian; Dalgarno, David C. (ARIAD)

2010-09-30

211

Characterization of pal-1, a common proviral insertion site in murine leukemia virus-induced lymphomas of c-myc and Pim-1 transgenic mice.  

PubMed Central

Insertional mutagenesis with Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV) in c-myc and Pim-1 transgenic mice permits the identification of oncogenes that collaborate with the transgenes in lymphomagenesis. The recently identified common insertion site pal-1, in MoMLV-induced lymphomas, is located in a region in which several independent integration clusters are found: eis-1, gfi-1, and evi-5. Proviral insertions of MoMLV in the different integration clusters upregulate the transcriptional activity of the Gfi-1 gene, which is located within the pal-1 locus. The eis-1/pal-1/gfi-1/evi-5 locus serves as a target for MoMLV proviral insertions in pre-B-cell lymphomas of Emu-myc transgenic mice (20%) and in T-cell lymphomas of H-2K-myc (75%) and Emu-pim-1 (93%) transgenic mice. Many tumors overexpress both Gfi-1 as well as Myc and Pim gene family members, indicating that Gfi-1 collaborates with Myc and Pim in lymphomagenesis. Proviral integrations in the previously identified insertion site bmi-1 are, however, mutually exclusive with integrations in the eis-1/pal-1/gfi-1/evi-5 locus. This finding suggests that Bmi-1 and Gfi-1 belong to the same complementation group in lymphoid transformation. PMID:8985317

Scheijen, B; Jonkers, J; Acton, D; Berns, A

1997-01-01

212

Identification of a Common Epitope between Enterovirus 71 and Human MED25 Proteins Which May Explain Virus-Associated Neurological Disease.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative pathogen of hand, foot and mouth disease with especially severe neurologic complications, which mainly account for fatalities from this disease. To date, the pathogenesis of EV71 in the central neurons system has remained unclear. Cytokine-mediated immunopathogenesis and nervous tissue damage by virus proliferation are two widely speculated causes of the neurological disease. To further study the pathogenesis, we identified a common epitope (co-epitope) between EV71 VP1 and human mediator complex subunit 25 (MED25) highly expressed in brain stem. A monoclonal antibody (2H2) against the co-epitope was prepared, and its interaction with MED25 was examined by ELISA, immunofluorescence assay and Western blot in vitro and by live small animal imaging in vivo. Additionally, 2H2 could bind to both VP1 and MED25 with the affinity constant (Kd) of 10-7 M as determined by the ForteBio Octet System. Intravenously injected 2H2 was distributed in brain stem of mice after seven days of EV71 infection. Interestingly, 2H2-like antibodies were detected in the serum of EV71-infected patients. These findings suggest that EV71 infection induces the production of antibodies that can bind to autoantigens expressed in nervous tissue and maybe further trigger autoimmune reactions resulting in neurological disease. PMID:25826188

Fan, Peihu; Li, Xiaojun; Sun, Shiyang; Su, Weiheng; An, Dong; Gao, Feng; Kong, Wei; Jiang, Chunlai

2015-01-01

213

Tyrosine phosphorylation of the herpes simplex virus type 1 regulatory protein ICP22 and a cellular protein which shares antigenic determinants with ICP22.  

PubMed

At least eight herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and five HSV-2 proteins were tyrosine phosphorylated in infected cells. The first viral tyrosine phosphoprotein identified was the HSV-1 regulatory protein ICP22. Also, two novel phosphotyrosine proteins were bound by anti-ICP22 antibodies. H(R22) is a cellular protein, while the F(R10) protein is observed only in HSV-1-infected cells. PMID:9371655

Blaho, J A; Zong, C S; Mortimer, K A

1997-12-01

214

Factors of skin ageing share common mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ageing has been defined as the accumulation of molecular modificationswhich manifest as macroscopic clinical changes. Human skin, unique amongmammalians insofar as it is deprived of fur, is particularly sensitiveto environmental stress. Major environmental factors have beenrecognized to induce modifications of the morphological and biophysicalproperties of the skin. Metabolites from ingested or inhaled substancesdo affect skin, which is also sensitive to

Paolo U. Giacomoni; Glen Rein

2001-01-01

215

Comparing Ethnic Conflicts: Common Patterns, Shared Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Notwithstanding predictions over the past century and a half that minorities defined in ethnic, linguistic, or cultural terms would gradually reconcile themselves to coexistence in states dominated by metropolitan cultures, difficulties arising from the mobilization of minority communities continue to be pronounced at the beginning of the twenty-first century. This article provides an overview of the extent of ethnic division

John Coakley

2009-01-01

216

A Molecular Clock Dates the Common Ancestor of European-type Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus at More Than 10 Years before the Emergence of Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disease caused by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) emerged independently and almost simultaneously in Europe (1990) and North America (1987). The original reservoir of the virus and the date it entered the pig populations is not known. In this study, we demonstrate an accurate molecular clock for the European PRRSV ORF 3 gene, place the root in

Roald Forsberg; Martin B. Oleksiewicz; Anne-Mette Krabbe Petersen; Jotun Hein; Anette Bøtner; Torben Storgaard

2001-01-01

217

Snapshot of haloarchaeal tailed virus genomes  

PubMed Central

The complete genome sequences of archaeal tailed viruses are currently highly underrepresented in sequence databases. Here, we report the genomic sequences of 10 new tailed viruses infecting different haloarchaeal hosts. Among these, only two viral genomes are closely related to each other and to previously described haloviruses HF1 and HF2. The approximately 760 kb of new genomic sequences in total shows no matches to CRISPR/Cas spacer sequences in haloarchaeal host genomes. Despite their high divergence, we were able to identify virion structural and assembly genes as well as genes coding for DNA and RNA metabolic functions. Interestingly, we identified many genes and genomic features that are shared with tailed bacteriophages, consistent with the hypothesis that haloarchaeal and bacterial tailed viruses share common ancestry, and that a viral lineage containing archaeal viruses, bacteriophages and eukaryotic viruses predates the division of the three major domains of non-viral life. However, as in tailed viruses in general and in haloarchaeal tailed viruses in particular, there are still a considerable number of predicted genes of unknown function. PMID:23470522

Sen?ilo, Ana; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Russell, Daniel A.; Ko, Ching-Chung; Bowman, Charles A.; Atanasova, Nina S.; Österlund, Eija; Oksanen, Hanna M.; Bamford, Dennis H.; Hatfull, Graham F.; Roine, Elina; Hendrix, Roger W.

2013-01-01

218

Cloning and functional expression of a chitinase cDNA from the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura, using a recombinant baculovirus lacking the virus-encoded chitinase gene.  

PubMed

A Chitinase cDNA named Slchi was cloned from the epidermis of the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura, and the enzymatic properties of its recombinant proteins were characterized. The Slchi cDNA encodes 552 amino-acid residues (aa) including a 19 aa putative signal peptide, with the calculated molecular mass of the putative mature protein 60,152 Da. A major transcript of Slchi about 2.8 kb was detected in the epidermis only during molting in the last instar larvae, suggesting its involvement in the digestive system for old cuticle. The E. coli-produced recombinant Slchi exhibited weak chitinolytic activity against 4MU-(GlcNAc)(3)>4MU-(GlcNAc)(2)>4MU-(GlcNAc)(4), in this order, but not against 4MU-(GlcNAc)(1). A recombinant Slchi with higher specific activity was obtained using recombinant Hyphantria cunea NPV (HycuNPV), which expresses Slchi under polyhedrin promoter. To discriminate chitinase activity of recombinant Slchi from an active chitinase encoded in HycuNPV genome (chiA), we further knocked out the chiA gene from the recombinant virus. The recombinant Slchi expressed in insect cell culture showed a similar substrate specificity against 4MU-(GlcNAc)(n) (n=1-4) to that produced in E. coli, while the viral chitinase showed the highest activity against 4MU-(GlcNAc)(2). The recombinant Slchi was secreted rapidly into the culture medium from the infected cells, whereas the viral chitinase retained predominantly in the cells. PMID:11267891

Shinoda, T; Kobayashi, J; Matsui, M; Chinzei, Y

2001-04-27

219

NF-?B directly mediates epigenetic deregulation of common microRNAs in Epstein-Barr virus-mediated transformation of B-cells and in lymphomas  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have negative effects on gene expression and are major players in cell function in normal and pathological conditions. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of resting B lymphocytes results in their growth transformation and associates with different B cell lymphomas. EBV-mediated B cell transformation involves large changes in gene expression, including cellular miRNAs. We performed miRNA expression analysis in growth transformation of EBV-infected B cells. We observed predominant downregulation of miRNAs and upregulation of a few miRNAs. We observed similar profiles of miRNA expression in B cells stimulated with CD40L/IL-4, and those infected with EBNA-2- and LMP-1-deficient EBV particles, suggesting the implication of the NF-kB pathway, common to all four situations. In fact, the NF-kB subunit p65 associates with the transcription start site (TSS) of both upregulated and downregulated miRNAs following EBV infection This occurs together with changes at histone H3K27me3 and histone H3K4me3. Inhibition of the NF-kB pathway impairs changes in miRNA expression, NF-kB binding and changes at the above histone modifications near the TSS of these miRNA genes. Changes in expression of these miRNAs also occurred in diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCL), which are strongly NF-kB dependent. Our results highlight the relevance of the NF-kB pathway in epigenetically mediated miRNA control in B cell transformation and DLBCL. PMID:25200074

Vento-Tormo, Roser; Rodríguez-Ubreva, Javier; Lisio, Lorena Di; Islam, Abul B. M. M. K.; Urquiza, Jose M.; Hernando, Henar; López-Bigas, Nuria; Shannon-Lowe, Claire; Martínez, Nerea; Montes-Moreno, Santiago; Piris, Miguel A.; Ballestar, Esteban

2014-01-01

220

About sharing  

E-print Network

This thesis is about multidominance or sharing in syntax. The term sharing is used in a technical sense, to refer to a situation where a syntactic node has more than one mother. I assume that multidominance is allowed by ...

Gra?anin Yuksek, Martina

2007-01-01

221

Transmission of avian influenza A viruses among species in an artificial barnyard.  

PubMed

Waterfowl and shorebirds harbor and shed all hemagglutinin and neuraminidase subtypes of influenza A viruses and interact in nature with a broad range of other avian and mammalian species to which they might transmit such viruses. Estimating the efficiency and importance of such cross-species transmission using epidemiological approaches is difficult. We therefore addressed this question by studying transmission of low pathogenic H5 and H7 viruses from infected ducks to other common animals in a quasi-natural laboratory environment designed to mimic a common barnyard. Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) recently infected with H5N2 or H7N3 viruses were introduced into a room housing other mallards plus chickens, blackbirds, rats and pigeons, and transmission was assessed by monitoring virus shedding (ducks) or seroconversion (other species) over the following 4 weeks. Additional animals of each species were directly inoculated with virus to characterize the effect of a known exposure. In both barnyard experiments, virus accumulated to high titers in the shared water pool. The H5N2 virus was transmitted from infected ducks to other ducks and chickens in the room either directly or through environmental contamination, but not to rats or blackbirds. Ducks infected with the H7N2 virus transmitted directly or indirectly to all other species present. Chickens and blackbirds directly inoculated with these viruses shed significant amounts of virus and seroconverted; rats and pigeons developed antiviral antibodies, but, except for one pigeon, failed to shed virus. PMID:21483843

Achenbach, Jenna E; Bowen, Richard A

2011-01-01

222

Transmission of Avian Influenza A Viruses among Species in an Artificial Barnyard  

PubMed Central

Waterfowl and shorebirds harbor and shed all hemagglutinin and neuraminidase subtypes of influenza A viruses and interact in nature with a broad range of other avian and mammalian species to which they might transmit such viruses. Estimating the efficiency and importance of such cross-species transmission using epidemiological approaches is difficult. We therefore addressed this question by studying transmission of low pathogenic H5 and H7 viruses from infected ducks to other common animals in a quasi-natural laboratory environment designed to mimic a common barnyard. Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) recently infected with H5N2 or H7N3 viruses were introduced into a room housing other mallards plus chickens, blackbirds, rats and pigeons, and transmission was assessed by monitoring virus shedding (ducks) or seroconversion (other species) over the following 4 weeks. Additional animals of each species were directly inoculated with virus to characterize the effect of a known exposure. In both barnyard experiments, virus accumulated to high titers in the shared water pool. The H5N2 virus was transmitted from infected ducks to other ducks and chickens in the room either directly or through environmental contamination, but not to rats or blackbirds. Ducks infected with the H7N2 virus transmitted directly or indirectly to all other species present. Chickens and blackbirds directly inoculated with these viruses shed significant amounts of virus and seroconverted; rats and pigeons developed antiviral antibodies, but, except for one pigeon, failed to shed virus. PMID:21483843

Achenbach, Jenna E.; Bowen, Richard A.

2011-01-01

223

Application of West Nile virus diagnostic techniques.  

PubMed

West Nile virus (WNV) is an enveloped RNA virus in the family Flaviviridae and belongs to Japanese encephalitis virus serocomplex group. The WNV has a wide geographic distribution that includes Africa, Europe, Asia, America and Australia. Recently, it has re-emerged as an important pathogenic organism, illustrated by the series of WNV outbreaks in North America and in Europe. Several hundred people are sacrificed by WNV infection every year. WNV can infect many mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians. A variety of diagnoses for WNV infection have been developed, such as virus isolation, nucleotide amplification, antigen detection and serology. Flaviviruses, including WNV, share common nucleotide sequences and antigenic epitopes. Understanding these properties that can influence cross-reactivity is important for accurate diagnosis, especially because areas with multiple flaviviruses are currently expanding. Herein, the authors outline the different diagnostic methods for detecting WNV infection as well as important considerations in using these methods. PMID:23977935

Hirota, Jiro; Shimizu, Shinya; Shibahara, Tomoyuki

2013-08-01

224

FAQ: West Nile Virus and Dead Birds  

MedlinePLUS

... Virus Share Compartir FAQ: West Nile Virus & Dead Birds How do birds get infected with West Nile ... dead bird sightings to local authorities. How do birds get infected with West Nile virus? West Nile ...

225

Arctic and Arctic-like rabies viruses: distribution, phylogeny and evolutionary history  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Forty-one newly sequenced isolates of Arctic and Arctic-like rabies viruses, were genetically compared to each other and to those available from GenBank. Four phylogenetic lineages of Arctic viruses were identified. Arctic-1 viruses circulate in Ontario, Arctic-2 viruses circulate in Siberia and Alaska, Arctic-3 viruses circulate circumpolarly, and a newly described lineage Arctic-4 circulates locally in Alaska. The oldest available isolates from Siberia (between 1950 and 1960) belong to the Arctic-2 and Arctic-3 lineages and share 98·6–99·2% N gene identity with contemporary viruses. Two lineages of Arctic-like viruses were identified in southern Asia and the Middle East (Arctic-like-1) and eastern Asia (Arctic-like-2). A time-scaled tree demonstrates that the time of the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of Arctic and Arctic-like viruses is dated between 1255 and 1786. Evolution of the Arctic viruses has occurred through a northerly spread. The Arctic-like-2 lineage diverged first, whereas Arctic viruses share a TMRCA with Arctic-like-1 viruses. PMID:17599781

KUZMIN, I. V.; HUGHES, G. J.; BOTVINKIN, A. D.; GRIBENCHA, S. G.; RUPPRECHT, C. E.

2008-01-01

226

Virus Movement Maintains Local Virus Population Diversity  

SciTech Connect

Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material.

J. Snyder; B. Wiedenheft; M. Lavin; F. Roberto; J. Spuhler; A. Ortmann; T. Douglas; M. Young

2007-11-01

227

Virus movement maintains local virus population diversity.  

PubMed

Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material. PMID:18025457

Snyder, Jamie C; Wiedenheft, Blake; Lavin, Matthew; Roberto, Francisco F; Spuhler, Josh; Ortmann, Alice C; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark

2007-11-27

228

Virus movement maintains local virus population diversity  

PubMed Central

Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material. PMID:18025457

Snyder, Jamie C.; Wiedenheft, Blake; Lavin, Matthew; Roberto, Francisco F.; Spuhler, Josh; Ortmann, Alice C.; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark

2007-01-01

229

Sharing code  

PubMed Central

Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF). GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing. PMID:25165519

Kubilius, Jonas

2014-01-01

230

Antigenic determinants in influenza virus hemagglutinin.  

PubMed Central

Three antigenic determinants were revealed in H3 hemagglutinin of influenza A viruses isolated from 1968 to 1975. One of them was common for all viruses, and two others specified differences between the viruses possessing H3 hemagglutinin. PMID:89090

Rovnova, Z I; Kosyakov, P N; Berezina, O N; Isayeva, E I; Zhdanov, V M

1979-01-01

231

Characterization of a novel Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR)-TIR gene differentially expressed in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Othello) undergoing a defence response to the geminivirus Bean dwarf mosaic virus.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar (cv.) Othello develops a hypersensitive response-associated vascular resistance to infection by Bean dwarf mosaic virus (BDMV), a single-stranded DNA virus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae). A PCR-based cDNA subtraction approach was used to identify genes involved in this resistance response. Eighteen clones, potentially involved with BDMV resistance, were identified based upon being up-regulated in BDMV-infected tissues and/or having sequence similarity with known resistance-associated genes. Analysis of these clones revealed potential genes involved in pathogen defence, including pathogenesis-related protein genes and resistance gene analogues (RGAs). Further characterization of one RGA, F1-10, revealed that it encodes a predicted protein with a double Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) motif. Full-length (F1-10) and spliced (F1-10sp) forms of the RGA were strongly up-regulated in BDMV-infected cv. Othello hypocotyl tissues by 4 days post-inoculation, but not in equivalent mock-inoculated tissues. In agroinfiltration experiments, F1-10, but not F1-10sp, mediated resistance to BDMV in the susceptible common bean cv. Topcrop. By contrast, transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana lines expressing F1-10 or F1-10sp were not resistant to BDMV. Interestingly, when these transgenic lines were inoculated with the potyvirus Bean yellow mosaic virus, some F1-10 lines showed a more severe symptom phenotype compared with non-transgenic control plants. Based on these findings, F1-10 was named: Phaseolus vulgaris VIRUS response TIR-TIR GENE 1 (PvVTT1). PMID:20507487

Seo, Young-Su; Jeon, Jong-Seong; Rojas, Maria R; Gilbertson, Robert L

2007-03-01

232

Molecular Epidemiology of Vesicular Stomatitis New Jersey Virus from the 2004-2005 United States Outbreak Indicates a Common Origin with Mexico Strains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Outbreaks of vesicular stomatitis occur at 8-10 year intervals in the southwestern United States (US) with the most recent outbreak starting in 2004 and continuing in 2005. Phylogenetic relationships among 116 vesicular stomatitis-New Jersey virus (VSNJV) isolates obtained from this outbreak and end...

233

Common promoter deletion is associated with 3.9-fold differential transcription of ovine CCR5 and reduced proviral level of ovine progressive pneumonia virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

CCR5 is a chemokine receptor that regulates immune cell recruitment in inflammation and serves as a coreceptor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A human CCR5 coding deletion (termed delta-32) results in strong resistance to HIV infection, and polymorphisms in CCR5 regulatory regions have been ...

234

About Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs)  

MedlinePLUS

... Diagnosis HPIV Seasons Resources & References About Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Overview ... HPIVs, who is at risk, symptoms, how the viruses spread... Symptoms & Illnesses Lists symptoms and illnesses caused ...

235

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV): Diagnosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content ... t need to visit a healthcare provider. The virus generally runs its course with the help of ...

236

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV): Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content ... get beter. Good handwashing can prevent spread the virus. In more severe cases, people with RSV might ...

237

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV): Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content ... to six days after being exposed to the virus. However, RSV can be particularly dangerous in premature ...

238

Development of Monoclonal Antibodies that Recognize a Type2 Specific and a Common Epitope on the Nucleoprotein of Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two monoclonal antibodies were produced against the nucleoproteins of two strains of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). One antibody, 1NDW14D, obtained by immunizing BALB\\/c mice with the nucleoprotein from Dworshak IHNV strain DW2, universally recognized IHNV in tests of direct and indirect fluorescence. The second antibody, 2NH105B, obtained by immunization with the nucleoprotein from an IHNV strain isolated from rainbow

Sandra S. Ristow; Jeanene M. Arnzen

1989-01-01

239

Complete sequence of the RNA genome of human rhinovirus 16, a clinically useful common cold virus belonging to the ICAM-1 receptor group  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report here the complete nucleotide sequence and predicted polyprotein sequence of HeLa cell-adapted human rhinovirus 16 (HRV16). This virus is more suitable than human rhinovirus 14 (HRV14) for clinical studies, and its growth and physical properties are favorable for biochemical and crystallographic analysis. The complete message-sense RNA genome of HRV16 is composed of 7124 bases, not including the poly(A)

Wai-Ming Lee; Wensheng Wang; Roland R. Rueckert

1995-01-01

240

Nipah Virus V and W Proteins Have a Common STAT1Binding Domain yet Inhibit STAT1 Activation from the Cytoplasmic and Nuclear Compartments, Respectively  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous reports it was demonstrated that the Nipah virus V and W proteins have interferon (IFN) antagonist activity due to their ability to block signaling from the IFN-\\/ receptor (J. J. Rodriguez, J. P. Parisien, and C. M. Horvath, J. Virol. 76:11476-11483, 2002; M. S. Park et al., J. Virol. 77:1501-1511, 2003). The V, W, and P proteins are

Megan L. Shaw; A. Garcia-Sastre; Peter Palese; Christopher F. Basler

2004-01-01

241

Tracking a Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students simulate the spread of a virus such as HIV through a population by "sharing" (but not drinking) the water in a plastic cup with several classmates. Although invisible, the water in a few of the cups has already be tainted with the "virus" (sodium carbonate). After all the students have shared their liquids, the contents of the cups are tested for the virus with phenolphthalein, a chemical that causes a striking color change in the presence of sodium carbonate. Students then set about trying to determine which of their classmates were the ones originally infected with the virus.

Engineering K-PhD Program,

242

Canonical Commonality Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Commonality analysis is a method of partitioning variance that has advantages over more traditional "OVA" methods. Commonality analysis indicates the amount of explanatory power that is "unique" to a given predictor variable and the amount of explanatory power that is "common" to or shared with at least one predictor variable. This paper outlines…

Leister, K. Dawn

243

A Commonly Recognized Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Nef Epitope Presented to Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes of Indian-Origin Rhesus Monkeys by the Prevalent Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Allele Mamu-A*02  

PubMed Central

The ability to monitor vaccine-elicited CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)- and simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-infected rhesus monkeys has been limited by our knowledge of viral epitopes predictably presented to those lymphocytes by common rhesus monkey MHC class I alleles. We now define an SIV and SHIV Nef CTL epitope (YTSGPGIRY) that is presented to CD8+ T lymphocytes by the common rhesus monkey MHC class I molecule Mamu-A*02. All seven infected Mamu-A*02+ monkeys evaluated demonstrated this response, and peptide-stimulated interferon gamma Elispot assays indicated that the response represents a large proportion of the entire CD8+ T-lymphocyte SIV- or SHIV-specific immune response of these animals. Knowledge of this epitope and MHC class I allele substantially increases the number of available rhesus monkeys that can be used for testing prototype HIV vaccines in this important animal model. PMID:11581386

Robinson, Suzanne; Charini, William A.; Newberg, Michael H.; Kuroda, Marcelo J.; Lord, Carol I.; Letvin, Norman L.

2001-01-01

244

Determination of common genetic variants within the non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease viruses isolated in sub-Saharan Africa.  

PubMed

The non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) are responsible for RNA replication, proteolytic processing of the viral polyprotein precursor, folding and assembly of the structural proteins and modification of the cellular translation apparatus. Investigation of the amino acid heterogeneity of the non-structural proteins of seventy-nine FMDV isolates of SAT1, SAT2, SAT3, A and O serotypes revealed between 29 and 62% amino acid variability. The Leader protease (L(pro)) and 3A proteins were the most variable whilst the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (3D(pol)) the most conserved. Phylogeny based on the non-structural protein-coding regions showed separate clusters for southern African viruses for both the L(pro) and 3C protease (3C(pro)) and sequences unique to this group of viruses, e.g. in the 2C and 3C(pro) proteins. These groupings were unlike serotype groupings based on structural protein-coding regions. The amino acid substitutions and the nature of the naturally occurring substitutions provide insight into the functional domains and regions of the non-structural proteins that are critical for structure-function. The L(pro) of southern African SAT type isolates differed from A, O and SAT isolates in northern Africa, particularly in the auto-processing region. Three-dimensional structures of the 3C protease (3C(pro)) and 3D(pol) showed that the observed variation does not affect the enzymatic active sites or substrate binding sites. Variation in the 3C(pro) cleavage sites demonstrates broad substrate specificity. PMID:25818579

Nsamba, P; de Beer, T A P; Chitray, M; Scott, K; Vosloo, W; Maree, F F

2015-05-15

245

Computer viruses  

SciTech Connect

This thesis investigates a recently discovered vulnerability in computer systems which opens the possibility that a single individual with an average user's knowledge could cause widespread damage to information residing in computer networks. This vulnerability is due to a transitive integrity corrupting mechanism called a computer virus which causes corrupted information to spread from program to program. Experiments have shown that a virus can spread at an alarmingly rapid rate from user to user, from system to system, and from network to network, even when the best-availability security techniques are properly used. Formal definitions of self-replication, evolution, viruses, and protection mechanisms are used to prove that any system that allows sharing, general functionality, and transitivity of information flow cannot completely prevent viral attack. Computational aspects of viruses are examined, and several undecidable problems are shown. It is demonstrated that a virus may evolve so as to generate any computable sequence. Protection mechanisms are explored, and the design of computer networks that prevent both illicit modification and dissemination of information are given. Administration and protection of information networks based on partial orderings are examined, and probably correct automated administrative assistance is introduced.

Cohen, F.B.

1986-01-01

246

Ocular Tropism of Respiratory Viruses  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Respiratory viruses (including adenovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus) cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from mild influenza-like symptoms to acute respiratory failure. While species D adenoviruses and subtype H7 influenza viruses are known to possess an ocular tropism, documented human ocular disease has been reported following infection with all principal respiratory viruses. In this review, we describe the anatomical proximity and cellular receptor distribution between ocular and respiratory tissues. All major respiratory viruses and their association with human ocular disease are discussed. Research utilizing in vitro and in vivo models to study the ability of respiratory viruses to use the eye as a portal of entry as well as a primary site of virus replication is highlighted. Identification of shared receptor-binding preferences, host responses, and laboratory modeling protocols among these viruses provides a needed bridge between clinical and laboratory studies of virus tropism. PMID:23471620

Rota, Paul A.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

2013-01-01

247

Oncolytic Virus Therapy of Glioblastoma Multiforme – Concepts and Candidates  

PubMed Central

Twenty years of oncolytic virus (OV) development have created a field that is driven by the potential promise of lasting impact on our cancer treatment repertoire. With the field constantly expanding – over 20 viruses have been recognized as potential OVs – new virus candidates continue to emerge even as established viruses reach clinical trials. They all share the defining commonalities of selective replication in tumors, subsequent tumor cell lysis, and dispersion within the tumor. Members from diverse virus classes with distinctly different biologies and host species have been identified. Of these viruses, 15 have been tested on human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). So far, 20 clinical trials have been conducted or initiated using attenuated strains of 7 different oncolytic viruses against GBM. In this review, we present an overview of viruses that have been developed or considered for GBM treatment. We outline the principles of tumor targeting and selective viral replication, which include mechanisms of tumor-selective binding, and molecular elements usurping cellular biosynthetic machinery in transformed cells. Results from clinical trials have clearly established the proof of concept and have confirmed the general safety of OV application in the brain. The moderate clinical efficacy has not yet matched the promising preclinical lab results; next-generation OVs that are either “armed” with therapeutic genes or that are embedded in a multimodality treatment regimen should enhance the clinical results. PMID:22290260

Wollmann, Guido; Ozduman, Koray; van den Pol, Anthony N.

2012-01-01

248

The Common Cold  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When winter rolls around and we begin to spend more time indoors, the common cold becomes an unfortunate reality for many of us. But for something as common as the cold, misconceptions about it are remarkably common as well. The following collection of Web sites provides an in-depth look at the cold and the cold virus.The first site (1) comes from the Common Cold Care Center of Cardiff University in Wales, and offers a thorough and highly readable introduction to the common cold, including sections on conventional and alternative cold medications. Readers can brush up on their basic virology with the next Web site from HowStuffWorks to get a clear, general idea of how the cold virus infects the body (2). This site also explains why antibiotics have no effect on a virus, and includes numerous hypertext links to related HowStuffWorks Web pages. KidsHealth for Parents, a service of the Nemours Foundation, provides a straightforward guide to the symptoms of cold vs. flu, while also offering information on flu treatment options (3). The next Web site, from University of Guelph, contains an easy-to-understand comparison of bacteria and viruses (4). Readers can learn more about rhinoviruses, the family of viruses which account for about one-third of all colds, in the following Web site from the University of South Carolina's Microbiology and Immunology Online (5). The next Web site offers visitors a close-up look at human rhinovirus 14 with over a dozen 3-D images and movies from the University of Wisconsin-Madison Bock Laboratory (6). The following site describes the findings, as detailed in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, of a Purdue University research team that has analyzed on an atomic scale the structure of the cellular receptor that binds cold-causing viruses (7). And finally, find out about common cold clinical trials with ClinicalTrial.gov, a service of the National Institutes of Health (8).

Sohmer, Rachel.

2003-01-01

249

Sharing values, sharing a vision  

SciTech Connect

Teamwork, partnership and shared values emerged as recurring themes at the Third Technology Transfer/Communications Conference. The program drew about 100 participants who sat through a packed two days to find ways for their laboratories and facilities to better help American business and the economy. Co-hosts were the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, where most meetings took place. The conference followed traditions established at the First Technology Transfer/Communications Conference, conceived of and hosted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory in May 1992 in Richmond, Washington, and the second conference, hosted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in January 1993 in Golden, Colorado. As at the other conferences, participants at the third session represented the fields of technology transfer, public affairs and communications. They came from Department of Energy headquarters and DOE offices, laboratories and production facilities. Continued in this report are keynote address; panel discussion; workshops; and presentations in technology transfer.

Not Available

1993-12-31

250

Immunology of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 500 million people worldwide are persistently infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and\\/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) and are at risk of developing chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite many common features in the pathogenesis of HBV- and HCV-related liver disease, these viruses markedly differ in their virological properties and in their immune escape and

Michelina Nascimbeni; Barbara Rehermann

2005-01-01

251

Insights into the Evolution of a Complex Virus from the Crystal Structure of Vaccinia Virus D13  

PubMed Central

Summary The morphogenesis of poxviruses such as vaccinia virus (VACV) sees the virion shape mature from spherical to brick-shaped. Trimeric capsomers of the VACV D13 protein form a transitory, stabilizing lattice on the surface of the initial spherical immature virus particle. The crystal structure of D13 reveals that this major scaffolding protein comprises a double ? barrel “jelly-roll” subunit arranged as pseudo-hexagonal trimers. These structural features are characteristic of the major capsid proteins of a lineage of large icosahedral double-stranded DNA viruses including human adenovirus and the bacteriophages PRD1 and PM2. Structure-based phylogenetic analysis confirms that VACV belongs to this lineage, suggesting that (analogously to higher organism embryogenesis) early poxvirus morphogenesis reflects their evolution from a lineage of viruses sharing a common icosahedral ancestor. PMID:21742267

Bahar, Mohammad W.; Graham, Stephen C.; Stuart, David I.; Grimes, Jonathan M.

2011-01-01

252

EPIDEMIOLOGY OF RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) is an avian retrovirus unrelated to the leukosis/sarcoma group of viruses. REV infects chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, pheasants, quail, and probably many other avian species . The most common clinical diseases induced by REV are chronic lymphomas and an immunosupp...

253

Diverse inter-continental and host lineage reassortant avian influenza A viruses in pelagic seabirds.  

PubMed

Avian influenza A viruses (AIVs) often infect waterfowl, gulls and shorebirds, but other bird groups including pelagic seabirds also serve as hosts. In this study, we analyzed 21 AIVs found in two distant breeding colonies of Common Murre (Uria aalge) in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, during 2011. Phylogenetic analyses and genotype assignments were performed for the 21 Common Murre viruses together with all Common and Thick-billed Murre (Uria lomvia) AIV sequences available in public sequence databases. All fully characterized viruses from the Common Murres in 2011 were H1N2 subtype, but the genome sequences revealed greater diversity and the viruses belonged to four distinct genotypes. The four genotypes shared most segments in common, but reassortment was observed for PB2 and M segments. This provided direct genetic data of AIV diversification through segment reassortment during an outbreak of AIV infection in high-density breeding colonies. Analysis of the total collection of available murre viruses revealed a diverse collection of subtypes and gene lineages with high similarity to those found in viruses from waterfowl and gulls, and there was no indication of murre-specific AIV gene lineages. Overall, the virus gene pool in murres was predominantly made up of AIV lineages associated with waterfowl, but also featured considerable gull lineage genes and inter-continental reassortments. In particular, all but one of the 21 Common Murre viruses from 2011 in Newfoundland contained 1 or 2 Eurasian segments and 16 contained 1 gull lineage segment. This mosaic nature of characterized murre AIV genomes might reflect an under-recognized role of these pelagic seabirds in virus transmission across space and between bird host taxa. PMID:24462905

Huang, Yanyan; Robertson, Gregory J; Ojkic, Davor; Whitney, Hugh; Lang, Andrew S

2014-03-01

254

The Icsbp locus is a common proviral insertion site in mature B-cell lymphomas/plasmacytomas induced by exogenous murine leukemia virus  

SciTech Connect

ICSBP (interferon consensus sequence binding protein)/IRF8 (interferon regulatory factor 8) is an interferon gamma-inducible transcription factor expressed predominantly in hematopoietic cells, and down-regulation of this factor has been observed in chronic myelogenous leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia in man. By screening about 1200 murine leukemia virus (MLV)-induced lymphomas, we found proviral insertions at the Icsbp locus in 14 tumors, 13 of which were mature B-cell lymphomas or plasmacytomas. Only one was a T-cell lymphoma, although such tumors constituted about half of the samples screened. This indicates that the Icsbp locus can play a specific role in the development of mature B-lineage malignancies. Two proviral insertions in the last Icsbp exon were found to act by a poly(A)-insertion mechanism. The remaining insertions were found within or outside Icsbp. Since our results showed expression of Icsbp RNA and protein in all end-stage tumor samples, a simple tumor suppressor function of ICSBP is not likely. Interestingly, proviral insertions at Icsbp have not been reported from previous extensive screenings of mature B-cell lymphomas induced by endogenous MLVs. We propose that ICSBP might be involved in an early modulation of an immune response to exogenous MLVs that might also play a role in proliferation of the mature B-cell lymphomas.

Ma Shiliang [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Aarhus, C.F. Mollers Alle, Bldg. 130, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Sorensen, Annette Balle [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Aarhus, C.F. Mollers Alle, Bldg. 130, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Kunder, Sandra [Institute of Pathology, GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Sorensen, Karina Dalsgaard [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Aarhus, C.F. Mollers Alle, Bldg. 130, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia [Institute of Pathology, GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Morris, David W. [Sagres Discovery, Davis, CA 95617 (United States); Schmidt, Joerg [Department of Comparative Medicine, GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Pedersen, Finn Skou [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Aarhus, C.F. Mollers Alle, Bldg. 130, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)]. E-mail: fsp@mb.au.dk

2006-09-01

255

Common Cold  

MedlinePLUS

... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...

256

Oxylipin Biosynthesis Genes Positively Regulate Programmed Cell Death during Compatible Infections with the Synergistic Pair Potato Virus X-Potato Virus Y and Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus  

PubMed Central

One of the most severe symptoms caused by compatible plant-virus interactions is systemic necrosis, which shares common attributes with the hypersensitive response to incompatible pathogens. Although several studies have identified viral symptom determinants responsible for systemic necrosis, mechanistic models of how they contribute to necrosis in infected plants remain scarce. Here, we examined the involvement of different branches of the oxylipin biosynthesis pathway in the systemic necrosis response caused either by the synergistic interaction of Potato virus X with Potato virus Y (PVX-PVY) or by Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in Nicotiana benthamiana. Silencing either 9-lipoxygenase (LOX), 13-LOX, or ?-dioxygenase-1 (?-DOX-1) attenuated the programmed cell death (PCD)-associated symptoms caused by infection with either PVX-PVY or TSWV. In contrast, silencing of the jasmonic acid perception gene, COI1 (Coronatine insensitive 1), expedited cell death during infection with compatible viruses. This correlated with an enhanced expression of oxylipin biosynthesis genes and dioxygenase activity in PVX-PVY-infected plants. Moreover, the Arabidopsis thaliana double lox1 ?-dox-1 mutant became less susceptible to TSWV infection. We conclude that oxylipin metabolism is a critical component that positively regulates the process of PCD during compatible plant-virus interactions but does not play a role in restraining virus accumulation in planta. PMID:23487466

García-Marcos, Alberto; Pacheco, Remedios; Manzano, Aranzazu; Aguilar, Emmanuel

2013-01-01

257

Complete nucleotide sequence of Rose yellow leaf virus, a new member of the family Tombusviridae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genome of the Rose yellow leaf virus (RYLV) has been determined to be 3918 nucleotides containing seven open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 encodes a 27 kDa peptide (p27). ORF2 shares a common start codon with ORF1 and continues through the amber stop codon of p27 to encode a 87 kDa (p87) protein t...

258

Safe Computing: An Overview of Viruses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computer virus is a program that replicates itself, in conjunction with an additional program that can harm a computer system. Common viruses include boot-sector, macro, companion, overwriting, and multipartite. Viruses can be fast, slow, stealthy, and polymorphic. Anti-virus products are described. (MLH)

Wodarz, Nan

2001-01-01

259

Why Do We Keep Catching the Common Cold?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes activities for biology teachers that will stimulate discussions on virus structure, cell biology, rhino viruses, and new trends in treating the common cold. Provides opportunity for inquiry and problem solving in exercises that emphasize an understanding of how common cold viruses might pack inside nasal epithelial cells. (14 references)…

Gillen, Alan L.; Mayor, Heather D.

1995-01-01

260

Functional differentiation in the leucine-rich repeat domains of closely related plant virus-resistance proteins that recognize common avr proteins.  

PubMed

The N' gene of Nicotiana sylvestris and L genes of Capsicum plants confer the resistance response accompanying the hypersensitive response (HR) elicited by tobamovirus coat proteins (CP) but with different viral specificities. Here, we report the identification of the N' gene. We amplified and cloned an N' candidate using polymerase chain reaction primers designed from L gene sequences. The N' candidate gene was a single 4143 base pairs fragment encoding a coiled-coil nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-type resistance protein of 1,380 amino acids. The candidate gene induced the HR in response to the coexpression of tobamovirus CP with the identical specificity as reported for N'. Analysis of N'-containing and tobamovirus-susceptible N. tabacum accessions supported the hypothesis that the candidate is the N' gene itself. Chimera analysis between N' and L(3) revealed that their LRR domains determine the spectrum of their tobamovirus CP recognition. Deletion and mutation analyses of N' and L(3) revealed that the conserved sequences in their C-terminal regions have important roles but contribute differentially to the recognition of common avirulence proteins. The results collectively suggest that Nicotiana N' and Capsicum L genes, which most likely evolved from a common ancestor, differentiated in their recognition specificity through changes in the structural requirements for LRR function. PMID:22690804

Sekine, Ken-Taro; Tomita, Reiko; Takeuchi, Shigeharu; Atsumi, Go; Saitoh, Hiromasa; Mizumoto, Hiroyuki; Kiba, Akinori; Yamaoka, Naoto; Nishiguchi, Masamichi; Hikichi, Yasufumi; Kobayashi, Kappei

2012-09-01

261

PoS(10thEVNSymposium)002 Copyright owned by the author(s) under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike Licence. http://pos.sissa.it  

E-print Network

Speaker #12;PoS(10thEVNSymposium)002 Non-rotating methanol masers Huib van Langevelde 2 1. Introduction Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike Licence. http://pos.sissa.it The magic of disc-worlds: non-rotating methanol masers Huib Jan van Langevelde1 , Karl J.E. Torstensson Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe

Brunthaler, Andreas

262

PoS(10thEVNSymposium)002 Copyright owned by the author(s) under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike Licence. http://pos.sissa.it  

E-print Network

* Speaker #12;PoS(10thEVNSymposium)002 Non-rotating methanol masers van Langevelde et al. 2 1. Introduction Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike Licence. http://pos.sissa.it The magic of disc-worlds: non-rotating methanol masers Huib Jan van Langevelde* , Karl J.E. Torstensson Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe

van Langevelde, Huib Jan

263

The web is destined to become humankind's cognitive commons, where digital knowledge is jointly created and freely shared. The UK has been a leader in the global movement toward open access (OA)  

E-print Network

created and freely shared. The UK has been a leader in the global movement toward open access (OA movement itself. The result has been the extremely counterproductive `Finch Report' followed by a new draft of the new policy is to reform publication and to gain certain re-use rights (CC-BY), but the likely effect

Carr, Leslie

264

Milk is a common ingredient in many fried foods. Allergen cross contact can occur through the use of shared frying oil. Analytical methods are needed to determine the level of protein contamination in re-used oil. This study  

E-print Network

contamination in re-used oil. This study evaluated the performance of four ELISA test kits in comparison the use of shared frying oil. Analytical methods are needed to determine the level of protein with a total protein assay for detection of milk protein residues in spiked oils that have been subjected

Heller, Barbara

265

Oncolytic Myxoma Virus: The path to clinic  

PubMed Central

Many common neoplasms are still noncurative with current standards of cancer therapy. More therapeutic modalities need to be developed to significantly prolong the lives of patients and eventually cure a wider spectrum of cancers. Oncolytic virotherapy is one of the promising new additions to clinical cancer therapeutics. Successful oncolytic virotherapy in the clinic will be those strategies that best combine tumor cell oncolysis with enhanced immune responses against tumor antigens. The current candidate oncolytic viruses all share the common property that they are relatively nonpathogenic to humans, yet they have the ability to replicate selectively in human cancer cells and induce cancer regression by direct oncolysis and/or induction of improved anti-tumor immune responses. Many candidate oncolytic viruses are in various stages of clinical and preclinical development. One such preclinical candidate is myxoma virus (MYXV), a member of the Poxviridae family that, in its natural setting, exhibits a very restricted host range and is only pathogenic to European rabbits. Despite its narrow host range in nature, MYXV has been shown to productively infect various classes of human cancer cells. Several preclinical in vivo modeling studies have demonstrated that MYXV is an attractive and safe candidate oncolytic virus, and hence, MYXV is currently being developed as a potential therapeutic for several cancers, such as pancreatic cancer, glioblastoma, ovarian cancer, melanoma, and hematologic malignancies. This review highlights the preclinical cancer models that have shown the most promise for translation of MYXV into human clinical trials. PMID:23726825

Chan, Winnie M.; Rahman, Masmudur M.; McFadden, Grant

2013-01-01

266

Virus Resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Identification, characterization and deployment of virus resistant maize are complex tasks requiring multidisciplinary approaches. Insect transmission of viruses in nature and the potential presence of biologically distinct virus strains complicate screening for virus resistance. At least ten maize...

267

PoS(2008LHC)072 Copyright owned by the author(s) under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike Licence. http://pos.sissa.it  

E-print Network

PoS(2008LHC)072 © Copyright owned by the author(s) under the terms of the Creative Commons of the LHCb experiment at the LHC. After describing the goal of the commissioning, the various steps taken so induced events that have been recorded in September 2008. 2008 Physics at LHC Split, Croatia September 29

Boyer, Edmond

268

Structure of the archaeal head-tailed virus HSTV-1 completes the HK97 fold story  

PubMed Central

It has been proposed that viruses can be divided into a small number of structure-based viral lineages. One of these lineages is exemplified by bacterial virus Hong Kong 97 (HK97), which represents the head-tailed dsDNA bacteriophages. Seemingly similar viruses also infect archaea. Here we demonstrate using genomic analysis, electron cryomicroscopy, and image reconstruction that the major coat protein fold of newly isolated archaeal Haloarcula sinaiiensis tailed virus 1 has the canonical coat protein fold of HK97. Although it has been anticipated previously, this is physical evidence that bacterial and archaeal head-tailed viruses share a common architectural principle. The HK97-like fold has previously been recognized also in herpesviruses, and this study expands the HK97-like lineage to viruses from all three domains of life. This is only the second established lineage to include archaeal, bacterial, and eukaryotic viruses. Thus, our findings support the hypothesis that the last common universal ancestor of cellular organisms was infected by a number of different viruses. PMID:23733949

Pietilä, Maija K.; Laurinmäki, Pasi; Russell, Daniel A.; Ko, Ching-Chung; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Hendrix, Roger W.; Bamford, Dennis H.; Butcher, Sarah J.

2013-01-01

269

Old and New World arenaviruses share a highly conserved epitope in the fusion domain of the glycoprotein 2, which is recognized by Lassa virus-specific human CD4+ T-cell clones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from human studies and animal experiments indicate a dominant role of T-cells over antibodies in controlling acute Lassa virus infection and providing immunity to reinfection. Knowledge of the epitopes recognized by T-cells may therefore be crucial to the development of a recombinant Lassa virus vaccine. In order to study human T-cell reactivity to the most conserved structural protein of

Jan ter Meulen; Marlis Badusche; Judith Satoguina; Thomas Strecker; Oliver Lenz; Cornelius Loeliger; Mohamed Sakho; Kekoura Koulemou; Lamine Koivogui; Achim Hoerauf

2004-01-01

270

Epstein-Barr Virus Antibodies Test  

MedlinePLUS

... website will be limited. Search Help? Epstein-Barr Virus Antibodies Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... available for EBV? 1. How is Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection or infectious mononucleosis (mono) treated? Care ...

271

Viruses Increasingly Behind Child Pneumonia Cases  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Viruses Increasingly Behind Child Pneumonia Cases Bug that causes ... years past, the cause is usually a respiratory virus, a large U.S. study finds. The researchers found ...

272

About Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)  

MedlinePLUS

... Providers Laboratory Testing References & Resources About Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Page Symptoms Transmission Diagnosis Prevention & Treatment Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), also known as human herpesvirus 4, is ...

273

The role of shared receptor motifs and common stat proteins in the generation of cytokine pleiotropy and redundancy by IL2, IL4, IL7, IL13, and IL15  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the molecular bases for cytokine redundancy and plelotropy, we have compared the Stat proteins activated in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) by cytokines with shared and distinct actions. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) rapidly activated Stat5 in fresh PBL, and Stat3 and StatS in preactivated PBL. IL-7 and IL-15 induced the same complexes as IL-2, a feature explained by the existence of

Jian-Xin Lin; Thi-Sau Migone; Monica Tseng; Michael Friedmann; James A. Weatherbee; Li Zhou; Akira Yamauchi; Eda T. Bloom; Judy Mietz; Susan John; Warren J. Leonard

1995-01-01

274

Introduction Nested common intervals on permutations Nested common intervals on sequences Conclusion Finding Nested Common Intervals  

E-print Network

Conclusion Comparing genomes Genomes evolved from a common ancestor tend to share the same varieties of geneIntroduction Nested common intervals on permutations Nested common intervals on sequences Conclusion Finding Nested Common Intervals Efficiently Guillaume Blin1 Jens Stoye2 1Université Paris

Blin, Guillaume

275

Mutations in NS5A region of hepatitis C virus genome correlate with presence of NS5A antibodies and response to interferon therapy for most common European hepatitis C virus genotypes.  

PubMed

A part of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) amino acid sequence, designated as an interferon (IFN)-sensitive determining region (ISDR), has been shown to be correlated with a response to IFN in Japanese patients. We have shown previously that the presence of NS5A antibodies (Abs) detected by the INNOLIA test (IL-NS5A Ab) is also correlated with a response to IFN. The aim of this study was to investigate, in a wide range of patients, the possible relationship within the NS5A protein between the sequence of ISDR and that used in the INNOLIA test designated as IL3R. Serum samples from 52 patients infected by HCV genotypes 1, 2, and 3 were analyzed before and after treatment. The patients were classified as nonresponders (NRs), responder-relapsers (RRs), or long-term responders (LTRs). We amplified the NS5A region for 42 patients using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and these amplicons were sequenced directly. The 10 remaining patients were analyzed using PCR with mutation-specific primers. No correlation was found between the IL3R sequence of the HCV strains and the presence of the IL-NS5A Ab for all genotypes. However, for the subtype 1b, only 2 of 11 NR patients tested had an arginin in position 2218 within the ISDR versus 3 of 3 LTR and 10 of 13 RR patients. All patients with R-2218 had IL-NS5A Ab. For the genotype 1a, 2 of 2 LTR and 1 of 3 RR were mutated in position 2216-2218 in comparison to three NR sequences. For the genotype 3, no mutations were found in the region homologous to 1b-ISDR, but 4 of 5 LTR and RR patients had a mutation T-2161 to A or V versus 0 of 3 NR patients. A close correlation was found between arginin in position 2218 in ISDR, the presence of IL-NS5A Ab, and the response to IFN therapy for genotype 1b, but this association did not predict a long-term response. For genotype 3, a potential ISD mutation could be located at the codon 2161. PMID:9828234

Frangeul, L; Cresta, P; Perrin, M; Lunel, F; Opolon, P; Agut, H; Huraux, J M

1998-12-01

276

Range-wide genetic population structure of common pochard (Aythya ferina): a potentially important vector of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses  

PubMed Central

An understanding of the distribution and spatial structure of the natural vectors of zoonothic pathogens is of interest for effective disease control and prevention. Here, we investigate the range-wide population genetic structure of common pochard (Aythya ferina), a long-distance migratory duck and potential vector of highly pathogenic avian influenza. We collected several hundred samples from breeding and wintering grounds across Eurasia including some H5N1-positive individuals and generated partial sequences of the mitochondrial control region and multilocus microsatellite genotypes. Genetic differentiation among breeding populations was significant for both marker types but higher for maternally inherited mtDNA than for biparentally inherited nuclear markers. There was only weak genetic divergence between ducks sampled in Europe and East Asia, and genetic differentiation between populations was not generally associated with geographical distance. No evidence of genetic substructure was detected for ducks sampled on the European wintering grounds. Our results suggest limited breeding-site fidelity, especially in females, but extensive population admixture on the wintering grounds. The specific role of pochards as natural vectors of zoonotic pathogens and in particular H5N1 remains to be clarified but our results point to wintering grounds as potential hotspots for disease transmission. PMID:22393520

Liu, Yang; Keller, Irene; Heckel, Gerald

2011-01-01

277

Two berry fruit virus diseases newly recorded in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raspberry bushy dwarf virus was found to be widespread in New Zealand raspberries. No leaf symptoms have been associated with the virus, but it may be responsible for a commonly occurring crumbly berry condition of the fruit. Tomato ringspot virus was found infecting the red currant ‘Red Lake’. As the virus is thought to be confined to this cultivar, virus-infected

P. R. Fry; G. A. Wood

1978-01-01

278

MOSQUITO PATHOGENIC VIRUSES - THE LAST 20 YEARS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There are several types of viral pathogens that cause disease in mosquitoes with most belonging to four major groups. The most common viruses of mosquitoes are the baculoviruses (NPVs) (Baculoviridae: Nucleopolyhedrovirus) and cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses (CPVs) (Reoviridae: Cypovirus). The ot...

279

Chlorella viruses isolated in China  

SciTech Connect

Plaque-forming viruses of the unicellular, eukaryotic, exsymbiotic, Chlorella-like green algae strain NC64A, which are common in the United States, were also present in fresh water collected in the People's Republic of China. Seven of the Chinese viruses were examined in detail and compared with the Chlorella viruses previously isolated in the United States. Like the American viruses, the Chinese viruses were large polyhedra and sensitive to chloroform. They contained numerous structural proteins and large double-stranded DNA genomes of at least 300 kilobase pairs. Each of the DNAs from the Chinese viruses contained 5-methyldeoxycytosine, which varied from 12.6 to 46.7% of the deoxycytosine, and N{sup 6}-methyldeoxyadenosine, which varied from 2.2 to 28.3% of the deoxyadenosine. Four of the Chinese virus DNAs hybridized extensively with {sup 32}P-labeled DNA from the American virus PBCV-1, and three hybridized poorly.

Zhang, Y.; Burbank, D.E.; Van Etten, J.L. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln (USA))

1988-09-01

280

The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of Barley yellow dwarf virus-RMV reveals it to be a new Polerovirus distantly related to other yellow dwarf viruses  

PubMed Central

The yellow dwarf viruses (YDVs) of the Luteoviridae family represent the most widespread group of cereal viruses worldwide. They include the Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs) of genus Luteovirus, the Cereal yellow dwarf viruses (CYDVs) and Wheat yellow dwarf virus (WYDV) of genus Polerovirus. All of these viruses are obligately aphid transmitted and phloem-limited. The first described YDVs (initially all called BYDV) were classified by their most efficient vector. One of these viruses, BYDV-RMV, is transmitted most efficiently by the corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis. Here we report the complete 5612 nucleotide sequence of the genomic RNA of a Montana isolate of BYDV-RMV (isolate RMV MTFE87, Genbank accession no. KC921392). The sequence revealed that BYDV-RMV is a polerovirus, but it is quite distantly related to the CYDVs or WYDV, which are very closely related to each other. Nor is BYDV-RMV closely related to any other particular polerovirus. Depending on the gene that is compared, different poleroviruses (none of them a YDV) share the most sequence similarity to BYDV-RMV. Because of its distant relationship to other YDVs, and because it commonly infects maize via its vector, R. maidis, we propose that BYDV-RMV be renamed Maize yellow dwarf virus-RMV (MYDV-RMV). PMID:23888156

Krueger, Elizabeth N.; Beckett, Randy J.; Gray, Stewart M.; Miller, W. Allen

2013-01-01

281

REGISTRATION OF 'EMGOPA 201-OURO' COMMON BEAN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Common bean cultivar EMGOPA 201- Ouro is among the first common bean cultivars developed by breeding, with resistance to multiple diseases. EMGOPA 201- Ouro has the I gene for resistance to the Bean common mosaic virus. It is also moderately resistant to angular leaf spot (caused by Phaeoisariopsis ...

282

Muju virus, harbored by Myodes regulus in Korea, might represent a genetic variant of Puumala virus, the prototype arvicolid rodent-borne hantavirus.  

PubMed

The genome of Muju virus (MUJV), identified originally in the royal vole (Myodes regulus) in Korea, was fully sequenced to ascertain its genetic and phylogenetic relationship with Puumala virus (PUUV), harbored by the bank vole (My. glareolus), and a PUUV-like virus, named Hokkaido virus (HOKV), in the grey red-backed vole (My. rufocanus) in Japan. Whole genome sequence analysis of the 6544-nucleotide large (L), 3652-nucleotide medium (M) and 1831-nucleotide small (S) segments of MUJV, as well as the amino acid sequences of their gene products, indicated that MUJV strains from different capture sites might represent genetic variants of PUUV, the prototype arvicolid rodent-borne hantavirus in Europe. Distinct geographic-specific clustering of MUJV was found in different provinces in Korea, and phylogenetic analyses revealed that MUJV and HOKV share a common ancestry with PUUV. A better understanding of the taxonomic classification and pathogenic potential of MUJV must await its isolation in cell culture. PMID:24736214

Lee, Jin Goo; Gu, Se Hun; Baek, Luck Ju; Shin, Ok Sarah; Park, Kwang Sook; Kim, Heung-Chul; Klein, Terry A; Yanagihara, Richard; Song, Jin-Won

2014-04-01

283

Muju Virus, Harbored by Myodes regulus in Korea, Might Represent a Genetic Variant of Puumala Virus, the Prototype Arvicolid Rodent-Borne Hantavirus  

PubMed Central

The genome of Muju virus (MUJV), identified originally in the royal vole (Myodes regulus) in Korea, was fully sequenced to ascertain its genetic and phylogenetic relationship with Puumala virus (PUUV), harbored by the bank vole (My. glareolus), and a PUUV-like virus, named Hokkaido virus (HOKV), in the grey red-backed vole (My. rufocanus) in Japan. Whole genome sequence analysis of the 6544-nucleotide large (L), 3652-nucleotide medium (M) and 1831-nucleotide small (S) segments of MUJV, as well as the amino acid sequences of their gene products, indicated that MUJV strains from different capture sites might represent genetic variants of PUUV, the prototype arvicolid rodent-borne hantavirus in Europe. Distinct geographic-specific clustering of MUJV was found in different provinces in Korea, and phylogenetic analyses revealed that MUJV and HOKV share a common ancestry with PUUV. A better understanding of the taxonomic classification and pathogenic potential of MUJV must await its isolation in cell culture. PMID:24736214

Lee, Jin Goo; Gu, Se Hun; Baek, Luck Ju; Shin, Ok Sarah; Park, Kwang Sook; Kim, Heung-Chul; Klein, Terry A.; Yanagihara, Richard; Song, Jin-Won

2014-01-01

284

Shared governance: innovation or imitation?  

PubMed

Is nursing shared governance an innovation or merely an imitation of other organizational governances? A simple determination is confused by the euphemisms applied to similar governance forms and the simultaneous occurrence of related concepts like participation and decentralization. In the absence of a common model, anecdotal literature suggests that the implementation of shared governance in specific hospitals contributes to further innovation in governance. PMID:8008100

Hess, R G

1994-01-01

285

Sinusitis in the common cold  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Acute community-acquired sinusitis is considered a bacterial complication of the common cold. Radiologic abnormalities in sinuses occur, however, in most patients with upper respiratory virus infections.Objective: Assessment of the occurrence, clinical profile, laboratory findings, and outcome of radiologically confirmed sinusitis was carried out as part of a common cold study in young adults.Methods: Clinical examinations and radiography of the

Tuomo Puhakka; Mika J. Mäkelä; Anu Alanen; Timo Kallio; Leo Korsoff; Pertti Arstila; Maija Leinonen; Markku Pulkkinen; Jouko Suonpää; Jussi Mertsola; Olli Ruuskanen

1998-01-01

286

Analysis of ORF5 and Full-Length Genome Sequences of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Isolates of Genotypes 1 and 2 Retrieved Worldwide Provides Evidence that Recombination Is a Common Phenomenon and May Produce Mosaic Isolates  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Recombination is currently recognized as a factor for high genetic diversity, but the frequency of such recombination events and the genome segments involved are not well known. In the present study, we initially focused on the detection of recombinant porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) isolates by examining previously published data sets of ORF5 sequences (genotypes 1 and 2) obtained worldwide. We then examined full-length genome sequences in order to determine potential recombination breakpoints along the viral genome. For ORF5, 11 sets of genotype 1 sequences from different geographical areas, including 2 Asian, 1 American, and 7 European regions, and three sets of genotype 2, including sets from China, Mexico, and the United States, were analyzed separately. Potential recombination breakpoints were detected in 10/11 genotype 1 sets, including 9 cases in which the clustering of at least one isolate was different before and after the breakpoints. In genotype 2, potential breakpoints and different tree clustering of at least one strain before and after the breakpoint were observed in 2 out of 3 sets. The results indicated that most of the ORF5 data sets contained at least one recombinant sequence. When the full-length genome sequences were examined, both genotype 1 and 2 sets presented breakpoints (10 and 9, respectively), resulting in significantly different topologies before and after the breakpoints. Mosaic genomes were detected in genotype 1 sequences. These results may have significant implications for the understanding of the molecular epidemiology of PRRSV. IMPORTANCE PRRSV is one of the most important viruses affecting swine production worldwide, causing big economic losses and sanitary problems. One of the key questions on PRRSV arises from its genetic diversity, which is thought to have a direct impact on immunobiology, epidemiology, diagnosis, and vaccine efficacy. One of the causes of this genetic diversity is recombination among strains. This study provides evidence that recombinant PRRSV isolates are common in most of the countries with significant swine production, especially PRRSV genotype 1. This observation has implications in the proper characterization of PRRSV strains, in the future development of phylogenetic studies, and in the development of new PRRSV control strategies. Moreover, the present paper emphasizes the need for a deeper understanding of the mechanisms and circumstances involved in the generation of genetic diversity of PRRSV. PMID:24371078

Martín-Valls, G. E.; Kvisgaard, L. K.; Tello, M.; Darwich, L.; Cortey, M.; Burgara-Estrella, A. J.; Hernández, J.; Larsen, L. E.

2014-01-01

287

Structural Studies of the Parainfluenza Virus 5 Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase Tetramer in Complex with Its Receptor, Sialyllactose  

SciTech Connect

The paramyxovirus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) functions in virus attachment to cells, cleavage of sialic acid from oligosaccharides, and stimulating membrane fusion during virus entry into cells. The structural basis for these diverse functions remains to be fully understood. We report the crystal structures of the parainfluenza virus 5 (SV5) HN and its complexes with sialic acid, the inhibitor DANA, and the receptor sialyllactose. SV5 HN shares common structural features with HN of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and human parainfluenza 3 (HPIV3), but unlike the previously determined HN structures, the SV5 HN forms a tetramer in solution, which is thought to be the physiological oligomer. The sialyllactose complex reveals intact receptor within the active site, but no major conformational changes in the protein. The SV5 HN structures do not support previously proposed models for HN action in membrane fusion and suggest alternative mechanisms by which HN may promote virus entry into cells.

Yuan, Ping; Thompson, Thomas B.; Wurzburg, Beth A.; Paterson, Reay G.; Lamb, Robert A.; Jardetzky, Theodore S. (NWU)

2010-03-08

288

Characterization of K virus and its comparison with polyoma virus.  

PubMed Central

The antigenic relationship between the two murine papovaviruses, K virus and polyoma virus, was examined by serological techniques to determine whether they shared any antigenic components. No cross-reactivity was found associated with the viral (V) antigens by the indirect immunofluorescence, neutralization, or hemagglutination-inhibition tests. The tumor (T) antigens expressed in transformed cells or cells productively infected by either K or polyoma virus did not cross-react by indirect immunofluorescence. An antigenic relationship was detected, however, among the late proteins of K virus, polyoma virus, simian virus 40, and the human papovavirus BKV, when tested with either hyperimmune sera prepared against polyoma virus and simian virus 40 or sera prepared against disrupted virions. The nucleic acids of K and polyoma viruses were compared by agarose gel electrophoresis and restriction endonuclease analysis. No nucleotide sequence homology between the genomes of these two viruses was detectable by DNA-DNA hybridization techniques under stringent conditions. The genome of K virus was found to be slightly smaller than that of polyoma virus, and the cleavage patterns of the viral DNAs with six restriction endonucleases were different. These findings indicate that there is little relationship between these two murine papovaviruses. Images PMID:81318

Bond, S B; Howley, P M; Takemoto, K K

1978-01-01

289

Donkey orchid symptomless virus: a viral 'platypus' from Australian terrestrial orchids.  

PubMed

Complete and partial genome sequences of two isolates of an unusual new plant virus, designated Donkey orchid symptomless virus (DOSV) were identified using a high-throughput sequencing approach. The virus was identified from asymptomatic plants of Australian terrestrial orchid Diuris longifolia (Common donkey orchid) growing in a remnant forest patch near Perth, western Australia. DOSV was identified from two D. longifolia plants of 264 tested, and from at least one plant of 129 Caladenia latifolia (pink fairy orchid) plants tested. Phylogenetic analysis of the genome revealed open reading frames (ORF) encoding seven putative proteins of apparently disparate origins. A 69-kDa protein (ORF1) that overlapped the replicase shared low identity with MPs of plant tymoviruses (Tymoviridae). A 157-kDa replicase (ORF2) and 22-kDa coat protein (ORF4) shared 32% and 40% amino acid identity, respectively, with homologous proteins encoded by members of the plant virus family Alphaflexiviridae. A 44-kDa protein (ORF3) shared low identity with myosin and an autophagy protein from Squirrelpox virus. A 27-kDa protein (ORF5) shared no identity with described proteins. A 14-kDa protein (ORF6) shared limited sequence identity (26%) over a limited region of the envelope glycoprotein precursor of mammal-infecting Crimea-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (Bunyaviridae). The putative 25-kDa movement protein (MP) (ORF7) shared limited (27%) identity with 3A-like MPs of members of the plant-infecting Tombusviridae and Virgaviridae. Transmissibility was shown when DOSV systemically infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Structure and organization of the domains within the putative replicase of DOSV suggests a common evolutionary origin with 'potexvirus-like' replicases of viruses within the Alphaflexiviridae and Tymoviridae, and the CP appears to be ancestral to CPs of allexiviruses (Alphaflexiviridae). The MP shares an evolutionary history with MPs of dianthoviruses, but the other putative proteins are distant from plant viruses. DOSV is not readily classified in current lower order virus taxa. PMID:24223974

Wylie, Stephen J; Li, Hua; Jones, Michael G K

2013-01-01

290

Donkey Orchid Symptomless Virus: A Viral ‘Platypus’ from Australian Terrestrial Orchids  

PubMed Central

Complete and partial genome sequences of two isolates of an unusual new plant virus, designated Donkey orchid symptomless virus (DOSV) were identified using a high-throughput sequencing approach. The virus was identified from asymptomatic plants of Australian terrestrial orchid Diuris longifolia (Common donkey orchid) growing in a remnant forest patch near Perth, western Australia. DOSV was identified from two D. longifolia plants of 264 tested, and from at least one plant of 129 Caladenia latifolia (pink fairy orchid) plants tested. Phylogenetic analysis of the genome revealed open reading frames (ORF) encoding seven putative proteins of apparently disparate origins. A 69-kDa protein (ORF1) that overlapped the replicase shared low identity with MPs of plant tymoviruses (Tymoviridae). A 157-kDa replicase (ORF2) and 22-kDa coat protein (ORF4) shared 32% and 40% amino acid identity, respectively, with homologous proteins encoded by members of the plant virus family Alphaflexiviridae. A 44-kDa protein (ORF3) shared low identity with myosin and an autophagy protein from Squirrelpox virus. A 27-kDa protein (ORF5) shared no identity with described proteins. A 14-kDa protein (ORF6) shared limited sequence identity (26%) over a limited region of the envelope glycoprotein precursor of mammal-infecting Crimea-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (Bunyaviridae). The putative 25-kDa movement protein (MP) (ORF7) shared limited (27%) identity with 3A-like MPs of members of the plant-infecting Tombusviridae and Virgaviridae. Transmissibility was shown when DOSV systemically infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Structure and organization of the domains within the putative replicase of DOSV suggests a common evolutionary origin with ‘potexvirus-like’ replicases of viruses within the Alphaflexiviridae and Tymoviridae, and the CP appears to be ancestral to CPs of allexiviruses (Alphaflexiviridae). The MP shares an evolutionary history with MPs of dianthoviruses, but the other putative proteins are distant from plant viruses. DOSV is not readily classified in current lower order virus taxa. PMID:24223974

Wylie, Stephen J.; Li, Hua; Jones, Michael G. K.

2013-01-01

291

Adding an Rb-binding site to an N-terminally truncated simian virus 40 T antigen restores growth to high cell density, and the T common region in trans provides anchorage-independent growth and rapid growth in low serum concentrations.  

PubMed Central

The simian virus 40 large T antigen is sufficient to confer on cells multiple transformed cell growth characteristics, including growth to a high cell density, rapid growth in medium containing low serum concentrations, and anchorage-independent growth. We showed previously that distinct regions of the protein were involved in conferring these properties and that removal of the first 127 amino acids of T antigen abrogated all three activities. At least three large-T-antigen transformation-related activities have been localized to that region: binding of the tumor suppressor gene product Rb and two independent activities contained within the common region shared by large T and small t antigens. The experiments described here were directed toward determining whether these were the only activities from the N terminus that were needed. To do so we reintroduced an Rb-binding region into the N-terminally truncated T antigen (T128-708) and examined the growth properties of cells immortalized by it in the presence and absence of small t antigen, which can provide the T-common-region transformation-related activities in trans. We show that an Rb-binding region consisting of amino acids 101 to 118, when introduced into a heterologous site in T128-708, is capable of physically binding Rb and that binding is sufficient for cells expressing the protein to acquire the ability to grow to a high saturation density. However, in low-serum medium, the growth rate of the cells and maximal cell density are reduced relative to those of wild-type-T-antigen-expressing cells, and the cells cannot divide without anchorage. This result suggests that although Rb binding is sufficient in the context of T128-708 to confer growth to a high density, one or more other N-terminally located T-antigen activities are needed for cells to acquire the additional growth properties. Small t antigen in trans supplied those activities. These results indicate that the T-common-region activities and Rb binding are the only activities from the T-antigen N terminus needed to restore full transforming activity to the N-terminally truncated T antigen. PMID:9032319

Tevethia, M J; Lacko, H A; Kierstead, T D; Thompson, D L

1997-01-01

292

Parainfluenza virus infections  

PubMed Central

Parainfluenza viruses types 1, 2 and 3 were found in 2·5%, 0·8% and 1·6% respectively of patients examined in the MRC/PHLS general practice survey and in 2·2%, 0·7% and 2·7% of those in the hospital survey. Type 3 infections were found earlier in life than type 1, while type 2 infections tended to be detected in older children. These viruses were found most frequently in croup and laryngitis but were also common causes of coryza and lower respiratory infections, especially in general practice. The epidemiology and diagnosis of parainfluenza virus infections are discussed briefly. PMID:4377299

Clarke, Suzanne K. R.

1973-01-01

293

Human Commonalities and Art  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educator Ernest Boyer believed that well-educated students should do more than master isolated facts. They should understand the "connectedness of things." He suggested organizing curriculum thematically around eight commonalities shared by people around the world. In the book "The Basic School: A Community for Learning," Boyer recommends that…

Passmore, Kaye

2008-01-01

294

Previously unknown and highly divergent ssDNA viruses populate the oceans.  

PubMed

Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses are economically important pathogens of plants and animals, and are widespread in oceans; yet, the diversity and evolutionary relationships among marine ssDNA viruses remain largely unknown. Here we present the results from a metagenomic study of composite samples from temperate (Saanich Inlet, 11 samples; Strait of Georgia, 85 samples) and subtropical (46 samples, Gulf of Mexico) seawater. Most sequences (84%) had no evident similarity to sequenced viruses. In total, 608 putative complete genomes of ssDNA viruses were assembled, almost doubling the number of ssDNA viral genomes in databases. These comprised 129 genetically distinct groups, each represented by at least one complete genome that had no recognizable similarity to each other or to other virus sequences. Given that the seven recognized families of ssDNA viruses have considerable sequence homology within them, this suggests that many of these genetic groups may represent new viral families. Moreover, nearly 70% of the sequences were similar to one of these genomes, indicating that most of the sequences could be assigned to a genetically distinct group. Most sequences fell within 11 well-defined gene groups, each sharing a common gene. Some of these encoded putative replication and coat proteins that had similarity to sequences from viruses infecting eukaryotes, suggesting that these were likely from viruses infecting eukaryotic phytoplankton and zooplankton. PMID:23842650

Labonté, Jessica M; Suttle, Curtis A

2013-11-01

295

Cost Sharing What is Cost Sharing?  

E-print Network

agency x Tracking of committed cost share is required to meet federal regulations (OMB A-110) x UCSD has has been met #12;2 Cost Sharing System Components and Functions x Search Locate award with cost;3 Cost Sharing Steps Search for & Create a Bin Search Results Display Select AWARD Type the correct data

Tsien, Roger Y.

296

Common cold  

MedlinePLUS

... are the most common reason that children miss school and parents miss work. Parents often get colds ... other children. A cold can spread quickly through schools or daycares. Colds can occur at any time ...

297

Bat flight and zoonotic viruses  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts.

O'Shea, Thomas; Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

2014-01-01

298

Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses  

PubMed Central

Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts. PMID:24750692

Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

2014-01-01

299

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection Information for adults A A A When HIV is first contracted, there may be ... 1–6 weeks following exposure to HIV (the human immunodeficiency virus). Chronic infection with this virus can ...

300

Cryphonectria nitschkei Virus 1 Structure Shows that the Capsid Protein of Chrysoviruses Is a Duplicated Helix-Rich Fold Conserved in Fungal Double-Stranded RNA Viruses  

PubMed Central

Cryoelectron microscopy reconstruction of Cryphonectria nitschkei virus 1, a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus, shows that the capsid protein (60 copies/particle) is formed by a repeated helical core, indicative of gene duplication. This unusual organization is common to chrysoviruses. The arrangement of many of these putative ?-helices is conserved in the totivirus L-A capsid protein, suggesting a shared motif. Our results indicate that a 120-subunit T=1 capsid is a conserved architecture that optimizes dsRNA replication and organization. PMID:22593169

Gómez-Blanco, Josué; Luque, Daniel; González, José M.; Carrascosa, José L.; Alfonso, Carlos; Trus, Benes; Havens, Wendy M.; Ghabrial, Said A.

2012-01-01

301

Spectrum sharing for unlicensed bands  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study a spectrum sharing problem in an unlicensed band where multiple systems coexist and interfere with each other. We first analyze a cooperative setting where all the systems collaborate to achieve a common goal. Under the assumptions that the systems communicate with Gaussian signals and treat interference as noise, we study the structure of the optimal power allocations. We

Raul Etkin; Abhay Parekh; David Tse

2005-01-01

302

Spectrum sharing for unlicensed bands  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study a spectrum sharing problem in an unlicensed band where multiple systems coexist and interfere with each other. We first analyze a cooperative setting where all the systems collaborate to achieve a common goal. Under the assumptions that the systems communicate with Gaussian signals and treat interference as noise, we study the structure of the optimal power allocations. We

Raul Etkin; Abhay Parekh; David Tse

2007-01-01

303

Cross-species infection of deformed wing virus poses a new threat to pollinator conservation.  

PubMed

The Deformed wing virus (family Iflaviridae, genus Iflavirus, DWV), one of the most prevalent and common viruses in honey bees, Apis mellifera L., is present in both laboratory-reared and wild populations of bumble bees, Bombus huntii Greene. Our studies showed that DWV infection spreads throughout the entire body of B. huntii and that the concentration of DWV is higher in workers than in males both collected in the field and reared in the laboratory, implying a possible association between the virus infection and foraging activities. Further results showed that gut tissue of B. huntii can support the replication of DWV, suggesting that B. huntii is a biological host for DWV, as are honey bees. Bumble bees and honey bees sometimes share nectar and pollen resources in the same field. The geographical proximity of two host species probably plays an important role in host range breadth of the virus. PMID:21735887

Li, Jilian; Peng, Wenjun; Wu, Jie; Strange, James P; Boncristiani, Humberto; Chen, Yanping

2011-06-01

304

Share with Charm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The statistical hadronization model predicts particle production in hadronization of quark-gluon plasma [1]. In LHC-ion 2.76 TeV per nucleon collision, a rather large yield of charm is expected, produced in initial hard parton collisions before the QGP phase emerges. Using statistical hadronization method, we predict the expected charmed hadron yields [2]. Our effort is to include charm hadron decay contributions in final hadron yields. Based on experimental decay data, symmetry principles and plausibility arguments, we prepare a complete decay table of all charmed hadrons. CHARM module adds charm decay hadron multiplicity into SHARE [1]. SHARE with CHARM utility uses the charm yield as an additional fit parameter when analyzing hadron production in HI-collisions, which works even without charmed hadron input. Based on precise non-charm hadron yields data, a prediction of charmed hadron production is obtained. About 20% of charm is bound to strangeness and thus charm decays contribute a significant fraction of multistrange hadron yields: a 30% fraction of ?, 25% of ? and 30% of ? is produced by charm decays whereas e.g. ? yield increases by 10%, (taking as a scaling benchmark 100 charm pairs and a common set of chemical non-equilibrium SHM parameters).[4pt] [1] G. Torrieri, et al., Comp.Phys.Comm. 167,229(2005); ibid.175, 635(2006)[0pt] [2] I. Kuznetsova and J. Rafelski, Eur.Phys.J. C 51,113(2007)

Petran, Michal; Rafelski, Johann

2013-04-01

305

Two Newly Described Begomoviruses of Macroptilium lathyroides and Common Bean.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Macroptilium lathyroides, a perennial weed in the Caribbean region and Central America, is a host of Macroptilium yellow mosaic Florida virus (MaYMFV) and Macroptilium mosaic Puerto Rico virus (MaMPRV). The genomes of MaYMFV and MaMPRV were cloned from M. lathyroides and/or field-infected bean and the DNA sequences were determined. Cloned A and B components for both viruses were infectious when inoculated to M. lathyroides and common bean. Comparison of the DNA sequences for cloned A and B components with well-studied begomovirus indicated that MaMPRV (bean and M. lathyroides) and MaYMFV (M. lathyroides) are unique, previously undescribed begomo-viruses from the Western Hemisphere. Phylogenetic analysis of viral A components indicated that the closest relative of MaYMFV are members of the Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) group, at 76 to 78% nucleotide identity, whereas the closest relative for the A component of MaMPRV was Rhynchosia golden mosaic virus at 78% nucleotide identity. In contrast, BGYMV is the closest relative for the B component of both MaYMFV and MaMPRV, with which they share approximately 68.0 and approximately 72% identity, respectively. The incongruent taxonomic placement for the bipartite components for MaMPRV indicates that they did not evolve entirely along a common path. MaYMFV and MaMPRV caused distinctive symptoms in bean and M. lathyroides and were transmissible by the whitefly vector and by grafting; however, only MaYMFV was mechanically transmissible. The experimental host range for the two viruses was similar and included species within the families Fabaceae and Malvaceae, but only MaYMFV infected Malva parviflora and soybean. These results collectively indicate that MaMPRV and MaYMFV are new, previously undescribed species of the BGYMV group, a clade previously known to contain only strains and isolates of BGYMV from the Caribbean region that infect Phaseolus spp. Both MaYMFV and MaMPRV may pose an economic threat to bean production in the region. PMID:18943157

Idris, A M; Hiebert, E; Bird, J; Brown, J K

2003-07-01

306

Powassan (POW) Virus Basics  

MedlinePLUS

Powassan (POW) Virus Basics Powassan (POW) virus is related to some mosquito-borne viruses, including West Nile virus. The virus is ... concerns? How do people get infected with POW virus? POW virus is passed to people by ticks: ...

307

An Abstract Theory of Computer Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years the detection of computer viruses has become common place. It appears that for the most part these viruses\\u000a have been ‘benign’ or only mildly destructive. However, whether or not computer viruses have the potential to cause major\\u000a and prolonged disruptions of computing environments is an open question.

Leonard M. Adleman

1988-01-01

308

Deep Sequencing of Small RNAs in Tomato for Virus and Viroid Identification and Strain Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Small RNAs (sRNA), including microRNAs (miRNA) and small interfering RNAs (siRNA), are produced abundantly in plants and animals and function in regulating gene expression or in defense against virus or viroid infection. Analysis of siRNA profiles upon virus infection in plant may allow for virus identification, strain differentiation, and de novo assembly of virus genomes. In the present study, four suspected virus-infected tomato samples collected in the U.S. and Mexico were used for sRNA library construction and deep sequencing. Each library generated between 5–7 million sRNA reads, of which more than 90% were from the tomato genome. Upon in-silico subtraction of the tomato sRNAs, the remaining highly enriched, virus-like siRNA pools were assembled with or without reference virus or viroid genomes. A complete genome was assembled for Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) using siRNA alone. In addition, a near complete virus genome (98%) also was assembled for Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV). A common mixed infection of two strains of PepMV (EU and US1), which shared 82% of genome nucleotide sequence identity, also could be differentially assembled into their respective genomes. Using de novo assembly, a novel potyvirus with less than 60% overall genome nucleotide sequence identity to other known viruses was discovered and its full genome sequence obtained. Taken together, these data suggest that the sRNA deep sequencing technology will likely become an efficient and powerful generic tool for virus identification in plants and animals. PMID:22623984

Li, Rugang; Gao, Shan; Hernandez, Alvaro G.; Wechter, W. Patrick; Fei, Zhangjun; Ling, Kai-Shu

2012-01-01

309

Deep sequencing of small RNAs in tomato for virus and viroid identification and strain differentiation.  

PubMed

Small RNAs (sRNA), including microRNAs (miRNA) and small interfering RNAs (siRNA), are produced abundantly in plants and animals and function in regulating gene expression or in defense against virus or viroid infection. Analysis of siRNA profiles upon virus infection in plant may allow for virus identification, strain differentiation, and de novo assembly of virus genomes. In the present study, four suspected virus-infected tomato samples collected in the U.S. and Mexico were used for sRNA library construction and deep sequencing. Each library generated between 5-7 million sRNA reads, of which more than 90% were from the tomato genome. Upon in-silico subtraction of the tomato sRNAs, the remaining highly enriched, virus-like siRNA pools were assembled with or without reference virus or viroid genomes. A complete genome was assembled for Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) using siRNA alone. In addition, a near complete virus genome (98%) also was assembled for Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV). A common mixed infection of two strains of PepMV (EU and US1), which shared 82% of genome nucleotide sequence identity, also could be differentially assembled into their respective genomes. Using de novo assembly, a novel potyvirus with less than 60% overall genome nucleotide sequence identity to other known viruses was discovered and its full genome sequence obtained. Taken together, these data suggest that the sRNA deep sequencing technology will likely become an efficient and powerful generic tool for virus identification in plants and animals. PMID:22623984

Li, Rugang; Gao, Shan; Hernandez, Alvaro G; Wechter, W Patrick; Fei, Zhangjun; Ling, Kai-Shu

2012-01-01

310

Foodborne viruses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Testing for human pathogenic viruses in foods represents a formidable task requiring the extraction, concentration, and assay of a host of viruses from a wide range of food matrices. The enteric viruses, particularly genogroup I and II (GI and GII) noroviruses and hepatitis A virus, are the princip...

311

Data-Sharing Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Models for college and university Interinstitutional data sharing are redefined by examining the organization and activities of existing data-sharing groups across 11 dimensions: data-sharing purpose; nature of data-sharing structures; definer of process; calendar; scope of surveys; participant characteristics; source of data-sharing initiative;…

Shaman, Susan M.; Shapiro, Daniel

1996-01-01

312

Rheumatoid arthritis synovial membrane contains a 62,000-molecular-weight protein that shares an antigenic epitope with the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded associated nuclear antigen.  

PubMed Central

A monoclonal antibody, selected for reactivity with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded antigen EBNA-1, exhibited strong reactivity with the synovial lining cells in joint biopsies from 10 of 12 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and adherent cells eluted from these tissues. No staining of RA synovial membrane frozen tissue sections or eluted synovial-lining cells was obtained with monoclonal antibodies directed against other EBV-encoded antigens (anti-p160, anti-gp200/350) or with monoclonal antibodies directed against antigens encoded by cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex viruses, or human T cell leukemia virus type I. Among 12 osteoarthritis and normal synovial biopsies only rare reactive cells were noted. Characterization of the antigen(s) in RA synovium by the Western immunoblotting technique revealed a 62,000-molecular-weight (mol-wt) protein, in contrast to the 70,000-85,000-mol-wt EBNA-1 antigen found in EBV-transformed cells. The structural basis for the cross-reactivity of the RA synovial membrane 62,000-mol-wt protein and the EBNA-1 antigen appears to reside in the glycine-alanine rich region of these molecules. A rabbit antibody directed against a synthetic peptide (IR3-VI-2) derived from the glycine-alanine-rich region of EBNA-1 reacted with the 70,000-85,000-mol-wt EBNA-1 antigen in EBV-infected cells and with the 62,000-mol-wt molecule in RA synovial membrane extracts. Since strong antibody responses to EBNA-1 are known to exist in RA patients, these results suggest that immune responses to a cross-reactive antigen may play a role in the pathogenesis of RA. Images PMID:2422209

Fox, R; Sportsman, R; Rhodes, G; Luka, J; Pearson, G; Vaughan, J

1986-01-01

313

Common Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents K-12 and college common areas considered outstanding in a competition, which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent two days reviewing projects, highlighting concepts and ideas that made them exceptional. For each citation, the article offers information on the firm, client,…

American School & University, 2003

2003-01-01

314

Common Chuckwalla  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Common Chuckwalla is primarily found across the Mojave and Sonoran deserts of the United States and Mexico, at elevations ranging from sea level to 1,370 m. This large (125–180 mm) lizard is dorsoventrally flattened and has wrinkles on its belly and neck. Chuckwallas are strongly associa...

315

Sharing of T cell receptors in antigen-specific responses is driven by convergent recombination  

PubMed Central

Public responses where identical T cell receptors (TCRs) are clonally dominant and shared between different individuals are a common characteristic of CD8+ T cell-mediated immunity. Focusing on TCR sharing, we analyzed ?3,400 TCR ? chains (TCR?s) from mouse CD8+ T cells responding to the influenza A virus DbNP366 and DbPA224 epitopes. Both the “public” DbNP366-specific and “private” DbPA224-specific TCR repertoires contain a high proportion (?36%) of shared TCR?s, although the numbers of mice sharing TCR?s in each repertoire varies greatly. Sharing of both the TCR? amino acid and TCR? nucleotide sequence was negatively correlated with the prevalence of random nucleotide additions in the sequence. However, the extent of TCR? amino acid sequence sharing among mice was strongly correlated with the level of diversity in the encoding nucleotide sequences, suggesting that a key feature of public TCRs is that they can be made in a variety of ways. Using a computer simulation of random V(D)J recombination, we estimated the relative production frequencies and variety of production mechanisms for TCR? sequences and found strong correlations with the sharing of both TCR? amino acid sequences and TCR? nucleotide sequences. The overall conclusion is that “convergent recombination,” rather than a bias in recombination or subsequent selection, provides the mechanistic basis for TCR sharing between individuals responding to identical peptide plus MHC class I glycoprotein complexes. PMID:17130450

Venturi, Vanessa; Kedzierska, Katherine; Price, David A.; Doherty, Peter C.; Douek, Daniel C.; Turner, Stephen J.; Davenport, Miles P.

2006-01-01

316

West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease Incidence by State - United States, 2014 (as of August 12, 2014)  

MedlinePLUS

... gov . West Nile Virus Share Compartir West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease Incidence by State – United States, 2014 ( ... map shows the incidence of human West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease (e.g., meningitis, encephalitis, or acute ...

317

Evolution of virus-derived sequences for high-level replication of a subviral RNA  

E-print Network

Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) and its 356-nt satellite RNA satC share 151 nt of 3-terminal sequence, which reserved. Keywords: Turnip crinkle virus; RNA conformational switch; RNA virus evolution; Satellite RNA

Simon, Anne

318

Computer viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer viruses have been around since the mid 1980s. Over 40,000 different viruses have been cataloged so far and the number of viruses is increasing dramatically. The damage they cause is estimated to be several billions of U.S. dollars per year. Most often, the origin of the virus is difficult to trace. Various kinds of anti-virus software have been developed

S. R. Subramanya; N. Lakshminarasimhan

2001-01-01

319

A Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Nef Peptide Is a Dominant Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Epitope in Indian-Origin Rhesus Monkeys Expressing the Common MHC Class I Allele Mamu-A*02  

Microsoft Academic Search

The precise measurement of epitope-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)- and simian–human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-infected or vaccinated rhesus monkeys has been important in the evaluation of potential HIV vaccine strategies. This quantitation of CTL has been limited to date by the identification of only one dominant SIV\\/SHIV epitope in these monkeys. We have recently defined

Michael H. Newberg; Marcelo J. Kuroda; William A. Charini; Ayako Miura; Carol I. Lord; Jörn E. Schmitz; Darci A. Gorgone; Michelle A. Lifton; Kristine Kuus-Reichel; Norman L. Letvin

2002-01-01

320

Inhibitors of Dengue Virus and West Nile Virus Proteases Based on the Aminobenzamide Scaffold  

PubMed Central

Dengue and West Nile viruses (WNV) are mosquito-borne members of flaviviruses that cause significant morbidity and mortality. There is no approved vaccine or antiviral drugs for human use to date. In this study, a series of functionalized meta and para aminobenzamide derivatives were synthesized and subsequently screened in vitro against Dengue virus and West Nile virus proteases. Four active compounds were identified which showed comparable activity toward the two proteases and shared in common a meta or para(phenoxy)phenyl group. The inhibition constants (Ki) for the most potent compound 7n against Dengue and West Nile virus proteases were 8.77 and 5.55 ?M, respectively. The kinetics data support a competitive mode of inhibition of both proteases by compound 7n. This conclusion is further supported by molecular modeling. This study reveals a new chemical scaffold which is amenable to further optimization to yield potent inhibitors of the viral proteases via the combined utilization of iterative medicinal chemistry/structure-activity relationship studies and in vitro screening. PMID:22632792

Aravapalli, Sridhar; Lai, Huiguo; Teramoto, Tadahisa; Alliston, Kevin R.; Lushington, Gerald H.; Ferguson, Eron L.; Padmanabhan, R.; Groutas, William C.

2012-01-01

321

Winter Infections: Influenza, Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)  

E-print Network

in Children #12;Symptoms of RSV is similar to the common cold A person with an RSV infection might cough) ­ Antibiotics do not help! #12;Common Cold (Rhinovirus) Picture: bubblews.com #12;Common Cold Most common viral not give you the common cold! Viruses can be contagious for up to 2-3 weeks!! http://www.cdc.gov/ge

Goldman, Steven A.

322

Car Sharing Scheme Car Share Scheme  

E-print Network

Car Sharing Scheme Car Share Scheme The cost is now reduced to £10 per member of staff per car that is used to travel to and from work on occasions, i.e. where two cars may have originally been parked on Campus at the same time the scheme is aimed at reducing this to one car. Staff members who car

Martin, Ralph R.

323

Delayed and Accelerated Aging Share Common Longevity Assurance Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Mutant dwarf and calorie-restricted mice benefit from healthy aging and unusually long lifespan. In contrast, mouse models for DNA repair-deficient progeroid syndromes age and die prematurely. To identify mechanisms that regulate mammalian longevity, we quantified the parallels between the genome-wide liver expression profiles of mice with those two extremes of lifespan. Contrary to expectation, we find significant, genome-wide expression associations between the progeroid and long-lived mice. Subsequent analysis of significantly over-represented biological processes revealed suppression of the endocrine and energy pathways with increased stress responses in both delayed and premature aging. To test the relevance of these processes in natural aging, we compared the transcriptomes of liver, lung, kidney, and spleen over the entire murine adult lifespan and subsequently confirmed these findings on an independent aging cohort. The majority of genes showed similar expression changes in all four organs, indicating a systemic transcriptional response with aging. This systemic response included the same biological processes that are triggered in progeroid and long-lived mice. However, on a genome-wide scale, transcriptomes of naturally aged mice showed a strong association to progeroid but not to long-lived mice. Thus, endocrine and metabolic changes are indicative of “survival” responses to genotoxic stress or starvation, whereas genome-wide associations in gene expression with natural aging are indicative of biological age, which may thus delineate pro- and anti-aging effects of treatments aimed at health-span extension. PMID:18704162

Schumacher, Björn; van der Pluijm, Ingrid; Moorhouse, Michael J.; Kosteas, Theodore; Robinson, Andria Rasile; Suh, Yousin; Breit, Timo M.; van Steeg, Harry; Niedernhofer, Laura J.; van IJcken, Wilfred; Bartke, Andrzej; Spindler, Stephen R.; Hoeijmakers, Jan H. J.; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T. J.; Garinis, George A.

2008-01-01

324

Adaptation games between microorganisms sharing a common substrate niche.  

PubMed

Microorganisms adapt their enzymic outfit to the ambient substrate supply. If several species compete for a limiting substrate, then reciprocal influence on the state of adaptation results, which has been envisaged in the paper as strategic game. The most important types of strategies, which are assessed by the governing selection rule, are called aggressive, neutral and cooperative. A cooperative strategy brings the highest advantage, but triggers the temptation to increase the gain by defection. The neutral strategy, i.e. acting as if the competitor were alone in the medium, is promising only when the selection rule favours product maximization, whereas as aggressive strategy, e.g. maximizing the difference between own and foreign profit, is most effective on growth rate maximization as selection criterion. Gruelling competition reduces the metabolic output and weakens the community as a whole against other systems. PMID:4087156

Reich, J G; Meiske, W

1985-01-01

325

Virus Ultra Structure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Linda Stannard of the University of Capetown, South Africa, has composed a page which, although it was intended to serve as an introductory manual for students of virology, can be appreciated by a wide audience. A section on the principles of virus architecture uses text and outstanding graphics to provide an introduction to why viruses look the way they do. Other parts of the site emphasize how virus shapes and structures are "seen" and recorded with sections on negative staining and electron microscopy of DNA- and RNA-containing viruses. This site's success relies on the use of well-chosen graphics and the inclusion of interesting factoids such as the following: "The head of a dress-maker's pin can provide seating accommodation for five hundred million rhinoviruses (cause of the common cold)!".

326

Cedar Virus: A Novel Henipavirus Isolated from Australian Bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Henipavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae contains two viruses, Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) for which pteropid bats act as the main natural reservoir. Each virus also causes serious and commonly lethal infection of people as well as various species of domestic animals, however little is known about the associated mechanisms of pathogenesis. Here, we report the

Glenn A. Marsh; Carol de Jong; Jennifer A. Barr; Mary Tachedjian; Craig Smith; Deborah Middleton; Meng Yu; Shawn Todd; Adam J. Foord; Volker Haring; Jean Payne; Rachel Robinson; Ivano Broz; Gary Crameri; Hume E. Field; Lin-Fa Wang

2012-01-01

327

A new species of nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV) associated with mortalities in Manitoba lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens.  

PubMed

A newly discovered virus, Namao virus, associated with morbidity and mortality, was detected among juvenile lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens being propagated by a conservation stocking program for this endangered species in Manitoba, Canada. The outbreaks resulted in cumulative mortalities of 62 to 99.6% among progeny of wild Winnipeg River or Nelson River lake sturgeon and occurred at 2 geographically separate facilities. Namao virus was detected in almost 94% of the moribund or dead lake sturgeon according to a conventional polymerase chain reaction (cPCR) test that is based upon amplification of a 219 bp fragment of the virus major capsid protein (MCP). The virus itself was large (242 to 282 nm) and icosahedral-shaped with 2 capsids and a condensed bar-shaped core. It was found in virus factories within the host cell cytoplasm and displayed a tropism for the integument. Namao virus caused cellular changes characterized by enlarged eosinophilic epithelial cells in the gills and skin. Samples suspected of containing Namao virus did not have cytopathic effects on primary lake sturgeon or established white sturgeon cell lines. However, viral nucleic acid was detected in the former after prolonged incubation periods. Using primers designed from conserved regions of the MCP from NCLDVs, an estimated 95 to 96% of the Namao virus MCP open reading frame was captured. Phylogenetic analysis using the MCP of Namao virus and 27 other NCLDVs suggested that Namao virus and white sturgeon iridovirus share a common evolutionary past and might be members of the family Mimiviridae or a new, as yet unrecognized, virus family. PMID:23446969

Clouthier, Sharon C; Vanwalleghem, Elissa; Copeland, Shelagh; Klassen, Cheryl; Hobbs, Gary; Nielsen, Ole; Anderson, Eric D

2013-02-28

328

Shared versus distributed memory multiprocessors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The question of whether multiprocessors should have shared or distributed memory has attracted a great deal of attention. Some researchers argue strongly for building distributed memory machines, while others argue just as strongly for programming shared memory multiprocessors. A great deal of research is underway on both types of parallel systems. Special emphasis is placed on systems with a very large number of processors for computation intensive tasks and considers research and implementation trends. It appears that the two types of systems will likely converge to a common form for large scale multiprocessors.

Jordan, Harry F.

1991-01-01

329

Human Immunodeficiency Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral health is an integral component of overall health and well-being in all patients. However, for an immunocompromised patient,\\u000a many common oral conditions may have a significant impact on quality of life. Intraoral pain, which is a common complaint\\u000a among patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), will compromise patients’ ability to maintain adequate and appropriate\\u000a oral intake. Furthermore, the polypharmacopeia

Anita Patel; Michael Glick

330

Molecular epidemiology of respiratory viruses in virus-induced asthma  

PubMed Central

Acute respiratory illness (ARI) due to various viruses is not only the most common cause of upper respiratory infection in humans but is also a major cause of morbidity and mortality, leading to diseases such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Previous studies have shown that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human rhinovirus (HRV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human parainfluenza virus (HPIV), and human enterovirus infections may be associated with virus-induced asthma. For example, it has been suggested that HRV infection is detected in the acute exacerbation of asthma and infection is prolonged. Thus it is believed that the main etiological cause of asthma is ARI viruses. Furthermore, the number of asthma patients in most industrial countries has greatly increased, resulting in a morbidity rate of around 10-15% of the population. However, the relationships between viral infections, host immune response, and host factors in the pathophysiology of asthma remain unclear. To gain a better understanding of the epidemiology of virus-induced asthma, it is important to assess both the characteristics of the viruses and the host defense mechanisms. Molecular epidemiology enables us to understand the pathogenesis of microorganisms by identifying specific pathways, molecules, and genes that influence the risk of developing a disease. However, the epidemiology of various respiratory viruses associated with virus-induced asthma is not fully understood. Therefore, in this article, we review molecular epidemiological studies of RSV, HRV, HPIV, and HMPV infection associated with virus-induced asthma. PMID:24062735

Ishioka, Taisei; Noda, Masahiro; Kozawa, Kunihisa; Kimura, Hirokazu

2013-01-01

331

Sharing A Labeled Tree  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a way to share a labeled tree. For sharing a labeled tree, the Prufer code or a Prufer-like code of the tree is evaluated. Then, the terms of this code are modified by a function introduced to make shares, so that every term of the code can be deter- mined if and only if all the shares

Yasser A. Phoulady; Mahdi Behzadi; Hassan Taheri

332

Full Genome Characterization of the Culicoides-Borne Marsupial Orbiviruses: Wallal Virus, Mudjinbarry Virus and Warrego Viruses  

PubMed Central

Viruses belonging to the species Wallal virus and Warrego virus of the genus Orbivirus were identified as causative agents of blindness in marsupials in Australia during 1994/5. Recent comparisons of nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) sequences have provided a basis for the grouping and classification of orbivirus isolates. However, full-genome sequence data are not available for representatives of all Orbivirus species. We report full-genome sequence data for three additional orbiviruses: Wallal virus (WALV); Mudjinabarry virus (MUDV) and Warrego virus (WARV). Comparisons of conserved polymerase (Pol), sub-core-shell ‘T2’ and core-surface ‘T13’ proteins show that these viruses group with other Culicoides borne orbiviruses, clustering with Eubenangee virus (EUBV), another orbivirus infecting marsupials. WARV shares <70% aa identity in all three conserved proteins (Pol, T2 and T13) with other orbiviruses, consistent with its classification within a distinct Orbivirus species. Although WALV and MUDV share <72.86%/67.93% aa/nt identity with other orbiviruses in Pol, T2 and T13, they share >99%/90% aa/nt identities with each other (consistent with membership of the same virus species - Wallal virus). However, WALV and MUDV share <68% aa identity in their larger outer capsid protein VP2(OC1), consistent with membership of different serotypes within the species - WALV-1 and WALV-2 respectively. PMID:25299687

Belaganahalli, Manjunatha N.; Maan, Sushila; Maan, Narender S.; Pritchard, Ian; Kirkland, Peter D.; Brownlie, Joe; Attoui, Houssam; Mertens, Peter P. C.

2014-01-01

333

Characterization and distribution of tomato yellow margin leaf curl virus, a begomovirus from Venezuela.  

PubMed

A begomovirus causing mottling and leaf deformation in tomato from the State of Mérida was cloned and sequenced. The virus has a bipartite genome comprised of a DNA-A (2,572 nucleotides) and a DNA-B (2,543 nucleotides) with a genome organization typical of New World begomoviruses. Both components share a common region of 115 nucleotides with 98 % sequence identity. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that while no virus sequences were closely related, the A component was distantly related to those of two other tomato-infecting viruses, tomato leaf deformation virus and Merremia mosaic virus; and the DNA-B, to those of pepper huasteco yellow vein virus and Rhynchosia golden mosaic Yucatan virus. The DNA-A and DNA-B sequences were submitted to GenBank (accession no. AY508993 and AY508994, respectively) and later accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses as the genome of a member of a unique virus species with the name Tomato yellow margin leaf curl virus (TYMLCV). Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. 'Fl. Lanai') plants inoculated with cloned TYMLCV DNA-A and DNA-B became systemically infected and showed chlorotic margins and leaf curling. The distribution of TYMLCV in tomato-producing states in Venezuela was determined by nucleic acid spot hybridization analysis of 334 tomato leaf samples collected from ten states using a TYMLCV-specific probe and confirmed by PCR and sequencing of the PCR fragment. TYMLCV was detected in samples from the states of Aragua, Guárico, and Mérida, suggesting that TYMLCV is widely distributed in Venezuela. PMID:23064695

Nava, A; Londoño, A; Polston, J E

2013-02-01

334

Measles virus for cancer therapy  

PubMed Central

Measles virus offers an ideal platform from which to build a new generation of safe, effective oncolytic viruses. Occasional "spontaneous" tumor regressions have occurred during natural measles infections, but common tumors do not express SLAM, the wild-type MV receptor, and are therefore not susceptible to the virus. Serendipitously, attenuated vaccine strains of measles virus have adapted to use CD46, a regulator of complement activation that is expressed in higher abundance on human tumor cells than on their non transformed counterparts. For this reason, attenuated measles viruses are potent and selective oncolytic agents showing impressive antitumor activity in mouse xenograft models. The viruses can be engineered to enhance their tumor specificity, increase their antitumor potency and facilitate noninvasive in vivo monitoring of their spread. A major impediment to the successful deployment of oncolytic measles viruses as anticancer agents is the high prevalence of pre-existing anti measles immunity, which impedes bloodstream delivery and curtails intratumoral virus spread. It is hoped that these problems can be addressed by delivering the virus inside measles-infected cell carriers and/or by concomitant administration of immunosuppressive drugs. From a safety perspective, population immunity provides an excellent defense against measles spread from patient to carers and, in fifty years of human experience, reversion of attenuated measles to a wild type pathogenic phenotype has not been observed. Clinical trials testing oncolytic measles viruses as an experimental cancer therapy are currently underway. PMID:19203112

Russell, Stephen J.; Whye Peng, Kah

2014-01-01

335

Multiplex Real Time PCR For Detection of Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus and Triticum Mosaic Virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and Triticum mosaic virus (TRIMV) are widespread throughout the southwestern Great Plains states. Using conventional diagnostics such as Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA), these two viruses are commonly found together in infected wheat samples. Methods for m...

336

Collaboratively Sharing Scientific Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific research becomes increasingly reliant on multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional collaboration through sharing experimental data. Indeed, data sharing is mandatory by government research agencies such as NIH. The major hurdles for data sharing come from: i) the lack of data sharing infrastructure to make data sharing convenient for users; ii) users’ fear of losing control of their data; iii) difficulty on sharing schemas and incompatible data from sharing partners; and iv) inconsistent data under schema evolution. In this paper, we develop a collaborative data sharing system SciPort, to support consistency preserved data sharing among multiple distributed organizations. The system first provides Central Server based lightweight data integration architecture, so data and schemas can be conveniently shared across multiple organizations. Through distributed schema management, schema sharing and evolution is made possible, while data consistency is maintained and data compatibility is enforced. With this data sharing system, distributed sites can now consistently share their research data and their associated schemas with much convenience and flexibility. SciPort has been successfully used for data sharing in biomedical research, clinical trials and large scale research collaboration.

Wang, Fusheng; Vergara-Niedermayr, Cristobal

337

What Are Common Symptoms of Phenylketonuria (PKU)?  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources and Publications What are common symptoms of phenylketonuria (PKU)? Skip sharing on social media links Share ... a person's coloring 1 Genetics Home Reference. (2012). Phenylketonuria . Retrieved June 22, 2012, from http://ghr.nlm. ...

338

Chlorella Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorella viruses or chloroviruses are large, icosahedral, plaque?forming, double?stranded?DNA–containing viruses that replicate in certain strains of the unicellular green alga Chlorella. DNA sequence analysis of the 330?kbp genome of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV?1), the prototype of this virus family (Phycodnaviridae), predict ?366 protein?encoding genes and 11 tRNA genes. The predicted gene products of ?50% of these genes resemble

Takashi Yamada; Hideki Onimatsu; James L. Van Etten

2006-01-01

339

Serologic Cross-Reactions between Nucleocapsid Proteins of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus.  

PubMed

Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) share virologic and epidemiologic features and cause clinically similar respiratory illness predominantly in young children. In a previous study of acute febrile respiratory illness in Bangladesh, we tested paired serum specimens from 852 children presenting fever and cough for diagnostic increases in titers of antibody to hRSV and hMPV by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Unexpectedly, of 93 serum pairs that showed a ?4-fold increase in titers of antibody to hRSV, 24 (25.8%) showed a concurrent increase in titers of antibody to hMPV; of 91 pairs showing an increase to hMPV, 13 (14.3%) showed a concurrent increase to hRSV. We speculated that common antigens shared by these viruses explain this finding. Since the nucleocapsid (N) proteins of these viruses show the greatest sequence homology, we tested hyperimmune antisera prepared for each virus against baculovirus-expressed recombinant N (recN) proteins for potential cross-reactivity. The antisera were reciprocally reactive with both proteins. To localize common antigenic regions, we first expressed the carboxy domain of the hMPV N protein that was the most highly conserved region within the hRSV N protein. Although reciprocally reactive with antisera by Western blotting, this truncated protein did not react with hMPV IgG-positive human sera by EIA. Using 5 synthetic peptides that spanned the amino-terminal portion of the hMPV N protein, we identified a single peptide that was cross-reactive with human sera positive for either virus. Antiserum prepared for this peptide was reactive with recN proteins of both viruses, indicating that a common immunoreactive site exists in this region. PMID:25740767

Zhang, Yange; Pohl, Jan; Brooks, W Abdullah; Erdman, Dean D

2015-05-01

340

Clinical and biological differences between recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections  

SciTech Connect

The major features that distinguish recurrent herpes simplex virus infections from zoster are illustrated in this article by two case histories. The clinical and epidemiologic features that characterize recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections are reviewed. It is noted that herpesvirus infections are more common and severe in patients with cellular immune deficiency. Each virus evokes both humoral and cellular immune response in the course of primary infection. DNA hybridization studies with RNA probes labelled with sulfur-35 indicate that herpes simplex viruses persist within neurons, and that varicella-zoster virus is found in the satellite cells that encircle the neurons.

Straus, S.E. (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD (USA))

1989-12-01

341

Bench-to-bedside review: Rare and common viral infections in the intensive care unit – linking pathophysiology to clinical presentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral infections are common causes of respiratory tract disease in the outpatient setting but much less common in the intensive care unit. However, a finite number of viral agents cause respiratory tract disease in the intensive care unit. Some viruses, such as influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and varicella-zoster virus (VZV), are relatively common. Others, such as adenovirus,

Nicholas Stollenwerk; Richart W Harper; Christian E Sandrock

2008-01-01

342

Life Sciences Shared Resources  

E-print Network

Life Sciences Shared Resources Cancer.Dartmouth.eduMarch 2012 201202-19201202-19 #12;SHARED RESOURCES MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT TEAM: Mark Israel, MD Director, Norris Cotton Cancer Center Bob Gerlach, MPA Associate Director, Norris Cotton Cancer Center CraigTomlinson, PhD Associate Director for Shared Resources

Myers, Lawrence C.

343

Virus World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the Institute for Molecular Virology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, this Web site offers high quality virus images that may be used for seminar presentations or any other noncommercial use. Users can choose from American Society for Virology conference poster images, enhanced EM pictures, and images of virology-related book and journal covers. Images may be searched by virus name; the results page will provide links to summary information from the Protein Data Bank and to the Scripps Research Institute's Virus Particle Explorer. Movie animations and relevant links are provided for some of the virus images. Users can also access tutorials on virus structure and other topics.

2002-01-01

344

Black like Me: A Shared Ethnography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focused on a concept entitled shared ethnography. The researcher and youth participants share race in common. Critical Race Theory was used to analyze the reflective journal. An after school science program in a high poverty urban environment provided the context for this study. The findings of the study suggested that when researcher…

Catlin, Janell N.

2008-01-01

345

Common and unique features of T antigens encoded by the polyomavirus group.  

PubMed Central

Although 12 different members of the polyomavirus group have now been identified, only SV40 and PyV have been studied extensively. Whereas each member of the group shows a restricted host range, viruses infecting species from birds to humans have been reported. Although little is known concerning the biology of natural infections in the wild, it is apparent that these viruses exhibit various cell-type tropisms. Some viruses, such as LPV (B lymphocytes) or KV (pulmonary endothelium), are tightly restricted to specific cell types, while others, such as PyV, infect a variety of tissues in the animal. Despite these differences, all polyomaviruses share a common strategy of productive infection, expressing T antigens which act both on cellular targets, preparing cellular metabolism for supporting optimal viral replication, and then on targets within the viral genome, to regulate viral DNA replication, transcription, and assembly. Presumably, this common replication strategy restricts the degree to which the sequences of these viruses can diverge. Thus, sequence motifs conserved among these different viruses may indicate key structural elements essential for biochemical function. In this article I have compared the sequences of all polyomavirus-encoded large and small T antigens sequenced to date. This has led to the following conclusions and speculations. (i) Comparison of the domain organization of different large T antigens reveals that these proteins fall into two structural classes. Members of the SV40 class, which include SV40, JCV, BKV, and SA12, possess a carboxyl-terminal domain, which in SV40 has been shown to be dispensable for viral DNA replication but essential for virion assembly. The PyV class lacks the carboxyl-terminal domain and carries additional amino acids within the amino-terminal domain. When total amino acid identity is examined, members of the SV40 class show the highest degree of conservation (65 to 85%), while sequence identity among the remaining viruses varies from 18 to 55%. (ii) The DNA binding domains of most large T antigens are closely related, with amino acid identities ranging from 35 to 86%. Several residues within this domain are invariant among all T antigens. All of these viruses have multiple copies of the consensus T-antigen-binding pentanucleotide (GAGGC) in their ori region, suggesting that all T antigens recognize this sequence. The single exception is the large T antigen encoded by the avian virus BFDV. The putative DNA binding domain of this protein shows little or no sequence relation to that of other T antigens. Furthermore, the GAGGC motif is not found in the ori region of this virus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1318392

Pipas, J M

1992-01-01

346

PC viruses: How do they do that?  

SciTech Connect

The topic of PC Viruses has been an issue for a number of years now. They`ve been reported in every major newspaper, tabloids, television and radio. People from all fields get viruses: government, private sector businesses, home computers, schools, computer software suppliers. A definition is proposed to introduce the virus phenomenon. Virus authors come from a variety of communities. Motives and ideologies of authors are discussed, and examples of viruses are offered. Also mentioned is the growing number of viruses developed, isolated, and never distributed to the public at large, but kept within the antivirus research community. Virus examples are offered as well. Viruses are distributed not only through bulletin boards and shareware, but also from areas previously assumed to be safe, including the threat of receiving a virus through a standard in-house function, such as an in-house hardware maintenance shop. Three categories of viruses are presented: File Infecter viruses, Boot Sector Infecters, and the new category of Directory Entry Infecter virus. Also discussed are crossover viruses, that is, viruses which utilize a variety of techniques to ensure survival. An explanation of what is occurring within every stage of various viruses is given. Replication strategies common to all three types is noted, mainly the two different replication strategies of memory resident infecters and active selection infecters. A detailed definition, description and application of a stealth virus is presented. Detection strategies are discussed as each topic in this section is completed; a high level schemata of the operation of various virus detection programs ispresented. Since most eradication today is done using virus detection/eradication software, this paper attempts to reveal the techniques used by these packages.Included in the paper is the topic of manual eradication.

Pichnarczyk, K.

1992-07-01

347

PC viruses: How do they do that  

SciTech Connect

The topic of PC Viruses has been an issue for a number of years now. They've been reported in every major newspaper, tabloids, television and radio. People from all fields get viruses: government, private sector businesses, home computers, schools, computer software suppliers. A definition is proposed to introduce the virus phenomenon. Virus authors come from a variety of communities. Motives and ideologies of authors are discussed, and examples of viruses are offered. Also mentioned is the growing number of viruses developed, isolated, and never distributed to the public at large, but kept within the antivirus research community. Virus examples are offered as well. Viruses are distributed not only through bulletin boards and shareware, but also from areas previously assumed to be safe, including the threat of receiving a virus through a standard in-house function, such as an in-house hardware maintenance shop. Three categories of viruses are presented: File Infecter viruses, Boot Sector Infecters, and the new category of Directory Entry Infecter virus. Also discussed are crossover viruses, that is, viruses which utilize a variety of techniques to ensure survival. An explanation of what is occurring within every stage of various viruses is given. Replication strategies common to all three types is noted, mainly the two different replication strategies of memory resident infecters and active selection infecters. A detailed definition, description and application of a stealth virus is presented. Detection strategies are discussed as each topic in this section is completed; a high level schemata of the operation of various virus detection programs ispresented. Since most eradication today is done using virus detection/eradication software, this paper attempts to reveal the techniques used by these packages.Included in the paper is the topic of manual eradication.

Pichnarczyk, K.

1992-07-01

348

Registration of PR0633-10 and PR0737-1 red mottled dry bean germplasm lines with resistance to BGYMB, BCMV, BCMNV, and common bacterial blight  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) is an important disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Central America and the Caribbean. Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) pose a threat to common bean production throughout the world. The development an...

349

An Automatic Unpacking Method for Computer Virus Effective in the Virus Filter Based on Paul Graham's Bayesian Theorem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the appearance frequency of computer virus variants has increased. Updates to virus information using the normal pattern matching method are increasingly unable to keep up with the speed at which viruses occur, since it takes time to extract the characteristic patterns for each virus. Therefore, a rapid, automatic virus detection algorithm using static code analysis is necessary. However, recent computer viruses are almost always compressed and obfuscated. It is difficult to determine the characteristics of the binary code from the obfuscated computer viruses. Therefore, this paper proposes a method that unpacks compressed computer viruses automatically independent of the compression format. The proposed method unpacks the common compression formats accurately 80% of the time, while unknown compression formats can also be unpacked. The proposed method is effective against unknown viruses by combining it with the existing known virus detection system like Paul Graham's Bayesian Virus Filter etc.

Zhang, Dengfeng; Nakaya, Naoshi; Koui, Yuuji; Yoshida, Hitoaki

350

Simian alphaherpesviruses and their relation to the human herpes simplex viruses.  

PubMed

Biochemical and immunological properties of structural and non-structural polypeptides of the human simplex viruses (HSV1 and HSV2) and four related herpesviruses of non-human primates [Herpesvirus simiae (B virus), H. cercopithicus (SA8), H. saimiri 1 (HVS 1), and H. ateles 1 (HVA 1)] were compared. Using a radioimmunoassay (RIA), the presence of antigenic determinants shared among all six viruses was demonstrated. The relative degree of antigenic cross-reactivity among these viruses was further assessed by competition RIA. Antigenically, HSV 1 and HSV 2 were most closely related to each other although both SA 8 and B virus were also very closely related to HSV 1. Considerably less cross-reactivity existed between either HVS 1 or HVA 1 and the other four primate herpesviruses. Cross-hybridization between simian and human herpesvirus genomes demonstrated that extensive homology exists between each of the simian viruses and both HSV1 and HSV 2. Viral polypeptides bearing common antigenic determinants were identified by immune precipitation of infected cell polypeptides and by immunoblotting. Among the polypeptides of HSV which were recognized by antisera to simian viruses were the VP 5 and p40 proteins, both of which are structural components of the virion nucleocapsid. Using recombinant plasmids containing sequences of the HSV 1 VP5, p40, DNA polymerase, major DNA binding protein, and TK enzyme genes, homologous sequences were detected in all four simian viruses. Together, these results demonstrate that HSV 1, HSV 2, SA 8, and B virus form a closely related sub-group of the primate herpesviruses; HVS 1 and HVA 1 are also related to the other four primate herpesviruses, albeit more distantly. PMID:2558632

Hilliard, J K; Black, D; Eberle, R

1989-01-01

351

CHLORELLA VIRUSES  

PubMed Central

Chlorella viruses or chloroviruses are large, icosahedral, plaque?forming, double?stranded?DNA—containing viruses that replicate in certain strains of the unicellular green alga Chlorella. DNA sequence analysis of the 330?kbp genome of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV?1), the prototype of this virus family (Phycodnaviridae), predict ?366 protein?encoding genes and 11 tRNA genes. The predicted gene products of ?50% of these genes resemble proteins of known function, including many that are completely unexpected for a virus. In addition, the chlorella viruses have several features and encode many gene products that distinguish them from most viruses. These products include: (1) multiple DNA methyltransferases and DNA site?specific endonucleases, (2) the enzymes required to glycosylate their proteins and synthesize polysaccharides such as hyaluronan and chitin, (3) a virus?encoded K+ channel (called Kcv) located in the internal membrane of the virions, (4) a SET domain containing protein (referred to as vSET) that dimethylates Lys27 in histone 3, and (5) PBCV?1 has three types of introns; a self?splicing intron, a spliceosomal processed intron, and a small tRNA intron. Accumulating evidence indicates that the chlorella viruses have a very long evolutionary history. This review mainly deals with research on the virion structure, genome rearrangements, gene expression, cell wall degradation, polysaccharide synthesis, and evolution of PBCV?1 as well as other related viruses. PMID:16877063

Yamada, Takashi; Onimatsu, Hideki; Van Etten, James L.

2007-01-01

352

Chlorella viruses.  

PubMed

Chlorella viruses or chloroviruses are large, icosahedral, plaque-forming, double-stranded-DNA-containing viruses that replicate in certain strains of the unicellular green alga Chlorella. DNA sequence analysis of the 330-kbp genome of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1), the prototype of this virus family (Phycodnaviridae), predict approximately 366 protein-encoding genes and 11 tRNA genes. The predicted gene products of approximately 50% of these genes resemble proteins of known function, including many that are completely unexpected for a virus. In addition, the chlorella viruses have several features and encode many gene products that distinguish them from most viruses. These products include: (1) multiple DNA methyltransferases and DNA site-specific endonucleases, (2) the enzymes required to glycosylate their proteins and synthesize polysaccharides such as hyaluronan and chitin, (3) a virus-encoded K(+) channel (called Kcv) located in the internal membrane of the virions, (4) a SET domain containing protein (referred to as vSET) that dimethylates Lys27 in histone 3, and (5) PBCV-1 has three types of introns; a self-splicing intron, a spliceosomal processed intron, and a small tRNA intron. Accumulating evidence indicates that the chlorella viruses have a very long evolutionary history. This review mainly deals with research on the virion structure, genome rearrangements, gene expression, cell wall degradation, polysaccharide synthesis, and evolution of PBCV-1 as well as other related viruses. PMID:16877063

Yamada, Takashi; Onimatsu, Hideki; Van Etten, James L

2006-01-01

353

Limits in virus filtration capability? Impact of virus quality and spike level on virus removal with xenotropic murine leukemia virus.  

PubMed

Virus filtration (VF) is a key step in an overall viral clearance process since it has been demonstrated to effectively clear a wide range of mammalian viruses with a log reduction value (LRV)?>?4. The potential to achieve higher LRV from virus retentive filters has historically been examined using bacteriophage surrogates, which commonly demonstrated a potential of?>?9 LRV when using high titer spikes (e.g. 10(10) PFU/mL). However, as the filter loading increases, one typically experiences significant decreases in performance and LRV. The 9 LRV value is markedly higher than the current expected range of 4-5 LRV when utilizing mammalian retroviruses on virus removal filters (Miesegaes et al., Dev Biol (Basel) 2010;133:3-101). Recent values have been reported in the literature (Stuckey et al., Biotech Progr 2014;30:79-85) of LRV in excess of 6 for PPV and XMuLV although this result appears to be atypical. LRV for VF with therapeutic proteins could be limited by several factors including process limits (flux decay, load matrix), virus spike level and the analytical methods used for virus detection (i.e. the Limits of Quantitation), as well as the virus spike quality. Research was conducted using the Xenotropic-Murine Leukemia Virus (XMuLV) for its direct relevance to the most commonly cited document, the International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) Q5A (International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use, Geneva, Switzerland, 1999) for viral safety evaluations. A unique aspect of this work is the independent evaluation of the impact of retrovirus quality and virus spike level on VF performance and LRV. The VF studies used XMuLV preparations purified by either ultracentrifugation (Ultra 1) or by chromatographic processes that yielded a more highly purified virus stock (Ultra 2). Two monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) with markedly different filtration characteristics and with similar levels of aggregate (<1.5%) were evaluated with the Ultra 1 and Ultra 2 virus preparations utilizing the Planova 20 N, a small virus removal filter. Impurities in the virus preparation ultimately limited filter loading as measured by determining the volumetric loading condition where 75% flux decay is observed versus initial conditions (V75 ). This observation occurred with both Mabs with the difference in virus purity more pronounced when very high spike levels were used (>5 vol/vol %). Significant differences were seen for the process performance over a number of lots of the less-pure Ultra 1 virus preparations. Experiments utilizing a developmental lot of the chromatographic purified XMuLV (Ultra 2 Development lot) that had elevated levels of host cell residuals (vs. the final Ultra 2 preparations) suggest that these contaminant residuals can impact virus filter fouling, even if the virus prep is essentially monodisperse. Process studies utilizing an Ultra 2 virus with substantially less host cell residuals and highly monodispersed virus particles demonstrated superior performance and an LRV in excess of 7.7 log10 . A model was constructed demonstrating the linear dependence of filtration flux versus filter loading which can be used to predict the V75 for a range of virus spike levels conditions using this highly purified virus. Fine tuning the virus spike level with this model can ultimately maximize the LRV for the virus filter step, essentially adding the LRV equivalent of another process step (i.e. protein A or CEX chromatography). © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 31:135-144, 2015. PMID:25395156

Roush, David J; Myrold, Adam; Burnham, Michael S; And, Joseph V; Hughes, Joseph V

2015-01-01

354

Hepatitis C virus infection in the human immunodeficiency virus infected patient  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) share the same transmission routes; therefore, coinfection is frequent. An estimated 5-10 million individuals alone in the western world are infected with both viruses. The majority of people acquire HCV by injection drug use and, to a lesser extent, through blood transfusion and blood products. Recently, there has been an increase in HCV infections among men who have sex with men. In the context of effective antiretroviral treatment, liver-related deaths are now more common than Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome-related deaths among HIV-HCV coinfected individuals. Morbidity and mortality rates from chronic HCV infection will increase because the infection incidence peaked in the mid-1980s and because liver disease progresses slowly and is clinically silent to cirrhosis and end-stage-liver disease over a 15-20 year time period for 15%-20% of chronically infected individuals. HCV treatment has rapidly changed with the development of new direct-acting antiviral agents; therefore, cure rates have greatly improved because the new treatment regimens target different parts of the HCV life cycle. In this review, we focus on the epidemiology, diagnosis and the natural course of HCV as well as current and future strategies for HCV therapy in the context of HIV-HCV coinfection in the western world. PMID:25232248

Clausen, Louise Nygaard; Lundbo, Lene Fogt; Benfield, Thomas

2014-01-01

355

Emergence of Divergent Zaire Ebola Virus Strains in Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2007 and 2008  

PubMed Central

?Background.?Zaire ebolavirus was responsible for 2 outbreaks in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), in 1976 and 1995. The virus reemerged in DRC 12 years later, causing 2 successive outbreaks in the Luebo region, Kasai Occidental province, in 2007 and 2008. Methods.?Viruses of each outbreak were isolated and the full-length genomes were characterized. Phylogenetic analysis was then undertaken to characterize the relationships with previously described viruses. Results.?The 2 Luebo viruses are nearly identical but are not related to lineage A viruses known in DRC or to descendants of the lineage B viruses encountered in the Gabon–Republic of the Congo area, with which they do, however, share a common ancestor. Conclusions.?Our findings strongly suggest that the Luebo 2007 outbreak did not result from viral spread from previously identified foci but from an independent viral emergence. The previously identified epidemiological link with migratory bat species known to carry Zaire ebolavirus RNA support the hypothesis of viral spillover from this widely dispersed reservoir. The high level of similarity between the Luebo2007 and Luebo2008 viruses suggests that local wildlife populations (most likely bats) became infected and allowed local viral persistence and reemergence from year to year. PMID:21987750

Biek, Roman; Muyembe Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Fair, Joseph; Wolfe, Nathan; Formenty, Pierre; Paweska, Janusz; Leroy, Eric

2011-01-01

356

Cedar Virus: A Novel Henipavirus Isolated from Australian Bats  

PubMed Central

The genus Henipavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae contains two viruses, Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) for which pteropid bats act as the main natural reservoir. Each virus also causes serious and commonly lethal infection of people as well as various species of domestic animals, however little is known about the associated mechanisms of pathogenesis. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a new paramyxovirus from pteropid bats, Cedar virus (CedPV), which shares significant features with the known henipaviruses. The genome size (18,162 nt) and organization of CedPV is very similar to that of HeV and NiV; its nucleocapsid protein displays antigenic cross-reactivity with henipaviruses; and it uses the same receptor molecule (ephrin- B2) for entry during infection. Preliminary challenge studies with CedPV in ferrets and guinea pigs, both susceptible to infection and disease with known henipaviruses, confirmed virus replication and production of neutralizing antibodies although clinical disease was not observed. In this context, it is interesting to note that the major genetic difference between CedPV and HeV or NiV lies within the coding strategy of the P gene, which is known to play an important role in evading the host innate immune system. Unlike HeV, NiV, and almost all known paramyxoviruses, the CedPV P gene lacks both RNA editing and also the coding capacity for the highly conserved V protein. Preliminary study indicated that CedPV infection of human cells induces a more robust IFN-? response than HeV. PMID:22879820

Barr, Jennifer A.; Tachedjian, Mary; Smith, Craig; Middleton, Deborah; Yu, Meng; Todd, Shawn; Foord, Adam J.; Haring, Volker; Payne, Jean; Robinson, Rachel; Broz, Ivano; Crameri, Gary; Field, Hume E.; Wang, Lin-Fa

2012-01-01

357

TUMOR VIRUSES  

E-print Network

It has been known for many years that infection of an experimental animal with one of a relatively small group of viruses somehow resulted in the appearance of gross tumors. Because of this and the known intimate relationships between the infecting virus and the functions of the cell it invades, many scientists have hypothesized that cancer in man may well be of viral etiology. Yet even today when the amount and sophistication of tumor virus research has markedly increased in recent years, it is not known how a virus transforms a normal cell to one having the properties of a tumor cell nor is there direct evidence that viruses cause cancer in man. However, in the last five years there has been a remarkable change in the experimental approach to the study of tumor viruses. Whereas most early investigations were limited to observations of biological phenomena at the whole animal-gross tumor level, now modern, virological, biochemical, and immunological methods are used to examine the quantitative interaction of tumor viruses with the single cell in the transforming event and to look for determining characteristics of the tumor virus particles, as such. This has been a logical development as techniques in these basic areas have been discovered and applied to other biological problems. Thus, although the final answers are still far from being achieved, we find that a number of basic factors of importance in viral oncogenesis have been defined in certain experimental virus-induced tumor systems. IMPORTANCE OF IN VITRO SYSTEMS FOR VIRUS TRANSFORMATION The chief reason that we are able to start formulating some tentative answers to the question of how a virus transforms a normal cell to a tumor cell is the development of tissue culture systems in which virus transformation occurs in vitro. The degree of control that these isolated systems

358

Molluscum contagiosum virus infection.  

PubMed

Molluscum contagiosum virus is an important human skin pathogen: it can cause disfigurement and suffering in children, in adults it is less common and often sexually transmitted. Extensive and persistent skin infection with the virus can indicate underlying immunodeficiency. Traditional ablative therapies have not been compared directly with newer immune-modulating and specific antiviral therapies. Advances in research raise the prospect of new approaches to treatment informed by the biology of the virus; in human skin, the infection is localised in the epidermal layers, where it induces a typical, complex hyperproliferative lesion with an abundance of virus particles but a conspicuous absence of immune effectors. Functional studies of the viral genome have revealed effects on cellular pathways involved in the cell cycle, innate immunity, inflammation, and cell death. Extensive lesions caused by molluscum contagiosum can occur in patients with DOCK8 deficiency-a genetic disorder affecting migration of dendritic and specialised T cells in skin. Sudden disappearance of lesions is the consequence of a vigorous immune response in healthy people. Further study of the unique features of infection with molluscum contagiosum virus could give fundamental insight into the nature of skin immunity. PMID:23972567

Chen, Xiaoying; Anstey, Alex V; Bugert, Joachim J

2013-10-01

359

Engineered plant virus resistance.  

PubMed

Virus diseases are among the key limiting factors that cause significant yield loss and continuously threaten crop production. Resistant cultivars coupled with pesticide application are commonly used to circumvent these threats. One of the limitations of the reliance on resistant cultivars is the inevitable breakdown of resistance due to the multitude of variable virus populations. Similarly, chemical applications to control virus transmitting insect vectors are costly to the farmers, cause adverse health and environmental consequences, and often result in the emergence of resistant vector strains. Thus, exploiting strategies that provide durable and broad-spectrum resistance over diverse environments are of paramount importance. The development of plant gene transfer systems has allowed for the introgression of alien genes into plant genomes for novel disease control strategies, thus providing a mechanism for broadening the genetic resources available to plant breeders. Genetic engineering offers various options for introducing transgenic virus resistance into crop plants to provide a wide range of resistance to viral pathogens. This review examines the current strategies of developing virus resistant transgenic plants. PMID:25438782

Galvez, Leny C; Banerjee, Joydeep; Pinar, Hasan; Mitra, Amitava

2014-11-01

360

Identity of red currant spoon leaf virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Red currant spoon leaf virus, isolated from red currant in The Netherlands, is a strain of raspberry ringspot virus; it shares most of its antigenic groups with the “type” strain from Scottish raspberry but causes distinctive symptoms inPetunia hybrida. It differs from tomato ringspot virus, obtained byHildebrand (1942) from red currant in the United States.Klesser's (1951) red currant ringspot

B. D. Harrison

1961-01-01

361

Intergenerational risk sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper empirically examines what macroeconomic risks are shared (or not shared) internationally after stock market liberalization in sev- eral developing countries. To address this issue, we incorporate an international asset pricing model into a non-linear structural Vector Autoregression (VAR) system that identifies various sources of macroe- conomic risks. We find that most of the risks corresponding to ex- ogenous

Roger H. Gordon; Hal R. Varian

1988-01-01

362

Work Sharing Case Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to provide private sector employers with the practical information necessary to select and then to design and implement work sharing arrangements, this book presents case studies of some 36 work sharing programs. Topics covered in the case studies include the circumstances leading to adoption of the program, details of compensation and…

McCarthy, Maureen E.; And Others

363

Sharing Portfolios with Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At a Rhode Island elementary school, portfolio sharing night provides a way for students to share their classwork with parents in a relaxed, informative setting. Parents see works in progress and completed samples and hear the children explain their work. This format has helped improve public relations and communication with parents and encouraged…

Johnson, Paul B., Sr.

1996-01-01

364

Rethinking Resource Sharing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the need for rethinking resource sharing to offer both library users and nonlibrary users options to obtain the material they seek from both libraries and commerical sources. The article discusses several programs that are emerging including the "GoGetter" function, the Rethinking Resource Sharing Manifesto, user needs, and…

Beaubien, Anne; Stevens, Patricia

2008-01-01

365

Models, Norms and Sharing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To investigate the effect of modeling on altruism, 156 third and fifth grade children were exposed to a model who either shared with them, gave to a charity, or refused to share. The test apparatus, identified as a game, consisted of a box with signal lights and a chute through which marbles were dispensed. Subjects and the model played the game…

Harris, Mary B.

366

Antigenic and genetic variation in cytopathic hepatitis A virus variants arising during persistent infection: evidence for genetic recombination.  

PubMed

Variants of hepatitis A virus (pHM175 virus) recovered from persistently infected green monkey kidney (BS-C-1) cells induced a cytopathic effect during serial passage in BS-C-1 or fetal rhesus kidney (FRhK-4) cells. Epitope-specific radioimmunofocus assays showed that this virus comprised two virion populations, one with altered antigenicity including neutralization resistance to monoclonal antibody K24F2, and the other with normal antigenic characteristics. Replication of the antigenic variant was favored over that of virus with the normal antigenic phenotype during persistent infection, while virus with the normal antigenic phenotype was selected during serial passage. Viruses of each type were clonally isolated; both were cytopathic in cell cultures and displayed a rapid replication phenotype when compared with the noncytopathic passage 16 (p16) HM175 virus which was used to establish the original persistent infection. The two cytopathic virus clones contained 31 and 34 nucleotide changes from the sequence of p16 HM175. Both shared a common 5' sequence (bases 30 to 1677), as well as sequence identity in the P2-P3 region (bases 3249 to 5303 and 6462 to 6781) and 3' terminus (bases 7272 to 7478). VP3, VP1, and 3Cpro contained different mutations in the two virus clones, with amino acid substitutions at residues 70 of VP3 and 197 and 276 of VP1 of the antigenic variant. These capsid mutations did not affect virion thermal stability. A comparison of the nearly complete genomic sequences of three clonally isolated cytopathic variants was suggestive of genetic recombination between these viruses during persistent infection and indicated that mutations in both 5' and 3' nontranslated regions and in the nonstructural proteins 2A, 2B, 2C, 3A, and 3Dpol may be related to the cytopathic phenotype. PMID:1705995

Lemon, S M; Murphy, P C; Shields, P A; Ping, L H; Feinstone, S M; Cromeans, T; Jansen, R W

1991-04-01

367

Antigenic and genetic variation in cytopathic hepatitis A virus variants arising during persistent infection: evidence for genetic recombination.  

PubMed Central

Variants of hepatitis A virus (pHM175 virus) recovered from persistently infected green monkey kidney (BS-C-1) cells induced a cytopathic effect during serial passage in BS-C-1 or fetal rhesus kidney (FRhK-4) cells. Epitope-specific radioimmunofocus assays showed that this virus comprised two virion populations, one with altered antigenicity including neutralization resistance to monoclonal antibody K24F2, and the other with normal antigenic characteristics. Replication of the antigenic variant was favored over that of virus with the normal antigenic phenotype during persistent infection, while virus with the normal antigenic phenotype was selected during serial passage. Viruses of each type were clonally isolated; both were cytopathic in cell cultures and displayed a rapid replication phenotype when compared with the noncytopathic passage 16 (p16) HM175 virus which was used to establish the original persistent infection. The two cytopathic virus clones contained 31 and 34 nucleotide changes from the sequence of p16 HM175. Both shared a common 5' sequence (bases 30 to 1677), as well as sequence identity in the P2-P3 region (bases 3249 to 5303 and 6462 to 6781) and 3' terminus (bases 7272 to 7478). VP3, VP1, and 3Cpro contained different mutations in the two virus clones, with amino acid substitutions at residues 70 of VP3 and 197 and 276 of VP1 of the antigenic variant. These capsid mutations did not affect virion thermal stability. A comparison of the nearly complete genomic sequences of three clonally isolated cytopathic variants was suggestive of genetic recombination between these viruses during persistent infection and indicated that mutations in both 5' and 3' nontranslated regions and in the nonstructural proteins 2A, 2B, 2C, 3A, and 3Dpol may be related to the cytopathic phenotype. Images PMID:1705995

Lemon, S M; Murphy, P C; Shields, P A; Ping, L H; Feinstone, S M; Cromeans, T; Jansen, R W

1991-01-01

368

Identification and comparative analysis of hepatitis C virus-host cell protein interactions.  

PubMed

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) alters the global behavior of the host cell to create an environment conducive to its own replication, but much remains unknown about how HCV proteins elicit these changes. Thus, a better understanding of the interface between the virus and host cell is required. Here we report the results of a large-scale yeast two-hybrid screen to identify protein-protein interactions between HCV genotype 2a (strain JFH1) and cellular factors. Our study identified 112 unique interactions between 7 HCV and 94 human proteins, over 40% of which have been linked to HCV infection by other studies. These interactions develop a more complete picture of HCV infection, providing insight into HCV manipulation of pathways, such as lipid and cholesterol metabolism, that were previously linked to HCV infection and implicating novel targets within microtubule-organizing centers, the complement system and cell cycle regulatory machinery. In an effort to understand the relationship between HCV and related viruses, we compared the HCV 2a interactome to those of other HCV genotypes and to the related dengue virus. Greater overlap was observed between HCV and dengue virus targets than between HCV genotypes, demonstrating the value of parallel screening approaches when comparing virus-host cell interactomes. Using siRNAs to inhibit expression of cellular proteins, we found that five of the ten shared targets tested (CUL7, PCM1, RILPL2, RNASET2, and TCF7L2) were required for replication of both HCV and dengue virus. These shared interactions provide insight into common features of the viral life cycles of the family Flaviviridae. PMID:24136289

Dolan, Patrick T; Zhang, Chaoying; Khadka, Sudip; Arumugaswami, Vaithilingaraja; Vangeloff, Abbey D; Heaton, Nicholas S; Sahasrabudhe, Sudhir; Randall, Glenn; Sun, Ren; LaCount, Douglas J

2013-12-01

369

Detecting Unknown Computer Viruses - A New Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We give an overview of the tools to detect computer viruses without relying on “pattern files” that contain “signatures” of\\u000a previously captured viruses. The system combines static code analysis with code simulation to identify malicious behaviors\\u000a commonly found in computer viruses such as mass mailing, file infection, and registry overwrite. These prohibited behaviors\\u000a are defined separately as security policies at

Akira Mori

2003-01-01

370

West Nile virus in the Americas.  

PubMed

West Nile virus causes sporadic disease in the Eastern hemisphere that is often asymptomatic or mild, whereas in the Western hemisphere, West Nile virus has been associated with illness and profound mortality in many avian species. West Nile virus might have been transported to North America by an infected mosquito or the virus could have entered within a vertebrate host like a bird. Although the most important method of West Nile virus transmission is by Culex species mosquitoes, additional modes of transmission have been identified. West Nile virus has been isolated from almost 300 species of Western birds. The long-term effects on common species such as corvids, sparrows, grackles, finches, hawks, and robins are still being debated. However the potential effect of West Nile virus on small populations or species with limited geographic distribution, such as Hawaiian avifauna, could be much more catastrophic. PMID:18689077

Pollock, Christal G

2008-06-01

371

Share with thy neighbors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peer to peer (P2P) systems are traditionally designed to scale to a large number of nodes. However, we focus on scenarios where the sharing is effected only among neighbors. Localized sharing is particularly attractive in scenarios where wide area network connectivity is undesirable, expensive or unavailable. On the other hand, local neighbors may not offer the wide variety of objects possible in a much larger system. The goal of this paper is to investigate a P2P system that shares contents with its neighbors. We analyze the sharing behavior of Apple iTunes users in an University setting. iTunes restricts the sharing of audio and video objects to peers within the same LAN sub-network. We show that users are already making a significant amount of content available for local sharing. We show that these systems are not appropriate for applications that require access to a specific object. We argue that mechanisms that allow the user to specify classes of interesting objects are better suited for these systems. Mechanisms such as bloom filters can allow each peer to summarize the contents available in the neighborhood, reducing network search overhead. This research can form the basis for future storage systems that utilize the shared storage available in neighbors and build a probabilistic storage for local consumption.

Chandra, Surendar; Yu, Xuwen

2007-01-01

372

METHODOLOGICAL NOTES: Computer viruses and methods of combatting them  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article examines the current virus situation for personal computers and time-sharing computers. Basic methods of combatting viruses are presented. Specific recommendations are given to eliminate the most widespread viruses. A short description is given of a universal antiviral system, PHENIX, which has been developed.

Landsberg, G. L.

1991-02-01

373

Comparative genomics of mutualistic viruses of Glyptapanteles parasitic wasps  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Polydnaviruses, a family of double-stranded DNA viruses with segmented genomes, have evolved as obligate endosymbionts of endoparasitoid wasps, and are some of the few viruses known to share mutualistic relationships with eukaryotic hosts. Virus particles are replication deficient and are produced o...

374

Phylogenetic and biological characterization of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses (Vietnam 2005) in chickens and ducks virus research  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Analysis of Asian H5N1 avian influenza (AI) virus hemagglutinin (HA) genes shows a common origin, but the virus has evolved into at least three major clades (clades 0, 1, and 2) over the last 11 years. Previous reports of Vietnam viruses have documented predominantly clade 1 viruses. Unexpectedly,...

375

Accelerating Spectrum Sharing Technologies  

SciTech Connect

Spectrum sharing potentially holds the promise of solving the emerging spectrum crisis. However, technology innovators face the conundrum of developing spectrum sharing technologies without the ability to experiment and test with real incumbent systems. Interference with operational incumbents can prevent critical services, and the cost of deploying and operating an incumbent system can be prohibitive. Thus, the lack of incumbent systems and frequency authorization for technology incubation and demonstration has stymied spectrum sharing research. To this end, industry, academia, and regulators all require a test facility for validating hypotheses and demonstrating functionality without affecting operational incumbent systems. This article proposes a four-phase program supported by our spectrum accountability architecture. We propose that our comprehensive experimentation and testing approach for technology incubation and demonstration will accelerate the development of spectrum sharing technologies.

Juan D. Deaton; Lynda L. Brighton; Rangam Subramanian; Hussein Moradi; Jose Loera

2013-09-01

376

Share Your Values  

MedlinePLUS

... to its insatiable appetite for sensationalism, sex and celebrity worship. If we’re to counterbalance these outside ... based on individual facts and circumstances. Share Facebook Twitter MySpace Digg More Email Print topic landing page ...

377

Sharing Supermodular Costs  

E-print Network

has a job with processing time pi 2 R>0 and weight wi 2 R 0. Jobs are ... limited attention; some authors have developed axiomatic characterizations of various cost sharing rules for .... Duality approaches to economic lot sizing games.

2010-06-23

378

Online Breast Milk Sharing  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

A service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health Home About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Search MedlinePlus Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Cool Tools To use the sharing ...

379

Share My Screen Pro  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you work with people all over the country or the world, it can be hard to share information and visuals quickly. Share My Screen Pro allows users to do just that, complete with two way audio and instant messaging. Visitors can watch a short video here to get oriented and after that, it's rather easy to get started with the program. This version is compatible with all computers running Windows 2000 and newer as well as iOS and Android phones.

2013-07-18

380

Library Resource Sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Libraries in Texas have a long history of developing multi-type agreements for resource sharing. The leadership of the Texas State Library and Archives Commission, academic libraries, and the regional consortium Amigos have led to the creation of TexShare. The article cites a few of the many examples of multi-type library consortia and partnerships from all over Texas. The most important

Paul E. Dumont

2002-01-01

381

A Virus Attacking Lettuce and Dandelion  

Microsoft Academic Search

DURING the last three years lettuces have been seen in different parts of Britain suffering from a severe disease, the symptoms suggesting infection with a virus. The cause has now been found to be a virus that is also responsible for the chlorotic rings and spots so commonly seen in dandelion (Taraxacum officinale).

B. Kassanis

1944-01-01

382

ANALYSIS AND DETECTION OF METAMORPHIC COMPUTER VIRUSES  

E-print Network

ANALYSIS AND DETECTION OF METAMORPHIC COMPUTER VIRUSES A Writing Project Presented to The Faculty I truly appreciate. #12;ii Abstract Computer virus writers commonly use metamorphic techniques of the Department of Computer Science San Jose State University In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements

Stamp, Mark

383

A fault tolerance approach to computer viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensions of program flow monitors and n-version programming can be combined to provide a solution to the detection and containment of computer viruses. The consequence is that a computer can tolerate both deliberate faults and random physical faults by one common mechanism. Specifically, the technique detects control flow errors due to physical faults as well as the presence of viruses

Mark K. Joseph; Algirdas AviZienis

1988-01-01

384

Characterization, Diagnosis & Management of Plant Viruses, Vol. 2. Horticultural Crops  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Characterization of viruses in fruit tree crops is complicated due to the fact that many cultivated fruit crops are maintained through vegetative propagation and mixed infection of several viruses in a fruit tree is a common phenomenon. Viruses have undoubtedly infected fruit trees and cause diseas...

385

TRANSMISSION OF VIRUSES TO MOSQUITO LARVAE MEDIATED BY DIVALENT CATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The most common occluded viruses of mosquitoes are baculoviruses (nucleopolyhedro viruses, NPV) and cypoviruses (CPV). Mosquito NPV’s have a circular, double-stranded DNA genome packaged into rod-shaped enveloped capsids embedded in a protein matrix. Mosquito cypoviruses are RNA viruses with a 10 ...

386

DEVELOPMENT OF A MOLECULAR METHOD TO IDENTIFY HEPATITIS E VIRUS  

EPA Science Inventory

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a waterborne emerging pathogen that causes significant illness in the developing world. Thus far, an HEV outbreak has not been reported in the U.S., although a swine variant of the virus is common in Midwestern hogs. Because viruses isolated from two ...

387

Genomic Characterization of Nipah Virus, West Bengal, India  

PubMed Central

An intrafamilial outbreak in West Bengal, India, involving 5 deaths and person-to-person transmission was attributed to Nipah virus. Full-genome sequence of Nipah virus (18,252 nt) amplified from lung tissue showed 99.2% nt and 99.8% aa identity with the Bangladesh-2004 isolate, suggesting a common source of the virus. PMID:21529409

Bandyopadhyay, Bhaswati T.; Ramdasi, Ashwini Y.; Jadi, Ramesh; Patil, Dilip R.; Rahman, Mehebubar; Majumdar, Monalisa; Banerjee, Parthasarthi S.; Hati, Amiyakumar K.; Goswami, Ramaprasad P.; Neogi, Dhruba Kumar; Mishra, Akhilesh C.

2011-01-01

388

Systemic Spread and Propagation of a Plant-Pathogenic Virus in European Honeybees, Apis mellifera  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Emerging and reemerging diseases that result from pathogen host shifts are a threat to the health of humans and their domesticates. RNA viruses have extremely high mutation rates and thus represent a significant source of these infectious diseases. In the present study, we showed that a plant-pathogenic RNA virus, tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), could replicate and produce virions in honeybees, Apis mellifera, resulting in infections that were found throughout the entire body. Additionally, we showed that TRSV-infected individuals were continually present in some monitored colonies. While intracellular life cycle, species-level genetic variation, and pathogenesis of the virus in honeybee hosts remain to be determined, the increasing prevalence of TRSV in conjunction with other bee viruses from spring toward winter in infected colonies was associated with gradual decline of host populations and winter colony collapse, suggesting the negative impact of the virus on colony survival. Furthermore, we showed that TRSV was also found in ectoparasitic Varroa mites that feed on bee hemolymph, but in those instances the virus was restricted to the gastric cecum of Varroa mites, suggesting that Varroa mites may facilitate the spread of TRSV in bees but do not experience systemic invasion. Finally, our phylogenetic analysis revealed that TRSV isolates from bees, bee pollen, and Varroa mites clustered together, forming a monophyletic clade. The tree topology indicated that the TRSVs from arthropod hosts shared a common ancestor with those from plant hosts and subsequently evolved as a distinct lineage after transkingdom host alteration. This study represents a unique example of viruses with host ranges spanning both the plant and animal kingdoms. PMID:24449751

Li, Ji Lian; Cornman, R. Scott; Evans, Jay D.; Pettis, Jeffery S.; Zhao, Yan; Murphy, Charles; Peng, Wen Jun; Wu, Jie; Hamilton, Michele; Boncristiani, Humberto F.; Zhou, Liang; Hammond, John; Chen, Yan Ping

2014-01-01

389

Diseases Caused by Viruses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The symptoms, causal agents, epidemiology and management of important virus diseases in chickpea and lentil crops were reviewed in depth. The virus diseases include.Alflafa mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaiv virus, Faba bean necrotic yellows virus, Pea enation mosaic virus, Pea seed-borne mosaci virus,...

390

Phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin genes of twenty-six avian influenza viruses of subtype H9N2 isolated from chickens in China during 1996-2001.  

PubMed

The complete coding region of hemagglutinin genes from 26 influenza A viruses of H9N2 subtype isolated from chicken flocks in China during 1996-2001 was amplified and sequenced. Sequence analysis and phylogenetic studies of H9N2 subtype viruses on the basis of data of 26 viruses in this study and 71 selected strains available in the GenBank were conducted. The results revealed that all the mainland China isolates showed high homology (94.19%-100%) and were assigned to a special sublineage in the major Eurasian lineage, in contrast to the high heterogeneity of Hong Kong SAR isolates. All the 29 mainland China isolates and six Hong Kong SAR strains also had the following common characteristics: sharing the same sequence of proteolytic cleavage site with one additional basic amino acid, RSSR, with only two exceptions; having the same amino acid motif of the receptor-binding site, YWTNV/ALY; 23 of 28 isolates bearing seven potential glycosylation sites and the remaining five having six; and sharing characteristic deduced amino acid residues Asn-183 at the receptor-binding site and Ser-130 at the potential glycosylation site. We concluded that the H9N2 subtype influenza viruses circulating in chicken flocks in China since the 1990s and Ck/HK/G9/97-like viruses isolated in Hong Kong SAR should have a common origin, whereas Qu/HK/G1/97-like viruses including human strains isolated in Hong Kong SAR might originate from other places. The available evidence also suggests that the H9N2 viruses of special lineage themselves and factors prone to secondary infections may contribute to the widespread and dominant distribution of viruses of this subtype in chicken flocks in China and other Asian countries. PMID:12713166

Liu, Hongqi; Liu, Xiufan; Cheng, Jian; Peng, Daxin; Jia, Lijun; Huang, Yong

2003-01-01

391

RACE pulls for shared control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maintaining and supporting an aircraft fleet, in a climate of reduced manpower and financial resources, dictates effective utilization of robotics and automation technologies. To help develop a winning robotics and automation program the Air Force Logistics Command created the Robotics and Automation Center of Excellence (RACE). RACE is a command wide focal point. Race is an organic source of expertise to assist the Air Logistic Center (ALC) product directorates in improving process productivity through the judicious insertion of robotics and automation technologies. RACE is a champion for pulling emerging technologies into the aircraft logistic centers. One of those technology pulls is shared control. Small batch sizes, feature uncertainty, and varying work load conspire to make classic industrial robotic solutions impractical. One can view ALC process problems in the context of space robotics without the time delay. The ALC's will benefit greatly from the implementation of a common architecture that supports a range of control actions from fully autonomous to teleoperated. Working with national laboratories and private industry, we hope to transition shared control technology to the depot floor. This paper provides an overview of the RACE internal initiatives and customer support, with particular emphasis on production processes that will benefit from shared control technology.

Leahy, M. B., Jr.; Cassiday, B. K.

1993-02-01

392

RACE pulls for shared control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maintaining and supporting an aircraft fleet, in a climate of reduced manpower and financial resources, dictates effective utilization of robotics and automation technologies. To help develop a winning robotics and automation program the Air Force Logistics Command created the Robotics and Automation Center of Excellence (RACE). RACE is a command wide focal point. An organic source of expertise to assist the Air Logistic Center (ALC) product directorates in improving process productivity through the judicious insertion of robotics and automation technologies. RACE is a champion for pulling emerging technologies into the aircraft logistic centers. One of those technology pulls is shared control. The small batch sizes, feature uncertainty, and varying work load conspire to make classic industrial robotic solutions impractical. One can view ALC process problems in the context of space robotics without the time delay. The ALCs will benefit greatly from the implementation of a common architecture that supports a range of control actions from fully autonomous to teleoperated. Working with national laboratories and private industry we hope to transition shared control technology to the depot floor. This paper provides an overview of the RACE internal initiatives and customer support, with particular emphasis on production processes that will benefit from shared control technology.

Leahy, Michael B., Jr.; Cassiday, Brian K.

1992-11-01

393

RACE pulls for shared control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maintaining and supporting an aircraft fleet, in a climate of reduced manpower and financial resources, dictates effective utilization of robotics and automation technologies. To help develop a winning robotics and automation program the Air Force Logistics Command created the Robotics and Automation Center of Excellence (RACE). RACE is a command wide focal point. Race is an organic source of expertise to assist the Air Logistic Center (ALC) product directorates in improving process productivity through the judicious insertion of robotics and automation technologies. RACE is a champion for pulling emerging technologies into the aircraft logistic centers. One of those technology pulls is shared control. Small batch sizes, feature uncertainty, and varying work load conspire to make classic industrial robotic solutions impractical. One can view ALC process problems in the context of space robotics without the time delay. The ALC's will benefit greatly from the implementation of a common architecture that supports a range of control actions from fully autonomous to teleoperated. Working with national laboratories and private industry, we hope to transition shared control technology to the depot floor. This paper provides an overview of the RACE internal initiatives and customer support, with particular emphasis on production processes that will benefit from shared control technology.

Leahy, M. B., Jr.; Cassiday, B. K.

1993-01-01

394

What Drives Academic Data Sharing?  

PubMed Central

Despite widespread support from policy makers, funding agencies, and scientific journals, academic researchers rarely make their research data available to others. At the same time, data sharing in research is attributed a vast potential for scientific progress. It allows the reproducibility of study results and the reuse of old data for new research questions. Based on a systematic review of 98 scholarly papers and an empirical survey among 603 secondary data users, we develop a conceptual framework that explains the process of data sharing from the primary researcher’s point of view. We show that this process can be divided into six descriptive categories: Data donor, research organization, research community, norms, data infrastructure, and data recipients. Drawing from our findings, we discuss theoretical implications regarding knowledge creation and dissemination as well as research policy measures to foster academic collaboration. We conclude that research data cannot be regarded as knowledge commons, but research policies that better incentivise data sharing are needed to improve the quality of research results and foster scientific progress. PMID:25714752

Fecher, Benedikt; Friesike, Sascha; Hebing, Marcel

2015-01-01

395

DEVELOPMENT OF MULTIPLEX RT-PCR FOR THE DETECTION OF REOVIRUS, HEPATITIS A VIRUS, POLIOVIRUS, NORWALK VIRUS AND ROTAVIRUS  

EPA Science Inventory

Water sources are often found to be contaminated by enteric viruses. This is a public health concern as food and waterborne outbreaks caused by enteric viruses such as noroviruses, rotaviruses, hepatitis A virus (HAV) and enteroviruses are a common occurrence. All of these viru...

396

Profiling mRNAs of Two Cuscuta Species Reveals Possible Candidate Transcripts Shared by Parasitic Plants  

PubMed Central

Dodders are among the most important parasitic plants that cause serious yield losses in crop plants. In this report, we sought to unveil the genetic basis of dodder parasitism by profiling the trancriptomes of Cuscuta pentagona and C. suaveolens, two of the most common dodder species using a next-generation RNA sequencing platform. De novo assembly of the sequence reads resulted in more than 46,000 isotigs and contigs (collectively referred to as expressed sequence tags or ESTs) for each species, with more than half of them predicted to encode proteins that share significant sequence similarities with known proteins of non-parasitic plants. Comparing our datasets with transcriptomes of 12 other fully sequenced plant species confirmed a close evolutionary relationship between dodder and tomato. Using a rigorous set of filtering parameters, we were able to identify seven pairs of ESTs that appear to be shared exclusively by parasitic plants, thus providing targets for tailored management approaches. In addition, we also discovered ESTs with sequences similarities to known plant viruses, including cryptic viruses, in the dodder sequence assemblies. Together this study represents the first comprehensive transcriptome profiling of parasitic plants in the Cuscuta genus, and is expected to contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of parasitic plant-host plant interactions. PMID:24312295

Wijeratne, Saranga; Fraga, Martina; Meulia, Tea; Doohan, Doug; Li, Zhaohu; Qu, Feng

2013-01-01

397

Extensive Mutagenesis of the Conserved Box E Motif in Duck Hepatitis B Virus P Protein Reveals Multiple Functions in Replication and a Common Structure with the Primer Grip in HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase  

PubMed Central

Hepadnaviruses, including the pathogenic hepatitis B virus (HBV), replicate their small DNA genomes through protein-primed reverse transcription, mediated by the terminal protein (TP) domain in their P proteins and an RNA stem-loop, ?, on the pregenomic RNA (pgRNA). No direct structural data are available for P proteins, but their reverse transcriptase (RT) domains contain motifs that are conserved in all RTs (box A to box G), implying a similar architecture; however, experimental support for this notion is limited. Exploiting assays available for duck HBV (DHBV) but not the HBV P protein, we assessed the functional consequences of numerous mutations in box E, which forms the DNA primer grip in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RT. This substructure coordinates primer 3?-end positioning and RT subdomain movements during the polymerization cycle and is a prime target for nonnucleosidic RT inhibitors (NNRTIs) of HIV-1 RT. Box E was indeed critical for DHBV replication, with the mutations affecting the folding, ? RNA interactions, and polymerase activity of the P protein in a position- and amino acid side chain-dependent fashion similar to that of HIV-1 RT. Structural similarity to HIV-1 RT was underlined by molecular modeling and was confirmed by the replication activity of chimeric P proteins carrying box E, or even box C to box E, from HIV-1 RT. Hence, box E in the DHBV P protein and likely the HBV P protein forms a primer grip-like structure that may provide a new target for anti-HBV NNRTIs. PMID:22514339

Wang, Yong-Xiang; Luo, Cheng; Zhao, Dan; Beck, Jürgen

2012-01-01

398

Emerging Viruses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Emerging viruses are those "whose incidence in humans has increased in the past 2 decades or threatens to increase in the near future." This week's Topic in Depth focuses on sites related to viruses, particularly those that are considered "emerging."The first site (1) is an essay by Alison Jacobson of the University of Capetown that discusses some emerging and potentially emerging viruses, along with factors that contribute to the threat. From a US government interagency working group, the second report (2) focuses on the responses to infectious disease outbreaks, including drugs, vaccines, and government response. A World Health Organization site (3) highlights recent reports of infectious disease, archived by date and by disease. This ThinkQuest site (4) gives a basic introduction to viruses and how they cause infections. An online virology tutorial (5) by Ed Rybicki of the University of Cape Town serves as a lesson on the basics of virology for a more advanced student. The next two sites focus on the specifics of selected viruses. From the Institute for Molecular Virology (6) comes a resource on Marburg and Ebola viruses, and from the National Biological Information Infrastructure (7) is a site on West Nile Virus. The last resource (8) is a scholarly journal from the Centers for Disease Control that presents some of the latest scientific research on emerging diseases.

Lee, Amy.

399

Glycoprotein D Homologs in Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1, Pseudorabies Virus, and Bovine Herpes Virus Type 1 Bind Directly to Human HveC (Nectin-1) with Different Affinities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distinct subsets of human receptors for alphaherpesviruses mediate the entry of herpes simplex virus (HSV), pseudorabies virus (PrV), or bovine herpes virus type 1 (BHV-1) into cells. Glycoprotein D (gD) is essential for receptor-mediated entry of all three viruses into cells. However, the gD homologs of these viruses share only 22–33% amino acid identity. Several entry receptors for HSV have

Sarah A. Connolly; J. Charles Whitbeck; Ann H. Rux; Claude Krummenacher; Sylvia van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk; Gary H. Cohen; Roselyn J. Eisenberg

2001-01-01

400

Viruses of Haloarchaea  

PubMed Central

In hypersaline environments, haloarchaea (halophilic members of the Archaea) are the dominant organisms, and the viruses that infect them, haloarchaeoviruses are at least ten times more abundant. Since their discovery in 1974, described haloarchaeoviruses include head-tailed, pleomorphic, spherical and spindle-shaped morphologies, representing Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, Pleolipoviridae, Sphaerolipoviridae and Fuselloviridae families. This review overviews current knowledge of haloarchaeoviruses, providing information about classification, morphotypes, macromolecules, life cycles, genetic manipulation and gene regulation, and host-virus responses. In so doing, the review incorporates knowledge from laboratory studies of isolated viruses, field-based studies of environmental samples, and both genomic and metagenomic analyses of haloarchaeoviruses. What emerges is that some haloarchaeoviruses possess unique morphological and life cycle properties, while others share features with other viruses (e.g., bacteriophages). Their interactions with hosts influence community structure and evolution of populations that exist in hypersaline environments as diverse as seawater evaporation ponds, to hot desert or Antarctic lakes. The discoveries of their wide-ranging and important roles in the ecology and evolution of hypersaline communities serves as a strong motivator for future investigations of both laboratory-model and environmental systems. PMID:25402735

Luk, Alison W. S.; Williams, Timothy J.; Erdmann, Susanne; Papke, R. Thane; Cavicchioli, Ricardo

2014-01-01

401

Computer viruses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The worm, Trojan horse, bacterium, and virus are destructive programs that attack information stored in a computer's memory. Virus programs, which propagate by incorporating copies of themselves into other programs, are a growing menace in the late-1980s world of unprotected, networked workstations and personal computers. Limited immunity is offered by memory protection hardware, digitally authenticated object programs,and antibody programs that kill specific viruses. Additional immunity can be gained from the practice of digital hygiene, primarily the refusal to use software from untrusted sources. Full immunity requires attention in a social dimension, the accountability of programmers.

Denning, Peter J.

1988-01-01

402

Virus-specific HLA-restricted lysis of herpes simplex virus-infected human monocytes and macrophages mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes  

SciTech Connect

Freshly-isolated peripheral blood human monocytes and 5 day in vitro cultured macrophages were infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), labeled with /sup 51/Cr, and used as target cells in a 12-14 hour cell-mediated cytotoxicity assay. Mononuclear leukocytes (MNL) from HSV-1 non-immune individuals, whether unstimulated or stimulated with HSV-1 antigen, did not mediate significant lysis of either target cell. HSV-immune MNL, both freshly-isolated and cultured for 5 days without antigen, demonstrated only low levels of natural killer (NK) cell-mediate lysis. MNL from HSV-immune individuals incubated for 5 days in vitro with HSV-1 antigen mediated significant virus-specific lysis of both target cells. Mean virus-specific lysis of autologous monocytes was 8.5(/+-/2.0)% compared to a three-fold greater virus-specific lysis of autologous macrophages. Greater than 70% of this lytic activity was mediated by Leu-11-negative, T3-positive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Allogeneic target cells lacking a common HLA determinant were not significantly lysed while T8-positive CTL mediated infrequent lysis of target cells sharing a common HLA-A and/or HLA-B determinant. T4-positive lymphocytes were demonstrated to be the predominant cell mediating lysis of autologous target cells and allogeneic target cells sharing both HLA-A and/or HLA-B plus HLA-DR determinants with the CTL; the T4-positive cell was the sole CTL mediator of lysis of allogeneic target cells having a common HLA-DR determinant.

Torpey, D.J. III

1987-01-01

403

Population genetics and benefit sharing.  

PubMed

The majority of international or national guidelines, specific to human genetics concentrate on actual or potential clinical applications. In contrast, the Ethics Committee of the Human Genome Organisation (HUGO) attempts to provide guidance to the bench scientists engaged in fundamental research in genomics prior to any clinical applications. Often confused as constituting the Human Genome Project (HGP) itself, HUGO's (Human Genome Organization) ultimate goal is to assist in the worldwide collaboration underpinning the HGP. It is an international organisation with 1,229 members in approximately 60 countries. The Ethics Committee is one of HUGO's six international advisory committees. Composed of experts from a number of countries and disciplines, the HUGO Ethics Committee promotes discussion and understanding of social, legal, and ethical issues as they relate to the conduct of, and knowledge derived from, the Genome Initiative. Currently, it has 13 members from 11 difference countries. It has produced statements on the conduct of genetic research, on cloning, and, has most recently presented a 'Statement on Benefit-Sharing', April 11, 2000. The Intellectual Property Committee of HUGO has been active in the controversial area of patenting. The issue of benefit-sharing is one that has its source in the mandate of both committees. How to avoid both commodification of the person through payment for access to DNA and biopiracy with no return to benefits to the families or community? While patents are a legitimate form of recognition for innovation, there seems to be no therapeutic exception to some of its stringent rules and the 'morality' exclusion has lain dormant. The HUGO 'Statement on Benefit-Sharing' examines the issues of defining community, common heritage, distributive justice and solidarity before arriving at its conclusions in benefit-sharing. This communication reviews some of these issues. PMID:11878345

Knoppers, B M

2000-01-01

404

Viruses of eukaryotice green algae  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of our research was to develop the Chlorella-PBCV-1 virus system so that it can be used as a model system for studying gene expression in a photosynthetic eukaryote. We have made considerable progress and have learned much about PBCV-1 and its replication cycle. In addition, several significant discoveries were made in the last 3 to 4 years. These discoveries include: (i) the finding that morphologically similar, plaque forming, dsDNA containing viruses are common in nature and can be isolated readily from fresh water, (ii) the finding that all of these Chlorella viruses contain methylated bases which range in concentration from 0.1% to 47.5% m{sup 5}dC and 0 to 37% m{sup 6}dA and (iii) the discovery that infection with at least some of these viruses induces the appearance of DNA modification/restriction systems. 26 refs.

Van Etten, J.L.

1989-01-01

405

Virus infections reduce in vitro multiplication of ‘Malling Landmark’ raspberry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Virus-infected plants are often symptomless and may be inadvertently used as explant sources in tissue culture research. Our\\u000a objective was to determine the effect of virus infection on micropropagation. We studied the effects of single and multiple\\u000a infections of three common raspberry viruses on the in vitro culture of ‘Malling Landmark’ red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.). Virus-infected reaspberry plants were

Chih-Wei V. Tsao; Joseph D. Postman; Barbara M. Reed

2000-01-01

406

Major Foodborne Illness Causing Viruses and Current Status of Vaccines Against the Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though viruses, unlike bacteria, cannot grow in or on foods, foodborne illnesses are associated with viruses due to contamination of the fresh produce or processed food by virus-containing fecal material. The commonly reported major foodborne illnesses are due to Noroviruses, hepatitis A and E viruses, rotaviruses, and astroviruses. Among all illnesses caused by foodborne pathogens, recent estimates of as

C. D. Atreya

2004-01-01

407

The virus status of raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of field observations for virus symptoms, mechanical inoculation to herbaceous test plants, and grafting to Rubus indicators, 6 distinct viruses were identified in red raspberry, and tobacco streak virus was identified in a bramble selection. Cherry leaf roll and raspberry bushy dwarf viruses and raspberry yellows disease were found commonly in all the major raspberry producing regions.

A. T. Jones; G. A. Wood

1979-01-01

408

Efficient vaccine against the virus causing a lethal disease in cultured Cyprinus carpio  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have isolated a virus, which causes a mortal disease in cultured ornamental Koi and Common carps (Cyprinus carpio) in many countries worldwide. This unclassified virus, which causes nephritis and gill necrosis, and so has been given the name carp nephritis and gill necrosis virus (CNGV), has a morphology resembling the herpes virus, but bears a genomic DNA of ca

Ariel Ronen; Ayana Perelberg; Julia Abramowitz; Marina Hutoran; Simon Tinman; Izhak Bejerano; Michael Steinitz; Moshe Kotler

2003-01-01

409

Information Hiding: Sharing Secrets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity about cryptographic techniques illustrates a situation where information is shared, and yet none of it is revealed. A group of learners will calculate their average age without anyone revealing their own age. Use this activity to introduce learners to cryptographic protocols and internet security/privacy issues. Variations, extensions, background information, and further reading suggestions are included in the PDF.

Tim Bell

1998-01-01

410

Modeling Shared Situation Awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents an initial computational model of shared situation awareness (SA) based upon data collected from a simulated training exercise, designed to mimic real life events in a military personnel recovery center. Situation awareness was measured during the exercise using the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT). Our initial model examined how well five factors (social network distance, physical

Cheryl A. Bolstad; Haydee M. Cuevas

2005-01-01

411

Sharing Research Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are many ways to share a collection of data and students' thinking about that data. Explaining the results of science inquiry is important--working scientists and amateurs both contribute information to the body of scientific knowledge. Students can collect data about an activity that is already happening in a classroom (e.g., the qualities…

Ashbrook, Peggy

2011-01-01

412

MANAGING AND SHARING DATA  

E-print Network

. In the USA, the National Science Foundation now requires grant applications to include a data management plan and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) is preparing a policy framework for management and access File sharing and collaborative environments 21 ETHICS AND CONSENT 22 Legal and ethical issues 23

Rebollo-Neira, Laura

413

Illegal File Sharing 101  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much of higher education's unease arises from the cost of dealing with illegal file sharing. Illinois State University, for example, calculated a cost of $76 to process a first claim of copyright infringement and $146 for a second. Responses range from simply passing along claims to elaborate programs architected with specific goals in mind.…

Wada, Kent

2008-01-01

414

Sharing New Knowledge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After researching information about the Sun, learners will discuss and share their expertise on related topics such as sunspots, the Earth's magnetosphere, and aurorae. This activity is a follow-on to the lesson titled "Understanding the Sun" in the Space Weather Action Center teacher's guide.

415

Learning to Share  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the tug-of-war between researchers and IT for supercomputing resources, a centralized approach can help both sides get more bang for their buck. As 2010 began, the University of Washington was preparing to launch its first shared high-performance computing cluster, a 1,500-node system called Hyak, dedicated to research activities. Like other…

Raths, David

2010-01-01

416

Personalizing shared ubiquitous devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Everywhere we go, we are surrounded by shared devices: TVs, stereos, and appliances in the home; copiers, fax machines, and projectors in the office; phones and vending machines in public. Because these devices don't know who we are, they provide the same user interface and functionality to everyone. This lack of personalization in the real world is reminiscent of the

David M. Hilbert; Jonathan Trevor

2004-01-01

417

Sharing Teaching Ideas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two teaching ideas are shared. The first deals with a game called "Mathardy," which is similar to the old television show "Jeopardy," and which can be adapted to nearly any age and subject matter. The second idea deals with probability graphs of data from a basketball team. (MP)

Mathematics Teacher, 1981

1981-01-01

418

HIV virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

HIV is a virus that can be transmitted through fluids exchanged in sexual activity. HIV eventually causes AIDS. AIDS patients have compromised immune systems and they eventually die from diseases that healthy humans would normally fight off very easily.

Carl Henderson (National Institutes of Health; )

2005-12-09

419

The Pharmaceutical Commons  

PubMed Central

In the last decade, the organization of pharmaceutical research on neglected tropical diseases has undergone transformative change. In a context of perceived “market failure,” the development of new medicines is increasingly handled by public-private partnerships. This shift toward hybrid organizational models depends on a particular form of exchange: the sharing of proprietary assets in general and of intellectual property rights in particular. This article explores the paradoxical role of private property in this new configuration of global health research and development. Rather than a tool to block potential competitors, proprietary assets function as a lever to attract others into risky collaborative ventures; instead of demarcating public and private domains, the sharing of property rights is used to increase the porosity of that boundary. This reimagination of the value of property is connected to the peculiar timescape of global health drug development, a promissory orientation to the future that takes its clearest form in the centrality of “virtual” business models and the proliferation of strategies of deferral. Drawing on the anthropological literature on inalienable possessions, we reconsider property’s traditional exclusionary role and discuss the possibility that the new pharmaceutical “commons” proclaimed by contemporary global health partnerships might be the precursor of future enclosures.

Lezaun, Javier

2015-01-01

420

Tracking eastern equine encephalitis virus perpetuation in the northeastern United States by phylogenetic analysis.  

PubMed

Epidemics and epizootics of eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) occur sporadically in temperate regions where transmission is seasonal from late summer to early fall. These outbreaks may derive from virus that overwinters locally or perhaps results from reintroduction of virus from other sites. To evaluate these possibilities, we compared the phylogenetic relationships of EEEV isolates obtained from mosquitoes collected during statewide arbovirus surveillance in Connecticut, in addition to isolates from concurrent outbreaks in southern New Hampshire and upstate New York. In Connecticut, viral isolates grouped into temporally discrete clades by year of isolation or over 2 years of sampling. Two or more clades arose in 2000, 2001, 2003, 2004, and 2006, possibly the result of separate introduction events into the state, whereas viruses from upstate New York and New Hampshire segregated into single clades that persisted for 2 or more years. New Hampshire viruses shared recent common ancestry to those isolated in Connecticut suggesting viral dispersal among these regions. These results provide additional evidence for independent episodes of EEEV overwintering in northern foci. PMID:18689638

Armstrong, Philip M; Andreadis, Theodore G; Anderson, John F; Stull, Jason W; Mores, Christopher N

2008-08-01

421

THE ROLE OF THE MAREK'S DISEASE VIRUS UL13 GENE IN GENERATING CELL-FREE VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV) and Marek's disease virus (MDV) share many biological characteristics. Both alpha-herpesviruses are initially taken up by macrophages or dendritic cells in the lungs, and quickly spread to CD4+ T-lymphocytes. They are both strongly cell-associated. VZV only produces cell...

422

West Nile Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... virus is a virus that can infect humans, birds, horses and mosquitoes. Infection from this virus is ... spread by mosquitoes. Mosquitoes become infected by biting birds that carry the virus. People can get West ...

423

The structure of a thermophilic archaeal virus shows a dsDNA viral capsid type that spans all domains of life  

SciTech Connect

Of the three domains of life (Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea), the least understood is Archaea and its associated viruses. Many Archaea are extremophiles, with species that are capable of growth at some of the highest temperatures and extremes of pH of all known organisms. Phylogenetic rRNA-encoding DNA analysis places many of the hyperthermophilic Archaea (species with an optimum growth >80°C) at the base of the universal tree of life, suggesting that thermophiles were among the first forms of life on earth. Very few viruses have been identified from Archaea as compared to Bacteria and Eukarya. We report here the structure of a hyperthermophilic virus isolated from an archaeal host found in hot springs in Yellowstone National Park. The sequence of the circular double-stranded DNA viral genome shows that it shares little similarity to other known genes in viruses or other organisms. By comparing the tertiary and quaternary structures of the coat protein of this virus with those of a bacterial and an animal virus, we find conformational relationships among all three, suggesting that some viruses may have a common ancestor that precedes the division into three domains of life >3 billion years ago.

G. Rice; L. Tang; K. Stedman; F. Roberto; J. Spuhler; E. Gillitzer; J. E. Johnson; T. Douglas; M. Young

2004-05-01

424

Entire genome sequence analysis of genotype IX Newcastle disease viruses reveals their early-genotype phylogenetic position and recent-genotype genome size  

PubMed Central

Background Six nucleotide (nt) insertion in the 5'-noncoding region (NCR) of the nucleoprotein (NP) gene of Newcaslte disease virus (NDV) is considered to be a genetic marker for recent genotypes of NDV, which emerged after 1960. However, F48-like NDVs from China, identified a 6-nt insert in the NP gene, have been previously classified into genotype III or genotype IX. Results In order to clarify their phylogenetic position and explore the origin of NDVs with the 6-nt insert and its significance in NDV evolution, we determined the entire genome sequences of five F48-like viruses isolated in China between 1946 and 2002 by RT-PCR amplification of overlapping fragments of full-length genome and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. All the five NDV isolates shared the same genome size of 15,192-nt with the recent genotype V-VIII viruses whereas they had the highest homology with early genotype III and IV isolates. Conclusions The unique characteristic of the genome size and phylogenetic position of F48-like viruses warrants placing them in a separate geno-group, genotype IX. Results in this study also suggest that genotype IX viruses most likely originate from a genotype III virus by insertion of a 6-nt motif in the 5'-NCR of the NP gene which had occurred as early as in 1940 s, and might be the common origin of genotype V-VIII viruses. PMID:21396134

2011-01-01

425

Who Let the Virus In?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fifty-second monthly installment of our "What A Year!" website project, introducing life science breakthroughs to middle and high school students and their teachers. Respiratory syncytial virus, RSV for short, is so common that almost every child in the United States under two years of age has been infected once, and that half of children under three have been infected at least twice.

2011-11-01

426

No Common Opinion on the Common Core  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the three authors of this article, the 2014 "EdNext" poll yields four especially important new findings: (1) Opinion with respect to the Common Core has yet to coalesce. The idea of a common set of standards across the country has wide appeal, and the Common Core itself still commands the support of a majority of the public.…

Henderson, Michael B.; Peterson, Paul E.; West, Martin R.

2015-01-01

427

Viruses and neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are chronic degenerative diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), which affect 37 million people worldwide. As the lifespan increases, the NDs are the fourth leading cause of death in the developed countries and becoming increasingly prevalent in developing countries. Despite considerable research, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Although the large majority of studies do not show support for the involvement of pathogenic aetiology in classical NDs, a number of emerging studies show support for possible association of viruses with classical neurodegenerative diseases in humans. Space does not permit for extensive details to be discussed here on non-viral-induced neurodegenerative diseases in humans, as they are well described in literature. Viruses induce alterations and degenerations of neurons both directly and indirectly. Their ability to attack the host immune system, regions of nervous tissue implies that they can interfere with the same pathways involved in classical NDs in humans. Supporting this, many similarities between classical NDs and virus-mediated neurodegeneration (non-classical) have been shown at the anatomic, sub-cellular, genomic and proteomic levels suggesting that viruses can explain neurodegenerative disorders mechanistically. The main objective of this review is to provide readers a detailed snapshot of similarities viral and non-viral neurodegenerative diseases share, so that mechanistic pathways of neurodegeneration in human NDs can be clearly understood. Viruses can guide us to unveil these pathways in human NDs. This will further stimulate the birth of new concepts in the biological research, which is needed for gaining deeper insights into the treatment of human NDs and delineate mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration. PMID:23724961

2013-01-01

428

Managing and Sharing Servents' Reputations in P2P Systems  

E-print Network

Managing and Sharing Servents' Reputations in P2P Systems Ernesto Damiani, Member, IEEE, Sabrina De and downloaded while preserving the anonymity of both requestors and providers. As recent experience with P2P, such as Trojan Horses and viruses. In this paper, we propose an approach to P2P security where servents can keep

Samarati, Pierangela

429

Shared Memory Consistency Models: A Tutorial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Parallel systems that support the shared memory abstraction are becoming widely accepted in many areas of computing Writing correct and efficient programs for such systems requires a formal specification of memory semantics, called a memory consistency model The most intuitive model - sequential consistency - greatly restricts the use of many performance optimizations commonly used by uniprocessor hardware and

Kourosh Gharachorloo; Sarita V. Adve

1995-01-01

430

Shared Memory Consistency Models: A Tutorial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parallel systems that support the shared memory abstraction are becoming widely accepted in many areas of computing. Writing correct and efficient programs for such systems requires a formal specification of memory semantics, called a memory consistency model . The most intuitive model— sequential consistency—greatly restricts the use of many performance optimizations commonly used by uniprocessor hardware and compiler designers, thereby

Sarita V. Adve; Kourosh Gharachorloo

1996-01-01

431

Sharing Educational Materials without Losing Rights  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Not all materials created by faculty should be freely shared. When an institution has a profitable course being offered electronically, the creator of those materials and the institution want to protect them. However, most materials created for students will never be profitably marketed. Creative Commons offers faculty members who have concerns…

Johnstone, Sally M.

2003-01-01

432

Variable Crop Share Leases.  

E-print Network

Sartin and Ray Sammons* Renting or leasing farmland is part of many modern farming operations and increases average farm size in U. S. agriculture. Economies of size are vitally import ant to farm operations as they strive to cope with the continuous... - $250 Share of Net Above Variable Cost: 50/50 Other Income per Acre: $0 Shared Variable Costs per Acre Price per cwt ~ ~ --..ru... $125 $150 3.50 95/5 93/7 93/7 90/10 88/12 3.75 92/8 90/10 89/11 86/14 83/17 4.00 89/11 87/13 86/14 82/18 79/21 4...

Sartin, Marvin; Sammons, Ray

1980-01-01

433

Elastomeric load sharing device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An elastomeric load sharing device, interposed in combination between a driven gear and a central drive shaft to facilitate balanced torque distribution in split power transmission systems, includes a cylindrical elastomeric bearing and a plurality of elastomeric bearing pads. The elastomeric bearing and bearing pads comprise one or more layers, each layer including an elastomer having a metal backing strip secured thereto. The elastomeric bearing is configured to have a high radial stiffness and a low torsional stiffness and is operative to radially center the driven gear and to minimize torque transfer through the elastomeric bearing. The bearing pads are configured to have a low radial and torsional stiffness and a high axial stiffness and are operative to compressively transmit torque from the driven gear to the drive shaft. The elastomeric load sharing device has spring rates that compensate for mechanical deviations in the gear train assembly to provide balanced torque distribution between complementary load paths of split power transmission systems.

Isabelle, Charles J. (Inventor); Kish, Jules G. (Inventor); Stone, Robert A. (Inventor)

1992-01-01

434

Shared health governance.  

PubMed

Health and Social Justice (Ruger 2009a ) developed the "health capability paradigm," a conception of justice and health in domestic societies. This idea undergirds an alternative framework of social cooperation called "shared health governance" (SHG). SHG puts forth a set of moral responsibilities, motivational aspirations, and institutional arrangements, and apportions roles for implementation in striving for health justice. This article develops further the SHG framework and explains its importance and implications for governing health domestically. PMID:21745082

Ruger, Jennifer Prah

2011-07-01

435

Dare to Share Fairly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This iOS app from Math Playground is a visual math tool for children who are learning how to divide larger numbers. Children drag place value blocks, which model the given dividend to individual mats, which represent the divisor to demonstrate fair sharing. If needed, there is a place value exchange section and a bin for remainders. The standard division algorithm is presented for comparison.

Colleen King

2013-06-13

436

The RSNA Image Sharing Network.  

PubMed

In the era of health information exchanges, there are trade-offs to consider when sharing a patient's medical record among all providers that a patient might choose. Exchange among in-network partners on the same electronic medical records (EMR) and other integrated information systems is trivial. The patient identifier is common, as are the relevant departmental systems, to all providers. Difficulties arise when patient records including images (and reports) must be shared among different networks and even with the patients themselves. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) challenged Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) to develop a transport method that could supersede the need for physical media (for patients or other providers), replace point-to-point private networks among providers, and enable image exchange on an ad hoc basis between arbitrary health networks without long legal delays. In concert with the evolving US health care paradigm, patient engagement was to be fundamental. With Integrating Healthcare Enterprise's (IHE's) help, the challenge has been met with an operational system. PMID:25037586

Langer, S G; Tellis, W; Carr, C; Daly, M; Erickson, B J; Mendelson, D; Moore, S; Perry, J; Shastri, K; Warnock, M; Zhu, W

2015-02-01

437

Sexual Pain Common After Childbirth, Study Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Sexual Pain Common After Childbirth, Study Finds C-section ... Thursday, February 5, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Childbirth Sexual Health Sexual Problems in Women THURSDAY, Feb. 5, ...

438

Genetic reassortment among viruses causing hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.  

PubMed

In order to determine the frequency and characteristics of reassortment among viruses causing hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), mixed infections were initiated in tissue culture by using two closely related strains of Sin Nombre virus, CC107 (from eastern California) and NMR11 (from New Mexico), which share the same species of rodent host in nature, the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus). Potential reassortant virus plaques were screened by multiplex RT-PCR, using primers specific for individual genome segments of each strain. Reassortant viruses involving the M and S segments and, to a lesser extent, the L segment were detected in 8.5% of 294 progeny plaques tested. In addition, approximately 30% of the progeny virus plaques appeared to contain S or M segments originating from both parental virus strains, i.e., they were diploid. Most of these diploid virus genotypes were not stable, becoming either reassortant or parental virus strains upon plaque-to-plaque virus passage. In contrast to the results above, only one virus reassortant and four diploids were observed among 163 progeny virus plaques from mixed infections between Sin Nombre virus NMR11 and the genetically more distant Black Creek Canal virus, an HPS-causing virus from Florida, which has the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) as its natural host. PMID:9501041

Rodriguez, L L; Owens, J H; Peters, C J; Nichol, S T

1998-03-01

439

Most parsimonious haplotype allele sharing determination  

PubMed Central

Background The "common disease – common variant" hypothesis and genome-wide association studies have achieved numerous successes in the last three years, particularly in genetic mapping in human diseases. Nevertheless, the power of the association study methods are still low, in particular on quantitative traits, and the description of the full allelic spectrum is deemed still far from reach. Given increasing density of single nucleotide polymorphisms available and suggested by the block-like structure of the human genome, a popular and prosperous strategy is to use haplotypes to try to capture the correlation structure of SNPs in regions of little recombination. The key to the success of this strategy is thus the ability to unambiguously determine the haplotype allele sharing status among the members. The association studies based on haplotype sharing status would have significantly reduced degrees of freedom and be able to capture the combined effects of tightly linked causal variants. Results For pedigree genotype datasets of medium density of SNPs, we present two methods for haplotype allele sharing status determination among the pedigree members. Extensive simulation study showed that both methods performed nearly perfectly on breakpoint discovery, mutation haplotype allele discovery, and shared chromosomal region discovery. Conclusion For pedigree genotype datasets, the haplotype allele sharing status among the members can be deterministically, efficiently, and accurately determined, even for very small pedigrees. Given their excellent performance, the presented haplotype allele sharing status determination programs can be useful in many downstream applications including haplotype based association studies. PMID:19379528

Cai, Zhipeng; Sabaa, Hadi; Wang, Yining; Goebel, Randy; Wang, Zhiquan; Xu, Jiaofen; Stothard, Paul; Lin, Guohui

2009-01-01

440

Parainfluenza Viruses  

PubMed Central

Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV) were first discovered in the late 1950s. Over the last decade, considerable knowledge about their molecular structure and function has been accumulated. This has led to significant changes in both the nomenclature and taxonomic relationships of these viruses. HPIV is genetically and antigenically divided into types 1 to 4. Further major subtypes of HPIV-4 (A and B) and subgroups/genotypes of HPIV-1 and HPIV-3 have been described. HPIV-1 to HPIV-3 are major causes of lower respiratory infections in infants, young children, the immunocompromised, the chronically ill, and the elderly. Each subtype can cause somewhat unique clinical diseases in different hosts. HPIV are enveloped and of medium size (150 to 250 nm), and their RNA genome is in the negative sense. These viruses belong to the Paramyxoviridae family, one of the largest and most rapidly growing groups of viruses causing significant human and veterinary disease. HPIV are closely related to recently discovered megamyxoviruses (Hendra and Nipah viruses) and metapneumovirus. PMID:12692097

Henrickson, Kelly J.

2003-01-01

441

Infotech. Cyber security. Health care learns to share scares and solutions.  

PubMed

Health care information technology leaders and others are coming together to share scary experiences and develop best practices to guard against crippling computer viruses, scheming hackers and other cyber threats. PMID:15192882

Colias, Mike

2004-05-01

442

Experimental infections in man and horses with influenza A viruses*  

PubMed Central

The recognition of an antigenic relationship between the haemagglutinins of A/Equi-2 and A2/Hong Kong/68 viruses led to experimental studies in man and horses with these virus types. Human volunteers were inoculated with A/Equi-2/Miami/63 virus and virus shedding ensued in all subjects. The most common clinical response was a febrile illness indistinguishable from naturally occurring human influenza. After administration of A2/Hong Kong/68 virus to 10 ponies there was virus shedding from 9 and a febrile response in 6. When the human subjects previously inoculated with equine virus were challenged with A2/Hong Kong/68 virus, the frequency of illness and the extent of virus shedding were lower than was observed among control individuals. This immunity was found to be related to the level of heterologous serum antibody to the human virus which developed after equine virus infection. Challenge with A/Equi-2/Miami/63 virus of ponies previously inoculated with A2/Hong Kong/68 virus, in the absence of any measurable levels of heterologous antibody to the human strain, resulted in less shedding of virus among these than occurred in control animals. PMID:5309454

Kasel, J. A.; Couch, R. B.

1969-01-01

443

Mechanisms of Arthropod Transmission of Plant and Animal Viruses  

PubMed Central

A majority of the plant-infecting viruses and many of the animal-infecting viruses are dependent upon arthropod vectors for transmission between hosts and/or as alternative hosts. The viruses have evolved specific associations with their vectors, and we are beginning to understand the underlying mechanisms that regulate the virus transmission process. A majority of plant viruses are carried on the cuticle lining of a vector’s mouthparts or foregut. This initially appeared to be simple mechanical contamination, but it is now known to be a biologically complex interaction between specific virus proteins and as yet unidentified vector cuticle-associated compounds. Numerous other plant viruses and the majority of animal viruses are carried within the body of the vector. These viruses have evolved specific mechanisms to enable them to be transported through multiple tissues and to evade vector defenses. In response, vector species have evolved so that not all individuals within a species are susceptible to virus infection or can serve as a competent vector. Not only are the virus components of the transmission process being identified, but also the genetic and physiological components of the vectors which determine their ability to be used successfully by the virus are being elucidated. The mechanisms of arthropod-virus associations are many and complex, but common themes are beginning to emerge which may allow the development of novel strategies to ultimately control epidemics caused by arthropod-borne viruses. PMID:10066833

Gray, Stewart M.; Banerjee, Nanditta

1999-01-01

444

Pathogenicity and immunogenicity of influenza viruses with genes from the 1918 pandemic virus.  

PubMed

The 1918 influenza A H1N1 virus caused the worst pandemic of influenza ever recorded. To better understand the pathogenesis and immunity to the 1918 pandemic virus, we generated recombinant influenza viruses possessing two to five genes of the 1918 influenza virus. Recombinant influenza viruses possessing the hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), matrix (M), nonstructural (NS), and nucleoprotein (NP) genes or any recombinant virus possessing both the HA and NA genes of the 1918 influenza virus were highly lethal for mice. Antigenic analysis by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests with ferret and chicken H1N1 antisera demonstrated that the 1918 recombinant viruses antigenically most resembled A/Swine/Iowa/30 (Sw/Iowa/30) virus but differed from H1N1 viruses isolated since 1930. HI and virus neutralizing (VN) antibodies to 1918 recombinant and Sw/Iowa/30 viruses in human sera were present among individuals born before or shortly after the 1918 pandemic. Mice that received an intramuscular immunization of the homologous or Sw/Iowa/30-inactivated vaccine developed HI and VN antibodies to the 1918 recombinant virus and were completely protected against lethal challenge. Mice that received A/PR/8/34, A/Texas/36/91, or A/New Caledonia/20/99 H1N1 vaccines displayed partial protection from lethal challenge. In contrast, control-vaccinated mice were not protected against lethal challenge and displayed high virus titers in respiratory tissues. Partial vaccine protection mediated by baculovirus-expressed recombinant HA vaccines suggest common cross-reactive epitopes on the H1 HA. These data suggest a strategy of vaccination that would be effective against a reemergent 1918 or 1918-like virus. PMID:14963236

Tumpey, Terrence M; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Taubenberger, Jeffery K; Palese, Peter; Swayne, David E; Basler, Christopher F

2004-03-01

445

Another Really, Really Big Virus  

PubMed Central

Viruses with genomes larger than 300 kb and up to 1.2 Mb, which encode hundreds of proteins, are being discovered and characterized with increasing frequency. Most, but not all, of these large viruses (often referred to as giruses) infect protists that live in aqueous environments. Bioinformatic analyses of metagenomes of aqueous samples indicate that large DNA viruses are quite common in nature and await discovery. One issue that is perhaps not appreciated by the virology community is that large viruses, even those classified in the same family, can differ significantly in morphology, lifestyle, and gene complement. This brief commentary, which will mention some of these unique properties, was stimulated by the characterization of the newest member of this club, virus CroV (Fischer, M.G.; Allen, M.J.; Wilson, W.H.; Suttle, C.A. Giant virus with a remarkable complement of genes infects marine zooplankton. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2010, 107, 19508–19513 [1]). CroV has a 730 kb genome (with ?544 protein-encoding genes) and infects the marine microzooplankton Cafeteria roenbergensis producing a lytic infection. PMID:21994725

Van Etten, James L.

2011-01-01

446

Vaccines, our shared responsibility.  

PubMed

The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) held its fifteenth annual meeting from October 27-29, 2014, New Delhi, India. The DCVMN, together with the co-organizing institution Panacea Biotec, welcomed over 240 delegates representing high-profile governmental and nongovernmental global health organizations from 36 countries. Over the three-day meeting, attendees exchanged information about their efforts to achieve their shared goal of preventing death and disability from known and emerging infectious diseases. Spe