Sample records for viruses share common

  1. NS2 Proteins of GB Virus B and Hepatitis C Virus Share Common Protease Activities and Membrane Topologies

    PubMed Central

    Boukadida, Célia; Marnata, Caroline; Montserret, Roland; Cohen, Lisette; Blumen, Brigitte; Gouttenoire, Jérôme; Moradpour, Darius; Penin, François

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT GB virus B (GBV-B), which is hepatotropic in experimentally infected small New World primates, is a member of the Hepacivirus genus but phylogenetically relatively distant from hepatitis C virus (HCV). To gain insights into the role and specificity of hepaciviral nonstructural protein 2 (NS2), which is required for HCV polyprotein processing and particle morphogenesis, we investigated whether NS2 structural and functional features are conserved between HCV and GBV-B. We found that GBV-B NS2, like HCV NS2, has cysteine protease activity responsible for cleavage at the NS2/NS3 junction, and we experimentally confirmed the location of this junction within the viral polyprotein. A model for GBV-B NS2 membrane topology was experimentally established by determining the membrane association properties of NS2 segments fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) and their nuclear magnetic resonance structures using synthetic peptides as well as by applying an N-glycosylation scanning approach. Similar glycosylation studies confirmed the HCV NS2 organization. Together, our data show that despite limited amino acid sequence similarity, GBV-B and HCV NS2 proteins share a membrane topology with 3 N-terminal transmembrane segments, which is also predicted to apply to other recently discovered hepaciviruses. Based on these data and using trans-complementation systems, we found that intragenotypic hybrid NS2 proteins with heterologous N-terminal membrane segments were able to efficiently trans-complement an assembly-deficient HCV mutant with a point mutation in the NS2 C-terminal domain, while GBV-B/HCV or intergenotypic NS2 chimeras were not. These studies indicate that virus- and genotype-specific intramolecular interactions between N- and C-terminal domains of NS2 are critically involved in HCV morphogenesis. IMPORTANCE Nonstructural protein 2 (NS2) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a multifunctional protein critically involved in polyprotein processing and virion morphogenesis. To gain insights into NS2 mechanisms of action, we investigated whether NS2 structural and functional features are conserved between HCV and GB virus B (GBV-B), a phylogenetically relatively distant primate hepacivirus. We showed that GBV-B NS2, like HCV NS2, carries cysteine protease activity. We experimentally established a model for GBV-B NS2 membrane topology and demonstrated that despite limited sequence similarity, GBV-B and HCV NS2 share an organization with three N-terminal transmembrane segments. We found that the role of HCV NS2 in particle assembly is genotype specific and relies on critical interactions between its N- and C-terminal domains. This first comparative analysis of NS2 proteins from two hepaciviruses and our structural predictions of NS2 from other newly identified mammal hepaciviruses highlight conserved key features of the hepaciviral life cycle. PMID:24741107

  2. Common Respiratory Viruses and Pulmonary Mucosal Immunology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David B. Huang

    tory epithelium. In most cases, viral infection is limited to the upper airways; however, infections of the lower airway regions occur in a significant number of infected individuals. Worldwide, approximately 90% of the cases of the “common cold” are caused by viruses and most are seen in the winter months. These viruses are spread from person to person and commonly

  3. Common randomness in information theory and cryptography - I: Secret sharing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rudolph Ahlswede; Imre Csiszár

    1993-01-01

    As the first part of a study of problems involving common randomness at distance locations, information-theoretic models of secret sharing (generating a common random key at two terminals, without letting an eavesdropper obtain information about this key) are considered. The concept of key-capacity is defined. Single-letter formulas of key-capacity are obtained for several models, and bounds to key-capacity are derived

  4. Shared office space and the risk of the common cold

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jouni J. K. Jaakkola; Olli P. Heinonen

    1995-01-01

    The common cold persists as a major economic and public health problem worldwide. Despite its long-established ubiquity, little is yet certain about the determinants of indoor environment in spreading of the infection, and even less about the role of indoor air quality as a mediator. The effect of sharing an office with one or more colleagues on the risk of

  5. Order and Magnitude Share a Common Representation in Parietal Cortex

    E-print Network

    Jonides, John

    Order and Magnitude Share a Common Representation in Parietal Cortex Michael S. Franklin1 and John magnitude is well established. Recently, there has also been speculation that the IPS is involved in the rep paradigms in which participants make judgments about either magnitude and/or order result in a behavioral

  6. Resistance of surface-dried virus to common disinfection procedures.

    PubMed

    Terpstra, F G; van den Blink, A E; Bos, L M; Boots, A G C; Brinkhuis, F H M; Gijsen, E; van Remmerden, Y; Schuitemaker, H; van 't Wout, A B

    2007-08-01

    It is believed that surface-dried viruses can remain infectious and may therefore pose a threat to public health. To help address this issue, we studied 0.1 N NaOH and 0.1% hypochlorite for their capacity to inactivate surface-dried lipid-enveloped (LE) [human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and pseudorabies virus (PRV)] and non-lipid-enveloped [NLE; canine parvovirus (CPV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV)] viruses in a background of either plasma or culture medium. In addition, 80% ethanol was tested on surface-dried LE viruses. Without treatment, surface-dried LE viruses remained infectious for at least one week and NLE viruses for more than one month. Irrespective of the disinfectant, inactivation decreased for viruses dried in plasma, which is more representative of viral contaminated blood than virus in culture medium. Inactivation by all disinfectants improved when preceded by rehydration, although the infectivity of CPV actually increased after rehydration and disinfection may thus be overestimated in the absence of rehydration. This is the first comprehensive study of five important (model) viruses in a surface-dried state showing persistence of infectivity, resistance to three commonly used disinfectants and restoration of susceptibility after rehydration. Our results may have implications for hygiene measurements in the prevention of virus transmission. PMID:17601636

  7. Expected size of shared haplotypes surrounding a common disease gene

    SciTech Connect

    Meerman, G.J. te; Meulen, M.A. van der; Sandkuijl, L.A. [Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands)

    1994-09-01

    If two persons in a founder population share a rare disease, they may share genes involved in that disease Identical By Descent. We have calculated the probability of the size of the region IBD on either side of a shared common gene. Probabilities are plotted for various values of the meiotic count: the number of independent meioses connecting the persons. Even if this number is quite large, the shared area will, given the present density of markers, contain several markers. To be 95% certain that the area surrounding a gene can be delimited to less than 1 cM, approximately 500 meioses need to be observed. The many generations that are required before a gene is separated from its surrounding polymorphisms indicate that association between disease and marker alleles can be explained as IBD around a common gene. In founder populations apparantly unrelated affected persons will likely share disease genes introduced or mutated between 10 and 40 generations ago. Analyzing the overlap of haplotypes gives excellent opportunities to observe implicitly the many meioses required for genetic fine mapping.

  8. Syncytium-forming virus of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus jacchus).

    PubMed Central

    Marczynska, B; Jones, C J; Wolfe, L G

    1981-01-01

    This communication describes the isolation and characterization of a new syncytium-forming virus of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus jacchus). The virus, isolated from skin explants and peripheral leukocytes of healthy animals, induced syncytia and subsequent cytolysis of several human, simian, and rodent fibroblastic cultures and induced a carrier state in mixed fibroblastic-epithelial or epithelial cell lines. Cytoplasmic and nuclear viral antigen was demonstrated in infected cells by indirect immunofluorescence tests using serum obtained from persistently infected common marmosets. Abundant virus particles were detected within cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum of lytically infected cells by electron microscopy. The virus incorporated [3H]uridine, banded at a density of 1.14 to 1.16 g/cm3 in sucrose, and possessed ribonucleic acid-dependent deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase. No antigenic cross-reactivity was detected between the marmoset virus and simian foamy virus serotypes 1 to 8 in neutralization and immunofluorescence assays. A seroepidemiological survey of a marmoset colony revealed that 53.5% of common marmosets contained antibodies against the virus, whereas other species of marmosets maintained in the same colony remained free of antibodies. Images PMID:6164648

  9. Antiviral agent blocks breathing of the common cold virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. KATHLEEN LEWIS; BRIAN BOTHNER; THOMAS J. SMITH; GARY SIUZDAK

    1998-01-01

    A dynamic capsid is critical to the events that shape the viral life cycle; events such as cell attachment, cell entry, and nucleic acid release demand a highly mobile viral surface. Protein mass mapping of the common cold virus, human rhinovirus 14 (HRV14), revealed both viral structural dynamics and the inhibition of such dynamics with an anti- viral agent, WIN

  10. Virus-induced gene silencing in soybean and common bean.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunquan; Whitham, Steven A; Hill, John H

    2013-01-01

    Plant viral vectors are useful for transient gene expression as well as for downregulation of gene expression via virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). When used in reverse genetics approaches, VIGS offers a convenient way of transforming genomic information into knowledge of gene function. Efforts to develop and improve plant viral vectors have expanded their applications and have led to substantial advances needed to facilitate gene function studies in major row crops. Here, we describe a DNA-based Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) vector system for both gene expression and VIGS in soybean and common bean. PMID:23386301

  11. Extensive Host Sharing of Central European Tula Virus ?

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Essbauer, Sandra; Petraityte, Rasa; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Tackmann, Kirsten; Conraths, Franz J.; Sasnauskas, Kestutis; Arikawa, Jiro; Thomas, Astrid; Pfeffer, Martin; Scharninghausen, Jerrold J.; Splettstoesser, Wolf; Wenk, Matthias; Heckel, Gerald; Ulrich, Rainer G.

    2010-01-01

    To examine the host association of Tula virus (TULV), a hantavirus present in large parts of Europe, we investigated a total of 791 rodents representing 469 Microtus arvalis and 322 Microtus agrestis animals from northeast, northwest, and southeast Germany, including geographical regions with sympatric occurrence of both vole species, for the presence of TULV infections. Based on serological investigation, reverse transcriptase PCR, and subsequent sequence analysis of partial small (S) and medium (M) segments, we herein show that TULV is carried not only by its commonly known host M. arvalis but also frequently by M. agrestis in different regions of Germany for a prolonged time period. At one trapping site, TULV was exclusively detected in M. agrestis, suggesting an isolated transmission cycle in this rodent reservoir separate from spillover infections of TULV-carrying M. arvalis. Phylogenetic analysis of the S and M segment sequences demonstrated geographical clustering of the TULV sequences irrespective of the host, M. arvalis or M. agrestis. The novel TULV lineages from northeast, northwest, and southeast Germany described here are clearly separated from each other and from other German, European, or Asian lineages, suggesting their stable geographical localization and fast sequence evolution. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that TULV represents a promiscuous hantavirus with a large panel of susceptible hosts. In addition, this may suggest an alternative evolution mode, other than a strict coevolution, for this virus in its Microtus hosts, which should be proven in further large-scale investigations on sympatric Microtus hosts. PMID:19889769

  12. Extensive host sharing of central European Tula virus.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Essbauer, Sandra; Petraityte, Rasa; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Tackmann, Kirsten; Conraths, Franz J; Sasnauskas, Kestutis; Arikawa, Jiro; Thomas, Astrid; Pfeffer, Martin; Scharninghausen, Jerrold J; Splettstoesser, Wolf; Wenk, Matthias; Heckel, Gerald; Ulrich, Rainer G

    2010-01-01

    To examine the host association of Tula virus (TULV), a hantavirus present in large parts of Europe, we investigated a total of 791 rodents representing 469 Microtus arvalis and 322 Microtus agrestis animals from northeast, northwest, and southeast Germany, including geographical regions with sympatric occurrence of both vole species, for the presence of TULV infections. Based on serological investigation, reverse transcriptase PCR, and subsequent sequence analysis of partial small (S) and medium (M) segments, we herein show that TULV is carried not only by its commonly known host M. arvalis but also frequently by M. agrestis in different regions of Germany for a prolonged time period. At one trapping site, TULV was exclusively detected in M. agrestis, suggesting an isolated transmission cycle in this rodent reservoir separate from spillover infections of TULV-carrying M. arvalis. Phylogenetic analysis of the S and M segment sequences demonstrated geographical clustering of the TULV sequences irrespective of the host, M. arvalis or M. agrestis. The novel TULV lineages from northeast, northwest, and southeast Germany described here are clearly separated from each other and from other German, European, or Asian lineages, suggesting their stable geographical localization and fast sequence evolution. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that TULV represents a promiscuous hantavirus with a large panel of susceptible hosts. In addition, this may suggest an alternative evolution mode, other than a strict coevolution, for this virus in its Microtus hosts, which should be proven in further large-scale investigations on sympatric Microtus hosts. PMID:19889769

  13. Multicultural organizations: common language, knowledge sharing and performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jakob Lauring; Jan Selmer

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – Multicultural organizations are often argued to hold potential knowledge resources that can be used to increase performance. However, while only a few studies have been undertaken on the subject, linguistic differences are argued to make the use of knowledge and the sharing of knowledge a challenge in multicultural organizations. This study seeks to explore the relationships between language,

  14. On Five Independent Phenomena Sharing a Common Cause

    E-print Network

    Roger Ellman

    2012-08-19

    Over the past century a succession of five different independent astronomical phenomena have been discovered, each appearing to be the result of a common underlying cause that also produces an unaccounted-for acceleration that is: quite small, centrally directed in the system exhibiting each phenomenon, non-gravitational, distance independent, and apparently of a common magnitude. The present paper analyzes the phenomena and proposes the underlying common cause, a common solution to the problem that they present. Four of the phenomena, in the order of their discovery are: 1 - In 1933, the indication by galactic rotation curves that there is such an acceleration present and acting in galaxies but with no observable cause [hence the postulating of "Dark Matter"]. Here the acceleration is directed toward the galactic center, the dominant factor in the mechanics of galaxy rotation. 2 - In 1998, the Pioneer Anomaly in which the acceleration is directed toward the Sun, the dominant factor in the mechanics of the Pioneer spacecrafts' motion. 3 - In 2008, the Flybys Anomaly for which the acceleration is directed toward the center of the Earth, the dominant factor in the mechanics of the flyby motion [as presented in the paper following]. 4 - Also in 2008, confirmed in 2010, the Dark Flow anomaly for which the acceleration is directed toward the central origin of the overall universe, the dominant factor in the mechanics of the overall universe, where the Big Bang and expansion began [as presented in the paper following]. The earliest of all is 5 - Hubble's discovery of Redshifts of the light from various distant astral bodies.

  15. Shared alterations in NK cell frequency, phenotype, and function in chronic human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus infections.

    PubMed

    Meier, Ute-Christiane; Owen, Rachel E; Taylor, Elizabeth; Worth, Andrew; Naoumov, Nikolai; Willberg, Christian; Tang, Kwok; Newton, Phillipa; Pellegrino, Pierre; Williams, Ian; Klenerman, Paul; Borrow, Persephone

    2005-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) cause clinically important persistent infections. The effects of virus persistence on innate immunity, including NK cell responses, and the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We examined the frequency, phenotype, and function of peripheral blood CD3- CD56+ NK subsets in HIV+ and HCV+ patients and identified significantly reduced numbers of total NK cells and a striking shift in NK subsets, with a marked decrease in the CD56(dim) cell fraction compared to CD56(bright) cells, in both infections. This shift influenced the phenotype and functional capacity (gamma interferon production, killing) of the total NK pool. In addition, abnormalities in the functional capacity of the CD56(dim) NK subset were observed in HIV+ patients. The shared NK alterations were found to be associated with a significant reduction in serum levels of the innate cytokine interleukin 15 (IL-15). In vitro stimulation with IL-15 rescued NK cells of HIV+ and HCV+ patients from apoptosis and enhanced proliferation and functional activity. We hypothesize that the reduced levels of IL-15 present in the serum during HIV and HCV infections might impact NK cell homeostasis, contributing to the common alterations of the NK pool observed in these unrelated infections. PMID:16160163

  16. Structure of an archaeal virus capsid protein reveals a common ancestry to eukaryotic and bacterial viruses

    PubMed Central

    Khayat, Reza; Tang, Liang; Larson, Eric T.; Lawrence, C. Martin; Young, Mark; Johnson, John E.

    2005-01-01

    Archaea and their viruses are poorly understood when compared with the Eukarya and Bacteria domains of life. We report here the crystal structure of the major capsid protein (MCP) of the Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus, an archaeal virus isolated from an acidic hot spring (pH 2–4, 72–92°C) in Yellowstone National Park. The structure is nearly identical to the MCP structures of the eukaryotic Paramecium bursaria Chlorella virus, and the bacteriophage PRD1, and shows a common fold with the mammalian adenovirus. Structural analysis of the capsid architecture, determined by fitting the subunit into the electron cryomicroscopy reconstruction of the virus, identified a number of key interactions that are akin to those observed in adenovirus and PRD1. The similar capsid proteins and capsid architectures strongly suggest that these viral capsids originated and evolved from a common ancestor. Hence, this work provides a previously undescribed example of a viral relationship spanning the three domains of life (Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea). The MCP structure also provides insights into the stabilizing forces required for extracellular hyperthermophilic proteins to tolerate high-temperature hot springs. PMID:16357204

  17. Revitalization of the Shared Commons: Education for Sustainability and Marginalized Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasson, George E.

    2010-01-01

    Education for sustainability provides a vision for revitalizing the environmental commons while preserving cultural traditions and human rights. What happens if the environmental commons is shared by two politically disparate and conflicting cultures? As in many shared common lands, what happens if one culture is dominant and represents a more…

  18. CHARACTERIZATION AND PRESENCE OF BEAN COMMON MOSAIC NECROSIS VIRUS IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An outbreak of virus symptoms in the San Juan Valley of the southeastern part of the Dominican Republic during the 1999/2000 dry bean production season was studied. The virus was determined by USDA-ARS at Prosser, WA, to be the NL-8 strain of bean common mosaic necrosis virus. The virus was observed...

  19. [Experimental infection caused by influenza A (H5N1) virus in common gull (Larus canus)].

    PubMed

    Za?kovskaia, A V; Sharshov, K A; Sherstkov, E A; Iurlov, A K; Shestopalov, A M

    2012-01-01

    The influenza A/common gull/Chany/P/2006 (HSN1) virus strain Isolated from a clinically healthy common gull (Larus canus) caused no death of Its natural host (a common gull). The virus was shown to be capable for effective replication in the tissues of the lung, spleen, and upper respiratory tract and in the intestinal mucosal cells of the common gull with further environmental virus liberation elimination along with mucinous discharges from the cloaca and fauces for 2 weeks. The potential role of this bird species in the circulation of influenza virus is discussed. PMID:23248859

  20. Evolutionarily Related Sindbis-Like Plant Viruses Maintain Different Levels of Population Diversity in a Common Host

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM L. SCHNEIDER; MARILYN J. ROOSSINCK

    2000-01-01

    The levels of population diversity of three related Sindbis-like plant viruses, Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), and Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), in infections of a common host, Nicotiana benthamiana, established from genetically identical viral RNA were examined. Despite probably having a common evolutionary ancestor, the three viruses maintained different levels of population diversity. CMV had the

  1. Spread of Avian Influenza Viruses by Common Teal (Anas crecca) in Europe

    E-print Network

    Green, Andy J.

    Spread of Avian Influenza Viruses by Common Teal (Anas crecca) in Europe Camille Lebarbenchon1 influenza virus (AIV) dispersal has become an increasing focus of research. As for any other bird: Lebarbenchon C, Albespy F, Brochet A-L, Grandhomme V, Renaud F, et al. (2009) Spread of Avian Influenza Viruses

  2. Capsid Antibodies to Different Adeno-Associated Virus Serotypes Bind Common Regions

    E-print Network

    Baker, Timothy S.

    Capsid Antibodies to Different Adeno-Associated Virus Serotypes Bind Common Regions Brittney L potential mechanisms for virus neutraliza- tion by the antibodies. Antibodies that are elicited against, USAg Interactions between viruses and the host antibody immune response are critical in the development

  3. Detection of sweet potato viruses in Yunnan and genetic diversity analysis of the common viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two hundred seventy-nine samples with virus-like symptoms collected from 16 regions in Yunnan Province were tested by RT-PCR/PCR using virus-specific primers for 8 sweet potato viruses. Six viruses, Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV), Sweet Potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), Sweet potato ...

  4. RSVP: an investigation of remote shared visual presence as common ground for human-robot teams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jenny Burke; Robin Murphy

    2007-01-01

    This study presents mobile robots as a way of augmenting communication in distributed teams through a remote shared visual presence (RSVP) consisting of the robot's view. By giving all team members access to the shared visual display provided by a robot situated in a remote workspace, the robot can serve as a source of common ground for the distributed team.

  5. Plant Disease Note 2007 | First Report of Onion yellow dwarf virus, Leek yellow stripe virus, and Garlic common latent virus in Garlic in Oregon Overview Current Issue Past Issues Search PD Search APS Journals

    E-print Network

    Pappu, Hanu R.

    Plant Disease Note 2007 | First Report of Onion yellow dwarf virus, Leek yellow stripe virus-2007 The American Phytopathological Society First Report of Onion yellow dwarf virus, Leek yellow stripe virus. With recent findings of Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV), Leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV), and Garlic common

  6. Prediction of common epitopes on hemagglutinin of the influenza A virus (H1 subtype).

    PubMed

    Guo, Chunyan; Xie, Xin; Li, Huijin; Zhao, Penghua; Zhao, Xiangrong; Sun, Jingying; Wang, Haifang; Liu, Yang; Li, Yan; Hu, Qiaoxia; Hu, Jun; Li, Yuan

    2015-02-01

    Influenza A virus infection is a persistent threat to public health worldwide due to hemagglutinin (HA) variation. Current vaccines against influenza A virus provide immunity to viral isolates similar to vaccine strains. Antibodies against common epitopes provide immunity to diverse influenza virus strains and protect against future pandemic influenza. Therefore, it is vital to analyze common HA antigenic epitopes of influenza virus. In this study, 14 strains of monoclonal antibodies with high sensitivity to common epitopes of influenza virus antigens identified in our previous study were selected as the tool to predict common HA epitopes. The common HA antigenic epitopes were divided into four categories by ELISA blocking experiments, and separately, into three categories according to the preliminary results of computer simulation. Comparison between the results of computer simulations and ELISA blocking experiments indicated that at least two classes of common epitopes are present in influenza virus HA. This study provides experimental data for improving the prediction of HA epitopes of influenza virus (H1 subtype) and the development of a potential universal vaccine as well as a novel approach for the prediction of epitopes on other pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:25533547

  7. Genome of Phaeocystis globosa virus PgV-16T highlights the common ancestry of the largest known DNA viruses infecting eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Santini, Sebastien; Jeudy, Sandra; Bartoli, Julia; Poirot, Olivier; Lescot, Magali; Abergel, Chantal; Barbe, Valérie; Wommack, K Eric; Noordeloos, Anna A M; Brussaard, Corina P D; Claverie, Jean-Michel

    2013-06-25

    Large dsDNA viruses are involved in the population control of many globally distributed species of eukaryotic phytoplankton and have a prominent role in bloom termination. The genus Phaeocystis (Haptophyta, Prymnesiophyceae) includes several high-biomass-forming phytoplankton species, such as Phaeocystis globosa, the blooms of which occur mostly in the coastal zone of the North Atlantic and the North Sea. Here, we report the 459,984-bp-long genome sequence of P. globosa virus strain PgV-16T, encoding 434 proteins and eight tRNAs and, thus, the largest fully sequenced genome to date among viruses infecting algae. Surprisingly, PgV-16T exhibits no phylogenetic affinity with other viruses infecting microalgae (e.g., phycodnaviruses), including those infecting Emiliania huxleyi, another ubiquitous bloom-forming haptophyte. Rather, PgV-16T belongs to an emerging clade (the Megaviridae) clustering the viruses endowed with the largest known genomes, including Megavirus, Mimivirus (both infecting acanthamoeba), and a virus infecting the marine microflagellate grazer Cafeteria roenbergensis. Seventy-five percent of the best matches of PgV-16T-predicted proteins correspond to two viruses [Organic Lake phycodnavirus (OLPV)1 and OLPV2] from a hypersaline lake in Antarctica (Organic Lake), the hosts of which are unknown. As for OLPVs and other Megaviridae, the PgV-16T sequence data revealed the presence of a virophage-like genome. However, no virophage particle was detected in infected P. globosa cultures. The presence of many genes found only in Megaviridae in its genome and the presence of an associated virophage strongly suggest that PgV-16T shares a common ancestry with the largest known dsDNA viruses, the host range of which already encompasses the earliest diverging branches of domain Eukarya. PMID:23754393

  8. EVALUATION OF COMMON BEAN FOR RESISTANCE TO CLOVER YELLOW VEIN VIRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV) is a problematic virus causing the chocolate pod disease of common bean that has been plaguing bean production in the Great Lakes region since the rapid increase of soybean aphid (Aphis glycines) populations in 2000. Resistance to ClYVV is not well understood. We s...

  9. Is breast cancer caused by late exposure to a common virus?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Richardson

    1997-01-01

    Although there are recognized risk factors for breast cancer, its cause is still unknown. It is hypothesized here that breast cancer results from late exposure to a common virus. This hypothesis is investigated by relating the epidemiology of breast cancer to the seroepidemiology of cytomegalovirus, as a surrogate for a breast cancer virus. The hypothesis is consistent with the geographical

  10. A common solution to group 2 influenza virus neutralization

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, Robert H. E.; Lee, Peter S.; Stoop, Esther J. M.; Hoffman, Ryan M. B.; Ekiert, Damian C.; Bhabha, Gira; Yu, Wenli; Juraszek, Jarek; Koudstaal, Wouter; Jongeneelen, Mandy; Korse, Hans J. W. M.; Ophorst, Carla; Brinkman-van der Linden, Els C. M.; Throsby, Mark; Kwakkenbos, Mark J.; Bakker, Arjen Q.; Beaumont, Tim; Spits, Hergen; Kwaks, Ted; Vogels, Ronald; Ward, Andrew B.; Goudsmit, Jaap; Wilson, Ian A.

    2014-01-01

    The discovery and characterization of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against influenza viruses have raised hopes for the development of monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based immunotherapy and the design of universal influenza vaccines. Only one human bnAb (CR8020) specifically recognizing group 2 influenza A viruses has been previously characterized that binds to a highly conserved epitope at the base of the hemagglutinin (HA) stem and has neutralizing activity against H3, H7, and H10 viruses. Here, we report a second group 2 bnAb, CR8043, which was derived from a different germ-line gene encoding a highly divergent amino acid sequence. CR8043 has in vitro neutralizing activity against H3 and H10 viruses and protects mice against challenge with a lethal dose of H3N2 and H7N7 viruses. The crystal structure and EM reconstructions of the CR8043-H3 HA complex revealed that CR8043 binds to a site similar to the CR8020 epitope but uses an alternative angle of approach and a distinct set of interactions. The identification of another antibody against the group 2 stem epitope suggests that this conserved site of vulnerability has great potential for design of therapeutics and vaccines. PMID:24335589

  11. Emerging Theme: Cellular PDZ Proteins as Common Targets of Pathogenic Viruses?

    PubMed Central

    Javier, Ronald T.; Rice, Andrew P.

    2011-01-01

    More than a decade ago, three viral oncoproteins, adenovirus type 9 E4-ORF1, human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 Tax, and high-risk human papillomavirus E6, were found to encode a related carboxyl-terminal PDZ domain-binding motif (PBM) that mediates interactions with a select group of cellular PDZ proteins. Recent studies have shown that many other viruses also encode PBM-containing proteins that bind to cellular PDZ proteins. Interestingly, these recently recognized viruses include not only some with oncogenic potential (hepatitis B virus, rhesus papillomavirus, cottontail rabbit papillomavirus) but also many without this potential (influenza virus, Dengue virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, rabies virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, human immunodeficiency virus). Examination of the cellular PDZ proteins that are targets of viral PBMs reveals that the viral proteins often interact with the same or similar types of PDZ proteins, most notably Dlg1 and other members of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase protein family, as well as Scribble. In addition, cellular PDZ protein targets of viral PBMs commonly control tight junction formation, cell polarity establishment, and apoptosis. These findings reveal a new theme in virology wherein many different virus families encode proteins that bind and perturb the function of cellular PDZ proteins. The inhibition or perturbation of the function of cellular PDZ proteins appears to be a widely used strategy for viruses to enhance their replication, disseminate in the host, and transmit to new hosts. PMID:21775458

  12. Targeting CTCF to Control Virus Gene Expression: A Common Theme amongst Diverse DNA Viruses.

    PubMed

    Pentland, Ieisha; Parish, Joanna L

    2015-01-01

    All viruses target host cell factors for successful life cycle completion. Transcriptional control of DNA viruses by host cell factors is important in the temporal and spatial regulation of virus gene expression. Many of these factors are recruited to enhance virus gene expression and thereby increase virus production, but host cell factors can also restrict virus gene expression and productivity of infection. CCCTC binding factor (CTCF) is a host cell DNA binding protein important for the regulation of genomic chromatin boundaries, transcriptional control and enhancer element usage. CTCF also functions in RNA polymerase II regulation and in doing so can influence co-transcriptional splicing events. Several DNA viruses, including Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) utilize CTCF to control virus gene expression and many studies have highlighted a role for CTCF in the persistence of these diverse oncogenic viruses. CTCF can both enhance and repress virus gene expression and in some cases CTCF increases the complexity of alternatively spliced transcripts. This review article will discuss the function of CTCF in the life cycle of DNA viruses in the context of known host cell CTCF functions. PMID:26154016

  13. Common market, shared problems: time for a coordinated response to biological invasions in Europe?

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    Common market, shared problems: time for a coordinated response to biological invasions in Europe successfully introduced is higher now than at any time in the past. For Europe to address biological invasions with a specific remit to manage biological invasions is needed. At the same time, the knowledge base resulting

  14. Oncogene . Author manuscript Metabolism and proliferation share common regulatory pathways in cancer

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Oncogene . Author manuscript Page /1 9 Metabolism and proliferation share common regulatory to transform the cell. We present herein the view that participation of cell-cycle regulators and oncogenic ; Oncogenes ; Cell-Cycle regulators ; Glycolysis ; de novo Lipogenesis Introduction Over the past decades

  15. Brain Overview The brain is composed of 1011 neurons. While they are share common mech-

    E-print Network

    Ballard, Dana H.

    Chapter 2 Brain Overview The brain is composed of 1011 neurons. While they are share common mech of circuitry needed to develop behavioral programs. Initially much of what we know about the brain's subsystems or cerebral injury. Tragically, one way of damaging the brain is through battle injuries. The study of brain

  16. Two closely related endocytic proteins that share a common OCRL-binding motif with APPL1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Two closely related endocytic proteins that share a common OCRL-binding motif with APPL1 Laura E effector APPL1 (Adaptor Protein containing pleck- strin homology [PH] domain, PTB domain and Leucine zipper motif 1) APPL1 for OCRL binding. Ses binding is mutually exclusive with APPL1 binding, and is disrupted

  17. 85The Space Shuttle Fly me to the moon? A common misconception shared by

    E-print Network

    altitude. Problem 1 ­ The Moon is `located' at an orbit speed of 1.0 km/sec. What must be the Space Shuttle85The Space Shuttle ­ Fly me to the moon? A common misconception shared by many students, and perhaps some members of the public, is that the Space Shuttle could have been used to travel to the Moon

  18. Therapeutic approaches against common structural features of toxic oligomers shared by multiple amyloidogenic proteins.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Muñoz, Marcos J; Castillo-Carranza, Diana L; Kayed, Rakez

    2014-04-15

    Impaired proteostasis is one of the main features of all amyloid diseases, which are associated with the formation of insoluble aggregates from amyloidogenic proteins. The aggregation process can be caused by overproduction or poor clearance of these proteins. However, numerous reports suggest that amyloid oligomers are the most toxic species, rather than insoluble fibrillar material, in Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Prion diseases, among others. Although the exact protein that aggregates varies between amyloid disorders, they all share common structural features that can be used as therapeutic targets. In this review, we focus on therapeutic approaches against shared features of toxic oligomeric structures and future directions. PMID:24406245

  19. Studies on Parainfluenza Type 2 and 4 Viruses Obtained from Patients with Common Colds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. J. Tyrrell; M. L. Bynoe

    1969-01-01

    Four agents which were obtained from adults with common colds were cultivated and identified—one was influenza type B and the others were parainfluenza viruses of types 2 and 4. Their cultivation was assisted by the use of organ cultures of human embryo tracheal or nasal epithelium. They infected and caused typical common colds in volunteers.

  20. Occurrance in Korea of three major soybean viruses, Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYCMV), and Soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV) revealed by a nationwide survey of soybean fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV) and soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV) were recently isolated in Korea, and it hasn’t been reported how these two viruses were dispersed in Korea. In 2012, we performed a nationwide survey of subsistence soybean farms in Korea. Leaves that appeared ...

  1. Tula virus: a newly detected hantavirus carried by European common voles.

    PubMed

    Plyusnin, A; Vapalahti, O; Lankinen, H; Lehväslaiho, H; Apekina, N; Myasnikov, Y; Kallio-Kokko, H; Henttonen, H; Lundkvist, A; Brummer-Korvenkontio, M

    1994-12-01

    A novel hantavirus has been discovered in European common voles, Microtus arvalis and Microtus rossiaemeridionalis. According to sequencing data for the genomic RNA S segment and nucleocapsid protein and data obtained by immunoblotting with a panel of monoclonal antibodies, the virus, designated Tula virus, is a distinct novel member of the genus Hantavirus. Phylogenetic analyses of Tula virus indicate that it is most closely related to Prospect Hill, Puumala, and Muerto Canyon viruses. The results support the view that the evolution of hantaviruses follows that of their primary carriers. Comparison of strains circulating within a local rodent population revealed a genetic drift via accumulation of base substitutions and deletions or insertions. The Tula virus population from individual animals is represented by quasispecies, indicating the potential for rapid evolution of the agent. PMID:7966573

  2. Tula virus: a newly detected hantavirus carried by European common voles.

    PubMed Central

    Plyusnin, A; Vapalahti, O; Lankinen, H; Lehväslaiho, H; Apekina, N; Myasnikov, Y; Kallio-Kokko, H; Henttonen, H; Lundkvist, A; Brummer-Korvenkontio, M

    1994-01-01

    A novel hantavirus has been discovered in European common voles, Microtus arvalis and Microtus rossiaemeridionalis. According to sequencing data for the genomic RNA S segment and nucleocapsid protein and data obtained by immunoblotting with a panel of monoclonal antibodies, the virus, designated Tula virus, is a distinct novel member of the genus Hantavirus. Phylogenetic analyses of Tula virus indicate that it is most closely related to Prospect Hill, Puumala, and Muerto Canyon viruses. The results support the view that the evolution of hantaviruses follows that of their primary carriers. Comparison of strains circulating within a local rodent population revealed a genetic drift via accumulation of base substitutions and deletions or insertions. The Tula virus population from individual animals is represented by quasispecies, indicating the potential for rapid evolution of the agent. Images PMID:7966573

  3. Malignant Phyllodes Tumor and Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia Sharing a Common Clonal Origin

    PubMed Central

    Fløisand, Yngvar; Beiske, Klaus; Tjønnfjord, Geir Erland; Heldal, Dag; Bjerkehagen, Bodil; Revheim, Mona-Elisabeth; Heim, Sverre; Bruland, Øyvind Sverre; Hall, Kirsten Sundby; Tierens, Anne; Delabie, Jan

    2013-01-01

    There is a well-known association in male patients between mediastinal germ cell tumors (GCT) and hematologic malignancies, with a propensity towards acute megakaryoblastic leukemia. These rare malignancies have been shown to share a common clonal origin, often deduced from the finding of isochromosome 12p, i(12p), in cells from both the solid tumor and the leukemia, and thus are now known to represent different manifestations of the same clonal process. We treated a young female patient with a malignant phyllodes tumor followed by an acute megakaryoblastic leukemia and found several of the same marker chromosomes by karyotype analysis of cells from both the tumor and the leukemia implying a common clonal origin of the two. To the best of our knowledge, this has not been demonstrated in phyllodes tumors before, but indicates that the same type of leukemization may occur of this tumor as has been described in mediastinal GCT. PMID:24455338

  4. Vitamin D status and antibody levels to common viruses in pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Mowry, E. M.; James, J. A.; Krupp, L. B.; Waubant, E.

    2011-01-01

    Background The relative contribution and interaction of risk factors for multiple sclerosis (MS) have not been evaluated. Objective To determine if vitamin D status is associated with antibody levels to common viruses in pediatric-onset MS or clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) patients and controls. Methods We assessed if vitamin D status was associated with viral antibody levels to Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and herpes simplex virus(HSV) -1 or -2 in subjects who demonstrated evidence of remote infection with these viruses and whether these associations differed depending on disease status. Results In 140 subjects, vitamin D status was weakly associated with antibody levels to CMV but not to the other viruses. However, there were some interactions between vitamin D status and disease state. Among those with vitamin D sufficiency (? 30 ng/mL), MS/CIS patients had higher antibody levels to Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 than controls. Vitamin D sufficiency was associated with higher CMV antibody levels in MS/CIS subjects but lower CMV antibody levels in controls. Higher vitamin D levels appeared to be associated with higher titers to HSV-2 in MS/CIS patients but not controls. Conclusion Vitamin D status may be differentially associated with antibody levels to common childhood viruses among seropositive subjects. PMID:21212086

  5. Two independent QTL condition novel resistance to beet curly top virus in common bean landrace G122

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beet curly top virus, often referred to as Curly top virus (CTV), is an important virus of common bean in the semiarid regions of the US, Canada and Mexico, and the only effective control is disease resistance. The landrace G122 is resistant to CTV but does not contain the Bct resistance gene. To d...

  6. Inheritance of resistance to Beet curly top virus in G122 common bean landrace

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beet curly top virus (BCTV) is a devastating disease of common bean in the Western U.S. Genetic resistance provides effective control but can be difficult to discern in early generations. G122, an Andean landrace from India, known as Jatu Rong, appears to possess resistance independent of Bct-1 gen...

  7. The viral transmembrane superfamily: possible divergence of Arenavirus and Filovirus glycoproteins from a common RNA virus ancestor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William R. Gallaher; Christopher DiSimone; Michael J. Buchmeier

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies of viral entry proteins from influenza, measles, human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1), and Ebola virus have shown, first with molecular modeling, and then X-ray crystallographic or other biophysical studies, that these disparate viruses share a coiled-coil type of entry protein. RESULTS: Structural models of the transmembrane glycoproteins (GP-2) of the Arenaviruses, lymphochoriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and Lassa

  8. HIV-1 and microvesicles from T-cells share a common glycome, arguing for a common origin

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamoorthy, Lakshmi; Bess, Julian W.; Preston, Alex B.; Nagashima, Kunio; Mahal, Lara K.

    2009-01-01

    HIV-1 is a master at deceiving the immune system, usurping host biosynthetic machinery. Although HIV-1 is coated with host-derived glycoproteins only glycosylation of viral gp120 has been described. Herein we utilize lectin microarray technology to analyze the glycome of intact HIV-1 virions. We show that the glycan coat of human T-cell line-derived HIV-1 matches that of native immunomodulatory microvesicles. The carbohydrate composition of both virus and microvesicles is cell-line dependent, suggesting a mechanism to rapidly camouflage the virus within the host. In addition, binding of both virus and microvesicles to antiviral lectins is enriched over the host cell, raising concern about targeting these glycans for therapeutics. This work also sheds light on the binding of HIV-1 to galectin-1, an important human immune lectin. Overall, our work strongly supports the theory that HIV-1 co-opts the exocytic pathway of microvesicles, potentially explaining why eliciting a protective antiviral immune response is difficult. PMID:19234452

  9. Genome-wide Association Study Identifies Shared Risk Loci Common to Two Malignancies in Golden Retrievers

    PubMed Central

    Tonomura, Noriko; Elvers, Ingegerd; Thomas, Rachael; Megquier, Kate; Turner-Maier, Jason; Howald, Cedric; Sarver, Aaron L.; Swofford, Ross; Frantz, Aric M.; Ito, Daisuke; Mauceli, Evan; Arendt, Maja; Noh, Hyun Ji; Koltookian, Michele; Biagi, Tara; Fryc, Sarah; Williams, Christina; Avery, Anne C.; Kim, Jong-Hyuk; Barber, Lisa; Burgess, Kristine; Lander, Eric S.; Karlsson, Elinor K.; Azuma, Chieko

    2015-01-01

    Dogs, with their breed-determined limited genetic background, are great models of human disease including cancer. Canine B-cell lymphoma and hemangiosarcoma are both malignancies of the hematologic system that are clinically and histologically similar to human B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and angiosarcoma, respectively. Golden retrievers in the US show significantly elevated lifetime risk for both B-cell lymphoma (6%) and hemangiosarcoma (20%). We conducted genome-wide association studies for hemangiosarcoma and B-cell lymphoma, identifying two shared predisposing loci. The two associated loci are located on chromosome 5, and together contribute ~20% of the risk of developing these cancers. Genome-wide p-values for the top SNP of each locus are 4.6×10-7 and 2.7×10-6, respectively. Whole genome resequencing of nine cases and controls followed by genotyping and detailed analysis identified three shared and one B-cell lymphoma specific risk haplotypes within the two loci, but no coding changes were associated with the risk haplotypes. Gene expression analysis of B-cell lymphoma tumors revealed that carrying the risk haplotypes at the first locus is associated with down-regulation of several nearby genes including the proximal gene TRPC6, a transient receptor Ca2+-channel involved in T-cell activation, among other functions. The shared risk haplotype in the second locus overlaps the vesicle transport and release gene STX8. Carrying the shared risk haplotype is associated with gene expression changes of 100 genes enriched for pathways involved in immune cell activation. Thus, the predisposing germ-line mutations in B-cell lymphoma and hemangiosarcoma appear to be regulatory, and affect pathways involved in T-cell mediated immune response in the tumor. This suggests that the interaction between the immune system and malignant cells plays a common role in the tumorigenesis of these relatively different cancers. PMID:25642983

  10. 3D Modeling of Dengue Virus NS4B and Chikungunya Virus nsP4: Identification of a Common Drug Target and Designing a Single Antiviral Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Satheesh, Garisekurthi; Prabhu, Nagu P; Venkataramana, Musturi

    2014-01-01

    Dengue and chikungunya virus infections are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. These two viruses belong to two different families with many similarities and dissimilarities. Both are enveloped viruses and the mode of transmission is also by the same mosquito species. Especially in case of symptom expression, there is confusion between these two viruses. Reports indicate the overlapping endemic areas and co-infections of both viruses in a single patient. The above factors indicate that there is a need for developing a single drug/vaccine for both the viruses. As a first report in this direction, we have used the bioinformatics tools to identify a common target in both the viruses for a single inhibitor molecule. Phylogenetic and distance based analyses using the nucleotide sequences of arthropod and non-arthropod borne viruses indicated a common origin of evolutionary point for mosquito borne viruses, irrespective of their families. Similarly, the amino acid sequences of non-structural protein-4B (NS4B) of dengue virus and non-structural protein-P4 (nsP4) of chikungunya virus showed a common evolutionary origin. Modeled and superimposed 3D-structures of above two proteins showed a common alpha helix. Virtual screening of selected molecules was done to identify the molecules which can bind to the identified common helix and found that N-(p-tolylmethyl)-3-[(3-pyridylmethylamino)methyl]benzamide (TPB) has significant binding characteristics to the common helix. Molecular simulations indicated that both the protein-TPB complexes were stable. Therefore, we propose that TPB or its analogues could act as antiviral agents against both the viruses. PMID:25847003

  11. Virus Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Veesler, David; Johnson, John E.

    2013-01-01

    We examined virus maturation of selected non-enveloped and enveloped ssRNA viruses; retroviruses; bacteriophages and herpes virus. Processes associated with maturation in the RNA viruses range from subtle (noda and picornaviruses) to dramatic (tetraviruses and togaviruses). The elaborate assembly and maturation pathway of HIV is discussed in contrast to the less sophisticated but highly efficient processes associated with togaviruses. Bacteriophage assembly and maturation are discussed in general terms with specific examples chosen for emphasis. Finally the herpes viruses are compared with bacteriophages. The data support divergent evolution of noda, picorna and tetraviruses from a common ancestor and divergent evolution of alpha and flaviviruses from a common ancestor. Likewise, bacteriophages and herpes viruses almost certainly share a common ancestor in their evolution. Comparing all the viruses, we conclude that maturation is a convergent process that is required to solve conflicting requirements in biological dynamics and function. PMID:22404678

  12. Sympathetic neurons and chromaffin cells share a common progenitor in the neural crest in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The neural crest (NC) is a transient embryonic structure unique to vertebrates, which generates peripheral sensory and autonomic neurons, glia, neuroendocrine chromaffin and thyroid C-cells, melanocytes, and mesenchymal derivatives such as parts of the skull, heart, and meninges. The sympathoadrenal (SA) cell lineage is one major sub-lineage of the NC that gives rise to sympathetic neurons, chromaffin cells, and the intermediate small intensely fluorescent (SIF) cells. A key question is when during NC ontogeny do multipotent progenitors segregate into the different NC-derived lineages. Recent evidence suggested that sympathetic, sensory, and melanocyte progenitors delaminate from the thoracic neural tube (NT) in successive, largely non-overlapping waves and that at least certain NC progenitors are already fate-restricted within the NT. Whether sympathetic neurons and chromaffin cells, suggested by cell culture studies to share a common progenitor, are also fate segregated in ovo prior to emigration, is not known. Results We have conducted single cell electroporations of a GFP-encoding plasmid into the dorsal midline of E2 chick NTs at the adrenomedullary level of the NC. Analysis of their derivatives, performed at E6, revealed that in most cases, labelled progeny was detected in both sympathetic ganglia and adrenal glands, where cells co-expressed characteristic marker combinations. Conclusions Our results show that sympathetic neurons and adrenal chromaffin cells share a common progenitor in the NT. Together with previous findings we suggest that phenotypic diversification of these sublineages is likely to occur after delamination from the NT and prior to target encounter. PMID:23777568

  13. Modularity in the mammalian dentition: Mice and monkeys share a common dental genetic architecture

    PubMed Central

    Hlusko, Leslea J.; Sage, Richard D.; Mahaney, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of modularity provides a useful tool for exploring the relationship between genotype and phenotype. Here, we use quantitative genetics to identify modularity within the mammalian dentition, connecting the genetics of organogenesis to the genetics of population-level variation for a phenotype well represented in the fossil record. We estimated the correlations between dental traits due to the shared additive effects of genes (pleiotropy) and compared the pleiotropic relationships among homologous traits in two evolutionary distant taxa – mice and baboons. We find that in both mice and baboons, who shared a common ancestor >60 Ma, incisor size variation is genetically independent of molar size variation. Furthermore, baboon premolars show independent genetic variation from incisors, suggesting that a modular architecture separates incisors from these posterior teeth as well. Such genetic independence between modules provides an explanation for the extensive diversity of incisor size variation seen throughout mammalian evolution--variation uncorrelated with equivalent levels of postcanine tooth size variation. The modularity identified here is supported by the odontogenic homeobox code proposed for the patterning of the rodent dentition. The baboon postcanine pattern of incomplete pleiotropy is also consistent with predictions from the morphogenetic field model. PMID:20922775

  14. Contribution of shared environmental factors to familial aggregation of common cancers: an adoption study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan; Ji, Jianguang

    2015-03-01

    Cancer runs in families, suggesting a heritable component, but the contribution of environmental factors cannot be neglected. Studies on spousal risk can partly disentangle the environmental contribution but miss shared environmental factors during childhood and adolescence. Here, we examined the familial aggregation of common cancers among 80,281 Swedish-born adoptees, identified from the national Swedish Multigeneration Register, and linked them to the Swedish Cancer Registry. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for common cancers (colorectal, lung, breast, prostate, and skin cancers) in the adoptees whose adoptive parents were diagnosed with concordant cancers, compared with the general population. SIRs in adoptees with an affected adoptive parent ranged from 1.00 (breast cancer) to 1.28 (skin cancer), whereas the SIRs in nonadoptees with an affected parent ranged from 1.63 (colorectal cancer) to 2.12 (skin cancer). Environmental factors account for around 0-28% of the familial aggregation. Cancer sites with high environmental contributions were observed for skin and colorectal cancers, which are known to have strong environmental causes. PMID:25415834

  15. Impact of cucumber mosaic virus infection on the varietal traits of common bean cultivars in Iran.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Abdulbaset; Shams-Bakhsh, Masoud

    2014-12-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) appears to be one of the most widespread pathogens on beans. In the present research, 49 Iranian lines and cultivars of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) were screened for their reaction to CMV. Plants at primary leaf stage were inoculated with CMV by rub inoculation and then they were kept in an insect-proof growth chamber at 20 °C. Three weeks postinoculation, inoculated plants were assayed based on their symptoms, growth rate, fresh and dry weights and virus titer. Results of the present study showed that a line, D81083, had moderate resistance, six lines and cultivars were found to be tolerant to the CMV and 42 lines were found to be susceptible, these plants exhibited severe symptoms and accumulated high levels of virus titer. However in the present research one moderately resistant line and six tolerant lines and cultivars were identified for use in breeding and cultivation and also for future on researches bean. PMID:25674621

  16. Bovine Rhinitis Viruses Are Common in U.S. Cattle with Bovine Respiratory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hause, Ben M.; Collin, Emily A.; Anderson, Joe; Hesse, Richard A.; Anderson, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) diagnostic submission from Kansas identified contigs with approximately 90% nucleotide similarity to BRAV2 and BRBV. A combination of de novo and templated assemblies using reference genomes yielded near complete BRAV2 and BRBV genomes. The near complete genome of bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) was also determined from a historical isolate to enable further molecular epidemiological studies. A 5’-nuclease reverse transcription PCR assay targeting the 3D polymerase gene was designed and used to screen 204 archived BRD clinical specimens. Thirteen (6.4%) were positive. Metagenomic sequencing of six positive samples identified mixed BRAV1/BRAV2, BRAV1/BRBV and BRAV2/BRBV infections for five samples. One sample showed infection only with BRAV1. Seroprevalence studies using a cell culture adapted BRBV found immunofluorescence assay-reactive antibodies were common in the herds analyzed. Altogether, these results demonstrate that BRV infections are common in cattle with respiratory disease and that BRAV1, BRAV2 and BRBV co-circulate in U.S. cattle and have high similarity to viruses isolated more than 30 years ago from diverse locations. PMID:25789939

  17. Bovine rhinitis viruses are common in U.S. cattle with bovine respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Hause, Ben M; Collin, Emily A; Anderson, Joe; Hesse, Richard A; Anderson, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) diagnostic submission from Kansas identified contigs with approximately 90% nucleotide similarity to BRAV2 and BRBV. A combination of de novo and templated assemblies using reference genomes yielded near complete BRAV2 and BRBV genomes. The near complete genome of bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) was also determined from a historical isolate to enable further molecular epidemiological studies. A 5'-nuclease reverse transcription PCR assay targeting the 3D polymerase gene was designed and used to screen 204 archived BRD clinical specimens. Thirteen (6.4%) were positive. Metagenomic sequencing of six positive samples identified mixed BRAV1/BRAV2, BRAV1/BRBV and BRAV2/BRBV infections for five samples. One sample showed infection only with BRAV1. Seroprevalence studies using a cell culture adapted BRBV found immunofluorescence assay-reactive antibodies were common in the herds analyzed. Altogether, these results demonstrate that BRV infections are common in cattle with respiratory disease and that BRAV1, BRAV2 and BRBV co-circulate in U.S. cattle and have high similarity to viruses isolated more than 30 years ago from diverse locations. PMID:25789939

  18. The mammary gland-specific marsupial ELP and eutherian CTI share a common ancestral gene

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The marsupial early lactation protein (ELP) gene is expressed in the mammary gland and the protein is secreted into milk during early lactation (Phase 2A). Mature ELP shares approximately 55.4% similarity with the colostrum-specific bovine colostrum trypsin inhibitor (CTI) protein. Although ELP and CTI both have a single bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI)-Kunitz domain and are secreted only during the early lactation phases, their evolutionary history is yet to be investigated. Results Tammar ELP was isolated from a genomic library and the fat-tailed dunnart and Southern koala ELP genes cloned from genomic DNA. The tammar ELP gene was expressed only in the mammary gland during late pregnancy (Phase 1) and early lactation (Phase 2A). The opossum and fat-tailed dunnart ELP and cow CTI transcripts were cloned from RNA isolated from the mammary gland and dog CTI from cells in colostrum. The putative mature ELP and CTI peptides shared 44.6%-62.2% similarity. In silico analyses identified the ELP and CTI genes in the other species examined and provided compelling evidence that they evolved from a common ancestral gene. In addition, whilst the eutherian CTI gene was conserved in the Laurasiatherian orders Carnivora and Cetartiodactyla, it had become a pseudogene in others. These data suggest that bovine CTI may be the ancestral gene of the Artiodactyla-specific, rapidly evolving chromosome 13 pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (PTI), spleen trypsin inhibitor (STI) and the five placenta-specific trophoblast Kunitz domain protein (TKDP1-5) genes. Conclusions Marsupial ELP and eutherian CTI evolved from an ancestral therian mammal gene before the divergence of marsupials and eutherians between 130 and 160 million years ago. The retention of the ELP gene in marsupials suggests that this early lactation-specific milk protein may have an important role in the immunologically naïve young of these species. PMID:22681678

  19. Density-dependent effects of multiple predators sharing a common prey in an endophytic habitat.

    PubMed

    Aukema, Brian H; Clayton, Murray K; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2004-05-01

    Multiple predator species feeding on a common prey can lead to higher or lower predation than would be expected by simply combining their individual effects. Such emergent multiple predator effects may be especially prevalent if predators share feeding habitat. Despite the prevalence of endophagous insects, no studies have examined how multiple predators sharing an endophytic habitat affect prey or predator reproduction. We investigated density-dependent predation of Thanasimus dubius (Coleoptera: Cleridae) and Platysoma cylindrica (Coleoptera: Histeridae) on a bark beetle prey, Ips pini (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), in a laboratory assay. I. pini utilize aggregation pheromones to group-colonize and reproduce within the stems of conifers. T. dubius and P. cylindrica exploit these aggregation pheromones to arrive simultaneously with the herbivore. Adult T. dubius prey exophytically, while P. cylindrica adults enter and prey within the bark beetle galleries. Larvae of both predators prey endophytically. We used a multiple regression analysis, which avoids confounding predator composition with density, to examine the effects of varying predator densities alone and in combination on herbivore establishment, herbivore reproduction, and predator reproduction. Predators reduced colonization success by both sexes, and decreased I. pini reproduction on a per male and per female basis. The combined effects of these predators did not enhance or reduce prey establishment or reproduction in unexpected manners, and these predators were entirely substitutable. The herbivore's net replacement rate was never reduced significantly below one at prey and predator densities emulating field conditions. Similar numbers of each predator species emerged from the logs, but predator reproduction suffered from high intraspecific interference. The net replacement rate of P. cylindrica was not affected by conspecifics or T. dubius. In contrast, the net replacement rate of T. dubius decreased with the presence of conspecifics or P. cylindrica. Combinations of both predators led to an emergent effect, a slightly increased net replacement rate of T. dubius. This may have been due to predation by larval T. dubius on pupal P. cylindrica, as P. cylindrica develops more rapidly than T. dubius within this shared habitat. PMID:14968356

  20. Acute motor axonal neuropathy and acute motor-sensory axonal neuropathy share a common immunological profile.

    PubMed

    Yuki, N; Kuwabara, S; Koga, M; Hirata, K

    1999-10-15

    Griffin and colleagues (Griffin JW, Li CY, Ho TW, Tian M, Gao CY, Xue P, Mishu B, Cornblath DR, Macko C, McKhann GM, Asbury AK. Pathology of motor-sensory axonal Guillain-Barré syndrome. Ann Neurol 1996;39:17-28 [4]) proposed that acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) and acute motor-sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN) are part of the spectrum of a single type of immune attack on the axon. In contrast, IgG anti-GM1 antibody is associated closely with AMAN, but whether other IgG anti-ganglioside antibodies are associated with this neuropathy is not clear. We investigated whether IgG anti-ganglioside antibodies can be used as immunological markers to differentiate AMAN from acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) and whether these autoantibodies are present in AMSAN. The frequencies of anti-GM1, anti-GM1b, and anti-GD1a IgG antibodies in 21 AMAN patients were significantly higher than in 19 AIDP patients. Anti-GM1b and anti-GD1a IgG, as well as anti-GM1 IgG antibodies, therefore are immunological markers for AMAN. The patients with AMSAN had anti-GM1, anti-GM1b, and anti-GD1a IgG antibodies, indicative that AMAN and AMSAN share a common immunological profile. PMID:10526194

  1. GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF DIFFERENTIAL REACTIONS AMONG HOS GROUP 3 COMMON BEAN CULTIVARS TO NL-3K STRAIN OF BEAN COMMON MOSAIC NECROSIS VIRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A previously unrecognized recessive resistance gene was identified in three putative Host Group 3 common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultivars: Olathe, Victor, and UI 37; based on genetic analysis of plants from five populations screened with the NL-3 K strain of bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCM...

  2. Induced and thymus-derived Foxp3? regulatory T cells share a common niche.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Ju; Haist, Verena; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Föhse, Lisa; Prinz, Immo; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Floess, Stefan; Huehn, Jochen

    2014-02-01

    Foxp3? regulatory T (Treg) cells, which play a central role for the maintenance of immune homeostasis and self-tolerance, are known to be both generated in the thymus (thymus-derived, tTreg cells) and in the periphery, where they are converted from conventional CD4? T cells (induced Treg (iTreg) cells). Recent data suggest a division of labor between these two Treg-cell subsets since their combined action was shown to be essential for protection in inflammatory disease models. Here, using the transfer colitis model, we examined whether tTreg cells and iTreg cells fill different niches within the CD4? T-cell compartment. When naive T cells were co-transferred with either pure tTreg cells or with a mixture of tTreg cells and iTreg cells, induction of Foxp3? Treg cells from naive T cells was not hampered by preoccupation of the Treg-cell niche. Using neuropilin-1 (Nrp1) as a surface marker to separate tTreg cells and iTreg cells, we demonstrate that tTreg cells and iTreg cells alone can completely fill the Treg-cell niche and display comparable TCR repertoires. However, when transferred together Nrp1? tTreg cells outcompeted Nrp1? iTreg cells and dominated the Treg-cell compartment. Taken together, our data suggest that tTreg cells and iTreg cells share a common peripheral niche. PMID:24170313

  3. Thermotolerance and heat acclimation may share a common mechanism in humans

    PubMed Central

    Gillum, Trevor; Dokladny, Karol; Bedrick, Edward; Schneider, Suzanne; Moseley, Pope

    2011-01-01

    Thermotolerance and heat acclimation are key adaptation processes that have been hitherto viewed as separate phenomena. Here, we provide evidence that these processes may share a common basis, as both may potentially be governed by the heat shock response. We evaluated the effects of a heat shock response-inhibitor (quercetin; 2,000 mg/day) on established markers of thermotolerance [gastrointestinal barrier permeability, plasma TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-10 concentrations, and leukocyte heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) content]. Heat acclimation reduced body temperatures, heart rate, and physiological strain during exercise/heat stress) in male subjects (n = 8) completing a 7-day heat acclimation protocol. These same subjects completed an identical protocol under placebo supplementation (placebo). Gastrointestinal barrier permeability and TNF-? were increased on the 1st day of exercise/heat stress in quercetin; no differences in these variables were reported in placebo. Exercise HSP70 responses were increased, and plasma cytokines (IL-6, IL-10) were decreased on the 7th day of heat acclimation in placebo; with concomitant reductions in exercise body temperatures, heart rate, and physiological strain. In contrast, gastrointestinal barrier permeability remained elevated, HSP70 was not increased, and IL-6, IL-10, and exercise body temperatures were not reduced on the 7th day of heat acclimation in quercetin. While exercise heart rate and physiological strain were reduced in quercetin, this occurred later in exercise than with placebo. Consistent with the concept that thermotolerance and heat acclimation are related through the heat shock response, repeated exercise/heat stress increases cytoprotective HSP70 and reduces circulating cytokines, contributing to reductions in cellular and systemic markers of heat strain. Exercising under a heat shock response-inhibitor prevents both cellular and systemic heat adaptations. PMID:21613575

  4. Implementation of a Shared Data Repository and Common Data Dictionary for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Research

    PubMed Central

    Arenson, Andrew D.; Bakhireva, Ludmila; Chambers, Christina D.; Deximo, Christina; Foroud, Tatiana; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Mattson, Sarah N.; May, Philip A.; Moore, Elizabeth; Ogle, Kimberly; Riley, Edward P.; Robinson, Luther K.; Rogers, Jeffrey; Streissguth, Ann P.; Tavares, Michel; Urbanski, Joseph; Yezerets, Yelena; Surya, Radha; Stewart, Craig A.; Barnett, William K.

    2010-01-01

    Many previous attempts by fetal alcohol spectrum disorders researchers to compare data across multiple prospective and retrospective human studies have failed due to both structural differences in the collected data as well as difficulty in coming to agreement on the precise meaning of the terminology used to describe the collected data. Although some groups of researchers have an established track record of successfully integrating data, attempts to integrate data more broadly amongst different groups of researchers have generally faltered. Lack of tools to help researchers share and integrate data has also hampered data analysis. This situation has delayed improving diagnosis, intervention, and treatment before and after birth. We worked with various researchers and research programs in the Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (CI-FASD) to develop a set of common data dictionaries to describe the data to be collected, including definitions of terms and specification of allowable values. The resulting data dictionaries were the basis for creating a central data repository (CI-FASD Central Repository) and software tools to input and query data. Data entry restrictions ensure that only data which conform to the data dictionaries reach the CI-FASD Central Repository. The result is an effective system for centralized and unified management of the data collected and analyzed by the initiative, including a secure, long-term data repository. CI-FASD researchers are able to integrate and analyze data of different types, collected using multiple methods, and collected from multiple populations, and data are retained for future reuse in a secure, robust repository. PMID:20036486

  5. Perception of Shared Visual Space: Establishing Common Ground in Real and Virtual Environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan W. Kelly; Andrew C. Beall; Jack M. Loomis

    2004-01-01

    When people have visual access to the same space, judgments of this shared visual space (shared vista) can facilitate communication and collaboration. This study establishes baseline performance on a shared vista task in real environments and draws comparisons with performance in visually immersive virtual environments. Participants indicated which parts of the scene were visible to an assistant or avatar (simulated

  6. Experimental respiratory Marburg virus haemorrhagic fever infection in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Smither, Sophie J; Nelson, Michelle; Eastaugh, Lin; Laws, Thomas R; Taylor, Christopher; Smith, Simon A; Salguero, Francisco J; Lever, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Marburg virus causes a highly infectious and lethal haemorrhagic fever in primates and may be exploited as a potential biothreat pathogen. To combat the infection and threat of Marburg haemorrhagic fever, there is a need to develop and license appropriate medical countermeasures. To determine whether the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) would be an appropriate model to assess therapies against Marburg haemorrhagic fever, initial susceptibility, lethality and pathogenesis studies were performed. Low doses of virus, between 4 and 28 TCID50, were sufficient to cause a lethal, reproducible infection. Animals became febrile between days 5 and 6, maintaining a high fever before succumbing to disease between 8 and 11 days postchallenge. Typical signs of Marburg virus infection were observed including haemorrhaging and a transient rash. In pathogenesis studies, virus was isolated from the animals’ lungs from day 3 postchallenge and from the liver, spleen and blood from day 5 postchallenge. Early signs of histopathology were apparent in the kidney and liver from day 3. The most striking features were observed in animals exhibiting severe clinical signs, which included high viral titres in all organs, with the highest levels in the blood, increased levels in liver function enzymes and blood clotting times, decreased levels in platelets, multifocal moderate-to-severe hepatitis and perivascular oedema. PMID:23441639

  7. Epidemiologic Relationship between Toscana Virus Infection and Leishmania infantum Due to Common Exposure to Phlebotomus perniciosus Sandfly Vector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurence Bichaud; Marc Souris; Charles Mary; Laëtitia Ninove; Laurence Thirion; Raphaël P. Piarroux; Renaud Piarroux; Xavier De Lamballerie; Rémi N. Charrel

    2011-01-01

    Sand flies are recognised vectors of parasites in the genus Leishmania and a number of arthropod-borne viruses, in particular viruses within the genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae. In southern France, Toscana phlebovirus (TOSV) is recognized as a prominent cause of summer meningitis. Since Leishmania and TOSV have a common vector (Phlebotomus perniciosus), an epidemiologic link has been assumed for a long

  8. Effects of water matrix on virus inactivation using common virucidal techniques for condensate urine disinfection.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Xiaojun; Chu, Xiaona; Hu, Jiangyong

    2015-10-01

    Three common virucidal techniques (chlorine, UV and UV/TiO2) were applied to inactivate virus (MS2 and Phi X174) in condensate water after the evaporation of source-separated urine for reclaimed water. The inactivation efficiencies were compared with the results of previous studies, with the emphasis on the analysis of water matrix effects. Results showed that all virus inactivation in condensate water were lower than the control (in sterilized DI water). As for UV/TiO2 disinfection, both nitrate and ammonia nitrogen could promote slightly viral inactivation, while the inhibition by urea was dominant. Similarly, ammonia nitrogen had greater impacts on chlorine disinfection than urea and nitrate. In contrast, all water matrices (urea, nitrate and ammonia nitrogen) had little influence on UV disinfection. Based on the findings in this study, UV disinfection could be recommended for disinfecting the reclaimed water from the evaporation of source-separated urine. PMID:25966330

  9. Experimental infection of common garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) with West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Steinman, Amir; Banet-Noach, Caroline; Simanov, Lubov; Grinfeld, Nurit; Aizenberg, Zachi; Levi, Ohad; Lahav, Dan; Malkinson, Mertyn; Perk, Shimon; Shpigel, Nahum Y

    2006-01-01

    The role of various reptilian species in the infectious cycle of several arboviruses is documented, but their role in that of West Nile virus (WNV) is uncertain. Common garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) were infected subcutaneously with 10(5) plaque forming units (PFU) WNV-Isr 98, five of nine snakes became viremic, and five exhibited persistent low levels of neutralizing antibodies. Four of the parentally infected snakes died and high titers of virus were found in multiple organ samples. In contrast, orally infected garter snakes did not become viremic, but viral RNA was detected in cloacal swabs. Since oral infection of predator birds by WNV is known, their ingestion of infected snakes may also result in their becoming infected. PMID:17187570

  10. Genetic diversity and phylogeography of Seewis virus in the Eurasian common shrew in Finland and Hungary

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Recent identification of a newfound hantavirus, designated Seewis virus (SWSV), in the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), captured in Switzerland, corroborates decades-old reports of hantaviral antigens in this shrew species from Russia. To ascertain the spatial or geographic variation of SWSV, archival liver tissues from 88 Eurasian common shrews, trapped in Finland in 1982 and in Hungary during 1997, 1999 and 2000, were analyzed for hantavirus RNAs by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. SWSV RNAs were detected in 12 of 22 (54.5%) and 13 of 66 (19.7%) Eurasian common shrews from Finland and Hungary, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of S- and L-segment sequences of SWSV strains, using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, revealed geographic-specific genetic variation, similar to the phylogeography of rodent-borne hantaviruses, suggesting long-standing hantavirus-host co-evolutionary adaptation. PMID:19930716

  11. Identification of a putative shared epitope between Coxsackie virus B4 and alpha cardiac myosin heavy chain.

    PubMed Central

    Beisel, K W; Srinivasappa, J; Prabhakar, B S

    1991-01-01

    Molecular mimicry is an important postulated mechanism for autoimmunity in viral myocarditis. The 356-1 monoclonal antibody neutralizes Coxsackie virus B4 by binding to the VP1 protein and cross-reacts with mouse alpha cardiac myosin heavy chain. We used this monoclonal antibody to screen a lambda gt11 expression library made from CD-1 mouse hearts. Of the 48 positive plaques/10(6) recombinant phages examined, 14 of the strongest-reacting clones were purified for additional studies. The inserts were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and the amplified products ranged from about 150 to 1400 bp in size. Northern hybridization using these inserts demonstrated that 11 out of 14 reacted with a message equivalent to that of cardiac myosin in size. Additional Southern hybridization studies suggested that these 11 inserts contained overlapping sequences in the light meromyosin fragment of cardiac myosin. Sequence analysis confirmed that these 11 independent, recombinant clones contained a common sequence representing amino acid residues 1299-1647. Within this fragment only one isoform-specific site matched the observed reactivity pattern of 356-1 among hearts from various species. Thus, we were able to identify a putative shared epitope represented by residues 1632-1647. Images Fig. 1 PMID:1717188

  12. The centromeres of higher plants and animals share many common features, though current models fail to account for all

    E-print Network

    Copenhaver, Gregory P.

    104 The centromeres of higher plants and animals share many common features, though current models fail to account for all aspects of centromere composition and function. This dilemma is likely to be resolved in the next few years in Arabidopsis where robust assays for centromere function are available

  13. A ram epididymal secretory protein shares common anti-genic determinants with rat epididymal proteins and human

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    in the prealbumin region on non-denaturing gels. The protein, synthesized by the epididymis under testosterone and is still present after ejaculation. This protein could thus be involved in sperm-egg interactionA ram epididymal secretory protein shares common anti- genic determinants with rat epididymal

  14. Common and epithelioid variants of hepatic angiomyolipoma exhibit clonal growth and share a distinctive immunophenotype

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peer Flemming; Ulrich Lehmann; Thomas Becker; Jürgen Klempnauer; Hans Kreipe

    2000-01-01

    Angiomyolipoma represents a rare liver tumor of uncertain histogenesis that is commonly considered a hamartoma. A series of 12 hepatic angiomyolipomas, including 3 samples of the epithelioid subtype, was analyzed for clonality using the human androgen receptor gene locus (HUMARA). Four of 6 informative cases revealed monoclonality. The polyclonal pattern in the 2 remaining cases was most probably caused by

  15. Common Shares Performance Evaluation for Companies Listed at Amman Stock Exchange

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Al-Shiab; Ali Al-Alawneh

    In this paper an attempt was made to evaluate empirically the common stock performance for companies listed at Amman Stock Exchange (ASE) by adopting the security market line (SML) approach. The study used 82 of Jordanian Companies listed at Amman Stock Exchange (ASE), one of the emerging markets, and observed the monthly returns of these firms over the period January1996-

  16. A resistance gene in common bean to Clover yellow vein virus is tightly linked with bc-3 gene which confers resistance to Bean common mosaic virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A strain of Clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV) that causes severe mosaic, top necrosis, stunting, and pod necrosis on infected plants has been plaguing snap bean production in the Great Lakes and Northeastern regions of the US since 2003. In preliminary virus screening experiments to identify resistan...

  17. Identification of Common Biological Pathways and Drug Targets Across Multiple Respiratory Viruses Based on Human Host Gene Expression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Steven B.; Dampier, William; Tozeren, Aydin; Brown, James R.; Magid-Slav, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Background Pandemic and seasonal respiratory viruses are a major global health concern. Given the genetic diversity of respiratory viruses and the emergence of drug resistant strains, the targeted disruption of human host-virus interactions is a potential therapeutic strategy for treating multi-viral infections. The availability of large-scale genomic datasets focused on host-pathogen interactions can be used to discover novel drug targets as well as potential opportunities for drug repositioning. Methods/Results In this study, we performed a large-scale analysis of microarray datasets involving host response to infections by influenza A virus, respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, SARS-coronavirus, metapneumonia virus, coxsackievirus and cytomegalovirus. Common genes and pathways were found through a rigorous, iterative analysis pipeline where relevant host mRNA expression datasets were identified, analyzed for quality and gene differential expression, then mapped to pathways for enrichment analysis. Possible repurposed drugs targets were found through database and literature searches. A total of 67 common biological pathways were identified among the seven different respiratory viruses analyzed, representing fifteen laboratories, nine different cell types, and seven different array platforms. A large overlap in the general immune response was observed among the top twenty of these 67 pathways, adding validation to our analysis strategy. Of the top five pathways, we found 53 differentially expressed genes affected by at least five of the seven viruses. We suggest five new therapeutic indications for existing small molecules or biological agents targeting proteins encoded by the genes F3, IL1B, TNF, CASP1 and MMP9. Pathway enrichment analysis also identified a potential novel host response, the Parkin-Ubiquitin Proteasomal System (Parkin-UPS) pathway, which is known to be involved in the progression of neurodegenerative Parkinson's disease. Conclusions Our study suggests that multiple and diverse respiratory viruses invoke several common host response pathways. Further analysis of these pathways suggests potential opportunities for therapeutic intervention. PMID:22432004

  18. Does Migraine-Associated Vertigo Share a Common Pathophysiology With Meniere's Disease? Study With Vestibular-Evoked Myogenic Potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Murofushi; H Ozeki; A Inoue; A Sakata

    2009-01-01

    To clarify if migraine-associated vertigo (MAV) and Meniere's disease (MD) share a common pathophysiology, vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) were measured in 11 patients with MAV, 11 with unilateral MD and eight healthy subjects. As acoustic stimuli, tone bursts (TB; 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz) were presented. In healthy subjects, 500-Hz TB evoked the largest amplitude. To quantify this tendency,

  19. Genome-wide association study of 14,000 cases of seven common diseases and 3,000 shared controls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul R. Burton; David G. Clayton; Lon R. Cardon; Nick Craddock; Panos Deloukas; Audrey Duncanson; Dominic P. Kwiatkowski; Mark I. McCarthy; Willem H. Ouwehand; Nilesh J. Samani; John A. Todd; Peter Donnelly; Jeffrey C. Barrett; Dan Davison; Doug Easton; David Evans; Hin-Tak Leung; Jonathan L. Marchini; Andrew P. Morris; Chris C. A. Spencer; Martin D. Tobin; Antony P. Attwood; James P. Boorman; Barbara Cant; Ursula Everson; Judith M. Hussey; Jennifer D. Jolley; Alexandra S. Knight; Kerstin Koch; Elizabeth Meech; Sarah Nutland; Christopher V. Prowse; Helen E. Stevens; Niall C. Taylor; Graham R. Walters; Neil M. Walker; Nicholas A. Watkins; Thilo Winzer; Richard W. Jones; Wendy L. McArdle; Susan M. Ring; David P. Strachan; Marcus Pembrey; Gerome Breen; David St Clair; Sian Caesar; Katherine Gordon-Smith; Lisa Jones; Christine Fraser; Elaine K. Green; Detelina Grozeva; Marian L. Hamshere; Peter A. Holmans; Ian R. Jones; George Kirov; Valentina Moskvina; Ivan Nikolov; Michael C. O'Donovan; Michael J. Owen; David A. Collier; Amanda Elkin; Anne Farmer; Richard Williamson; Peter McGuffin; Allan H. Young; I. Nicol Ferrier; Stephen G. Ball; Anthony J. Balmforth; Jennifer H. Barrett; D. Timothy Bishop; Mark M. Iles; Azhar Maqbool; Nadira Yuldasheva; Alistair S. Hall; Peter S. Braund; Richard J. Dixon; Massimo Mangino; Suzanne Stevens; John R. Thompson; Francesca Bredin; Mark Tremelling; Miles Parkes; Hazel Drummond; Charles W. Lees; Elaine R. Nimmo; Jack Satsangi; Sheila A. Fisher; Alastair Forbes; Cathryn M. Lewis; Clive M. Onnie; Natalie J. Prescott; Jeremy Sanderson; Christopher G. Mathew; Jamie Barbour; M. Khalid Mohiuddin; Catherine E. Todhunter; John C. Mansfield; Tariq Ahmad; Fraser R. Cummings; Derek P. Jewell; John Webster; Morris J. Brown; G. Mark Lathrop; John Connell; Anna Dominiczak; Carolina A. Braga Marcano; Beverley Burke; Richard Dobson; Johannie Gungadoo; Kate L. Lee; Patricia B. Munroe; Stephen J. Newhouse; Abiodun Onipinla; Chris Wallace; Mingzhan Xue; Mark Caulfield; Martin Farrall; Anne Barton; Ian N. Bruce; Hannah Donovan; Steve Eyre; Paul D. Gilbert; Samantha L. Hider; Anne M. Hinks; Sally L. John; Catherine Potter; Alan J. Silman; Deborah P. M. Symmons; Wendy Thomson; Jane Worthington; David B. Dunger; Barry Widmer; Timothy M. Frayling; Rachel M. Freathy; Hana Lango; John R. B. Perry; Beverley M. Shields; Michael N. Weedon; Andrew T. Hattersley; Graham A. Hitman; Mark Walker; Kate S. Elliott; Christopher J. Groves; Cecilia M. Lindgren; Nigel W. Rayner; Nicholas J. Timpson; Eleftheria Zeggini; Melanie Newport; Giorgio Sirugo; Emily Lyons; Fredrik Vannberg; Adrian V. S. Hill; Linda A. Bradbury; Claire Farrar; Jennifer J. Pointon; Paul Wordsworth; Matthew A. Brown; Jayne A. Franklyn; Joanne M. Heward; Matthew J. Simmonds; Stephen C. L. Gough; Sheila Seal; Michael R. Stratton; Nazneen Rahman; Maria Ban; An Goris; Stephen J. Sawcer; Alastair Compston; David Conway; Muminatou Jallow; Kirk A. Rockett; Suzannah J. Bumpstead; Amy Chaney; Kate Downes; Mohammed J. R. Ghori; Rhian Gwilliam; Sarah E. Hunt; Michael Inouye; Andrew Keniry; Emma King; Ralph McGinnis; Simon Potter; Rathi Ravindrarajah; Pamela Whittaker; Claire Widden; David Withers; Niall J. Cardin; Teresa Ferreira; Joanne Pereira-Gale; Ingileif B. Hallgrimsdóttir; Bryan N. Howie; Zhan Su; Yik Ying Teo; Damjan Vukcevic; David Bentley; Alistair Compston

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that genome-wide association (GWA) studies represent a powerful approach to the identification of genes involved in common human diseases. We describe a joint GWA study (using the Affymetrix GeneChip 500K Mapping Array Set) undertaken in the British population, which has examined ~2,000 individuals for each of 7 major diseases and a shared set of ~3,000 controls.

  20. ATF4 activity: a common feature shared by many kinds of slow-aging mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weiquan; Li, Xinna; Miller, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    ATF4, a DNA-binding factor that modulates responses to amino acid availability and ribosomal function, has been shown to be altered in both liver and fibroblasts from two strains of long-lived mice, i.e. Snell dwarf and PAPP-A knockout mice. New data now show elevated ATF4 levels, and elevation of ATF4-dependent proteins and mRNAs, in liver of mice treated with acarbose or rapamycin, calorically restricted mice, methionine-restricted mice, and mice subjected to litter crowding. Elevation of ATF4, at least in liver, thus seems to be a shared feature of diets, drugs, genes, and developmental alterations that extend maximum lifespan in mice. PMID:25156122

  1. ATF4 activity: a common feature shared by many kinds of slow-aging mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiquan; Li, Xinna; Miller, Richard A

    2014-12-01

    ATF4, a DNA-binding factor that modulates responses to amino acid availability and ribosomal function, has been shown to be altered in both liver and fibroblasts from two strains of long-lived mice, i.e. Snell dwarf and PAPP-A knockout mice. New data now show elevated ATF4 levels, and elevation of ATF4-dependent proteins and mRNAs, in liver of mice treated with acarbose or rapamycin, calorically restricted mice, methionine-restricted mice, and mice subjected to litter crowding. Elevation of ATF4, at least in liver, thus seems to be a shared feature of diets, drugs, genes, and developmental alterations that extend maximum lifespan in mice. PMID:25156122

  2. Structure and Mechanism of Receptor Sharing by the IL-10R2 Common Chain

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Sung-il; Jones, Brandi C.; Logsdon, Naomi J.; Harris, Bethany D.; Deshpande, Ashlesha; Radaeva, Svetlana; Halloran, Brian A.; Gao, Bin; Walter, Mark R. (NIH); (UAB)

    2010-07-19

    IL-10R2 is a shared cell surface receptor required for the activation of five class 2 cytokines (IL-10, IL-22, IL-26, IL-28, and IL-29) that play critical roles in host defense. To define the molecular mechanisms that regulate its promiscuous binding, we have determined the crystal structure of the IL-10R2 ectodomain at 2.14 {angstrom} resolution. IL-10R2 residues required for binding were identified by alanine scanning and used to derive computational models of IL-10/IL-10R1/IL-10R2 and IL-22/IL-22R1/IL-10R2 ternary complexes. The models reveal a conserved binding epitope that is surrounded by two clefts that accommodate the structural and chemical diversity of the cytokines. These results provide a structural framework for interpreting IL-10R2 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with human disease.

  3. Structure and Mechanism of Receptoe Sharing by the IL-10R2 Common Chain

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Sung-il; Jones, Brandi C.; Logsdon, Naomi J.; Harris, Bethany D.; Deshpande, Ashlesha; Radaeva, Svetlana; Halloran, Brian A.; Gao, Bin; Walter, Mark R. (NIH); (UAB)

    2010-06-14

    IL-10R2 is a shared cell surface receptor required for the activation of five class 2 cytokines (IL-10, IL-22, IL-26, IL-28, and IL-29) that play critical roles in host defense. To define the molecular mechanisms that regulate its promiscuous binding, we have determined the crystal structure of the IL-10R2 ectodomain at 2.14 {angstrom} resolution. IL-10R2 residues required for binding were identified by alanine scanning and used to derive computational models of IL-10/IL-10R1/IL-10R2 and IL-22/IL-22R1/IL-10R2 ternary complexes. The models reveal a conserved binding epitope that is surrounded by two clefts that accommodate the structural and chemical diversity of the cytokines. These results provide a structural framework for interpreting IL-10R2 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with human disease.

  4. Bacterial Polysaccharide Co-Polymerases Share a Common Framework for Control of Polymer Length

    SciTech Connect

    Tocilj,A.; Munger, C.; Proteau, A.; Morona, R.; Purins, L.; Ajamian, E.; Wagner, J.; Papadopoulos, M.; Van Den bosch, L.; et al

    2008-01-01

    The chain length distribution of complex polysaccharides present on the bacterial surface is determined by polysaccharide co-polymerases (PCPs) anchored in the inner membrane. We report crystal structures of the periplasmic domains of three PCPs that impart substantially different chain length distributions to surface polysaccharides. Despite very low sequence similarities, they have a common protomer structure with a long central alpha-helix extending 100 Angstroms into the periplasm. The protomers self-assemble into bell-shaped oligomers of variable sizes, with a large internal cavity. Electron microscopy shows that one of the full-length PCPs has a similar organization as that observed in the crystal for its periplasmic domain alone. Functional studies suggest that the top of the PCP oligomers is an important region for determining polysaccharide modal length. These structures provide a detailed view of components of the bacterial polysaccharide assembly machinery.

  5. Pan-viral-microRNA screening identifies interferon inhibition as a common function of diverse viruses.

    PubMed

    Cox, Jennifer E; McClure, Lydia V; Goga, Andrei; Sullivan, Christopher S

    2015-02-10

    Diverse viruses encode regulatory RNAs called microRNAs (miRNAs). Despite much progress, the functions of the majority of viral miRNAs remain unknown. Most previous studies have used biochemical methods to uncover targets of viral miRNAs, but it is unclear what fraction of these targets is functionally important. Here, we apply an alternative strategy based on the premise that assorted viral miRNAs will share functionality. Screening a library of >70 human viral miRNAs showed that three unrelated miRNAs from distantly related herpesviruses significantly inhibited IFN signaling. Strikingly, each of these miRNAs directly reduced expression of the cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein (CBP), which as part of the p300-CBP complex, mediates IFN signaling. We show that both 5' and 3' derivatives from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encoded miR-BART-18 precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA) and the orthologous pre-miRNA from Rhesus lymphocryptovirus contribute to reducing IFN signaling. Thus, through both convergent and divergent evolutionary mechanisms, varied herpesviral miRNAs share the ability to decrease IFN signaling. Restoring miR-BART-18 to cells infected with an EBV miRNA mutant conveyed a cellular growth advantage upon IFN treatment, and relevant miRNAs from other herpesviruses were able to complement this activity. Blocking miR-BART-18 function in an EBV(+) tumor cell line renders cells more susceptible to IFN-mediated effects. These findings provide a mechanism that can at least partially explain the resistance of some EBV-associated tumors to IFN therapy. Our work suggests that similar pan-viral-miRNA functional-based screening strategies are warranted for determining relevant activities of other viral miRNAs. PMID:25624489

  6. Carryover of bovine leukemia virus antibodies in samples from shared milk meters.

    PubMed

    Nekouei, O A; Sanchez, J; Keefe, G P

    2015-08-01

    Screening for infectious diseases of cattle using milk from the dairy herd improvement (DHI) sampling process is very convenient. However, when samples from shared milk meters are used, carryover of antibodies or other diagnostic targets can complicate the interpretation of the diagnostic test results for diseases, including bovine leukosis. The objectives of this study were (1) to assess the potential for carryover of antibodies against bovine leukemia virus (BLV) in milk samples obtained from shared meters, and (2) to determine if adjustment of the diagnostic test cut-off value would improve the test characteristics for meter-collected milk ELISA results. Eight dairy farms were randomly selected from herds with a wide range of BLV prevalence levels in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Within each chosen farm, 2 to 4milk meters were randomly selected. During the routine procedures of DHI sampling, 2 simultaneous milk samples, 1 hand-collected at the beginning of milking (after udder preparation) and the other from the corresponding milk meter, were taken from all lactating cows (n=236) that were milked at the selected meters (n=26). The sequence of cows using each meter was recorded. All samples were tested for BLV antibodies using a commercial indirect ELISA. Antibody carryover potential was assessed in meter-collected samples which were preceded by other cows using the same meters. Applying the hand-collected sample results as our reference standard, a new cut-off was defined for meter-collected samples to optimize the test characteristics. At the standard cut-off value of the diagnostic test, 110 (46.6%) of the hand-collected and 136 (57.6%) of the meter-collected samples were positive. For low-titer cows (e.g., true negatives), the likelihood of antibody carryover significantly increased as the titer of preceding cows increased, whereas this change was not substantial for high-titer cows. The odds of obtaining false diagnoses in meter-positive samples became larger with increase in the titer of preceding cows. A suspicious category for meter ELISA results was defined, and a retest was recommended for the cows falling into this category. This strategy effectively assisted in reducing the number of consequent false-positive results. When DHI-collected samples are used, carryover can affect the interpretation of dichotomous test results and may require adjustment of assay cut-off values. PMID:26004835

  7. Dopaminergic cell death induced by MPP(+), oxidant and specific neurotoxicants shares the common molecular mechanism.

    PubMed

    Chun, H S; Gibson, G E; DeGiorgio, L A; Zhang, H; Kidd, V J; Son, J H

    2001-02-01

    Recent etiological study in twins (Tanner et al. 1999) strongly suggests that environmental factors play an important role in typical, non-familial Parkinson's disease (PD), beginning after age 50. Epidemiological risk factor analyses of typical PD cases have identified several neurotoxicants, including MPP(+) (the active metabolite of MPTP), paraquat, dieldrin, manganese and salsolinol. Here, we tested the hypothesis that these neurotoxic agents might induce cell death in our nigral dopaminergic cell line, SN4741 (Son et al. 1999) through a common molecular mechanism. Our initial experiments revealed that treatment with both MPP(+) and the other PD-related neurotoxicants induced apoptotic cell death in SN4741 cells, following initial increases of H(2)O(2)-related ROS activity and subsequent activation of JNK1/2 MAP kinases. Moreover, we have demonstrated that during dopaminergic cell death cascades, MPP(+), the neurotoxicants and an oxidant, H(2)O(2) equally induce the ROS-dependent events. Remarkably, the oxidant treatment alone induced similar sequential molecular events: ROS increase, activation of JNK MAP kinases, activation of the PITSLRE kinase, p110, by both Caspase-1 and Caspase-3-like activities and apoptotic cell death. Pharmacological intervention using the combination of the antioxidant Trolox and a pan-caspase inhibitor Boc-(Asp)-fmk (BAF) exerted significant neuroprotection against ROS-induced dopaminergic cell death. Finally, the high throughput cDNA microarray screening using the current model identified downstream response genes, such as heme oxygenase-1, a constituent of Lewy bodies, that can be the useful biomarkers to monitor the pathological conditions of dopaminergic neurons under neurotoxic insult. PMID:11181820

  8. Shared Usage of the Chemokine Receptor CXCR4 by the Feline and Human Immunodeficiency Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BRIAN J. WILLETT; LAURENT PICARD; MARGARET J. HOSIE; JULIE D. TURNER; KAREN ADEMA; PAUL R. CLAPHAM

    1997-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) induces a disease state in the domestic cat that is similar to AIDS in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. As with HIV, FIV can be divided into primary and cell culture-adapted isolates. Adaptation of FIV to replicate and form syncytia in the Crandell feline kidney (CrFK) cell line is accompanied by an increase in the net

  9. Isolation of an influenza virus, similar to A\\/Port Chalmers\\/1\\/73 (H3N2) from a common murre at Sakhalin Island in U.S.S.R (Strain A\\/CommonMurre\\/Sakhalin\\/1\\/74)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Sazonov; D. K. Lvov; R. G. Webster; T. V. Sokolova; N. A. Braude; N. V. Portyanko

    1977-01-01

    Summary An influenza A virus isolated from the cloaca of a common murre was characterized antigenically as H3N2 and was most closely related to the A\\/Port Chalmers\\/1\\/73 strain. Serological studies of sera collected from common murres in the area of virus isolation showed that 21 per cent of the birds had antibodies to Hong Kong influenza virus.

  10. Symbionts Commonly Provide Broad Spectrum Resistance to Viruses in Insects: A Comparative Analysis of Wolbachia Strains

    E-print Network

    Martinez, Julien; Longdon, Ben; Bauer, Simone; Chan, Yuk-Sang; Miller, Wolfgang J.; Bourtzis, Kostas; Teixeira, Luis; Jiggins, Francis M.

    2014-09-18

    introduced into Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue virus, Wolbachia was shown to limit the replication of dengue virus as well as chikungunya, yellow fever and West Nile viruses [29,39,40]. Furthermore, when Wolbachia infected mos- quitoes were released... the mechanisms of protection acting against these parasites are the same that are involved in protection against viruses. Antiviral protection by Wolbachia could potentially be used to control vector-borne diseases such as dengue fever [37,38]. When artificially...

  11. A major QTL is associated with resistance to curly top virus in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) landrace G122

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Curly top virus (CTV) is a devastating disease of common bean in the Western U.S. Genetic resistance provides effective control but can be difficult to discern in early generations. Two populations of F5:7 RILs were derived from separate F1 seeds from a cross between the G122 landrace from India kn...

  12. Lack of skin test reactivity to common mycobacterial antigens in human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals with high CD4 counts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. H. Khoo; E. G. Wilkins; I. S. Fraser; A. A. Hamour; J. L. Stanford

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: T cell response to mycobacterial antigens may be directed against those antigens common to all mycobacteria (group i), those restricted to slow (group ii) or fast growers (group iii), or those which are species- or subspecies-specific (group iv). These responses were assessed by skin testing patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and healthy controls with reagents derived

  13. Identification and Partial Characterisation of Lettuce big-vein associated virus and Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus in Common Weeds Found Amongst Spanish Lettuce Crops and their Role in Lettuce Big-vein Disease Transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose A. Navarro; Francisco Botella; Antonio Marhuenda; Pedro Sastre; M. Amelia Sánchez-Pina; Vicente Pallas

    2005-01-01

    The potential role of 10 frequently occurring weed species found amongst Spanish lettuce crops as host plants for the two\\u000a viruses associated with the lettuce big-vein disease, Lettuce big-vein associated virus (LBVaV) and Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus (MLBVV), was studied. The results showed that both viruses can infect naturally growing Sonchus oleraceus (common sowthistle) plants, the unique susceptible species detected

  14. Towards Mutual Trust, Transparency and Equity in Virus Sharing Mechanism: The Avian Influenza Case of Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Triono Soendoro; Siti Fadilah Supari

    Introduction: As the country hardest hit by avian influenza, both in poultry and in human, Indonesia's decision to withhold samples of avian influenza virus A (H5N1) has fired up a global controversy. The objective of this paper is to describe the position taken by Indonesia in the events leading to the decision and in those conducted to resolve the situation.

  15. Neuroinflammation Resulting from Covert Brain Invasion by Common Viruses—a Potential Role in Local and Global Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Majde, Jeannine A.

    2010-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are a horrendous burden for their victims, their families, and society as a whole. For half a century scientists have pursued the hypothesis that these diseases involve a chronic viral infection in the brain. However, efforts to consistently detect a specific virus in brains of patients with such diseases as Alzheimer's or multiple sclerosis have generally failed. Neuropathologists have become increasingly aware that most patients with neurodegenerative diseases demonstrate marked deterioration of the brain olfactory bulb in addition to brain targets that define the specific disease. In fact, the loss of the sense of smell may precede overt neurological symptoms by many years. This realization that the olfactory bulb is a common target in neurodegenerative diseases suggests the possibility that microbes and/or toxins in inhaled air may play a role in their pathogenesis. With regard to inhaled viruses, neuropathologists have focused on those viruses that infect and kill neurons. However, a recent study shows that a respiratory virus with no neurotropic properties can rapidly invade the mouse olfactory bulb from the nasal cavity. Available data suggest that this strain of influenza is passively transported to the bulb via the olfactory nerves (mechanism unknown), and is taken up by glial cells in the outer layers of the bulb. The infected glial cells appear to be activated by the virus, secrete proinflammatory cytokines, and block further spread of virus within the brain. At the time that influenza symptoms become apparent (15 h post-infection), but not prior to symptom onset (10 h post-infection), proinflammatory cytokine-expressing neurons are increased in olfactory cortical pathways and hypothalamus as well as in the olfactory bulb. The mice go on to die of pneumonitis with severe acute phase and respiratory disease symptoms but no classical neurological symptoms. While much remains to be learned about this intranasal influenza-brain invasion model, it suggests the hypothesis that common viruses encountered in our daily life may initiate neuroinflammation via olfactory neural networks. The numerous viruses that we inhale during a lifetime might cause the death of only a few neurons per infection, but this minor damage would accumulate over time and contribute to age-related brain shrinkage and/or neurodegenerative diseases. Elderly individuals with a strong innate inflammatory system, or ongoing systemic inflammation (or both), might be most susceptible to these outcomes. The evidence for the hypothesis that common respiratory viruses may contribute to neurodegenerative processes is developed in the accompanying article. PMID:20236772

  16. Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus (BSMV) Induced MicroRNA Silencing in Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Jian; Wang, Yichun; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Xing, Fuguo; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in growth, development, and response to environmental changes in plants. Based on the whole-genome shotgun sequencing strategy, more and more wheat miRNAs have been annotated. Now, there is a need for an effective technology to analyse endogenous miRNAs function in wheat. We report here that the modified barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV)-induced miRNAs silencing system can be utilized to silence miRNAs in wheat. BSMV-based miRNA silencing system is performed through BSMV-based expression of miRNA target mimics to suppress miR159a and miR3134a. The relative expression levels of mature miR159a and miR3134a decrease with increasing transcript levels of their target genes in wheat plants. In summary, the developed approach is effective in silencing endogenous miRNAs, thereby providing a powerful tool for biological function analyses of miRNA molecules in common wheat. PMID:25955840

  17. Antigenic profile of African horse sickness virus serotype 4 VP5 and identification of a neutralizing epitope shared with bluetongue virus and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Torrecuadrada, J L; Langeveld, J P; Venteo, A; Sanz, A; Dalsgaard, K; Hamilton, W D; Meloen, R H; Casal, J I

    1999-05-10

    African horse sickness virus (AHSV) causes a fatal disease in horses. The virus capsid is composed of a double protein layer, the outermost of which is formed by two proteins: VP2 and VP5. VP2 is known to determine the serotype of the virus and to contain the neutralizing epitopes. The biological function of VP5, the other component of the capsid, is unknown. In this report, AHSV VP5, expressed in insect cells alone or together with VP2, was able to induce AHSV-specific neutralizing antibodies. Moreover, two VP5-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that were able to neutralize the virus in a plaque reduction assay were generated. To dissect the antigenic structure of AHSV VP5, the protein was cloned in Escherichia coli using the pET3 system. The immunoreactivity of both MAbs, and horse and rabbit polyclonal antisera, with 17 overlapping fragments from VP5 was analyzed. The most immunodominant region was found in the N-terminal 330 residues of VP5, defining two antigenic regions, I (residues 151-200) and II (residues 83-120). The epitopes were further defined by PEPSCAN analysis with 12mer peptides, which determined eight antigenic sites in the N-terminal half of the molecule. Neutralizing epitopes were defined at positions 85-92 (PDPLSPGE) for MAb 10AE12 and at 179-185 (EEDLRTR) for MAb 10AC6. Epitope 10AE12 is highly conserved between the different orbiviruses. MAb 10AE12 was able to recognize bluetongue virus VP5 and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus VP5 by several techniques. These data will be especially useful for vaccine development and diagnostic purposes. PMID:10329555

  18. Recombination and pseudorecombination driving the evolution of the begomoviruses Tomato severe rugose virus (ToSRV) and Tomato rugose mosaic virus (ToRMV): two recombinant DNA-A components sharing the same DNA-B

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Begomoviruses are dicot-infecting, whitefly-transmitted viruses with a genome comprised of one or two molecules of circular, single-stranded DNA. In Brazil, tomato-infecting begomoviruses have emerged as serious pathogens since the introduction of a new biotype of the insect vector in the mid-1990’s. Tomato rugose mosaic virus (ToRMV) and Tomato severe rugose virus (ToSRV) are often found in tomato fields. The complete sequence of the DNA-B components of ToSRV and ToRMV show an identity of 98.2%. Additionally, the high nucleotide identity (96.2%) between their common regions indicates that these two viruses may share the same DNA-B. Methods Tomato seedlings were biolistically inoculated with ToSRV (DNA-A and DNA-B) and ToRMV (DNA-A and DNA-B) infectious clones in every possible combination of single or mixed infection. Symptom expression was evaluated for up to 35 days post-inoculation (dpi). DNA was extracted at 28 dpi and the presence of each viral genomic component was examined by rolling circle amplification (RCA) followed by digestion, as well as by quantitative, real-time PCR. Sequence comparisons, recombination and phylogenetic analyzes were performed using EMBOSS needle, RDP program and maximum likelihood inference, respectively. Results Symptoms in tomato plants inoculated with the different combinations of ToRMV and ToSRV DNA-A and DNA-B components consisted of a typical mosaic in all combinations. Pseudorecombinants were formed in all possible combinations. When two DNA-A or two DNA-B components were inoculated simultaneously, the ToRMV components were detected preferentially in relation to the ToSRV components. The combination of minor changes in both the Rep protein and the CR may be involved in the preferential replication of ToRMV components. Recombination and phylogenetic analyzes support the exchange of genetic material between ToRMV and ToSRV. Conclusions ToRMV and ToSRV form viable pseudorecombinants in their natural host (Solanum lycopersicum) and share the same DNA-B. ToRMV DNA components are preferentially replicated over ToSRV components. These results indicate that the emergence of ToRMV involved both recombination and pseudorecombination, further highlighting the importance of these mechanisms in the emergence and adaptation of begomoviruses. PMID:24708727

  19. Multiplex RT-PCR detection of three common viruses infecting orchids.

    PubMed

    Ali, Raymond N; Dann, Alison L; Cross, Peter A; Wilson, Calum R

    2014-11-01

    A multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was developed for simultaneous detection of three orchid viruses: cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV), odontoglossum ringspot virus (ORSV), and orchid fleck virus (OFV). Primers were used to amplify nucleocapsid protein gene fragments of 845 bp (ORSV), 505 bp (CymMV) and 160 bp (OFV). A 60-bp amplicon of plant glyceraldehyde-3-phophate dehydrogenase mRNA was included as an internal control against false negatives. The assay was validated against 31 collected plants from six orchid genera and compared with results obtained by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The RT-PCR assay proved more sensitive than TEM for detection of OFV. PMID:24980395

  20. SPARK content is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License. Copyright SPARK at York University 2013

    E-print Network

    SPARK content is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License. Copyright SPARK at York University 2013 www.yorku.ca/spark Tips for Creating Bibliographies You DO have

  1. SPARK content is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License. Copyright SPARK at York University 2013

    E-print Network

    SPARK content is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License. Copyright SPARK at York University 2013 www.yorku.ca/spark Academic Integrity Checklist I fully understand

  2. Cross-protective effect of antisense oligonucleotide developed against the common 3' NCR of influenza A virus genome.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Prashant; Kumar, Binod; Rajput, Roopali; Saxena, Latika; Banerjea, Akhil C; Khanna, Madhu

    2013-11-01

    The influenza A virus (IAV) has eight segmented single-stranded RNA genome containing a common and evolutionarily conserved non-coding region (NCRs) at 5' and 3' ends that are important for the virus replication. In this study, we designed an antisense oligonucleotide against the 3' NCR of vital segments of the IAV genome to inhibit its replication. The results demonstrated that the co-transfection of Madine Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells with the antisense oligonucleotide and the plasmids encoding the viral genes led to the down-regulation of the viral gene expression. The designed antisense molecules reduced the cytopathic effect caused by A/PR/8/34 (H1N1), A/Udorn/307/72 (H3N2), and A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1) strains of IAV for almost 48 h. Furthermore, the intra-venous delivery of this oligonucleotide significantly reduced the viral titers in the lungs of infected mice and protected the mice from lethal effects of all the strains of influenza virus. The study demonstrated that the antisense oligonucleotide designed against the NCR region inhibits the expression of the viral genome. The decrease of the cytopathic effect in the MDCK cells and increase in survival of mice confirmed the reduction of virus multiplication and pathogenesis in the presence of antisense oligonucleotide. Thus, we demonstrate that a single antisense oligonucleotide is capable of providing protection against more than one strains of the IAV. PMID:23729285

  3. Complete genome sequence of a common midwife toad virus-like ranavirus associated with mass mortalities in wild amphibians in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van Beurden, Steven J; Hughes, Joseph; Saucedo, Bernardo; Rijks, Jolianne; Kik, Marja; Haenen, Olga L M; Engelsma, Marc Y; Gröne, Andrea; Verheije, M Helene; Wilkie, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    A ranavirus associated with mass mortalities in wild water frogs (Pelophylax spp.) and other amphibians in the Netherlands since 2010 was isolated, and its complete genome sequence was determined. The virus has a genome of 107,772 bp and shows 96.5% sequence identity with the common midwife toad virus from Spain. PMID:25540340

  4. The clinical efficacy of -DOPA and STN-DBS share a common marker: reduced GABA content in the motor thalamus

    PubMed Central

    Stefani, A; Fedele, E; Vitek, J; Pierantozzi, M; Galati, S; Marzetti, F; Peppe, A; Bassi, M S; Bernardi, G; Stanzione, P

    2011-01-01

    At odd with traditional views, effective sub-thalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS), in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, may increase the discharge rate of the substantia nigra pars reticulata and the internal globus pallidus (GPi), in combination with increased cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels. How these changes affect the basal ganglia (BG) output to the motor thalamus, the crucial structure conveying motor information to cortex, is critical. Here, we determined the extracellular GABA concentration in the ventral anterior nucleus (VA) during the first delivery of STN-DBS (n=10) or following levodopa (LD) (n=8). Both DBS and subdyskinetic LD reversibly reduced (?30%) VA GABA levels. A significant correlation occurred between clinical score and GABA concentration. By contrast, only STN-DBS increased GPi cGMP levels. Hence, STN-ON and MED-ON involve partially different action mechanisms but share a common target in the VA. These findings suggest that the standard BG circuitry, in PD, needs revision as relief from akinesia may take place, during DBS, even in absence of reduced GPi excitability. However, clinical amelioration requires fast change of thalamic GABA, confirming, in line with the old model, that VA is the core player in determining thalamo-cortical transmission. PMID:21544093

  5. Coffee and tomato share common gene repertoires as revealed by deep sequencing of seed and cherry transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chenwei; Mueller, Lukas A.; Carthy, James Mc; Crouzillat, Dominique; Pétiard, Vincent

    2005-01-01

    An EST database has been generated for coffee based on sequences from approximately 47,000 cDNA clones derived from five different stages/tissues, with a special focus on developing seeds. When computationally assembled, these sequences correspond to 13,175 unigenes, which were analyzed with respect to functional annotation, expression profile and evolution. Compared with Arabidopsis, the coffee unigenes encode a higher proportion of proteins related to protein modification/turnover and metabolism—an observation that may explain the high diversity of metabolites found in coffee and related species. Several gene families were found to be either expanded or unique to coffee when compared with Arabidopsis. A high proportion of these families encode proteins assigned to functions related to disease resistance. Such families may have expanded and evolved rapidly under the intense pathogen pressure experienced by a tropical, perennial species like coffee. Finally, the coffee gene repertoire was compared with that of Arabidopsis and Solanaceous species (e.g. tomato). Unlike Arabidopsis, tomato has a nearly perfect gene-for-gene match with coffee. These results are consistent with the facts that coffee and tomato have a similar genome size, chromosome karyotype (tomato, n=12; coffee n=11) and chromosome architecture. Moreover, both belong to the Asterid I clade of dicot plant families. Thus, the biology of coffee (family Rubiacaeae) and tomato (family Solanaceae) may be united into one common network of shared discoveries, resources and information. PMID:16273343

  6. SPARK content is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License. Copyright SPARK at York University 2013

    E-print Network

    SPARK content is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License. Copyright SPARK at York University 2013 www.yorku.ca/spark What is Common Knowledge? Some facts and ideas to show that you're familiar with their significance, history, and meaning. #12;SPARK content is licensed

  7. SPARK content is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License. Copyright SPARK at York University 2013

    E-print Network

    SPARK content is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License. Copyright SPARK at York University 2013 www.yorku.ca/spark Peer Feedback Guide Use Guidelines Asking may have neglected. #12;SPARK content is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution

  8. Comprehensive mapping of common immunodominant epitopes in the eastern equine encephalitis virus E2 protein recognized by avian antibody responses.

    PubMed

    Sun, Encheng; Zhao, Jing; Sun, Liang; Xu, Qingyuan; Yang, Tao; Qin, Yongli; Wang, Wenshi; Wei, Peng; Sun, Jing; Wu, Donglai

    2013-01-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne virus that can cause both human and equine encephalitis with high case fatality rates. EEEV can also be widespread among birds, including pheasants, ostriches, emu, turkeys, whooping cranes and chickens. The E2 protein of EEEV and other Alphaviruses is an important immunogenic protein that elicits antibodies of diagnostic value. While many therapeutic and diagnostic applications of E2 protein-specific antibodies have been reported, the specific epitopes on E2 protein recognized by the antibody responses of different susceptible hosts, including avian species, remain poorly defined. In the present study, the avian E2-reactive polyclonal antibody (PAb) response was mapped to linear peptide epitopes using PAbs elicited in chickens and ducks following immunization with recombinant EEEV E2 protein and a series of 42 partially overlapping peptides covering the entire EEEV E2 protein. We identified 12 and 13 peptides recognized by the chicken and duck PAb response, respectively. Six of these linear peptides were commonly recognized by PAbs elicited in both avian species. Among them five epitopes recognized by both avian, the epitopes located at amino acids 211-226 and 331-352 were conserved among the EEEV antigenic complex, but not other associated alphaviruses, whereas the epitopes at amino acids 11-26, 30-45 and 151-166 were specific to EEEV subtype I. The five common peptide epitopes were not recognized by avian PAbs against Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) and Duck Plague Virus (DPV). The identification and characterization of EEEV E2 antibody epitopes may be aid the development of diagnostic tools and facilitate the design of epitope-based vaccines for EEEV. These results also offer information with which to study the structure of EEEV E2 protein. PMID:23922704

  9. Ecological Routes of Avian Influenza Virus Transmission to a Common Mesopredator: An Experimental Evaluation of Alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Root, J. Jeffrey; Bentler, Kevin T.; Shriner, Susan A.; Mooers, Nicole L.; VanDalen, Kaci K.; Sullivan, Heather J.; Franklin, Alan B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Wild raccoons have been shown to be naturally exposed to avian influenza viruses (AIV). However, the mechanisms associated with these natural exposures are not well-understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We experimentally tested three alternative routes (water, eggs, and scavenged waterfowl carcasses) of AIV transmission that may explain how raccoons in the wild are exposed to AIV. Raccoons were exposed to 1) water and 2) eggs spiked with an AIV (H4N6), as well as 3) mallard carcasses experimentally inoculated with the same virus. Three of four raccoons exposed to the high dose water treatment yielded apparent nasal shedding of >102.0 PCR EID50 equivalent/mL. Little to no shedding was observed from the fecal route. The only animals yielding evidence of serologic activity during the study period were three animals associated with the high dose water treatment. Conclusions/Significance Overall, our results indicate that virus-laden water could provide a natural exposure route of AIV for raccoons and possibly other mammals associated with aquatic environments. However, this association appears to be related to AIV concentration in the water, which would constitute an infective dose. In addition, strong evidence of infection was only detected in three of four animals exposed to a high dose (e.g., 105.0 EID50/mL) of AIV in water. As such, water-borne transmission to raccoons may require repeated exposures to water with high concentrations of virus. PMID:25127468

  10. Response of BGMV and BGYMV resistant common bean to beet curly top virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop losses can be severe when susceptible large-seeded Andean dry and green bean cultivars are planted early in dry areas with a history of curly top caused by Beet curly top virus (BCTV) and closely related species. In order to assess the level of curly top resistance in 65 diverse dry and green ...

  11. Characterization of neutralization sites on the circulating variant of swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV): a new site is shared by SVDV and the related coxsackie B5 virus.

    PubMed

    Borrego, Belén; Carra, Elena; García-Ranea, Juan Antonio; Brocchi, Emiliana

    2002-01-01

    Using a panel of new monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), five neutralizing, conformation-dependent sites have been identified on the antigenic variant of swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) circulating currently. In studies on the antigenic conservation of these sites, the four antigenic/genetic groups of SVDV described showed distinguishable patterns, confirming this classification. By sequencing mAb-resistant mutants, the five sites have been mapped precisely and localized on a three-dimensional model of the SVDV capsid. All were found to be orientated, to a different extent, towards the external surface of the capsid. Three of the five sites, located in VP1, VP2 and VP3, correspond to epitopes identified previously in historic isolates as sites 1, 2a and 3b, respectively. Another site, site IV, which maps to position 258 of VP1, corresponds to an epitope reported recently and is described in this study to be specific for isolates of the most recent antigenic group of SVDV. A fifth site is described for the first time and corresponds to the unique neutralizing site that is common to both SVDV and coxsackie B5 virus; it maps to positions 95 and 98 of VP1, but may also include positions nearby that belong to site 1 on the BC-loop of VP1, suggesting the classification of site Ia. These results may have useful diagnostic and epidemiological applications, since mAbs to the new conserved site Ia provide universal reagents for SVDV detection systems, while the specificity of mAbs to site IV make them unique markers for the most recent strains of SVDV. PMID:11752698

  12. Populational survey of arthropods on transgenic common bean expressing the rep gene from Bean golden mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Patrícia V; Quintela, Eliane D; Junqueira, Ana Maria R; Aragão, Francisco J L; Faria, Josias C

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops is considered the fastest adopted crop technology in the history of modern agriculture. However, possible undesirable and unintended effects must be considered during the research steps toward development of a commercial product. In this report we evaluated effects of a common bean virus resistant line on arthropod populations, considered as non-target organisms. This GM bean line (named M1/4) was modified for resistance against Bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV) by expressing a mutated REP protein, which is essential for virus replication. Biosafety studies were performed for a period of three years under field conditions. The abundance of some species was significantly higher in specific treatments in a particular year, but not consistently different in other years. A regular pattern was not observed in the distribution of insects between genetically modified and conventional treatments. Data analyses showed that minor differences observed can be attributed to random variation and were not consistent enough to conclude that the treatments were different. Therefore the present study indicates that the relative abundance of species are similar in transgenic and non-transgenic fields. PMID:24922280

  13. Enhanced HIV-1 immunotherapy by commonly arising antibodies that target virus escape variants

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Lilian; Nishimura, Yoshiaki; Phad, Ganesh; West, Anthony P.; Halper-Stromberg, Ariel; Horwitz, Joshua A.; Gazumyan, Anna; Liu, Cassie; Eisenreich, Thomas R.; Lehmann, Clara; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Williams, Constance; Shingai, Masashi; Martin, Malcolm A.; Bjorkman, Pamela J.; Seaman, Michael S.; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Karlsson Hedestam, Gunilla B.; Nussenzweig, Michel C.

    2014-01-01

    Antibody-mediated immunotherapy is effective in humanized mice when combinations of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) are used that target nonoverlapping sites on the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope. In contrast, single bNAbs can control simian–human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) infection in immune-competent macaques, suggesting that the host immune response might also contribute to the control of viremia. Here, we investigate how the autologous antibody response in intact hosts can contribute to the success of immunotherapy. We find that frequently arising antibodies that normally fail to control HIV-1 infection can synergize with passively administered bNAbs by preventing the emergence of bNAb viral escape variants. PMID:25385756

  14. Inter and intralineage recombinants are common in natural populations of Turnip mosaic virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhongyang Tan; Yasuhiko Wada; Jishuang Chen; Kazusato Ohshima

    2004-01-01

    A recombination map of the genome of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) was assembled using data from 19 complete genomic sequences, previously reported, and a composite sample of three regions of the genome, one-third in total, of a representative Asia-wide collection of 70 isolates. Thus, a total of 89 isolates of worldwide origin was analysed for recombinants. Eighteen recombination sites were

  15. Identification of new isolates of Turnip mosaic virus that cluster with less common viral strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Sánchez; M. Rodríguez-Mateos; A. Touriño; J. Fresno; C. Gómez-Campo; C. E. Jenner; J. A. Walsh; F. Ponz

    2007-01-01

    Summary  Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) was found infecting cultivated brassicas and wild and cultivated ornamental Brassicaceae plants in different regions of Spain. Five new TuMV isolates, originating from different host plant species (Brassica cretica, Brassica juncea, Brassica napus, Eruca vesicaria subsp. sativa and Sisymbrium orientale), have been identified. The nucleotide sequences of the coat protein (CP) genes of the five isolates

  16. Symbionts commonly provide broad spectrum resistance to viruses in insects: a comparative analysis of Wolbachia strains.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Julien; Longdon, Ben; Bauer, Simone; Chan, Yuk-Sang; Miller, Wolfgang J; Bourtzis, Kostas; Teixeira, Luis; Jiggins, Francis M

    2014-09-01

    In the last decade, bacterial symbionts have been shown to play an important role in protecting hosts against pathogens. Wolbachia, a widespread symbiont in arthropods, can protect Drosophila and mosquito species against viral infections. We have investigated antiviral protection in 19 Wolbachia strains originating from 16 Drosophila species after transfer into the same genotype of Drosophila simulans. We found that approximately half of the strains protected against two RNA viruses. Given that 40% of terrestrial arthropod species are estimated to harbour Wolbachia, as many as a fifth of all arthropods species may benefit from Wolbachia-mediated protection. The level of protection against two distantly related RNA viruses--DCV and FHV--was strongly genetically correlated, which suggests that there is a single mechanism of protection with broad specificity. Furthermore, Wolbachia is making flies resistant to viruses, as increases in survival can be largely explained by reductions in viral titer. Variation in the level of antiviral protection provided by different Wolbachia strains is strongly genetically correlated to the density of the bacteria strains in host tissues. We found no support for two previously proposed mechanisms of Wolbachia-mediated protection--activation of the immune system and upregulation of the methyltransferase Dnmt2. The large variation in Wolbachia's antiviral properties highlights the need to carefully select Wolbachia strains introduced into mosquito populations to prevent the transmission of arboviruses. PMID:25233341

  17. Population structure within lineages of Wheat streak mosaic virus derived from a common founding event exhibits stochastic variation inconsistent with the deterministic quasi-species model

    SciTech Connect

    French, Roy [Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture and Department of Plant Pathology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583 (United States); Stenger, Drake C. [Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture and Department of Plant Pathology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583 (United States)]. E-mail: dstenger@unlnotes.unl.edu

    2005-12-20

    Structure of Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) populations derived from a common founding event and subjected to serial passage at high multiplicity of infection (MOI) was evaluated. The founding population was generated by limiting dilution inoculation. Lineages of known pedigree were sampled at passage 9 (two populations) and at passage 15, with (three populations) or without mixing (four populations) of lineages at passage 10. Polymorphism within each population was assessed by sequencing 17-21 clones containing a 1371 nt region (WSMV-Sidney 81 nts 8001-9371) encompassing the entire coat protein cistron and flanking regions. Mutation frequency averaged {approx}5.0 x 10{sup -4}/nt across all populations and ranged from 2.4 to 11.6 x 10{sup -4}/nt within populations, but did not consistently increase or decrease with the number of passages removed from the founding population. Shared substitutions (19 nonsynonymous, 10 synonymous, and 3 noncoding) occurred at 32 sites among 44 haplotypes. Only four substitutions became fixed (frequency = 100%) within a population and nearly one third (10/32) never achieved a frequency of 10% or greater in any sampled population. Shared substitutions were randomly distributed with respect to genome position, with transitions outnumbering transversions 5.4:1 and a clear bias for A to G and U to C substitutions. Haplotype composition of each population was unique with complexity of each population varying unpredictably, in that the number and frequency of haplotypes within a lineage were not correlated with number of passages removed from the founding population or whether the population was derived from a single or mixed lineage. The simplest explanation is that plant virus lineages, even those propagated at high MOI, are subject to frequent, narrow genetic bottlenecks during systemic movement that result in low effective population size and stochastic changes in population structure upon serial passage.

  18. Real-time Motion Planning of Multiple Mobile Manipulators with a Common Task Objective in Shared Work Environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Vannoy; Jing Xiao

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of planning motions for a team of mobile manipulators working in the same environment with a common task objective. It presents a distributed, real-time algorithm to plan motion trajectory for each team member that allows dynamic and spontaneous division of work among team members to meet the common task objective. A mobile manipulator has to

  19. Research on voltage sharing for input-series-output-series phase-shift full-bridge converters with common-duty-ratio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiwei Lu; Zijing Yang; Shuai Lin; Suke Wang; Cong Wang

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at the application requirement of high-input-high-output voltage, a novel solution on the base of input-series-output-series (ISOS) connected converter was proposed in the paper. The ISOS converter consists of two zero-voltage-zero-current-switched full bridge (ZVZCS-FB) converters, which are using the common-duty-ratio and share the same controller. The characteristics of the voltage sharing is analyzed in detail and verified by the experiments.

  20. Application of Multiplex PCR Coupled with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Analysis for Simultaneous Detection of 21 Common Respiratory Viruses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chi; Xiao, Yan; Du, Jiang; Ren, Lili; Wang, Jianwei; Peng, Junping; Jin, Qi

    2015-08-01

    Respiratory infections continue to pose a significant threat to human health. It is important to accurately and rapidly detect respiratory viruses. To compensate for the limits of current respiratory virus detection methods, we developed a 24-plex analysis (common respiratory virus-mass spectrometry [CRV-MS]) that can simultaneously detect and identify 21 common respiratory viruses based on a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry system. To evaluate the efficacy of the CRV-MS method, we used 102 samples that were confirmed positive for these common respiratory viruses. All tests using the CRV-MS method were effective, with no cross-reactivity observed with other common respiratory viruses. To confirm the usefulness of the CRV-MS method, we screened 336 nasal and throat swabs that were collected from adults or children with suspected viral acute respiratory tract infections using the CRV-MS method and consensus PCR/reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) methods. Excluding four RNase P-negative samples, the CRV-MS and consensus PCR/RT-PCR methods detected respiratory viruses in 92.5% (307/332) and 89.5% (297/332) of the samples, respectively. The two methods yielded identical results for 306 (92.2%) samples, including negative results for 25 samples (7.5%) and positive results for 281 samples (84.6%). Differences between the two methods may reflect their different sensitivities. The CRV-MS method proved to be sensitive and robust, and it can be used in large-scale epidemiological studies of common respiratory virus infections. PMID:26019198

  1. Psychological Factors Determining Individual Compliance with Rules for Common Pool Resource Management: The Case of a Cuban Community Sharing a Solar Energy System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annette Jenny; Fernando Hechavarria Fuentes; Hans-Joachim Mosler

    2007-01-01

    This study focuses on individuals’ subjective reasons for complying with rules for common pool resource management. We examine\\u000a the topic of individual rule compliance, which the commons literature has addressed only marginally, and outline recent empirical\\u000a findings. Hypotheses are derived based on rule compliance theory and explored using data gathered in a Cuban community sharing\\u000a a solar energy system. The

  2. Metagenomic Analysis of the Viromes of Three North American Bat Species: Viral Diversity among Different Bat Species That Share a Common Habitat?

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, Eric F.; Haskew, Aimee N.; Gates, J. Edward; Huynh, Jeremy; Moore, Clea J.; Frieman, Matthew B.

    2010-01-01

    Effective prediction of future viral zoonoses requires an in-depth understanding of the heterologous viral population in key animal species that will likely serve as reservoir hosts or intermediates during the next viral epidemic. The importance of bats as natural hosts for several important viral zoonoses, including Ebola, Marburg, Nipah, Hendra, and rabies viruses and severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV), has been established; however, the large viral population diversity (virome) of bats has been partially determined for only a few of the ?1,200 bat species. To assess the virome of North American bats, we collected fecal, oral, urine, and tissue samples from individual bats captured at an abandoned railroad tunnel in Maryland that is cohabitated by 7 to 10 different bat species. Here, we present preliminary characterization of the virome of three common North American bat species, including big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), tricolored bats (Perimyotis subflavus), and little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus). In samples derived from these bats, we identified viral sequences that were similar to at least three novel group 1 CoVs, large numbers of insect and plant virus sequences, and nearly full-length genomic sequences of two novel bacteriophages. These observations suggest that bats encounter and disseminate a large assortment of viruses capable of infecting many different animals, insects, and plants in nature. PMID:20926577

  3. Metagenomic analysis of the viromes of three North American bat species: viral diversity among different bat species that share a common habitat.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Eric F; Haskew, Aimee N; Gates, J Edward; Huynh, Jeremy; Moore, Clea J; Frieman, Matthew B

    2010-12-01

    Effective prediction of future viral zoonoses requires an in-depth understanding of the heterologous viral population in key animal species that will likely serve as reservoir hosts or intermediates during the next viral epidemic. The importance of bats as natural hosts for several important viral zoonoses, including Ebola, Marburg, Nipah, Hendra, and rabies viruses and severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV), has been established; however, the large viral population diversity (virome) of bats has been partially determined for only a few of the ?1,200 bat species. To assess the virome of North American bats, we collected fecal, oral, urine, and tissue samples from individual bats captured at an abandoned railroad tunnel in Maryland that is cohabitated by 7 to 10 different bat species. Here, we present preliminary characterization of the virome of three common North American bat species, including big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), tricolored bats (Perimyotis subflavus), and little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus). In samples derived from these bats, we identified viral sequences that were similar to at least three novel group 1 CoVs, large numbers of insect and plant virus sequences, and nearly full-length genomic sequences of two novel bacteriophages. These observations suggest that bats encounter and disseminate a large assortment of viruses capable of infecting many different animals, insects, and plants in nature. PMID:20926577

  4. Ohio State scientists to share in $25 million grant to study virus-related foodborne illness Four Ohio State scientists are part of a multi-state, $25 million effort to reduce foodborne illness caused by viruses. The

    E-print Network

    Ohio State scientists to share in $25 million grant to study virus-related foodborne illness Four Ohio State scientists are part of a multi-state, $25 million effort to reduce foodborne illness caused will focus on human noroviruses, which cause more than 21 million cases of foodborne illness each year

  5. Characterization of Tula virus from common voles (microtus arvalis) in Poland: evidence for geographic-specific phylogenetic clustering.

    PubMed

    Song, Jin-Won; Baek, Luck Ju; Song, Ki-Joon; Skrok, Anna; Markowski, Janusz; Bratosiewicz-Wasik, Jolanta; Kordek, Radzislaw; Liberski, Pawel P; Yanagihara, Richard

    2004-10-01

    Tula virus (TULV), a recently identified arvicolid rodent-borne hantavirus, is harbored by the European common vole (Microtus arvalis) in Central Russia and the Czech and Slovak Republics. We report the isolation and characterization of this hantavirus from M. arvalis captured in Poland, a country where human disease caused by hantaviruses has not been recognized. Of 34 arvicolid rodents (24 Clethrionomys glareolus, 9 M. arvalis, 1 Pitymys sp.) captured in Lodz and Tuszyn, Poland, during June to September 1995, sera from 3 M. arvalis and 3 C. glareolus contained IgG antibodies to Puumala virus (PUUV), as determined by an indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay. Alignment and comparison of the 1852-nucleotide S segment and a 1676-nucleotide region of the G2 glycoprotein-encoding M segment, amplified from lung tissues of two hantavirus-seropositive M. arvalis, revealed 83.9-85.2% and 82.3-83.5% sequence similarity, respectively, with TULV strains from Central Russia and the Czech and Slovak Republics. A > 98% sequence conservation was found at the amino acid level. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the newly found TULV strains from Poland were closely related to, but distinct from, TULV from elsewhere in Europe. PMID:15284484

  6. Discovering Common Ground: How Future Search Conferences Bring People Together To Achieve Breakthrough Innovation, Empowerment, Shared Vision, and Collaborative Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisbord, Marvin R.; And Others

    This book contains 35 papers about planning and holding future search conferences, as well as their benefits and likely future directions. The following papers are included: "Applied Common Sense" (Weisbord); "Inventing the Search Conference" (Weisbord); "Building Collaborative Communities" (Schindler-Rainman, Lippitt); "Parallel Paths to…

  7. Virus Membrane Fusion Proteins: Biological Machines that Undergo a Metamorphosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca Ellis Dutch; Theodore S. Jardetzky; Robert A. Lamb

    2000-01-01

    Fusion proteins from a group of widely disparate viruses, including the paramyxovirus F protein, the HIV and SIV gp160 proteins, the retroviral Env protein, the Ebola virus Gp, and the influenza virus haemagglutinin, share a number of common features. All contain multiple glycosylation sites, and must be trimeric and undergo proteolytic cleavage to be fusogenically active. Subsequent to proteolytic cleavage,

  8. Long-term follow up of HIV-1-infected Korean haemophiliacs, after infection from a common source of virus.

    PubMed

    Kim, B-R; Kim, J-E; Sung, H; Cho, Y-K

    2015-01-01

    In the early 1990s, 20 haemophiliacs (HPs) were infected with a common source of HIV-1 viruses through the contaminated clotting factor IX. The aim of this study is to review 20 HPs infected with a common source of virus. The enrolled patients have been consecutively treated with Korean red ginseng (KRG), zidovudine (ZDV) or two-drug therapy and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We determined full-length pol gene over 20 years and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I with peripheral blood mononuclear cells and reviewed medical records. Eighteen HPs experienced various opportunistic infections or clinical manifestations. There were significant inverse correlations between the HLA prognostic score and the annual decrease in CD4+ T-cell counts prior to HAART (AD) (P < 0.05) and the amount of KRG and the AD (P < 0.01). From 1998, the HPs had been treated with HAART. Each of the two patients died without and with HAART regimen respectively. At present, 16 HPs have been alive with HAART. Among the 16 HPs, 12 and 4 are on HAART-plus-KRG and HAART only respectively. Eleven HPs including 2 HPs with G-to-A hypermutations had revealed resistance mutations. Ten and two HPs have shown poor adherence and incomplete viral suppres-sion on HAART respectively. Virological failure based on WHO guidelines was not observed on KRG-plus-HAART. Two HPs revealed additional resistance mutations against two classes on KRG-plus-HAART. As a nationwide study, we first report overall features on clinical course of Korean haemophiliacs. Further education on the importance of drug adherence is needed. PMID:25545303

  9. Viruses in subgroup 2 of the genus Ilarvirus share both serological relationships and characteristics at the molecular level

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. W. Scott; M. T. Zimmerman; X. Ge

    2003-01-01

    Summary. Sequence data have been determined for 5 members of subgroup 2 of the genus Ilarvirus. These data support the known serological relationships among accepted members of this group and indicate that the ilarvirus Hydrangea mosaic virus (HdMV) is an isolate of Elm mottle virus (EMoV). The close relationships between members of this subgroup, exhibited through the coat proteins coded

  10. Potent Neutralization of Vaccinia Virus by Divergent Murine Antibodies Targeting a Common Site of Vulnerability in L1 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kaever, Thomas; Meng, Xiangzhi; Matho, Michael H.; Schlossman, Andrew; Li, Sheng; Sela-Culang, Inbal; Ofran, Yanay; Buller, Mark; Crump, Ryan W.; Parker, Scott; Frazier, April; Crotty, Shane; Zajonc, Dirk M.; Peters, Bjoern

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vaccinia virus (VACV) L1 is an important target for viral neutralization and has been included in multicomponent DNA or protein vaccines against orthopoxviruses. To further understand the protective mechanism of the anti-L1 antibodies, we generated five murine anti-L1 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), which clustered into 3 distinct epitope groups. While two groups of anti-L1 failed to neutralize, one group of 3 MAbs potently neutralized VACV in an isotype- and complement-independent manner. This is in contrast to neutralizing antibodies against major VACV envelope proteins, such as H3, D8, or A27, which failed to completely neutralize VACV unless the antibodies are of complement-fixing isotypes and complement is present. Compared to nonneutralizing anti-L1 MAbs, the neutralization antibodies bound to the recombinant L1 protein with a significantly higher affinity and also could bind to virions. By using a variety of techniques, including the isolation of neutralization escape mutants, hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry, and X-ray crystallography, the epitope of the neutralizing antibodies was mapped to a conformational epitope with Asp35 as the key residue. This epitope is similar to the epitope of 7D11, a previously described potent VACV neutralizing antibody. The epitope was recognized mainly by CDR1 and CDR2 of the heavy chain, which are highly conserved among antibodies recognizing the epitope. These antibodies, however, had divergent light-chain and heavy-chain CDR3 sequences. Our study demonstrates that the conformational L1 epitope with Asp35 is a common site of vulnerability for potent neutralization by a divergent group of antibodies. IMPORTANCE Vaccinia virus, the live vaccine for smallpox, is one of the most successful vaccines in human history, but it presents a level of risk that has become unacceptable for the current population. Studying the immune protection mechanism of smallpox vaccine is important for understanding the basic principle of successful vaccines and the development of next-generation, safer vaccines for highly pathogenic orthopoxviruses. We studied antibody targets in smallpox vaccine by developing potent neutralizing antibodies against vaccinia virus and comprehensively characterizing their epitopes. We found a site in vaccinia virus L1 protein as the target of a group of highly potent murine neutralizing antibodies. The analysis of antibody-antigen complex structure and the sequences of the antibody genes shed light on how these potent neutralizing antibodies are elicited from immunized mice. PMID:25031354

  11. Complete Genome Analysis of 33 Ecologically and Biologically Diverse Rift Valley Fever Virus Strains Reveals Widespread Virus Movement and Low Genetic Diversity due to Recent Common Ancestry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian H. Bird; Marina L. Khristova; Pierre E. Rollin; Thomas G. Ksiazek; Stuart T. Nichol

    2007-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus is a mosquito-borne RNA virus responsible for large explosive outbreaks of acute febrile disease in humans and livestock in Africa with significant mortality and economic impact. The successful high-throughput generation of the complete genome sequence was achieved for 33 diverse RVF virus strains collected from throughout Africa and Saudi Arabia from 1944 to 2000, including

  12. Global protein profiling studies of chikungunya virus infection identify different proteins but common biological processes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Duncan R

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) caused by the mosquito-transmitted chikungunya virus (CHIKV) swept into international prominence from late 2005 as an epidemic of CHIKF spread around countries surrounding the Indian Ocean. Although significant advances have been made in understanding the pathobiology of CHIKF, numerous questions still remain. In the absence of commercially available specific drugs to treat the disease, or a vaccine to prevent the diseases, the questions have particular significance. A number of studies have used global proteome analysis to increase our understanding of the process of CHIKV infection using a number of different experimental techniques and experimental systems. In all, over 700 proteins have been identified in nine different analyses by five different groups as being differentially regulated. Remarkably, only a single protein, eukaryotic elongation factor 2, has been identified by more than two different groups as being differentially regulated during CHIKV infection. This review provides a critical overview of the studies that have used global protein profiling to understand CHIKV infection and shows that while a broad consensus is emerging on which biological processes are altered during CHIKV infection, this consensus is poorly supported in terms of consistent identification of any key proteins mediating those biological processes. PMID:25066270

  13. Identification of new isolates of Turnip mosaic virus that cluster with less common viral strains.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, F; Rodríguez-Mateos, M; Touriño, A; Fresno, J; Gómez-Campo, C; Jenner, C E; Walsh, J A; Ponz, F

    2007-01-01

    Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) was found infecting cultivated brassicas and wild and cultivated ornamental Brassicaceae plants in different regions of Spain. Five new TuMV isolates, originating from different host plant species (Brassica cretica, Brassica juncea, Brassica napus, Eruca vesicaria subsp. sativa and Sisymbrium orientale), have been identified. The nucleotide sequences of the coat protein (CP) genes of the five isolates were determined. Phylogenetic analysis of the CP sequences showed that the five isolates grouped into two different clusters. The three isolates from the central region of Spain clustered with a previously reported Pisum sativum isolate from southeastern Spain, whereas the other two isolates from the eastern region clustered with two Italian and two Greek isolates. Both clusters were genetically distinct and belonged to the multi-lineage group OBR. The OBR group contains mainly TuMV isolates from hosts other than Brassica spp. and Raphanus sativus and mostly originating from Mediterranean countries. These new sequences provide further phylogenetic resolution of the OBR group. Although new TuMV isolates have been found in Spain, they were not associated with any serious disease outbreaks. PMID:17347771

  14. Role of a Common Frame of Reference in Cognitive Cooperation: Sharing Tasks between Agents in Air Traffic Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-michel Hoc; X. Carlier

    2002-01-01

    :   This study deals with cognitive cooperation in the context of the design of cooperative computer support for sharing aircraft\\u000a conflict detection and resolution tasks between human and machine in air traffic control. In order to specify some necessary\\u000a cooperative capabilities of such a system, we have observed an artificial situation on a simulator where two radar controllers\\u000a (RCs) had

  15. Murine leukemia virus envelope gp70 is a shared biomarker for the high-sensitivity quantification of murine tumor burden.

    PubMed

    Scrimieri, Francesca; Askew, David; Corn, David J; Eid, Saada; Bobanga, Iuliana D; Bjelac, Jaclyn A; Tsao, Matthew L; Allen, Frederick; Othman, Youmna S; Wang, Shih-Chung G; Huang, Alex Y

    2013-11-01

    The preclinical development of anticancer drugs including immunotherapeutics and targeted agents relies on the ability to detect minimal residual tumor burden as a measure of therapeutic efficacy. Real-time quantitative (qPCR) represents an exquisitely sensitive method to perform such an assessment. However, qPCR-based applications are limited by the availability of a genetic defect associated with each tumor model under investigation. Here, we describe an off-the-shelf qPCR-based approach to detect a broad array of commonly used preclinical murine tumor models. In particular, we report that the mRNA coding for the envelope glycoprotein 70 (gp70) encoded by the endogenous murine leukemia virus (MuLV) is universally expressed in 22 murine cancer cell lines of disparate histological origin but is silent in 20 out of 22 normal mouse tissues. Further, we detected the presence of as few as 100 tumor cells in whole lung extracts using qPCR specific for gp70, supporting the notion that this detection approach has a higher sensitivity as compared with traditional tissue histology methods. Although gp70 is expressed in a wide variety of tumor cell lines, it was absent in inflamed tissues, non-transformed cell lines, or pre-cancerous lesions. Having a high-sensitivity biomarker for the detection of a wide range of murine tumor cells that does not require additional genetic manipulations or the knowledge of specific genetic alterations present in a given neoplasm represents a unique experimental tool for investigating metastasis, assessing antitumor therapeutic interventions, and further determining tumor recurrence or minimal residual disease. PMID:24482753

  16. People who share a culture share language, customs, history, and values and pass on those attributes to their children. The reality of being Deaf * encompasses a whole set of shared experiences with a common

    E-print Network

    attributes to their children. The reality of being Deaf * encompasses a whole set of shared experiences-spatial language used by people who are Deaf, Hard of Hearing and Hearing within the Deaf community. ASL-dimensional (3-D) language as the space surrounding the signer is incorporated to describe places and persons

  17. Novel Common Integration Sites Targeted by Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus Insertion in Mammary Tumors Have Oncogenic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoung H.; van den Heuvel, A. Pieter J.; Schmidt, John W.; Ross, Susan R.

    2011-01-01

    Non-acute transforming retroviruses like mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) cause cancer, at least in part, through integration near cellular genes involved in growth control, thereby de-regulating their expression. It is well-established that MMTV commonly integrates near and activates expression of members of the Wnt and Fgf pathways in mammary tumors. However, there are a significant number of tumors for which the proviral integration sites have not been identified. Here, we used high through-put screening to identify common integration sites (CISs) in MMTV-induced tumors from C3H/HeN and BALB/c mice. As expected, members of both the Wnt and Fgf families were identified in this screen. In addition, a number of novel CISs were found, including Tcf7l2, Antxr1/Tem8, and Arhgap18. We show here that expression of these three putative oncogenes in normal murine mammary gland cells altered their growth kinetics and caused their morphological transformation when grown in three dimensional cultures. Additionally, expression of Tcf7l2 and Antxr1/Tem8 sensitized cells to exogenous WNT ligand. As Tcf7l2, Antxr1/Tem8, and Arhgap18 have been associated with human breast and other cancers, these data demonstrate that MMTV-induced insertional mutation remains an important means for identifying genes involved in breast cancer. PMID:22087314

  18. Plant Disease Note 2005 | First Report of Onion yellow dwarf virus, Leek ye... stripe virus, and Garlic common latent virus in Garlic in Washington State Overview Current Issue Past Issues Search PD Search APS Journals

    E-print Network

    Pappu, Hanu R.

    Plant Disease Note 2005 | First Report of Onion yellow dwarf virus, Leek ye... stripe virus-2006 The American Phytopathological Society First Report of Onion yellow dwarf virus, Leek yellow stripe virus but one had Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV), whereas one sample had a mixed infection of OYDV and Leek

  19. Populations of two Eastern countries of Japan and Korea and with a related history share a predominant genotype of herpes simplex virus type 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Umene; H. Sakaoka

    1997-01-01

    Summary.  ?Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), a common human pathogen of non-epidemic nature is linked closely to the individual by\\u000a latent infection. HSV-1 genotypes usually differ with race. Based on a “dual structure model” for population history of the\\u000a Japanese, modern Japanese populations are assumed to have derived from two major migration events. The Jomon people arrived\\u000a in Japan >10,000

  20. Basonuclins 1 and 2, whose genes share a common origin, are proteins with widely different properties and functions.

    PubMed

    Vanhoutteghem, Amandine; Djian, Philippe

    2006-08-15

    Basonuclin (bn) 1 possesses three separated pairs of zinc fingers and a nuclear localization signal. It is largely confined to the basal cells of stratified squamous epithelia and to reproductive germ cells. bn1 can shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm, and its location is correlated with the proliferative potential of the cell. The recently discovered bn2 also possesses three separated pairs of zinc fingers and a nuclear localization signal. Conservation of the zinc fingers and the nuclear localization signal by bn1 and bn2 indicates a common origin. However, in contrast to bn1, bn2 is found in virtually every cell type and is confined to the nucleus. Bn2 but not bn1 colocalizes with SC35 in nuclear speckles and, therefore, is likely to have a function in nuclear processing of mRNA. PMID:16891417

  1. 2007. Two genes from Phaseolus coccineus L. confer resistance to Bean golden yellow mosaic virus in common bean. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 132:530-533

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV), caused by a whitefly (Bemisia spp.) transmitted geminivirus, is an important disease that can limit common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production in Central America, the Caribbean and southern Florida. Only a few genes are currently deployed in BGYMV resista...

  2. The evolution of fibrillar collagens: a sea-pen collagen shares common features with vertebrate type V collagen.

    PubMed

    Tillet, E; Franc, J M; Franc, S; Garrone, R

    1996-02-01

    The extracellular matrix of marine primitive invertebrates (sponges, polyps and jellyfishes) contains collagen fibrils with narrow diameters. From various data, it has been hypothesized that these primitive collagens could represent ancestral forms of the vertebrate minor collagens, i.e., types V or XI. Recently we have isolated a primitive collagen from the soft tissues of the sea-pen Veretillum cynomorium. This report examines whether the sea-pen collagen shares some features with vertebrate type V collagen. Rotary shadowed images of acid-soluble collagen molecules extracted from beta-APN treated animals, positive staining of segment-long-spacing crystallites precipitated from pepsinized collagen, Western blots of the pepsinized alpha1 and alpha2 chains with antibodies to vertebrate types I, III and V collagens, and in situ gold immunolabeling of ECM collagen fibrils were examined. Our results showed that the tissue form of the sea-pen collagen is a 340-nm threadlike molecule, which is close to the vertebrate type V collagen with its voluminous terminal globular domain, the distribution of most of its polar amino-acid residues, and its antigenic properties. PMID:8653581

  3. Salient features of otoacoustic emissions are common across tetrapod groups and suggest shared properties of generation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Bergevin, Christopher; Manley, Geoffrey A; Köppl, Christine

    2015-03-17

    Otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) are faint sounds generated by healthy inner ears that provide a window into the study of auditory mechanics. All vertebrate classes exhibit OAEs to varying degrees, yet the biophysical origins are still not well understood. Here, we analyzed both spontaneous (SOAE) and stimulus-frequency (SFOAE) otoacoustic emissions from a bird (barn owl, Tyto alba) and a lizard (green anole, Anolis carolinensis). These species possess highly disparate macromorphologies of the inner ear relative to each other and to mammals, thereby allowing for novel insights into the biomechanical mechanisms underlying OAE generation. All ears exhibited robust OAE activity, and our chief observation was that SFOAE phase accumulation between adjacent SOAE peak frequencies clustered about an integral number of cycles. Being highly similar to published results from human ears, we argue that these data indicate a common underlying generator mechanism of OAEs across all vertebrates, despite the absence of morphological features thought essential to mammalian cochlear mechanics. We suggest that otoacoustic emissions originate from phase coherence in a system of coupled oscillators, which is consistent with the notion of "coherent reflection" but does not explicitly require a mammalian-type traveling wave. Furthermore, comparison between SFOAE delays and auditory nerve fiber responses for the barn owl strengthens the notion that most OAE delay can be attributed to tuning. PMID:25737537

  4. Analysis of the murine ecotropic leukemia virus receptor reveals a common biochemical determinant on diverse cell surface receptors that is essential to retrovirus entry.

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, S; Scott, A G; Zavorotinskaya, T; Albritton, L M

    1996-01-01

    Two residues, tyrosine 235 and glutamic acid 237, of the ecotropic murine leukemia virus receptor (ATRC1) have been shown to be essential for receptor-mediated virus envelope binding and entry. We performed genetic analyses to examine the biochemical contribution of these residues in a productive virus-receptor interaction. Altered ATRC1 receptors bearing either a phenylalanine, a tryptophan, a histidine, or a methionine at position 235 mediated ecotropic virus entry comparable to that mediated by ATRC1. In contrast, altered ATRC1 receptors bearing alanine, threonine, serine, or proline at position 235 exhibited a 300- to 10,000-fold decrease in receptor capability. Furthermore, substitution of tyrosine or phenylalanine into the corresponding position (242) of the homologous human protein that lacks ecotropic virus receptor capability resulted in acquisition of ecotropic virus receptor function comparable to that of ATRC1. Substitution of a tryptophan or a histidine at that position of the human protein, however, resulted in a much-reduced receptor capability, suggesting a preference for a benzene ring in the hydrophobic side chain. A similar analysis of proteins substituted at position 237 revealed that aspartic acid, but not arginine or lysine, can functionally substitute for glutamic acid 237 in ATRC1 or at the corresponding position in the human protein. These results suggest a requirement for an acidic and a nearby hydrophobic amino acid for efficient ecotropic virus entry. Similar motifs have been identified in the virus binding sites of other retrovirus receptors, suggesting that the initial step of retrovirus entry may be governed by a common mechanism. PMID:8523543

  5. Risk of transmission associated with sharing drug injecting paraphernalia: analysis of recent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection using cross-sectional survey data.

    PubMed

    Palmateer, N; Hutchinson, S; McAllister, G; Munro, A; Cameron, S; Goldberg, D; Taylor, A

    2014-01-01

    Sharing injecting paraphernalia (containers, filters and water) poses a risk of transmitting the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The prevalence of, and risk of HCV from, such behaviour has not been extensively reported in Europe. People who inject drugs (PWID) were recruited in cross-sectional surveys from services providing sterile injecting equipment across Scotland between 2008 and 2010. Participants completed a questionnaire and provided a blood spot for anonymous testing. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between recent HCV infection (anti-HCV negative and HCV-RNA positive) and self-reported measures of injecting equipment sharing in the 6 months preceding interview. Twelve per cent of the sample reported sharing needles/syringes, and 40% reported sharing paraphernalia in the previous 6 months. The adjusted odds ratios (AOR) for sharing needles/syringes (+/- paraphernalia), and sharing only paraphernalia in the last 6 months were 6.7 (95% CI 2.6-17.1) and 3.0 (95% CI 1.2-7.5), respectively. Among those who reported not sharing needles/syringes, sharing containers and filters were both significantly associated with recent HCV infection (AOR 3.1, 95% CI 1.3-7.8 and 3.1, 95% CI 1.3-7.5, respectively); sharing water was not. We present the first study to apply a cross-sectional approach to the analysis of the association between sharing paraphernalia and incident HCV infection and demonstrate consistent results with previous longitudinal studies. The prevalence of paraphernalia sharing in our study population is high, representing significant potential for HCV transmission. PMID:24329854

  6. The Unknown Computer Viruses Detection Based on Similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhongda; Nakaya, Naoshi; Koui, Yuuji

    New computer viruses are continually being generated and they cause damage all over the world. In general, current anti-virus software detects viruses by matching a pattern based on the signature; thus, unknown viruses without any signature cannot be detected. Although there are some static analysis technologies that do not depend on signatures, virus writers often use code obfuscation techniques, which make it difficult to execute a code analysis. As is generally known, unknown viruses and known viruses share a common feature. In this paper we propose a new static analysis technology that can circumvent code obfuscation to extract the common feature and detect unknown viruses based on similarity. The results of evaluation experiments demonstrated that this technique is able to detect unknown viruses without false positives.

  7. Characterization of neutralization sites on the circulating variant of swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV): a new site is shared by SVDV and the related coxsackie B5 virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena Carra; Juan Antonio Garci; Emiliana Brocchi; Bruno Ubertini

    Using a panel of new monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), five neutralizing, conformation-dependent sites have been identified on the antigenic variant of swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) circulating currently. In studies on the antigenic conservation of these sites, the four antigenic\\/ genetic groups of SVDV described showed distinguishable patterns, confirming this classification. By sequencing mAb-resistant mutants, the five sites have been mapped

  8. Virus-independent and common transcriptome responses of leafhopper vectors feeding on maize infected with semi-persistently and persistent propagatively transmitted viruses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Insects are the most important epidemiological factors for plant virus disease spread, with >75% of viruses being dependent on insects for transmission to new hosts. The black-faced leafhopper (Graminella nigrifrons Forbes) transmits two viruses that use different strategies for transmission: Maize chlorotic dwarf virus (MCDV) which is semi-persistently transmitted and Maize fine streak virus (MFSV) which is persistently and propagatively transmitted. To date, little is known regarding the molecular and cellular mechanisms in insects that regulate the process and efficiency of transmission, or how these mechanisms differ based on virus transmission strategy. Results RNA-Seq was used to examine transcript changes in leafhoppers after feeding on MCDV-infected, MFSV-infected and healthy maize for 4 h and 7 d. After sequencing cDNA libraries constructed from whole individuals using Illumina next generation sequencing, the Rnnotator pipeline in Galaxy was used to reassemble the G. nigrifrons transcriptome. Using differential expression analyses, we identified significant changes in transcript abundance in G. nigrifrons. In particular, transcripts implicated in the innate immune response and energy production were more highly expressed in insects fed on virus-infected maize. Leafhoppers fed on MFSV-infected maize also showed an induction of transcripts involved in hemocoel and cell-membrane linked immune responses within four hours of feeding. Patterns of transcript expression were validated for a subset of transcripts by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction using RNA samples collected from insects fed on healthy or virus-infected maize for between a 4 h and seven week period. Conclusions We expected, and found, changes in transcript expression in G. nigrifrons feeding of maize infected with a virus (MFSV) that also infects the leafhopper, including induction of immune responses in the hemocoel and at the cell membrane. The significant induction of the innate immune system in G. nigrifrons fed on a foregut-borne virus (MCDV) that does not infect leafhoppers was less expected. The changes in transcript accumulation that occur independent of the mode of pathogen transmission could be key for identifying insect factors that disrupt vector-mediated plant virus transmission. PMID:24524215

  9. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Coinfection: Epidemiology, Natural History, Therapeutic Options and Clinical Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Verucchi; L. Calza; R. Manfredi; F. Chiodo

    2004-01-01

    Due to shared risk factors for transmission, coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a very common event. The prevalence of HCV infection among HIV-positive patients averages about 35% in the United States and Europe, but in clinical populations where there is a great prevalence of intravenous drug use as a risk factor for acquiring

  10. Comparative investigation of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies directed against strain-specific and common antigenic sites on influenza H1N1 virus hemagglutinin.

    PubMed

    Drescher, J; Verhagen, W; Flik, J; Stachan, R

    1987-01-01

    Antibodies directed against strain-specific and common antigenic sites of H1N1 influenza virus hemagglutinin were tested comparatively, using monoclonal antibodies raised against strain A/Brazil/11/78 and polyclonal antibodies directed against strains A/Brazil/11/78, A/USSR/97/77, A/PR/301/54, and A/FM/1/47. The patterns of competition between antibodies for adsorption onto homologous virus indicated that the monoclonals comprised antibodies directed to each of the two strain-specific (Sa and Sb) and common antigenic sites (Ca and Cb) of virus hemagglutinin. Polyclonal strain-specific antibodies (SSA) yielded the competition patterns of mixtures of anti-Sa and anti-Sb antibodies and polyclonal common antigen antibodies (CAA) yielded those of mixtures of antibodies directed against sites Ca and Cb, indicating that the polyclonal preparations comprised a similar repertoire of antibodies, as represented by the panel of monoclonals. This conclusion was confirmed by determining, by means of equilibrium filtration, the number of epitopes per homologous virion(s) recognized by antibody preparations and their mixtures. Polyclonal SSA and CAA gave s values not significantly different from those of mixtures of the corresponding monoclonal antibodies. The strains tested were found to possess equivalent numbers of strain-specific and common epitopes per virion. The competition between antibodies was further examined in terms of the additiveness of s values they recognize in simultaneous reactions. No competition was observed for the monoclonal antibody pairs anti-Sa/anti-Ca, anti-Sa/anti-Cb and anti-Sb/anti-Cb, indicating that these antibodies combined with nonoverlapping epitopes. Polyclonal SSA and CAA yielded partial competition. The equilibrium constants (K) of comparable SSA and CAA were within the same range, and SSA and CAA did not influence their binding avidity when allowed to react simultaneously with homologous virus. PMID:2447032

  11. Application of in silico bulked segregant analysis for rapid development of markers linked to Bean common mosaic virus resistance in common bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common bean was one of the first crops that benefited from the development and utilization of molecular markers in tagging major disease resistance genes for marker-assisted selection (MAS). Efficiency of MAS breeding in common bean is still hampered; however, due to the dominance, linkage phase, an...

  12. A Glimpse of the genomic diversity of haloarchaeal tailed viruses.

    PubMed

    Sen?ilo, Ana; Roine, Elina

    2014-01-01

    Tailed viruses are the most common isolates infecting prokaryotic hosts residing in hypersaline environments. Archaeal tailed viruses represent only a small portion of all characterized tailed viruses of prokaryotes. But even this small dataset revealed that archaeal tailed viruses have many similarities to their counterparts infecting bacteria, the bacteriophages. Shared functional homologs and similar genome organizations suggested that all microbial tailed viruses have common virion architectural and assembly principles. Recent structural studies have provided evidence justifying this thereby grouping archaeal and bacterial tailed viruses into a single lineage. Currently there are 17 haloarchaeal tailed viruses with entirely sequenced genomes. Nine viruses have at least one close relative among the 17 viruses and, according to the similarities, can be divided into three groups. Two other viruses share some homologs and therefore are distantly related, whereas the rest of the viruses are rather divergent (or singletons). Comparative genomics analysis of these viruses offers a glimpse into the genetic diversity and structure of haloarchaeal tailed virus communities. PMID:24659986

  13. Achieving visibility? Use of non-verbal communication in interactions between patients and pharmacists who do not share a common language.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Fiona

    2014-06-01

    Despite the seemingly insatiable interest in healthcare professional-patient communication, less attention has been paid to the use of non-verbal communication in medical consultations. This article considers pharmacists' and patients' use of non-verbal communication to interact directly in consultations in which they do not share a common language. In total, 12 video-recorded, interpreted pharmacy consultations concerned with a newly prescribed medication or a change in medication were analysed in detail. The analysis focused on instances of direct communication initiated by either the patient or the pharmacist, despite the presence of a multilingual pharmacy assistant acting as an interpreter. Direct communication was shown to occur through (i) the demonstration of a medical device, (ii) the indication of relevant body parts and (iii) the use of limited English. These connections worked to make patients and pharmacists visible to each other and thus to maintain a sense of mutual involvement in consultations within which patients and pharmacists could enact professionally and socially appropriate roles. In a multicultural society this work is important in understanding the dynamics involved in consultations in situations in which language is not shared and thus in considering the development of future research and policy. PMID:24641161

  14. The putative capsid protein of the newly identified avian hepatitis E virus shares antigenic epitopes with that of swine and human hepatitis E viruses and chicken big liver and spleen disease virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Haqshenas; F. F. Huang; M. Fenaux; D. K. Guenette; F. W. Pierson; C. T. Larsen; H. L. Shivaprasad; T. E. Toth; X. J. Meng

    We recently identified a novel virus, designated avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV), from chickens with hepatitis-splenomegaly (HS) syndrome in the USA. We showed that avian HEV is genetically related to swine and human HEVs. Here we report the antigenic cross-reactivity of the putative open reading frame 2 (ORF2) capsid protein of avian HEV with those of swine and human

  15. Sequences of the coat protein gene of five peanut stripe virus (PStV) strains from Thailand and their evolutionary relationship with other bean common mosaic virus sequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Higgins; B. G. Cassidy; P.-Y. Teycheney; S. Wongkaew; R. G. Dietzgen

    1998-01-01

    Summary.  ?The coat protein gene and part of the 3? non-coding region of five strains of peanut stripe virus (PStV) from Thailand have\\u000a been cloned and sequenced. Phylogenetic comparisons of these strains, known as T1, T3, T5, T6 and T7, and related sequences\\u000a showed that these strains are indeed strains of PStV. Further, PStV strains appear to be related to each

  16. Obesity Virus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Update (AAAS; )

    2007-06-12

    Obesity has many causes, but there is growing evidence that common viruses may contribute to the condition in some people. Recently, Nikhil Dhurandhar and his colleagues at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center infected human stem cells with Ad-36, a common virus known to be associated with obesity in humans. They found that the cells they exposed to the virus accumulated a much higher amount of fat than uninfected cells.

  17. The capsid protein p38 of turnip crinkle virus is associated with the suppression of cucumber mosaic virus in Arabidopsis thaliana co-infected with cucumber mosaic virus and turnip crinkle virus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Juan; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Jian; Deng, Xing-Guang; Zhang, Ping; Zhu, Tong; Chen, Li-Juan; Bao, Wei-Kai; Xi, De-Hui; Lin, Hong-Hui

    2014-08-01

    Infection of plants by multiple viruses is common in nature. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) belong to different families, but Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana are commonly shared hosts for both viruses. In this study, we found that TCV provides effective resistance to infection by CMV in Arabidopsis plants co-infected by both viruses, and this antagonistic effect is much weaker when the two viruses are inoculated into different leaves of the same plant. However, similar antagonism is not observed in N. benthamiana plants. We further demonstrate that disrupting the RNA silencing-mediated defense of the Arabidopsis host does not affect this antagonism, but capsid protein (CP or p38)-defective mutant TCV loses the ability to repress CMV, suggesting that TCV CP plays an important role in the antagonistic effect of TCV toward CMV in Arabidopsis plants co-infected with both viruses. PMID:25092463

  18. Subpopulation level variation of banana streak viruses in India and common evolution of banana and sugarcane badnaviruses.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Susheel Kumar; Vignesh Kumar, P; Geetanjali, A Swapna; Pun, Khem Bahadur; Baranwal, Virendra Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Genome sequences of three episomal Banana streak MY virus (BSMYV) isolates sampled from triploid banana hybrids (Chini Champa: AAB; Malbhog: AAB and Monthan: ABB), grown in North-East and South India are reported in this study by sequence-independent improved rolling circle amplification (RCA). RCA coupled with restriction fragment length polymorphism revealed diverse restriction profiles of five BSMYV isolates. Nucleotide substitution rates of BSMYV subpopulation and Banana streak OL virus subpopulation was 7.13 × 10(-3) to 1.59 × 10(-2) and 2.65 × 10(-3) to 5.49 × 10(-3), respectively, for the different coding regions. Analysis of the genetic diversity of banana and sugarcane badnaviruses revealed a total of 32 unique recombination events among banana and sugarcane badnaviruses (inter BSV-SCBV), in addition to the extensive recombination with in banana streak viruses and sugarcane bacilliform viruses (intra-BSV and intra-SCBV). Many unique fragments were shown to contain similar ruminant sequence fragments which indicated the possibility that the two groups of badnaviruses or their ancestors to colonise same host before making the host shift. The distribution of recombination events, hot-spots (intergenic region and C-terminal of ORF3) as well as cold-spots (distributed in ORF3) displayed the mirroring of recombination traces in both group of badnaviruses. These results support the hypothesis of relatedness of banana and sugarcane badnaviruses and the host and geographical shifts that followed the fixation of the species complex appear to be a recent event. PMID:25672291

  19. Recent advances in molecular biology of parasitic viruses.

    PubMed

    Banik, Gouri Rani; Stark, Damien; Rashid, Harunor; Ellis, John T

    2015-01-01

    The numerous protozoa that can inhabit the human gastro-intestinal tract are known, yet little is understood of the viruses which infect these protozoa. The discovery, morphologic details, purification methods of virus-like particles, genome and proteome of the parasitic viruses, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Trichomonas vaginalis, and the Eimeria sp. are described in this review. The protozoan viruses share many common features: most of them are RNA or double-stranded RNA viruses, ranging between 5 and 8 kilobases, and are spherical or icosahedral in shape with an average diameter of 30-40 nm. These viruses may influence the function and pathogenicity of the protozoa which they infect, and may be important to investigate from a clinical perspective. The viruses may be used as specific genetic transfection vectors for the parasites and may represent a research tool. This review provides an overview on recent advances in the field of protozoan viruses. PMID:25019235

  20. West Nile Virus T-Cell Ligand Sequences Shared with Other Flaviviruses: a Multitude of Variant Sequences as Potential Altered Peptide Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Keun-Ok; Khan, Asif M.; Tan, Benjamin Yong Liang; Hu, Yongli; Simon, Gregory G.; Nascimento, Eduardo J. M.; Lemonnier, Francois; Brusic, Vladimir; Miotto, Olivo; Tan, Tin Wee; Marques, Ernesto T. A.; Dhalia, Rafael; Salmon, Jerome

    2012-01-01

    Phylogenetic relatedness and cocirculation of several major human pathogen flaviviruses are recognized as a possible cause of deleterious immune responses to mixed infection or immunization and call for a greater understanding of the inter-Flavivirus protein homologies. This study focused on the identification of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-restricted West Nile virus (WNV) T-cell ligands and characterization of their distribution in reported sequence data of WNV and other flaviviruses. H-2-deficient mice transgenic for either A2, A24, B7, DR2, DR3, or DR4 HLA alleles were immunized with overlapping peptides of the WNV proteome, and peptide-specific T-cell activation was measured by gamma interferon (IFN-?) enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot) assays. Approximately 30% (137) of the WNV proteome peptides were identified as HLA-restricted T-cell ligands. The majority of these ligands were conserved in ??88% of analyzed WNV sequences. Notably, only 51 were WNV specific, and the remaining 86, chiefly of E, NS3, and NS5, shared an identity of nine or more consecutive amino acids with sequences of 64 other flaviviruses, including several major human pathogens. Many of the shared ligands had an incidence of >50% in the analyzed sequences of one or more of six major flaviviruses. The multitude of WNV sequences shared with other flaviviruses as interspecies variants highlights the possible hazard of defective T-cell activation by altered peptide ligands in the event of dual exposure to WNV and other flaviviruses, by either infection or immunization. The data suggest the possible preferred use of sequences that are pathogen specific with minimum interspecies sequence homology for the design of Flavivirus vaccines. PMID:22573867

  1. Different functions of the common P/V/W and V-specific domains of rinderpest virus V protein in blocking IFN signalling

    PubMed Central

    Chinnakannan, Senthil K.; Holzer, Barbara; Bernardo, Beatriz Sanz; Nanda, Sambit K.

    2014-01-01

    The V proteins of paramyxoviruses are composed of two evolutionarily distinct domains, the N-terminal 75?% being common to the viral P, V and W proteins, and not highly conserved between viruses, whilst the remaining 25?% consists of a cysteine-rich V-specific domain, which is conserved across almost all paramyxoviruses. There is evidence supporting a number of different functions of the V proteins of morbilliviruses in blocking the signalling pathways of type I and II IFNs, but it is not clear which domains of V are responsible for which activities and whether all these activities are required for effective blockade of IFN signalling. We have shown here that the two domains of rinderpest virus V protein have distinct functions: the N-terminal domain acted to bind STAT1, whilst the C-terminal V-specific domain interacted with the IFN receptor-associated kinases Jak1 and Tyk2. Effective blockade of IFN signalling required the intact V protein. PMID:24158397

  2. An evaluation of ultraviolet light (UV254) as a means to inactivate porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on common farm surfaces and materials.

    PubMed

    Dee, Scott; Otake, Satoshi; Deen, John

    2011-05-12

    A study was conducted to assess the effect of UV(254) on the concentration and viability of PRRSV on surfaces and materials commonly encountered on swine farms. A standard quantity (5 × 10(6)TCID(50), total dose) of a PRRSV modified live vaccine virus was inoculated onto 2 matched sets of surfaces/materials including wood, plastic, latex, rubber, styrofoam, metal, leather, cloth, concrete, cardboard, glass and paper. One set was exposed to UV(254) radiation (treatments) and the other to incandescent light (controls) for a 24h period. During this time, treatments and controls were swabbed at 10 min intervals from 0 to 60 min post-inoculation (PI) and again at 24h PI. The quantity of PRRSV RNA on each item at each sampling time was calculated by RT-PCR and the presence of viable PRRSV in each sample was determined by swine bioassay. A significant reduction (p<0.0001) in the quantity of PRRSV RNA was demonstrated at 24h PI independent of treatment. In addition, a significant reduction (p=0.012) in the number of UV(254)-treated surfaces which harbored viable virus was observed at 60 min (0/12 positive) when compared to control surfaces (5/12 positive). In addition, all UV(254) treated samples collected between 10 and 50 min PI were bioassay negative. These results suggest that UV(254) is an effective means to inactivate PRRSV on commonly encountered farm surfaces and materials and inactivation can be accomplished following 10 min of exposure. PMID:21330067

  3. Common host-derived chemicals increase catches of disease-transmitting mosquitoes and can improve early warning systems for Rift Valley fever virus.

    PubMed

    Tchouassi, David P; Sang, Rosemary; Sole, Catherine L; Bastos, Armanda D S; Teal, Peter E A; Borgemeister, Christian; Torto, Baldwyn

    2013-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF), a mosquito-borne zoonosis, is a major public health and veterinary problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Surveillance to monitor mosquito populations during the inter-epidemic period (IEP) and viral activity in these vectors is critical to informing public health decisions for early warning and control of the disease. Using a combination of field bioassays, electrophysiological and chemical analyses we demonstrated that skin-derived aldehydes (heptanal, octanal, nonanal, decanal) common to RVF virus (RVFV) hosts including sheep, cow, donkey, goat and human serve as potent attractants for RVFV mosquito vectors. Furthermore, a blend formulated from the four aldehydes and combined with CO(2)-baited CDC trap without a light bulb doubled to tripled trap captures compared to control traps baited with CO(2) alone. Our results reveal that (a) because of the commonality of the host chemical signature required for attraction, the host-vector interaction appears to favor the mosquito vector allowing it to find and opportunistically feed on a wide range of mammalian hosts of the disease, and (b) the sensitivity, specificity and superiority of this trapping system offers the potential for its wider use in surveillance programs for RVFV mosquito vectors especially during the IEP. PMID:23326620

  4. Common Host-Derived Chemicals Increase Catches of Disease-Transmitting Mosquitoes and Can Improve Early Warning Systems for Rift Valley Fever Virus

    PubMed Central

    Tchouassi, David P.; Sang, Rosemary; Sole, Catherine L.; Bastos, Armanda D. S.; Teal, Peter E. A.; Borgemeister, Christian; Torto, Baldwyn

    2013-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF), a mosquito-borne zoonosis, is a major public health and veterinary problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Surveillance to monitor mosquito populations during the inter-epidemic period (IEP) and viral activity in these vectors is critical to informing public health decisions for early warning and control of the disease. Using a combination of field bioassays, electrophysiological and chemical analyses we demonstrated that skin-derived aldehydes (heptanal, octanal, nonanal, decanal) common to RVF virus (RVFV) hosts including sheep, cow, donkey, goat and human serve as potent attractants for RVFV mosquito vectors. Furthermore, a blend formulated from the four aldehydes and combined with CO2-baited CDC trap without a light bulb doubled to tripled trap captures compared to control traps baited with CO2 alone. Our results reveal that (a) because of the commonality of the host chemical signature required for attraction, the host-vector interaction appears to favor the mosquito vector allowing it to find and opportunistically feed on a wide range of mammalian hosts of the disease, and (b) the sensitivity, specificity and superiority of this trapping system offers the potential for its wider use in surveillance programs for RVFV mosquito vectors especially during the IEP. PMID:23326620

  5. The perception of faces and of nonface objects share common early visual processing stages. Some argue, however, that the brain eventually processes faces separately from other objects,

    E-print Network

    Curran, Tim

    with sim- during a two-back task with alternating images of face and car ilar timing, yet proceed. If the expert processing of faces and cars depend on common mechanisms related to holistic perception (obligatory processing of all parts), then for human subjects who are presumed to be face experts, car

  6. Remotely Operated Aircraft (ROA) Impact on the National Airspace System (NAS) Work Package: Data Modeling and Sharing Perspective for Development of a Common Operating Picture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This report documents analyses that were performed in support of Task #3 of Work Package #3 (WP3), ROA Impact on the NAS. The purpose of the overall work package was to determine if there are any serious issues that would prevent or prohibit ROA's flying in the NAS on a routine basis, and if so, what actions should be taken to address them. The purpose of Task #3 was to look at this problem from the perspective of data modeling and sharing.

  7. Mauritian Cynomolgus Macaques Share Two Exceptionally Common Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Alleles That Restrict Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin J. Burwitz; Chad J. Pendley; Justin M. Greene; Ann M. Detmer; Jennifer J. Lhost; Julie A. Karl; Shari M. Piaskowski; Richard A. Rudersdorf; Lyle T. Wallace; Benjamin N. Bimber; John T. Loffredo; Daryl G. Cox; Wilfried Bardet; William Hildebrand; Roger W. Wiseman; Shelby L. O'Connor; David H. O'Connor

    2009-01-01

    Vaccines that elicit CD8 T-cell responses are routinely tested for immunogenicity in nonhuman primates before advancement to clinical trials. Unfortunately, the magnitude and specificity of vaccine-elicited T-cell responses are variable in currently utilized nonhuman primate populations, owing to heterogeneity in major histocompatibility (MHC) class I genetics. We recently showed that Mauritian cynomolgus macaques (MCM) have unusually simple MHC genetics, with

  8. Pseudorabies Virus Tegument Protein Us2 Recruits the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Extracellular-Regulated Kinase (ERK) to Membranes through Interaction with the ERK Common Docking Domain? †

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ming-Hsi; Banfield, Bruce W.

    2010-01-01

    The pseudorabies virus (PRV) Us2 protein binds to the extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) and inhibits the activation of ERK nuclear targets by sequestering cytoplasmic ERK on cellular membranes. Utilizing a series of Us2 truncations, we determined that the minimal portion of Us2 required for interaction with ERK is contained within its amino-terminal 214 amino acids. The loss of the ability of Us2 to bind to ERK in coimmunoprecipitation experiments was accompanied by a failure of Us2 to form oligomers, raising the possibility that higher-order Us2 structures are required for ERK interaction. To map the Us2 interaction site on ERK, we introduced mutations into the region of ERK that interacts with the ERK kinase, MEK, or into the common docking (CD) domain that mediates interactions with many ERK substrates. ERK carrying mutations within the MEK binding region maintained the ability to bind Us2, whereas ERK carrying mutations within the CD domain did not. Furthermore, the ERK CD domain was required for the Us2-mediated recruitment of ERK to membranes. Taken together, these findings suggest that Us2 regulates ERK activity by spatially restricting ERK localization and also by interfering with select ERK-substrate interactions. PMID:20554783

  9. Identification of a common antigenic site in the nucleocapsid protein of European and North American isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Casal, J I; Rodriguez, M J; Sarraseca, J; Garcia, J; Plana-Duran, J; Sanz, A

    1998-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) nucleocapsid (N) protein has been identified as the most immunodominant viral protein. The N protein genes from two PRRSV isolates Olot/91 (European) and Quebec 807/94 (North American) were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli using the pET3x system. The antigenic structure of the PRRSV N protein was dissected using seven monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and overlapping fragments of the protein expressed in E.coli. Three antigenic sites were found. Four MAbs recognized two discontinuous epitopes that were present in the partially folded protein or at least a large fragment comprising the first 78 residues, respectively. The other three MAbs revealed the presence of a common antigenic site localized in the central region of the protein (amino acids 50 to 66). This hydrophillic region is well conserved among different isolates of European and North American origin. However, since this epitope is not recognized by many pig sera, it is not adequate for diagnostic purposes. Moreover, none of the N protein fragments were able to mimic the antigenicity of the entire N protein. PMID:9782317

  10. Identification of a Common Epitope between Enterovirus 71 and Human MED25 Proteins Which May Explain Virus-Associated Neurological Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Peihu; Li, Xiaojun; Sun, Shiyang; Su, Weiheng; An, Dong; Gao, Feng; Kong, Wei; Jiang, Chunlai

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative pathogen of hand, foot and mouth disease with especially severe neurologic complications, which mainly account for fatalities from this disease. To date, the pathogenesis of EV71 in the central neurons system has remained unclear. Cytokine-mediated immunopathogenesis and nervous tissue damage by virus proliferation are two widely speculated causes of the neurological disease. To further study the pathogenesis, we identified a common epitope (co-epitope) between EV71 VP1 and human mediator complex subunit 25 (MED25) highly expressed in brain stem. A monoclonal antibody (2H2) against the co-epitope was prepared, and its interaction with MED25 was examined by ELISA, immunofluorescence assay and Western blot in vitro and by live small animal imaging in vivo. Additionally, 2H2 could bind to both VP1 and MED25 with the affinity constant (Kd) of 10?7 M as determined by the ForteBio Octet System. Intravenously injected 2H2 was distributed in brain stem of mice after seven days of EV71 infection. Interestingly, 2H2-like antibodies were detected in the serum of EV71-infected patients. These findings suggest that EV71 infection induces the production of antibodies that can bind to autoantigens expressed in nervous tissue and maybe further trigger autoimmune reactions resulting in neurological disease. PMID:25826188

  11. Identification of a common epitope between enterovirus 71 and human MED25 proteins which may explain virus-associated neurological disease.

    PubMed

    Fan, Peihu; Li, Xiaojun; Sun, Shiyang; Su, Weiheng; An, Dong; Gao, Feng; Kong, Wei; Jiang, Chunlai

    2015-04-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative pathogen of hand, foot and mouth disease with especially severe neurologic complications, which mainly account for fatalities from this disease. To date, the pathogenesis of EV71 in the central neurons system has remained unclear. Cytokine-mediated immunopathogenesis and nervous tissue damage by virus proliferation are two widely speculated causes of the neurological disease. To further study the pathogenesis, we identified a common epitope (co-epitope) between EV71 VP1 and human mediator complex subunit 25 (MED25) highly expressed in brain stem. A monoclonal antibody (2H2) against the co-epitope was prepared, and its interaction with MED25 was examined by ELISA, immunofluorescence assay and Western blot in vitro and by live small animal imaging in vivo. Additionally, 2H2 could bind to both VP1 and MED25 with the affinity constant (Kd) of 10-7 M as determined by the ForteBio Octet System. Intravenously injected 2H2 was distributed in brain stem of mice after seven days of EV71 infection. Interestingly, 2H2-like antibodies were detected in the serum of EV71-infected patients. These findings suggest that EV71 infection induces the production of antibodies that can bind to autoantigens expressed in nervous tissue and maybe further trigger autoimmune reactions resulting in neurological disease. PMID:25826188

  12. Common Cold

    MedlinePLUS

    ... en español] National Library of Medicine, Medline Plus ? Common Cold Skip Content Marketing Share this: JavaScript is disabled in your browser. To view this content, please enable JavaScript and refresh the page. Click here for instructions on how to enable JavaScript in your browser. ...

  13. Pasteurella multocida Heddleston Serovar 3 and 4 Strains Share a Common Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis Locus but Display both Inter- and Intrastrain Lipopolysaccharide Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Marina; St. Michael, Frank; John, Marietta; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Steen, Jennifer A.; van Dorsten, Lieke; Steen, Jason A.; Turni, Conny; Blackall, Patrick J.; Adler, Ben; Cox, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a Gram-negative multispecies pathogen and the causative agent of fowl cholera, a serious disease of poultry which can present in both acute and chronic forms. The major outer membrane component lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is both an important virulence factor and a major immunogen. Our previous studies determined the LPS structures expressed by different P. multocida strains and revealed that a number of strains belonging to different serovars contain the same LPS biosynthesis locus but express different LPS structures due to mutations within glycosyltransferase genes. In this study, we report the full LPS structure of the serovar 4 type strain, P1662, and reveal that it shares the same LPS outer core biosynthesis locus, L3, with the serovar 3 strains P1059 and Pm70. Using directed mutagenesis, the role of each glycosyltransferase gene in LPS outer core assembly was determined. LPS structural analysis of 23 Australian field isolates that contain the L3 locus revealed that at least six different LPS outer core structures can be produced as a result of mutations within the LPS glycosyltransferase genes. Moreover, some field isolates produce multiple but related LPS glycoforms simultaneously, and three LPS outer core structures are remarkably similar to the globo series of vertebrate glycosphingolipids. Our in-depth analysis showing the genetics and full range of P. multocida lipopolysaccharide structures will facilitate the improvement of typing systems and the prediction of the protective efficacy of vaccines. PMID:23974032

  14. Structural Analysis of DFG-in and DFG-out Dual Src-Abl Inhibitors Sharing a Common Vinyl Purine Template

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Tianjun; Commodore, Lois; Huang, Wei-Sheng; Wang, Yihan; Sawyer, Tomi K.; Shakespeare, William C.; Clackson, Tim; Zhu, Xiaotian; Dalgarno, David C. (ARIAD)

    2010-09-30

    Bcr-Abl is the oncogenic protein tyrosine kinase responsible for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Treatment of the disease with imatinib (Gleevec) often results in drug resistance via kinase mutations at the advanced phases of the disease, which has necessitated the development of new mutation-resistant inhibitors, notably against the T315I gatekeeper mutation. As part of our efforts to discover such mutation resistant Abl inhibitors, we have focused on optimizing purine template kinase inhibitors, leading to the discovery of potent DFG-in and DFG-out series of Abl inhibitors that are also potent Src inhibitors. Here we present crystal structures of Abl bound by two such inhibitors, based on a common N9-arenyl purine, and that represent both DFG-in and -out binding modes. In each structure the purine template is bound deeply in the adenine pocket and the novel vinyl linker forms a non-classical hydrogen bond to the gatekeeper residue, Thr315. Specific template substitutions promote either a DFG-in or -out binding mode, with the kinase binding site adjusting to optimize molecular recognition. Bcr-Abl T315I mutant kinase is resistant to all currently marketed Abl inhibitors, and is the focus of intense drug discovery efforts. Notably, our DFG-out inhibitor, AP24163, exhibits modest activity against this mutant, illustrating that this kinase mutant can be inhibited by DFG-out class inhibitors. Furthermore our DFG-out inhibitor exhibits dual Src-Abl activity, absent from the prototypical DFG-out inhibitor, imatinib as well as its analog, nilotinib. The data presented here provides structural guidance for the further design of novel potent DFG-out class inhibitors against Src, Abl and Abl T315I mutant kinases.

  15. Relative Dominance of Epitope-Specific Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Responses in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1Infected Persons with Shared HLA Alleles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHERYL L. DAY; AMY K. SHEA; MARCUS A. ALTFELD; DOUGLAS P. OLSON; SUSAN P. BUCHBINDER; FREDERICK M. HECHT; ERIC S. ROSENBERG; BRUCE D. WALKER; SPYROS A. KALAMS

    2001-01-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) target multiple epitopes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons, and are thought to influence the viral set point. The extent to which HLA class I allele expression predicts the epitopes targeted has not been determined, nor have the relative contributions of responses restricted by different class I alleles within a given individual. In this study, we

  16. Transmission of Avian Influenza A Viruses among Species in an Artificial Barnyard

    PubMed Central

    Achenbach, Jenna E.; Bowen, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Waterfowl and shorebirds harbor and shed all hemagglutinin and neuraminidase subtypes of influenza A viruses and interact in nature with a broad range of other avian and mammalian species to which they might transmit such viruses. Estimating the efficiency and importance of such cross-species transmission using epidemiological approaches is difficult. We therefore addressed this question by studying transmission of low pathogenic H5 and H7 viruses from infected ducks to other common animals in a quasi-natural laboratory environment designed to mimic a common barnyard. Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) recently infected with H5N2 or H7N3 viruses were introduced into a room housing other mallards plus chickens, blackbirds, rats and pigeons, and transmission was assessed by monitoring virus shedding (ducks) or seroconversion (other species) over the following 4 weeks. Additional animals of each species were directly inoculated with virus to characterize the effect of a known exposure. In both barnyard experiments, virus accumulated to high titers in the shared water pool. The H5N2 virus was transmitted from infected ducks to other ducks and chickens in the room either directly or through environmental contamination, but not to rats or blackbirds. Ducks infected with the H7N2 virus transmitted directly or indirectly to all other species present. Chickens and blackbirds directly inoculated with these viruses shed significant amounts of virus and seroconverted; rats and pigeons developed antiviral antibodies, but, except for one pigeon, failed to shed virus. PMID:21483843

  17. Sharing a Common Future. Report from Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaguchi, Makoto

    This document contains seven previously published papers examining trends in adult education in Japan. "Deepening Democracy" (1992) examines democracy and adult education for special needs groups (women, dropouts, disabled persons, ethnic minorities, and refugees). "Literacy Movement" (1990) traces literacy education in Japan from its beginnings…

  18. Factors of skin ageing share common mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo U. Giacomoni; Glen Rein

    2001-01-01

    Ageing has been defined as the accumulation of molecular modificationswhich manifest as macroscopic clinical changes. Human skin, unique amongmammalians insofar as it is deprived of fur, is particularly sensitiveto environmental stress. Major environmental factors have beenrecognized to induce modifications of the morphological and biophysicalproperties of the skin. Metabolites from ingested or inhaled substancesdo affect skin, which is also sensitive to

  19. The MYC, TERT, and ZIC1 Genes Are Common Targets of Viral Integration and Transcriptional Deregulation in Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup J-Induced Myeloid Leukosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuhao; Liu, Xuemei; Yang, Zhen; Xu, Chenggang; Liu, Di; Qin, Jianru; Dai, Manman; Hao, Jianyong; Feng, Min; Huang, Xiaorong; Tan, Liqiang

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The integration of retroviruses into the host genome following nonrandom genome-wide patterns may lead to the deregulation of gene expression and oncogene activation near the integration sites. Slow-transforming retroviruses have been widely used to perform genetic screens for the identification of genes involved in cancer. To investigate the involvement of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) integration in myeloid leukosis (ML) in chickens, we utilized an ALV-J insertional identification platform based on hybrid capture target enrichment and next-generation sequencing (NGS). Using high-definition mapping of the viral integration sites in the chicken genome, 241 unique insertion sites were obtained from six different ALV-J-induced ML samples. On the basis of previous statistical definitions, MYC, TERT, and ZIC1 genes were identified as common insertion sites (CIS) of provirus integration in tumor cells; these three genes have previously been shown to be involved in the malignant transformation of different human cell types. Compared to control samples, the expression levels of all three CIS genes were significantly upregulated in chicken ML samples. Furthermore, they were frequently, but not in all field ML cases, deregulated at the mRNA level as a result of ALV-J infection. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the relationship between multipathotypes associated with ALV-J infection and the molecular background of tumorigenesis. IMPORTANCE ALV-Js have been successfully eradicated from chicken breeding flocks in the poultry industries of developed countries, and the control and eradication of ALV-J in China are now progressing steadily. To further study the pathogenesis of ALV-J infections, it will be necessary to elucidate the in vivo viral integration and tumorigenesis mechanism. In this study, 241 unique insertion sites were obtained from six different ALV-J-induced ML samples. In addition, MYC, TERT, and ZIC1 genes were identified as the CIS of ALV-J in tumor cells, which might be a putative “driver” for the activation of the oncogene. In addition, the CIS genes showed deregulated expression compared to nontumor samples. These results have potentially important implications for the mechanism of viral carcinogenesis. PMID:24371071

  20. Genomic losses at 5q13.2 and 8p23.1 in dysplastic hepatocytes are common events in hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, ZHANG; CHEN, GUANG-YONG; LONG, JIANG; LI, HAI; HUANG, JIAN

    2015-01-01

    Chromosomal loci with genomic imbalances are frequently identified in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Greater than two-thirds of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related HCCs originate from liver cirrhosis following a duration of up to two decades. However, it is unclear whether these genomic imbalances occur and accumulate in dysplastic hepatocytes of the cirrhotic liver during the progression from regenerated nodules to preneoplastic lesions, including dysplastic nodules (DN). In the present study, high-grade DNs (HGDNs) of HBV-related liver cirrhosis were screened to identify loci with genomic imbalances, and the frequency of the identified loci in a group of HCCs was analyzed in order to determine whether there may be a genetic link between liver cirrhosis and HCC. Genomic DNA was extracted from six HGDNs of two cases of HBV-related liver cirrhosis and subjected to array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis with a NimbleGen 720K microarray. Loci with the most frequently observed genomic imbalances in DNs were further analyzed in 83 cases of HCC by differential polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative PCR. The array CGH analysis revealed that the majority of genomic imbalances in the HGDNs were genomic losses of small segments, with loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at 5q13.2 and 8p23.1 identified most frequently. Of the 83 HCC cases, 30 (36.1%) cases were identified with LOH at 5q13.2, where known tumor-associated genes are located, including general transcription factor IIH subunit 2 (GTF2H2), baculoviral IAP repeat-containing protein 1 (BIRC1) and occludin (OCLN). LOH frequency at 8p23.1 in HCC was 61.29% (D8S1130) and 68.4% (D8S503) respectively, similar to the results obtained in previous studies. In conclusion, the results of the present study provided evidence that genomic losses at 5q13.2 and 8p23.1 identified in dysplastic hepatocytes of the cirrhotic liver are common events in HCC. HCC-associated chromosomal abnormalities may occur and accumulate in preneoplastic lesions of liver cirrhosis. PMID:26137157

  1. Citrus Virus Symptoms in Sardinia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bruno

    1964-01-01

    SARDINIA was believed to be a virus-free citrus region until Boselli1 first noted a disorder showing symptoms commonly referred to as the psorosis virus complex. Following this, the main citrus areas of the Island have been surveyed with the view of recognizing and recording virus or virus-like manifestations.

  2. Virus Movement Maintains Local Virus Population Diversity

    SciTech Connect

    J. Snyder; B. Wiedenheft; M. Lavin; F. Roberto; J. Spuhler; A. Ortmann; T. Douglas; M. Young

    2007-11-01

    Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material.

  3. Common childhood viral infections.

    PubMed

    Alter, Sherman J; Bennett, Jeffrey S; Koranyi, Katylin; Kreppel, Andrew; Simon, Ryan

    2015-02-01

    Infections caused by viruses are universal during childhood and adolescence. Clinicians will regularly care for children and adolescents who present with infections caused by a wide number of viral pathogens. These infections have varied presentations. Many infections may have clinical presentations that are specific to the infecting virus but present differently, based on the age and immunocompetence of the patient. Some children are directly impacted early in their lives when maternal disease results in an in utero infection (cytomegalovirus, rubella virus, or parvovirus B19). Other viruses may infect children in a predictable pattern as they grow older (rhinovirus or influenza virus). Fortunately, many viral infections frequently encountered in the past are no longer extant due to widespread immunization efforts. Recognition of these vaccine-preventable infections is important because outbreaks of some of these diseases (mumps or measles) continue to occur in the United States. Vigilance in vaccine programs against these viral agents can prevent their re-emergence. In addition, an increasing number of viral infections (herpes simplex virus, influenza virus, varicella zoster virus, or cytomegalovirus) can now be successfully treated with antiviral medications. Most viral infections in children result in self-limited illness and are treated symptomatically and infected children experience full recovery. This review will address the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of viral infections commonly encountered by the clinician. PMID:25703483

  4. Molecular Epidemiology of Vesicular Stomatitis New Jersey Virus from the 2004-2005 United States Outbreak Indicates a Common Origin with Mexico Strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Outbreaks of vesicular stomatitis occur at 8-10 year intervals in the southwestern United States (US) with the most recent outbreak starting in 2004 and continuing in 2005. Phylogenetic relationships among 116 vesicular stomatitis-New Jersey virus (VSNJV) isolates obtained from this outbreak and end...

  5. Common promoter deletion is associated with 3.9-fold differential transcription of ovine CCR5 and reduced proviral level of ovine progressive pneumonia virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CCR5 is a chemokine receptor that regulates immune cell recruitment in inflammation and serves as a coreceptor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A human CCR5 coding deletion (termed delta-32) results in strong resistance to HIV infection, and polymorphisms in CCR5 regulatory regions have been ...

  6. Haggling over viruses: the downside risks of securitizing infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Elbe, Stefan

    2010-11-01

    This article analyses how the 'securitization' of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) contributed to the rise of a protracted international virus-sharing dispute between developing and developed countries. As fear about the threat of a possible human H5N1 pandemic spread across the world, many governments scrambled to stockpile anti-viral medications and vaccines, albeit in a context where there was insufficient global supply to meet such a rapid surge in demand. Realizing that they were the likely 'losers' in this international race, some developing countries began to openly question the benefits of maintaining existing forms of international health cooperation, especially the common practice of sharing national virus samples with the rest of the international community. Given that such virus samples were also crucial to the high-level pandemic preparedness efforts of the West, the Indonesian government in particular felt emboldened to use international access to its H5N1 virus samples as a diplomatic 'bargaining chip' for negotiating better access to vaccines and other benefits for developing countries. The securitized global response to H5N1 thus ended up unexpectedly entangling the long-standing international virus-sharing mechanism within a wider set of political disputes, as well as prompting governments to subject existing virus-sharing arrangements to much narrower calculations of national interest. In the years ahead, those risks to international health cooperation must be balanced with the policy attractions of the global health security agenda. PMID:20961948

  7. About sharing

    E-print Network

    Gra?anin Yuksek, Martina

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is about multidominance or sharing in syntax. The term sharing is used in a technical sense, to refer to a situation where a syntactic node has more than one mother. I assume that multidominance is allowed by ...

  8. Do Share

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rehan, Tzafrir

    2012-08-31

    Google+ users will find Do Share to be a most welcome addition to their palette of tools. Visitors can use Do Share to write and schedule their Google+ posts or share links with others. The site includes a tutorial, along with suggestions for how to most effectively use this application. This version is compatible with all operating systems.

  9. Expression of H5 hemagglutinin vaccine antigen in common duckweed (Lemna minor) protects against H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus challenge in immunized chickens.

    PubMed

    Bertran, Kateri; Thomas, Colleen; Guo, Xuan; Bublot, Michel; Pritchard, Nikki; Regan, Jeffrey T; Cox, Kevin M; Gasdaska, John R; Dickey, Lynn F; Kapczynski, Darrell R; Swayne, David E

    2015-07-01

    A synthetic hemagglutinin (HA) gene from the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus A/chicken/Indonesia/7/2003 (H5N1) (Indo/03) was expressed in aquatic plant Lemna minor (rLemna-HA). In Experiment 1, efficacy of rLemna-HA was tested on birds immunized with 0.2?g or 2.3?g HA and challenged with 10(6) mean chicken embryo infectious doses (EID50) of homologous virus strain. Both dosages of rLemna-HA conferred clinical protection and dramatically reduced viral shedding. Almost all the birds immunized with either dosage of rLemna-HA elicited HA antibody titers against Indo/03 antigen, suggesting an association between levels of anti-Indo/03 antibodies and protection. In Experiment 2, efficacy of rLemna-HA was tested on birds immunized with 0.9?g or 2.2?g HA and challenged with 10(6) EID50 of heterologous H5N1 virus strains A/chicken/Vietnam/NCVD-421/2010 (VN/10) or A/chicken/West Java/PWT-WIJ/2006 (PWT/06). Birds challenged with VN/10 exhibited 100% survival regardless of immunization dosage, while birds challenged with PWT/06 had 50% and 30% mortality at 0.9?g HA and 2.2?g HA, respectively. For each challenge virus, viral shedding titers from 2.2?g HA vaccinated birds were significantly lower than those from 0.9?g HA vaccinated birds, and titers from both immunized groups were in turn significantly lower than those from sham vaccinated birds. Even if immunized birds elicited HA titers against the vaccine antigen Indo/03, only the groups challenged with VN/10 developed humoral immunity against the challenge antigen. None (rLemna-HA 0.9?g HA) and 40% (rLemna-HA 2.2?g HA) of the immunized birds challenged with PWT/06 elicited pre-challenge antibody titers, respectively. In conclusion, Lemna-expressed HA demonstrated complete protective immunity against homologous challenge and suboptimal protection against heterologous challenge, the latter being similar to results from inactivated whole virus vaccines. Transgenic duckweed-derived HA could be a good alternative for producing high quality antigen for an injectable vaccine against H5N1 HPAI viruses. PMID:26067184

  10. Complete sequence of the RNA genome of human rhinovirus 16, a clinically useful common cold virus belonging to the ICAM-1 receptor group

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wai-Ming Lee; Wensheng Wang; Roland R. Rueckert

    1995-01-01

    We report here the complete nucleotide sequence and predicted polyprotein sequence of HeLa cell-adapted human rhinovirus 16 (HRV16). This virus is more suitable than human rhinovirus 14 (HRV14) for clinical studies, and its growth and physical properties are favorable for biochemical and crystallographic analysis. The complete message-sense RNA genome of HRV16 is composed of 7124 bases, not including the poly(A)

  11. Development of Monoclonal Antibodies that Recognize a Type2 Specific and a Common Epitope on the Nucleoprotein of Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra S. Ristow; Jeanene M. Arnzen

    1989-01-01

    Two monoclonal antibodies were produced against the nucleoproteins of two strains of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). One antibody, 1NDW14D, obtained by immunizing BALB\\/c mice with the nucleoprotein from Dworshak IHNV strain DW2, universally recognized IHNV in tests of direct and indirect fluorescence. The second antibody, 2NH105B, obtained by immunization with the nucleoprotein from an IHNV strain isolated from rainbow

  12. COMMON CABBAGE VARIETAL TRIAL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NGUYEN VAN EM

    Seven common cabbage varieties from 6 different seed companies were evaluated for their yield and other agronomic characters in order to select the good cabbage varieties that have high and stable yield, early and uniform maturity and resistant to soft rot, black rot and mosaic virus diseases. The experiment was conducted from November 23, 1989 to February 12, 1990 in

  13. Comparative trends of seroprevalence and seroincidence rates of human T cell lymphotropic virus type I and human immunodeficiency virus 1 in pregnant women of various ethnic groups sharing the same environment in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Tortevoye, Patricia; Tuppin, Philippe; Carles, Gabriel; Peneau, Christian; Gessain, Antoine

    2005-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the seroprevalence and seroincidence rates of human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) and human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) in pregnant women in several ethnic groups in French Guiana between July 1, 1991 and June 30, 2001. This study was conducted in the obstetrics unit of the hospital in Saint Laurent du Maroni in a dynamic cohort of 6,921 pregnant women with 11,679 deliveries, with new entrants each year. The overall seroprevalence of HTLV for all women differed between ethnic groups and was restricted mainly to the descendents of fugitive slaves of African origin known as Noir-Marron (181 of 4,266, 4.24%) and to Haitian women (12 of 287, 4.18%). A decrease in the biennial seroprevalence of HTLV-I was observed over time among deliveries of the Haitian women (P = 0.037), but it remained stable among Noir-Marron (P = 0.22). Fifteen of the 17 HTLV-I seroconversions occurred in the Noir-Marron, giving an incidence of 0.18 per 100 person-years. The overall seroprevalence of HIV-1 was higher in the Haitian women (10 of 293, 3.41%) than in the Noir-Marron (34 of 4,310, 0.79%) and Amerindians (4 of 552, 0.72%). A highly significant increase in the biennial seroprevalence of HIV-1 was observed among the deliveries of the Noir-Marron (P = 0.0003), but it remained stable among Haitian women (P = 0.44). Ten of the 13 HIV-1 seroconversions were observed in Noir-Marron, giving an incidence rate of 0.12 per 100 person-years. These data demonstrate the differential spreading of these two human retroviruses among pregnant women in different ethnic groups living in the same environment. While HTLV-I, which is highly endemic in groups of African origin, showed a slight decrease over time in a suspected cohort effect, HIV-1 spread rapidly in an epidemic mode, especially in the groups of the lowest socioeconomic levels. PMID:16172481

  14. Shared Destinies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bynum, Marvin

    2003-01-01

    Describes examples of high schools sharing their physical fitness and recreation facilities with other community groups, discussing the benefits and inevitable scheduling and programming challenges. (EV)

  15. Pathogenesis of a Texas feline immunodeficiency virus isolate: An emerging subtype of clade B

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anagha P. Phadke; Andres de la Concha-Bermejillo; Alice M. Wolf; Philip R. Andersen; Veerabhadran Baladandayuthapani; Ellen W. Collisson

    2006-01-01

    We have recently provided evidence that Texas feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV-TX) isolates are an emerging subtype sharing a common ancestry with clade B isolates. Specific, pathogen-free cats were infected, intravenously, with 500, 2000 or 8000TCID50 of the FIV-TX53 virus to study the acute stage of infection. Infection of cats resulted in lymphadenopathy at 10 days post-infection (p.i.). By 7 weeks

  16. Co-infections with Chikungunya Virus and Dengue Virus in Delhi, India

    PubMed Central

    Chahar, Harendra S.; Bharaj, Preeti; Dar, Lalit; Guleria, Randeep; Kabra, Sushil K.

    2009-01-01

    Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are common vectors for dengue virus and chikungunya virus. In areas where both viruses cocirculate, they can be transmitted together. During a dengue outbreak in Delhi in 2006, 17 of 69 serum samples were positive for chikungunya virus by reverse transcription–PCR; 6 samples were positive for both viruses. PMID:19624923

  17. Computer viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, F.B.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis investigates a recently discovered vulnerability in computer systems which opens the possibility that a single individual with an average user's knowledge could cause widespread damage to information residing in computer networks. This vulnerability is due to a transitive integrity corrupting mechanism called a computer virus which causes corrupted information to spread from program to program. Experiments have shown that a virus can spread at an alarmingly rapid rate from user to user, from system to system, and from network to network, even when the best-availability security techniques are properly used. Formal definitions of self-replication, evolution, viruses, and protection mechanisms are used to prove that any system that allows sharing, general functionality, and transitivity of information flow cannot completely prevent viral attack. Computational aspects of viruses are examined, and several undecidable problems are shown. It is demonstrated that a virus may evolve so as to generate any computable sequence. Protection mechanisms are explored, and the design of computer networks that prevent both illicit modification and dissemination of information are given. Administration and protection of information networks based on partial orderings are examined, and probably correct automated administrative assistance is introduced.

  18. Oncolytic Virus Therapy of Glioblastoma Multiforme – Concepts and Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Wollmann, Guido; Ozduman, Koray; van den Pol, Anthony N.

    2012-01-01

    Twenty years of oncolytic virus (OV) development have created a field that is driven by the potential promise of lasting impact on our cancer treatment repertoire. With the field constantly expanding – over 20 viruses have been recognized as potential OVs – new virus candidates continue to emerge even as established viruses reach clinical trials. They all share the defining commonalities of selective replication in tumors, subsequent tumor cell lysis, and dispersion within the tumor. Members from diverse virus classes with distinctly different biologies and host species have been identified. Of these viruses, 15 have been tested on human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). So far, 20 clinical trials have been conducted or initiated using attenuated strains of 7 different oncolytic viruses against GBM. In this review, we present an overview of viruses that have been developed or considered for GBM treatment. We outline the principles of tumor targeting and selective viral replication, which include mechanisms of tumor-selective binding, and molecular elements usurping cellular biosynthetic machinery in transformed cells. Results from clinical trials have clearly established the proof of concept and have confirmed the general safety of OV application in the brain. The moderate clinical efficacy has not yet matched the promising preclinical lab results; next-generation OVs that are either “armed” with therapeutic genes or that are embedded in a multimodality treatment regimen should enhance the clinical results. PMID:22290260

  19. Genome-Wide Association Study among Four Horse Breeds Identifies a Common Haplotype Associated with In Vitro CD3+ T Cell Susceptibility/Resistance to Equine Arteritis Virus Infection ?

    PubMed Central

    Go, Yun Young; Bailey, Ernest; Cook, Deborah G.; Coleman, Stephen J.; MacLeod, James N.; Chen, Kuey-Chu; Timoney, Peter J.; Balasuriya, Udeni B. R.

    2011-01-01

    Previously, we have shown that horses could be divided into susceptible and resistant groups based on an in vitro assay using dual-color flow cytometric analysis of CD3+ T cells infected with equine arteritis virus (EAV). Here, we demonstrate that the differences in in vitro susceptibility of equine CD3+ T lymphocytes to EAV infection have a genetic basis. To investigate the possible hereditary basis for this trait, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to compare susceptible and resistant phenotypes. Testing of 267 DNA samples from four horse breeds that had a susceptible or a resistant CD3+ T lymphocyte phenotype using both Illumina Equine SNP50 BeadChip and Sequenom's MassARRAY system identified a common, genetically dominant haplotype associated with the susceptible phenotype in a region of equine chromosome 11 (ECA11), positions 49572804 to 49643932. The presence of a common haplotype indicates that the trait occurred in a common ancestor of all four breeds, suggesting that it may be segregated among other modern horse breeds. Biological pathway analysis revealed several cellular genes within this region of ECA11 encoding proteins associated with virus attachment and entry, cytoskeletal organization, and NF-?B pathways that may be associated with the trait responsible for the in vitro susceptibility/resistance of CD3+ T lymphocytes to EAV infection. The data presented in this study demonstrated a strong association of genetic markers with the trait, representing de facto proof that the trait is under genetic control. To our knowledge, this is the first GWAS of an equine infectious disease and the first GWAS of equine viral arteritis. PMID:21994447

  20. Immunology of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelina Nascimbeni; Barbara Rehermann

    2005-01-01

    More than 500 million people worldwide are persistently infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and\\/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) and are at risk of developing chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite many common features in the pathogenesis of HBV- and HCV-related liver disease, these viruses markedly differ in their virological properties and in their immune escape and

  1. Lettuce Necrotic Yellows Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. L. Stubbs; R. G. GROGAN

    1963-01-01

    A DESTRUCTIVE virus disease of lettuce, causing extensive crop losses sometimes as high as 100 per cent, was recognized in Victoria in 1954 as being distinct from the lettuce mosaic disease. Until 1959, however, all attempts to transmit the virus to lettuce with aphids which commonly infest lettuce, with thrips, leaf-hoppers and sap inoculation methods were unsuccessful. In that year

  2. Adapting to Sea Level Rise to the Year 2100 and Beyond in the State of Florida, USA: A Regional Approach Based upon Common Vulnerabilities and the Utility of Shared Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkinson, R. W.; Harlem, P. W.; Meeder, J.

    2014-12-01

    We simulate the vulnerability of all 35 Florida coastal counties to the ongoing Anthropocene marine transgression unconstrained by the artificial end date of year 2100. Coastal submergence was emulated using a 'bathtub model' and rising sea level associated with an atmospheric temperature increase of +1 oC to +4 oC (see Levermann et al. [1]). Simulation results are organized into seven regions, each representing an area of common vulnerability characterized in this study as high (9% to 30% land loss), higher (16 to 68% land loss) and highest (48% to 97% land loss). This grouping provides a logical basis for establishing or re-enforcing collaboration based upon a common threat and the utility of shared technical and financial resources. Our bathtub model assumes Florida terrain is simply submerged as the shoreline migrates across a static landscape without change in the physical and biological materials subject to marine transgression. However, geologic studies of past and present Florida shorelines indicate the rate of rise is as important as the magnitude when predicting coastal response. To determine the utility of the bathtub model as a representative simulation of Florida's response to future sea level rise, we considered Florida's coastal response to varying rates of sea level rise over the last 14,000 years. Available data clearly demonstrate predicted rates of sea level rise will result in widespread submergence; the rate of rise will be too fast to be offset by the stabilizing forces of biogenic or physical sediment accumulation. Hence the magnitude of land loss and associated shoreline retreat in each of the seven Florida regions - and likely other coastal zones in the southeast U.S. - will be solely a function of topographic elevation and can therefore be reasonably forecast using a bathtub model. While our focus is on Florida's coastal counties, we recognize in some regions the effects of sea level rise will extend further inland. In these areas, the regional boundaries could be expanded to include adjacent non-coastal counties. However, differences in the perception of risk and associated vulnerability between coastal and inland counties may complicate timely collaboration. References: [1] A. Levermann et al. (2013), The Multi-Millennial Sea-Level Commitment of Global Warming, doi:10.1073/pnas.1219414110.

  3. H11/HspB8 and Its Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Homologue ICP10PK Share Functions That Regulate Cell Life/Death Decisions and Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Aurelian, Laure; Laing, Jennifer M.; Lee, Ki Seok

    2012-01-01

    Small heat shock proteins (sHsp) also known as HspB are a large family of widely expressed proteins that contain a 90 residues domain known as ?-crystallin. Here, we focus on the family member H11/HspB8 and its herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) homologue ICP10PK, and discuss the possible impact of this relationship on human disease. H11/HspB8 and ICP10PK are atypical protein kinases. They share multi-functional activity that encompasses signaling, unfolded protein response (UPR) and the regulation of life cycle potential. In melanocytes H11/HspB8 causes growth arrest. It is silenced in a high proportion of melanoma prostate cancer, Ewing's sarcoma and hematologic malignancies through aberrant DNA methylation. Its restored expression induces cell death and inhibits tumor growth in xenograft models, identifying H11/HspB8 as a tumor suppressor. This function involves the activation of multiple and distinct death pathways, all of which initiate with H11/HspB8-mediated phosphorylation of transforming growth factor ?-activated kinase 1 (TAK1). Both ICP10PK and H11/HspB8 were implicated in inflammatory processes that involve dendritic cells activation through Toll-like receptor-dependent pathways and may contribute to the onset of autoimmunity. The potential evolutionary relationship of H11/HspB8 to ICP10PK, its impact on human disorders and the development of therapeutic strategies are discussed. PMID:23056924

  4. Complete nucleotide sequence of Rose yellow leaf virus, a new member of the family Tombusviridae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genome of the Rose yellow leaf virus (RYLV) has been determined to be 3918 nucleotides containing seven open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 encodes a 27 kDa peptide (p27). ORF2 shares a common start codon with ORF1 and continues through the amber stop codon of p27 to encode a 87 kDa (p87) protein t...

  5. The Icsbp locus is a common proviral insertion site in mature B-cell lymphomas/plasmacytomas induced by exogenous murine leukemia virus

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Shiliang [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Aarhus, C.F. Mollers Alle, Bldg. 130, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Sorensen, Annette Balle [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Aarhus, C.F. Mollers Alle, Bldg. 130, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Kunder, Sandra [Institute of Pathology, GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Sorensen, Karina Dalsgaard [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Aarhus, C.F. Mollers Alle, Bldg. 130, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia [Institute of Pathology, GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Morris, David W. [Sagres Discovery, Davis, CA 95617 (United States); Schmidt, Joerg [Department of Comparative Medicine, GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Pedersen, Finn Skou [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Aarhus, C.F. Mollers Alle, Bldg. 130, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)]. E-mail: fsp@mb.au.dk

    2006-09-01

    ICSBP (interferon consensus sequence binding protein)/IRF8 (interferon regulatory factor 8) is an interferon gamma-inducible transcription factor expressed predominantly in hematopoietic cells, and down-regulation of this factor has been observed in chronic myelogenous leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia in man. By screening about 1200 murine leukemia virus (MLV)-induced lymphomas, we found proviral insertions at the Icsbp locus in 14 tumors, 13 of which were mature B-cell lymphomas or plasmacytomas. Only one was a T-cell lymphoma, although such tumors constituted about half of the samples screened. This indicates that the Icsbp locus can play a specific role in the development of mature B-lineage malignancies. Two proviral insertions in the last Icsbp exon were found to act by a poly(A)-insertion mechanism. The remaining insertions were found within or outside Icsbp. Since our results showed expression of Icsbp RNA and protein in all end-stage tumor samples, a simple tumor suppressor function of ICSBP is not likely. Interestingly, proviral insertions at Icsbp have not been reported from previous extensive screenings of mature B-cell lymphomas induced by endogenous MLVs. We propose that ICSBP might be involved in an early modulation of an immune response to exogenous MLVs that might also play a role in proliferation of the mature B-cell lymphomas.

  6. Redox Proteomics of the Inflammatory Secretome Identifies a Common Set of Redoxins and Other Glutathionylated Proteins Released in Inflammation, Influenza Virus Infection and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Checconi, Paola; Salzano, Sonia; Bowler, Lucas; Mullen, Lisa; Mengozzi, Manuela; Hanschmann, Eva-Maria; Lillig, Christopher Horst; Sgarbanti, Rossella; Panella, Simona; Nencioni, Lucia; Palamara, Anna Teresa; Ghezzi, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Protein cysteines can form transient disulfides with glutathione (GSH), resulting in the production of glutathionylated proteins, and this process is regarded as a mechanism by which the redox state of the cell can regulate protein function. Most studies on redox regulation of immunity have focused on intracellular proteins. In this study we have used redox proteomics to identify those proteins released in glutathionylated form by macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) after pre-loading the cells with biotinylated GSH. Of the several proteins identified in the redox secretome, we have selected a number for validation. Proteomic analysis indicated that LPS stimulated the release of peroxiredoxin (PRDX) 1, PRDX2, vimentin (VIM), profilin1 (PFN1) and thioredoxin 1 (TXN1). For PRDX1 and TXN1, we were able to confirm that the released protein is glutathionylated. PRDX1, PRDX2 and TXN1 were also released by the human pulmonary epithelial cell line, A549, infected with influenza virus. The release of the proteins identified was inhibited by the anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid, dexamethasone (DEX), which also inhibited tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? release, and by thiol antioxidants (N-butanoyl GSH derivative, GSH-C4, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), which did not affect TNF-? production. The proteins identified could be useful as biomarkers of oxidative stress associated with inflammation, and further studies will be required to investigate if the extracellular forms of these proteins has immunoregulatory functions. PMID:25985305

  7. A complex hepatitis B virus (X/C) recombinant is common in Long An county, Guangxi and may have originated in southern China

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Zhong-Liao; Hué, Stéphane; Sabin, Caroline A.; Li, Guo-Jian; Yang, Jin-Ye; Chen, Qin-Yan; Fang, Kong-Xiong; Huang, Jian; Wang, Xue-Yan; Harrison, Tim J.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a complex (X/C) hepatitis B virus (HBV) recombinant, first reported in 2000, was proposed as a new genotype; although this was refuted immediately because the strains differ by less than 8?% in nucleotide distance from genotype C. Over 13.5?% (38/281) of HBV isolates from the Long An cohort in China were not assigned to a specific genotype, using current genotyping tools to analyse surface ORF sequences, and these have about 98?% similarity to the X/C recombinants. To determine whether this close identity extends to the full-length sequences and to investigate the evolutionary history of the Long An X/C recombinants, 17 complete genome sequences were determined. They are highly similar (96–99?%) to the Vietnamese strains and, although some reach or exceed 8?% nucleotide sequence difference from all known genotypes, they cluster together in the same clade, separating in a phylogenetic tree from the genotype C branch. Analysis of recombination reveals that all but one of the Long An isolates resembles the Vietnamese isolates in that they result from apparent recombination between genotype C and a parent of unknown genotype (X), which shows similarity in part to genotype G. The exception, isolate QL523, has a greater proportion of genotype C parent. Phylogeographic analysis reveals that these recombinants probably arose in southern China and spread later to Vietnam and Laos. PMID:20965984

  8. Oncolytic myxoma virus: the path to clinic.

    PubMed

    Chan, Winnie M; Rahman, Masmudur M; McFadden, Grant

    2013-09-01

    Many common neoplasms are still noncurative with current standards of cancer therapy. More therapeutic modalities need to be developed to significantly prolong the lives of patients and eventually cure a wider spectrum of cancers. Oncolytic virotherapy is one of the promising new additions to clinical cancer therapeutics. Successful oncolytic virotherapy in the clinic will be those strategies that best combine tumor cell oncolysis with enhanced immune responses against tumor antigens. The current candidate oncolytic viruses all share the common property that they are relatively nonpathogenic to humans, yet they have the ability to replicate selectively in human cancer cells and induce cancer regression by direct oncolysis and/or induction of improved anti-tumor immune responses. Many candidate oncolytic viruses are in various stages of clinical and preclinical development. One such preclinical candidate is myxoma virus (MYXV), a member of the Poxviridae family that, in its natural setting, exhibits a very restricted host range and is only pathogenic to European rabbits. Despite its narrow host range in nature, MYXV has been shown to productively infect various classes of human cancer cells. Several preclinical in vivo modeling studies have demonstrated that MYXV is an attractive and safe candidate oncolytic virus, and hence, MYXV is currently being developed as a potential therapeutic for several cancers, such as pancreatic cancer, glioblastoma, ovarian cancer, melanoma, and hematologic malignancies. This review highlights the preclinical cancer models that have shown the most promise for translation of MYXV into human clinical trials. PMID:23726825

  9. Complete genome of the human norovirus GIV.1 strain Lake Macquarie virus.

    PubMed

    Eden, John-Sebastian; Lim, Kun Lee; White, Peter A

    2012-09-01

    Norovirus is an important human pathogen that is now recognized as the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis globally. Six viral genogroups have been described, although only genogroups GI, GII, and GIV are known to infect humans, with the GII viruses most commonly identified in both outbreak and sporadic settings. In contrast, infections by GIV viruses are rarely reported, and their overall prevalence in the community is unknown. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of the human GIV.1 strain Lake Macquarie virus, which caused two linked outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in aged-care facilities in the Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia. The Lake Macquarie virus genome was 7,527 nucleotides (nt) in length and shared highest identity (70%) with the recently completed feline GIV.2 virus genome. PMID:22923808

  10. Complete Genome of the Human Norovirus GIV.1 Strain Lake Macquarie Virus

    PubMed Central

    Eden, John-Sebastian; Lim, Kun Lee

    2012-01-01

    Norovirus is an important human pathogen that is now recognized as the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis globally. Six viral genogroups have been described, although only genogroups GI, GII, and GIV are known to infect humans, with the GII viruses most commonly identified in both outbreak and sporadic settings. In contrast, infections by GIV viruses are rarely reported, and their overall prevalence in the community is unknown. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of the human GIV.1 strain Lake Macquarie virus, which caused two linked outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in aged-care facilities in the Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia. The Lake Macquarie virus genome was 7,527 nucleotides (nt) in length and shared highest identity (70%) with the recently completed feline GIV.2 virus genome. PMID:22923808

  11. Deformed wing virus implicated in overwintering honeybee colony losses.

    PubMed

    Highfield, Andrea C; El Nagar, Aliya; Mackinder, Luke C M; Noël, Laure M-L J; Hall, Matthew J; Martin, Stephen J; Schroeder, Declan C

    2009-11-01

    The worldwide decline in honeybee colonies during the past 50 years has often been linked to the spread of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and its interaction with certain honeybee viruses. Recently in the United States, dramatic honeybee losses (colony collapse disorder) have been reported; however, there remains no clear explanation for these colony losses, with parasitic mites, viruses, bacteria, and fungal diseases all being proposed as possible candidates. Common characteristics that most failing colonies share is a lack of overt disease symptoms and the disappearance of workers from what appears to be normally functioning colonies. In this study, we used quantitative PCR to monitor the presence of three honeybee viruses, deformed wing virus (DWV), acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), and black queen cell virus (BQCV), during a 1-year period in 15 asymptomatic, varroa mite-positive honeybee colonies in Southern England, and 3 asymptomatic colonies confirmed to be varroa mite free. All colonies with varroa mites underwent control treatments to ensure that mite populations remained low throughout the study. Despite this, multiple virus infections were detected, yet a significant correlation was observed only between DWV viral load and overwintering colony losses. The long-held view has been that DWV is relatively harmless to the overall health status of honeybee colonies unless it is in association with severe varroa mite infestations. Our findings suggest that DWV can potentially act independently of varroa mites to bring about colony losses. Therefore, DWV may be a major factor in overwintering colony losses. PMID:19783750

  12. Sharing values, sharing a vision

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    Teamwork, partnership and shared values emerged as recurring themes at the Third Technology Transfer/Communications Conference. The program drew about 100 participants who sat through a packed two days to find ways for their laboratories and facilities to better help American business and the economy. Co-hosts were the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, where most meetings took place. The conference followed traditions established at the First Technology Transfer/Communications Conference, conceived of and hosted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory in May 1992 in Richmond, Washington, and the second conference, hosted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in January 1993 in Golden, Colorado. As at the other conferences, participants at the third session represented the fields of technology transfer, public affairs and communications. They came from Department of Energy headquarters and DOE offices, laboratories and production facilities. Continued in this report are keynote address; panel discussion; workshops; and presentations in technology transfer.

  13. The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of Barley yellow dwarf virus-RMV reveals it to be a new Polerovirus distantly related to other yellow dwarf viruses

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, Elizabeth N.; Beckett, Randy J.; Gray, Stewart M.; Miller, W. Allen

    2013-01-01

    The yellow dwarf viruses (YDVs) of the Luteoviridae family represent the most widespread group of cereal viruses worldwide. They include the Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs) of genus Luteovirus, the Cereal yellow dwarf viruses (CYDVs) and Wheat yellow dwarf virus (WYDV) of genus Polerovirus. All of these viruses are obligately aphid transmitted and phloem-limited. The first described YDVs (initially all called BYDV) were classified by their most efficient vector. One of these viruses, BYDV-RMV, is transmitted most efficiently by the corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis. Here we report the complete 5612 nucleotide sequence of the genomic RNA of a Montana isolate of BYDV-RMV (isolate RMV MTFE87, Genbank accession no. KC921392). The sequence revealed that BYDV-RMV is a polerovirus, but it is quite distantly related to the CYDVs or WYDV, which are very closely related to each other. Nor is BYDV-RMV closely related to any other particular polerovirus. Depending on the gene that is compared, different poleroviruses (none of them a YDV) share the most sequence similarity to BYDV-RMV. Because of its distant relationship to other YDVs, and because it commonly infects maize via its vector, R. maidis, we propose that BYDV-RMV be renamed Maize yellow dwarf virus-RMV (MYDV-RMV). PMID:23888156

  14. Comparative genomic analysis of hyperthermophilic archaeal fuselloviridae viruses

    SciTech Connect

    B. Wiedenheft; K. Stedman; F. Roberto; D. Willits; A. K. Gleske; L. Zoeller; J. Snyder; T. Douglas; M. Young

    2004-02-01

    The complete genome sequences of two Sulfolobus spindle-shaped viruses (SSVs) from acidic hot springs in Kamchatka (Russia) and Yellowstone National Park (United States) have been determined. These nonlytic temperate viruses were isolated from hyperthermophilic Sulfolobus hosts, and both viruses share the spindleshaped morphology characteristic of the Fuselloviridae family. These two genomes, in combination with the previously determined SSV1 genome from Japan and the SSV2 genome from Iceland, have allowed us to carry out a phylogenetic comparison of these geographically distributed hyperthermal viruses. Each virus contains a circular double-stranded DNA genome of _15 kbp with approximately 34 open reading frames (ORFs). These Fusellovirus ORFs show little or no similarity to genes in the public databases. In contrast, 18 ORFs are common to all four isolates and may represent the minimal gene set defining this viral group. In general, ORFs on one half of the genome are colinear and highly conserved, while ORFs on the other half are not. One shared ORF among all four genomes is an integrase of the tyrosine recombinase family. All four viral genomes integrate into their host tRNA genes. The specific tRNA gene used for integration varies, and one genome integrates into multiple loci. Several unique ORFs are found in the genome of each isolate.

  15. Assessment of Genetic Associations between Common Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in RIG-I-Like Receptor and IL-4 Signaling Genes and Severe Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Children: A Candidate Gene Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Marr, Nico; Hirschfeld, Aaron F.; Lam, Angie; Wang, Shirley; Lavoie, Pascal M.; Turvey, Stuart E.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of cases of severe pediatric respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection occur in otherwise healthy infants who have no identifiable risk factors, suggesting that additional subclinical factors, such as population genetic variation, influence the course of RSV infection. The objective of this study was to test if common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding for immune signalling components of the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) and IL-4-signalling pathways affect the outcome of RSV infection in early life. We genotyped 8 SNPs using allele-specific probes combined with real-time PCR. Each of the SNPs tested had previously been established to have a functional impact on immune responsiveness and two of the SNPs in the IL4 and IL4R genes had previously been associated with severe RSV bronchiolitis. Association with susceptibility to severe RSV infection was tested by statistically comparing genotype and allele frequencies in infants and young children hospitalized with severe RSV bronchiolitis (n?=?140) with two control groups—children who tested positive for RSV but did not require hospitalization (n?=?100), and a general population control group (n?=?285). Our study was designed with sufficient power (>80%) to detect clinically-relevant associations with effect sizes ?1.5. However, we detected no statistically significant differences in allele and genotype frequencies of the investigated SNPs between the inpatient and control groups. To conclude, we could not replicate the previously reported association with SNPs in the IL4 and IL4R genes in our independent cohort, nor did we find that common SNPs in genes encoding for RLRs and the downstream adapter MAVS were associated with susceptibility to severe RSV infections. Despite the existing evidence demonstrating a functional immunological impact of these SNPs, our data suggest that the biological effect of each individual SNP is unlikely to affect clinical outcomes of RSV infection. PMID:24949794

  16. Muju virus, harbored by Myodes regulus in Korea, might represent a genetic variant of Puumala virus, the prototype arvicolid rodent-borne hantavirus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Goo; Gu, Se Hun; Baek, Luck Ju; Shin, Ok Sarah; Park, Kwang Sook; Kim, Heung-Chul; Klein, Terry A; Yanagihara, Richard; Song, Jin-Won

    2014-04-01

    The genome of Muju virus (MUJV), identified originally in the royal vole (Myodes regulus) in Korea, was fully sequenced to ascertain its genetic and phylogenetic relationship with Puumala virus (PUUV), harbored by the bank vole (My. glareolus), and a PUUV-like virus, named Hokkaido virus (HOKV), in the grey red-backed vole (My. rufocanus) in Japan. Whole genome sequence analysis of the 6544-nucleotide large (L), 3652-nucleotide medium (M) and 1831-nucleotide small (S) segments of MUJV, as well as the amino acid sequences of their gene products, indicated that MUJV strains from different capture sites might represent genetic variants of PUUV, the prototype arvicolid rodent-borne hantavirus in Europe. Distinct geographic-specific clustering of MUJV was found in different provinces in Korea, and phylogenetic analyses revealed that MUJV and HOKV share a common ancestry with PUUV. A better understanding of the taxonomic classification and pathogenic potential of MUJV must await its isolation in cell culture. PMID:24736214

  17. Constituents of SH1, a Novel Lipid-Containing Virus Infecting the Halophilic Euryarchaeon Haloarcula hispanica

    PubMed Central

    Bamford, Dennis H.; Ravantti, Janne J.; Rönnholm, Gunilla; Laurinavi?ius, Simonas; Kukkaro, Petra; Dyall-Smith, Mike; Somerharju, Pentti; Kalkkinen, Nisse; Bamford, Jaana K. H.

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that a number of bacterial and eukaryotic viruses that share a common architectural principle are related, leading to the proposal of an early common ancestor. A prediction of this model would be the discovery of similar viruses that infect archaeal hosts. Our main interest lies in icosahedral double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses with an internal membrane, and we now extend our studies to include viruses infecting archaeal hosts. While the number of sequenced archaeal viruses is increasing, very little sequence similarity has been detected between bacterial and eukaryotic viruses. In this investigation we rigorously show that SH1, an icosahedral dsDNA virus infecting Haloarcula hispanica, possesses lipid structural components that are selectively acquired from the host pool. We also determined the sequence of the 31-kb SH1 genome and positively identified genes for 11 structural proteins, with putative identification of three additional proteins. The SH1 genome is unique and, except for a few open reading frames, shows no detectable similarity to other published sequences, but the overall structure of the SH1 virion and its linear genome with inverted terminal repeats is reminiscent of lipid-containing dsDNA bacteriophages like PRD1. PMID:15994804

  18. Molecular Evolution of Viruses of the Family Filoviridae Based on 97 Whole-Genome Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Serena A.; Towner, Jonathan S.; Sealy, Tara K.; McMullan, Laura K.; Khristova, Marina L.; Burt, Felicity J.; Swanepoel, Robert; Rollin, Pierre E.

    2013-01-01

    Viruses in the Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus genera (family Filoviridae) have been associated with large outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever in human and nonhuman primates. The first documented cases occurred in primates over 45 years ago, but the amount of virus genetic diversity detected within bat populations, which have recently been identified as potential reservoir hosts, suggests that the filoviruses are much older. Here, detailed Bayesian coalescent phylogenetic analyses are performed on 97 whole-genome sequences, 55 of which are newly reported, to comprehensively examine molecular evolutionary rates and estimate dates of common ancestry for viruses within the family Filoviridae. Molecular evolutionary rates for viruses belonging to different species range from 0.46 × 10?4 nucleotide substitutions/site/year for Sudan ebolavirus to 8.21 × 10?4 nucleotide substitutions/site/year for Reston ebolavirus. Most recent common ancestry can be traced back only within the last 50 years for Reston ebolavirus and Zaire ebolavirus species and suggests that viruses within these species may have undergone recent genetic bottlenecks. Viruses within Marburg marburgvirus and Sudan ebolavirus species can be traced back further and share most recent common ancestors approximately 700 and 850 years before the present, respectively. Examination of the whole family suggests that members of the Filoviridae, including the recently described Lloviu virus, shared a most recent common ancestor approximately 10,000 years ago. These data will be valuable for understanding the evolution of filoviruses in the context of natural history as new reservoir hosts are identified and, further, for determining mechanisms of emergence, pathogenicity, and the ongoing threat to public health. PMID:23255795

  19. Structural Studies of the Parainfluenza Virus 5 Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase Tetramer in Complex with Its Receptor, Sialyllactose

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Ping; Thompson, Thomas B.; Wurzburg, Beth A.; Paterson, Reay G.; Lamb, Robert A.; Jardetzky, Theodore S. (NWU)

    2010-03-08

    The paramyxovirus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) functions in virus attachment to cells, cleavage of sialic acid from oligosaccharides, and stimulating membrane fusion during virus entry into cells. The structural basis for these diverse functions remains to be fully understood. We report the crystal structures of the parainfluenza virus 5 (SV5) HN and its complexes with sialic acid, the inhibitor DANA, and the receptor sialyllactose. SV5 HN shares common structural features with HN of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and human parainfluenza 3 (HPIV3), but unlike the previously determined HN structures, the SV5 HN forms a tetramer in solution, which is thought to be the physiological oligomer. The sialyllactose complex reveals intact receptor within the active site, but no major conformational changes in the protein. The SV5 HN structures do not support previously proposed models for HN action in membrane fusion and suggest alternative mechanisms by which HN may promote virus entry into cells.

  20. Copyright owned by the author(s) under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike Licence. http://pos.sissa.it RADIATION-HARD ASICS FOR OPTICAL DATA

    E-print Network

    Gan, K. K.

    -NonCommercial-ShareAlike Licence. http://pos.sissa.it RADIATION-HARD ASICS FOR OPTICAL DATA TRANSMISSION K.K. Gan1 , H.P. Kagan, R.D. Kass, J.R. Moore, D.S. Smith Department of Physics The Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210, USA E-mail: gan@physics.osu.edu P. Buchholz, A. Wiese, M. Ziolkowski Fachbereich Physik Universität Siegen, Siegen

  1. Copyright owned by the author(s) under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike Licence. http://pos.sissa.it Optical link ASICs for LHC upgrades

    E-print Network

    Gan, K. K.

    -NonCommercial-ShareAlike Licence. http://pos.sissa.it Optical link ASICs for LHC upgrades K.K. Gan1 , H.P. Kagan, R.D. Kass, J@mps.ohio-state.edu We have designed several ASICs for possible applications in a new ATLAS pixel layer for the first phase of the LHC luminosity upgrade. The ASICs include a high-speed driver for the VCSEL, a receiver

  2. Donkey Orchid Symptomless Virus: A Viral ‘Platypus’ from Australian Terrestrial Orchids

    PubMed Central

    Wylie, Stephen J.; Li, Hua; Jones, Michael G. K.

    2013-01-01

    Complete and partial genome sequences of two isolates of an unusual new plant virus, designated Donkey orchid symptomless virus (DOSV) were identified using a high-throughput sequencing approach. The virus was identified from asymptomatic plants of Australian terrestrial orchid Diuris longifolia (Common donkey orchid) growing in a remnant forest patch near Perth, western Australia. DOSV was identified from two D. longifolia plants of 264 tested, and from at least one plant of 129 Caladenia latifolia (pink fairy orchid) plants tested. Phylogenetic analysis of the genome revealed open reading frames (ORF) encoding seven putative proteins of apparently disparate origins. A 69-kDa protein (ORF1) that overlapped the replicase shared low identity with MPs of plant tymoviruses (Tymoviridae). A 157-kDa replicase (ORF2) and 22-kDa coat protein (ORF4) shared 32% and 40% amino acid identity, respectively, with homologous proteins encoded by members of the plant virus family Alphaflexiviridae. A 44-kDa protein (ORF3) shared low identity with myosin and an autophagy protein from Squirrelpox virus. A 27-kDa protein (ORF5) shared no identity with described proteins. A 14-kDa protein (ORF6) shared limited sequence identity (26%) over a limited region of the envelope glycoprotein precursor of mammal-infecting Crimea-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (Bunyaviridae). The putative 25-kDa movement protein (MP) (ORF7) shared limited (27%) identity with 3A-like MPs of members of the plant-infecting Tombusviridae and Virgaviridae. Transmissibility was shown when DOSV systemically infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Structure and organization of the domains within the putative replicase of DOSV suggests a common evolutionary origin with ‘potexvirus-like’ replicases of viruses within the Alphaflexiviridae and Tymoviridae, and the CP appears to be ancestral to CPs of allexiviruses (Alphaflexiviridae). The MP shares an evolutionary history with MPs of dianthoviruses, but the other putative proteins are distant from plant viruses. DOSV is not readily classified in current lower order virus taxa. PMID:24223974

  3. Clays, common

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the common clay industry worldwide for 1997 is discussed. Sales of common clay in the U.S. increased from 26.2 Mt in 1996 to an estimated 26.5 Mt in 1997. The amount of common clay and shale used to produce structural clay products in 1997 was estimated at 13.8 Mt.

  4. Sinusitis in the common cold

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tuomo Puhakka; Mika J. Mäkelä; Anu Alanen; Timo Kallio; Leo Korsoff; Pertti Arstila; Maija Leinonen; Markku Pulkkinen; Jouko Suonpää; Jussi Mertsola; Olli Ruuskanen

    1998-01-01

    Background: Acute community-acquired sinusitis is considered a bacterial complication of the common cold. Radiologic abnormalities in sinuses occur, however, in most patients with upper respiratory virus infections.Objective: Assessment of the occurrence, clinical profile, laboratory findings, and outcome of radiologically confirmed sinusitis was carried out as part of a common cold study in young adults.Methods: Clinical examinations and radiography of the

  5. Bat flight and zoonotic viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, Thomas; Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

    2014-01-01

    Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts.

  6. Recent Ancestry of Kyasanur Forest Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Mehla, Rajeev; Kumar, Sandeep R.P.; Yadav, Pragya; Barde, Pradip V.; Yergolkar, Prasanna N.; Erickson, Bobbie R.; Carroll, Serena A.; Mishra, Akhilesh C.; Nichol, Stuart T.

    2009-01-01

    Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV) is enzootic to India and maintained in ticks, mammals, and birds. It causes severe febrile illness in humans and was first recognized in 1957 associated with a high number of deaths among monkeys in Kyasanur Forest. Genetic analysis of 48 viruses isolated in India during 1957–2006 showed low diversity (1.2%). Bayesian coalescence analysis of these sequences and those of KFDVs from Saudi Arabia and the People’s Republic of China estimated that KFDVs have evolved at a mean rate of ?6.4 × 10–4 substitutions/site/year, which is similar to rates estimated for mosquito-borne flaviviruses. KFDVs were estimated to have shared a common ancestor in ?1942, fifteen years before identification of the disease in India. These data are consistent with the view that KFD represented a newly emerged disease when first recognized. Recent common ancestry of KFDVs from India and Saudi Arabia, despite their large geographic separation, indicates long-range movement of virus, possibly by birds. PMID:19788811

  7. Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus: an ideal persistent virus?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter G. W. Plagemann; Raymond R. R. Rowland; Chen Even; Kay S. Faaberg

    1995-01-01

    LDV contradicts all commonly held views about mechanisms of virus persistence, namely that persistence is primarily associated with noncytopathic viruses, or the selection of immune escape variants or other mutants, or a decrease in expression of certain viral proteins by infected cells, or replication in “immune-privileged sites”, or a general suppression of the host immune system, etc. [1, 2, 5,

  8. Common Chemistry

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)

    A web resource that contains Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Numbers for approximately 7,800 chemicals of widespread general public interest. Common Chemistry is helpful to non-chemists who know either a name or CAS Registry Number® of a common chemical and want to pair both pieces of information.

  9. [The Alkhurma virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus): an emerging pathogen responsible for hemorrhage fever in the Middle East].

    PubMed

    Charrel, R N; de Lamballerie, X

    2003-01-01

    To date tick-borne flaviviruses causing hemorrhagic fevers in humans have been isolated in Siberia (Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus), India (Kyasanur Forest disease virus), and Saudi Arabia (Akhurma virus). Because of their potential use as biological weapons for bioterrorism, these 3 viruses require level 4 biosafety handling facilities and have been listed as hypervirulent pathogens by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Alkhurma virus was isolated in 1995 from patients with hemorrhagic fever in Saudi Arabia. Current evidence suggests that transmission to humans can occur either transcutaneously either by contamination of a skin wound with the blood of an infected vertebrate or bites of an infected tick or orally by drinking unpasteurized contaminated milk. To date a total of 24 symptomatic human cases have been recorded with a mortality rate at 25% (6/24). Pauci-symptomatic or asymptomatic cases are likely but epidemiologic data are currently unavailable. The complete coding sequence of the prototype strain of Alkhurma virus was determined and published in 2001 based on international research project involving investigators from France, Great Britain, and Saudi Arabia. Phylogenetic studies demonstrate that closest known relative of Alkhurma virus is Kyasanur Forest disease virus and that both viruses share a common ancestor. Genetic analysis of several human strains sequentially isolated over a 5-year period showed a very low diversity. This finding has important potential implications for diagnosis and vaccination. PMID:14579470

  10. Lessons from the mouse: potential contribution of bystander lymphocyte activation by viruses to human type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Pane, Jessica A; Coulson, Barbara S

    2015-06-01

    Viruses are considered to be potential key modulators of type 1 diabetes mellitus, with several possible mechanisms proposed for their modes of action. Here we discuss the evidence for virus involvement, including pancreatic infection and the induction of T cell-mediated molecular mimicry. A particular focus of this review is the further possibility that virus infection triggers bystander activation of pre-existing autoreactive lymphocytes. In this scenario, the virus triggers dendritic cell maturation and proinflammatory cytokine secretion by engaging pattern recognition receptors. These proinflammatory cytokines provoke bystander autoreactive lymphocyte activation in the presence of cognate autoantigen, which leads to enhanced beta cell destruction. Importantly, this mechanism does not necessarily involve pancreatic virus infection, and its virally non-specific nature suggests that it might represent a means commonly employed by multiple viruses. The ability of viruses specifically associated with type 1 diabetes, including group B coxsackievirus, rotavirus and influenza A virus, to induce these responses is also examined. The elucidation of a mechanism shared amongst several viruses for accelerating progression to type 1 diabetes would facilitate the identification of important targets for disease intervention. PMID:25794781

  11. An Abstract Theory of Computer Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard M. Adleman

    1988-01-01

    In recent years the detection of computer viruses has become common place. It appears that for the most part these viruses\\u000a have been ‘benign’ or only mildly destructive. However, whether or not computer viruses have the potential to cause major\\u000a and prolonged disruptions of computing environments is an open question.

  12. Pairwise Alignment of Metamorphic Computer Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott McGhee

    2007-01-01

    Computer viruses and other forms of malware pose a threat to virtually any software system (with only a few exceptions). A computer virus is a piece of software which takes advantage of known weaknesses in a software system, and usually has the ability to deliver a malicious payload. A common technique that virus writers use to avoid detection is to

  13. Assembly and budding of influenza virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debi P. Nayak; Eric Ka-Wai Hui; Subrata Barman

    2004-01-01

    Influenza viruses are causative agents of an acute febrile respiratory disease called influenza (commonly known as “flu”) and belong to the Orthomyxoviridae family. These viruses possess segmented, negative stranded RNA genomes (vRNA) and are enveloped, usually spherical and bud from the plasma membrane (more specifically, the apical plasma membrane of polarized epithelial cells). Complete virus particles, therefore, are not found

  14. Foodborne viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Testing for human pathogenic viruses in foods represents a formidable task requiring the extraction, concentration, and assay of a host of viruses from a wide range of food matrices. The enteric viruses, particularly genogroup I and II (GI and GII) noroviruses and hepatitis A virus, are the princip...

  15. vig-1, a New Fish Gene Induced by the Rhabdovirus Glycoprotein, Has a Virus-Induced Homologue in Humans and Shares Conserved Motifs with the MoaA Family

    PubMed Central

    Boudinot, Pierre; Massin, Pascale; Blanco, Mar; Riffault, Sabine; Benmansour, Abdenour

    1999-01-01

    We used mRNA differential display methodology to analyze the shift of transcription profile induced by the fish rhabdovirus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), in rainbow trout leukocytes. We identified and characterized a new gene which is directly induced by VHSV. This VHSV-induced gene (vig-1) encodes a 348-amino-acid protein. vig-1 is highly expressed during the experimental disease in lymphoid organs of the infected fish. Intramuscular injection of a plasmid vector expressing the viral glycoprotein results in vig-1 expression, showing that the external virus protein is sufficient for the induction. vig-1 expression is also obtained by a rainbow trout interferon-like factor, indicating that vig-1 can be induced through different pathways. Moreover, vig-1 is homologous to a recently described human cytomegalovirus-induced gene. Accordingly, vig-1 activation may represent a new virus-induced activation pathway highly conserved in vertebrates. The deduced amino acid sequence of vig-1 is significantly related to sequences required for the biosynthesis of metal cofactors. This suggests that the function of vig-1 may be involved in the nonspecific virus-induced synthesis of enzymatic cofactors of the nitric oxide pathway. PMID:9971762

  16. Computer viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Subramanya; N. Lakshminarasimhan

    2001-01-01

    Computer viruses have been around since the mid 1980s. Over 40,000 different viruses have been cataloged so far and the number of viruses is increasing dramatically. The damage they cause is estimated to be several billions of U.S. dollars per year. Most often, the origin of the virus is difficult to trace. Various kinds of anti-virus software have been developed

  17. Nucleotides at the extremities of the viral RNA of influenza C virus are involved in type-specific interactions with the polymerase complex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernadette Crescenzo-Chaigne; Sylvie van der Werf

    Influenza A and C viruses share common sequences in the terminal noncoding regions of the viral RNA segments. Differences at the 5«- and 3«-ends exist, however, that could contribute to the specificity with which the transcription\\/replication signals are recognized by the cognate polymerase complexes. Previously, by making use of a transient expression system for the transcription and replication of a

  18. Calcitriol induced redox imbalance and DNA breakage in cells sharing a common metabolic feature of malignancies: Interaction with cellular copper (II) ions leads to the production of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Asim; Rizvi, Ghazala; Naseem, Imrana

    2015-05-01

    Calcitriol is known to selectively kill malignant cells, however, not much is known about the mechanism by which it kills malignant cells and spares the "normal" cells. Since elevation of cellular copper is a metabolic condition common to all malignancies, we developed a mouse model to mimic this condition and treated the animals with calcitriol. It was observed that calcitriol-copper interaction in vivo causes severe fluctuations in cellular enzymatic and nonenzymatic scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Lipid peroxidation, a well-established marker of oxidative stress, was found to increase, and a substantial cellular DNA breakage was observed. Calcitriol-copper interaction in vivo was observed to lead the cells to an apoptosis like cell death. We propose that the interaction of calcitriol and copper within malignant cells and the consequent redox scavenger fluctuations and ROS-mediated DNA breakage may be one of the several mechanisms by which calcitriol causes selective cell death of malignant cells, while sparing normal cells. PMID:25547436

  19. Molecular epidemiology of respiratory viruses in virus-induced asthma

    PubMed Central

    Ishioka, Taisei; Noda, Masahiro; Kozawa, Kunihisa; Kimura, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    Acute respiratory illness (ARI) due to various viruses is not only the most common cause of upper respiratory infection in humans but is also a major cause of morbidity and mortality, leading to diseases such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Previous studies have shown that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human rhinovirus (HRV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human parainfluenza virus (HPIV), and human enterovirus infections may be associated with virus-induced asthma. For example, it has been suggested that HRV infection is detected in the acute exacerbation of asthma and infection is prolonged. Thus it is believed that the main etiological cause of asthma is ARI viruses. Furthermore, the number of asthma patients in most industrial countries has greatly increased, resulting in a morbidity rate of around 10-15% of the population. However, the relationships between viral infections, host immune response, and host factors in the pathophysiology of asthma remain unclear. To gain a better understanding of the epidemiology of virus-induced asthma, it is important to assess both the characteristics of the viruses and the host defense mechanisms. Molecular epidemiology enables us to understand the pathogenesis of microorganisms by identifying specific pathways, molecules, and genes that influence the risk of developing a disease. However, the epidemiology of various respiratory viruses associated with virus-induced asthma is not fully understood. Therefore, in this article, we review molecular epidemiological studies of RSV, HRV, HPIV, and HMPV infection associated with virus-induced asthma. PMID:24062735

  20. Common Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School & University, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Presents K-12 and college common areas considered outstanding in a competition, which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent two days reviewing projects, highlighting concepts and ideas that made them exceptional. For each citation, the article offers information on the firm, client,…

  1. Common Chuckwalla

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Common Chuckwalla is primarily found across the Mojave and Sonoran deserts of the United States and Mexico, at elevations ranging from sea level to 1,370 m. This large (125–180 mm) lizard is dorsoventrally flattened and has wrinkles on its belly and neck. Chuckwallas are strongly associa...

  2. From small hosts come big viruses: the complete genome of a second Ostreococcus tauri virus, OtV-1.

    PubMed

    Weynberg, Karen D; Allen, Michael J; Ashelford, Kevin; Scanlan, David J; Wilson, William H

    2009-11-01

    Ostreococcus tauri virus (OtV-1) is a large double-stranded DNA virus and a prospective member of the family Phycodnaviridae, genus Prasinovirus. OtV-1 infects the unicellular marine green alga O. tauri, the smallest known free-living eukaryote. Here we present the 191 761 base pair genome sequence of OtV-1, which has 232 putative protein-encoding and 4 tRNA-encoding genes. Approximately 31% of the viral gene products exhibit a similarity to proteins of known functions in public databases. These include a variety of unexpected genes, for example, a PhoH-like protein, a N-myristoyltransferase, a 3-dehydroquinate synthase, a number of glycosyltransferases and methyltransferases, a prolyl 4-hydroxylase, 6-phosphofructokinase and a total of 8 capsid proteins. A total of 11 predicted genes share homology with genes found in the Ostreococcus host genome. In addition, an intein was identified in the DNA polymerase gene of OtV-1. This is the first report of an intein in the genome of a virus that infects O. tauri. Fifteen core genes common to nuclear-cytoplasmic large dsDNA virus (NCLDV) genomes were identified in the OtV-1 genome. This new sequence data may help to redefine the classification of the core genes of these viruses and shed new light on their evolutionary history. PMID:19650882

  3. Multiplex Real Time PCR For Detection of Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus and Triticum Mosaic Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and Triticum mosaic virus (TRIMV) are widespread throughout the southwestern Great Plains states. Using conventional diagnostics such as Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA), these two viruses are commonly found together in infected wheat samples. Methods for m...

  4. To Share or Not to Share? Ryan Johnson*

    E-print Network

    processors we expect that a single machine could host a significant subset of an enterprise's data performance by eliminating redundant computation or data accesses. We show that, contrary to common intuition that predicts the effect of work sharing in multi-core systems. Database systems can use the model to determine

  5. Characterization of the Golgi Retention Motif of Rift Valley Fever Virus GN Glycoprotein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonja R. Gerrard; Stuart T. Nichol

    2002-01-01

    As Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus, and probably all members of the family Bunyaviridae, matures in the Golgi apparatus, the targeting of the virus glycoproteins to the Golgi apparatus plays a pivotal role in the virus replication cycle. No consensus Golgi localization motif appears to be shared among the glycoproteins of these viruses. The viruses of the family Bunyaviridae synthesize

  6. Occurrence and prevalence of seven bee viruses in Apis mellifera and Apis cerana apiaries in China.

    PubMed

    Ai, Hongxia; Yan, Xun; Han, Richou

    2012-01-01

    Populations of Apis mellifera and Apis cerana in China were surveyed for seven bee viruses: acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), deformed wing virus (DWV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), sacbrood virus (SBV), and Isreal acute paralysis virus (IAPV). No KBV was detected from any samples of the two species. In A. mellifera, DWV was the most prevalent virus, but in A. cerana, SBV was the dominant. Simultaneous multiple infections of viruses were common in both species. This is the first report of detection of IAPV and CBPV in A. cerana. PMID:22062807

  7. 21 CFR 866.3400 - Parainfluenza virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...diseases caused by these viruses. Parainfluenza viruses cause a variety of respiratory illnesses ranging from the common cold to pneumonia. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3400 - Parainfluenza virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...diseases caused by these viruses. Parainfluenza viruses cause a variety of respiratory illnesses ranging from the common cold to pneumonia. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification...

  9. Mobile Proactive secret sharing

    E-print Network

    Schultz, David Andrew

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes mobile proactive secret sharing (MPSS), an extension of proactive secret sharing. Mobile proactive secret sharing is much more flexible than proactive secret sharing in terms of group membership: ...

  10. Oncolytic Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Nemunaitis

    1999-01-01

    Viruses capable of inducing lysis of malignant cells through theirreplication process are known as ``oncolytic'' viruses. Clinicaltrials in oncology have been performed with oncolytic viruses fornearly fifty years. Both systemic and intratumoral routes ofadministration have been explored. Toxicity has generally beenlimited to injection site pain, transient fever and tumor necrosis.Responses with early crude materials were usually short induration; however, recent

  11. Characteristics of shared service centers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Veit Schulz; Walter Brenner

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – Even though a lot of publications focusing on shared service center (SSC) exist, there is no unique understanding of the term “SSC”. The aim of this paper is to obtain an overview of definitions of the term “SSC” and an overview of relevant literature. It also aims to derive a common understanding with the help of SSC characteristics

  12. Spectrum sharing for unlicensed bands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raul Etkin; Abhay Parekh; David Tse

    2007-01-01

    We study a spectrum sharing problem in an unlicensed band where multiple systems coexist and interfere with each other. We first analyze a cooperative setting where all the systems collaborate to achieve a common goal. Under the assumptions that the systems communicate with Gaussian signals and treat interference as noise, we study the structure of the optimal power allocations. We

  13. Spectrum sharing for unlicensed bands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raul Etkin; Abhay Parekh; David Tse

    2005-01-01

    We study a spectrum sharing problem in an unlicensed band where multiple systems coexist and interfere with each other. We first analyze a cooperative setting where all the systems collaborate to achieve a common goal. Under the assumptions that the systems communicate with Gaussian signals and treat interference as noise, we study the structure of the optimal power allocations. We

  14. Genome of brown tide virus (AaV), the little giant of the Megaviridae, elucidates NCLDV genome expansion and host-virus coevolution.

    PubMed

    Moniruzzaman, Mohammad; LeCleir, Gary R; Brown, Christopher M; Gobler, Christopher J; Bidle, Kay D; Wilson, William H; Wilhelm, Steven W

    2014-10-01

    Aureococcus anophagefferens causes economically and ecologically destructive "brown tides" in the United States, China and South Africa. Here we report the 370,920bp genomic sequence of AaV, a virus capable of infecting and lysing A. anophagefferens. AaV is a member of the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV) group, harboring 377 putative coding sequences and 8 tRNAs. Despite being an algal virus, AaV shows no phylogenetic affinity to the Phycodnaviridae family, to which most algae-infecting viruses belong. Core gene phylogenies, shared gene content and genome-wide similarities suggest AaV is the smallest member of the emerging clade "Megaviridae". The genomic architecture of AaV demonstrates that the ancestral virus had an even smaller genome, which expanded through gene duplication and assimilation of genes from diverse sources including the host itself - some of which probably modulate important host processes. AaV also harbors a number of genes exclusive to phycodnaviruses - reinforcing the hypothesis that Phycodna- and Mimiviridae share a common ancestor. PMID:25035289

  15. Intranasal Sendai virus vaccine protects African green monkeys from infection with human parainfluenza virus-type one

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia L. Hurwitz; Kenneth F. Soike; Mark Y. Sangster; Allen Portner; Robert E. Sealy; Dawn H. Dawson; Christopher Coleclough

    1997-01-01

    Human parainfluenza virus-type 1 (hPIV-1) infections are a common cause of “croup” and hospitalizations among young children. Here we address the possibility of using the xenotropic Sendai virus [a mouse parainfluenza virus (PIV)] as a vaccine for hPIV-1. Sendai virus was administered to six African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) by the intranasal (i.n.) route. A long lasting virus-specific antibody response

  16. PC viruses: How do they do that

    SciTech Connect

    Pichnarczyk, K.

    1992-07-01

    The topic of PC Viruses has been an issue for a number of years now. They've been reported in every major newspaper, tabloids, television and radio. People from all fields get viruses: government, private sector businesses, home computers, schools, computer software suppliers. A definition is proposed to introduce the virus phenomenon. Virus authors come from a variety of communities. Motives and ideologies of authors are discussed, and examples of viruses are offered. Also mentioned is the growing number of viruses developed, isolated, and never distributed to the public at large, but kept within the antivirus research community. Virus examples are offered as well. Viruses are distributed not only through bulletin boards and shareware, but also from areas previously assumed to be safe, including the threat of receiving a virus through a standard in-house function, such as an in-house hardware maintenance shop. Three categories of viruses are presented: File Infecter viruses, Boot Sector Infecters, and the new category of Directory Entry Infecter virus. Also discussed are crossover viruses, that is, viruses which utilize a variety of techniques to ensure survival. An explanation of what is occurring within every stage of various viruses is given. Replication strategies common to all three types is noted, mainly the two different replication strategies of memory resident infecters and active selection infecters. A detailed definition, description and application of a stealth virus is presented. Detection strategies are discussed as each topic in this section is completed; a high level schemata of the operation of various virus detection programs ispresented. Since most eradication today is done using virus detection/eradication software, this paper attempts to reveal the techniques used by these packages.Included in the paper is the topic of manual eradication.

  17. PC viruses: How do they do that?

    SciTech Connect

    Pichnarczyk, K.

    1992-07-01

    The topic of PC Viruses has been an issue for a number of years now. They`ve been reported in every major newspaper, tabloids, television and radio. People from all fields get viruses: government, private sector businesses, home computers, schools, computer software suppliers. A definition is proposed to introduce the virus phenomenon. Virus authors come from a variety of communities. Motives and ideologies of authors are discussed, and examples of viruses are offered. Also mentioned is the growing number of viruses developed, isolated, and never distributed to the public at large, but kept within the antivirus research community. Virus examples are offered as well. Viruses are distributed not only through bulletin boards and shareware, but also from areas previously assumed to be safe, including the threat of receiving a virus through a standard in-house function, such as an in-house hardware maintenance shop. Three categories of viruses are presented: File Infecter viruses, Boot Sector Infecters, and the new category of Directory Entry Infecter virus. Also discussed are crossover viruses, that is, viruses which utilize a variety of techniques to ensure survival. An explanation of what is occurring within every stage of various viruses is given. Replication strategies common to all three types is noted, mainly the two different replication strategies of memory resident infecters and active selection infecters. A detailed definition, description and application of a stealth virus is presented. Detection strategies are discussed as each topic in this section is completed; a high level schemata of the operation of various virus detection programs ispresented. Since most eradication today is done using virus detection/eradication software, this paper attempts to reveal the techniques used by these packages.Included in the paper is the topic of manual eradication.

  18. On Four Independent Phenomena Sharing a Common Cause

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger Ellman

    2000-01-01

    Four independent unrelated phenomena, none of which has an established explanation, have now been extensively observed and a large amount of data substantiating the phenomena have been developed. The phenomena are as follows. - In 1933 F. Zwicky reported that the rotational balance of gravitational central attraction and rotational centripetal force in galaxies appeared to be out of balance, that

  19. Finding Common Concerns for the Children We Share

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Mainstream education often misunderstands the ways that some rural black families display involvement in their children's lives. Teachers may tend to attribute children's academic struggles to what they perceived as a lack of care, concern, and involvement of the families. Such views could keep children from reaching and exceeding their…

  20. Insights & Perspectives LRRC8 proteins share a common

    E-print Network

    Zardoya, Rafael

    ]. LRRC8 proteins were originally assumed to be located in the plasma membrane, with the LRRD pointing towards the outside of the cell [1], as in most (if not all) animal LRR- containing receptors (e.g. Toll hexameric channels involved in cell-cell communication Federico Abascalà and Rafael Zardoya Leucine

  1. An Automatic Unpacking Method for Computer Virus Effective in the Virus Filter Based on Paul Graham's Bayesian Theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dengfeng; Nakaya, Naoshi; Koui, Yuuji; Yoshida, Hitoaki

    Recently, the appearance frequency of computer virus variants has increased. Updates to virus information using the normal pattern matching method are increasingly unable to keep up with the speed at which viruses occur, since it takes time to extract the characteristic patterns for each virus. Therefore, a rapid, automatic virus detection algorithm using static code analysis is necessary. However, recent computer viruses are almost always compressed and obfuscated. It is difficult to determine the characteristics of the binary code from the obfuscated computer viruses. Therefore, this paper proposes a method that unpacks compressed computer viruses automatically independent of the compression format. The proposed method unpacks the common compression formats accurately 80% of the time, while unknown compression formats can also be unpacked. The proposed method is effective against unknown viruses by combining it with the existing known virus detection system like Paul Graham's Bayesian Virus Filter etc.

  2. What Are Common Treatments for Down Syndrome?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Resources and Publications What are common treatments for Down syndrome? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... computers with large-letter keyboards. DS-Connect®: The Down Syndrome Registry Parents and families of children with Down ...

  3. Limits in virus filtration capability? Impact of virus quality and spike level on virus removal with xenotropic murine leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Roush, David J; Myrold, Adam; Burnham, Michael S; And, Joseph V; Hughes, Joseph V

    2015-01-01

    Virus filtration (VF) is a key step in an overall viral clearance process since it has been demonstrated to effectively clear a wide range of mammalian viruses with a log reduction value (LRV)?>?4. The potential to achieve higher LRV from virus retentive filters has historically been examined using bacteriophage surrogates, which commonly demonstrated a potential of?>?9 LRV when using high titer spikes (e.g. 10(10) PFU/mL). However, as the filter loading increases, one typically experiences significant decreases in performance and LRV. The 9 LRV value is markedly higher than the current expected range of 4-5 LRV when utilizing mammalian retroviruses on virus removal filters (Miesegaes et al., Dev Biol (Basel) 2010;133:3-101). Recent values have been reported in the literature (Stuckey et al., Biotech Progr 2014;30:79-85) of LRV in excess of 6 for PPV and XMuLV although this result appears to be atypical. LRV for VF with therapeutic proteins could be limited by several factors including process limits (flux decay, load matrix), virus spike level and the analytical methods used for virus detection (i.e. the Limits of Quantitation), as well as the virus spike quality. Research was conducted using the Xenotropic-Murine Leukemia Virus (XMuLV) for its direct relevance to the most commonly cited document, the International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) Q5A (International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use, Geneva, Switzerland, 1999) for viral safety evaluations. A unique aspect of this work is the independent evaluation of the impact of retrovirus quality and virus spike level on VF performance and LRV. The VF studies used XMuLV preparations purified by either ultracentrifugation (Ultra 1) or by chromatographic processes that yielded a more highly purified virus stock (Ultra 2). Two monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) with markedly different filtration characteristics and with similar levels of aggregate (<1.5%) were evaluated with the Ultra 1 and Ultra 2 virus preparations utilizing the Planova 20 N, a small virus removal filter. Impurities in the virus preparation ultimately limited filter loading as measured by determining the volumetric loading condition where 75% flux decay is observed versus initial conditions (V75). This observation occurred with both Mabs with the difference in virus purity more pronounced when very high spike levels were used (>5 vol/vol %). Significant differences were seen for the process performance over a number of lots of the less-pure Ultra 1 virus preparations. Experiments utilizing a developmental lot of the chromatographic purified XMuLV (Ultra 2 Development lot) that had elevated levels of host cell residuals (vs. the final Ultra 2 preparations) suggest that these contaminant residuals can impact virus filter fouling, even if the virus prep is essentially monodisperse. Process studies utilizing an Ultra 2 virus with substantially less host cell residuals and highly monodispersed virus particles demonstrated superior performance and an LRV in excess of 7.7 log10 . A model was constructed demonstrating the linear dependence of filtration flux versus filter loading which can be used to predict the V75 for a range of virus spike levels conditions using this highly purified virus. Fine tuning the virus spike level with this model can ultimately maximize the LRV for the virus filter step, essentially adding the LRV equivalent of another process step (i.e. protein A or CEX chromatography). PMID:25395156

  4. Comparative analysis of chrysanthemum transcriptome in response to three RNA viruses: Cucumber mosaic virus, Tomato spotted wilt virus and Potato virus X.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hoseong; Jo, Yeonhwa; Lian, Sen; Jo, Kyoung-Min; Chu, Hyosub; Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Choi, Seung-Kook; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Cho, Won Kyong

    2015-06-01

    The chrysanthemum is one of popular flowers in the world and a host for several viruses. So far, molecular interaction studies between the chrysanthemum and viruses are limited. In this study, we carried out a transcriptome analysis of chrysanthemum in response to three different viruses including Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and Potato virus X (PVX). A chrysanthemum 135K microarray derived from expressed sequence tags was successfully applied for the expression profiles of the chrysanthemum at early stage of virus infection. Finally, we identified a total of 125, 70 and 124 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for CMV, TSWV and PVX, respectively. Many DEGs were virus specific; however, 33 DEGs were commonly regulated by three viruses. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis identified a total of 132 GO terms, and of them, six GO terms related stress response and MCM complex were commonly identified for three viruses. Several genes functioning in stress response such as chitin response and ethylene mediated signaling pathway were up-regulated indicating their involvement in establishment of host immune system. In particular, TSWV infection significantly down-regulated genes related to DNA metabolic process including DNA replication, chromatin organization, histone modification and cytokinesis, and they are mostly targeted to nucleosome and MCM complex. Taken together, our comparative transcriptome analysis revealed several genes related to hormone mediated viral stress response and DNA modification. The identified chrysanthemums genes could be good candidates for further functional study associated with resistant to various plant viruses. PMID:25904110

  5. Common cold

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Each year, children suffer up to 5 colds and adults have two to three infections, leading to time off school or work, and considerable discomfort. Most symptoms resolve within 1 week, but coughs often persist for longer. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for common cold? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to January 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 21 systematic reviews and RCTs that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: analgesics or anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, antihistamines, decongestants for short-term and for long-term relief, decongestants plus antihistamines, echinacea, steam inhalation, vitamin C, and zinc (intranasal gel or lozenges). PMID:21406124

  6. Chicken anemia virus.

    PubMed

    Schat, K A

    2009-01-01

    Chicken anemia virus (CAV), the only member of the genus Gyrovirus of the Circoviridae, is a ubiquitous pathogen of chickens and has a worldwide distribution. CAV shares some similarities with Torque teno virus (TTV) and Torque teno mini virus (TTMV) such as coding for a protein inducing apoptosis and a protein with a dual-specificity phosphatase. In contrast to TTV, the genome of CAV is highly conserved. Another important difference is that CAV can be isolated in cell culture. CAV produces a single polycistronic messenger RNA (mRNA), which is translated into three proteins. The promoter-enhancer region has four direct repeats resembling estrogen response elements. Transcription is enhanced by estrogen and repressed by at least two other transcription factors, one of which is COUP-TF1. A remarkable feature of CAV is that the virus can remain latent in gonadal tissues in the presence or absence of virus-neutralizing antibodies. In contrast to TTV, CAV can cause clinical disease and subclinical immunosuppression especially affecting CD8+ T lymphocytes. Clinical disease is associated with infection in newly hatched chicks lacking maternal antibodies or older chickens with a compromised humoral immune response. PMID:19230563

  7. Car Sharing Scheme Car Share Scheme

    E-print Network

    Martin, Ralph R.

    Car Sharing Scheme Car Share Scheme The cost is now reduced to £10 per member of staff per car that is used to travel to and from work on occasions, i.e. where two cars may have originally been parked on Campus at the same time the scheme is aimed at reducing this to one car. Staff members who car

  8. Cedar Virus: A Novel Henipavirus Isolated from Australian Bats

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Jennifer A.; Tachedjian, Mary; Smith, Craig; Middleton, Deborah; Yu, Meng; Todd, Shawn; Foord, Adam J.; Haring, Volker; Payne, Jean; Robinson, Rachel; Broz, Ivano; Crameri, Gary; Field, Hume E.; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2012-01-01

    The genus Henipavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae contains two viruses, Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) for which pteropid bats act as the main natural reservoir. Each virus also causes serious and commonly lethal infection of people as well as various species of domestic animals, however little is known about the associated mechanisms of pathogenesis. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a new paramyxovirus from pteropid bats, Cedar virus (CedPV), which shares significant features with the known henipaviruses. The genome size (18,162 nt) and organization of CedPV is very similar to that of HeV and NiV; its nucleocapsid protein displays antigenic cross-reactivity with henipaviruses; and it uses the same receptor molecule (ephrin- B2) for entry during infection. Preliminary challenge studies with CedPV in ferrets and guinea pigs, both susceptible to infection and disease with known henipaviruses, confirmed virus replication and production of neutralizing antibodies although clinical disease was not observed. In this context, it is interesting to note that the major genetic difference between CedPV and HeV or NiV lies within the coding strategy of the P gene, which is known to play an important role in evading the host innate immune system. Unlike HeV, NiV, and almost all known paramyxoviruses, the CedPV P gene lacks both RNA editing and also the coding capacity for the highly conserved V protein. Preliminary study indicated that CedPV infection of human cells induces a more robust IFN-? response than HeV. PMID:22879820

  9. Replication-Coupled Packaging Mechanism in Positive-Strand RNA Viruses: Synchronized Coexpression of Functional Multigenome RNA Components of an Animal and a Plant Virus in Nicotiana benthamiana Cells by Agroinfiltration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Padmanaban Annamalai; Fady Rofail; Darleen A. DeMason; A. L. N. Rao

    2008-01-01

    Flock house virus (FHV), a bipartite RNA virus of insects and a member of the Nodaviridae family, shares viral replication features with the tripartite brome mosaic virus (BMV), an RNA virus that infects plants and is a member of the Bromoviridae family. In BMV and FHV, genome packaging is coupled to replication, a widely conserved mechanism among positive-strand RNA viruses

  10. Characterization of leader RNA sequences on the virion and mRNAs of mouse hepatitis virus, a cytoplasmic RNA virus.

    PubMed Central

    Lai, M M; Baric, R S; Brayton, P R; Stohlman, S A

    1984-01-01

    Mouse hepatitis virus, which replicates in cytoplasm, contains leader RNA sequences at the 5' end of the virus-specific mRNAs. We have sequenced this leader RNA by synthesizing cDNA from a synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotide primer (15-mer) that is complementary to the sequences at the junction site between the leader and body sequences of the mRNAs. The leader sequences on each mRNA have exactly the same size, which span approximately equal to 70 nucleotides. Leader cDNA fragments obtained from several mRNA species were sequenced and found to be identical. Computer analysis of the leader RNA sequences shows that they share extensive sequence homology with the long-terminal-repeat region of several mammalian sarcoma viruses, suggesting possible common functions. This is a novel case of spliced leader sequences in the mRNAs of a cytoplasmic virus. An identical leader sequence is also present at the 5' end of the virion genomic RNA. The leader RNA is thus probably encoded by the virion genomic RNA template and is fused to the different body sequences of the various mRNAs. Since conventional RNA splicing is not involved, a novel mechanism for fusing two noncontiguous RNA segments in the cytoplasm must be utilized during viral transcription. Several minor cDNA bands longer than the leader were also synthesized, suggesting the possible presence of partially homologous sequences in other parts of the genome RNA. Images PMID:6328522

  11. Discovery of a Novel Single-Stranded DNA Virus from a Sea Turtle Fibropapilloma by Using Viral Metagenomics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terry Fei Fan Ng; Charles Manire; Kelly Borrowman; Tammy Langer; Llewellyn Ehrhart; Mya Breitbart

    2009-01-01

    Viral metagenomics, consisting of viral particle purification and shotgun sequencing, is a powerful technique for discovering viruses associated with diseases with no definitive etiology, viruses that share limited homology with known viruses, or viruses that are not culturable. Here we used viral metagenomics to examine viruses associated with sea turtle fibropapillomatosis (FP), a debilitating neoplastic disease affecting sea turtles worldwide.

  12. Detecting Unknown Computer Viruses - A New Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akira Mori

    2003-01-01

    \\u000a We give an overview of the tools to detect computer viruses without relying on “pattern files” that contain “signatures” of\\u000a previously captured viruses. The system combines static code analysis with code simulation to identify malicious behaviors\\u000a commonly found in computer viruses such as mass mailing, file infection, and registry overwrite. These prohibited behaviors\\u000a are defined separately as security policies at

  13. West Nile virus in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Christal G

    2008-06-01

    West Nile virus causes sporadic disease in the Eastern hemisphere that is often asymptomatic or mild, whereas in the Western hemisphere, West Nile virus has been associated with illness and profound mortality in many avian species. West Nile virus might have been transported to North America by an infected mosquito or the virus could have entered within a vertebrate host like a bird. Although the most important method of West Nile virus transmission is by Culex species mosquitoes, additional modes of transmission have been identified. West Nile virus has been isolated from almost 300 species of Western birds. The long-term effects on common species such as corvids, sparrows, grackles, finches, hawks, and robins are still being debated. However the potential effect of West Nile virus on small populations or species with limited geographic distribution, such as Hawaiian avifauna, could be much more catastrophic. PMID:18689077

  14. Cost Sharing Basics Definitions

    E-print Network

    Finley Jr., Russell L.

    the project costs. Cost sharing is defined as project costs not borne by the sponsor. Cost sharing funds may directly benefit that project and are generally counted as cost sharing. Direct-cost cost sharing support, and other resources as direct support for the project, as well as related indirect costs

  15. Genome Analysis of the First Marseilleviridae Representative from Australia Indicates that Most of Its Genes Contribute to Virus Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Doutre, Gabriel; Philippe, Nadège

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The family Marseilleviridae consists of Acanthamoeba-infecting large DNA viruses with icosahedral particles ?0.2 ?m in diameter and genome sizes in the 346- to 380-kb range. Since the isolation of Marseillevirus from a cooling tower in Paris (France) in 2009, the family Marseilleviridae has expanded rapidly, with representatives from Europe and Africa. Five members have been fully sequenced that are distributed among 3 emerging Marseilleviridae lineages. One comprises Marseillevirus and Cannes 8 virus, another one includes Insectomime virus and Tunisvirus, and the third one corresponds to the more distant Lausannevirus. We now report the genomic characterization of Melbournevirus, the first representative of the Marseilleviridae isolated from a freshwater pond in Melbourne, Australia. Despite the large distance separating this sampling point from France, Melbournevirus is remarkably similar to Cannes 8 virus and Marseillevirus, with most orthologous genes exhibiting more than 98% identical nucleotide sequences. We took advantage of this optimal evolutionary distance to evaluate the selection pressure, expressed as the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous mutations for various categories of genes. This ratio was found to be less than 1 for all of them, including those shared solely by the closest Melbournevirus and Cannes 8 virus isolates and absent from Lausannevirus. This suggests that most of the 403 protein-coding genes composing the large Melbournevirus genome are under negative/purifying selection and must thus significantly contribute to virus fitness. This conclusion contrasts with the more common view that many of the genes of the usually more diverse large DNA viruses might be (almost) dispensable. IMPORTANCE A pervasive view is that viruses are fast-evolving parasites and carry the smallest possible amount of genomic information required to highjack the host cell machinery and perform their replication. This notion, probably inherited from the study of RNA viruses, is being gradually undermined by the discovery of DNA viruses with increasingly large gene content. These viruses also encode a variety of DNA repair functions, presumably slowing down their evolution by preserving their genomes from random alterations. On the other hand, these viruses also encode a majority of proteins without cellular homologs, including many shared only between the closest members of the same family. One may thus question the actual contribution of these anonymous and/or quasi-orphan genes to virus fitness. Genomic comparisons of Marseilleviridae, including a new Marseillevirus isolated in Australia, demonstrate that most of their genes, irrespective of their functions and conservation across families, are evolving under negative selection. PMID:25275139

  16. Shared Generation of Shared RSA Keys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon Blackburn; Simon Blake-wilson C; Mike Burmester; Steven Galbraith

    1998-01-01

    The paper considers the problem of distributed key generation for shared-control RSA schemes.In particular: how can two parties generate a shared RSA key in such a way that neither partycan cheat? The answer to this question would have significant applications to, for example,key escrow systems. Cocks has recently proposed protocols to solve this problem in the casewhen both parties act

  17. Phytophthora viruses.

    PubMed

    Cai, Guohong; Hillman, Bradley I

    2013-01-01

    Phytophthora sp. is a genus in the oomycetes, which are similar to filamentous fungi in morphology and habitat, but phylogenetically more closely related to brown algae and diatoms and fall in the kingdom Stramenopila. In the past few years, several viruses have been characterized in Phytophthora species, including four viruses from Phytophthora infestans, the late blight pathogen, and an endornavirus from an unnamed Phytophthora species from Douglas fir. Studies on Phytophthora viruses have revealed several interesting systems. Phytophthora infestans RNA virus 1 (PiRV-1) and PiRV-2 are likely the first members of two new virus families; studies on PiRV-3 support the establishment of a new virus genus that is not affiliated with established virus families; PiRV-4 is a member of Narnaviridae, most likely in the genus Narnavirus; and Phytophthora endornavirus 1 (PEV1) was the first nonplant endornavirus at the time of reporting. Viral capsids have not been found in any of the above-mentioned viruses. PiRV-1 demonstrated a unique genome organization that requires further examination, and PiRV-2 may have played a role in late blight resurgence in 1980s-1990s. PMID:23498912

  18. Drug Might Fight Ebola-Like Marburg Virus

    MedlinePLUS

    Drug Might Fight Ebola-like Marburg Virus Study found infected monkeys were less likely to die with treatment To use the sharing features ... the deadly Marburg virus, which is similar to Ebola. Monkeys didn't die from Marburg virus after ...

  19. Comparative genomics of mutualistic viruses of Glyptapanteles parasitic wasps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polydnaviruses, a family of double-stranded DNA viruses with segmented genomes, have evolved as obligate endosymbionts of endoparasitoid wasps, and are some of the few viruses known to share mutualistic relationships with eukaryotic hosts. Virus particles are replication deficient and are produced o...

  20. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Hyperthermophilic Archaeal Fuselloviridae Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Blake Wiedenheft; Kenneth Stedman; Francisco Roberto; Deborah Willits; Anne-Kathrin Gleske; Luisa Zoeller; Jamie Snyder; Trevor Douglas; Mark Young

    2004-01-01

    The complete genome sequences of two Sulfolobus spindle-shaped viruses (SSVs) from acidic hot springs in Kamchatka (Russia) and Yellowstone National Park (United States) have been determined. These nonlytic temperate viruses were isolated from hyperthermophilic Sulfolobus hosts, and both viruses share the spindle- shaped morphology characteristic of the Fuselloviridae family. These two genomes, in combination with the previously determined SSV1 genome

  1. A fault tolerance approach to computer viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark K. Joseph; Algirdas AviZienis

    1988-01-01

    Extensions of program flow monitors and n-version programming can be combined to provide a solution to the detection and containment of computer viruses. The consequence is that a computer can tolerate both deliberate faults and random physical faults by one common mechanism. Specifically, the technique detects control flow errors due to physical faults as well as the presence of viruses

  2. Alterations in potential sites for glycosylation predominate during evolution of the simian immunodeficiency virus envelope gene in macaques.

    PubMed Central

    Overbaugh, J; Rudensey, L M

    1992-01-01

    Genetic diversity is a hallmark of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) genome, but the role of distinct HIV variants in the development of AIDS is unclear. Envelope (env) is the most highly variable gene in HIV as well as in other retroviruses. We have previously demonstrated that variation in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) env is primarily localized in two regions (V1 and V4) during progression to simian AIDS. To determine whether there is a common genotype that evolves as AIDS develops, a total of 160 SIV env genes isolated directly from the tissue DNAs of four macaques infected with cloned virus were compared. Common amino acid sequence changes were identified within V1, V4, and, in the late stages of disease, near V3. At several positions, the same amino acid change was seen frequently in the variant genomes from all four animals. As AIDS developed, the majority of viruses evolved an extended sequence in V1 that was rich in serine and threonine residues and shared similarity with proteins modified by O-linked glycosylation. Several of the predominant common sequence changes in V1 and V4 created new sites for N-linked glycosylation. Thus, common features of the SIV variants that evolve during progression to AIDS are motifs that potentially allow for structural and functional changes in the env protein as a result of carbohydrate addition. PMID:1527847

  3. Diseases Caused by Viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The symptoms, causal agents, epidemiology and management of important virus diseases in chickpea and lentil crops were reviewed in depth. The virus diseases include.Alflafa mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaiv virus, Faba bean necrotic yellows virus, Pea enation mosaic virus, Pea seed-borne mosaci virus,...

  4. Systemic Spread and Propagation of a Plant-Pathogenic Virus in European Honeybees, Apis mellifera

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ji Lian; Cornman, R. Scott; Evans, Jay D.; Pettis, Jeffery S.; Zhao, Yan; Murphy, Charles; Peng, Wen Jun; Wu, Jie; Hamilton, Michele; Boncristiani, Humberto F.; Zhou, Liang; Hammond, John; Chen, Yan Ping

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Emerging and reemerging diseases that result from pathogen host shifts are a threat to the health of humans and their domesticates. RNA viruses have extremely high mutation rates and thus represent a significant source of these infectious diseases. In the present study, we showed that a plant-pathogenic RNA virus, tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), could replicate and produce virions in honeybees, Apis mellifera, resulting in infections that were found throughout the entire body. Additionally, we showed that TRSV-infected individuals were continually present in some monitored colonies. While intracellular life cycle, species-level genetic variation, and pathogenesis of the virus in honeybee hosts remain to be determined, the increasing prevalence of TRSV in conjunction with other bee viruses from spring toward winter in infected colonies was associated with gradual decline of host populations and winter colony collapse, suggesting the negative impact of the virus on colony survival. Furthermore, we showed that TRSV was also found in ectoparasitic Varroa mites that feed on bee hemolymph, but in those instances the virus was restricted to the gastric cecum of Varroa mites, suggesting that Varroa mites may facilitate the spread of TRSV in bees but do not experience systemic invasion. Finally, our phylogenetic analysis revealed that TRSV isolates from bees, bee pollen, and Varroa mites clustered together, forming a monophyletic clade. The tree topology indicated that the TRSVs from arthropod hosts shared a common ancestor with those from plant hosts and subsequently evolved as a distinct lineage after transkingdom host alteration. This study represents a unique example of viruses with host ranges spanning both the plant and animal kingdoms. PMID:24449751

  5. The Origins of Shared Intuitions of Justice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul H. Robinson; Robert O. Kurzban; Owen D. Jones

    2006-01-01

    Contrary to the common wisdom among criminal law scholars, the empirical evidence reveals that people's intuitions of justice are often specific, nuanced, and widely shared. Indeed, with regard to the core harms and evils to which criminal law addresses itself – physical aggression, takings without consent, and deception in transactions – the shared intuitions are stunningly consistent, across cultures as

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF MULTIPLEX RT-PCR FOR THE DETECTION OF REOVIRUS, HEPATITIS A VIRUS, POLIOVIRUS, NORWALK VIRUS AND ROTAVIRUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water sources are often found to be contaminated by enteric viruses. This is a public health concern as food and waterborne outbreaks caused by enteric viruses such as noroviruses, rotaviruses, hepatitis A virus (HAV) and enteroviruses are a common occurrence. All of these viru...

  7. Emerging Viruses

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lee, Amy.

    Emerging viruses are those "whose incidence in humans has increased in the past 2 decades or threatens to increase in the near future." This week's Topic in Depth focuses on sites related to viruses, particularly those that are considered "emerging."The first site (1) is an essay by Alison Jacobson of the University of Capetown that discusses some emerging and potentially emerging viruses, along with factors that contribute to the threat. From a US government interagency working group, the second report (2) focuses on the responses to infectious disease outbreaks, including drugs, vaccines, and government response. A World Health Organization site (3) highlights recent reports of infectious disease, archived by date and by disease. This ThinkQuest site (4) gives a basic introduction to viruses and how they cause infections. An online virology tutorial (5) by Ed Rybicki of the University of Cape Town serves as a lesson on the basics of virology for a more advanced student. The next two sites focus on the specifics of selected viruses. From the Institute for Molecular Virology (6) comes a resource on Marburg and Ebola viruses, and from the National Biological Information Infrastructure (7) is a site on West Nile Virus. The last resource (8) is a scholarly journal from the Centers for Disease Control that presents some of the latest scientific research on emerging diseases.

  8. Sharing Sensor Network Data

    E-print Network

    Gong Chen; Nathan Yau; Mark Hansen; Deborah Estrin

    2007-01-01

    practices”. People share data and add documentation within the guidelines of SensorBase.org which supports goodpractices”. People share data and add documentation within the guidelines of SensorBase.org which supports good

  9. Recoverable distributed shared memory 

    E-print Network

    Kanthadai, Sundarrajan S

    1996-01-01

    Distributed Shared Memory (DSM) is a model for interprocess communication, implemented on top of message passing systems. In this model, processes running on separate hosts can access a shared, coherent memory address space, provided...

  10. DATA SHARING WORKBOOK Introduction

    E-print Network

    Baker, Chris I.

    DATA SHARING WORKBOOK · Introduction · Protecting the Rights and Privacy of Human Subjects · Protecting Proprietary Data · Examples of Data Sharing o Data Archives o Federated Data Systems o Data ______________________________________________________________________________ INTRODUCTION Scientists working in many different areas are already sharing their data through a variety

  11. Major Foodborne Illness Causing Viruses and Current Status of Vaccines Against the Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. D. Atreya

    2004-01-01

    Even though viruses, unlike bacteria, cannot grow in or on foods, foodborne illnesses are associated with viruses due to contamination of the fresh produce or processed food by virus-containing fecal material. The commonly reported major foodborne illnesses are due to Noroviruses, hepatitis A and E viruses, rotaviruses, and astroviruses. Among all illnesses caused by foodborne pathogens, recent estimates of as

  12. Origin of giant viruses from smaller DNA viruses not from a fourth domain of cellular life.

    PubMed

    Yutin, Natalya; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V

    2014-10-01

    The numerous and diverse eukaryotic viruses with large double-stranded DNA genomes that at least partially reproduce in the cytoplasm of infected cells apparently evolved from a single virus ancestor. This major group of viruses is known as Nucleocytoplasmic Large DNA Viruses (NCLDV) or the proposed order Megavirales. Among the "Megavirales", there are three groups of giant viruses with genomes exceeding 500kb, namely Mimiviruses, Pithoviruses, and Pandoraviruses that hold the current record of viral genome size, about 2.5Mb. Phylogenetic analysis of conserved, ancestral NLCDV genes clearly shows that these three groups of giant viruses have three distinct origins within the "Megavirales". The Mimiviruses constitute a distinct family that is distantly related to Phycodnaviridae, Pandoraviruses originate from a common ancestor with Coccolithoviruses within the Phycodnaviridae family, and Pithoviruses are related to Iridoviridae and Marseilleviridae. Maximum likelihood reconstruction of gene gain and loss events during the evolution of the "Megavirales" indicates that each group of giant viruses evolved from viruses with substantially smaller and simpler gene repertoires. Initial phylogenetic analysis of universal genes, such as translation system components, encoded by some giant viruses, in particular Mimiviruses, has led to the hypothesis that giant viruses descend from a fourth, probably extinct domain of cellular life. The results of our comprehensive phylogenomic analysis of giant viruses refute the fourth domain hypothesis and instead indicate that the universal genes have been independently acquired by different giant viruses from their eukaryotic hosts. PMID:25042053

  13. Extensive Mutagenesis of the Conserved Box E Motif in Duck Hepatitis B Virus P Protein Reveals Multiple Functions in Replication and a Common Structure with the Primer Grip in HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong-Xiang; Luo, Cheng; Zhao, Dan; Beck, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Hepadnaviruses, including the pathogenic hepatitis B virus (HBV), replicate their small DNA genomes through protein-primed reverse transcription, mediated by the terminal protein (TP) domain in their P proteins and an RNA stem-loop, ?, on the pregenomic RNA (pgRNA). No direct structural data are available for P proteins, but their reverse transcriptase (RT) domains contain motifs that are conserved in all RTs (box A to box G), implying a similar architecture; however, experimental support for this notion is limited. Exploiting assays available for duck HBV (DHBV) but not the HBV P protein, we assessed the functional consequences of numerous mutations in box E, which forms the DNA primer grip in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RT. This substructure coordinates primer 3?-end positioning and RT subdomain movements during the polymerization cycle and is a prime target for nonnucleosidic RT inhibitors (NNRTIs) of HIV-1 RT. Box E was indeed critical for DHBV replication, with the mutations affecting the folding, ? RNA interactions, and polymerase activity of the P protein in a position- and amino acid side chain-dependent fashion similar to that of HIV-1 RT. Structural similarity to HIV-1 RT was underlined by molecular modeling and was confirmed by the replication activity of chimeric P proteins carrying box E, or even box C to box E, from HIV-1 RT. Hence, box E in the DHBV P protein and likely the HBV P protein forms a primer grip-like structure that may provide a new target for anti-HBV NNRTIs. PMID:22514339

  14. HIV virus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Carl Henderson (National Institutes of Health; )

    2005-12-09

    HIV is a virus that can be transmitted through fluids exchanged in sexual activity. HIV eventually causes AIDS. AIDS patients have compromised immune systems and they eventually die from diseases that healthy humans would normally fight off very easily.

  15. Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus co-infection: a therapeutic challenge.

    PubMed

    Hamzaoui, Lamine; El Bouchtili, Souheil; Siai, Karima; Mahmoudi, Moufida; Azzouz, Mohamed Msaddak

    2013-02-01

    Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus are the two most common causes of chronic liver disease in the world. Dual infection with hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus, whose prevalence is underestimated, is characterized by a more severe liver injury, a higher probability of liver cirrhosis and a higher incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma. Treatment of these patients represents a therapeutic challenge. We report the case of an hepatitis B virus-hepatitis C virus co-infected patient, which particularly illustrates the interactions between these two viruses and therapeutic problems caused by the dual infection. HCV was initially dominant, which indicated a combination therapy by pegylated interferon and ribavirin. This treatment was associated with an early virological response of the HCV but an increase of HBV DNA occurred, requiring the use of a nucleoside analogue. A good response was obtained for the HBV but a relapse of HCV was noted, posing a problem for therapeutic decision. PMID:22959099

  16. Amino-terminal sequence of bovine leukemia virus major internal protein: homology with mammalian type C virus p30 structural proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Oroszlan, S; Copeland, T D; Henderson, L E; Stephenson, J R; Gilden, R V

    1979-01-01

    The amino acid composition, the COOH-terminal amino acid, and the NH2-terminal amino acid sequence of the first 55 residues of the major internal structural protein, p24, of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) were determined. The compositional data and the results of end-group analysis revealed that, although BLV p24 is chemically distinct, it more closely resembles the p30 structural proteins than the other gag gene products of mammalian retroviruses. It was found that BLV p24 shares the common NH2-terminal proline and COOH-terminal leucine but lacks the common prolylleucylarginine tripeptide and the larger conserved region found near the NH2 terminus of all mammalian type C viral p30s. Alignment of the amino acid sequence of BLV p24 with the previously determined sequence of feline leukemia virus p27 revealed a statistically significant sequence homology. A more distant relationship was found between BLV p24 and other mammalian p30s. The finding of a definite sequence homology between BLV p24 and mammalian type C virus p30s clearly establishes the origin of these contemporary viral proteins from common progenitor genes. Images PMID:223166

  17. Calf w/ Virus 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    ). One of the best animal models of MS is the demyelination induced by Theiler's virus. The early events that occur during Theiler's virus infection are crucial in the effective clearance of virus from the CNS. Failure to clear virus results...

  18. Ebola Virus Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Ebola virus disease Fact sheet N°103 Updated April 2015 Key facts Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly ... live Ebola virus in vaginal secretions. Symptoms of Ebola virus disease The incubation period, that is, the ...

  19. Sequence similarity between Borna disease virus p40 and a duplicated domain within the paramyxovirus and rhabdovirus polymerase proteins.

    PubMed Central

    McClure, M A; Thibault, K J; Hatalski, C G; Lipkin, W I

    1992-01-01

    We report the sequence of a Borna disease virus clone (pBDV-40) that encodes a 40-kDa protein (p40) found in the nuclei of infected cells. Comparative sequence analysis indicates that p40 is distantly similar to two different regions in the L-polymerase proteins encoded by paramyxoviruses and rhabdoviruses. The p40 sequence similarity indicates a previously undetected duplication in these viral polymerases. Phylogenetic reconstruction suggests that the gene that encodes p40 last shared a common ancestor with these viral polymerase genes prior to the duplication event. These findings support the hypothesis that Borna disease virus is a negative-strand RNA virus and suggest that p40 is involved in transcription and/or replication. The discovery of a duplication within the polymerase proteins of paramyxoviruses and rhabdoviruses has profound implications for the mapping of enzymatic activities within these multifunctional proteins. Images PMID:1404604

  20. Bacteriophage P23-77 Capsid Protein Structures Reveal the Archetype of an Ancient Branch from a Major Virus Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Rissanen, Ilona; Grimes, Jonathan M.; Pawlowski, Alice; Mäntynen, Sari; Harlos, Karl; Bamford, Jaana K.H.; Stuart, David I.

    2013-01-01

    Summary It has proved difficult to classify viruses unless they are closely related since their rapid evolution hinders detection of remote evolutionary relationships in their genetic sequences. However, structure varies more slowly than sequence, allowing deeper evolutionary relationships to be detected. Bacteriophage P23-77 is an example of a newly identified viral lineage, with members inhabiting extreme environments. We have solved multiple crystal structures of the major capsid proteins VP16 and VP17 of bacteriophage P23-77. They fit the 14 Å resolution cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction of the entire virus exquisitely well, allowing us to propose a model for both the capsid architecture and viral assembly, quite different from previously published models. The structures of the capsid proteins and their mode of association to form the viral capsid suggest that the P23-77-like and adeno-PRD1 lineages of viruses share an extremely ancient common ancestor. PMID:23623731

  1. Open membranes are the precursors for assembly of large DNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    Suárez, Cristina; Welsch, Sonja; Chlanda, Petr; Hagen, Wim; Hoppe, Simone; Kolovou, Androniki; Pagnier, Isabelle; Raoult, Didier; Locker, Jacomine Krijnse

    2014-01-01

    Summary Nucleo cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) are a group of double-stranded DNA viruses that replicate their DNA partly or entirely in the cytoplasm in association with viral factories (VFs). They share about 50 genes suggesting that they are derived from a common ancestor. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron tomography (ET) we showed that the NCLDV vaccinia virus (VACV) acquires its membrane from open membrane intermediates, derived from the ER. These open membranes contribute to the formation of a single open membrane of the immature virion, shaped into a sphere by the assembly of the viral scaffold protein on its convex side. We now compare VACV with the NCLDV Mimivirus by TEM and ET and show that the latter also acquires its membrane from open membrane intermediates that accumulate at the periphery of the cytoplasmic VF. In analogy to VACV this membrane is shaped by the assembly of a layer on the convex side of its membrane, likely representing the Mimivirus capsid protein. By quantitative ET we show for both viruses that the open membrane intermediates of assembly adopt an ‘open-eight’ conformation with a characteristic diameter of 90 nm for Mimi- and 50 nm for VACV. We discuss these results with respect to the common ancestry of NCLDVs and propose a hypothesis on the possible origin of this unusual membrane biogenesis. PMID:23751082

  2. Who Let the Virus In?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-11-01

    Fifty-second monthly installment of our "What A Year!" website project, introducing life science breakthroughs to middle and high school students and their teachers. Respiratory syncytial virus, RSV for short, is so common that almost every child in the United States under two years of age has been infected once, and that half of children under three have been infected at least twice.

  3. THE ROLE OF THE MAREK'S DISEASE VIRUS UL13 GENE IN GENERATING CELL-FREE VIRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV) and Marek's disease virus (MDV) share many biological characteristics. Both alpha-herpesviruses are initially taken up by macrophages or dendritic cells in the lungs, and quickly spread to CD4+ T-lymphocytes. They are both strongly cell-associated. VZV only produces cell...

  4. The structure of a thermophilic archaeal virus shows a dsDNA viral capsid type that spans all domains of life

    SciTech Connect

    G. Rice; L. Tang; K. Stedman; F. Roberto; J. Spuhler; E. Gillitzer; J. E. Johnson; T. Douglas; M. Young

    2004-05-01

    Of the three domains of life (Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea), the least understood is Archaea and its associated viruses. Many Archaea are extremophiles, with species that are capable of growth at some of the highest temperatures and extremes of pH of all known organisms. Phylogenetic rRNA-encoding DNA analysis places many of the hyperthermophilic Archaea (species with an optimum growth >80°C) at the base of the universal tree of life, suggesting that thermophiles were among the first forms of life on earth. Very few viruses have been identified from Archaea as compared to Bacteria and Eukarya. We report here the structure of a hyperthermophilic virus isolated from an archaeal host found in hot springs in Yellowstone National Park. The sequence of the circular double-stranded DNA viral genome shows that it shares little similarity to other known genes in viruses or other organisms. By comparing the tertiary and quaternary structures of the coat protein of this virus with those of a bacterial and an animal virus, we find conformational relationships among all three, suggesting that some viruses may have a common ancestor that precedes the division into three domains of life >3 billion years ago.

  5. Canine respiratory viruses.

    PubMed

    Buonavoglia, Canio; Martella, Vito

    2007-01-01

    Acute contagious respiratory disease (kennel cough) is commonly described in dogs worldwide. The disease appears to be multifactorial and a number of viral and bacterial pathogens have been reported as potential aetiological agents, including canine parainfluenza virus, canine adenovirus and Bordetella bronchiseptica, as well as mycoplasmas, Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus, canine herpesvirus and reovirus-1,-2 and -3. Enhancement of pathogenicity by multiple infections can result in more severe clinical forms. In addition, acute respiratory diseases associated with infection by influenza A virus, and group I and II coronaviruses, have been described recently in dogs. Host species shifts and tropism changes are likely responsible for the onset of these new pathogens. The importance of the viral agents in the kennel cough complex is discussed. PMID:17296161

  6. BREEDING FOR RESISTANCES TO POTATO VIRUS Y AND POTATO VIRUS A

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most important potyvirus of potato is potato virus Y (PVY). PVY is a transitory virus transmitted by aphid vectors, but also easily mechanically transmitted. It appears as two major groups: PVY-O, or the common strain, which is severe in potato, but produces a mild mosaic in tobacco; and 2) P...

  7. Share Your Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-03-13

    In this cooperative game, learners devise strategies about sharing a small space with each other. Similar to musical chairs, this game has players sharing a smaller and smaller number of "planets" (circles on the floor) until they find a way to share just one remaining planet. After the game, learners discuss how they managed to fit everyone in one planet, what "rules" of sharing they made up as they went along, and whether there were disagreements. This game can be a great activity for indoor recess. This activity can be found on pages 12-13 of the activity guide.

  8. Genetic Evolution of H7N9 Virus in China, 2013

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in China, 2013 Domestic Ducks Wild Birds Domestic Poultry Setting: Habitats shared by wild and domestic birds and/or live bird/poultry markets Multiple Reassortment Events H7N3 virus H7N9 virus ...

  9. DETECTION OF AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS IN OIL EMULSION VACCINES BY REAL-TIME RT-PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of poultry vaccines with adventitious agents (i.e. reticuloendotheliosis virus, chicken anemia virus) has been previously reported. Contaminating agents may be introduced at various stages during production, whether through propagation systems or shared equipment. Contamination of ina...

  10. Hadza meat sharing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Hawkes; J. F. O'Connell; N. G. Blurton Jones

    2001-01-01

    In most human foraging societies, the meat of large animals is widely shared. Many assume that people follow this practice because it helps to reduce the risk inherent in big game hunting. In principle, a hunter can offset the chance of many hungry days by exchanging some of the meat earned from a successful strike for shares in future kills

  11. Models, Norms and Sharing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary B.

    To investigate the effect of modeling on altruism, 156 third and fifth grade children were exposed to a model who either shared with them, gave to a charity, or refused to share. The test apparatus, identified as a game, consisted of a box with signal lights and a chute through which marbles were dispensed. Subjects and the model played the game…

  12. Origins and evolution of viruses of eukaryotes: The ultimate modularity.

    PubMed

    Koonin, Eugene V; Dolja, Valerian V; Krupovic, Mart

    2015-05-01

    Viruses and other selfish genetic elements are dominant entities in the biosphere, with respect to both physical abundance and genetic diversity. Various selfish elements parasitize on all cellular life forms. The relative abundances of different classes of viruses are dramatically different between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In prokaryotes, the great majority of viruses possess double-stranded (ds) DNA genomes, with a substantial minority of single-stranded (ss) DNA viruses and only limited presence of RNA viruses. In contrast, in eukaryotes, RNA viruses account for the majority of the virome diversity although ssDNA and dsDNA viruses are common as well. Phylogenomic analysis yields tangible clues for the origins of major classes of eukaryotic viruses and in particular their likely roots in prokaryotes. Specifically, the ancestral genome of positive-strand RNA viruses of eukaryotes might have been assembled de novo from genes derived from prokaryotic retroelements and bacteria although a primordial origin of this class of viruses cannot be ruled out. Different groups of double-stranded RNA viruses derive either from dsRNA bacteriophages or from positive-strand RNA viruses. The eukaryotic ssDNA viruses apparently evolved via a fusion of genes from prokaryotic rolling circle-replicating plasmids and positive-strand RNA viruses. Different families of eukaryotic dsDNA viruses appear to have originated from specific groups of bacteriophages on at least two independent occasions. Polintons, the largest known eukaryotic transposons, predicted to also form virus particles, most likely, were the evolutionary intermediates between bacterial tectiviruses and several groups of eukaryotic dsDNA viruses including the proposed order "Megavirales" that unites diverse families of large and giant viruses. Strikingly, evolution of all classes of eukaryotic viruses appears to have involved fusion between structural and replicative gene modules derived from different sources along with additional acquisitions of diverse genes. PMID:25771806

  13. Close association of predominant genotype of herpes simplex virus type 1 with eczema herpeticum analyzed using restriction fragment length polymorphism of polymerase chain reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masami Yoshida; Kenichi Umene

    2003-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) strains belonging to the same genotype can possibly share biological properties and clinical manifestations common to the genotype. We classified previously 66 HSV-1 strains into 35 genotypes (F1–F35) using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and F1 and F35 genotypes were revealed to be predominant [Arch. Virol. 13 (1993) 29]. It was found later that

  14. retinoic acid, bromodeoxyuridine, and the Delta 205 mutant polyoma virus middle T antigen regulate expression levels of a common ensemble of proteins associated with early stages of inducing HL-60 leukemic cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Yen, Andrew; Lin, David M; Lamkin, Thomas J; Varvayanis, Susi

    2004-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA), bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), and the Delta 205 mutant polyoma middle T antigen affect the expression of a common ensemble of proteins in HL-60 human myeloblastic leukemia cells. Each of these agents is known to be able to prime HL-60 cells and accelerate subsequently induced myeloid or monocytic differentiation and G0 cell cycle arrest, suggesting that they have equal or identical cellular targets relevant to the early stages of inducing cell differentiation and G0 arrest. As a test of this possibility, a survey of protein expression changes induced by RA, BrdU, or Delta 205 transfection was performed. Retinoic acid induced numerous changes within h. Bromodeoxyuridine caused larger numbers of changes, whereas Delta 205 caused a more limited number. Among the hundreds of affected proteins detected, there were comparable numbers of up- or downregulated proteins. A small number changed between undetectable and detectable expression. The affected proteins were not restricted to a single functional class and included transcription factors, receptors, signaling molecules, cytoskeletal molecules, and effectors of various cellular processes such as deoxyribonucleic acid replication, transcription, and translation. The intersect of the sets of proteins affected by RA, BrdU, and Delta 205 was identified to determine if these agents regulated a common subset of proteins. This ensemble contained the commonly upregulated proteins AF6, ABP-280, ENC-1, ESE 1, MAP2B, NTF2, casein kinase, IRF1, SRPK2, Rb2, RhoGDI, P47phox, CD45, PKR, and SIIIp15. The commonly downregulated proteins were SHC, katanin, flotillin-2/ESA, EB 1, p43/EMAPIIprecursor, Jab1, FNK. The composition of the ensemble suggested three apparent themes for cellular processes that were affected early. The themes reflected the ultimate fate of the treated precursor cells as a mature myeloid cell, namely a cell whose hallmarks are (1) motility to migrate to a target and phagocytize it, (2) inducible oxidative metabolism to reduce the target with superoxide from a respiratory burst, and (3) biosynthetic slow down consistent with conversion from cell proliferation to quiescence. Interestingly, RA appears to induce aspects of an interferon-like response of potential significance as part of a biosynthetic slow down leading to cell cycle arrest. In conclusion, three biologically disparate ways to prime cells to differentiate were used to filter out a small ensemble of commonly regulated proteins that group as either microtubule associated, oxidative metabolism machinery, or effectors of cellular responses to interferon. PMID:15638704

  15. Homology Between Type-C Viruses of Various Species as Determined by Molecular Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Benveniste, Raoul E.; Todaro, George J.

    1973-01-01

    Two strains of feline leukemia virus, two endogenous feline type-C viruses (RD/CCC group), several endogenous and laboratory strains of murine “leukemia” virus, two rat viruses, two primate viruses (woolly monkey and gibbon ape), as well as hamster, pig, and avian type-C viruses were examined for their relatedness to one another by molecular hybridization. The extent of nucleic-acid homology was determined by hybridization of the various viral RNAs to a [3H]DNA product synthesized from each virus. Among the murine type-C viruses (Rauscher, Kirsten, AT-124, and endogenous BALB/c virus) a high degree of homology is observed, although the viruses are not identical. The two primate viruses are also closely related to one another. The feline, rat, hamster, and pig endogenous viruses can be readily distinguished from one another and from the murine and primate viruses since their DNA products share very little or no nucleic-acid homology. However, the murine and primate type-C virus groups possess a surprising degree of relatedness. Feline type-C viruses fall into two distinct groups, the feline leukemia virus group and the RD-114/CCC group, with little detectable nucleic-acid homology between them. Infection of feline or rat cells with type-C virus results in production of the endogenous type-C virus of the species along with the infecting virus. PMID:4357865

  16. The Pharmaceutical Commons

    PubMed Central

    Lezaun, Javier

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, the organization of pharmaceutical research on neglected tropical diseases has undergone transformative change. In a context of perceived “market failure,” the development of new medicines is increasingly handled by public-private partnerships. This shift toward hybrid organizational models depends on a particular form of exchange: the sharing of proprietary assets in general and of intellectual property rights in particular. This article explores the paradoxical role of private property in this new configuration of global health research and development. Rather than a tool to block potential competitors, proprietary assets function as a lever to attract others into risky collaborative ventures; instead of demarcating public and private domains, the sharing of property rights is used to increase the porosity of that boundary. This reimagination of the value of property is connected to the peculiar timescape of global health drug development, a promissory orientation to the future that takes its clearest form in the centrality of “virtual” business models and the proliferation of strategies of deferral. Drawing on the anthropological literature on inalienable possessions, we reconsider property’s traditional exclusionary role and discuss the possibility that the new pharmaceutical “commons” proclaimed by contemporary global health partnerships might be the precursor of future enclosures. PMID:25866425

  17. Another Really, Really Big Virus

    PubMed Central

    Van Etten, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Viruses with genomes larger than 300 kb and up to 1.2 Mb, which encode hundreds of proteins, are being discovered and characterized with increasing frequency. Most, but not all, of these large viruses (often referred to as giruses) infect protists that live in aqueous environments. Bioinformatic analyses of metagenomes of aqueous samples indicate that large DNA viruses are quite common in nature and await discovery. One issue that is perhaps not appreciated by the virology community is that large viruses, even those classified in the same family, can differ significantly in morphology, lifestyle, and gene complement. This brief commentary, which will mention some of these unique properties, was stimulated by the characterization of the newest member of this club, virus CroV (Fischer, M.G.; Allen, M.J.; Wilson, W.H.; Suttle, C.A. Giant virus with a remarkable complement of genes infects marine zooplankton. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2010, 107, 19508–19513 [1]). CroV has a 730 kb genome (with ?544 protein-encoding genes) and infects the marine microzooplankton Cafeteria roenbergensis producing a lytic infection. PMID:21994725

  18. A DNA Virus of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Unckless, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the viruses infecting most species. Even in groups as well-studied as Drosophila, only a handful of viruses have been well-characterized. A viral metagenomic approach was used to explore viral diversity in 83 wild-caught Drosophila innubila, a mushroom feeding member of the quinaria group. A single fly that was injected with, and died from, Drosophila C Virus (DCV) was added to the sample as a control. Two-thirds of reads in the infected sample had DCV as the best BLAST hit, suggesting that the protocol developed is highly sensitive. In addition to the DCV hits, several sequences had Oryctes rhinoceros Nudivirus, a double-stranded DNA virus, as a best BLAST hit. The virus associated with these sequences was termed Drosophila innubila Nudivirus (DiNV). PCR screens of natural populations showed that DiNV was both common and widespread taxonomically and geographically. Electron microscopy confirms the presence of virions in fly fecal material similar in structure to other described Nudiviruses. In 2 species, D. innubila and D. falleni, the virus is associated with a severe (?80–90%) loss of fecundity and significantly decreased lifespan. PMID:22053195

  19. No Common Opinion on the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Michael B.; Peterson, Paul E.; West, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    According to the three authors of this article, the 2014 "EdNext" poll yields four especially important new findings: (1) Opinion with respect to the Common Core has yet to coalesce. The idea of a common set of standards across the country has wide appeal, and the Common Core itself still commands the support of a majority of the public.…

  20. REVISITING COMMONS – ARE COMMON PROPERTY REGIMES IRRATIONAL?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lubna Hasan

    2002-01-01

    This paper revisits the debate about communal management of natural resources and brings together various issues confronting it. Much of the criticism against common property regimes stems from an incorrect modeling of a common property situation, and misunderstandings about the terms and their wrong usage. Models of collective action (Hardin’s tragedy of the Commons, Olson’s Logic of Collective Action, and

  1. Dominant resistance against plant viruses

    PubMed Central

    de Ronde, Dryas; Butterbach, Patrick; Kormelink, Richard

    2014-01-01

    To establish a successful infection plant viruses have to overcome a defense system composed of several layers. This review will overview the various strategies plants employ to combat viral infections with main emphasis on the current status of single dominant resistance (R) genes identified against plant viruses and the corresponding avirulence (Avr) genes identified so far. The most common models to explain the mode of action of dominant R genes will be presented. Finally, in brief the hypersensitive response (HR) and extreme resistance (ER), and the functional and structural similarity of R genes to sensors of innate immunity in mammalian cell systems will be described. PMID:25018765

  2. Isolation of genetically diverse Marburg viruses from Egyptian fruit bats.

    PubMed

    Towner, Jonathan S; Amman, Brian R; Sealy, Tara K; Carroll, Serena A Reeder; Comer, James A; Kemp, Alan; Swanepoel, Robert; Paddock, Christopher D; Balinandi, Stephen; Khristova, Marina L; Formenty, Pierre B H; Albarino, Cesar G; Miller, David M; Reed, Zachary D; Kayiwa, John T; Mills, James N; Cannon, Deborah L; Greer, Patricia W; Byaruhanga, Emmanuel; Farnon, Eileen C; Atimnedi, Patrick; Okware, Samuel; Katongole-Mbidde, Edward; Downing, Robert; Tappero, Jordan W; Zaki, Sherif R; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Nichol, Stuart T; Rollin, Pierre E

    2009-07-01

    In July and September 2007, miners working in Kitaka Cave, Uganda, were diagnosed with Marburg hemorrhagic fever. The likely source of infection in the cave was Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) based on detection of Marburg virus RNA in 31/611 (5.1%) bats, virus-specific antibody in bat sera, and isolation of genetically diverse virus from bat tissues. The virus isolates were collected nine months apart, demonstrating long-term virus circulation. The bat colony was estimated to be over 100,000 animals using mark and re-capture methods, predicting the presence of over 5,000 virus-infected bats. The genetically diverse virus genome sequences from bats and miners closely matched. These data indicate common Egyptian fruit bats can represent a major natural reservoir and source of Marburg virus with potential for spillover into humans. PMID:19649327

  3. Isolation of Genetically Diverse Marburg Viruses from Egyptian Fruit Bats

    PubMed Central

    Towner, Jonathan S.; Amman, Brian R.; Sealy, Tara K.; Carroll, Serena A. Reeder; Comer, James A.; Kemp, Alan; Swanepoel, Robert; Paddock, Christopher D.; Balinandi, Stephen; Khristova, Marina L.; Formenty, Pierre B. H.; Albarino, Cesar G.; Miller, David M.; Reed, Zachary D.; Kayiwa, John T.; Mills, James N.; Cannon, Deborah L.; Greer, Patricia W.; Byaruhanga, Emmanuel; Farnon, Eileen C.; Atimnedi, Patrick; Okware, Samuel; Katongole-Mbidde, Edward; Downing, Robert; Tappero, Jordan W.; Zaki, Sherif R.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Rollin, Pierre E.

    2009-01-01

    In July and September 2007, miners working in Kitaka Cave, Uganda, were diagnosed with Marburg hemorrhagic fever. The likely source of infection in the cave was Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) based on detection of Marburg virus RNA in 31/611 (5.1%) bats, virus-specific antibody in bat sera, and isolation of genetically diverse virus from bat tissues. The virus isolates were collected nine months apart, demonstrating long-term virus circulation. The bat colony was estimated to be over 100,000 animals using mark and re-capture methods, predicting the presence of over 5,000 virus-infected bats. The genetically diverse virus genome sequences from bats and miners closely matched. These data indicate common Egyptian fruit bats can represent a major natural reservoir and source of Marburg virus with potential for spillover into humans. PMID:19649327

  4. A Sharing Proposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2002-01-01

    Describes how the University of Vermont and St. Michael's College in Burlington, Vermont cooperated to share a single card access system. Discusses the planning, financial, and marketplace advantages of the cooperation. (EV)

  5. Characterisation of three novel giant viruses reveals huge diversity among viruses infecting Prymnesiales (Haptophyta).

    PubMed

    Johannessen, Torill Vik; Bratbak, Gunnar; Larsen, Aud; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Egge, Elianne S; Edvardsen, Bente; Eikrem, Wenche; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne

    2015-02-01

    We have isolated three novel lytic dsDNA-viruses from Raunefjorden (Norway) that are putative members of the Mimiviridae family, namely Haptolina ericina virus RF02 (HeV RF02), Prymnesium kappa virus RF01 (PkV RF01), and Prymnesium kappa virus RF02 (PkV RF02). Each of the novel haptophyte viruses challenges the common conceptions of algal viruses with respect to host range, phylogenetic affiliation and size. PkV RF01 has a capsid of ~310 nm and is the largest algal virus particle ever reported while PkV RF01 and HeV RF02 were able to infect different species, even belonging to different genera. Moreover, PkV RF01 and HeV RF02 infected the same hosts, but phylogenetic analysis placed them in different groups. Our results reveal large variation among viruses infecting closely related microalgae, and challenge the common conception that algal viruses have narrow host range, and phylogeny reflecting their host affiliation. PMID:25546253

  6. Reconstruction of the Transmission History of RNA Virus Outbreaks Using Full Genome Sequences: Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Bulgaria in 2011

    PubMed Central

    Valdazo-González, Begoña; Polihronova, Lilyana; Alexandrov, Tsviatko; Normann, Preben; Knowles, Nick J.; Hammond, Jef M.; Georgiev, Georgi K.; Özyörük, Fuat; Sumption, Keith J.; Belsham, Graham J.; King, Donald P.

    2012-01-01

    Improvements to sequencing protocols and the development of computational phylogenetics have opened up opportunities to study the rapid evolution of RNA viruses in real time. In practical terms, these results can be combined with field data in order to reconstruct spatiotemporal scenarios that describe the origin and transmission pathways of viruses during an epidemic. In the case of notifiable diseases, such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), these analyses provide important insights into the epidemiology of field outbreaks that can support disease control programmes. This study reconstructs the origin and transmission history of the FMD outbreaks which occurred during 2011 in Burgas Province, Bulgaria, a country that had been previously FMD-free-without-vaccination since 1996. Nineteen full genome sequences (FGS) of FMD virus (FMDV) were generated and analysed, including eight representative viruses from all of the virus-positive outbreaks of the disease in the country and 11 closely-related contemporary viruses from countries in the region where FMD is endemic (Turkey and Israel). All Bulgarian sequences shared a single putative common ancestor which was closely related to the index case identified in wild boar. The closest relative from outside of Bulgaria was a FMDV collected during 2010 in Bursa (Anatolia, Turkey). Within Bulgaria, two discrete genetic clusters were detected that corresponded to two episodes of outbreaks that occurred during January and March-April 2011. The number of nucleotide substitutions that were present between, and within, these separate clusters provided evidence that undetected FMDV infection had occurred. These conclusions are supported by laboratory data that subsequently identified three additional FMDV-infected livestock premises by serosurveillance, as well as a number of antibody positive wild boar on both sides of the border with Turkish Thrace. This study highlights how FGS analysis can be used as an effective on-the-spot tool to support and help direct epidemiological investigations of field outbreaks. PMID:23226216

  7. What Drives Academic Data Sharing?

    PubMed Central

    Fecher, Benedikt; Friesike, Sascha; Hebing, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Despite widespread support from policy makers, funding agencies, and scientific journals, academic researchers rarely make their research data available to others. At the same time, data sharing in research is attributed a vast potential for scientific progress. It allows the reproducibility of study results and the reuse of old data for new research questions. Based on a systematic review of 98 scholarly papers and an empirical survey among 603 secondary data users, we develop a conceptual framework that explains the process of data sharing from the primary researcher’s point of view. We show that this process can be divided into six descriptive categories: Data donor, research organization, research community, norms, data infrastructure, and data recipients. Drawing from our findings, we discuss theoretical implications regarding knowledge creation and dissemination as well as research policy measures to foster academic collaboration. We conclude that research data cannot be regarded as knowledge commons, but research policies that better incentivise data sharing are needed to improve the quality of research results and foster scientific progress. PMID:25714752

  8. RACE pulls for shared control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leahy, M. B., Jr.; Cassiday, B. K.

    1993-01-01

    Maintaining and supporting an aircraft fleet, in a climate of reduced manpower and financial resources, dictates effective utilization of robotics and automation technologies. To help develop a winning robotics and automation program the Air Force Logistics Command created the Robotics and Automation Center of Excellence (RACE). RACE is a command wide focal point. Race is an organic source of expertise to assist the Air Logistic Center (ALC) product directorates in improving process productivity through the judicious insertion of robotics and automation technologies. RACE is a champion for pulling emerging technologies into the aircraft logistic centers. One of those technology pulls is shared control. Small batch sizes, feature uncertainty, and varying work load conspire to make classic industrial robotic solutions impractical. One can view ALC process problems in the context of space robotics without the time delay. The ALC's will benefit greatly from the implementation of a common architecture that supports a range of control actions from fully autonomous to teleoperated. Working with national laboratories and private industry, we hope to transition shared control technology to the depot floor. This paper provides an overview of the RACE internal initiatives and customer support, with particular emphasis on production processes that will benefit from shared control technology.

  9. SharePoint Lists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael P. Antonovich

    \\u000a Well, perhaps not everything. However, SharePoint stores most content information in lists, or variations of lists. This should\\u000a come as no surprise, considering that SharePoint uses SQL Server as a storage container for not only all content information\\u000a but also all the information used to define the appearance of your site. Of course, lists themselves translate well into the\\u000a table

  10. SharePoint Basics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sahil Malik

    \\u000a In the previous chapter, you configured your basic SharePoint development machine. Before you move any further, ensure that\\u000a you take a snapshot of that machine so you can get back to that position at any point in this book. In this chapter I will\\u000a walk you through the basics of SharePoint. When I say basics, I mean user level features

  11. The nucleolar interface of RNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Rawlinson, Stephen M; Moseley, Gregory W

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, understanding of the nucleolus has undergone a renaissance. Once considered primarily as the sites of ribosome biogenesis, nucleoli are now understood to be highly dynamic, multifunctional structures that participate in a plethora of cellular functions including regulation of the cell cycle, signal recognition particle assembly, apoptosis and stress responses. Although the molecular/mechanistic details of many of these functions remain only partially resolved, it is becoming increasingly apparent that nucleoli are also common targets of almost all types of viruses, potentially allowing viruses to manipulate cellular responses and the intracellular environment to facilitate replication and propagation. Importantly, a number of recent studies have moved beyond early descriptive observations to identify key roles for nucleolar interactions in the viral life cycle and pathogenesis. While it is perhaps unsurprising that many viruses that replicate within the nucleus also form interactions with nucleoli, the roles of nucleoli in the biology of cytoplasmic viruses is less intuitive. Nevertheless, a number of positive-stranded RNA viruses that replicate exclusively in the cytoplasm are known to express proteins that enter the nucleus and target nucleoli, and recent data have indicated similar processes in several cytoplasmic negative-sense RNA viruses. Here, we review this emerging aspect of the virus-host interface with a focus on examples where virus-nucleolus interactions have been linked to specific functional outcomes/mechanistic processes in infection and on the nucleolar interfaces formed by viruses that replicate exclusively in the cytoplasm. PMID:26041433

  12. Foodborne viruses: an emerging problem.

    PubMed

    Koopmans, Marion; Duizer, Erwin

    2004-01-01

    Several groups of viruses may infect persons after ingestion and then are shed via stool. Of these, the norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are currently recognised as the most important human foodborne pathogens with regard to the number of outbreaks and people affected in the Western world. NoV and HAV are highly infectious and may lead to widespread outbreaks. The clinical manifestation of NoV infection, however, is relatively mild. Asymptomatic infections are common and may contribute to the spread of the infection. Introduction of NoV in a community or population (a seeding event) may be followed by additional spread because of the highly infectious nature of NoV, resulting in a great number of secondary infections (50% of contacts). Hepatitis A is an increasing problem because of the decrease in immunity of populations in countries with high standards of hygiene. Molecular-based methods can detect viruses in shellfish but are not yet available for other foods. The applicability of the methods currently available for monitoring foods for viral contamination is unknown. No consistent correlation has been found between the presence of indicator microorganisms (i.e. bacteriophages, E. coli) and viruses. NoV and HAV are highly infectious and exhibit variable levels of resistance to heat and disinfection agents. However, they are both inactivated at 100 degrees C. No validated model virus or model system is available for studies of inactivation of NoV, although investigations could make use of structurally similar viruses (i.e. canine and feline caliciviruses). In the absence of a model virus or model system, food safety guidelines need to be based on studies that have been performed with the most resistant enteric RNA viruses (i.e. HAV, for which a model system does exist) and also with bacteriophages (for water). Most documented foodborne viral outbreaks can be traced to food that has been manually handled by an infected foodhandler, rather than to industrially processed foods. The viral contamination of food can occur anywhere in the process from farm to fork, but most foodborne viral infections can be traced back to infected persons who handle food that is not heated or otherwise treated afterwards. Therefore, emphasis should be on stringent personal hygiene during preparation. If viruses are present in food preprocessing, residual viral infectivity may be present after some industrial processes. Therefore, it is key that sufficient attention be given to good agriculture practice (GAP) and good manufacturing practice (GMP) to avoid introduction of viruses onto the raw material and into the food-manufacturing environment, and to HACCP to assure adequate management of (control over) viruses present during the manufacturing process. If viruses are present in foods after processing, they remain infectious in most circumstances and in most foods for several days or weeks, especially if kept cooled (at 4 degrees C). Therefore, emphasis should be on stringent personal hygiene during preparation. For the control of foodborne viral infections, it is necessary to: Heighten awareness about the presence and spread of these viruses by foodhandlers; Optimise and standardise methods for the detection of foodborne viruses; Develop laboratory-based surveillance to detect large, common-source outbreaks at an early stage; and Emphasise consideration of viruses in setting up food safety quality control and management systems (GHP, GMP, HACCP). PMID:14672828

  13. Computer Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robyn P. Weems

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a description of the major characteristics of disk and network borne viruses for the convenience of library and archival systems administrators. It includes a brief history of the use of destructive software by computer hackers, noting some of the early and more recent forms of attack, and suggests that computer languages newly developed for use with the

  14. Computer viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederick B. Cohen

    1986-01-01

    This thesis investigates a recently discovered vulnerability in computer systems which opens the possibility that a single individual with an average user's knowledge could cause widespread damage to information residing in computer networks. This vulnerability is due to a transitive integrity corrupting mechanism called a computer virus which causes corrupted information to spread from program to program. Experiments have shown

  15. Computer viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. Pelaez; John Bowles

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the main categories of malicious programs known as Trojan horses, viruses, bacteria, worms, and logic bombs. The focus is on their general behavior and the properties seen in their implementations rather than the ultimate effects or their intended destructive behavior. Possible preventive measures are also discussed

  16. Markers linked to the bc-3 gene conditioning resistance to bean common mosaic potyviruses in common bean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerardine Mukeshimana; Astrid Pañeda; Cristina Rodríguez-Suárez; Juan José Ferreira; Ramón Giraldez; James D. Kelly

    2005-01-01

    Necrotic strains of bean common mosaic potyviruses are becoming increasingly problematic in bean growing areas of Africa and Europe. Pyramiding epistatic resistance genes provides the most effective long-term strategy for disease control against all known strains of the virus. Indirect selection using tightly linked markers should facilitate the breeding of desired epistatic resistance gene combinations. In common bean, the most

  17. Arthropods as a source of new RNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Bichaud, L; de Lamballerie, X; Alkan, C; Izri, A; Gould, E A; Charrel, R N

    2014-12-01

    The discovery and development of methods for isolation, characterisation and taxonomy of viruses represents an important milestone in the study, treatment and control of virus diseases during the 20th century. Indeed, by the late-1950s, it was becoming common belief that most human and veterinary pathogenic viruses had been discovered. However, at that time, knowledge of the impact of improved commercial transportation, urbanisation and deforestation, on disease emergence, was in its infancy. From the late 1960s onwards viruses, such as hepatitis virus (A, B and C) hantavirus, HIV, Marburg virus, Ebola virus and many others began to emerge and it became apparent that the world was changing, at least in terms of virus epidemiology, largely due to the influence of anthropological activities. Subsequently, with the improvement of molecular biotechnologies, for amplification of viral RNA, genome sequencing and proteomic analysis the arsenal of available tools for virus discovery and genetic characterization opened up new and exciting possibilities for virological discovery. Many recently identified but "unclassified" viruses are now being allocated to existing genera or families based on whole genome sequencing, bioinformatic and phylogenetic analysis. New species, genera and families are also being created following the guidelines of the International Committee for the Taxonomy of Viruses. Many of these newly discovered viruses are vectored by arthropods (arboviruses) and possess an RNA genome. This brief review will focus largely on the discovery of new arthropod-borne viruses. PMID:25239874

  18. Exploring computer viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Davis

    1988-01-01

    The author presents some thoughts on viruses and explores the anatomy of a sample computer virus. He details, using C language programs, some of the fundamental parts associated with viruses and how these viruses can be detected. It is concluded that the final decision for virus control rests with risk management. It is suggested that, at the very least, contingency

  19. Hadza meat sharing.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, K; O'Connell, J F.; Blurton Jones, N G.

    2001-03-01

    In most human foraging societies, the meat of large animals is widely shared. Many assume that people follow this practice because it helps to reduce the risk inherent in big game hunting. In principle, a hunter can offset the chance of many hungry days by exchanging some of the meat earned from a successful strike for shares in future kills made by other hunters. If hunting and its associated risks of failure have great antiquity, then meat sharing might have been the evolutionary foundation for many other distinctively human patterns of social exchange. Here we use previously unpublished data from the Tanzanian Hadza to test hypotheses drawn from a simple version of this argument. Results indicate that Hadza meat sharing does not fit the expectations of risk-reduction reciprocity. We comment on some variations of the "sharing as exchange" argument; then elaborate an alternative based partly on the observation that a successful hunter does not control the distribution of his kill. Instead of family provisioning, his goal may be to enhance his status as a desirable neighbor. If correct, this alternative argument has implications for the evolution of men's work. PMID:11282309

  20. METHODOLOGY Open Access Virus replicon particle based Chikungunya virus

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    METHODOLOGY Open Access Virus replicon particle based Chikungunya virus neutralization assay using Mareike Kümmerer1* Abstract Background: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has been responsible for large epidemic antibodies without the need of using infectious CHIKV. Keywords: Chikungunya virus, Virus replicon particles

  1. Common Breastfeeding Challenges

    MedlinePLUS

    Home > Breastfeeding > Common breastfeeding challenges Breastfeeding This information in Spanish ( en español ) Common breastfeeding challenges Sore nipples Low milk supply Oversupply of milk Engorgement Plugged ducts Breast ...

  2. 96 RestoRative Commons Urban Gardens

    E-print Network

    relationship to the Earth and to nature. While early green infrastructure elements existed in the cellular96 RestoRative Commons #12;97 Urban Gardens: Catalysts for Restorative Commons Infrastructure John, a central shared field for grazing or crops, has changed over the centuries, our urban infrastructure

  3. Plant Virus Metagenomics: Advances in Virus Discovery.

    PubMed

    Roossinck, Marilyn J; Martin, Darren P; Roumagnac, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    In recent years plant viruses have been detected from many environments, including domestic and wild plants and interfaces between these systems-aquatic sources, feces of various animals, and insects. A variety of methods have been employed to study plant virus biodiversity, including enrichment for virus-like particles or virus-specific RNA or DNA, or the extraction of total nucleic acids, followed by next-generation deep sequencing and bioinformatic analyses. All of the methods have some shortcomings, but taken together these studies reveal our surprising lack of knowledge about plant viruses and point to the need for more comprehensive studies. In addition, many new viruses have been discovered, with most virus infections in wild plants appearing asymptomatic, suggesting that virus disease may be a byproduct of domestication. For plant pathologists these studies are providing useful tools to detect viruses, and perhaps to predict future problems that could threaten cultivated plants. PMID:26056847

  4. PAS Domains COMMON STRUCTURE AND COMMON FLEXIBILITY*

    E-print Network

    van Aalten, Daan

    ligand binding/activation to downstream transducer proteins. PAS1 domains are structural modules that can sequences of the different PAS domains show little similarity, their three-dimensional structures appearPAS Domains COMMON STRUCTURE AND COMMON FLEXIBILITY* Received for publication, February 19, 2003

  5. The Share 709 System: A Cooperative Effort

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald L. Shell

    1959-01-01

    SHARE was created in August 1955. From the beginning, its aim has been to reduce redundant effort among various users of the IBM 704, insofar as the preparation of commonly used routines is concerned. The organization has operated on a cooperative basis—establishing a standard language of communication and exchanging a large number of programs which form the tools for effectively

  6. Shared Practices, Understanding, Language and Joint Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racine, Timothy P.; Carpendale, Jeremy I. M.

    2007-01-01

    In responding to the commentaries from Hobson (2007), Moore (2007) and Rakoczy (2007), we first discuss the commonalities our approach has with other theories and then elaborate on the nature of shared practices and their relationship with language and understanding. We then address views of representation, arguing against an empiricist approach…

  7. Probabilistic common-cause failures analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liudong Xing; Wendai Wang

    2008-01-01

    Common-cause failures (CCF) are simultaneous failures of multiple components within a system due to a common-cause or a shared root cause. CCF can contribute significantly to the overall system unreliability. Therefore, it is important to incorporate CCF into the system reliability analysis. Traditional CCF analyses have assumed that the occurrence of a common-cause results in the deterministic\\/guaranteed failure of components

  8. Infotech. Cyber security. Health care learns to share scares and solutions.

    PubMed

    Colias, Mike

    2004-05-01

    Health care information technology leaders and others are coming together to share scary experiences and develop best practices to guard against crippling computer viruses, scheming hackers and other cyber threats. PMID:15192882

  9. Knowledge sharing and reuse for engineering design integration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuo-Ming Chao; Peter Smith; William Hills; Barry Florida-James; Peter Norman

    1998-01-01

    Completion of complex engineering designs (e.g. the design of offshore oil platforms, ships, etc.) often involves a number of agents who have to share or reuse design models within a distributed environment. This article presents a knowledge sharing workbench which enables agents to share common domain knowledge, based on the problems which emerge in the design process. The workbench includes

  10. Shared Governance of Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, M. Donald

    Shared decision-making can help schools keep sight of their true goals. In the educational sector the conflicts that arise in collective bargaining disputes can be destructive to the organization. Schools require more than the mere coexistence of labor and management. They require cooperation and strong, supportive relationships. To establish a…

  11. Think before You Share

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Brock

    2006-01-01

    Students in the US are increasingly discovering that online socializing is far from private and that sharing personal details on social-networking Web sites, such as Facebook, can have unintended consequences. A growing number of colleges are moving to disabuse students of the notion that the Internet is their private playground and what they type…

  12. Illegal File Sharing 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wada, Kent

    2008-01-01

    Much of higher education's unease arises from the cost of dealing with illegal file sharing. Illinois State University, for example, calculated a cost of $76 to process a first claim of copyright infringement and $146 for a second. Responses range from simply passing along claims to elaborate programs architected with specific goals in mind.…

  13. Shared extensible learning spaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy Doubleday; Steve Kurtz

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a rationale for including the construction of interactive simulations in an Information Technology (IT) curriculum, describes ongoing work in the Shared Extensible Learning Spaces (SHELS) project, and describes how we integrate that work into our curriculum. As computing technologies advance, the complexity of the data generated increases, as does the need for tools to help make sense

  14. Sharing Research Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    There are many ways to share a collection of data and students' thinking about that data. Explaining the results of science inquiry is important--working scientists and amateurs both contribute information to the body of scientific knowledge. Students can collect data about an activity that is already happening in a classroom (e.g., the qualities…

  15. Infection with strains of Citrus tristeza virus does not exclude superinfection by other strains of the virus.

    PubMed

    Folimonova, Svetlana Y; Robertson, Cecile J; Shilts, Turksen; Folimonov, Alexey S; Hilf, Mark E; Garnsey, Stephen M; Dawson, William O

    2010-02-01

    Superinfection exclusion or homologous interference, a phenomenon in which a primary viral infection prevents a secondary infection with the same or closely related virus, has been observed commonly for viruses in various systems, including viruses of bacteria, plants, and animals. With plant viruses, homologous interference initially was used as a test of virus relatedness to define whether two virus isolates were "strains" of the same virus or represented different viruses, and subsequently purposeful infection with a mild isolate was implemented as a protective measure against isolates of the virus causing severe disease. In this study we examined superinfection exclusion of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a positive-sense RNA closterovirus. Thirteen naturally occurring isolates of CTV representing five different virus strains and a set of isolates originated from virus constructs engineered based on an infectious cDNA clone of T36 isolate of CTV, including hybrids containing sequences from different isolates, were examined for their ability to prevent superinfection by another isolate of the virus. We show that superinfection exclusion occurred only between isolates of the same strain and not between isolates of different strains. When isolates of the same strain were used for sequential plant inoculation, the primary infection provided complete exclusion of the challenge isolate, whereas isolates from heterologous strains appeared to have no effect on replication, movement or systemic infection by the challenge virus. Surprisingly, substitution of extended cognate sequences from isolates of the T68 or T30 strains into T36 did not confer the ability of resulting hybrid viruses to exclude superinfection by those donor strains. Overall, these results do not appear to be explained by mechanisms proposed previously for other viruses. Moreover, these observations bring an understanding of some previously unexplained fundamental features of CTV biology and, most importantly, build a foundation for the strategy of selecting mild isolates that would efficiently exclude severe virus isolates as a practical means to control CTV diseases. PMID:19923189

  16. Dengue Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Greg Smith

    \\u000a Dengue Virus (DENV) diagnosis can be performed by isolation of DENV from blood or autopsy samples; demonstration of a four-fold\\u000a or greater rise in reciprocal IgG or IgM antibody titres to one or more DENV in paired serum samples (acute and convascent);\\u000a use of the newer rapid diagnostic test kit (also differentiates between primary and secondary dengue infections – these

  17. Sharing Teaching Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teacher, 1982

    1982-01-01

    The first idea presented is an activity aimed at teaching students to reduce a fraction to lowest terms by looking for the greatest common factor (GCF) of the numerator and denominator. The second idea looks at ways to construct solution problems that are challenging but which do not bog pupils down. (MP)

  18. Structure of Adeno-Associated Virus Serotype 5

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Robert W.; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Bowman, Valorie D.; Moninger, Thomas O.; Olson, Norman H.; Seiler, Michael; Chiorini, John A.; Baker, Timothy S.; Zabner, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (AAV5) requires sialic acid on host cells to bind and infect. Other parvoviruses, including Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV), canine parvovirus (CPV), minute virus of mice, and bovine parvovirus, also bind sialic acid. Hence, structural homology may explain this functional homology. The amino acids required for CPV sialic acid binding map to a site at the icosahedral twofold axes of the capsid. In contrast to AAV5, AAV2 does not bind sialic acid, but rather binds heparan sulfate proteoglycans at its threefold axes of symmetry. To explore the structure-function relationships among parvoviruses with respect to cell receptor attachment, we determined the structure of AAV5 by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and image reconstruction at a resolution of 16 Å. Surface features common to some parvoviruses, namely depressions encircling the fivefold axes and protrusions at or surrounding the threefold axes, are preserved in the AAV5 capsid. However, even though there were some similarities, a comparison of the AAV5 structure with those of ADV and CPV failed to reveal a feature which could account for the sialic acid binding phenotype common to all three viruses. In contrast, the overall surface topologies of AAV5 and AAV2 are similar. A pseudo-atomic model generated for AAV5 based on the crystal structure of AAV2 and constrained by the AAV5 cryo-EM envelope revealed differences only in surface loop regions. Surprisingly, the surface topologies of AAV5 and AAV2 are remarkably similar to that of ADV despite only exhibiting ?20% identity in amino acid sequences. Thus, capsid surface features are shared among parvoviruses and may not be unique to their replication phenotypes, i.e., whether they require a helper or are autonomous. Furthermore, specific surface features alone do not explain the variability in carbohydrate requirements for host cell receptor interactions among parvoviruses. PMID:15016858

  19. Cross-species transmission of honey bee viruses in associated arthropods.

    PubMed

    Levitt, Abby L; Singh, Rajwinder; Cox-Foster, Diana L; Rajotte, Edwin; Hoover, Kelli; Ostiguy, Nancy; Holmes, Edward C

    2013-09-01

    There are a number of RNA virus pathogens that represent a serious threat to the health of managed honey bees (Apis mellifera). That some of these viruses are also found in the broader pollinator community suggests the wider environmental spread of these viruses, with the potential for a broader impact on ecosystems. Studies on the ecology and evolution of these viruses in the arthropod community as a whole may therefore provide important insights into these potential impacts. We examined managed A. mellifera colonies, nearby non-Apis hymenopteran pollinators, and other associated arthropods for the presence of five commonly occurring picorna-like RNA viruses of honey bees - black queen cell virus, deformed wing virus, Israeli acute paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus and sacbrood virus. Notably, we observed their presence in several arthropod species. Additionally, detection of negative-strand RNA using strand-specific RT-PCR assays for deformed wing virus and Israeli acute paralysis virus suggests active replication of deformed wing virus in at least six non-Apis species and active replication of Israeli acute paralysis virus in one non-Apis species. Phylogenetic analysis of deformed wing virus also revealed that this virus is freely disseminating across the species sampled in this study. In sum, our study indicates that these viruses are not specific to the pollinator community and that other arthropod species have the potential to be involved in disease transmission in pollinator populations. PMID:23845302

  20. Gammasphaerolipovirus, a newly proposed bacteriophage genus, unifies viruses of halophilic archaea and thermophilic bacteria within the novel family Sphaerolipoviridae.

    PubMed

    Pawlowski, Alice; Rissanen, Ilona; Bamford, Jaana K H; Krupovic, Mart; Jalasvuori, Matti

    2014-06-01

    A new family of viruses named Sphaerolipoviridae has been proposed recently. It comprises icosahedral, tailless haloarchaeal viruses with an internal lipid membrane located between the protein capsid and the dsDNA genome. The proposed family Sphaerolipoviridae was divided into two genera: Alphasphaerolipovirus, including Haloarcula hispanica viruses SH1, PH1 and HHIV-2, and Betasphaerolipovirus, including Natrinema virus SNJ1. Here, we propose to expand the family Sphaerolipoviridae to include a group of bacteriophages infecting extreme thermophilic Thermus thermophilus and sharing a number of structural and genomic properties with archaeal sphaerolipoviruses. This new group comprises two members, lytic phage P23-77 and temperate phage IN93, as well as putative members P23-72 and P23-65H. In addition, several related proviruses have been discovered as integrated elements in bacterial genomes of the families Thermus and Meiothermus. Morphology of the virus particles and the overall capsid architecture of these bacteriophages resembles that of archaeal members of the Sphaerolipoviridae, including an unusual capsid arrangement in a T = 28 dextro lattice. Alpha- and betasphaerolipoviruses share with P23-77-like bacteriophages a conserved block of core genes that encode a putative genome-packaging ATPase and the two major capsid proteins (MCPs). The recently determined X-ray structure of the small and large MCPs of P23-77 revealed a single beta-barrel (jelly-roll) fold that is superimposable with the cryo-EM density maps of the SH1 capsomers. Given the common features of these viruses, we propose to include the so far unclassified P23-77-like bacteriophages into a new genus, "Gammasphaerolipovirus", within the family Sphaerolipoviridae. PMID:24395078

  1. The RSNA Image Sharing Network.

    PubMed

    Langer, S G; Tellis, W; Carr, C; Daly, M; Erickson, B J; Mendelson, D; Moore, S; Perry, J; Shastri, K; Warnock, M; Zhu, W

    2015-02-01

    In the era of health information exchanges, there are trade-offs to consider when sharing a patient's medical record among all providers that a patient might choose. Exchange among in-network partners on the same electronic medical records (EMR) and other integrated information systems is trivial. The patient identifier is common, as are the relevant departmental systems, to all providers. Difficulties arise when patient records including images (and reports) must be shared among different networks and even with the patients themselves. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) challenged Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) to develop a transport method that could supersede the need for physical media (for patients or other providers), replace point-to-point private networks among providers, and enable image exchange on an ad hoc basis between arbitrary health networks without long legal delays. In concert with the evolving US health care paradigm, patient engagement was to be fundamental. With Integrating Healthcare Enterprise's (IHE's) help, the challenge has been met with an operational system. PMID:25037586

  2. Welding Qualification Sharing

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, Bruce [Welding Services, Inc., 2225 Skyland Court, Norcross, GA 30071 (United States)

    2002-07-01

    ASME Section IX, 'Welding Qualifications', requires that each organization qualify its own welders and welding procedures. Qualification responsibility cannot be subcontracted, and qualifications administered by one organization cannot be transferred to another organization. This requirement has become the subject of close scrutiny as the demand for efficiency, particularly among nuclear plant owners, has increased. Two recent Code Cases change procedure and performance qualification requirements for the better. The first, N-573, enables nuclear plant owners to share welding procedure qualifications. The second, N-600, enables nuclear plant owners to share welder performance qualifications. Several owners have reduced costs using N-573. N-600, because it is relatively new, has not yet been implemented. Its potential for cost savings, though, is equivalent to that afforded by N-573. This paper discusses ASME Section IX's procedure and performance qualification philosophy, assesses that philosophy in light of today's welding environment, and discusses implementation of Code Cases N-573 and N-600. (authors)

  3. Paramyxovirus Fusion and Entry: Multiple Paths to a Common End

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Andres; Dutch, Rebecca E.

    2012-01-01

    The paramyxovirus family contains many common human pathogenic viruses, including measles, mumps, the parainfluenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, and the zoonotic henipaviruses, Hendra and Nipah. While the expression of a type 1 fusion protein and a type 2 attachment protein is common to all paramyxoviruses, there is considerable variation in viral attachment, the activation and triggering of the fusion protein, and the process of viral entry. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the understanding of paramyxovirus F protein-mediated membrane fusion, an essential process in viral infectivity. We also review the role of the other surface glycoproteins in receptor binding and viral entry, and the implications for viral infection. Throughout, we concentrate on the commonalities and differences in fusion triggering and viral entry among the members of the family. Finally, we highlight key unanswered questions and how further studies can identify novel targets for the development of therapeutic treatments against these human pathogens. PMID:22590688

  4. Shared health governance.

    PubMed

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2011-07-01

    Health and Social Justice (Ruger 2009a ) developed the "health capability paradigm," a conception of justice and health in domestic societies. This idea undergirds an alternative framework of social cooperation called "shared health governance" (SHG). SHG puts forth a set of moral responsibilities, motivational aspirations, and institutional arrangements, and apportions roles for implementation in striving for health justice. This article develops further the SHG framework and explains its importance and implications for governing health domestically. PMID:21745082

  5. University Reactor Sharing Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. W.D. Reece

    1999-09-01

    The University Reactor Sharing Program provides funding for reactor experimentation to institutions that do not normally have access to a research reactor. Research projects supported by the program include items such as dating geological material to producing high current super conducting magnets. The funding also gives small colleges and universities the opportunity to use the facility for teaching courses in nuclear processes; specifically neutron activation analysis and gamma spectroscopy.

  6. Dare to Share Fairly

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Colleen King

    2013-06-13

    This iOS app from Math Playground is a visual math tool for children who are learning how to divide larger numbers. Children drag place value blocks, which model the given dividend to individual mats, which represent the divisor to demonstrate fair sharing. If needed, there is a place value exchange section and a bin for remainders. The standard division algorithm is presented for comparison.

  7. Justice and Benefit Sharing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Doris Schroeder

    \\u000a Benefit sharing as envisaged by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is a relatively new idea in international law.\\u000a In the context of non-human biological resources, it aims to guarantee the conservation of biodiversity and its sustainable\\u000a use by ensuring that its custodians are adequately rewarded for its preservation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Prior to the adoption of the CBD, biological resources were regarded

  8. Can Viruses BE Preserved in the Geological Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, X.; Jones, B.; Xu, H.

    2013-12-01

    Microfossils, commonly preserved by silicification, can provide important information about the evolution of ancient life on the Earth and elsewhere in the Solar system. Comparisons with microbes that thrive in the biofilms that develop around hot springs and on their discharge aprons are commonly used to interpret their ancient counterparts. With the notable exception of viruses, silicified microfossils found in modern and ancient spring systems provide a clear view of the microbial communities that thrived in past times, including those in the Precambrian. As yet, however, no silicified viruses have been identified from natural environments and it has generally been assumed that viruses are not preserved. Given that viruses may be among the oldest life forms known on Earth, it is critically important to understand if they can be preserved and if they can be recognized once mineralized. Here we report the identification of mineralized virus-like particles found in biofilms and precipitates from several hot springs in the geothermal environment of Tengchong, China. We show that viruses can be preserved by mineralization. The mineralized virus-like particles found in these hot springs commonly have a core formed of one or more virus-like bodies that are encased by a SiO2 cortex or silicate cortex. These nanosized virus-like bodies are spherical, droplet-shaped, filamentous or irregular, and are morphologically similar to viruses detected in many terrestrial hot springs. Recognition of mineralized viruses in modern hot spring biofilms adds another dimension to our views of the unique virus-host interaction in extreme thermal environments on the Earth. Mineralized viruses can be potentially preserved in geological record and could provide important clues about the evolution of early life on the Earth or other planets.

  9. Bonobos Share with Strangers

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jingzhi; Hare, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Humans are thought to possess a unique proclivity to share with others – including strangers. This puzzling phenomenon has led many to suggest that sharing with strangers originates from human-unique language, social norms, warfare and/or cooperative breeding. However, bonobos, our closest living relative, are highly tolerant and, in the wild, are capable of having affiliative interactions with strangers. In four experiments, we therefore examined whether bonobos will voluntarily donate food to strangers. We show that bonobos will forego their own food for the benefit of interacting with a stranger. Their prosociality is in part driven by unselfish motivation, because bonobos will even help strangers acquire out-of-reach food when no desirable social interaction is possible. However, this prosociality has its limitations because bonobos will not donate food in their possession when a social interaction is not possible. These results indicate that other-regarding preferences toward strangers are not uniquely human. Moreover, language, social norms, warfare and cooperative breeding are unnecessary for the evolution of xenophilic sharing. Instead, we propose that prosociality toward strangers initially evolves due to selection for social tolerance, allowing the expansion of individual social networks. Human social norms and language may subsequently extend this ape-like social preference to the most costly contexts. PMID:23300956

  10. A clathrin independent macropinocytosis-like entry mechanism used by bluetongue virus-1 during infection of BHK cells.

    PubMed

    Gold, Sarah; Monaghan, Paul; Mertens, Peter; Jackson, Terry

    2010-01-01

    Acid dependent infection of Hela and Vero cells by BTV-10 occurs from within early-endosomes following virus uptake by clathrin-mediated endocytosis (Forzan et al., 2007: J Virol 81: 4819-4827). Here we report that BTV-1 infection of BHK cells is also dependent on a low endosomal pH; however, virus entry and infection were not inhibited by dominant-negative mutants of Eps15, AP180 or the 'aa' splice variant of dynamin-2, which were shown to inhibit clathrin-mediated endocytosis. In addition, infection was not inhibited by depletion of cellular cholesterol, which suggests that virus entry is not mediated by a lipid-raft dependent process such as caveolae-mediated endocytosis. Although virus entry and infection were not inhibited by the dominant-negative dynamin-2 mutant, entry was inhibited by the general dynamin inhibitor, dynasore, indicating that virus entry is dynamin dependent. During entry, BTV-1 co-localised with LAMP-1 but not with transferrin, suggesting that virus is delivered to late-endosomal compartments without first passing through early-endosomes. BTV-1 entry and infection were inhibited by EIPA and cytochalasin-D, known macropinocytosis inhibitors, and during entry virus co-localised with dextran, a known marker for macropinocytosis/fluid-phase uptake. Our results extend earlier observations with BTV-10, and show that BTV-1 can infect BHK cells via an entry mechanism that is clathrin and cholesterol-independent, but requires dynamin, and shares certain characteristics in common with macropinocytosis. PMID:20613878

  11. Common Career Technical Core: Common Standards, Common Vision for CTE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium's (NASDCTEc) Common Career Technical Core (CCTC), a state-led initiative that was created to ensure that career and technical education (CTE) programs are consistent and high quality across the United States. Forty-two states,…

  12. Common Rose Diseases 

    E-print Network

    Johnk, Janell

    2000-01-11

    .SymptomsLeaves aremottled yellowand green.Leaves may becrinkled,puckered ordistorted.Symptoms areeasiest to seeon new leaves.ManagementRemove infected plants because they arethe source of the virus for insects tospread to other roses. Weed control isimportant because weeds... by the Cooperative Extension Service is implied. 1. Plant roses in full sun.2. Use drip irrigation or soaker hoses. 3. Water in early morning.4. Selectively prune to open canopy and increase aircirculation. 5. Manage weeds and insects to prevent the spread of viruses...

  13. Innate Immune Control of West Nile Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Arjona, Alvaro; Wang, Penghua; Montgomery, Ruth R.; Fikrig, Erol

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), from the Flaviviridae family, is a re-emerging zoonotic pathogen of medical importance. In humans, WNV infection may cause life-threatening meningoencephalitis or long-term neurologic sequelae. WNV is transmitted by Culex spp mosquitoes and both the arthropod vector and the mammalian host are equipped with antiviral innate immune mechanisms sharing a common phylogeny. As far as the current evidence is able to demonstrate, mosquitoes primarily rely on RNA interference, Toll, Imd and JAK-STAT signaling pathways for limiting viral infection, while mammals are provided with these and other more complex antiviral mechanisms involving antiviral effectors, inflammatory mediators, and cellular responses triggered by highly specialized pathogen detection mechanisms that often resemble their invertebrate ancestry. This mini-review summarizes our current understanding of how the innate immune systems of the vector and the mammalian host react to WNV infection and shape its pathogenesis. PMID:21790942

  14. Iguana Virus, a Herpes-Like Virus Isolated from Cultured Cells of a Lizard, Iguana iguana

    PubMed Central

    Clark, H. Fred; Karzon, David T.

    1972-01-01

    An agent cytopathic for Terrapene and Iguana cell cultures was isolated from spontaneously degenerating cell cultures prepared from a green iguana (Iguana iguana). The agent, designated iguana virus, caused a cytopathic effect (CPE) of a giant cell type, with eosinophilic inclusions commonly observed within giant cell nuclei. Incubation temperature had a marked effect on CPE and on virus release from infected cells. Within the range of 23 to 36 C, low temperatures favored CPE characterized by cytolysis and small giant cell formation, and significant virus release was observed. At warmer temperatures, a purely syncytial type of CPE and total absence of released virus were noted. A unique type of hexagonal eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion was observed within syncytia of infected Terrapene cell cultures incubated at 36 C. In vivo studies revealed no evidence of pathogenicity of iguana virus for suckling mice, embryonated hen's eggs, or several species of reptiles and amphibians. Inoculation of iguana virus into young iguanas consistently caused infection that was “unmasked” only when cell cultures were prepared directly from the infected animal. Filtration studies revealed a virion size of >100 nm and <220 nm. Iguana virus is ether-sensitive and, as presumptively indicated by studies of inhibition by bromodeoxyuridine, possesses a deoxyribonucleic type of nucleic acid. The virus characteristics described, as well as electron microscopy observations described in a separate report, indicate that iguana virus is a member of the herpesvirus group. Images PMID:4344303

  15. A generic method to identify plant viruses by high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry of their coat proteins.

    PubMed

    Blouin, Arnaud G; Greenwood, David R; Chavan, Ramesh R; Pearson, Michael N; Clover, Gerard R G; MacDiarmid, Robin M; Cohen, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Although a number of protocols have been developed for detection of viruses at the genus or family level, universal approaches to detect and identify unknown viruses are still required. High-resolution tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify accurately peptide masses and their constituent sequences from partially purified plant virus preparations. Analysis of the peptide fragment masses against a virus database using pattern-matching algorithms identified sequences with homology to known virus peptides and also predicted peptides using de novo sequence analysis. This method provided sufficient information to confirm the identity of two known viruses that were included as controls (Cucumber mosaic virus and Tomato spotted wilt virus) and to identify unknown viruses in six viral isolates. The unknown viruses have been identified as four common viruses (Alfalfa mosaic virus, Tobacco streak virus, Citrus leaf blotch virus and Ribgrass mosaic virus), and two novel viruses (a potexvirus and a vitivirus). The identification of viruses from five distinct families by the tandem mass spectrometric determination of their coat protein demonstrates that this is a useful method for initial virus identification. This method, complemented with molecular or immunological procedures, provides a rapid and convenient way to identify both known and novel plant viruses. PMID:19712699

  16. Viruses and Virus Diseases of Rubus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rubus species are propagated vegetatively and are subject to infection by viruses during development, propagation and fruit production stages. Reports of initial detection and symptoms of more than 30 viruses, virus-like diseases and phytoplasmas affecting Rubus spp. have been reviewed more than 20 ...

  17. RESEARCH Open Access Detection of dengue group viruses by

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    virus or yellow fever virus. The same protocol was used on salivary glands of Ae. albopictus fed and Patrick Mavingui1* Abstract Background: Dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) represent://www.parasitesandvectors.com/content/5/1/243 #12;Background Dengue fever (DF) is the most common arthropod-borne human viral disease

  18. Molecular basis for virus disease resistance in plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Mansky; J. H. Hill

    1993-01-01

    Summary Classical studies of virus disease resistance in plants have provided the basis for recent molecular studies of resistance. Three common approaches to the study of resistance have been used. In one approach, nucleotide and\\/or amino acid sequences of virus strains that overcome disease resistance genes in the host are compared with sequences of strains that do not induce disease

  19. Epstein–Barr virus and oncogenesis: from latent genes to tumours

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence S Young; Paul G Murray

    2003-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus associated with the development of both lymphoid and epithelial tumours. As a common virus infection, EBV appears to have evolved to exploit the process of B cell development to persist as a life-long asymptomatic infection. However, the virus can contribute to oncogenesis as evidenced by its frequent detection in certain tumours, namely

  20. Influenza virus respiratory infection and transmission following ocular inoculation in ferrets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While influenza viruses are a common respiratory pathogen, sporadic reports of conjunctivitis following human infection demonstrates the ability of this virus to cause disease outside of the respiratory tract. The ocular surface represents both a potential site of virus replication and a portal of e...

  1. Pea seed-borne mosaic virus : a review Ravinder Kumar KHETARPAL Yves MAURY

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Pea seed-borne mosaic virus : a review Ravinder Kumar KHETARPAL Yves MAURY LN.R.A., Pathologie végétale, Centre de Recherches de Versailles, 78000 Versailles SUMMARY Pea seed-borne mosaic virus (PSbMV), an economically significant seed-transmitted virus of pea has been commonly found in pea germplasm collections

  2. Gene expression profiling reveals insight into how distinct viruses induce symptoms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant viruses induce a wide array of disease symptoms and cytopathic effects including alterations of chloroplasts, ribosomes, and cellular architecture. While some of these changes are virus specific, many are common even among diverse viruses, and in most cases, the molecular determinants respons...

  3. IMPROVED DETECTION OF HUMAN ENTERIC VIRUSES IN FOODS BY RT-PCR. (R826139)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human enteric viruses (including hepatitis A virus (HAV) and Norwalk-like viruses (NLVs)) are now recognized as common causes of foodborne disease. While methods to detect these agents in clinical specimens have improved significantly over the last 10 years, applications to fo...

  4. Variable Crop Share Leases.

    E-print Network

    Sartin, Marvin; Sammons, Ray

    1980-01-01

    Sartin and Ray Sammons* Renting or leasing farmland is part of many modern farming operations and increases average farm size in U. S. agriculture. Economies of size are vitally import ant to farm operations as they strive to cope with the continuous... to the horizontal axis of the chart. This represents the tenant's share of the total production. Notice, however, the ten ants's curve is not the same shape as the owner's curve. As the quantity of water is increased, the tenant's curve (yield) is "flatter" than...

  5. The sequence of camelpox virus shows it is most closely related to variola virus, the cause of smallpox

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline Gubser; Geoffrey L. Smith

    2002-01-01

    Camelpox virus (CMPV) and variola virus (VAR) are orthopoxviruses (OPVs) that share several biological features and cause high mortality and morbidity in their single host species. The sequence of a virulent CMPV strain was determined; it is 202182 bp long, with inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) of 6045 bp and has 206 predicted open reading frames (ORFs). As for other poxviruses,

  6. Virus-Carrying Mosquitoes Spreading to New Regions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Spreading to New Regions Scientists track carriers of dengue and chikungunya infection To use the sharing features ... major shipping routes, mosquitoes carrying viruses such as dengue and chikungunya spread quickly over land, according to ...

  7. Acylation-Mediated Membrane Anchoring of Avian Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Is Essential for Fusion Pore Formation and Virus Infectivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralf Wagner; Astrid Herwig; Nahid Azzouz; Hans Dieter Klenk

    2005-01-01

    Attachment of palmitic acid to cysteine residues is a common modification of viral glycoproteins. The influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) has three conserved cysteine residues at its C terminus serving as acylation sites. To analyze the structural and functional roles of acylation, we have generated by reverse genetics a series of mutants (Ac1, Ac2, and Ac3) of fowl plague virus (FPV)

  8. Facilitation of Rice Stripe Virus Accumulation in the Insect Vector by Himetobi P Virus VP1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuo; Ge, Shangshu; Wang, Xi; Sun, Lijuan; Liu, Zewen; Zhou, Yijun

    2015-01-01

    The small brown planthopper (SBPH) is the main vector for rice stripe virus (RSV), which causes serious rice stripe disease in East Asia. To characterize the virus-vector interactions, the SBPH cDNA library was screened with RSV ribonucleoprotein (RNP) as bait using a GAL4-based yeast two-hybrid system. The interaction between RSV-RNP and the Himetobi P virus (HiPV, an insect picorna-like virus) VP1 protein was identified. The relationships between HiPV and RSV in SBPH were further investigated, and the results showed that the titer of RSV was commonly higher in single insect that exhibited more VP1 expression. After the VP1 gene was repressed by RNA silencing, the accumulation of RSV decreased significantly in the insect, whereas the virus acquisition ability of SBPH was unaffected, which suggests that HiPV VP1 potentially facilitates the accumulation of RSV in SBPH. PMID:25807055

  9. Science Center Cambridge Common

    E-print Network

    Johnston Gate Science Center Fire HQ Cambridge LAW SCHOOL Cambridge Common HARVARD YARD HA HAMMOND STREETLibrary Center Holyoke Science Center Widener Fire HQ Cambridge LAW SCHOOL Cambridge Common HARVARD BROADW AY PRESCOTTS QUINCYSTREET EVERETT STREET STREET MASSACHUSETTSAVENUE CAMBRIDGE MASSACHUSETTSAVENUE

  10. Haematological abnormalities in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease.

    PubMed Central

    Costello, C

    1988-01-01

    Peripheral blood and bone marrow changes are commonly seen in disease associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This annotation aims to summarise these changes and to suggest possible factors entailed in their occurrence. PMID:3045157

  11. Intrusion Detection for Viruses and Worms Thomas M. Chen

    E-print Network

    Chen, Thomas M.

    and worms have become a common and persistent problem for all computer users. In the 2003 CSI/FBI Computer instructions to an ordinary program or document, such that the virus instructions are executed during

  12. Power system commonality study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franklin D. Littman

    1992-01-01

    A limited top level study was completed to determine the commonality of power system\\/subsystem concepts within potential lunar and Mars surface power system architectures. A list of power system concepts with high commonality was developed which can be used to synthesize power system architectures which minimize development cost. Examples of potential high commonality power system architectures are given in this

  13. Human immunodeficiency virus endocrinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Uma; Sengupta, Nilanjan; Mukhopadhyay, Prasanta; Roy, Keshab Sinha

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) endocrinopathy encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders. Almost all the endocrine organs are virtually affected by HIV infection. HIV can directly alter glandular function. More commonly secondary endocrine dysfunction occurs due to opportunistic infections and neoplasms in immunocompromised state. The complex interaction between HIV infection and endocrine system may be manifested as subtle biochemical and hormonal perturbation to overt glandular failure. Antiretroviral therapy as well as other essential medications often result in adverse endocrinal consequences. Apart from adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism, diabetes and bone loss, AIDS wasting syndrome and HIV lipodystrophy need special reference. Endocrinal evaluation should proceed as in other patients with suspected endocrine dysfunction. Available treatment options have been shown to improve quality of life and long-term mortality in AIDS patients. PMID:22028995

  14. University Reactor Sharing Program

    SciTech Connect

    W.D. Reese

    2004-02-24

    Research projects supported by the program include items such as dating geological material and producing high current super conducting magnets. The funding continues to give small colleges and universities the valuable opportunity to use the NSC for teaching courses in nuclear processes; specifically neutron activation analysis and gamma spectroscopy. The Reactor Sharing Program has supported the construction of a Fast Neutron Flux Irradiator for users at New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology and the University of Houston. This device has been characterized and has been found to have near optimum neutron fluxes for A39/Ar 40 dating. Institution final reports and publications resulting from the use of these funds are on file at the Nuclear Science Center.

  15. SHARED TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    GRIFFIN, JOHN M. HAUT, RICHARD C.

    2008-03-07

    The program established a collaborative process with domestic industries for the purpose of sharing Navy-developed technology. Private sector businesses were educated so as to increase their awareness of the vast amount of technologies that are available, with an initial focus on technology applications that are related to the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies (Hydrogen) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. Specifically, the project worked to increase industry awareness of the vast technology resources available to them that have been developed with taxpayer funding. NAVSEA-Carderock and the Houston Advanced Research Center teamed with Nicholls State University to catalog NAVSEA-Carderock unclassified technologies, rated the level of readiness of the technologies and established a web based catalog of the technologies. In particular, the catalog contains technology descriptions, including testing summaries and overviews of related presentations.

  16. How Common Is the Common Core?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Amande; Edson, Alden J.

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) in 2010, stakeholders in adopting states have engaged in a variety of activities to understand CCSSM standards and transition from previous state standards. These efforts include research, professional development, assessment and modification of curriculum resources,…

  17. Comparing the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics and the NAEP Framework. Achieving the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    Through the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) Initiative, states and territories have collaborated in the development of a common core of standards in English Language Arts and mathematics for grades kindergarten through twelve that are now being adopted by states. Designed not only for the purpose of providing strong, shared expectations, the…

  18. DNA Viruses: The Really Big Ones (Giruses)

    PubMed Central

    Van Etten, James L.; Lane, Leslie C.; Dunigan, David D.

    2010-01-01

    Viruses with genomes greater than 300 kb and up to 1200 kb are being discovered with increasing frequency. These large viruses (often called giruses) can encode up to 900 proteins and also many tRNAs. Consequently, these viruses have more protein-encoding genes than many bacteria, and the concept of small particle/small genome that once defined viruses is no longer valid. Giruses infect bacteria and animals although most of the recently discovered ones infect protists. Thus, genome gigantism is not restricted to a specific host or phylogenetic clade. To date, most of the giruses are associated with aqueous environments. Many of these large viruses (phycodnaviruses and Mimiviruses) probably have a common evolutionary ancestor with the poxviruses, iridoviruses, asfarviruses, ascoviruses, and a recently discovered Marseillevirus. One issue that is perhaps not appreciated by the microbiology community is that large viruses, even ones classified in the same family, can differ significantly in morphology, lifestyle, and genome structure. This review focuses on some of these differences rather than provides extensive details about individual viruses. PMID:20690825

  19. A minute virus of canines (MVC: canine bocavirus) isolated from an elderly dog with severe gastroenteritis, and phylogenetic analysis of MVC strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Ohshima; K. Kawakami; T. Abe; M. Mochizuki

    2010-01-01

    Two of the three adult dogs kept in a family developed severe gastroenteritis. From the feces of one of the affected dogs a minute virus of canines (MVC) was detected by PCR and virus isolation. That this virus had recently infected the dogs was indicated by high anti-MVC antibody titers of their sera. No other virus commonly associated with canine

  20. Viruses and Langerhans cell histiocytosis: is there a link?

    PubMed Central

    McClain, K.; Weiss, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    As a rare, sporadic disease Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) presents a difficult problem in defining a likely etiology. Epidemiological data would not a priori lead one to choose a viral etiology. However, there are rare tumours which occur as sequelae of common infections from Epstein-Barr virus or human papilloma viruses. Likewise some viruses can cause cells to elaborate cytokines which could ultimately stimulate Langerhans cell growth. There is only a small amount of experimental data testing the hypothesis that viruses might be associated with LCH. The theoretical constructs surrounding this question and new data refuting the association are summarised. PMID:8075003

  1. Norwalk virus gastroenteritis following raw oyster consumption.

    PubMed

    Gunn, R A; Janowski, H T; Lieb, S; Prather, E C; Greenberg, H B

    1982-03-01

    In January, 1980, six out of 13 persons (46%) attending a party in a small northwest Florida town near the Gulf of Mexico became ill with Norwalk virus gastroenteritis after eating raw oysters. Symptoms experienced by the ill persons were principally nausea (100%), vomiting (83%) and diarrhea (50%) and were of brief duration. The symptom complex and epidemiology of Norwalk virus infection closely resemble the gastrointestinal illness commonly referred to as the 24-hour intestinal flu or "stomach flu." Norwalk virus infection was identified in this outbreak by application of a recently developed sensitive and specific serologic radioimmunoassay. Oysters from the incriminated batch had fecal coliform levels above recommended standards; however, recent studies of oyster-harvesting waters have shown only a weak correlation between fecal coliforms and the presence of enteric viruses. Further studies are needed to determine whether modifications of monitoring modalities for oyster-harvesting waters are needed. PMID:6278928

  2. Xenotransplantation and Hepatitis E virus.

    PubMed

    Denner, Joachim

    2015-05-01

    Xenotransplantation using pig cells, tissues and organs may be associated with the transmission of porcine microorganisms to the human recipient. Some of these microorganisms may induce a zoonosis, that is an infectious disease induced by microorganisms transmitted from another species. With exception of the porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs), which are integrated in the genome of all pigs, the transmission of all other microorganisms can be prevented by specified or designated pathogen-free (spf or dpf, respectively) production of the animals. However, it is becoming clear in the last years that the hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the viruses which are difficult to eliminate. It is important to note that there are differences between HEV of genotypes (gt) 1 and gt2 on one hand and HEV of gt3 and gt4 on the other. HEV gt1 and gt2 are human viruses, and they induce hepatitis and in the worst case fatal infections in pregnant women. In contrast, HEV gt3 and gt4 are viruses of pigs, and they may infect humans, induce commonly only mild diseases, if any, and are harmless for pregnant women. The goal of this review was to evaluate the risk posed by HEV gt3 and gt4 for xenotransplantation and to indicate ways of their elimination from pigs in order to prevent transmission to the human recipient. PMID:25676629

  3. Influenza A and B Virus Intertypic Reassortment through Compatible Viral Packaging Signals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Steven F.; Nogales, Aitor; Finch, Courtney; Tuffy, Kevin M.; Domm, William; Perez, Daniel R.; Topham, David J.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Influenza A and B viruses cocirculate in humans and together cause disease and seasonal epidemics. These two types of influenza viruses are evolutionarily divergent, and exchange of genetic segments inside coinfected cells occurs frequently within types but never between influenza A and B viruses. Possible mechanisms inhibiting the intertypic reassortment of genetic segments could be due to incompatible protein functions of segment homologs, a lack of processing of heterotypic segments by influenza virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, an inhibitory effect of viral proteins on heterotypic virus function, or an inability to specifically incorporate heterotypic segments into budding virions. Here, we demonstrate that the full-length hemagglutinin (HA) of prototype influenza B viruses can complement the function of multiple influenza A viruses. We show that viral noncoding regions were sufficient to drive gene expression for either type A or B influenza virus with its cognate or heterotypic polymerase. The native influenza B virus HA segment could not be incorporated into influenza A virus virions. However, by adding the influenza A virus packaging signals to full-length influenza B virus glycoproteins, we rescued influenza A viruses that possessed HA, NA, or both HA and NA of influenza B virus. Furthermore, we show that, similar to single-cycle infectious influenza A virus, influenza B virus cannot incorporate heterotypic transgenes due to packaging signal incompatibilities. Altogether, these results demonstrate that the lack of influenza A and B virus reassortants can be attributed at least in part to incompatibilities in the virus-specific packaging signals required for effective segment incorporation into nascent virions. IMPORTANCE Reassortment of influenza A or B viruses provides an evolutionary strategy leading to unique genotypes, which can spawn influenza A viruses with pandemic potential. However, the mechanism preventing intertypic reassortment or gene exchange between influenza A and B viruses is not well understood. Nucleotides comprising the coding termini of each influenza A virus gene segment are required for specific segment incorporation during budding. Whether influenza B virus shares a similar selective packaging strategy or if packaging signals prevent intertypic reassortment remains unknown. Here, we provide evidence suggesting a similar mechanism of influenza B virus genome packaging. Furthermore, by appending influenza A virus packaging signals onto influenza B virus segments, we rescued recombinant influenza A/B viruses that could reassort in vitro with another influenza A virus. These findings suggest that the divergent evolution of packaging signals aids with the speciation of influenza A and B viruses and is in part responsible for the lack of intertypic viral reassortment. PMID:25008914

  4. Preference by a virus vector for infected plants is reversed after virus acquisition.

    PubMed

    Rajabaskar, Dheivasigamani; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A; Eigenbrode, Sanford D

    2014-06-24

    Pathogens and their vectors can interact either directly or indirectly via their shared hosts, with implications for the persistence and spread of the pathogen in host populations. For example, some plant viruses induce changes in host plants that cause the aphids that carry these viruses to settle preferentially on infected plants. Furthermore, relative preference by the vector for infected plants can change to a preference for noninfected plants after virus acquisition by the vector, as has recently been demonstrated in the wheat-Rhopalosiphum padi-Barley yellow dwarf virus pathosystem. Here we document a similar dynamic in the potato-Myzus persicae (Sulzer)-Potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) pathosystem. Specifically, in a dual choice bioassay, nonviruliferous apterous M. persicae settled preferentially on or near potato plants infected with PLRV relative to noninfected (sham-inoculated) control plants, whereas viruliferous M. persicae (carrying PLRV) preferentially settled on or near sham-inoculated potato plants relative to infected plants. The change in preference after virus acquisition also occurred in response to trapped headspace volatiles, and to synthetic mimics of headspace volatile blends from PLRV-infected and sham-inoculated potato plants. The change in preference we document should promote virus spread by increasing rates of virus acquisition and transmission by the vector. PMID:24269348

  5. Viruses occurring in onion crop in amasya province, the major onion producing region in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sevik, Mehmet Ali; Akcura, Cemile

    2013-06-01

    Amasya is the greatest onion producing area in Turkey. Onion fields from Amasya region were surveyed for virus diseases in 2009-2011 and tested for the presence of the most important onion viruses such as Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV), Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV), Leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV), Shallot latent virus (SLV) and Garlic common latent virus (GCLV). The presence of virus diseases and their identification was ascertained through symptom observation in the fields, sap transmission to hosts, and DAS-ELISA. Based on the ELSA results, 57 out of 332 samples (17.16 %) were infected with viruses. The results showed that the highest infection was caused by OYDV (12.33 %) followed by LYSV (3.60 %). Only 1.19 % of the samples were infected with SLV, but none of the samples were found to be infected for GCLV and IYSV. PMID:24426263

  6. Let's You Do That: Sharing the Cognitive Burdens of Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bard, E. G.; Anderson, A. H.; Chen, Y.; Nicholson, H. B. M.; Havard, C.; Dalzel-Job, S.

    2007-01-01

    Three accounts of common ground maintenance make different assumptions about speakers' responsibilities regarding listener-privileged information. Duplicated responsibility requires each interlocutor to assimilate the other's knowledge before designing appropriate utterances. Shared responsibility appeals to least collaborative effort [Clark, H.…

  7. Molecular differentiation of cytopathic and noncytopathic isolates of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus 

    E-print Network

    Bissey, Lynda LeDawn

    1989-01-01

    disease may occur as a result of superinfection with a distinct CP virus into a persistently infected seronegative animal and not as a result of a noncytopathic virus mutating into a cytopathic virus. tv I would like to dedicate my thesis to my mother.... Oligonucleotide fingerprinting patterns for five BVDV isolates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 3. A comparison of the oligonucleotides shared between the Illinois CP/NCP pair. . . . 18 4. A comparison of the oligonucteotides shared between TGA CP/TGA NCP...

  8. Shared Experience: Art & War

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2006-01-01

    The use of artistic expression to convey the experience of war and the battlefield has been around since antiquity, and has given rise to glorious poetry, epic stories, and more recently, paintings. This online exhibit created by the people at the Australian War Memorial presents the experiences of Australians, Britons, and Canadians in the Second World War through paintings created during this turbulent period. As the homepage suggests, "The men and women that feature in these works are shown waiting, preparing, fighting, suffering, celebrating". First-time visitors will want to start by reading the introductory essay by Roger Tolson titled "A Shared Experience". After doing so, they should feel free to browse around the paintings offered here, all of which are grouped into thematic categories that include "Casualties", "Work", and "Battle". There are a number of rather haunting and evocative paintings scattered across these categories, but visitors should be sure to take a look at the work "Battlefield burial of three NCOs" by Ivor Hele and "Airmen In A Village Pub Yorkshire" by Miller Brittain. The site is rounded by brief biographies for each of the artists whose work is included on the site.

  9. Sharing Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Mohler, Bryan L.

    2004-09-01

    Workplace safety is inextricably tied to the culture – the leadership, management and organization – of the entire company. Nor is a safety lesson fundamentally different from any other business lesson. With these points in mind, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory recast its lessons learned program in 2000. The laboratory retained elements of a traditional lessons learned program, such as tracking and trending safety metrics, and added a best practices element to increase staff involvement in creating a safer, healthier work environment. Today, the Lessons Learned/Best Practices program offers the latest business thinking summarized from current external publications and shares better ways PNNL staff have discovered for doing things. According to PNNL strategic planning director Marilyn Quadrel, the goal is to sharpen the business acumen, project management ability and leadership skills of all staff and to capture the benefits of practices that emerge from lessons learned. A key tool in the PNNL effort to accelerate learning from past mistakes is one that can be easily implemented by other firms and tailored to their specific needs. It is the weekly placement of Lessons Learned/Best Practices articles in the lab’s internal electronic newsletter. The program is equally applicable in highly regulated environments, such as the national laboratories, and in enterprises that may have fewer external requirements imposed on their operations. And it is cost effective, using less than the equivalent of one fulltime person to administer.

  10. West Nile virus in livestock and wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLean, R.G.; Ubico, S.R.; Bourne, D.; Komar, N.

    2002-01-01

    WN virus is one of the most ubiquitous arboviruses occurring over a broad geographical range and in a wide diversity of vertebrate host and vector species. The virus appears to be maintained in endemic foci on the African continent and is transported annually to temperate climates to the north in Europe and to the south in South Africa. Reports of clinical disease due to natural WN virus infection in wild or domestic animals were much less common than reports of infection (virus isolation or antibody detection). Until recently, records of morbidity and mortality in wild birds were confined to a small number of cases and infections causing encephalitis, sometimes fatal, in horses were reported infrequently. In the period 1996-2001, there was an increase in outbreaks of illness due to WN virus in animals as well as humans. Within the traditional range of WN virus, encephalitis was reported in horses in Italy in 1998 and in France in 2000. The first report of disease and deaths caused by WN virus infection in domestic birds was reported in Israel in 1997-1999, involving hundreds of young geese. In 1999 WN virus reached North America and caused an outbreak of encephalitis in humans in the New York area at the same time as a number of cases of equine encephalitis and deaths in American crows and a variety of other bird species, both North American natives and exotics. Multi-state surveillance for WN virus has been in place since April 2000 and has resulted in the detection of WN virus in thousands of dead birds from an increasing number of species in North America, and also in several species of mammals. The surveillance system that has developed in North America because of the utility of testing dead birds for the rapid detection of WN virus presence has been a unique integration of public health and wildlife health agencies. It has been suggested that the recent upsurge in clinical WN virus infection in wild and domestic animals as well as in humans may be related to the emergence of one or more new strains of WN virus. Virus isolated in New York in 1999 was found to be identical to that from Israel. It was alarming for WN virus to so easily invade the United States and surprising that it became established so quickly in the temperature climate of New York. Its persistence and rapid expansion in the United States leave a number of unanswered questions. New disease characteristics and patterns have occurred and more are evolving as WN virus further invades the western hemisphere. Additional animal research is needed to answer these questions. Some of the research needs include bird migration as a mechanism of virus dispersal, vector and vertebrate host relationships, virus persistence mechanisms, laboratory diagnosis, viral pathogenesis, risk factor studies, vaccine development, and WN virus impact on wildlife (CDC 2001a). Determination of the primary reservoir host species that are involved in the epidemiology of WN virus and the suitable sentinel species for active surveillance are also important research areas.

  11. Molecular characterization of an Infectious bursal disease virus isolate from Iran.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, S D; Omar, A R; Aini, I

    2004-01-01

    The segment A of an Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) isolate from Iran was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), sequenced and compared with published sequences of 26 IBDV isolates from other parts of the world. The Iranian isolate showed 8 unique amino acid differences. In addition, 9 common amino acid differences, namely 3 in VP2, (222 Ala, 256 lIe and 294 lIe), 3 in VP4 (685 Asn/Ser, 715 Ser and 751 Asp), 2 in VP3 (990 Val and 1005 Ala), and 1 in VP5 (49 Arg) were found. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Iranian isolate is closely related to highly virulent (hv) IBDV isolates from Asian countries. Nevertheless, it may share a common origin with hv isolates from other parts of the world. PMID:15462282

  12. A Unified Formalization of Four Shared-Memory Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarita V. Adve; Mark D. Hill

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a shared-memory model, data-race-free-1, that unifiesfour earlier models: weak order- ing, release consistency (with sequentially consistent special operations), the VAX memory model, and data- race-free-0. The most intuitive and commonly assumed shared-memory model, sequential consistency, limits per- formance. The models of weak ordering, release consistency, the VAX, and data-race-free-0 are based on the common intuition that if

  13. The nature of measles virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Atherton; K. S. K. Lain

    1965-01-01

    Summary Observations of the effect of halogen derivatives of deoxyuridine, known to affect the synthesis of deoxyviruses (DNA-containing viruses) show that measles virus replication is unaffected. This suggests that measles virus is a ribovirus (RNA-containing virus).

  14. Plant virus HC-Pro is a determinant of eriophyid mite transmission.

    PubMed

    Stenger, Drake C; Hein, Gary L; Gildow, Frederick E; Horken, Kempton M; French, Roy

    2005-07-01

    The eriophyid mite transmitted Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV; genus Tritimovirus, family Potyviridae) shares a common genome organization with aphid transmitted species of the genus Potyvirus. Although both tritimoviruses and potyviruses encode helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) homologues (required for nonpersistent aphid transmission of potyviruses), sequence conservation is low (amino acid identity, approximately 16%), and a role for HC-Pro in semipersistent transmission of WSMV by the wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella [Keifer]) has not been investigated. Wheat curl mite transmissibility was abolished by replacement of WSMV HC-Pro with homologues of an aphid transmitted potyvirus (Turnip mosaic virus), a rymovirus (Agropyron mosaic virus) vectored by a different eriophyid mite, or a closely related tritimovirus (Oat necrotic mottle virus; ONMV) with no known vector. In contrast, both WSMV-Sidney 81 and a chimeric WSMV genome bearing HC-Pro of a divergent strain (WSMV-El Batán 3; 86% amino acid sequence identity) were efficiently transmitted by A. tosichella. Replacing portions of WSMV-Sidney 81 HC-Pro with the corresponding regions from ONMV showed that determinants of wheat curl mite transmission map to the 5'-proximal half of HC-Pro. WSMV genomes bearing HC-Pro of heterologous species retained the ability to form virions, indicating that loss of vector transmissibility was not a result of failure to encapsidate. Although titer in systemically infected leaves was reduced for all chimeric genomes relative to WSMV-Sidney 81, titer was not correlated with loss of vector transmissibility. Collectively, these results demonstrate for the first time that HC-Pro is required for virus transmission by a vector other than aphids. PMID:15994799

  15. The Discovery, Distribution, and Evolution of Viruses Associated with Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Webster, Claire L; Waldron, Fergal M; Robertson, Shaun; Crowson, Daisy; Ferrari, Giada; Quintana, Juan F; Brouqui, Jean-Michel; Bayne, Elizabeth H; Longdon, Ben; Buck, Amy H; Lazzaro, Brian P; Akorli, Jewelna; Haddrill, Penelope R; Obbard, Darren J

    2015-07-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is a valuable invertebrate model for viral infection and antiviral immunity, and is a focus for studies of insect-virus coevolution. Here we use a metagenomic approach to identify more than 20 previously undetected RNA viruses and a DNA virus associated with wild D. melanogaster. These viruses not only include distant relatives of known insect pathogens but also novel groups of insect-infecting viruses. By sequencing virus-derived small RNAs, we show that the viruses represent active infections of Drosophila. We find that the RNA viruses differ in the number and properties of their small RNAs, and we detect both siRNAs and a novel miRNA from the DNA virus. Analysis of small RNAs also allows us to identify putative viral sequences that lack detectable sequence similarity to known viruses. By surveying >2,000 individually collected wild adult Drosophila we show that more than 30% of D. melanogaster carry a detectable virus, and more than 6% carry multiple viruses. However, despite a high prevalence of the Wolbachia endosymbiont-which is known to be protective against virus infections in Drosophila-we were unable to detect any relationship between the presence of Wolbachia and the presence of any virus. Using publicly available RNA-seq datasets, we show that the community of viruses in Drosophila laboratories is very different from that seen in the wild, but that some of the newly discovered viruses are nevertheless widespread in laboratory lines and are ubiquitous in cell culture. By sequencing viruses from individual wild-collected flies we show that some viruses are shared between D. melanogaster and D. simulans. Our results provide an essential evolutionary and ecological context for host-virus interaction in Drosophila, and the newly reported viral sequences will help develop D. melanogaster further as a model for molecular and evolutionary virus research. PMID:26172158

  16. The Discovery, Distribution, and Evolution of Viruses Associated with Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Claire L.; Waldron, Fergal M.; Robertson, Shaun; Crowson, Daisy; Ferrari, Giada; Quintana, Juan F.; Brouqui, Jean-Michel; Bayne, Elizabeth H.; Longdon, Ben; Buck, Amy H.; Lazzaro, Brian P.; Akorli, Jewelna; Haddrill, Penelope R.; Obbard, Darren J.

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is a valuable invertebrate model for viral infection and antiviral immunity, and is a focus for studies of insect-virus coevolution. Here we use a metagenomic approach to identify more than 20 previously undetected RNA viruses and a DNA virus associated with wild D. melanogaster. These viruses not only include distant relatives of known insect pathogens but also novel groups of insect-infecting viruses. By sequencing virus-derived small RNAs, we show that the viruses represent active infections of Drosophila. We find that the RNA viruses differ in the number and properties of their small RNAs, and we detect both siRNAs and a novel miRNA from the DNA virus. Analysis of small RNAs also allows us to identify putative viral sequences that lack detectable sequence similarity to known viruses. By surveying >2,000 individually collected wild adult Drosophila we show that more than 30% of D. melanogaster carry a detectable virus, and more than 6% carry multiple viruses. However, despite a high prevalence of the Wolbachia endosymbiont—which is known to be protective against virus infections in Drosophila—we were unable to detect any relationship between the presence of Wolbachia and the presence of any virus. Using publicly available RNA-seq datasets, we show that the community of viruses in Drosophila laboratories is very different from that seen in the wild, but that some of the newly discovered viruses are nevertheless widespread in laboratory lines and are ubiquitous in cell culture. By sequencing viruses from individual wild-collected flies we show that some viruses are shared between D. melanogaster and D. simulans. Our results provide an essential evolutionary and ecological context for host–virus interaction in Drosophila, and the newly reported viral sequences will help develop D. melanogaster further as a model for molecular and evolutionary virus research. PMID:26172158

  17. Molecular evolution of primate immunodeficiency viruses and hepatitis delta virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia Samuilovna Krushkal

    1996-01-01

    Primate immunodeficiency viruses, or lentiviruses (HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV), and hepatitis delta virus (HDV) are RNA viruses characterized by rapid evolution. Infection by primate immunodeficiency viruses usually results in the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans and AIDS-like illnesses in Asian macaques. Similarly, hepatitis delta virus infection causes hepatitis and liver cancer in humans. These viruses are heterogeneous

  18. Mechanisms of symptoms of common cold and flu

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald Eccles

    It is the familiar symptoms of sore throat, runny nose, sneezing, and nasal congestion, muscle aches, chilliness and fever,\\u000a etc., that define the common cold and flu syndromes as self-diagnosed illnesses. Although there is much information about\\u000a the molecular biology of the viruses that cause the common cold and flu syndromes, there is relatively little research on\\u000a the immunological, physiological

  19. Needle sharing in opioid-dependent outpatients: psychological processes underlying risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy L Odum; Gregory J Madden; Gary J Badger; Warren K Bickel

    2000-01-01

    Needle sharing contributes to the spread of the human immunodeficiency virus and other health concerns and remains a persistent problem among injection drug users. We determined whether needle sharing may be related to the discounting of the value of delayed outcomes. Outpatients in treatment for heroin dependence indicated preference for immediate versus delayed hypothetical monetary and heroin outcomes in a

  20. [Application possibility of the macrolides for the RS virus infections].

    PubMed

    Yokota, Shin-ichi; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki; Himi, Tetsuo

    2014-06-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major causative agent of respiratory infections. Common cold syndrome caused by RS virus, which is prevalent in winter, occasionally develops into bronchitis, bronchiolitis and pneumonia. In particular, severe RS virus infections in infants with underlying cardiopulmonary diseases and with low-birth weight baby have been a problem. Furthermore, repetitive RS virus infections occur for the entire lifetime, and the relationship between RS virus infections and exacerbation of COPD and bronchial asthma is also indicated mainly in elderly individuals. Various immunomodulatory effects other than antimicrobial activity of macrolides, including clarithromycin, have been reported, and their clinical usefulness is shown mainly in respiratory diseases. This review describes the findings of action of macrolides on RS virus infections. PMID:25163248

  1. Detecting the emergence of novel, zoonotic viruses pathogenic to humans.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Ronald

    2015-03-01

    RNA viruses, with their high potential for mutation and epidemic spread, are the most common class of pathogens found as new causes of human illness. Despite great advances made in diagnostic technology since the 1950s, the annual rate at which novel virulent viruses have been found has remained at 2-3. Most emerging viruses are zoonoses; they have jumped from mammal or bird hosts to humans. An analysis of virus discovery indicates that the small number of novel viruses discovered annually is an artifact of inadequate surveillance in tropical and subtropical countries, where even established endemic pathogens are often misdiagnosed. Many of the emerging viruses of the future are already infecting humans but remain to be uncovered by a strategy of disease surveillance in selected populations. PMID:25416679

  2. Cardiac sequelae of human immunodeficiency virus disease.

    PubMed

    Alqaqa, Ashraf; Suleiman, Addi; Birnhak, Stefani; Tariq, Saad; Sison, Raymund; Hamdan, Aiman; DeBari, Vincent A; Shamoon, Fayez

    2014-07-01

    Presently, patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection are living longer and are frequently encountered in medical practice. HIV infection is a systemic disease, which affects a wide spectrum of organs. Cardiac involvement is frequent, and the consequent clinical manifestations are a common reason to seek medical advice. In this review, we discuss the different cardiac sequelae of HIV infection. PMID:24743404

  3. Methods for virus recovery in water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food safety is intimately connected to water sanitary quality as water is used at almost every node in the food production process. Common contaminating pathogens in water are human enteric viruses, many of which are responsible for foodborne disease outbreaks in the United States and other high-inc...

  4. MiR-122 in hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus dual infection.

    PubMed

    Song, Kyoungsub; Han, Chang; Dash, Srikanta; Balart, Luis A; Wu, Tong

    2015-03-27

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are the most common causes of chronic liver diseases and hepatocelluar carcinomas. Over the past few years, the liver-enriched microRNA-122 (miR-122) has been shown to differentially regulate viral replication of HBV and HCV. It is notable that the level of miR-122 is positively and negatively regulated by HCV and HBV, respectively. Consistent with the well-documented phenomenon that miR-122 promotes HCV accumulation, inhibition of miR-122 has been shown as an effective therapy for the treatment of HCV infection in both chimpanzees and humans. On the other hand, miR-122 is also known to block HBV replication, and HBV has recently been shown to inhibit miR-122 expression; such a reciprocal inhibition between miR-122 and HBV suggests an intriguing possibility that miR-122 replacement may represent a potential therapy for treatment of HBV infection. As HBV and HCV have shared transmission routes, dual infection is not an uncommon scenario, which is associated with more advanced liver disease than either HBV or HCV mono-infection. Thus, there is a clear need to further understand the interaction between HBV and HCV and to delineate the role of miR-122 in HBV/HCV dual infection in order to devise effective therapy. This review summarizes the current understanding of HBV/HCV dual infection, focusing on the pathobiological role and therapeutic potential of miR-122. PMID:25848473

  5. Virus World as an Evolutionary Network of Viruses and Capsidless Selfish Elements

    PubMed Central

    Dolja, Valerian V.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Viruses were defined as one of the two principal types of organisms in the biosphere, namely, as capsid-encoding organisms in contrast to ribosome-encoding organisms, i.e., all cellular life forms. Structurally similar, apparently homologous capsids are present in a huge variety of icosahedral viruses that infect bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. These findings prompted the concept of the capsid as the virus “self” that defines the identity of deep, ancient viral lineages. However, several other widespread viral “hallmark genes” encode key components of the viral replication apparatus (such as polymerases and helicases) and combine with different capsid proteins, given the inherently modular character of viral evolution. Furthermore, diverse, widespread, capsidless selfish genetic elements, such as plasmids and various types of transposons, share hallmark genes with viruses. Viruses appear to have evolved from capsidless selfish elements, and vice versa, on multiple occasions during evolution. At the earliest, precellular stage of life's evolution, capsidless genetic parasites most likely emerged first and subsequently gave rise to different classes of viruses. In this review, we develop the concept of a greater virus world which forms an evolutionary network that is held together by shared conserved genes and includes both bona fide capsid-encoding viruses and different classes of capsidless replicons. Theoretical studies indicate that selfish replicons (genetic parasites) inevitably emerge in any sufficiently complex evolving ensemble of replicators. Therefore, the key signature of the greater virus world is not the presence of a capsid but rather genetic, informational parasitism itself, i.e., various degrees of reliance on the information processing systems of the host. PMID:24847023

  6. Serological and Molecular Studies of a Novel Virus Isolate Causing Yellow Mosaic of Patchouli [Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth

    PubMed Central

    Zaim, Mohammad; Ali, Ashif; Joseph, Jomon; Khan, Feroz

    2013-01-01

    Here we have identified and characterized a devastating virus capable of inducing yellow mosaic on the leaves of Patchouli [Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth]. The diagnostic tools used were host range, transmission studies, cytopathology, electron microscopy, serology and partial coat protein (CP) gene sequencing. Evidence from biological, serological and sequence data suggested that the causal virus belonged to genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae. The isolate, designated as Patchouli Yellow Mosaic Virus (PaYMV), was transmitted through grafting, sap and the insect Myzus persicae (Sulz.). Flexuous rod shaped particles with a mean length of 800 nm were consistently observed in leaf-dip preparations from natural as well as alternate hosts, and in purified preparation. Cytoplasmic cylindrical inclusions, pinwheels and laminar aggregates were observed in ultra-thin sections of infected patchouli leaves. The purified capsid protein has a relative mass of 43 kDa. Polyclonal antibodies were raised in rabbits against the coat protein separated on SDS – PAGE; which were used in ELISA and western blotting. Using specific antibodies in ELISA, PaYMV was frequently detected at patchouli plantations at Lucknow and Bengaluru. Potyvirus-specific degenerate primer pair (U335 and D335) had consistently amplified partial CP gene from crude preparations of infected tissues by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Comparison of the PCR product sequence (290 bp) with the corresponding regions of established potyviruses showed 78–82% and 91–95% sequence similarity at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. The results clearly established that the virus under study has close homology with watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) in the coat protein region and therefore could share a common ancestor family. Further studies are required to authenticate the identity of PaYMV as a distinct virus or as an isolate of WMV. PMID:24386278

  7. Hijack it, change it: how do plant viruses utilize the host secretory pathway for efficient viral replication and spread?

    PubMed Central

    Patarroyo, Camilo; Laliberté, Jean-François; Zheng, Huanquan

    2013-01-01

    The secretory pathway of eukaryotic cells has an elaborated set of endomembrane compartments involved in the synthesis, modification, and sorting of proteins and lipids. The secretory pathway in plant cells shares many features with that in other eukaryotic cells but also has distinct characteristics important for fundamental cell and developmental processes and for proper immune responses. Recently, there has been evidence that the remodeling of this pathway, and often the formation of viral-induced organelles, play an important role in viral replication and spread. The modification of the host secretory pathway seems to be a common feature among most single-stranded positive ss(+)RNA and even some DNA viruses. In this review, we will present the recent advances in the understanding of the organization and dynamics of the plant secretory pathway and the molecular regulation of membrane trafficking in the pathway. We will also discuss how different plant viruses may interact with the host secretory pathway for their efficient replication and spread, with a focus on tobacco mosaic virus and turnip mosaic virus. PMID:23335933

  8. Detection of a divergent Parainfluenza 4 virus in an adult patient with influenza like illness using next-generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Human Parainfluenza viruses are a common cause of both upper and lower respiratory tract infections, particularly in children. Of the four Parainfluenza virus serotypes, Parainfluenza 4 is least well characterised from both the clinical, epidemiological and genetic perspectives. Methods Flocked nose or throat swabs from a previous study investigating viral prevalence in community-based adults suffering from influenza like illness were used as the basis for this study. Samples in which no virus was detected using a 16 viral respiratory pathogen real-time PCR panel were barcoded and pyrosequenced using the Roche 454 GS FLX Titanium chemistry. The sequences were analysed using the VirusHunter bioinformatic pipeline. Sanger sequencing was used to complete the detected Parainfluenza 4 coding region. Results A variant Parainfluenza 4 subtype b strain (QLD-01) was discovered in an otherwise healthy adult who presented with influenza like illness. Strain QLD-01 shared genomic similarities with both a and b subtypes. The extent of divergence of this genome from the 5 available whole Parainfluenza 4 genomes impacted the predicted binding efficiencies of the majority of published Parainfluenza 4 PCR assays. Conclusions These findings further support a possible role for Parainfluenza 4 in the aetiology of adult respiratory disease within the community setting, and highlight the caution needed to be used in designing PCR assays from limited sequence information or in using proprietary commercial PCR assays. PMID:24885416

  9. Rebound: Scalable Checkpointing for Coherent Shared Memorfor Coherent Shared Memory

    E-print Network

    Torrellas, Josep

    Rebound: Scalable Checkpointing for Coherent Shared Memorfor Coherent Shared Memory Rishi Agarwal. Agarwal, P. Garg, J. Torrellas Rebound: Scalable Checkpointing ­ Synchronization, bursty movement of data Rebound: Scalable Checkpointing 3 ­ Complexity: Record inter-thread dependences dynamically. #12

  10. The Sharing Economy: Moving People with Shared Cars and Bikes

    E-print Network

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    The Sharing Economy: Moving People with Shared Cars and Bikes Susan Shaheen Fleets of cars and trucks in a network of locations · Allows households-income residents and college students · Provides car use without bearing full ownership

  11. Silicified virus-like nanoparticles in an extreme thermal environment: implications for the preservation of viruses in the geological record.

    PubMed

    Peng, X; Xu, H; Jones, B; Chen, S; Zhou, H

    2013-11-01

    Biofilms that grow around Gumingquan hot spring (T = 71 °C, pH = 9.2) in the Rehai geothermal area, Tengchong, China, are formed of various cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, Aquificae, Thermodesulfobacteria, Desulfurococcales, and Thermoproteales. Silicified virus-like nanoparticles, 40-200 nm in diameter, are common inside the microbial cells and the extracellular polymeric substances around the cells. These nanoparticles, which are formed of a core encased by a silica cortex, are morphologically akin to known viruses and directly comparable to silicified virus-like particles that were produced in biofilms cultured in the laboratory. The information obtained from examination of the natural and laboratory-produced samples suggests that viruses can be preserved by silicification, especially while they are still encased in their host cells. These results expand our views of virus-host mineral interaction in extreme thermal environments and imply that viruses can be potentially preserved and identified in the geological record. PMID:24102946

  12. Are we missing half of the viruses in the ocean?

    PubMed Central

    Steward, Grieg F; Culley, Alexander I; Mueller, Jaclyn A; Wood-Charlson, Elisha M; Belcaid, Mahdi; Poisson, Guylaine

    2013-01-01

    Viruses are abundant in the ocean and a major driving force in plankton ecology and evolution. It has been assumed that most of the viruses in seawater contain DNA and infect bacteria, but RNA-containing viruses in the ocean, which almost exclusively infect eukaryotes, have never been quantified. We compared the total mass of RNA and DNA in the viral fraction harvested from seawater and using data on the mass of nucleic acid per RNA- or DNA-containing virion, estimated the abundances of each. Our data suggest that the abundance of RNA viruses rivaled or exceeded that of DNA viruses in samples of coastal seawater. The dominant RNA viruses in the samples were marine picorna-like viruses, which have small genomes and are at or below the detection limit of common fluorescence-based counting methods. If our results are typical, this means that counts of viruses and the rate measurements that depend on them, such as viral production, are significantly underestimated by current practices. As these RNA viruses infect eukaryotes, our data imply that protists contribute more to marine viral dynamics than one might expect based on their relatively low abundance. This conclusion is a departure from the prevailing view of viruses in the ocean, but is consistent with earlier theoretical predictions. PMID:23151645

  13. Radiomarked Common Loon

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A juvenile common loon wearing a satellite transmitter antenna follows an adult. USGS scientists and partners captured and radiomarked juvenile common loons on lakes scattered across Minnesota and Wisconsin during the last two weeks of August 2014 to track their movements and wintering ground...

  14. Common Platform Enumeration: Dictionary

    E-print Network

    who reviewed drafts of this document and contributed to its technical content. The authors would like the development of the document. Abstract This report defines the Common Platform Enumeration (CPE) DictionaryCommon Platform Enumeration: Dictionary Specification Version 2.3 Paul Cichonski David Waltermire

  15. A Cost\\/Benefit Model for Dynamic Resource Sharing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dimitrios Katramatos; Deepak Saxena; Nehal Mehta; Steve J. Chapin

    2000-01-01

    The use of multicomputer clusters composed of cheap workstations connected by high-speed networks is common in modern high-performance computing. However, operat- ing system research in such environments has lagged. Our research aims at enhancing the functionality of the operat- ing system by providing management functions that allow dynamic resource sharing and performance prediction in a clustered environment supporting distributed shared

  16. Multimedia Shared Stories: Teaching Literacy Skills to Diverse Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Through research, shared stories have demonstrated their effectiveness in teaching literacy skills to students with disabilities, including students who are culturally and linguistically diverse. In an effort to keep pace with ever-changing technology, shared stories can be transformed into a multimedia experience using software that is commonly

  17. ASAP: A Synchronous Approach for Photo Sharing across Multiple Devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhigang Hua; Xing Xie; Hanqing Lu; Wei-ying Ma

    2005-01-01

    Digital photos have become increasingly common and popular in mobile communications. However, due to the distribution of these photos captured in various devices, there is a need to develop new technologies to facilitate the sharing of large image collections across these devices for users. In this paper, we propose A Synchronous Approach for Photo sharing across multiple devices (ASAP). The

  18. Milk Sharing in Practice: A Descriptive Analysis of Peer Breastmilk Sharing.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Foster, Beatriz M; Carter, Shannon K; Hinojosa, Melanie Sberna

    2015-06-01

    Peer breastmilk sharing has emerged in recent years as a subject of investigation and occasional controversy. Although researchers know that thousands of milk exchanges are facilitated through milk sharing Web sites every week, there is only limited research into milk sharing practices on the ground. This study examines these practices through a 102-item online survey that asked questions about milk sharing practices, perceptions of milk sharing, and demographic characteristics. Participants were recruited through social media sites specific to breastfeeding and parenting events in Central Florida. The sample consisted of 392 respondents. Data were analyzed using univariate analysis. We found that breastmilk sharing is a complex practice, showing high levels of overlap in which some donors are also recipients, and that cross-nursing sometimes occurs simultaneously with the exchange of expressed milk. Respondents often donated and received milk from people they knew; however, exchanging milk with strangers was also common. Many but not all used the Internet to facilitate milk exchange; participants used well-known milk sharing Web sites as well as their private virtual networks. The study found that most milk exchanges happen in-person as gifts and that selling and shipping breastmilk were rare. We suggest that further research is needed on breastmilk sharing practices to inform breastmilk safety research and policy recommendations. PMID:25973632

  19. Costing Commonality: Investigating the Impact of Platform Divergence

    E-print Network

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    the cost of developing common systems is 12%-50% above the unique design cost. We find evidence to suggest systems, particularly in long lifecycle aerospace applications. Past examples of commonality in aerospace Abstract- -- Commonality strategies have become an important means of cost-sharing across systems

  20. The Common Geometry Module (CGM).

    SciTech Connect

    Tautges, Timothy James

    2004-12-01

    The Common Geometry Module (CGM) is a code library which provides geometry functionality used for mesh generation and other applications. This functionality includes that commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry creation, query and modification; CGM also includes capabilities not commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry decomposition tools and support for shared material interfaces. CGM is built upon the ACIS solid modeling engine, but also includes geometry capability developed beside and on top of ACIS. CGM can be used as-is to provide geometry functionality for codes needing this capability. However, CGM can also be extended using derived classes in C++, allowing the geometric model to serve as the basis for other applications, for example mesh generation. CGM is supported on Sun Solaris, SGI, HP, IBM, DEC, Linux and Windows NT platforms. CGM also includes support for loading ACIS models on parallel computers, using MPI-based communication. Future plans for CGM are to port it to different solid modeling engines, including Pro/Engineer or SolidWorks. CGM is being released into the public domain under an LGPL license; the ACIS-based engine is available to ACIS licensees on request.

  1. Viruses and cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Rigby, P.W.J.; Wilkie, N.M.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 14 selections. Some of the titles are: Immortalising gene(s) encoded by Epstein-Barr Virus; Adenovirus genes involved in transformation. What determines the oncogenic phenotype.; Oncogenesis by mouse mammary tumour virus; and Transforming ras genes.

  2. Connecting to SharePoint

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon Westfall

    \\u000a Microsoft SharePoint is quickly becoming a staple of many an office worker’s life. A system designed to let you share, collaborate, and get work\\u000a done more easily, SharePoint seems like a logical addition to any mobile device. However, only a Windows Phone 7 device thus far lives up to the promise\\u000a of SharePoint on a smartphone. In this chapter, we’ll

  3. Lateral gene transfer of family A DNA polymerases between thermophilic viruses, aquificae, and apicomplexa.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Thomas W; Murugapiran, Senthil K; Dodsworth, Jeremy A; Floyd, Sally; Lodes, Michael; Mead, David A; Hedlund, Brian P

    2013-07-01

    Bioinformatics and functional screens identified a group of Family A-type DNA Polymerase (polA) genes encoded by viruses inhabiting circumneutral and alkaline hot springs in Yellowstone National Park and the US Great Basin. The proteins encoded by these viral polA genes (PolAs) shared no significant sequence similarity with any known viral proteins but were remarkably similar to PolAs encoded by two of three families of the bacterial phylum Aquificae and by several apicoplast-targeted PolA-like proteins found in the eukaryotic phylum Apicomplexa, which includes the obligate parasites Plasmodium, Babesia, and Toxoplasma. The viral gene products share signature elements previously associated only with Aquificae and Apicomplexa PolA-like proteins and were similar to proteins encoded by prophage elements of a variety of otherwise unrelated Bacteria, each of which additionally encoded a prototypical bacterial PolA. Unique among known viral DNA polymerases, the viral PolA proteins of this study share with the Apicomplexa proteins large amino-terminal domains with putative helicase/primase elements but low primary sequence similarity. The genomic context and distribution, phylogeny, and biochemistry of these PolA proteins suggest that thermophilic viruses transferred polA genes to the Apicomplexa, likely through secondary endosymbiosis of a virus-infected proto-apicoplast, and to the common ancestor of two of three Aquificae families, where they displaced the orthologous cellular polA gene. On the basis of biochemical activity, gene structure, and sequence similarity, we speculate that the xenologous viral-type polA genes may have functions associated with diversity-generating recombination in both Bacteria and Apicomplexa. PMID:23608703

  4. Educational Resource Sharing. Conference Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelis, Jane, Ed.

    These proceedings consist of papers presented at a conference devoted to educational resource sharing. Included in the volume are the following papers: "Educational Resource Sharing: The Challenge for Illinois" by Lewis D. Patterson; "Resource Sharing: The Test Is Yet to Come," by John W. Huther; "A Response to the Keynote," by Dennis Howland;…

  5. Job Sharing in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorman, Barbara; And Others

    Job sharing is defined as "two people sharing the responsibilities of one full-time position with salary and benefits prorated"; the concept focuses on positions usually offered only as full-time jobs, often in professional and managerial categories. This book is a guide for teachers and administrators on the implementation and use of job sharing

  6. Shared Governance: Balancing the Euphoria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guffey, J. Stephen; Rampp, Lary C.

    This paper presents an alternative view of shared governance within higher education institutions, examining the major problems encountered by institutions as they implement a shared governance model. Based on a review of the literature, it argues that shared governance, though increasingly popular in recent years, is an issue that should be…

  7. Risk Sharing in Labour Markets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arne Bigsten; Paul NMI Collier; Stefan Dercon; Marcel Fafchamps; Jan Willem Gunning; Abena Oduro; Remco Oostendorp; Cathy Pattillo; Mans Söderbom; Francis Teal; Albert Zeufack

    2003-01-01

    Empirical work in labour economics has focused on rent sharing as an explanation for the observed correlation in cross-sections between wages and profitability. The alternative explanation of risk sharing between workers and employers has not been tested. Using a unique panel data set for four African countries we find strong evidence of risk sharing. Workers in effect offer insurance to

  8. Risk Sharing in Labor Markets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arne Bigsten; Paul Collier; Stefan Dercon; Marcel Fafchamps; Bernard Gauthier; Jan Willem Gunning; Abena Oduro; Remco Oostendorp; Cathy Pattillo; Francis Teal; Albert Zeufack

    2003-01-01

    Empirical work in labor economics has focused on rent sharing as an explanation for the observed correlation between wages and profitability. The alternative explanation of risk sharing between workers and employers has not been tested. Using a unique panel data set for four African countries, we find strong evidence of risk sharing. Workers in effect offer insurance to employers: when

  9. Sharing Educational Services. PREP-13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jongeward, Ray; Heesacker, Frank

    The focus of this report is on shared services in the rural setting. The kit contains three documents of useful information for any school planning a shared service activity to improve rural education. 13-A identifies 215 shared services in 50 states along with an indexing of each service by subject area and by state. 13-B is a series of 10…

  10. Evidence of intra-segmental homologous recombination in influenza A virus.

    PubMed

    Hao, Weilong

    2011-08-01

    The evolution of influenza viruses is remarkably dynamic. Influenza viruses evolve rapidly in sequence and undergo frequent reassortment of different gene segments. Homologous recombination, although commonly seen as an important component of dynamic genome evolution in many other organisms, is believed to be rare in influenza. In this study, 256 gene segments from 32 influenza A genomes were examined for homologous recombination, three recombinant H1N1 strains were detected and they most likely resulted from one recombination event between two closely rated parental sequences. These findings suggest that homologous recombination in influenza viruses tends to take place between strains sharing high sequence similarity. The three recombinant strains were isolated at different time periods and they form a clade, indicating that recombinant strains could circulate. In addition, the simulation results showed that many recombinant sequences might not be detectable by currently existing recombinant detection programs when the parental sequences are of high sequence similarity. Finally, possible ways were discussed to improve the accuracy of the detection for recombinant sequences in influenza. PMID:21571048

  11. BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. BVDV viruses are further subclassified as cytopathic and noncytopathic based on their activity in cultured epithelial cells. Noncytopathic BVDV p...

  12. Ecology of prokaryotic viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus G Weinbauer

    2004-01-01

    The finding that total viral abundance is higher than total prokaryotic abundance and that a significant fraction of the prokaryotic community is infected with phages in aquatic systems has stimulated research on the ecology of prokaryotic viruses and their role in ecosystems. This review treats the ecology of prokaryotic viruses (`phages') in marine, freshwater and soil systems from a `virus

  13. MAIZE FINE STREAK VIRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The report outlines the salient features of maize fine streak virus (MFSV) including a general description of the causal virus species, virion properties, genome description, the relationship of the virus to other taxa, biological properties of the disease and agronomic aspects of the disease. Maize...

  14. Chikungunya Virus, Cameroon, 2006

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christophe N. Peyrefi; Dominique Rousset; Boris A. M. Pastorino; Regis Pouillot; Maël Bessaud; Fabienne Tock; Helene Mansaray; Olivier L. Merle; Aurelie M. Pascual; Christophe Paupy; Aurelia Vessiere; Patrice Imbert; Jean-Paul Durand; Hugues J. Tolou; Marc Grandadam

    2007-01-01

    We report the isolation of chikungunya virus from a pa- tient during an outbreak of a denguelike syndrome in Cam- eroon in 2006. The virus was phylogenetically grouped in the Democratic Republic of the Congo cluster, indicating a continuous circulation of a genetically similar chikungunya virus population during 6 years in Central Africa.

  15. VIRUSES IN WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Viruses of animals, plants, and bacteria abound in sewage and receiving waters. Their ecological impact has, for the most part, gone unheeded except as it relates to viruses from human sources. Viruses present at levels infective to man have been recovered from waters used for re...

  16. Encephalitis Virus, Kyrgyzstan

    E-print Network

    Baker, Robert J.

    Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus, Kyrgyzstan Benjamin J. Briggs, Barry Atkinson, Donna M. Czechowski-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is an emerging pathogen in Europe and Asia. We investigated TBEV in Kyrgyzstan reported. Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae. The TBEV

  17. Crystallography, Evolution, and the Structure of Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Rossmann, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    My undergraduate education in mathematics and physics was a good grounding for graduate studies in crystallographic studies of small organic molecules. As a postdoctoral fellow in Minnesota, I learned how to program an early electronic computer for crystallographic calculations. I then joined Max Perutz, excited to use my skills in the determination of the first protein structures. The results were even more fascinating than the development of techniques and provided inspiration for starting my own laboratory at Purdue University. My first studies on dehydrogenases established the conservation of nucleotide-binding structures. Having thus established myself as an independent scientist, I could start on my most cherished ambition of studying the structure of viruses. About a decade later, my laboratory had produced the structure of a small RNA plant virus and then, in another six years, the first structure of a human common cold virus. Many more virus structures followed, but soon it became essential to supplement crystallography with electron microscopy to investigate viral assembly, viral infection of cells, and neutralization of viruses by antibodies. A major guide in all these studies was the discovery of evolution at the molecular level. The conservation of three-dimensional structure has been a recurring theme, from my experiences with Max Perutz in the study of hemoglobin to the recognition of the conserved nucleotide-binding fold and to the recognition of the jelly roll fold in the capsid protein of a large variety of viruses. PMID:22318719

  18. A Common Origin for Immunity and Digestion

    PubMed Central

    Broderick, Nichole A.

    2015-01-01

    Historically, the digestive and immune systems were viewed and studied as separate entities. However, there are remarkable similarities and shared functions in both nutrient acquisition and host defense. Here, I propose a common origin for both systems. This association provides a new prism for viewing the emergence and evolution of host defense mechanisms. PMID:25745424

  19. Recombinant Marek's disease virus (MDV) lacking Meq oncogene confers protection against challenge with a very virulent plus strain of MDV

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease virus (MDV) encodes a basic leucine-zipper protein, Meq that shares homology with Jun/Fos family of transcriptional factors. Evidence that Meq is an oncogene of MDV came from the recent studies of a Meq-null virus, rMd5'Meq. This virus replicated well in vitro, but was non-oncogenic ...

  20. Prevalence and Transmission of Honeybee Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. P. Chen; J. S. Pettis; A. Collins; M. F. Feldlaufer

    2006-01-01

    Transmission mechanisms of six honeybee viruses, including acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), deformed wing virus (DWV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), and sacbrood bee virus (SBV), in honey bee colonies were investigated by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) methods. The virus status of individual queens was evaluated by examining the presence of viruses

  1. A simple tool for neuroimaging data sharing.

    PubMed

    Haselgrove, Christian; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Kennedy, David N

    2014-01-01

    Data sharing is becoming increasingly common, but despite encouragement and facilitation by funding agencies, journals, and some research efforts, most neuroimaging data acquired today is still not shared due to political, financial, social, and technical barriers to sharing data that remain. In particular, technical solutions are few for researchers that are not a part of larger efforts with dedicated sharing infrastructures, and social barriers such as the time commitment required to share can keep data from becoming publicly available. We present a system for sharing neuroimaging data, designed to be simple to use and to provide benefit to the data provider. The system consists of a server at the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility (INCF) and user tools for uploading data to the server. The primary design principle for the user tools is ease of use: the user identifies a directory containing Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) data, provides their INCF Portal authentication, and provides identifiers for the subject and imaging session. The user tool anonymizes the data and sends it to the server. The server then runs quality control routines on the data, and the data and the quality control reports are made public. The user retains control of the data and may change the sharing policy as they need. The result is that in a few minutes of the user's time, DICOM data can be anonymized and made publicly available, and an initial quality control assessment can be performed on the data. The system is currently functional, and user tools and access to the public image database are available at http://xnat.incf.org/. PMID:24904398

  2. A simple tool for neuroimaging data sharing

    PubMed Central

    Haselgrove, Christian; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Kennedy, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Data sharing is becoming increasingly common, but despite encouragement and facilitation by funding agencies, journals, and some research efforts, most neuroimaging data acquired today is still not shared due to political, financial, social, and technical barriers to sharing data that remain. In particular, technical solutions are few for researchers that are not a part of larger efforts with dedicated sharing infrastructures, and social barriers such as the time commitment required to share can keep data from becoming publicly available. We present a system for sharing neuroimaging data, designed to be simple to use and to provide benefit to the data provider. The system consists of a server at the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility (INCF) and user tools for uploading data to the server. The primary design principle for the user tools is ease of use: the user identifies a directory containing Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) data, provides their INCF Portal authentication, and provides identifiers for the subject and imaging session. The user tool anonymizes the data and sends it to the server. The server then runs quality control routines on the data, and the data and the quality control reports are made public. The user retains control of the data and may change the sharing policy as they need. The result is that in a few minutes of the user’s time, DICOM data can be anonymized and made publicly available, and an initial quality control assessment can be performed on the data. The system is currently functional, and user tools and access to the public image database are available at http://xnat.incf.org/. PMID:24904398

  3. Interspecies antigenic determinants of the reverse transcriptases and p30 proteins of mammalian type C viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Sherr, C J; Fedele, L A; Benveniste, R E; Todaro, G J

    1975-01-01

    The major internal structural proteins (p30) of type C viruses isolated from several mammalian species were studied by radioimmunoprecipitation and competitive radioimmunoassays. Three antigenically distinguishable sets of interspecies determinants could be demonstrated by both methods. One set of determinants shared by viruses of rodent origin (mouse and rat) can be detected readily in feline leukemia viruses but not in other type C viral groups. The p30 proteins of murine viruses also contain a second discrete set of antigenic determinants related to those in infectious primate viruses and endogenous porcine viruses, but not detected in the feline leukemia virus group. The p30 proteins of endogenous viruses of baboons and domestic cats share yet a third set of cross-reactive determinants not detected in type C viruses isolated from other species of animals. Enzyme inhibition studies performed with antisera raised toward the reverse transcriptases of these same groups of type C viruses showed the same patterns of immunological cross-reactions as observed with p30 proteins. The antigenic cross-reactions between the homologous proteins of type C virus isolated from genetically distant animals may reflect transmission of type C viruses across species barriers. PMID:49443

  4. A Game-Theoretic Model of Interactions between Hibiscus Latent Singapore Virus and Tobacco Mosaic Virus

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Yi; Niu, Shengniao; Wong, Sek-Man

    2012-01-01

    Mixed virus infections in plants are common in nature and their interactions affecting host plants would depend mainly on plant species, virus strains, the order of infection and initial amount of inoculum. Hence, the prediction of outcome of virus competition in plants is not easy. In this study, we applied evolutionary game theory to model the interactions between Hibiscus latent Singapore virus (HLSV) and Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in Nicotiana benthamiana under co-infection in a plant host. The accumulation of viral RNA was quantified using qPCR at 1, 2 and 8 days post infection (dpi), and two different methods were employed to predict the dominating virus. TMV was predicted to dominate the game in the long run and this prediction was confirmed by both qRT-PCR at 8 dpi and the death of co-infected plants after 15 dpi. In addition, we validated our model by using data reported in the literature. Ten out of fourteen reported co-infection outcomes agreed with our predictions. Explanations were given for the four interactions that did not agree with our model. Hence, it serves as a valuable tool in making long term predictions using short term data obtained in virus co-infections. PMID:22623970

  5. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    Part of the 2003 industrial minerals review. The legislation, production, and consumption of common clay and shale are discussed. The average prices of the material and outlook for the market are provided.

  6. Common Carrier Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    This bulletin outlines the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibilities in regulating the interstate and foreign common carrier communication via electrical means. Also summarized are the history, technological development, and current capabilities and prospects of telegraph, wire telephone, radiotelephone, satellite communications,…

  7. Ten Common NWP Misconceptions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COMET

    2002-05-02

    This module introduces forecasters to ten of the most commonly encountered or significant misconceptions about NWP models. This list of ten misconceptions includes issues surrounding data assimilation, model resolution, physical parameterizations, and post-processing of model forecast output.

  8. Common Childhood Orthopedic Conditions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pain. Toe Walking Toe walking is common among toddlers as they learn to walk, especially during the ... Z: Genu Varum In-toeing & Out-toeing in Toddlers Blount Disease Bones, Muscles, and Joints Should I ...

  9. Structure and Cell Biology of Archaeal Virus STIV

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Chi-yu; Johnson, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Recent investigations of archaeal viruses have revealed novel features of their structures and life cycles when compared to eukaryotic and bacterial viruses, yet there are structure-based unifying themes suggesting common ancestral relationships among dsDNA viruses in the three kingdoms of life. Sulfolobus solfataricus and the infecting virus Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus (STIV) is one of the well-established model systems to study archaeal virus replication and viral-host interactions. Reliable laboratory conditions to propagate STIV and available genetic tools allowed structural characterization of the virus and viral components that lead to the proposal of common capsid ancestry with PRD1 (bacteriophage), Adenovirus (eukaryotic virus) and PBCV (chlorellavirus). Micro-array and proteomics approaches systematically analyzed viral replication and the corresponding host responses. Cellular cryo-electron tomography and thin-section EM studies uncovered the assembly and maturation pathway of STIV and revealed dramatic cellular ultra-structure changes upon infection. The viral induced pyramid-like protrusions on cell surfaces represent a novel viral release mechanism and previously uncharacterized functions in viral replication. PMID:22482708

  10. Virus-induced gene silencing of N gene in tobacco by apple latent spherical virus vectors.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunjiang; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Virus infections induce an RNA-mediated defense that targets viral RNAs in a nucleotide sequence-specific manner in plants, commonly referred to as virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). When the virus carries sequences of plant genes, it triggers virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and results in the degradation of mRNA of endogenous homologous gene. VIGS has been shown to have great potential as a reverse-genetics tool for studying of gene functions in plants, and it has several advantages over other functional genomics approaches. Here, we describe VIGS of N gene in tobacco cv. Xanthi nc by ALSV vectors containing fragments of N gene from Nicotiana glutinosa. PMID:25287507

  11. Virome Analysis for Identification of Novel Mammalian Viruses in Bat Species from Chinese Provinces

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhiqiang; Ren, Xianwen; Yang, Li; Hu, Yongfeng; Yang, Jian; He, Guimei; Zhang, Junpeng; Dong, Jie; Sun, Lilian; Du, Jiang; Liu, Liguo; Xue, Ying; Wang, Jianmin; Yang, Fan

    2012-01-01

    Bats are natural hosts for a large variety of zoonotic viruses. This study aimed to describe the range of bat viromes, including viruses from mammals, insects, fungi, plants, and phages, in 11 insectivorous bat species (216 bats in total) common in six provinces of China. To analyze viromes, we used sequence-independent PCR amplification and next-generation sequencing technology (Solexa Genome Analyzer II; Illumina). The viromes were identified by sequence similarity comparisons to known viruses. The mammalian viruses included those of the Adenoviridae, Herpesviridae, Papillomaviridae, Retroviridae, Circoviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Astroviridae, Flaviridae, Coronaviridae, Picornaviridae, and Parvovirinae; insect viruses included those of the Baculoviridae, Iflaviridae, Dicistroviridae, Tetraviridae, and Densovirinae; fungal viruses included those of the Chrysoviridae, Hypoviridae, Partitiviridae, and Totiviridae; and phages included those of the Caudovirales, Inoviridae, and Microviridae and unclassified phages. In addition to the viruses and phages associated with the insects, plants, and bacterial flora related to the diet and habitation of bats, we identified the complete or partial genome sequences of 13 novel mammalian viruses. These included herpesviruses, papillomaviruses, a circovirus, a bocavirus, picornaviruses, a pestivirus, and a foamy virus. Pairwise alignments and phylogenetic analyses indicated that these novel viruses showed little genetic similarity with previously reported viruses. This study also revealed a high prevalence and diversity of bat astroviruses and coronaviruses in some provinces. These findings have expanded our understanding of the viromes of bats in China and hinted at the presence of a large variety of unknown mammalian viruses in many common bat species of mainland China. PMID:22855479

  12. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the latest developments in the global common clay and shale industry, particularly in the U.S. It claims that common clay and shale is mainly used in the manufacture of heavy clay products like brick, flue tile and sewer pipe. The main producing states in the U.S. include North Carolina, New York and Oklahoma. Among the firms that manufacture clay and shale-based products are Mid America Brick & Structural Clay Products LLC and Boral USA.

  13. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    At present, 150 companies produce common clay and shale in 41 US states. According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), domestic production in 2005 reached 24.8 Mt valued at $176 million. In decreasing order by tonnage, the leading producer states include North Carolina, Texas, Alabama, Georgia and Ohio. For the whole year, residential and commercial building construction remained the major market for common clay and shale products such as brick, drain tile, lightweight aggregate, quarry tile and structural tile.

  14. Common Knowledge and Convention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giacomo Sillari

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the epistemic assumptions that David Lewis makes in his account of social conventions. In particular,\\u000a I focus on the assumption that the agents have common knowledge of the convention to which they are parties. While evolutionary\\u000a analyses show that the common knowledge assumption is unnecessary in certain classes of games, Lewis’ original account (and,\\u000a more recently, Cubitt

  15. Sharing Medicine: The Candidacy of Medicines and Other Household Items for Sharing, Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Dohn, Michael N.; Pilkington, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Background People share medicines and problems can result from this behavior. Successful interventions to change sharing behavior will require understanding people’s motives and purposes for sharing medicines. Better information about how medicines fit into the gifting and reciprocity system could be useful in designing interventions to modify medicine sharing behavior. However, it is uncertain how people situate medicines among other items that might be shared. This investigation is a descriptive study of how people sort medicines and other shareable items. Methods and Findings This study in the Dominican Republic examined how a convenience sample (31 people) sorted medicines and rated their shareability in relation to other common household items. We used non-metric multidimensional scaling to produce association maps in which the distances between items offer a visual representation of the collective opinion of the participants regarding the relationships among the items. In addition, from a pile sort constrained by four categories of whether sharing or loaning the item was acceptable (on a scale from not shareable to very shareable), we assessed the degree to which the participants rated the medicines as shareable compared to other items. Participants consistently grouped medicines together in all pile sort activities; yet, medicines were mixed with other items when rated by their candidacy to be shared. Compared to the other items, participants had more variability of opinion as to whether medicines should be shared. Conclusions People think of medicines as a distinct group, suggesting that interventions might be designed to apply to medicines as a group. People’s differing opinions as to whether it was appropriate to share medicines imply a degree of uncertainty or ambiguity that health promotion interventions might exploit to alter attitudes and behaviors. These findings have implications for the design of health promotion interventions to impact medicine sharing behavior. PMID:24971939

  16. The science of sharing and the sharing of science

    PubMed Central

    Milkman, Katherine L.; Berger, Jonah

    2014-01-01

    Why do members of the public share some scientific findings and not others? What can scientists do to increase the chances that their findings will be shared widely among nonscientists? To address these questions, we integrate past research on the psychological drivers of interpersonal communication with a study examining the sharing of hundreds of recent scientific discoveries. Our findings offer insights into (i) how attributes of a discovery and the way it is described impact sharing, (ii) who generates discoveries that are likely to be shared, and (iii) which types of people are most likely to share scientific discoveries. The results described here, combined with a review of recent research on interpersonal communication, suggest how scientists can frame their work to increase its dissemination. They also provide insights about which audiences may be the best targets for the diffusion of scientific content. PMID:25225360

  17. Viruses of asparagus.

    PubMed

    Tomassoli, Laura; Tiberini, Antonio; Vetten, Heinrich-Josef

    2012-01-01

    The current knowledge on viruses infecting asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is reviewed. Over half a century, nine virus species belonging to the genera Ilarvirus, Cucumovirus, Nepovirus, Tobamovirus, Potexvirus, and Potyvirus have been found in this crop. The potyvirus Asparagus virus 1 (AV1) and the ilarvirus Asparagus virus 2 (AV2) are widespread and negatively affect the economic life of asparagus crops reducing yield and increasing the susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stress. The main properties and epidemiology of AV1 and AV2 as well as diagnostic techniques for their detection and identification are described. Minor viruses and control are briefly outlined. PMID:22682173

  18. Sharing data is a shared responsibility: Commentary on: "The essential nature of sharing in science".

    PubMed

    Giffels, Joe

    2010-12-01

    Research data should be made readily available. A robust data-sharing plan, led by the principal investigator of the research project, requires considerable administrative and operational resources. Because external support for data sharing is minimal, principal investigators should consider engaging existing institutional information experts, such as librarians and information systems personnel, to participate in data-sharing efforts. PMID:20890675

  19. Share and Share Alike: Exploring the User Interface Affordances of File Sharing

    E-print Network

    Edwards, Keith

    , sharing files has become a central activity in computer use. The ways in which users control the what, how in an interface called a sharing palette, which provides a platform for exploration and experimentation with new-- Collaborative Computing General terms: Design, Human Factors Keywords: User interface design, sharing, file

  20. Serodiagnosis for tumor viruses.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Brian J; Labo, Nazzarena; Miley, Wendell J; Whitby, Denise

    2015-04-01

    The known human tumor viruses include the DNA viruses Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV), Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), human papillomavirus (HPV), and hepatitis B virus (BV). RNA tumor viruses include human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). The serological identification of antigens/antibodies in serum is a rapidly progressing field with utility for both scientists and clinicians. Serology is useful for conducting seroepidemiology studies and to inform on the pathogenesis and host immune response to a particular viral agent. Clinically, serology is useful for diagnosing current or past infection and for aiding in clinical management decisions. Serology is useful for screening blood donations for infectious agents and for monitoring the outcome of vaccination against these viruses. Serodiagnosis of human tumor viruses has improved in recent years with increased specificity and sensitivity of the assays, as well as reductions in cost and the ability to assess multiple antibody/antigens in single assays. Serodiagnosis of tumor viruses plays an important role in our understanding of the prevalence and transmission of these viruses and ultimately in the ability to develop treatments/preventions for these globally important diseases. PMID:25843726

  1. Lipids of Archaeal Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Roine, Elina; Bamford, Dennis H.

    2012-01-01

    Archaeal viruses represent one of the least known territory of the viral universe and even less is known about their lipids. Based on the current knowledge, however, it seems that, as in other viruses, archaeal viral lipids are mostly incorporated into membranes that reside either as outer envelopes or membranes inside an icosahedral capsid. Mechanisms for the membrane acquisition seem to be similar to those of viruses infecting other host organisms. There are indications that also some proteins of archaeal viruses are lipid modified. Further studies on the characterization of lipids in archaeal viruses as well as on their role in virion assembly and infectivity require not only highly purified viral material but also, for example, constant evaluation of the adaptability of emerging technologies for their analysis. Biological membranes contain proteins and membranes of archaeal viruses are not an exception. Archaeal viruses as relatively simple systems can be used as excellent tools for studying the lipid protein interactions in archaeal membranes. PMID:23049284

  2. Infectious laryngotracheitis virus in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Shan-Chia; Giambrone, Joseph J

    2012-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an important respiratory disease of chickens and annually causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry world-wide. ILT virus (ILTV) belongs to alphaherpesvirinae and the Gallid herpesvirus 1 species. The transmission of ILTV is via respiratory and ocular routes. Clinical and post-mortem signs of ILT can be separated into two forms according to its virulence. The characteristic of the severe form is bloody mucus in the trachea with high mortality. The mild form causes nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and reduced weight gain and egg production. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR, real-time PCR, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification were developed to detect ILTV samples from natural or experimentally infected birds. The PCR combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) can separate ILTVs into several genetic groups. These groups can separate vaccine from wild type field viruses. Vaccination is a common method to prevent ILT. However, field isolates and vaccine viruses can establish latent infected carriers. According to PCR-RFLP results, virulent field ILTVs can be derived from modified-live vaccines. Therefore, modified-live vaccine reversion provides a source for ILT outbreaks on chicken farms. Two recently licensed commercial recombinant ILT vaccines are also in use. Other recombinant and gene-deficient vaccine candidates are in the developmental stages. They offer additional hope for the control of this disease. However, in ILT endemic regions, improved biosecurity and management practices are critical for improved ILT control. PMID:24175219

  3. Infectious laryngotracheitis virus in chickens.

    PubMed

    Ou, Shan-Chia; Giambrone, Joseph J

    2012-10-12

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an important respiratory disease of chickens and annually causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry world-wide. ILT virus (ILTV) belongs to alphaherpesvirinae and the Gallid herpesvirus 1 species. The transmission of ILTV is via respiratory and ocular routes. Clinical and post-mortem signs of ILT can be separated into two forms according to its virulence. The characteristic of the severe form is bloody mucus in the trachea with high mortality. The mild form causes nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and reduced weight gain and egg production. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR, real-time PCR, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification were developed to detect ILTV samples from natural or experimentally infected birds. The PCR combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) can separate ILTVs into several genetic groups. These groups can separate vaccine from wild type field viruses. Vaccination is a common method to prevent ILT. However, field isolates and vaccine viruses can establish latent infected carriers. According to PCR-RFLP results, virulent field ILTVs can be derived from modified-live vaccines. Therefore, modified-live vaccine reversion provides a source for ILT outbreaks on chicken farms. Two recently licensed commercial recombinant ILT vaccines are also in use. Other recombinant and gene-deficient vaccine candidates are in the developmental stages. They offer additional hope for the control of this disease. However, in ILT endemic regions, improved biosecurity and management practices are critical for improved ILT control. PMID:24175219

  4. Structural studies of Hantaan virus.

    PubMed

    Battisti, Anthony J; Chu, Yong-Kyu; Chipman, Paul R; Kaufmann, Bärbel; Jonsson, Colleen B; Rossmann, Michael G

    2011-01-01

    Hantaan virus is the prototypic member of the Hantavirus genus within the family Bunyaviridae and is a causative agent of the potentially fatal hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. The Bunyaviridae are a family of negative-sense RNA viruses with three-part segmented genomes. Virions are enveloped and decorated with spikes derived from a pair of glycoproteins (Gn and Gc). Here, we present cryo-electron tomography and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy studies of Hantaan virus virions. We have determined the structure of the tetrameric Gn-Gc spike complex to a resolution of 2.5 nm and show that spikes are ordered in lattices on the virion surface. Large cytoplasmic extensions associated with each Gn-Gc spike also form a lattice on the inner surface of the viral membrane. Rod-shaped ribonucleoprotein complexes are arranged into nearly parallel pairs and triplets within virions. Our results differ from the T=12 icosahedral organization found for some bunyaviruses. However, a comparison of our results with the previous tomographic studies of the nonpathogenic Tula hantavirus indicates a common structural organization for hantaviruses. PMID:21068243

  5. Disinfection efficacy against parvoviruses compared with reference viruses.

    PubMed

    Eterpi, M; McDonnell, G; Thomas, V

    2009-09-01

    Some virus species can resist harsh environmental conditions, surviving on surfaces for long periods with the possibility of being transmitted to susceptible hosts. Studies are limited on the efficacy of disinfectants against viruses dried onto surfaces, in particular, with the identification of new pathogenic non-enveloped viruses that are expected to have high resistance to disinfection, such as parvoviruses. In this study a range of commonly used biocides, including heat, was tested against porcine parvovirus (PPV), minute virus of mice (a parvovirus), poliovirus type 1, adenovirus type 5, and vaccinia virus dried onto surfaces. PPV was the most resistant species identified, since many biocides generally considered as effective against non-enveloped viruses and used for high level disinfection demonstrated limited activity. Ethanol had poor activity against all non-enveloped viruses. Effectiveness against these viruses may be important in preventing nosocomial transmission of emerging pathogenic species such as bocavirus and other parvoviruses. This work confirms the need to validate disinfection products against viruses dried onto surfaces and demonstrates that PPV is a particularly resistant surrogate. PMID:19646784

  6. VIRUS AND VIRUS-LIKE DISEASES OF CITRUS IN EPIRUS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Barbarossa; G. Loconsole; C. Vovlas

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY In 2005 a survey was conducted in the main citrus- growing areas of Epirus. Commercial groves and nurs- eries were inspected for symptoms of virus and virus- like diseases and a total of 123 samples were collected. Molecular hybridisation was used to test for Citrus tris- teza virus (CTV), Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV), Citrus in- fectious variegation virus (CVV),

  7. Virus-inhibiting surgical glove to reduce the risk of infection by enveloped viruses.

    PubMed

    Bricout, Fernand; Moraillon, Anne; Sonntag, Philippe; Hoerner, Pierre; Blackwelder, William; Plotkin, Stanley

    2003-04-01

    Needle puncture and other accidents that occur during surgery and other procedures may lead to viral infections of medical personnel, notably by hepatitis C (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), now that hepatitis B can be prevented by vaccination. A new surgical glove called G-VIR, which contains a disinfecting agent for enveloped viruses, has been developed. Herpes simplex type 1 (HSV) was used as a standard enveloped virus in both in vitro and in vivo tests of the virucidal capacity of the glove. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) were used as models for HCV and HIV, respectively. For in vitro study, a contaminated needle was passed through a glove and residual virus was titrated; for in vivo studies, animals were stuck with a contaminated needle through a glove. Despite variation in virus enumeration inherent in the puncture technique, statistical evaluation showed that infection was reproducibly and substantially reduced by passage through the virucidal layer. For BVDV, the amount of virus passing through the virucidal glove was reduced in 82% of pairwise comparisons with control gloves that lacked the virucidal agent; when plaque counts were adjusted to a common dilution, the median count for the virucidal glove was on the average reduced >10-fold. In experiments in which the proportion of wells infected with FIV was measured, the ratio of TCID(50) values (control glove to G-VIR) was >15, and probably much higher. For HSV, the amount of virus passing through the virucidal glove was reduced in 81% of comparisons with control gloves; the median of adjusted plaque counts was reduced on the average approximately eightfold or ninefold. In vivo tests with FIV and HSV in cats and mice, respectively, found smaller percentage reductions in infection than the in vitro tests but confirmed the virucidal effect of the gloves. PMID:12601762

  8. 47 CFR 25.263 - Information sharing requirements for SDARS terrestrial repeater operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...repeater operators. 25.263 Section 25.263 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.263 Information sharing requirements...

  9. Enhanced Sharing and Privacy in Distributed Information Sharing Environments

    E-print Network

    Dustdar, Schahram

    -Based Access Control (RBAC) model to incorporate sharing and privacy related requirements and present a Dynamic Sharing and Privacy-aware Role- Based Access Control (DySP-RBAC) model. It is a family of models including core, hierarchical, and constrained RBAC models. The RBAC model is extended using team and task data

  10. What is the Deaf Community? A community is a group of people who share common interests and a common

    E-print Network

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    CARD 9 #12;skills. As technology brings changes, the Deaf Community has accepted cochlear implants to succeed in a larger society. A lot of young children are exposed to more than one language and culture and it is perfectly permissible for deaf/hard of hearing children to understand more about Deaf Culture and American

  11. Genetic divergence of the NS genes of avian influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, K; Nobusawa, E; Ogawa, T; Nakajima, S

    1987-06-01

    The nucleotide sequences of the NS genes of avian influenza A viruses, A/Chicken/Japan/24, A/Duck/England/56, A/Tern/South Africa/61, A/Duck/Ukraine/1/63, and A/Mynah/Haneda-Thai/76, were determined and compared among themselves and with two reported NS sequences of the avian viruses, A/FPV/Rostock/34 and A/Duck/Alberta/60/76. Thirty-six to two hundred forty base differences in the NS genes were found in pairwise comparisons among the viruses. The numbers of base differences in the NS genes increased with time, except A/Duck/Alberta/60/76 virus. However, the NS genes of the avian viruses did not change sequentially with time and were arranged in separate evolutionary lineages. When the NS genes of avian viruses employed in the present study were compared with those of human viruses, sequence similarity was confirmed (M. Baez, R. Taussig, J. J. Zarza, J. F. Young, P. Palese, A. Reisfield, and A. M. Skalka, 1980, Nucleic Acids Res. 8, 5845-5858). The numbers of base differences in the NS genes between avian viruses and the A/PR/8/34 virus were 61 to 83, and the NS gene of the oldest avian isolate, A/Chicken/Japan/24, was most closely related to that of the A/PR/8/34 virus. It was hypothesized that NS genes of human influenza viruses and those of some avian influenza viruses had been derived from a common ancestor gene. PMID:2954302

  12. Common Cause Failure Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Jon; Heimann, Timothy J.; Anderson, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    High technology industries with high failure costs commonly use redundancy as a means to reduce risk. Redundant systems, whether similar or dissimilar, are susceptible to Common Cause Failures (CCF). CCF is not always considered in the design effort and, therefore, can be a major threat to success. There are several aspects to CCF which must be understood to perform an analysis which will find hidden issues that may negate redundancy. This paper will provide definition, types, a list of possible causes and some examples of CCF. Requirements and designs from NASA projects will be used in the paper as examples.

  13. Common-place

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This promising new quarterly online publication situates itself somewhere between a popular magazine and scholarly journal, offering a common place for a variety of readers "to explore and exchange ideas about American history." Similar in some ways to the UK-based popular history magazine History Today, Common-place offers a mix of articles, short features, and reviews aimed at an interested and informed, but not necessarily academic, audience. A discussion board is planned for the near future, and users may subscribe for email notification of new issues.

  14. Giant virus in the sea

    PubMed Central

    Claverie, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    The viral nature of the first “giant virus,” Mimivirus, was realized in 2003, 10 y after its initial isolation from the water of a cooling tower in Bradford, UK. Soon after its genome was sequenced, the mining of the Global Ocean Sampling environmental sequence database revealed that the closest relatives of Mimivirus, only known to infect Acanthamoeba, were to be found in the sea. These predicted marine Mimivirus relatives remained elusive until 2010, with the first genomic characterization of a virus infecting a heterotrophic unicellular eukaryote, the microflagellate grazer Cafeteria roenbergensis. The genome analysis of a virus (PgV) infecting the common unicellular algae Phaeocystis globosa now shows that it is a bona fide member of the Mimivirus family (i.e., the Megaviridae), extending the realm of these giant viruses to abundant blooming phytoplankton species. Despite its smaller genome size (460 kb encoding 434 proteins), PgV exhibits the most intriguing feature of the previously characterized Megaviridae: an associated virophage. However, the 19-kb virophage genome, devoid of a capsid gene, is packaged in the PgV particle and propagated as a “viral plasmid,” the first ever described. The PgV genome also exhibits the duplication of “core genes,” normally present as single copies and a putative new type of mobile element. In a DNA polymerase phylogeny including representatives of the three cellular domains, PgV and the other Megaviridae cluster into their own clade deeply branching between domains Archaea and Eukarya domains, thus exhibiting the topology of a fourth domain in the Tree of Life. PMID:24563700

  15. Other Viruses and Viruslike Agents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diseases reported under 'Virus and Virus-like Agents' in the first volume of this compendium, with the exception of Cherry rasp leaf virus and Rubus chinese seed-borne virus, should be considered oddities since there are no known type isolates available for these reported viruses. Without a po...

  16. RNA Viruses Infecting Pest Insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    RNA viruses are viruses whose genetic material is ribonucleic acid (RNA). RNA viruses may be double or single-stranded based on the type of RNA they contain. Single-stranded RNA viruses can be further grouped into negative sense or positive-sense viruses according to the polarity of their RNA. Fur...

  17. Postmortem Stability of Ebola Virus

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Joseph; Bushmaker, Trenton; Fischer, Robert; Miazgowicz, Kerri; Judson, Seth

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has highlighted questions regarding stability of the virus and detection of RNA from corpses. We used Ebola virus–infected macaques to model humans who died of Ebola virus disease. Viable virus was isolated <7 days posteuthanasia; viral RNA was detectable for 10 weeks. PMID:25897646

  18. Understanding the spreading patterns of mobile phone viruses

    E-print Network

    Wang, P; Hidalgo, C A; Barabasi, A -L; 10.1126/science.1167053

    2009-01-01

    We model the mobility of mobile phone users to study the fundamental spreading patterns characterizing a mobile virus outbreak. We find that while Bluetooth viruses can reach all susceptible handsets with time, they spread slowly due to human mobility, offering ample opportunities to deploy antiviral software. In contrast, viruses utilizing multimedia messaging services could infect all users in hours, but currently a phase transition on the underlying call graph limits them to only a small fraction of the susceptible users. These results explain the lack of a major mobile virus breakout so far and predict that once a mobile operating system's market share reaches the phase transition point, viruses will pose a serious threat to mobile communications.

  19. Photosensitizers mediated photodynamic inactivation against virus particles.

    PubMed

    Sobotta, Lukasz; Skupin-Mrugalska, Paulina; Mielcarek, Jadwiga; Goslinski, Tomasz; Balzarini, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Viruses cause many diseases in humans from the rather innocent common cold to more serious or chronic, life-threatening infections. The long-term side effects, sometimes low effectiveness of standard pharmacotherapy and the emergence of drug resistance require a search for new alternative or complementary antiviral therapeutic approaches. One new approach to inactivate microorganisms is photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT). PACT has evolved as a potential method to inactivate viruses. The great challenge for PACT is to develop a methodology enabling the effective inactivation of viruses while leaving the host cells as untouched as possible. This review aims to provide some main directions of antiviral PACT, taking into account different photosensitizers, which have been widely investigated as potential antiviral agents. In addition, several aspects concerning PACT as a tool to assure viral inactivation in human blood products will be addressed. PMID:25877599

  20. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    Part of the 2000 annual review of the industrial minerals sector. A general overview of the common clay and shale industry is provided. In 2000, U.S. production increased by 5 percent, while sales or use declined to 23.6 Mt. Despite the slowdown in the economy, no major changes are expected for the market.