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1

Vibrio chromosomes share common history  

PubMed Central

Background While most gamma proteobacteria have a single circular chromosome, Vibrionales have two circular chromosomes. Horizontal gene transfer is common among Vibrios, and in light of this genetic mobility, it is an open question to what extent the two chromosomes themselves share a common history since their formation. Results Single copy genes from each chromosome (142 genes from chromosome I and 42 genes from chromosome II) were identified from 19 sequenced Vibrionales genomes and their phylogenetic comparison suggests consistent phylogenies for each chromosome. Additionally, study of the gene organization and phylogeny of the respective origins of replication confirmed the shared history. Conclusions Thus, while elements within the chromosomes may have experienced significant genetic mobility, the backbones share a common history. This allows conclusions based on multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) for one chromosome to be applied equally to both chromosomes.

2010-01-01

2

Kinetic studies with N2-phenylguanines and with L-thymidine indicate that herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase and thymidylate kinase share a common active site.  

PubMed Central

It is known that the Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)-encoded thymidine kinase (TK) co-purifies with an associated thymidylate kinase (TMPK) activity and that thymidylate (TMP) inhibits the phosphorylation of thymidine by the HSV-1 TK. Here we demonstrate that: (i) TMP phosphorylation catalysed by the viral TMPK is competitively inhibited by thymidine (TdR) with a Ki equal to its Km as substrate for the viral TK; (ii) L-thymidine (L-TdR), the enantiomer of the naturally occurring D-TdR and a substrate for the HSV-1 TK [Spadari, Maga, Focher, Ciarrocchi, Manservigi, Arcamone, Capobianco, Caruso, Colonna, Iotti and Garbesi (1992) J. Med. Chem. 35, 4214-4220], is a powerful inhibitor of the HSV-1 TMPK activity with a Ki value identical with its Km as a substrate for the viral TK; (iii) both viral TK and TMPK activities are inhibited, in a competitive way and with identical Ki values, by novel, non-substrate inhibitors of HSV-1 TK, N2-phenylguanines; (iv) L-TdR is phosphorylated to L-TMP by the viral TK, but L-TMP is not phosphorylated to L-TDP by the viral TMPK activity; and (v) L-TMP inhibits competitively and with identical potencies the phosphorylation of TdR and TMP catalysed respectively by the HSV-1 TK and TMPK activities. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that both TK and TMPK activities encoded by HSV-1 share a common active site which is very tolerant in accepting modified nucleosides, but cannot readily accommodate modified nucleoside monophosphates.

Maga, G; Focher, F; Wright, G E; Capobianco, M; Garbesi, A; Bendiscioli, A; Spadari, S

1994-01-01

3

Multiple virus lineages sharing recent common ancestry were associated with a Large Rift Valley fever outbreak among livestock in Kenya during 2006-2007.  

PubMed

Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus historically has caused widespread and extensive outbreaks of severe human and livestock disease throughout Africa, Madagascar, and the Arabian Peninsula. Following unusually heavy rainfall during the late autumn of 2006, reports of human and animal illness consistent with RVF virus infection emerged across semiarid regions of the Garissa District of northeastern Kenya and southern Somalia. Following initial RVF virus laboratory confirmation, a high-throughput RVF diagnostic facility was established at the Kenyan Central Veterinary Laboratories in Kabete, Kenya, to support the real-time identification of infected livestock and to facilitate outbreak response and control activities. A total of 3,250 specimens from a variety of animal species, including domesticated livestock (cattle, sheep, goats, and camels) and wildlife collected from a total of 55 of 71 Kenyan administrative districts, were tested by molecular and serologic assays. Evidence of RVF infection was found in 9.2% of animals tested and across 23 districts of Kenya, reflecting the large number of affected livestock and the geographic extent of the outbreak. The complete S, M, and/or L genome segment sequence was obtained from a total of 31 RVF virus specimens spanning the entire known outbreak period (December-May) and geographic areas affected by RVF virus activity. Extensive genomic analyses demonstrated the concurrent circulation of multiple virus lineages, gene segment reassortment, and the common ancestry of the 2006/2007 outbreak viruses with those from the 1997-1998 east African RVF outbreak. Evidence of recent increases in genomic diversity and effective population size 2 to 4 years prior to the 2006-2007 outbreak also was found, indicating ongoing RVF virus activity and evolution during the interepizootic/epidemic period. These findings have implications for further studies of basic RVF virus ecology and the design of future surveillance/diagnostic activities, and they highlight the critical need for safe and effective vaccines and antiviral compounds to combat this significant veterinary and public health threat. PMID:18786992

Bird, Brian H; Githinji, Jane W K; Macharia, Joseph M; Kasiiti, Jacqueline L; Muriithi, Rees M; Gacheru, Stephen G; Musaa, Joseph O; Towner, Jonathan S; Reeder, Serena A; Oliver, Jennifer B; Stevens, Thomas L; Erickson, Bobbie R; Morgan, Laura T; Khristova, Marina L; Hartman, Amy L; Comer, James A; Rollin, Pierre E; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Nichol, Stuart T

2008-11-01

4

Multiple Virus Lineages Sharing Recent Common Ancestry Were Associated with a Large Rift Valley Fever Outbreak among Livestock in Kenya during 2006-2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus historically has caused widespread and extensive outbreaks of severe human and livestock disease throughout Africa, Madagascar, and the Arabian Peninsula. Following unusually heavy rainfall during the late autumn of 2006, reports of human and animal illness consistent with RVF virus infection emerged across semiarid regions of the Garissa District of northeastern Kenya and southern Somalia.

Brian H. Bird; Jane W. K. Githinji; Joseph M. Macharia; Jacqueline L. Kasiiti; Rees M. Muriithi; Stephen G. Gacheru; Joseph O. Musaa; Jonathan S. Towner; Serena A. Reeder; Jennifer B. Oliver; Thomas L. Stevens; Bobbie R. Erickson; Laura T. Morgan; Marina L. Khristova; Amy L. Hartman; James A. Comer; Pierre E. Rollin; Thomas G. Ksiazek; Stuart T. Nichol

2008-01-01

5

Do jurors share a common understanding concerning eyewitness behavior?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It would seem that the American judiciary have traditionally viewed knowledge of variables affecting eyewitness behavior as a part of common understanding. The presumption would then be that there is a body of knowledge in this regard that is indeed shared and that this shared understanding conforms substantially to objective reality. Multiple-choice format questionnaires designed to tap such knowledge were

Kenneth A. Deffenbacher; Elizabeth F. Loftus

1982-01-01

6

Common randomness in information theory and cryptography - I: Secret sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the first part of a study of problems involving common randomness at distance locations, information-theoretic models of secret sharing (generating a common random key at two terminals, without letting an eavesdropper obtain information about this key) are considered. The concept of key-capacity is defined. Single-letter formulas of key-capacity are obtained for several models, and bounds to key-capacity are derived

Rudolph Ahlswede; Imre Csiszár

1993-01-01

7

Common genetic determinants of uveitis shared with other autoimmune disorders.  

PubMed

Uveitis is a complex multifactorial autoimmune disease of the eye characterized by inflammation of the uvea and retina, degeneration of the retina, and blindness in genetically predisposed patients. Using the rat model of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU), we previously identified three quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with EAU on rat chromosomes 4, 12, and 10 (Eau1, Eau2, and Eau3). The primary goal of the current study is to delineate additional non-MHC chromosomal regions that control susceptibility to EAU, and to identify any QTLs that overlap with the QTLs of other autoimmune diseases. Using a set of informative microsatellite markers and F(2) generations of resistant and susceptible MHC class II-matched rat strains (F344 and LEW), we have identified several new significant or suggestive QTLs on rat chromosomes 2, 3, 7, 10, and 19 that control susceptibility to EAU. A protective allele was identified in the susceptible LEW strain in the Eau5 locus at D7Wox18, and epistatic interactions between QTLs were found to influence the severity of disease. The newly identified regions (Eau4 through Eau9) colocalize with the genetic determinants of other autoimmune disease models, and to disease-regulating syntenic regions identified in autoimmune patients on human chromosomes 4q21-31, 5q31-33, 16q22-24, 17p11-q12, 20q11-13, and 22q12-13. Our results suggest that uveitis shares some of the pathogenic mechanisms associated with other autoimmune diseases, and lends support to the "common gene, common pathway" hypothesis for autoimmune disorders. PMID:18453595

Mattapallil, Mary J; Sahin, Azize; Silver, Phyllis B; Sun, Shu-Hui; Chan, Chi-Chao; Remmers, Elaine F; Hejtmancik, J Fielding; Caspi, Rachel R

2008-05-15

8

Shared gene expression in distinct neurons expressing common selector genes  

PubMed Central

Expression of the mec-3/unc-86 selector gene complex induces the differentiation of the touch receptor neurons (TRNs) of Caenorhabditis elegans. These genes are also expressed in another set of embryonically derived mechanosensory neurons, the FLP neurons, but these cells do not share obvious TRN traits or proteins. We have identified ?300 genes in each cell type that are up-regulated at least threefold using DNA microarrays. Twenty-three percent of these genes are up-regulated in both cells. Surprisingly, some of the common genes had previously been identified as TRN-specific. Although the FLP neurons contain low amounts of the mRNAs for these TRN genes, they do not have detectable proteins. These results suggest that transcription control is relatively inexact but that these apparent errors of transcription are tolerated and do not alter cell fate. Previous studies showed that loss of the EGL-44 and EGL-46 transcription factors cause the FLP neurons to acquire TRN-like traits. Here, we show that similar changes occur (e.g., the expression of both the TRN mRNAs and proteins) when the FLP neurons ectopically express the auxiliary transcription factor ALR-1 (Aristaless related), which ensures, but does not direct, TRN differentiation. Thus, the FLP neurons can acquire a TRN-like fate but use multiple levels of regulation to ensure they do not. Our data indicate that expression of common master regulators in different cell types can result in inappropriate expression of effector genes. This misexpression makes these cells vulnerable to influences that could cause them to acquire alternative fates.

Topalidou, Irini; Chalfie, Martin

2011-01-01

9

Resistance of surface-dried virus to common disinfection procedures.  

PubMed

It is believed that surface-dried viruses can remain infectious and may therefore pose a threat to public health. To help address this issue, we studied 0.1 N NaOH and 0.1% hypochlorite for their capacity to inactivate surface-dried lipid-enveloped (LE) [human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and pseudorabies virus (PRV)] and non-lipid-enveloped [NLE; canine parvovirus (CPV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV)] viruses in a background of either plasma or culture medium. In addition, 80% ethanol was tested on surface-dried LE viruses. Without treatment, surface-dried LE viruses remained infectious for at least one week and NLE viruses for more than one month. Irrespective of the disinfectant, inactivation decreased for viruses dried in plasma, which is more representative of viral contaminated blood than virus in culture medium. Inactivation by all disinfectants improved when preceded by rehydration, although the infectivity of CPV actually increased after rehydration and disinfection may thus be overestimated in the absence of rehydration. This is the first comprehensive study of five important (model) viruses in a surface-dried state showing persistence of infectivity, resistance to three commonly used disinfectants and restoration of susceptibility after rehydration. Our results may have implications for hygiene measurements in the prevention of virus transmission. PMID:17601636

Terpstra, F G; van den Blink, A E; Bos, L M; Boots, A G C; Brinkhuis, F H M; Gijsen, E; van Remmerden, Y; Schuitemaker, H; van 't Wout, A B

2007-08-01

10

Destruction of Human Cancers by an Altered Common Cold Virus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on what appears to be a promising approach to the treatment and spread of cancer. Utilizes a mutant of the common cold virus that appears to kill many kinds of cancer cells but not normal cells. (DDR)

Oppenheimer, Steven B.

1998-01-01

11

Modeling and analysis of shared\\/common DC bus operation of AC drives. I  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shared\\/common bus operation of AC motor drives is becoming popular in many industrial applications due to its advantages such as cost reduction, reduced space requirements and improved reliability. Depending on the application requirements, there are presently two methods to interconnect DC buses of AC drives: shared-bus; and common-bus. Very little or no work has been done in analyzing the

A. H. Wijenayake; Tom Gilmore; R. Lukaszewski; D. Anderson; G. Waltersdorf

1997-01-01

12

HIV-1 and microvesicles from T cells share a common glycome, arguing for a common origin.  

PubMed

HIV-1 is a master at deceiving the immune system and usurping host biosynthetic machinery. Although HIV-1 is coated with host-derived glycoproteins, only glycosylation of viral gp120 has been described. Here we use lectin microarray technology to analyze the glycome of intact HIV-1 virions. We show that the glycan coat of human T cell line-derived HIV-1 matches that of native immunomodulatory microvesicles. The carbohydrate composition of both virus and microvesicles is cell-line dependent, which suggests a mechanism to rapidly camouflage the virus within the host. In addition, binding of both virus and microvesicles to antiviral lectins is enriched over the host cell, raising concern about targeting these glycans for therapeutics. This work also sheds light on the binding of HIV-1 to galectin-1, an important human immune lectin. Overall, our work strongly supports the theory that HIV-1 co-opts the exocytic pathway of microvesicles, thus potentially explaining why eliciting a protective antiviral immune response is difficult. PMID:19234452

Krishnamoorthy, Lakshmi; Bess, Julian W; Preston, Alex B; Nagashima, Kunio; Mahal, Lara K

2009-04-01

13

Common Origin of Four Diverse Families of Large Eukaryotic DNA Viruses  

PubMed Central

Comparative analysis of the protein sequences encoded in the genomes of three families of large DNA viruses that replicate, completely or partly, in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells (poxviruses, asfarviruses, and iridoviruses) and phycodnaviruses that replicate in the nucleus reveals 9 genes that are shared by all of these viruses and 22 more genes that are present in at least three of the four compared viral families. Although orthologous proteins from different viral families typically show weak sequence similarity, because of which some of them have not been identified previously, at least five of the conserved genes appear to be synapomorphies (shared derived characters) that unite these four viral families, to the exclusion of all other known viruses and cellular life forms. Cladistic analysis with the genes shared by at least two viral families as evolutionary characters supports the monophyly of poxviruses, asfarviruses, iridoviruses, and phycodnaviruses. The results of genome comparison allow a tentative reconstruction of the ancestral viral genome and suggest that the common ancestor of all of these viral families was a nucleocytoplasmic virus with an icosahedral capsid, which encoded complex systems for DNA replication and transcription, a redox protein involved in disulfide bond formation in virion membrane proteins, and probably inhibitors of apoptosis. The conservation of the disulfide-oxidoreductase, a major capsid protein, and two virion membrane proteins indicates that the odd-shaped virions of poxviruses have evolved from the more common icosahedral virion seen in asfarviruses, iridoviruses, and phycodnaviruses.

Iyer, Lakshminarayan M.; Aravind, L.; Koonin, Eugene V.

2001-01-01

14

Marburg virus infection detected in a common African bat.  

PubMed

Marburg and Ebola viruses can cause large hemorrhagic fever (HF) outbreaks with high case fatality (80-90%) in human and great apes. Identification of the natural reservoir of these viruses is one of the most important topics in this field and a fundamental key to understanding their natural history. Despite the discovery of this virus family almost 40 years ago, the search for the natural reservoir of these lethal pathogens remains an enigma despite numerous ecological studies. Here, we report the discovery of Marburg virus in a common species of fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus) in Gabon as shown by finding virus-specific RNA and IgG antibody in individual bats. These Marburg virus positive bats represent the first naturally infected non-primate animals identified. Furthermore, this is the first report of Marburg virus being present in this area of Africa, thus extending the known range of the virus. These data imply that more areas are at risk for MHF outbreaks than previously realized and correspond well with a recently published report in which three species of fruit bats were demonstrated to be likely reservoirs for Ebola virus. PMID:17712412

Towner, Jonathan S; Pourrut, Xavier; Albariño, César G; Nkogue, Chimène Nze; Bird, Brian H; Grard, Gilda; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Nichol, Stuart T; Leroy, Eric M

2007-01-01

15

Revitalization of the shared commons: education for sustainability and marginalized cultures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Education for sustainability provides a vision for revitalizing the environmental commons while preserving cultural traditions and human rights. What happens if the environmental commons is shared by two politically disparate and conflicting cultures? As in many shared common lands, what happens if one culture is dominant and represents a more affluent society with more resources and educational opportunities? In the case of the Tal and Alkaher study (Cult Stud Sci Edu, 2009), asymmetric power differences between the dominant Israeli society and the minority Arab population yielded different environmental narratives and perceptions of students involved in learning about a mediated conflict in national park land. Similarly, marginalized indigenous cultures in Malawi, Africa share common lands with the dominant European landowners but have distinctly different environmental narratives. Although indigenous ways of living with nature contribute to the sustainability of the environment and culture, African funds of knowledge are conspicuously absent from the Eurocentric school science curriculum. In contrast, examples of experiential learning and recent curriculum development efforts in sustainability science in Malawi are inclusive of indigenous knowledge and practices and are essential for revitalizing the shared commons.

Glasson, George E.

2010-06-01

16

Virus-induced gene silencing in soybean and common bean.  

PubMed

Plant viral vectors are useful for transient gene expression as well as for downregulation of gene expression via virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). When used in reverse genetics approaches, VIGS offers a convenient way of transforming genomic information into knowledge of gene function. Efforts to develop and improve plant viral vectors have expanded their applications and have led to substantial advances needed to facilitate gene function studies in major row crops. Here, we describe a DNA-based Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) vector system for both gene expression and VIGS in soybean and common bean. PMID:23386301

Zhang, Chunquan; Whitham, Steven A; Hill, John H

2013-01-01

17

Charge sharing in common-grid pixelated CdZnTe detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The charge sharing effect in pixelated CdZnTe (CZT) detectors with a common anode steering grid has been studied. The impact on energy resolution of weighting potential cross-talk and ballistic deficit due to cathode signal shaping has been investigated. A detailed system modeling package considering charge induction, electronic noise, pulse shaping, and ASIC triggering procedures has been developed to study the characteristics of common-grid CZT detectors coupled to the VAS_UM/TAT4 ASIC. Besides an actual common-grid CZT detector coupled to VAS_UM/TAT4 ASIC, a prototype digital read-out system has been developed to better understand the nature of the charge sharing effect.

Kim, Jae Cheon; Anderson, Stephen E.; Kaye, Willy; Zhang, Feng; Zhu, Yuefeng; Kaye, Sonal Joshi; He, Zhong

2011-10-01

18

Therapeutic approaches against common structural features of toxic oligomers shared by multiple amyloidogenic proteins.  

PubMed

Impaired proteostasis is one of the main features of all amyloid diseases, which are associated with the formation of insoluble aggregates from amyloidogenic proteins. The aggregation process can be caused by overproduction or poor clearance of these proteins. However, numerous reports suggest that amyloid oligomers are the most toxic species, rather than insoluble fibrillar material, in Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Prion diseases, among others. Although the exact protein that aggregates varies between amyloid disorders, they all share common structural features that can be used as therapeutic targets. In this review, we focus on therapeutic approaches against shared features of toxic oligomeric structures and future directions. PMID:24406245

Guerrero-Muñoz, Marcos J; Castillo-Carranza, Diana L; Kayed, Rakez

2014-04-15

19

Three different macronuclear DNAs in Oxytricha fallax share a common sequence block.  

PubMed Central

The three members of a cross-hybridizing family of macronuclear DNAs (4,890, 2,780, and 1,640 base pairs) from the protozoan Oxytricha fallax have in common a conserved sequence block 1,300 to 1,550 base pairs long. Adjacent to the common block in the two larger DNAs are sequences which are unique to them, whereas the smallest DNA contains few if any additional sequences. The family reappears when the macronucleus is replaced after conjugation and can be detected in another O. fallax subspecies. In a random collection of cloned macronuclear DNAs, 6 of 15 hybridize to macronuclear DNA families. This high frequency suggests that families sharing common sequence blocks have an important role in macronuclear function. Images

Cartinhour, S W; Herrick, G A

1984-01-01

20

Cell polarity proteins: common targets for tumorigenic human viruses  

PubMed Central

Loss of polarity and disruption of cell junctions are common features of epithelial-derived cancer cells, and mounting evidence indicates that such defects have a direct function in the pathology of cancer. Supporting this idea, results with several different human tumor viruses indicate that their oncogenic potential depends in part on a common ability to inactivate key cell polarity proteins. For example, adenovirus (Ad) type 9 is unique among human Ads by causing exclusively estrogen-dependent mammary tumors in experimental animals and in having E4 region-encoded open reading frame 1 (E4-ORF1) as its primary oncogenic determinant. The 125-residue E4-ORF1 protein consists of two separate protein-interaction elements, one of which defines a PDZ domain-binding motif (PBM) required for E4-ORF1 to induce both cellular transformation in vitro and tumorigenesis in vivo. Most notably, the E4-ORF1 PBM mediates interactions with a selected group of cellular PDZ proteins, three of which include the cell polarity proteins Dlg1, PATJ and ZO-2. Data further indicate that these interactions promote disruption of cell junctions and a loss of cell polarity. In addition, one or more of the E4-ORF1-interacting cell polarity proteins, as well as the cell polarity protein Scribble, are common targets for the high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 or human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax oncoproteins. Underscoring the significance of these observations, in humans, high-risk HPV and HTLV-1 are causative agents for cervical cancer and adult T-cell leukemia, respectively. Consequently, human tumor viruses should serve as powerful tools for deciphering mechanisms whereby disruption of cell junctions and loss of cell polarity contribute to the development of many human cancers. This review article discusses evidence supporting this hypothesis, with an emphasis on the human Ad E4-ORF1 oncoprotein.

Javier, RT

2012-01-01

21

Cell polarity proteins: common targets for tumorigenic human viruses.  

PubMed

Loss of polarity and disruption of cell junctions are common features of epithelial-derived cancer cells, and mounting evidence indicates that such defects have a direct function in the pathology of cancer. Supporting this idea, results with several different human tumor viruses indicate that their oncogenic potential depends in part on a common ability to inactivate key cell polarity proteins. For example, adenovirus (Ad) type 9 is unique among human Ads by causing exclusively estrogen-dependent mammary tumors in experimental animals and in having E4 region-encoded open reading frame 1 (E4-ORF1) as its primary oncogenic determinant. The 125-residue E4-ORF1 protein consists of two separate protein-interaction elements, one of which defines a PDZ domain-binding motif (PBM) required for E4-ORF1 to induce both cellular transformation in vitro and tumorigenesis in vivo. Most notably, the E4-ORF1 PBM mediates interactions with a selected group of cellular PDZ proteins, three of which include the cell polarity proteins Dlg1, PATJ and ZO-2. Data further indicate that these interactions promote disruption of cell junctions and a loss of cell polarity. In addition, one or more of the E4-ORF1-interacting cell polarity proteins, as well as the cell polarity protein Scribble, are common targets for the high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 or human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax oncoproteins. Underscoring the significance of these observations, in humans, high-risk HPV and HTLV-1 are causative agents for cervical cancer and adult T-cell leukemia, respectively. Consequently, human tumor viruses should serve as powerful tools for deciphering mechanisms whereby disruption of cell junctions and loss of cell polarity contribute to the development of many human cancers. This review article discusses evidence supporting this hypothesis, with an emphasis on the human Ad E4-ORF1 oncoprotein. PMID:19029943

Javier, R T

2008-11-24

22

Serological and biological relationships among viruses in the bean common mosaic virus subgroup.  

PubMed

Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV), blackeye cowpea mosaic virus (B1CMV), cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), azuki bean mosaic virus (AzMV), and peanut stripe virus (PStV) are five species of the genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae which are seed-transmitted in beans or cowpeas. Eighteen isolates of BCMV, five isolates of B1CMV, four isolates of CABMV, and one isolate each of AzMV, and PStV were compared serologically using a panel of 13 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) raised against BCMV, B1CMV, CABMV, or PStV in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Four MAbs detected all virus isolates; one detected all isolates except those of CABMV. Three MAbs were specific only for serotype A isolates of BCMV. Four MAbs detected all serotype B isolates of BCMV plus all isolates of B1CMV, AzMV, and PStV. None of the antibodies distinguished among these four viruses. However, in biological tests with 11 bean cultivars selected for differentiating BCMV pathotypes, all isolates of B1CMV, AzMV, and PStV could be differentiated from the BCMV serotype B isolates by their reactions on a few bean cultivars in host group I and the cowpea cultivar California Blackeye #5. Potential problems that can arise from the use of nonauthenticated isolates are also discussed. PMID:1450766

Mink, G I; Silbernagel, M J

1992-01-01

23

Coverage Performance of Common/Shared Control Signals Using Transmit Diversity in Evolved UTRA Downlink  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the best transmit diversity schemes for three types of common/shared control signals from the viewpoint of the block error rate (BLER) performance in the Evolved UTRA downlink employing OFDM radio access. This paper also presents the coverage performance of the common/shared control signals using transmit diversity with respect to the outage probability that satisfies the required BLER performance, which is a major factor determining the cell configuration. Simulation results clarify that Space-Frequency Block Code (SFBC) and the combination of SFBC and Frequency Switched Transmit Diversity (FSTD) are the best transmit diversity schemes among the open-loop type transmit diversity candidates for two-antenna and four-antenna transmission cases, respectively. Furthermore, we show through system-level simulations that SFBC is very effective in reducing the outage probability at the required BLER for the physical broadcast channel (PBCH), for the common control signal with resource block (RB)-level assignment such as the dynamic broadcast channel (D-BCH) and paging channel (PCH), and in increasing the number of accommodated L1/L2 control signals over one transmission time interval duration, using mini-control channel element (CCE)-level assignment.

Taoka, Hidekazu; Morimoto, Akihito; Kawai, Hiroyuki; Higuchi, Kenichi; Sawahashi, Mamoru

24

Malignant Phyllodes Tumor and Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia Sharing a Common Clonal Origin  

PubMed Central

There is a well-known association in male patients between mediastinal germ cell tumors (GCT) and hematologic malignancies, with a propensity towards acute megakaryoblastic leukemia. These rare malignancies have been shown to share a common clonal origin, often deduced from the finding of isochromosome 12p, i(12p), in cells from both the solid tumor and the leukemia, and thus are now known to represent different manifestations of the same clonal process. We treated a young female patient with a malignant phyllodes tumor followed by an acute megakaryoblastic leukemia and found several of the same marker chromosomes by karyotype analysis of cells from both the tumor and the leukemia implying a common clonal origin of the two. To the best of our knowledge, this has not been demonstrated in phyllodes tumors before, but indicates that the same type of leukemization may occur of this tumor as has been described in mediastinal GCT.

Fl?isand, Yngvar; Beiske, Klaus; Tj?nnfjord, Geir Erland; Heldal, Dag; Bjerkehagen, Bodil; Revheim, Mona-Elisabeth; Heim, Sverre; Bruland, ?yvind Sverre; Hall, Kirsten Sundby; Tierens, Anne; Delabie, Jan

2013-01-01

25

Small-molecule inducers of A?-42 peptide production share a common mechanism of action  

PubMed Central

The pathways leading specifically to the toxic A?42 peptide production, a key event in Alzheimer's disease (AD), are unknown. While searching for pathways that mediate pathological increases of A?42, we identified Aftin-4, a new compound that selectively and potently increases A?42 compared to DMSO (N2a cells: 7-fold; primary neurons: 4-fold; brain lysates: 2-fold) with an EC50 of 30 ?M. These results were confirmed by ELISA and IP-WB. Using affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry, we identified 3 proteins (VDAC1, prohibitin, and mitofilin) relevant to AD that interact with Aftin-4, but not with a structurally similar but inactive molecule. Electron microscopy studies demonstrated that Aftin-4 induces a reversible mitochondrial phenotype reminiscent of the one observed in AD brains. Sucrose gradient fractionation showed that Aftin-4 perturbs the subcellular localization of ?-secretase components and could, therefore, modify ?-secretase specificity by locally altering its membrane environment. Remarkably, Aftin-4 shares all these properties with two other “AD accelerator” compounds. In summary, treatment with three A?42 raising agents induced similar biochemical alterations that lead to comparable cellular phenotypes in vitro, suggesting a common mechanism of action involving three structural cellular targets.—Bettayeb, K., Oumata, N., Zhang, Y., Luo, W., Bustos, V., Galons, H., Greengard, P., Meijer, L., Flajolet, M. Small-molecule inducers of A?-42 peptide production share a common mechanism of action.

Bettayeb, Karima; Oumata, Nassima; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Luo, Wenjie; Bustos, Victor; Galons, Herve; Greengard, Paul; Meijer, Laurent; Flajolet, Marc

2012-01-01

26

Effectiveness of Common Healthcare Disinfectants against H1N1 Influenza Virus on Reusable Elastomeric Respirators.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the efficacy of 3 common hospital disinfectants to inactivate influenza virus on elastomeric respirators. Quaternary ammonium/isopropyl alcohol and bleach detergent wipes eliminated live virus, whereas 70% isopropyl alcohol alone was ineffective. PMID:24915224

Subhash, Shobha S; Cavaiuolo, Maria; Radonovich, Lewis J; Eagan, Aaron; Lee, Martin L; Campbell, Sheldon; Martinello, Richard A

2014-07-01

27

Modularity in the mammalian dentition: Mice and monkeys share a common dental genetic architecture  

PubMed Central

The concept of modularity provides a useful tool for exploring the relationship between genotype and phenotype. Here, we use quantitative genetics to identify modularity within the mammalian dentition, connecting the genetics of organogenesis to the genetics of population-level variation for a phenotype well represented in the fossil record. We estimated the correlations between dental traits due to the shared additive effects of genes (pleiotropy) and compared the pleiotropic relationships among homologous traits in two evolutionary distant taxa – mice and baboons. We find that in both mice and baboons, who shared a common ancestor >60 Ma, incisor size variation is genetically independent of molar size variation. Furthermore, baboon premolars show independent genetic variation from incisors, suggesting that a modular architecture separates incisors from these posterior teeth as well. Such genetic independence between modules provides an explanation for the extensive diversity of incisor size variation seen throughout mammalian evolution--variation uncorrelated with equivalent levels of postcanine tooth size variation. The modularity identified here is supported by the odontogenic homeobox code proposed for the patterning of the rodent dentition. The baboon postcanine pattern of incomplete pleiotropy is also consistent with predictions from the morphogenetic field model.

Hlusko, Leslea J.; Sage, Richard D.; Mahaney, Michael C.

2010-01-01

28

Hydrogen exchange in BPTI variants that do not share a common disulfide bond.  

PubMed Central

Bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) is stabilized by 3 disulfide bonds, between cysteines 30-51, 5-55, and 14-38. To better understand the influence of disulfide bonds on local protein structure and dynamics, we have measured amide proton exchange rates in 2 folded variants of BPTI, [5-55]Ala and [30-51; 14-38]V5A55, which share no common disulfide bonds. These proteins resemble disulfide-bonded intermediates that accumulate in the BPTI folding pathway. Essentially the same amide hydrogens are protected from exchange in both of the BPTI variants studied here as in native BPTI, demonstrating that the variants adopt fully folded, native-like structures in solution. However, the most highly protected amide protons in each variant differ, and are contained within the sequences of previously studied peptide models of related BPTI folding intermediates containing either the 5-55 or the 30-51 disulfide bond.

Schulman, B. A.; Kim, P. S.

1994-01-01

29

Mycorrhizal Networks: Common Goods of Plants Shared under Unequal Terms of Trade1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Plants commonly live in a symbiotic association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). They invest photosynthetic products to feed their fungal partners, which, in return, provide mineral nutrients foraged in the soil by their intricate hyphal networks. Intriguingly, AMF can link neighboring plants, forming common mycorrhizal networks (CMNs). What are the terms of trade in such CMNs between plants and their shared fungal partners? To address this question, we set up microcosms containing a pair of test plants, interlinked by a CMN of Glomus intraradices or Glomus mosseae. The plants were flax (Linum usitatissimum; a C3 plant) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor; a C4 plant), which display distinctly different 13C/12C isotope compositions. This allowed us to differentially assess the carbon investment of the two plants into the CMN through stable isotope tracing. In parallel, we determined the plants’ “return of investment” (i.e. the acquisition of nutrients via CMN) using 15N and 33P as tracers. Depending on the AMF species, we found a strong asymmetry in the terms of trade: flax invested little carbon but gained up to 94% of the nitrogen and phosphorus provided by the CMN, which highly facilitated growth, whereas the neighboring sorghum invested massive amounts of carbon with little return but was barely affected in growth. Overall biomass production in the mixed culture surpassed the mean of the two monocultures. Thus, CMNs may contribute to interplant facilitation and the productivity boosts often found with intercropping compared with conventional monocropping.

Walder, Florian; Niemann, Helge; Natarajan, Mathimaran; Lehmann, Moritz F.; Boller, Thomas; Wiemken, Andres

2012-01-01

30

Perception of Shared Visual Space: Establishing Common Ground in Real and Virtual Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

When people have visual access to the same space, judgments of this shared visual space (shared vista) can facilitate communication and collaboration. This study establishes baseline performance on a shared vista task in real environments and draws comparisons with performance in visually immersive virtual environments. Participants indicated which parts of the scene were visible to an assistant or avatar (simulated

Jonathan W. Kelly; Andrew C. Beall; Jack M. Loomis

2004-01-01

31

ERp57 is essential for efficient folding of glycoproteins sharing common structural domains  

PubMed Central

ERp57 is a member of the protein disulphide isomerase family of oxidoreductases, which are involved in native disulphide bond formation in the endoplasmic reticulum of mammalian cells. This enzyme has been shown to be associated with both calnexin and calreticulin and, therefore, has been proposed to be a glycoprotein-specific oxidoreductase. Here, we identify endogenous substrates for ERp57 by trapping mixed disulphide intermediates between enzyme and substrate. Our results demonstrate that the substrates for this enzyme are mostly heavily glycosylated, disulphide bonded proteins. In addition, we show that the substrate proteins share common structural domains, indicating that substrate specificity may involve specific structural features as well as the presence of an oligosaccharide side chain. We also show that the folding of two of the endogenous substrates for ERp57 is impaired in ERp57 knockout cells and that prevention of an interaction with calnexin or calreticulin perturbs the folding of some, but not all, substrates with multiple disulphide bonds. These results suggest a specific role for ERp57 in the isomerisation of non-native disulphide bonds in specific glycoprotein substrates.

Jessop, Catherine E; Chakravarthi, Seema; Garbi, Natalio; Hammerling, Gunter J; Lovell, Simon; Bulleid, Neil J

2007-01-01

32

Viral hepatitis-associated intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma shares common disease processes with hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Bile duct cells and hepatocytes differentiate from the same hepatic progenitor cells. To investigate the possible association of viral hepatitis B and C with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), we conducted a retrospective case–control study using univariate and multivariate logistic analyses to identify risk factors for ICC. Besides hepatic lithiasis (25.6%; P<0.001), seropositivity for hepatitis B surface antigen (37.5% of all ICC patients; odds ratio (OR) =4.985, P<0.001) and seropositivity for hepatitis C antibodies (13.1%; OR=2.709; P=0.021) are the primary independent risk factors for ICC. Cirrhosis exerted synergic effects on the development of ICC. We compared the age distributions of viral-hepatitis associated ICC to that of viral hepatitis-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The mean age of ICC patients with viral hepatitis B (56.4±11.1 years) were 9 years younger than that of ICC patients with viral hepatitis C (65.6±9.17 years), similar to that observed in HCC. The incidence ratio of HCC?:?ICC?:?CHC (combined hepatocellular cholangiocarcinoma) in our population was 233?:?17?:?1 consistent with the theoretic ratio of hepatocyte number to cholangiocyte number in the liver. Our findings indicated that both viral hepatitis-associated ICC and HCC shared common disease process for carcinogenesis and, possibly, both arose from the hepatic progenitor cells.

Lee, C H; Chang, C J; Lin, Y J; Yeh, C N; Chen, M F; Hsieh, S Y

2009-01-01

33

Monkeys and Humans Share a Common Computation for Face/Voice Integration  

PubMed Central

Speech production involves the movement of the mouth and other regions of the face resulting in visual motion cues. These visual cues enhance intelligibility and detection of auditory speech. As such, face-to-face speech is fundamentally a multisensory phenomenon. If speech is fundamentally multisensory, it should be reflected in the evolution of vocal communication: similar behavioral effects should be observed in other primates. Old World monkeys share with humans vocal production biomechanics and communicate face-to-face with vocalizations. It is unknown, however, if they, too, combine faces and voices to enhance their perception of vocalizations. We show that they do: monkeys combine faces and voices in noisy environments to enhance their detection of vocalizations. Their behavior parallels that of humans performing an identical task. We explored what common computational mechanism(s) could explain the pattern of results we observed across species. Standard explanations or models such as the principle of inverse effectiveness and a “race” model failed to account for their behavior patterns. Conversely, a “superposition model”, positing the linear summation of activity patterns in response to visual and auditory components of vocalizations, served as a straightforward but powerful explanatory mechanism for the observed behaviors in both species. As such, it represents a putative homologous mechanism for integrating faces and voices across primates.

Chandrasekaran, Chandramouli; Lemus, Luis; Trubanova, Andrea; Gondan, Matthias; Ghazanfar, Asif A.

2011-01-01

34

Small-molecule inducers of A?-42 peptide production share a common mechanism of action.  

PubMed

The pathways leading specifically to the toxic A?42 peptide production, a key event in Alzheimer's disease (AD), are unknown. While searching for pathways that mediate pathological increases of A?42, we identified Aftin-4, a new compound that selectively and potently increases A?42 compared to DMSO (N2a cells: 7-fold; primary neurons: 4-fold; brain lysates: 2-fold) with an EC(50) of 30 ?M. These results were confirmed by ELISA and IP-WB. Using affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry, we identified 3 proteins (VDAC1, prohibitin, and mitofilin) relevant to AD that interact with Aftin-4, but not with a structurally similar but inactive molecule. Electron microscopy studies demonstrated that Aftin-4 induces a reversible mitochondrial phenotype reminiscent of the one observed in AD brains. Sucrose gradient fractionation showed that Aftin-4 perturbs the subcellular localization of ?-secretase components and could, therefore, modify ?-secretase specificity by locally altering its membrane environment. Remarkably, Aftin-4 shares all these properties with two other "AD accelerator" compounds. In summary, treatment with three A?42 raising agents induced similar biochemical alterations that lead to comparable cellular phenotypes in vitro, suggesting a common mechanism of action involving three structural cellular targets. PMID:22972917

Bettayeb, Karima; Oumata, Nassima; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Luo, Wenjie; Bustos, Victor; Galons, Hervé; Greengard, Paul; Meijer, Laurent; Flajolet, Marc

2012-12-01

35

Thermotolerance and heat acclimation may share a common mechanism in humans  

PubMed Central

Thermotolerance and heat acclimation are key adaptation processes that have been hitherto viewed as separate phenomena. Here, we provide evidence that these processes may share a common basis, as both may potentially be governed by the heat shock response. We evaluated the effects of a heat shock response-inhibitor (quercetin; 2,000 mg/day) on established markers of thermotolerance [gastrointestinal barrier permeability, plasma TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-10 concentrations, and leukocyte heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) content]. Heat acclimation reduced body temperatures, heart rate, and physiological strain during exercise/heat stress) in male subjects (n = 8) completing a 7-day heat acclimation protocol. These same subjects completed an identical protocol under placebo supplementation (placebo). Gastrointestinal barrier permeability and TNF-? were increased on the 1st day of exercise/heat stress in quercetin; no differences in these variables were reported in placebo. Exercise HSP70 responses were increased, and plasma cytokines (IL-6, IL-10) were decreased on the 7th day of heat acclimation in placebo; with concomitant reductions in exercise body temperatures, heart rate, and physiological strain. In contrast, gastrointestinal barrier permeability remained elevated, HSP70 was not increased, and IL-6, IL-10, and exercise body temperatures were not reduced on the 7th day of heat acclimation in quercetin. While exercise heart rate and physiological strain were reduced in quercetin, this occurred later in exercise than with placebo. Consistent with the concept that thermotolerance and heat acclimation are related through the heat shock response, repeated exercise/heat stress increases cytoprotective HSP70 and reduces circulating cytokines, contributing to reductions in cellular and systemic markers of heat strain. Exercising under a heat shock response-inhibitor prevents both cellular and systemic heat adaptations.

Gillum, Trevor; Dokladny, Karol; Bedrick, Edward; Schneider, Suzanne; Moseley, Pope

2011-01-01

36

Common, emerging, vector-borne and infrequent abortogenic virus infections of cattle.  

PubMed

This review deals with the aetiology and the diagnosis of bovine viral abortion. While the abortion rates on beef and dairy cattle farms usually do not exceed 10%, significant economic losses because of abortion storms may be encountered. Determining the cause of abortions is usually a challenge, and it generally remains obscure in more than 50% of the necropsy submitted foetuses. Bovine viral diarrhoea virus and bovine herpesvirus-1 are the most common viruses causally associated with bovine abortions in farmed cattle globally. Rift Valley fever virus and bluetongue virus are important insect-transmitted abortogenic viruses. The geographic distribution of these two viruses is primarily dependent on the distribution of the insect vector, but direct transmission is possible. Recent global warming and subsequent insect vector expansion, coupled with the increase in international trade of animals and animal products, have been important factors in recent geographic advances of those two viruses. Bovine herpesviruses-4 and 5 in cattle, as well as other less frequent vector-borne viruses including epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus, Aino virus, Wesselsbron virus and lumpy skin disease virus, are discussed. PMID:21733134

Ali, H; Ali, A A; Atta, M S; Cepica, A

2012-02-01

37

Shared resources, common future: Sustainable management of Canada-United States border waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long tradition of transboundary resource management activities links the United States with Canada and with Mexico, especially with respect to shared waters. The institutions established for this purpose, notably the International Joint Commission (IJC) and the International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC), have solid records of accomplishment. In recent years, however, the performance of both organizations has come under

Sadler

2009-01-01

38

Emerging Theme: Cellular PDZ Proteins as Common Targets of Pathogenic Viruses?  

PubMed Central

More than a decade ago, three viral oncoproteins, adenovirus type 9 E4-ORF1, human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 Tax, and high-risk human papillomavirus E6, were found to encode a related carboxyl-terminal PDZ domain-binding motif (PBM) that mediates interactions with a select group of cellular PDZ proteins. Recent studies have shown that many other viruses also encode PBM-containing proteins that bind to cellular PDZ proteins. Interestingly, these recently recognized viruses include not only some with oncogenic potential (hepatitis B virus, rhesus papillomavirus, cottontail rabbit papillomavirus) but also many without this potential (influenza virus, Dengue virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, rabies virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, human immunodeficiency virus). Examination of the cellular PDZ proteins that are targets of viral PBMs reveals that the viral proteins often interact with the same or similar types of PDZ proteins, most notably Dlg1 and other members of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase protein family, as well as Scribble. In addition, cellular PDZ protein targets of viral PBMs commonly control tight junction formation, cell polarity establishment, and apoptosis. These findings reveal a new theme in virology wherein many different virus families encode proteins that bind and perturb the function of cellular PDZ proteins. The inhibition or perturbation of the function of cellular PDZ proteins appears to be a widely used strategy for viruses to enhance their replication, disseminate in the host, and transmit to new hosts.

Javier, Ronald T.; Rice, Andrew P.

2011-01-01

39

Emerging theme: cellular PDZ proteins as common targets of pathogenic viruses.  

PubMed

More than a decade ago, three viral oncoproteins, adenovirus type 9 E4-ORF1, human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 Tax, and high-risk human papillomavirus E6, were found to encode a related carboxyl-terminal PDZ domain-binding motif (PBM) that mediates interactions with a select group of cellular PDZ proteins. Recent studies have shown that many other viruses also encode PBM-containing proteins that bind to cellular PDZ proteins. Interestingly, these recently recognized viruses include not only some with oncogenic potential (hepatitis B virus, rhesus papillomavirus, cottontail rabbit papillomavirus) but also many without this potential (influenza virus, Dengue virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, rabies virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, human immunodeficiency virus). Examination of the cellular PDZ proteins that are targets of viral PBMs reveals that the viral proteins often interact with the same or similar types of PDZ proteins, most notably Dlg1 and other members of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase protein family, as well as Scribble. In addition, cellular PDZ protein targets of viral PBMs commonly control tight junction formation, cell polarity establishment, and apoptosis. These findings reveal a new theme in virology wherein many different virus families encode proteins that bind and perturb the function of cellular PDZ proteins. The inhibition or perturbation of the function of cellular PDZ proteins appears to be a widely used strategy for viruses to enhance their replication, disseminate in the host, and transmit to new hosts. PMID:21775458

Javier, Ronald T; Rice, Andrew P

2011-11-01

40

Blood Pressure and Cerebral White Matter Share Common Genetic Factors in Mexican-Americans  

PubMed Central

Elevated arterial pulse pressure (PP) and blood pressure (BP) can lead to atrophy of cerebral white matter (WM), potentially due to shared genetic factors. We calculated the magnitude of shared genetic variance between BP and fractional anisotropy (FA) of water diffusion, a sensitive measurement of WM integrity in a well-characterized population of Mexican-Americans. The patterns of whole-brain and regional genetic overlap between BP and FA were interpreted in the context the pulse-wave encephalopathy (PWE) theory. We also tested whether regional pattern in genetic pleiotropy is modulated by the phylogeny of WM development. BP and high-resolution (1.7×1.7×3mm, 55 directions) diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data were analyzed for 332 (202 females; mean age=47.9±13.3years) members of the San Antonio Family Heart Study. Bivariate genetic correlation analysis was used to calculate the genetic overlap between several BP measurements [PP, systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP)] and FA (whole-brain and regional values). Intersubject variance in PP and SBP exhibited a significant genetic overlap with variance in whole-brain FA values, sharing 36% and 22% of genetic variance, respectively. Regionally, shared genetic variance was significantly influenced by rates of WM development (r=?.75, p=0.01). The pattern of genetic overlap between BP and WM integrity was generally in-agreement with the PWE theory. Our study provides evidence that a set of pleiotropically acting genetic factors jointly influence phenotypic variation in BP and WM integrity. The magnitude of this overlap appears to be influenced by phylogeny of WM development suggesting a possible role for genotype-by-age interactions.

Kochunov, Peter; Glahn, David C; Lancaster, Jack; Winkler, Anderson; Karlsgodt, Kathrin; Olvera, Rene L; Curran, Joanna E; Carless, Melanie A; Dyer, Thomas D; Almasy, Laura; Duggirala, Ravi; Fox, Peter T; Blangero, John

2010-01-01

41

Recombinants of Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and Genetic Determinants of BCMV Involved in Overcoming Resistance in Common Bean.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) exists as a complex of strains classified by reactions to resistance genes found in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); seven BCMV pathotypes have been distinguished thus far, numbered I to VII. Virus genetic determinants involved in pathogenicity interactions with resistance genes have not yet been identified. Here, we describe the characterization of two novel field isolates of BCMV that helped to narrow down these genetic determinants interacting with specific P. vulgaris resistance factors. Based on a biological characterization on common bean differentials, both isolates were classified as belonging to pathotype VII, similar to control isolate US10, and both isolates exhibited the B serotype. The whole genome was sequenced for both isolates and found to be 98 to 99% identical to the BCMV isolate RU1 (pathotype VI), and a single name was retained: BCMV RU1-OR. To identify a genetic determinant of BCMV linked to the BCMV pathotype VII, the whole genome was also sequenced for two control isolates, US10 and RU1-P. Inspection of the nucleotide sequences for BCMV RU1-OR and US10 (both pathotype VII) and three closely related sequences of BCMV (RU1-P, RU1-D, and RU1-W, all pathotype VI) revealed that RU1-OR originated through a series of recombination events between US10 and an as-yet-unidentified BCMV parental genome, resulting in changes in virus pathology. The data obtained suggest that a fragment of the RU1-OR genome between positions 723 and 1,961 nucleotides that is common to US10 and RU1-OR in the P1-HC-Pro region of the BCMV genome may be responsible for the ability to overcome resistance in bean conferred by the bc-2(2) gene. This is the first report of a virus genetic determinant responsible for overcoming a specific BCMV resistance gene in common bean. PMID:24915430

Feng, Xue; Poplawsky, Alan R; Nikolaeva, Olga V; Myers, James R; Karasev, Alexander V

2014-07-01

42

Sequence data to settle the taxonomic position of bean common mosaic virus and blackeye cowpea mosaic virus isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nucleotide sequences of the coat protein genes and 3' non-translated regions (3'-NTRs) of three isolates of bean common mosaic virus (NL1, NL3 and NY15) and one isolate of blackeye cowpea mosaic virus (W) were determined. Comparison of these sequences revealed that the coat proteins of NL1, NY15 and W were identical in size (287 amino acids) and exhibited an

Jawaid A. Khan; Dick Lohuis; Rob Goldbach; Jeanne Dijkstra

1993-01-01

43

Benefit Share Mechanism in Small Retail Enterprises Common Logistics Based on Shapely Value  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under two sides pressure of profit atrophy and the competition intensify, the choice of small retail enterprises to imply common logistics is the inevitable tendency. To carry out the common logistics, the small retail enterprises can get two kinds of benefits: the directly benefits and indirectly benefits. The directly benefits including the logistics operation cost saving, the sale enlarging. The

Fuhua Huang; Min Zhou; Yangxiaoxun Ou

2009-01-01

44

Genome-wide association study of 14,000 cases of seven common diseases and 3,000 shared controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing evidence that genome-wide association (GWA) studies represent a powerful approach to the identification of genes involved in common human diseases. We describe a joint GWA study (using the Affymetrix GeneChip 500K Mapping Array Set) undertaken in the British population, which has examined ~2,000 individuals for each of 7 major diseases and a shared set of ~3,000 controls.

Paul R. Burton; David G. Clayton; Lon R. Cardon; Nick Craddock; Panos Deloukas; Audrey Duncanson; Dominic P. Kwiatkowski; Mark I. McCarthy; Willem H. Ouwehand; Nilesh J. Samani; John A. Todd; Peter Donnelly; Jeffrey C. Barrett; Dan Davison; Doug Easton; David Evans; Hin-Tak Leung; Jonathan L. Marchini; Andrew P. Morris; Chris C. A. Spencer; Martin D. Tobin; Antony P. Attwood; James P. Boorman; Barbara Cant; Ursula Everson; Judith M. Hussey; Jennifer D. Jolley; Alexandra S. Knight; Kerstin Koch; Elizabeth Meech; Sarah Nutland; Christopher V. Prowse; Helen E. Stevens; Niall C. Taylor; Graham R. Walters; Neil M. Walker; Nicholas A. Watkins; Thilo Winzer; Richard W. Jones; Wendy L. McArdle; Susan M. Ring; David P. Strachan; Marcus Pembrey; Gerome Breen; David St Clair; Sian Caesar; Katherine Gordon-Smith; Lisa Jones; Christine Fraser; Elaine K. Green; Detelina Grozeva; Marian L. Hamshere; Peter A. Holmans; Ian R. Jones; George Kirov; Valentina Moskvina; Ivan Nikolov; Michael C. O'Donovan; Michael J. Owen; David A. Collier; Amanda Elkin; Anne Farmer; Richard Williamson; Peter McGuffin; Allan H. Young; I. Nicol Ferrier; Stephen G. Ball; Anthony J. Balmforth; Jennifer H. Barrett; D. Timothy Bishop; Mark M. Iles; Azhar Maqbool; Nadira Yuldasheva; Alistair S. Hall; Peter S. Braund; Richard J. Dixon; Massimo Mangino; Suzanne Stevens; John R. Thompson; Francesca Bredin; Mark Tremelling; Miles Parkes; Hazel Drummond; Charles W. Lees; Elaine R. Nimmo; Jack Satsangi; Sheila A. Fisher; Alastair Forbes; Cathryn M. Lewis; Clive M. Onnie; Natalie J. Prescott; Jeremy Sanderson; Christopher G. Mathew; Jamie Barbour; M. Khalid Mohiuddin; Catherine E. Todhunter; John C. Mansfield; Tariq Ahmad; Fraser R. Cummings; Derek P. Jewell; John Webster; Morris J. Brown; G. Mark Lathrop; John Connell; Anna Dominiczak; Carolina A. Braga Marcano; Beverley Burke; Richard Dobson; Johannie Gungadoo; Kate L. Lee; Patricia B. Munroe; Stephen J. Newhouse; Abiodun Onipinla; Chris Wallace; Mingzhan Xue; Mark Caulfield; Martin Farrall; Anne Barton; Ian N. Bruce; Hannah Donovan; Steve Eyre; Paul D. Gilbert; Samantha L. Hider; Anne M. Hinks; Sally L. John; Catherine Potter; Alan J. Silman; Deborah P. M. Symmons; Wendy Thomson; Jane Worthington; David B. Dunger; Barry Widmer; Timothy M. Frayling; Rachel M. Freathy; Hana Lango; John R. B. Perry; Beverley M. Shields; Michael N. Weedon; Andrew T. Hattersley; Graham A. Hitman; Mark Walker; Kate S. Elliott; Christopher J. Groves; Cecilia M. Lindgren; Nigel W. Rayner; Nicholas J. Timpson; Eleftheria Zeggini; Melanie Newport; Giorgio Sirugo; Emily Lyons; Fredrik Vannberg; Adrian V. S. Hill; Linda A. Bradbury; Claire Farrar; Jennifer J. Pointon; Paul Wordsworth; Matthew A. Brown; Jayne A. Franklyn; Joanne M. Heward; Matthew J. Simmonds; Stephen C. L. Gough; Sheila Seal; Michael R. Stratton; Nazneen Rahman; Maria Ban; An Goris; Stephen J. Sawcer; Alastair Compston; David Conway; Muminatou Jallow; Kirk A. Rockett; Suzannah J. Bumpstead; Amy Chaney; Kate Downes; Mohammed J. R. Ghori; Rhian Gwilliam; Sarah E. Hunt; Michael Inouye; Andrew Keniry; Emma King; Ralph McGinnis; Simon Potter; Rathi Ravindrarajah; Pamela Whittaker; Claire Widden; David Withers; Niall J. Cardin; Teresa Ferreira; Joanne Pereira-Gale; Ingileif B. Hallgrimsdóttir; Bryan N. Howie; Zhan Su; Yik Ying Teo; Damjan Vukcevic; David Bentley; Alistair Compston

2007-01-01

45

A national HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) database that facilitates data sharing  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this communication is to stimulate discussion on a National Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Database that facilitates and coordinates data sharing. We argue for the creation of a new database because significant gaps exists in the type of information that are available on HIV. Databases that extensively survey the published literature on HIV are widely available, however, databases that contain either raw data or that describe ongoing HIV research efforts are not widely available. For epidemiologists, sociologists and mathematical modelers, who need to draw on raw epidemiologic and behavior data from a broad range of fields, the existing databases are inadequate. In this paper we emphasize the particular requirements of epidemiologists, sociologists and modelers, and suggest a plan to accommodate their database needs.

Layne, S.P.; Marr, T.G.; Stanley, E.A.; Hyman, J.M.; Colgate, S.A.

1988-01-01

46

The viral transmembrane superfamily: possible divergence of Arenavirus and Filovirus glycoproteins from a common RNA virus ancestor  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Recent studies of viral entry proteins from influenza, measles, human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1), and Ebola virus have shown, first with molecular modeling, and then X-ray crystallographic or other biophysical studies, that these disparate viruses share a coiled-coil type of entry protein. RESULTS: Structural models of the transmembrane glycoproteins (GP-2) of the Arenaviruses, lymphochoriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and Lassa

William R. Gallaher; Christopher DiSimone; Michael J. Buchmeier

2001-01-01

47

Structure and Mechanism of Receptor Sharing by the IL-10R2 Common Chain  

SciTech Connect

IL-10R2 is a shared cell surface receptor required for the activation of five class 2 cytokines (IL-10, IL-22, IL-26, IL-28, and IL-29) that play critical roles in host defense. To define the molecular mechanisms that regulate its promiscuous binding, we have determined the crystal structure of the IL-10R2 ectodomain at 2.14 {angstrom} resolution. IL-10R2 residues required for binding were identified by alanine scanning and used to derive computational models of IL-10/IL-10R1/IL-10R2 and IL-22/IL-22R1/IL-10R2 ternary complexes. The models reveal a conserved binding epitope that is surrounded by two clefts that accommodate the structural and chemical diversity of the cytokines. These results provide a structural framework for interpreting IL-10R2 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with human disease.

Yoon, Sung-il; Jones, Brandi C.; Logsdon, Naomi J.; Harris, Bethany D.; Deshpande, Ashlesha; Radaeva, Svetlana; Halloran, Brian A.; Gao, Bin; Walter, Mark R. (NIH); (UAB)

2010-07-19

48

Structure and Mechanism of Receptoe Sharing by the IL-10R2 Common Chain  

SciTech Connect

IL-10R2 is a shared cell surface receptor required for the activation of five class 2 cytokines (IL-10, IL-22, IL-26, IL-28, and IL-29) that play critical roles in host defense. To define the molecular mechanisms that regulate its promiscuous binding, we have determined the crystal structure of the IL-10R2 ectodomain at 2.14 {angstrom} resolution. IL-10R2 residues required for binding were identified by alanine scanning and used to derive computational models of IL-10/IL-10R1/IL-10R2 and IL-22/IL-22R1/IL-10R2 ternary complexes. The models reveal a conserved binding epitope that is surrounded by two clefts that accommodate the structural and chemical diversity of the cytokines. These results provide a structural framework for interpreting IL-10R2 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with human disease.

Yoon, Sung-il; Jones, Brandi C.; Logsdon, Naomi J.; Harris, Bethany D.; Deshpande, Ashlesha; Radaeva, Svetlana; Halloran, Brian A.; Gao, Bin; Walter, Mark R. (NIH); (UAB)

2010-06-14

49

Seewis virus, a genetically distinct hantavirus in the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 20 years ago, hantaviral antigens were reported in tissues of the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens) and common mole (Talpa europea), suggesting that insectivores, or soricomorphs, might serve as reservoirs of unique hantaviruses. Using RT-PCR, sequences of a genetically distinct hantavirus, designated Seewis virus (SWSV), were amplified from lung tissue of a Eurasian

Jin-Won Song; Se Hun Gu; Shannon N Bennett; Satoru Arai; Maria Puorger; Monika Hilbe; Richard Yanagihara

2007-01-01

50

Bacterial polysaccharide co-polymerases share a common framework for control of polymer length  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chain length distribution of complex polysaccharides present on the bacterial surface is determined by polysaccharide co-polymerases (PCPs) anchored in the inner membrane. We report crystal structures of the periplasmic domains of three PCPs that impart substantially different chain length distributions to surface polysaccharides. Despite very low sequence similarities, they have a common protomer structure with a long central ?-helix

Ante Tocilj; Christine Munger; Ariane Proteau; Renato Morona; Leanne Purins; Eunice Ajamian; John Wagner; Magdalene Papadopoulos; Luisa Van Den Bosch; John L. Rubinstein; James Féthière; Allan Matte; Miroslaw Cygler

2008-01-01

51

Functional characterization of protein domains common to animal viruses and mouse  

PubMed Central

Background Many viruses contain genes that originate from their hosts. Some of these acquired genes give viruses the ability to interfere with host immune responses by various mechanisms. Genes of host origin that appear commonly in viruses code for proteins that span a wide range of functions, from kinases and phosphotases, to cytokines and their receptors, to ubiquitin ligases and proteases. While many important cases of such lateral gene transfer in viruses have been documented, there has yet to be a genome-wide survey of viral-encoded genes acquired from animal hosts. Results Here we carry out such a survey in order to gain insight into the host immune system. We made the results available in the form of a web-based tool that allows viral-centered or host-centered queries to be performed (http://imm.ifrec.osaka-u.ac.jp/musvirus/). We examine the relationship between acquired genes and immune function, and compare host-virus homology with gene expression data in stimulated dendritic cells and T-cells. We found that genes whose expression changes significantly during the innate antiviral immune response had more homologs in animal virus than genes whose expression did not change or genes involved in the adaptive immune response. Conclusions Statistics gathered from the MusVirus database support earlier reports of gene transfer from host to virus and indicate that viruses are more likely to acquire genes involved in innate antiviral immune responses than those involved in acquired immune responses.

2011-01-01

52

Legal agreements and the governance of research commons: lessons from materials sharing in mouse genomics.  

PubMed

Omics research infrastructure such as databases and bio-repositories requires effective governance to support pre-competitive research. Governance includes the use of legal agreements, such as Material Transfer Agreements (MTAs). We analyze the use of such agreements in the mouse research commons, including by two large-scale resource development projects: the International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) and International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC). We combine an analysis of legal agreements and semi-structured interviews with 87 members of the mouse model research community to examine legal agreements in four contexts: (1) between researchers; (2) deposit into repositories; (3) distribution by repositories; and (4) exchanges between repositories, especially those that are consortium members of the IKMC and IMPC. We conclude that legal agreements for the deposit and distribution of research reagents should be kept as simple and standard as possible, especially when minimal enforcement capacity and resources exist. Simple and standardized legal agreements reduce transactional bottlenecks and facilitate the creation of a vibrant and sustainable research commons, supported by repositories and databases. PMID:24552652

Mishra, Amrita; Bubela, Tania

2014-04-01

53

Legal Agreements and the Governance of Research Commons: Lessons from Materials Sharing in Mouse Genomics  

PubMed Central

Abstract Omics research infrastructure such as databases and bio-repositories requires effective governance to support pre-competitive research. Governance includes the use of legal agreements, such as Material Transfer Agreements (MTAs). We analyze the use of such agreements in the mouse research commons, including by two large-scale resource development projects: the International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) and International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC). We combine an analysis of legal agreements and semi-structured interviews with 87 members of the mouse model research community to examine legal agreements in four contexts: (1) between researchers; (2) deposit into repositories; (3) distribution by repositories; and (4) exchanges between repositories, especially those that are consortium members of the IKMC and IMPC. We conclude that legal agreements for the deposit and distribution of research reagents should be kept as simple and standard as possible, especially when minimal enforcement capacity and resources exist. Simple and standardized legal agreements reduce transactional bottlenecks and facilitate the creation of a vibrant and sustainable research commons, supported by repositories and databases.

Mishra, Amrita

2014-01-01

54

Recognition of Conserved Amino Acid Motifs of Common Viruses and Its Role in Autoimmunity  

PubMed Central

The triggers of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) remain elusive. Epidemiological studies suggest that common pathogens can exacerbate and also induce MS, but it has been difficult to pinpoint individual organisms. Here we demonstrate that in vivo clonally expanded CD4+ T cells isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid of a MS patient during disease exacerbation respond to a poly-arginine motif of the nonpathogenic and ubiquitous Torque Teno virus. These T cell clones also can be stimulated by arginine-enriched protein domains from other common viruses and recognize multiple autoantigens. Our data suggest that repeated infections with common pathogenic and even nonpathogenic viruses could expand T cells specific for conserved protein domains that are able to cross-react with tissue-derived and ubiquitous autoantigens.

2005-01-01

55

Components of Coated Vesicles and Nuclear Pore Complexes Share a Common Molecular Architecture  

PubMed Central

Numerous features distinguish prokaryotes from eukaryotes, chief among which are the distinctive internal membrane systems of eukaryotic cells. These membrane systems form elaborate compartments and vesicular trafficking pathways, and sequester the chromatin within the nuclear envelope. The nuclear pore complex is the portal that specifically mediates macromolecular trafficking across the nuclear envelope. Although it is generally understood that these internal membrane systems evolved from specialized invaginations of the prokaryotic plasma membrane, it is not clear how the nuclear pore complex could have evolved from organisms with no analogous transport system. Here we use computational and biochemical methods to perform a structural analysis of the seven proteins comprising the yNup84/vNup107–160 subcomplex, a core building block of the nuclear pore complex. Our analysis indicates that all seven proteins contain either a ?-propeller fold, an ?-solenoid fold, or a distinctive arrangement of both, revealing close similarities between the structures comprising the yNup84/vNup107–160 subcomplex and those comprising the major types of vesicle coating complexes that maintain vesicular trafficking pathways. These similarities suggest a common evolutionary origin for nuclear pore complexes and coated vesicles in an early membrane-curving module that led to the formation of the internal membrane systems in modern eukaryotes.

2004-01-01

56

Do deep dyslexia, dysphasia and dysgraphia share a common phonological impairment?  

PubMed

This study directly compared four patients who, to varying degrees, showed the characteristics of deep dyslexia, dysphasia and/or dysgraphia--i.e., they made semantic errors in oral reading, repetition and/or spelling to dictation. The "primary systems" hypothesis proposes that these different conditions result from severe impairment to a common phonological system, rather than damage to task-specific mechanisms (i.e. grapheme-phoneme conversion). By this view, deep dyslexic/dysphasic patients should show overlapping deficits but previous studies have not directly compared them. All four patients in the current study showed poor phonological production across different tasks, including repetition, reading aloud and spoken picture naming, in line with the primary systems hypothesis. They also showed severe deficits in tasks that required the manipulation of phonology, such as phoneme addition and deletion. Some of the characteristics of the deep syndromes - namely lexicality and imageability effects - were typically observed in all of the tasks, regardless of whether semantic errors occurred or not, suggesting that the patients' phonological deficits impacted on repetition, reading aloud and spelling to dictation in similar ways. Differences between the syndromes were accounted for by variation in other primary systems--particularly auditory processing. Deep dysphasic symptoms occurred when the impact of phonological input on spoken output was disrupted or reduced, either as a result of auditory/phonological impairment, or for patients with good phonological input analysis, when repetition was delayed. 'Deep' disorders of reading aloud, repetition and spelling can therefore be explained in terms of damage to interacting primary systems such as phonology, semantics and vision, with phonology playing a critical role. PMID:17227679

Jefferies, Elizabeth; Sage, Karen; Ralph, Matthew A Lambon

2007-04-01

57

Shared usage of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 by the feline and human immunodeficiency viruses.  

PubMed Central

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) induces a disease state in the domestic cat that is similar to AIDS in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. As with HIV, FIV can be divided into primary and cell culture-adapted isolates. Adaptation of FIV to replicate and form syncytia in the Crandell feline kidney (CrFK) cell line is accompanied by an increase in the net charge of the V3 loop of the envelope glycoprotein, mirroring the changes observed in the V3 loop of HIV gp120 with the switch from a non-syncytium-inducing phenotype to a syncytium-inducing phenotype. These data suggest a common mechanism of infection with FIV and HIV. In this study, we demonstrate that cell culture-adapted strains of FIV are able to use the alpha-chemokine receptor CXCR4 for cell fusion. Following ectopic expression of human CXCR4 on nonpermissive human cells, the cells are able to fuse with FIV-infected feline cells. Moreover, fusion between FIV-infected feline cells and CXCR4-transfected human cells is inhibited by both anti-CXCR4 and anti-FIV antibodies. cDNAs encoding the feline CXCR4 homolog were cloned from both T-lymphoblastoid and kidney cell lines. Feline CXCR4 displayed 94.9% amino acid sequence identity with human CXCR4 and was found to be expressed widely on cell lines susceptible to infection with cell culture-adapted strains FIV. Ectopic expression of feline CXCR4 on human cells rendered the cells susceptible to FIV-dependent fusion. Moreover, feline CXCR4 was found to be as efficient as human CXCR4 in supporting cell fusion between CD4-expressing murine fibroblast cells and either HIV type 1 (HIV-1) or HIV-2 Env-expressing human cells. Previous studies have demonstrated that feline cells expressing human CD4 are not susceptible to infection with HIV-1; therefore, further restrictions to HIV-1 Env-dependent fusion may exist in feline cells. As feline and human CXCR4 support both FIV- and HIV-dependent cell fusion, these results suggest a close evolutionary link between FIV and HIV and a common mechanism of infection involving an interaction between the virus and a member of the seven-transmembrane domain chemokine receptor family of molecules.

Willett, B J; Picard, L; Hosie, M J; Turner, J D; Adema, K; Clapham, P R

1997-01-01

58

Two African Swine Fever Virus Proteins Derived from a Common Precursor Exhibit Different Nucleocytoplasmic Transport Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

African swine fever virus (ASFV), a large icosahedral deoxyvirus, is the causative agent of an economically relevant hemorrhagic disease that affects domestic pigs. The major purpose of the present study was to investigate the nuclear transport activities of the ASFV p37 and p14 proteins, which result from the proteolytic processing of a common precursor. Experiments were performed by using yeast-based

A. Eulalio; I. Nunes-Correia; A. L. Carvalho; C. Faro; V. Citovsky; S. Simoes; M. C. Pedroso de Lima

2004-01-01

59

Virus Maturation  

PubMed Central

We examined virus maturation of selected non-enveloped and enveloped ssRNA viruses; retroviruses; bacteriophages and herpes virus. Processes associated with maturation in the RNA viruses range from subtle (noda and picornaviruses) to dramatic (tetraviruses and togaviruses). The elaborate assembly and maturation pathway of HIV is discussed in contrast to the less sophisticated but highly efficient processes associated with togaviruses. Bacteriophage assembly and maturation are discussed in general terms with specific examples chosen for emphasis. Finally the herpes viruses are compared with bacteriophages. The data support divergent evolution of noda, picorna and tetraviruses from a common ancestor and divergent evolution of alpha and flaviviruses from a common ancestor. Likewise, bacteriophages and herpes viruses almost certainly share a common ancestor in their evolution. Comparing all the viruses, we conclude that maturation is a convergent process that is required to solve conflicting requirements in biological dynamics and function.

Veesler, David; Johnson, John E.

2013-01-01

60

Genome-Wide Networks of Amino Acid Covariances Are Common among Viruses  

PubMed Central

Coordinated variation among positions in amino acid sequence alignments can reveal genetic dependencies at noncontiguous positions, but methods to assess these interactions are incompletely developed. Previously, we found genome-wide networks of covarying residue positions in the hepatitis C virus genome (R. Aurora, M. J. Donlin, N. A. Cannon, and J. E. Tavis, J. Clin. Invest. 119:225–236, 2009). Here, we asked whether such networks are present in a diverse set of viruses and, if so, what they may imply about viral biology. Viral sequences were obtained for 16 viruses in 13 species from 9 families. The entire viral coding potential for each virus was aligned, all possible amino acid covariances were identified using the observed-minus-expected-squared algorithm at a false-discovery rate of ?1%, and networks of covariances were assessed using standard methods. Covariances that spanned the viral coding potential were common in all viruses. In all cases, the covariances formed a single network that contained essentially all of the covariances. The hepatitis C virus networks had hub-and-spoke topologies, but all other networks had random topologies with an unusually large number of highly connected nodes. These results indicate that genome-wide networks of genetic associations and the coordinated evolution they imply are very common in viral genomes, that the networks rarely have the hub-and-spoke topology that dominates other biological networks, and that network topologies can vary substantially even within a given viral group. Five examples with hepatitis B virus and poliovirus are presented to illustrate how covariance network analysis can lead to inferences about viral biology.

Donlin, Maureen J.; Szeto, Brandon; Gohara, David W.; Aurora, Rajeev

2012-01-01

61

Primary glomerulonephritis with isolated C3 deposits: a new entity which shares common genetic risk factors with haemolytic uraemic syndrome  

PubMed Central

Introduction Abnormal control of the complement alternative pathway (CAP) (factor H, factor I and membrane cofactor protein (MCP) deficiencies) is a well established risk factor for the occurrence of haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS). In some instances, HUS may be associated with an unusual glomerulonephritis with isolated C3 deposits (glomerulonephritis C3). We determined whether HUS and glomerulonephritis C3 share common genetic susceptibility factors. Methods We identified 19 patients with glomerulonephritis C3. We measured levels of circulating complement components, performed assays for the detection of C3 nephritic factor (C3NeF) and screened factor H, factor I and MCP coding genes for the presence of mutations. Results Patients were divided in two groups based on renal pathology findings: group I (n?=?13) had typical features of type I membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (glomerulonephritis C3 with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN)) and group II (n?=?6) was characterised by mesangial and epimembranous C3 deposits in the absence of mesangial proliferation (glomerulonephritis C3 without MPGN). Mutations in complement regulatory genes were detected in 4/6 patients with glomerulonephritis C3 without MPGN (heterozygous mutations in factor H gene (two patients) with low factor H antigenic level in one case, heterozygous mutations in factor I gene (two patients)) and in only 2/13 patients with glomerulonephritis C3 with MPGN (heterozygous mutations in factor H gene (one patient) and double heterozygous mutation in CD 46 gene (one patient)). In contrast, C3NeF was present in 5/13 patients with glomerulonephritis C3 with MPGN and in 2/6 patients with glomerulonephritis C3 without MPGN, one of whom had a factor H mutation. Conclusion HUS and glomerulonephritis C3 without MPGN share common genetic risk factors. Constitutional or acquired dysregulation of the CAP is probably associated with a wide spectrum of diseases, ranging from HUS to glomerulonephritis C3 with MPGN.

Servais, Aude; Fremeaux-Bacchi, Veronique; Lequintrec, Moglie; Salomon, Remi; Blouin, Jacques; Knebelmann, Bertrand; Grunfeld, Jean-Pierre; Lesavre, Philippe; Noel, Laure-Helene; Fakhouri, Fadi

2007-01-01

62

Experimental infection of rhesus macaques and common marmosets with a European strain of West Nile virus.  

PubMed

West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that infects humans and other mammals. In some cases WNV causes severe neurological disease. During recent years, outbreaks of WNV are increasing in worldwide distribution and novel genetic variants of the virus have been detected. Although a substantial amount of data exists on WNV infections in rodent models, little is known about early events during WNV infection in primates, including humans. To gain a deeper understanding of this process, we performed experimental infections of rhesus macaques and common marmosets with a virulent European WNV strain (WNV-Ita09) and monitored virological, hematological, and biochemical parameters. WNV-Ita09 productively infected both monkey species, with higher replication and wider tissue distribution in common marmosets compared to rhesus macaques. The animals in this study however, did not develop clinical signs of WNV disease, nor showed substantial deviations in clinical laboratory parameters. In both species, the virus induced a rapid CD56dimCD16bright natural killer response, followed by IgM and IgG antibody responses. The results of this study show that healthy rhesus macaques and common marmosets are promising animal models to study WNV-Ita09 infection. Both models may be particularly of use to evaluate potential vaccine candidates or to investigate WNV pathogenesis. PMID:24743302

Verstrepen, Babs E; Fagrouch, Zahra; van Heteren, Melanie; Buitendijk, Hester; Haaksma, Tom; Beenhakker, Niels; Palù, Giorgio; Richner, Justin M; Diamond, Michael S; Bogers, Willy M; Barzon, Luisa; Chabierski, Stefan; Ulbert, Sebastian; Kondova, Ivanela; Verschoor, Ernst J

2014-04-01

63

Common immunologic determinant between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp41 and astrocytes.  

PubMed Central

Monoclonal antibodies against a synthetic 12-amino-acid peptide that comprises the immunodominant domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp41 (amino acids 598 through 609) reacted with astrocytes found in human and rodent central nervous system tissue. The monoclonal antibodies bound to a 43-kDa protein found in central nervous system tissue preparations. These results indicate that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp41 contains a common epitope with astrocytes and that an immune response to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp41 could generate antibodies that are cross-reactive to astrocytes. Furthermore, anti-astrocyte antibodies, which were directed at a common epitope with the gp41 sequence, were found to be present in cerebrospinal fluid from some AIDS patients with central nervous system complications. Astrocytes regulate the environment for appropriate neuronal function, and astrocyte hyperactivity (astrocytosis) is known to be the common and early pathologic event in brains from patients with central nervous system AIDS. We suggest that antibody-induced effect(s) on astrocytes could lead to the physiologic neuronal dysfunctions observed in AIDS patients. Images

Yamada, M; Zurbriggen, A; Oldstone, M B; Fujinami, R S

1991-01-01

64

Virus-Host Coevolution: Common Patterns of Nucleotide Motif Usage in Flaviviridae and Their Hosts  

PubMed Central

Virus-host biological interaction is a continuous coevolutionary process involving both host immune system and viral escape mechanisms. Flaviviridae family is composed of fast evolving RNA viruses that infects vertebrate (mammals and birds) and/or invertebrate (ticks and mosquitoes) organisms. These host groups are very distinct life forms separated by a long evolutionary time, so lineage-specific anti-viral mechanisms are likely to have evolved. Flaviviridae viruses which infect a single host lineage would be subjected to specific host-induced pressures and, therefore, selected by them. In this work we compare the genomic evolutionary patterns of Flaviviridae viruses and their hosts in an attempt to uncover coevolutionary processes inducing common features in such disparate groups. Especially, we have analyzed dinucleotide and codon usage patterns in the coding regions of vertebrate and invertebrate organisms as well as in Flaviviridae viruses which specifically infect one or both host types. The two host groups possess very distinctive dinucleotide and codon usage patterns. A pronounced CpG under-representation was found in the vertebrate group, possibly induced by the methylation-deamination process, as well as a prominent TpA decrease. The invertebrate group displayed only a TpA frequency reduction bias. Flaviviridae viruses mimicked host nucleotide motif usage in a host-specific manner. Vertebrate-infecting viruses possessed under-representation of CpG and TpA, and insect-only viruses displayed only a TpA under-representation bias. Single-host Flaviviridae members which persistently infect mammals or insect hosts (Hepacivirus and insect-only Flavivirus, respectively) were found to posses a codon usage profile more similar to that of their hosts than to related Flaviviridae. We demonstrated that vertebrates and mosquitoes genomes are under very distinct lineage-specific constraints, and Flaviviridae viruses which specifically infect these lineages appear to be subject to the same evolutionary pressures that shaped their host coding regions, evidencing the lineage-specific coevolutionary processes between the viral and host groups.

Lobo, Francisco P.; Mota, Bruno E. F.; Pena, Sergio D. J.; Azevedo, Vasco; Macedo, Andrea M.; Tauch, Andreas; Machado, Carlos R.; Franco, Gloria R.

2009-01-01

65

Seewis virus, a genetically distinct hantavirus in the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus)  

PubMed Central

More than 20 years ago, hantaviral antigens were reported in tissues of the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens) and common mole (Talpa europea), suggesting that insectivores, or soricomorphs, might serve as reservoirs of unique hantaviruses. Using RT-PCR, sequences of a genetically distinct hantavirus, designated Seewis virus (SWSV), were amplified from lung tissue of a Eurasian common shrew, captured in October 2006 in Graubünden, Switzerland. Pair-wise analysis of the full-length S and partial M and L segments of SWSV indicated approximately 55%–72% similarity with hantaviruses harbored by Murinae, Arvicolinae, Neotominae and Sigmodontinae rodents. Phylogenetically, SWSV grouped with other recently identified shrew-borne hantaviruses. Intensified efforts are underway to clarify the genetic diversity of SWSV throughout the geographic range of the Eurasian common shrew, as well as to determine its relevance to human health.

Song, Jin-Won; Gu, Se Hun; Bennett, Shannon N; Arai, Satoru; Puorger, Maria; Hilbe, Monika; Yanagihara, Richard

2007-01-01

66

[The loss of a common shared world. Ethical problems in palliative care for people with advanced dementia].  

PubMed

Person-centred (nursing home) care for people with dementia is a specific form of ('non cancer') palliative care. In order to elucidate how caregivers in nursing homes give shape to the nurse-patient relationship in people with advanced dementia and how they deal with the ethical questions that pose themselves in this realm of care ethnographial field research was conducted by two researchers in two Dutch nursing homes. It was found that in both facilities--despite differences in organization and quality of care--many forms of what Kitwood has termed 'malignant social psychology' were prevalent. A more detailed analysis of our research data revealed a relation--not only with staffshortages and a lack of professionalism--but also and primarily with the 'intrinsic complexity' of care giving in this field of palliative care. This complexity has its origin in the key problem of dementia, namely the loss of a common shared world of meaning. We discovered three features of this core problem: the dilemma(s) of truth speaking and truthfulness, the struggle to hold on to reciprocity in care giving and the paradoxes of normality nurses face in their treatment of people with dementia. In order to help caregivers cope with these problems we recommend to invest seriously in diverse forms of supportive care for nurses. PMID:19227594

Hertogh, C M P M; The, B A M

2008-12-01

67

Wild-type and mutant SOD1 share an aberrant conformation and a common pathogenic pathway in ALS  

PubMed Central

Many mutations confer upon copper/zinc superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) one or more toxic function(s) that impair motor neuron viability and cause familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS). Using a conformation-specific antibody that detects misfolded SOD1 (C4F6), we demonstrate that oxidized WT-SOD1 and mutant-SOD1 share a conformational epitope that is not present in normal WT-SOD1. In a subset of human sporadic ALS (SALS) cases, motor neurons in the lumbosacral spinal cord displayed striking C4F6 immunoreactivity, denoting the presence of aberrant WT-SOD1 species. Recombinant, oxidized WT-SOD1 and WT-SOD1 immunopurified from SALS tissues inhibited kinesin-based fast axonal transport in a manner similar to FALS-linked mutant SOD1. Studies here suggest that WT-SOD1 can be pathogenic in SALS and identifies an SOD1-dependent pathogenic mechanism common to FALS and SALS.

Bosco, Daryl A.; Morfini, Gerardo; Karabacak, N. Murat; Song, Yuyu; Gros-Louis, Francois; Pasinelli, Piera; Goolsby, Holly; Fontaine, Benjamin A.; Lemay, Nathan; McKenna-Yasek, Diane; Frosch, Matthew P.; Agar, Jeffery N.; Julien, Jean-Pierre; Brady, Scott T.; Brown, Robert H.

2010-01-01

68

Coffee and tomato share common gene repertoires as revealed by deep sequencing of seed and cherry transcripts  

PubMed Central

An EST database has been generated for coffee based on sequences from approximately 47,000 cDNA clones derived from five different stages/tissues, with a special focus on developing seeds. When computationally assembled, these sequences correspond to 13,175 unigenes, which were analyzed with respect to functional annotation, expression profile and evolution. Compared with Arabidopsis, the coffee unigenes encode a higher proportion of proteins related to protein modification/turnover and metabolism—an observation that may explain the high diversity of metabolites found in coffee and related species. Several gene families were found to be either expanded or unique to coffee when compared with Arabidopsis. A high proportion of these families encode proteins assigned to functions related to disease resistance. Such families may have expanded and evolved rapidly under the intense pathogen pressure experienced by a tropical, perennial species like coffee. Finally, the coffee gene repertoire was compared with that of Arabidopsis and Solanaceous species (e.g. tomato). Unlike Arabidopsis, tomato has a nearly perfect gene-for-gene match with coffee. These results are consistent with the facts that coffee and tomato have a similar genome size, chromosome karyotype (tomato, n=12; coffee n=11) and chromosome architecture. Moreover, both belong to the Asterid I clade of dicot plant families. Thus, the biology of coffee (family Rubiacaeae) and tomato (family Solanaceae) may be united into one common network of shared discoveries, resources and information.

Lin, Chenwei; Mueller, Lukas A.; Carthy, James Mc; Crouzillat, Dominique; Petiard, Vincent

2005-01-01

69

Sequence and structure comparison suggest that methionine aminopeptidase, prolidase, aminopeptidase P, and creatinase share a common fold.  

PubMed Central

Amino acid sequence comparison suggests that the structure of Escherichia coli methionine aminopeptidase (EC 3.4.11.18) and the C-terminal domain of Pseudomonas putida creatinase (EC 3.5.3.3) are related. A detailed comparison of the three-dimensional folds of the two enzymes confirms this homology: with an approximately 260-residue chain segment, 218 C alpha atoms of the structures superimpose within 2.5 A; only 41 of these overlapping positions (i.e., 19%) feature identical amino acids in the two protein chains. Notwithstanding this striking correspondence in structure, methionine aminopeptidase binds and is stimulated by Co2+, while creatinase is not a metal-dependent enzyme. Searches of protein data banks using sequence and structure-based profiles reveal other enzymes, including aminopeptidase P (EC 3.4.11.9), prolidase (EC 3.4.13.9), and agropine synthase, that likely share the same "pita-bread" fold common to creatinase and methionine aminopeptidase. Images

Bazan, J F; Weaver, L H; Roderick, S L; Huber, R; Matthews, B W

1994-01-01

70

Microbial Gutta-Percha Degradation Shares Common Steps with Rubber Degradation by Nocardia nova SH22a  

PubMed Central

Nocardia nova SH22a, a bacterium capable of degrading gutta-percha (GP) and natural rubber (NR), was used to investigate the GP degradation mechanism and the relations between the GP and NR degradation pathways. For this strain, a protocol of electroporation was systematically optimized, and an efficiency of up to 4.3 × 107 CFU per ?g of plasmid DNA was achieved. By applying this optimized protocol to N. nova SH22a, a Tn5096-based transposon mutagenesis library of this bacterium was constructed. Among about 12,000 apramycin-resistant transformants, we identified 76 stable mutants defective in GP or NR utilization. Whereas 10 mutants were specifically defective in GP utilization, the growth of the other 66 mutants was affected on both GP and NR. This indicated that the two degradation pathways are quite similar and share many common steps. The larger number of GP-degrading defective mutants could be explained in one of two ways: either (i) the GP pathway is more complex and harbors more specific steps or (ii) the steps for both pathways are almost identical, but in the case of GP degradation there are fewer enzymes involved in each step. The analysis of transposition loci and genetic studies on interesting genes confirmed the crucial role of an ?-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase in the degradation of both GP and NR. We also demonstrated the probable involvement of enzymes participating in oxidoreduction reactions, ?-oxidation, and the synthesis of complex cell envelope lipids in the degradation of GP.

Luo, Quan; Hiessl, Sebastian; Poehlein, Anja

2013-01-01

71

Sharing of Prey: Coinfection of a Bacterium by a Virus and a Prokaryotic Predator  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Rarely, if ever, has a single bacterial cell been confirmed to simultaneously host two fundamentally different predators. Two such predators are viruses and the predatory prokaryotes known as Bdellovibrio and like organisms. Viruses or bacteriophage are particles requiring prey cells in an active metabolic state to complete their life cycle. The Bdellovibrio and like organisms, unlike viruses, are bacteria that can efficiently infect and grow in prey which are in stationary phase. In this study, electron microscopic examination revealed an unprecedented coinfection by the two agents of Vibrio vulnificus, introducing a new bacterial predation paradigm. Rather than the viruses and Bdellovibrio and like organisms competing for a single prey cell, both can survive in the same cell and successfully reproduce themselves. This is an especially valuable mechanism when the prey is in short supply, and the survival of the predators may be at stake.

Chen, Huan; Williams, Henry N.

2012-01-01

72

Genotype Characterization of Commonly Used Newcastle Disease Virus Vaccine Strains of India  

PubMed Central

Newcastle disease is an avian pathogen causing severe economic losses to the Indian poultry industry due to recurring outbreaks in vaccinated and unvaccinated flocks. India being an endemic country, advocates vaccination against the virus using lentogenic and mesogenic strains. Two virus strains which are commonly used for vaccination are strain F (a lentogenic virus) and strain R2B (a mesogenic virus). Strain F is given to 0–7 days old chicks and R2B is given to older birds which are around 6–8 weeks old. To understand the genetic makeup of these two strains, a complete genome study and phylogenetic analysis of the F, HN genes of these vaccine strains were carried out. Both the viral strains had a genome length of 15,186 nucleotides and consisted of six genes with conserved complimentary 3' leader and 5' trailer regions. The fusion protein cleavage site of strain F is GGRQGRL and strain R2B is RRQKRF. Although both the viral strains had different virulence attributes, the length of the HN protein was similar with 577 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of F, HN and complete genome sequences grouped these two strains in genotype II category which are considered as early genotypes and corroborated with their years of isolation.

Gaikwad, Satish; Kataria, Jag Mohan; Vakharia, Vikram N.

2014-01-01

73

Experimental respiratory Marburg virus haemorrhagic fever infection in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)  

PubMed Central

Marburg virus causes a highly infectious and lethal haemorrhagic fever in primates and may be exploited as a potential biothreat pathogen. To combat the infection and threat of Marburg haemorrhagic fever, there is a need to develop and license appropriate medical countermeasures. To determine whether the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) would be an appropriate model to assess therapies against Marburg haemorrhagic fever, initial susceptibility, lethality and pathogenesis studies were performed. Low doses of virus, between 4 and 28 TCID50, were sufficient to cause a lethal, reproducible infection. Animals became febrile between days 5 and 6, maintaining a high fever before succumbing to disease between 8 and 11 days postchallenge. Typical signs of Marburg virus infection were observed including haemorrhaging and a transient rash. In pathogenesis studies, virus was isolated from the animals’ lungs from day 3 postchallenge and from the liver, spleen and blood from day 5 postchallenge. Early signs of histopathology were apparent in the kidney and liver from day 3. The most striking features were observed in animals exhibiting severe clinical signs, which included high viral titres in all organs, with the highest levels in the blood, increased levels in liver function enzymes and blood clotting times, decreased levels in platelets, multifocal moderate-to-severe hepatitis and perivascular oedema.

Smither, Sophie J; Nelson, Michelle; Eastaugh, Lin; Laws, Thomas R; Taylor, Christopher; Smith, Simon A; Salguero, Francisco J; Lever, Mark S

2013-01-01

74

Shared Usage of the Chemokine Receptor CXCR4 by the Feline and Human Immunodeficiency Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) induces a disease state in the domestic cat that is similar to AIDS in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. As with HIV, FIV can be divided into primary and cell culture-adapted isolates. Adaptation of FIV to replicate and form syncytia in the Crandell feline kidney (CrFK) cell line is accompanied by an increase in the net

BRIAN J. WILLETT; LAURENT PICARD; MARGARET J. HOSIE; JULIE D. TURNER; KAREN ADEMA; PAUL R. CLAPHAM

1997-01-01

75

Association of common promoter polymorphisms of MCP1 with hepatitis B virus clearance.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant cancers closely associated with chronic infection by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) or the hepatitis C virus (HCV) throughout the world. In this study, the genetic associations of 20 known polymorphisms in eight candidate genes, including angiotensinogen (AGT), cadherin 1 (CDH1), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP1), multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1), chemokine ligand 5 (RANTES), thrombospondin 2 (THBS2), and thrombospondin 4 (THBS4), were analyzed in a large chronic hepatitis B cohort (n=1,095) recruited from the Korean population. In addition, three polymorphisms in chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and vimentin (VIM) identified in this study were also genotyped. Using logistic regression analysis controlling possible confounding factors, one common (freq.=0.367) promoter polymorphism of MCP1 (MCP1-2518G>A) among analyzed polymorphisms was significantly associated with clearance of HBV infection. The frequency of homozygotes for the MCP1-2518A allele (MCP1-2518A/A) among chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) carrier patients was significantly higher than that among spontaneously recovered (SR) subjects (17.7% vs. 10.4%)(OR=1.78, P=0.004). Our findings imply a plausible explanation for the contribution of host genetic determinants to the variable outcome of HBV infection, which might provide valuable information for future genetic study in this area. PMID:17202846

Park, Byung Lae; Kim, Yoon Jun; Cheong, Hyun Sub; Kim, Lyoung Hyo; Choi, Yoo Hyun; Lee, Hyo-Suk; Shin, Hyoung Doo

2006-12-31

76

Developmental and hypoxia-induced cell death share common ultrastructural and biochemical apoptotic features in the central nervous system.  

PubMed

Hypoxic insults during the perinatal period lead to motor and cognitive impairments that later appear during childhood. In the adult brain, hypoxic events often lead to necrotic neuronal death, depending on the region and intensity of the event. During development an active apoptotic cell death occurs and could be an important variable affecting the hypoxic insult outcome. In the present work we performed a comparative study, in a chick embryo model, of the phenotypes and molecular markers exhibited during developmental and hypoxic cell death (HxCD). Ultrastructural analysis of optic tectum cells of embryos subjected to hypoxia (8% O2, 60 min) revealed a clear apoptotic morphology that did not differ from the one exhibited during developmental cell death. Integrity of plasma membrane, condensation of chromatin in round well-defined bodies, and gradual shrinkage of the cell are all hallmarks of the apoptotic process and were present in both control and hypoxic cells. To elucidate if hypoxic and developmental cell deaths share a common mechanism we evaluated the activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. A basal cleavage of caspase-9 and cytochrome c release was observed by co-immunofluorescence in control embryos, but hypoxic insult significantly increased the incidence of this colocalization. Caspase-8 cleavage remained unchanged after the hypoxic insult, suggesting that the extrinsic pathway would not be involved in hypoxic death. We also observed a significant decrease of Akt activation immediately after hypoxia, possibly facilitating the later release of cytochrome c. In addition we analyzed the influence of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) in neuronal survival. Transection of RGC fibers at embryonic day (ED) 3 did not induce any change in developmental and HxCD at ED12. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that a hypoxic insult in the developing brain triggers the same apoptotic pathway as the active developmental death. PMID:23933309

Pozo Devoto, V M; Bogetti, M E; Fiszer de Plazas, S

2013-11-12

77

Nomenclature and relationships of some Brazilian leguminous potyviruses related to bean common mosaic and/or passionfruit woodiness viruses.  

PubMed

The main Brazilian literature of the last 10 years on potyviruses of leguminous plants related to bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and/or to passionfruit woodiness virus (PWV) is discussed and summarized. The viruses dealt with are canavalia acronecrosis, mosaico de canavalia, cassia yellow spot, cowpea green vein-banding, cowpea rugose mosaic and cowpea severe mottle. The viruses have similar biological properties, such as a host range restricted mainly to the Leguminosae, aphid transmission, seed transmission in leguminous plants, and various degrees of serological relationships with BCMV and PWV. PMID:1450754

Lovisolo, O; Kitajima, E W

1992-01-01

78

Psychological Factors Determining Individual Compliance with Rules for Common Pool Resource Management: The Case of a Cuban Community Sharing a Solar Energy System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on individuals’ subjective reasons for complying with rules for common pool resource management. We examine\\u000a the topic of individual rule compliance, which the commons literature has addressed only marginally, and outline recent empirical\\u000a findings. Hypotheses are derived based on rule compliance theory and explored using data gathered in a Cuban community sharing\\u000a a solar energy system. The

Annette Jenny; Fernando Hechavarria Fuentes; Hans-Joachim Mosler

2007-01-01

79

Spread of Influenza Virus A (H5N1) Clade 2.3.2.1 to Bulgaria in Common Buzzards  

PubMed Central

On March 15, 2010, a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus was isolated from the carcass of a common buzzard (Buteo buteo) in Bulgaria. Phylogenetic analyses of the virus showed a close genetic relationship with influenza virus A (H5N1) clade 2.3.2.1 viruses isolated from wild birds in the Tyva Republic and Mongolia during 2009–2010. Designated A/common buzzard/Bulgaria/38WB/2010, this strain was highly pathogenic in chickens but had low pathogenicity in mice and ferrets and no molecular markers of increased pathogenicity in mammals. The establishment of clade 2.3.2.1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H5N1 subtype in wild birds in Europe would increase the likelihood of health threats to humans and poultry in the region.

Marinova-Petkova, Atanaska; Georgiev, Georgi; Seiler, Patrick; Darnell, Daniel; Franks, John; Krauss, Scott; Webby, Richard J.

2012-01-01

80

Clonal repertoires of virus-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes are shared in mucosal and systemic compartments during chronic simian immunodeficiency virus infection in rhesus monkeys.  

PubMed

Because it is thought that mucosal tissues play a fundamental role in early HIV/SIV infection, it is crucial to understand the virus-specific responses in mucosal tissues to facilitate devising strategies to prevent and control these infections. We have employed TCR repertoire analyses to define the clonal composition of a dominant SIV epitope-specific CD8(+) T cell population in mucosal and systemic compartments of SIV-infected rhesus monkeys during both acute and chronic infection. We show that the CD8(+) T cell repertoire in mucosal tissues of uninfected rhesus monkeys is oligoclonal, whereas the CD8(+) T cell repertoire in blood is polyclonal. Early postinfection, the SIV-specific CD8(+) T cell clonal repertoire is distinct in mucosal compartments and peripheral blood. However, we observed a narrowing of the virus-specific CD8(+) T cell clonal repertoire in all sampled anatomic compartments as infection progressed from acute to chronic, and there was comparable clonal diversity in all anatomic compartments. We showed during chronic infection that the same clonal populations of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells are present in all compartments. These data indicate that the SIV-specific CD8(+) T cells in systemic and mucosal sites have a shared clonal origin and are, therefore, capable of both responding to infection in the systemic circulation and trafficking to mucosal tissues. PMID:20624939

Sircar, Piya; Furr, Kathryn L; Dorosh, Lauren A; Letvin, Norman L

2010-08-15

81

Recombination and pseudorecombination driving the evolution of the begomoviruses Tomato severe rugose virus (ToSRV) and Tomato rugose mosaic virus (ToRMV): two recombinant DNA-A components sharing the same DNA-B  

PubMed Central

Background Begomoviruses are dicot-infecting, whitefly-transmitted viruses with a genome comprised of one or two molecules of circular, single-stranded DNA. In Brazil, tomato-infecting begomoviruses have emerged as serious pathogens since the introduction of a new biotype of the insect vector in the mid-1990’s. Tomato rugose mosaic virus (ToRMV) and Tomato severe rugose virus (ToSRV) are often found in tomato fields. The complete sequence of the DNA-B components of ToSRV and ToRMV show an identity of 98.2%. Additionally, the high nucleotide identity (96.2%) between their common regions indicates that these two viruses may share the same DNA-B. Methods Tomato seedlings were biolistically inoculated with ToSRV (DNA-A and DNA-B) and ToRMV (DNA-A and DNA-B) infectious clones in every possible combination of single or mixed infection. Symptom expression was evaluated for up to 35 days post-inoculation (dpi). DNA was extracted at 28 dpi and the presence of each viral genomic component was examined by rolling circle amplification (RCA) followed by digestion, as well as by quantitative, real-time PCR. Sequence comparisons, recombination and phylogenetic analyzes were performed using EMBOSS needle, RDP program and maximum likelihood inference, respectively. Results Symptoms in tomato plants inoculated with the different combinations of ToRMV and ToSRV DNA-A and DNA-B components consisted of a typical mosaic in all combinations. Pseudorecombinants were formed in all possible combinations. When two DNA-A or two DNA-B components were inoculated simultaneously, the ToRMV components were detected preferentially in relation to the ToSRV components. The combination of minor changes in both the Rep protein and the CR may be involved in the preferential replication of ToRMV components. Recombination and phylogenetic analyzes support the exchange of genetic material between ToRMV and ToSRV. Conclusions ToRMV and ToSRV form viable pseudorecombinants in their natural host (Solanum lycopersicum) and share the same DNA-B. ToRMV DNA components are preferentially replicated over ToSRV components. These results indicate that the emergence of ToRMV involved both recombination and pseudorecombination, further highlighting the importance of these mechanisms in the emergence and adaptation of begomoviruses.

2014-01-01

82

Identification of Common Biological Pathways and Drug Targets Across Multiple Respiratory Viruses Based on Human Host Gene Expression Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Pandemic and seasonal respiratory viruses are a major global health concern. Given the genetic diversity of respiratory viruses and the emergence of drug resistant strains, the targeted disruption of human host-virus interactions is a potential therapeutic strategy for treating multi-viral infections. The availability of large-scale genomic datasets focused on host-pathogen interactions can be used to discover novel drug targets as well as potential opportunities for drug repositioning. Methods/Results In this study, we performed a large-scale analysis of microarray datasets involving host response to infections by influenza A virus, respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, SARS-coronavirus, metapneumonia virus, coxsackievirus and cytomegalovirus. Common genes and pathways were found through a rigorous, iterative analysis pipeline where relevant host mRNA expression datasets were identified, analyzed for quality and gene differential expression, then mapped to pathways for enrichment analysis. Possible repurposed drugs targets were found through database and literature searches. A total of 67 common biological pathways were identified among the seven different respiratory viruses analyzed, representing fifteen laboratories, nine different cell types, and seven different array platforms. A large overlap in the general immune response was observed among the top twenty of these 67 pathways, adding validation to our analysis strategy. Of the top five pathways, we found 53 differentially expressed genes affected by at least five of the seven viruses. We suggest five new therapeutic indications for existing small molecules or biological agents targeting proteins encoded by the genes F3, IL1B, TNF, CASP1 and MMP9. Pathway enrichment analysis also identified a potential novel host response, the Parkin-Ubiquitin Proteasomal System (Parkin-UPS) pathway, which is known to be involved in the progression of neurodegenerative Parkinson's disease. Conclusions Our study suggests that multiple and diverse respiratory viruses invoke several common host response pathways. Further analysis of these pathways suggests potential opportunities for therapeutic intervention.

Smith, Steven B.; Dampier, William; Tozeren, Aydin; Brown, James R.; Magid-Slav, Michal

2012-01-01

83

Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Gastrointestinal Disease: Common Endoscopic Biopsy Diagnoses  

PubMed Central

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a major site of disease in HIV infection: almost half of HIV-infected patients present with GI symptoms, and almost all patients develop GI complications. GI symptoms such as anorexia, weight loss, dysphagia, odynophagia, abdominal pain, and diarrhea are frequent and usually nonspecific among these patients. Endoscopy is the diagnostic test of choice for most HIV-associated GI diseases, as endoscopic and histopathologic evaluation can render diagnoses in patients with non-specific symptoms. In the past three decades, studies have elucidated a variety of HIV-associated inflammatory, infectious, and neoplastic GI diseases, often with specific predilection for various sites. HIV-associated esophageal disease, for example, commonly includes candidiasis, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection, Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), and idiopathic ulceration. Gastric disease, though less common than esophageal disease, frequently involves CMV, Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI), and neoplasia (KS, lymphoma). Small bowel biopsies and intestinal aspirates from HIV-infected patients often show HIV enteropathy, MAI, protozoa (Giardia, Isospora, Cryptosporidia, amebae, Microsporidia), and helminths (Strongyloides stercoralis). Colorectal biopsies demonstrate viral (CMV, HSV), bacterial (Clostridia, Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter), fungal (cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis), and neoplastic (KS, lymphoma) processes. Herein, we review HIV-associated GI pathology, with emphasis on common endoscopic biopsy diagnoses.

Bhaijee, Feriyl; Subramony, Charu; Tang, Shou-Jiang; Pepper, Dominique J.

2011-01-01

84

Human immunodeficiency virus-associated gastrointestinal disease: common endoscopic biopsy diagnoses.  

PubMed

THE GASTROINTESTINAL (GI) TRACT IS A MAJOR SITE OF DISEASE IN HIV INFECTION: almost half of HIV-infected patients present with GI symptoms, and almost all patients develop GI complications. GI symptoms such as anorexia, weight loss, dysphagia, odynophagia, abdominal pain, and diarrhea are frequent and usually nonspecific among these patients. Endoscopy is the diagnostic test of choice for most HIV-associated GI diseases, as endoscopic and histopathologic evaluation can render diagnoses in patients with non-specific symptoms. In the past three decades, studies have elucidated a variety of HIV-associated inflammatory, infectious, and neoplastic GI diseases, often with specific predilection for various sites. HIV-associated esophageal disease, for example, commonly includes candidiasis, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection, Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), and idiopathic ulceration. Gastric disease, though less common than esophageal disease, frequently involves CMV, Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI), and neoplasia (KS, lymphoma). Small bowel biopsies and intestinal aspirates from HIV-infected patients often show HIV enteropathy, MAI, protozoa (Giardia, Isospora, Cryptosporidia, amebae, Microsporidia), and helminths (Strongyloides stercoralis). Colorectal biopsies demonstrate viral (CMV, HSV), bacterial (Clostridia, Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter), fungal (cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis), and neoplastic (KS, lymphoma) processes. Herein, we review HIV-associated GI pathology, with emphasis on common endoscopic biopsy diagnoses. PMID:21559197

Bhaijee, Feriyl; Subramony, Charu; Tang, Shou-Jiang; Pepper, Dominique J

2011-01-01

85

Detection and identification of the blackeye cowpea mosaic strain of Bean common mosaic virus in seeds of Vigna unguiculata sspp. from North Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-seven seed samples of catjang bean and yard long bean (Vigna unguiculata sspp.) collected from different provinces of North Vietnam were tested for the presence of the blackeye cowpea mosaic strain\\u000a of Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV-B1CM), Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus, Cowpea mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaic virus and Southern cowpea mosaic virus using a growing-on test, ELISA, bioassay and electron

Ngo Bich Hao; Sven Erik Albrechtsen; Mogens Nicolaisen

2003-01-01

86

Detection and identification of the blackeye cowpea mosaic strain of Bean common mosaic virus in seeds of cowpea from southern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In different legume-growing regions of India, a total of 136 seed samples of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) were collected and tested for the presence of the blackeye cowpea mosaic strain of Bean common mosaic virus, Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus, Cowpea mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaic virus and Bean yellow mosaic virus using growing-on test, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, differential host

Arakere C. Udaya Shankar; Chandra S. Nayaka; Bhuvanendra H. Kumar; Shekar H. Shetty; Harischandra S. Prakash

2009-01-01

87

Disparate epitopes mediating protective heterologous immunity to unrelated viruses share peptide-MHC structural features recognized by cross-reactive T cells.  

PubMed

Closely related peptide epitopes can be recognized by the same T cells and contribute to the immune response against pathogens encoding those epitopes, but sometimes cross-reactive epitopes share little homology. The degree of structural homology required for such disparate ligands to be recognized by cross-reactive TCRs remains unclear. In this study, we examined the mechanistic basis for cross-reactive T cell responses between epitopes from unrelated and pathogenic viruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and vaccinia virus. Our results show that the LCMV cross-reactive T cell response toward vaccinia virus is dominated by a shared asparagine residue, together with other shared structural elements conserved in the crystal structures of K(b)-VV-A11R and K(b)-LCMV-gp34. Based on analysis of the crystal structures and the specificity determinants for the cross-reactive T cell response, we were able to manipulate the degree of cross-reactivity of the T cell response, and to predict and generate a LCMV cross-reactive response toward a variant of a null OVA-derived peptide. These results indicate that protective heterologous immune responses can occur for disparate epitopes from unrelated viruses. PMID:24127554

Shen, Zu T; Nguyen, Tina T; Daniels, Keith A; Welsh, Raymond M; Stern, Lawrence J

2013-11-15

88

Autoantibodies in chronic delta virus infection recognize a common protein of 46 kD in rat forestomach basal cell layer and stellate thymic epithelial cells.  

PubMed Central

Chronic hepatitis delta virus infection is associated with the presence of autoantibodies to rat forestomach and thymus in approximately 60% of patients' sera. We have characterized the antigen against which these autoantibodies are directed as a protein of 46 kD by immunoblotting studies on rat forestomach and thymus extracts. Normal human sera or sera from patients with other hepatic or non-hepatic autoimmune disorders did not bind to this protein. The immunoblot assay was more sensitive than immunofluorescence. Maximal titre was 1:10,000 versus 1:5120. By techniques of elution of specific antibodies from immunoblots, our results showed that the same antigen was present in both tissues. This antigen did not share common epitopes with hepatitis delta virus (HDV). Patients' sera depleted of basal cell layer and thymic stellate epithelial cell antibodies by absorption with the corresponding tissue extract maintained the HDV antibody titres. The autoimmune phenomena observed in patients with HDV infection seems to be a colateral process induced by the replication of delta virus in the host. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2

Amengual, M J; Catalfamo, M; Pujol, A; Juarez, C; Gelpi, C; Rodriguez, J L

1989-01-01

89

Single primer pair designs that facilitate simultaneous detection and differentiation of peach mosaic virus and cherry mottle leaf virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peach mosaic virus (PMV) and cherry mottle leaf virus (CMLV) are viruses which are related serologically and share common Prunus hosts, but cause distinct diseases. An RT-PCR procedure using a single oligonucleotide primer pair that allows simultaneous detection and differentiation of the two viruses was developed. A sense primer with 100% complementarity to PMV and 83% complementarity to the corresponding

Delano James; Chris Upton

1999-01-01

90

Measuring enactment of innovations and the factors that affect implementation and sustainability: moving toward common language and shared conceptual understanding.  

PubMed

This article describes research that focuses on the concern that researchers are unable to fully realize the potential value of their collective efforts because they do not have shared conceptual or operational tools for communicating assumptions, ideas, research strategies, or findings with others outside, or even within their disciplines. This research, through the lens of measuring implementation of educational programs, has taken steps toward bringing researchers' varied pictures of understanding into a coherent landscape. This article describes a conceptual framework for describing aspects of implementation, a conceptual framework for describing the factors that affect implementation, and tools for measuring each. It describes the challenges addressed in the development of these approaches, and the application of these approaches to current studies in education and other fields in the social sciences. In doing so, it demonstrates that meaningful communication between researchers and accumulation of knowledge across fields is possible, and necessary. PMID:22948708

Century, Jeanne; Cassata, Amy; Rudnick, Mollie; Freeman, Cassie

2012-10-01

91

Isolation of an influenza virus, similar to A\\/Port Chalmers\\/1\\/73 (H3N2) from a common murre at Sakhalin Island in U.S.S.R (Strain A\\/CommonMurre\\/Sakhalin\\/1\\/74)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary An influenza A virus isolated from the cloaca of a common murre was characterized antigenically as H3N2 and was most closely related to the A\\/Port Chalmers\\/1\\/73 strain. Serological studies of sera collected from common murres in the area of virus isolation showed that 21 per cent of the birds had antibodies to Hong Kong influenza virus.

A. A. Sazonov; D. K. Lvov; R. G. Webster; T. V. Sokolova; N. A. Braude; N. V. Portyanko

1977-01-01

92

Discovering Common Ground: How Future Search Conferences Bring People Together To Achieve Breakthrough Innovation, Empowerment, Shared Vision, and Collaborative Action.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 35 papers about planning and holding future search conferences, as well as their benefits and likely future directions. The following papers are included: "Applied Common Sense" (Weisbord); "Inventing the Search Conference" (Weisbord); "Building Collaborative Communities" (Schindler-Rainman, Lippitt); "Parallel Paths to…

Weisbord, Marvin R.; And Others

93

A Reevaluation of the Common Factor Theory of Shared Variance Among Age, Sensory Function, and Cognitive Function in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common cause hypothesis of the relationship among age, sensory measures, and cognitive measures in very old adults was reevaluated. Both sensory function and processing speed were evaluated as mediators of the rela- tionship between age and cognitive function. Cognitive function was a latent variable that comprised 3 factors in- cluding memory, speed, and verbal ability. The sample was population

Kaarin J. Anstey; Mary A. Luszcz; Linnett Sanchez

2001-01-01

94

Comprehensive Mapping of Common Immunodominant Epitopes in the West Nile Virus Nonstructural Protein 1 Recognized by Avian Antibody Responses  

PubMed Central

West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that primarily infects birds but occasionally infects humans and horses. Certain species of birds, including crows, house sparrows, geese, blue jays and ravens, are considered highly susceptible hosts to WNV. The nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of WNV can elicit protective immune responses, including NS1-reactive antibodies, during infection of animals. The antigenicity of NS1 suggests that NS1-reactive antibodies could provide a basis for serological diagnostic reagents. To further define serological reagents for diagnostic use, the antigenic sites in NS1 that are targeted by host immune responses need to be identified and the potential diagnostic value of individual antigenic sites also needs to be defined. The present study describes comprehensive mapping of common immunodominant linear B-cell epitopes in the WNV NS1 using avian WNV NS1 antisera. We screened antisera from chickens, ducks and geese immunized with purified NS1 for reactivity against 35 partially overlapping peptides covering the entire WNV NS1. This study identified twelve, nine and six peptide epitopes recognized by chicken, duck and goose antibody responses, respectively. Three epitopes (NS1-3, 14 and 24) were recognized by antibodies elicited by immunization in all three avian species tested. We also found that NS1-3 and 24 were WNV-specific epitopes, whereas the NS1-14 epitope was conserved among the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) serocomplex viruses based on the reactivity of avian WNV NS1 antisera against polypeptides derived from the NS1 sequences of viruses of the JEV serocomplex. Further analysis showed that the three common polypeptide epitopes were not recognized by antibodies in Avian Influenza Virus (AIV), Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), Duck Plague Virus (DPV) and Goose Parvovirus (GPV) antisera. The knowledge and reagents generated in this study have potential applications in differential diagnostic approaches and subunit vaccines development for WNV and other viruses of the JEV serocomplex.

Sun, Encheng; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Nihong; Yang, Tao; Xu, Qingyuan; Qin, Yongli; Bu, Zhigao; Yang, Yinhui; Lunt, Ross A.; Wang, Linfa; Wu, Donglai

2012-01-01

95

Structure of Flexible Filamentous Plant Viruses  

SciTech Connect

Flexible filamentous viruses make up a large fraction of the known plant viruses, but in comparison with those of other viruses, very little is known about their structures. We have used fiber diffraction, cryo-electron microscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy to determine the symmetry of a potyvirus, soybean mosaic virus; to confirm the symmetry of a potexvirus, potato virus X; and to determine the low-resolution structures of both viruses. We conclude that these viruses and, by implication, most or all flexible filamentous plant viruses share a common coat protein fold and helical symmetry, with slightly less than 9 subunits per helical turn.

Kendall, Amy; McDonald, Michele; Bian, Wen; Bowles, Timothy; Baumgarten, Sarah C.; Shi, Jian; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Bullitt, Esther; Gore, David; Irving, Thomas C.; Havens, Wendy M.; Ghabrial, Said A.; Wall, Joseph S.; Stubbs, Gerald (IIT); (BU-M); (Vanderbilt); (Kentucky); (BNL)

2008-10-23

96

Shared VH1-46 gene usage by pemphigus vulgaris autoantibodies indicates common humoral immune responses among patients.  

PubMed

Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a potentially fatal blistering disease caused by autoantibodies (autoAbs) against desmoglein 3 (Dsg3). Here, we clone anti-Dsg3 antibodies (Abs) from four PV patients and identify pathogenic VH1-46 autoAbs from all four patients. Unexpectedly, VH1-46 autoAbs had relatively few replacement mutations. We reverted antibody somatic mutations to their germline sequences to determine the requirement of mutations for autoreactivity. Three of five VH1-46 germline-reverted Abs maintain Dsg3 binding, compared with zero of five non-VH1-46 germline-reverted Abs. Site-directed mutagenesis of VH1-46 Abs demonstrates that acidic amino-acid residues introduced by somatic mutation or heavy chain VDJ recombination are necessary and sufficient for Dsg3 binding. Our data suggest that VH1-46 autoantibody gene usage is commonly found in PV because VH1-46 Abs require few to no mutations to acquire Dsg3 autoreactivity, which may favour their early selection. Common VH gene usage indicates common humoral immune responses, even among unrelated patients. PMID:24942562

Cho, Michael Jeffrey; Lo, Agnes S Y; Mao, Xuming; Nagler, Arielle R; Ellebrecht, Christoph T; Mukherjee, Eric M; Hammers, Christoph M; Choi, Eun-Jung; Sharma, Preety M; Uduman, Mohamed; Li, Hong; Rux, Ann H; Farber, Sara A; Rubin, Courtney B; Kleinstein, Steven H; Sachais, Bruce S; Posner, Marshall R; Cavacini, Lisa A; Payne, Aimee S

2014-01-01

97

Two African Swine Fever Virus Proteins Derived from a Common Precursor Exhibit Different Nucleocytoplasmic Transport Activities  

PubMed Central

African swine fever virus (ASFV), a large icosahedral deoxyvirus, is the causative agent of an economically relevant hemorrhagic disease that affects domestic pigs. The major purpose of the present study was to investigate the nuclear transport activities of the ASFV p37 and p14 proteins, which result from the proteolytic processing of a common precursor. Experiments were performed by using yeast-based nucleocytoplasmic transport assays and by analysis of the subcellular localization of different green fluorescent and Myc fusion proteins in mammalian cells. The results obtained both in yeast and mammalian cells clearly demonstrated that ASFV p14 protein is imported into the nucleus but not exported to the cytoplasm. The ability of p37 protein to be exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm of both yeast and mammalian cells was also demonstrated, and the results clearly indicate that p37 nuclear export is dependent on the interaction of the protein with the CRM-1 receptor. In addition, p37 was shown to exhibit nuclear import activity in mammalian cells. The p37 protein nuclear import and export abilities described here constitute the first report of a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein encoded by the ASFV genome. Overall, the overlapping results obtained for green fluorescent protein fusions and Myc-tagged proteins undoubtedly demonstrate that ASFV p37 and p14 proteins exhibit nucleocytoplasmic transport activities. These findings are significant for understanding the role these proteins play in the replication cycle of ASFV.

Eulalio, A.; Nunes-Correia, I.; Carvalho, A. L.; Faro, C.; Citovsky, V.; Simoes, S.; Pedroso de Lima, M. C.

2004-01-01

98

Neuroinflammation Resulting from Covert Brain Invasion by Common Viruses--a Potential Role in Local and Global Neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

Neurodegenerative diseases are a horrendous burden for their victims, their families, and society as a whole. For half a century scientists have pursued the hypothesis that these diseases involve a chronic viral infection in the brain. However, efforts to consistently detect a specific virus in brains of patients with such diseases as Alzheimer's or multiple sclerosis have generally failed. Neuropathologists have become increasingly aware that most patients with neurodegenerative diseases demonstrate marked deterioration of the brain olfactory bulb in addition to brain targets that define the specific disease. In fact, the loss of the sense of smell may precede overt neurological symptoms by many years. This realization that the olfactory bulb is a common target in neurodegenerative diseases suggests the possibility that microbes and/or toxins in inhaled air may play a role in their pathogenesis. With regard to inhaled viruses, neuropathologists have focused on those viruses that infect and kill neurons. However, a recent study shows that a respiratory virus with no neurotropic properties can rapidly invade the mouse olfactory bulb from the nasal cavity. Available data suggest that this strain of influenza is passively transported to the bulb via the olfactory nerves (mechanism unknown), and is taken up by glial cells in the outer layers of the bulb. The infected glial cells appear to be activated by the virus, secrete proinflammatory cytokines, and block further spread of virus within the brain. At the time that influenza symptoms become apparent (15 h post-infection), but not prior to symptom onset (10 h post-infection), proinflammatory cytokine-expressing neurons are increased in olfactory cortical pathways and hypothalamus as well as in the olfactory bulb. The mice go on to die of pneumonitis with severe acute phase and respiratory disease symptoms but no classical neurological symptoms. While much remains to be learned about this intranasal influenza-brain invasion model, it suggests the hypothesis that common viruses encountered in our daily life may initiate neuroinflammation via olfactory neural networks. The numerous viruses that we inhale during a lifetime might cause the death of only a few neurons per infection, but this minor damage would accumulate over time and contribute to age-related brain shrinkage and/or neurodegenerative diseases. Elderly individuals with a strong innate inflammatory system, or ongoing systemic inflammation (or both), might be most susceptible to these outcomes. The evidence for the hypothesis that common respiratory viruses may contribute to neurodegenerative processes is developed in the accompanying article.

Majde, Jeannine A.

2010-01-01

99

Comparison of the Oilseed rape mosaic virus and Tobacco mosaic virus movement proteins (MP) reveals common and dissimilar MP functions for tobamovirus spread.  

PubMed

Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is a longstanding model for studying virus movement and macromolecular transport through plasmodesmata (PD). Its movement protein (MP) interacts with cortical microtubule (MT)-associated ER sites (C-MERs) to facilitate the formation and transport of ER-associated viral replication complexes (VRCs) along the ER-actin network towards PD. To investigate whether this movement mechanism might be conserved between tobamoviruses, we compared the functions of Oilseed rape mosaic virus (ORMV) MP with those of MP(TMV). We show that MP(ORMV) supports TMV movement more efficiently than MP(TMV). Moreover, MP(ORMV) localizes to C-MERs like MP(TMV) but accumulates to lower levels and does not localize to larger inclusions/VRCs or along MTs, patterns regularly seen for MP(TMV). Our findings extend the role of C-MERs in viral cell-to-cell transport to a virus commonly used for functional genomics in Arabidopsis. Moreover, accumulation of tobamoviral MP in inclusions or along MTs is not required for virus movement. PMID:24889224

Niehl, Annette; Pasquier, Adrien; Ferriol, Inmaculada; Mély, Yves; Heinlein, Manfred

2014-05-01

100

p53 and TFIIEalpha share a common binding site on the Tfb1/p62 subunit of TFIIH.  

PubMed

The general transcription factor IIH is recruited to the transcription preinitiation complex through an interaction between its p62/Tfb1 subunit and the alpha-subunit of the general transcription factor IIE (TFIIEalpha). We have determined that the acidic carboxyl terminus of TFIIEalpha (TFIIEalpha(336-439)) directly binds the amino-terminal PH domain of p62/Tfb1 with nanomolar affinity. NMR mapping and mutagenesis studies demonstrate that the TFIIEalpha binding site on p62/Tfb1 is identical to the binding site for the second transactivation domain of p53 (p53 TAD2). In addition, we demonstrate that TFIIEalpha(336-439) is capable of competing with p53 for a common binding site on p62/Tfb1 and that TFIIEalpha(336-439) and the diphosphorylated form (pS46/pT55) of p53 TAD2 have similar binding constants. NMR structural studies reveal that TFIIEalpha(336-439) contains a small domain (residues 395-433) folded in a novel betabetaalphaalphaalpha topology. NMR mapping studies demonstrate that two unstructured regions (residues 377-393 and residues 433-439) located on either side of the folded domain appear to be required for TFIIEalpha(336-439) binding to p62/Tfb1 and that these two unstructured regions are held close to each other in three-dimensional space by the novel structured domain. We also demonstrate that, like p53, TFIIEalpha(336-439) can activate transcription in vivo. These results point to an important interplay between the general transcription factor TFIIEalpha and the tumor suppressor protein p53 in regulating transcriptional activation that may be modulated by the phosphorylation status of p53. PMID:18160537

Di Lello, Paola; Miller Jenkins, Lisa M; Mas, Caroline; Langlois, Chantal; Malitskaya, Elena; Fradet-Turcotte, Amélie; Archambault, Jacques; Legault, Pascale; Omichinski, James G

2008-01-01

101

p53 and TFIIE? share a common binding site on the Tfb1/p62 subunit of TFIIH  

PubMed Central

The general transcription factor IIH is recruited to the transcription preinitiation complex through an interaction between its p62/Tfb1 subunit and the ?-subunit of the general transcription factor IIE (TFIIE?). We have determined that the acidic carboxyl terminus of TFIIE? (TFIIE?336–439) directly binds the amino-terminal PH domain of p62/Tfb1 with nanomolar affinity. NMR mapping and mutagenesis studies demonstrate that the TFIIE? binding site on p62/Tfb1 is identical to the binding site for the second transactivation domain of p53 (p53 TAD2). In addition, we demonstrate that TFIIE?336–439 is capable of competing with p53 for a common binding site on p62/Tfb1 and that TFIIE?336–439 and the diphosphorylated form (pS46/pT55) of p53 TAD2 have similar binding constants. NMR structural studies reveal that TFIIE?336–439 contains a small domain (residues 395–433) folded in a novel ????? topology. NMR mapping studies demonstrate that two unstructured regions (residues 377–393 and residues 433–439) located on either side of the folded domain appear to be required for TFIIE?336–439 binding to p62/Tfb1 and that these two unstructured regions are held close to each other in three-dimensional space by the novel structured domain. We also demonstrate that, like p53, TFIIE?336–439 can activate transcription in vivo. These results point to an important interplay between the general transcription factor TFIIE? and the tumor suppressor protein p53 in regulating transcriptional activation that may be modulated by the phosphorylation status of p53.

Di Lello, Paola; Miller Jenkins, Lisa M.; Mas, Caroline; Langlois, Chantal; Malitskaya, Elena; Fradet-Turcotte, Amelie; Archambault, Jacques; Legault, Pascale; Omichinski, James G.

2008-01-01

102

Identification of Common Epitopes on a Conserved Region of NSs Proteins Among Tospoviruses of Watermelon silver mottle virus Serogroup.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The NSs protein of Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV) was expressed by a Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) vector in squash. The expressed NSs protein with a histidine tag and an additional NIa protease cleavage sequence was isolated by Ni(2+)-NTA resins as a free-form protein and further eluted after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for production of rabbit antiserum and mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). The rabbit antiserum strongly reacted with the NSs crude antigen of WSMoV and weakly reacted with that of a high-temperature-recovered gloxinia isolate (HT-1) of Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV), but not with that of Calla lily chlorotic spot virus (CCSV). In contrast, the MAbs reacted strongly with all crude NSs antigens of WSMoV, CaCV, and CCSV. Various deletions of the NSs open reading frame were constructed and expressed by ZYMV vector. Results indicate that all three MAbs target the 89- to 125-amino-acid (aa) region of WSMoV NSs protein. Two indispensable residues of cysteine and lysine were essential for MAbs recognition. Sequence comparison of the deduced MAbs-recognized region with the reported tospoviral NSs proteins revealed the presence of a consensus sequence VRKPGVKNTGCKFTMHNQIFNPN (denoted WNSscon), at the 98- to 120-aa position of NSs proteins, sharing 86 to 100% identities among those of WSMoV, CaCV, CCSV, and Peanut bud necrosis virus. A synthetic WNSscon peptide reacted with the MAbs and verified that the epitopes are present in the 98- to 120-aa region of WSMoV NSs protein. The WSMoV sero-group-specific NSs MAbs provide a means for reliable identification of tospoviruses in this large serogroup. PMID:18943661

Chen, Tsung-Chi; Huang, Ching-Wen; Kuo, Yan-Wen; Liu, Fang-Lin; Yuan, Chao-Hsiu Hsuan; Hsu, Hei-Ti; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

2006-12-01

103

Characterization of complete genome sequence of the spring viremia of carp virus isolated from common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The complete genome of spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) strain A-1 isolated from cultured common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in China was sequenced and characterized. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) derived clones were constructed\\u000a and the DNA was sequenced. It showed that the entire genome of SVCV A-1 consists of 11,100 nucleotide base pairs, the predicted\\u000a size of the viral

Y. Teng; H. Liu; J. Q. Lv; W. H. Fan; Q. Y. Zhang; Q. W. Qin

2007-01-01

104

The potential distance of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus dispersal by mallard, common teal and Eurasian pochard.  

PubMed

Waterbirds represent the major natural reservoir for low pathogenic (LP) avian influenza viruses (AIV). Among the wide diversity of subtypes that have been described, two of them (H5 and H7) may become highly pathogenic (HP) after their introduction into domestic bird populations and cause severe outbreaks, as is the case for HP H5N1 in South-Eastern Asia. Recent experimental studies demonstrated that HP H5N1 AIV infection in ducks does not necessarily have significant pathological effects. These results suggest that wild migratory ducks may asymptomatically carry HP AIV and potentially spread viruses over large geographical distances. In this study, we investigated the potential spreading distance of HP AIV by common teal (Anas crecca), mallard (A. platyrhynchos), and Eurasian pochard (Aythya ferina). Based on capture-mark-recapture method, we characterized their wintering movements from a western Mediterranean wetland (Camargue, South of France) and identified the potential distance and direction of virus dispersal. Such data may be crucial in determining higher-risk areas in the case of HP AIV infection detection in this major wintering quarter, and may serve as a valuable reference for virus outbreaks elsewhere. PMID:20112048

Brochet, Anne-Laure; Guillemain, Matthieu; Lebarbenchon, Camille; Simon, Géraldine; Fritz, Hervé; Green, Andy J; Renaud, François; Thomas, Frédéric; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel

2009-09-01

105

The putative capsid protein of the newly identified avian hepatitis E virus shares antigenic epitopes with that of swine and human hepatitis E viruses and chicken big liver and spleen disease virus.  

PubMed

We recently identified a novel virus, designated avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV), from chickens with hepatitis-splenomegaly (HS) syndrome in the USA. We showed that avian HEV is genetically related to swine and human HEVs. Here we report the antigenic cross-reactivity of the putative open reading frame 2 (ORF2) capsid protein of avian HEV with those of swine and human HEVs and the Australian chicken big liver and spleen disease virus (BLSV). The region encoding the C-terminal 268 amino acid residues of avian HEV ORF2 was cloned into expression vector pRSET-C. The truncated ORF2 protein was expressed in E. coli as a fusion protein and purified by affinity chromatography. Western blot analysis revealed that the avian HEV ORF2 protein reacted with antisera against the Sar-55 strain of human HEV and with convalescent antisera against swine HEV and the US2 strain of human HEV, as well as with antiserum against BLSV. Convalescent sera from specific-pathogen-free chickens experimentally infected with avian HEV also reacted with the recombinant capsid proteins of swine HEV and Sar-55 human HEV. Antisera against the US2 human HEV also reacted with recombinant ORF2 proteins of both swine HEV and Sar-55 human HEV. The antigenic cross-reactivity of the avian HEV putative capsid protein with those of swine and human HEVs was further confirmed, for the most part, by ELISA assays. The data indicate that avian HEV shares certain antigenic epitopes in its putative capsid protein with swine and human HEVs, as well as with BLSV. The results have implications for HEV diagnosis and taxonomy. PMID:12185274

Haqshenas, G; Huang, F F; Fenaux, M; Guenette, D K; Pierson, F W; Larsen, C T; Shivaprasad, H L; Toth, T E; Meng, X J

2002-09-01

106

Virus Membrane Fusion Proteins: Biological Machines that Undergo a Metamorphosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusion proteins from a group of widely disparate viruses, including the paramyxovirus F protein, the HIV and SIV gp160 proteins, the retroviral Env protein, the Ebola virus Gp, and the influenza virus haemagglutinin, share a number of common features. All contain multiple glycosylation sites, and must be trimeric and undergo proteolytic cleavage to be fusogenically active. Subsequent to proteolytic cleavage,

Rebecca Ellis Dutch; Theodore S. Jardetzky; Robert A. Lamb

2000-01-01

107

Comprehensive Mapping of Common Immunodominant Epitopes in the Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus E2 Protein Recognized by Avian Antibody Responses  

PubMed Central

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne virus that can cause both human and equine encephalitis with high case fatality rates. EEEV can also be widespread among birds, including pheasants, ostriches, emu, turkeys, whooping cranes and chickens. The E2 protein of EEEV and other Alphaviruses is an important immunogenic protein that elicits antibodies of diagnostic value. While many therapeutic and diagnostic applications of E2 protein-specific antibodies have been reported, the specific epitopes on E2 protein recognized by the antibody responses of different susceptible hosts, including avian species, remain poorly defined. In the present study, the avian E2-reactive polyclonal antibody (PAb) response was mapped to linear peptide epitopes using PAbs elicited in chickens and ducks following immunization with recombinant EEEV E2 protein and a series of 42 partially overlapping peptides covering the entire EEEV E2 protein. We identified 12 and 13 peptides recognized by the chicken and duck PAb response, respectively. Six of these linear peptides were commonly recognized by PAbs elicited in both avian species. Among them five epitopes recognized by both avian, the epitopes located at amino acids 211–226 and 331–352 were conserved among the EEEV antigenic complex, but not other associated alphaviruses, whereas the epitopes at amino acids 11–26, 30–45 and 151–166 were specific to EEEV subtype I. The five common peptide epitopes were not recognized by avian PAbs against Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) and Duck Plague Virus (DPV). The identification and characterization of EEEV E2 antibody epitopes may be aid the development of diagnostic tools and facilitate the design of epitope-based vaccines for EEEV. These results also offer information with which to study the structure of EEEV E2 protein.

Sun, EnCheng; Zhao, Jing; Sun, Liang; Xu, QingYuan; Yang, Tao; Qin, YongLi; Wang, WenShi; Wei, Peng; Sun, Jing; Wu, DongLai

2013-01-01

108

Comprehensive mapping of common immunodominant epitopes in the eastern equine encephalitis virus E2 protein recognized by avian antibody responses.  

PubMed

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne virus that can cause both human and equine encephalitis with high case fatality rates. EEEV can also be widespread among birds, including pheasants, ostriches, emu, turkeys, whooping cranes and chickens. The E2 protein of EEEV and other Alphaviruses is an important immunogenic protein that elicits antibodies of diagnostic value. While many therapeutic and diagnostic applications of E2 protein-specific antibodies have been reported, the specific epitopes on E2 protein recognized by the antibody responses of different susceptible hosts, including avian species, remain poorly defined. In the present study, the avian E2-reactive polyclonal antibody (PAb) response was mapped to linear peptide epitopes using PAbs elicited in chickens and ducks following immunization with recombinant EEEV E2 protein and a series of 42 partially overlapping peptides covering the entire EEEV E2 protein. We identified 12 and 13 peptides recognized by the chicken and duck PAb response, respectively. Six of these linear peptides were commonly recognized by PAbs elicited in both avian species. Among them five epitopes recognized by both avian, the epitopes located at amino acids 211-226 and 331-352 were conserved among the EEEV antigenic complex, but not other associated alphaviruses, whereas the epitopes at amino acids 11-26, 30-45 and 151-166 were specific to EEEV subtype I. The five common peptide epitopes were not recognized by avian PAbs against Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) and Duck Plague Virus (DPV). The identification and characterization of EEEV E2 antibody epitopes may be aid the development of diagnostic tools and facilitate the design of epitope-based vaccines for EEEV. These results also offer information with which to study the structure of EEEV E2 protein. PMID:23922704

Sun, Encheng; Zhao, Jing; Sun, Liang; Xu, Qingyuan; Yang, Tao; Qin, Yongli; Wang, Wenshi; Wei, Peng; Sun, Jing; Wu, Donglai

2013-01-01

109

HLA-Associated Viral Mutations Are Common in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Elite Controllers?  

PubMed Central

Elite controllers (EC) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) maintain viremia below the limit of detection without antiretroviral treatment. Virus-specific cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes are believed to play a crucial role in viral containment, but the degree of immune imprinting and compensatory mutations in EC is unclear. We obtained plasma gag, pol, and nef sequences from HLA-diverse subjects and found that 30 to 40% of the predefined HLA-associated polymorphic sites show evidence of immune selection pressure in EC, compared to approximately 50% of the sites in chronic progressors. These data indicate ongoing viral replication and escape from cytotoxic T lymphocytes are present even in strictly controlled HIV-1 infection.

Miura, Toshiyuki; Brumme, Chanson J.; Brockman, Mark A.; Brumme, Zabrina L.; Pereyra, Florencia; Block, Brian L.; Trocha, Alicja; John, Mina; Mallal, Simon; Harrigan, P. Richard; Walker, Bruce D.

2009-01-01

110

Aerosolized rift valley fever virus causes fatal encephalitis in african green monkeys and common marmosets.  

PubMed

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a veterinary and human disease in Africa and the Middle East. The causative agent, RVF virus (RVFV), can be naturally transmitted by mosquito, direct contact, or aerosol. We sought to develop a nonhuman primate (NHP) model of severe RVF in humans to better understand the pathogenesis of RVF and to use for evaluation of medical countermeasures. NHP from four different species were exposed to aerosols containing RVFV. Both cynomolgus and rhesus macaques developed mild fevers after inhalation of RVFV, but no other clinical signs were noted and no macaque succumbed to RVFV infection. In contrast, both marmosets and African green monkeys (AGM) proved susceptible to aerosolized RVF virus. Fever onset was earlier with the marmosets and had a biphasic pattern similar to what has been reported in humans. Beginning around day 8 to day 10 postexposure, clinical signs consistent with encephalitis were noted in both AGM and marmosets; animals of both species succumbed between days 9 and 11 postexposure. Marmosets were susceptible to lower doses of RVFV than AGM. Histological examination confirmed viral meningoencephalitis in both species. Hematological analyses indicated a drop in platelet counts in both AGM and marmosets suggestive of thrombosis, as well as leukocytosis that consisted mostly of granulocytes. Both AGM and marmosets would serve as useful models of aerosol infection with RVFV. PMID:24335307

Hartman, Amy L; Powell, Diana S; Bethel, Laura M; Caroline, Amy L; Schmid, Richard J; Oury, Tim; Reed, Douglas S

2014-02-01

111

Vaccinia virus proteins A52 and B14 Share a Bcl-2-like fold but have evolved to inhibit NF-kappaB rather than apoptosis.  

PubMed

Vaccinia virus (VACV), the prototype poxvirus, encodes numerous proteins that modulate the host response to infection. Two such proteins, B14 and A52, act inside infected cells to inhibit activation of NF-kappaB, thereby blocking the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We have solved the crystal structures of A52 and B14 at 1.9 A and 2.7 A resolution, respectively. Strikingly, both these proteins adopt a Bcl-2-like fold despite sharing no significant sequence similarity with other viral or cellular Bcl-2-like proteins. Unlike cellular and viral Bcl-2-like proteins described previously, A52 and B14 lack a surface groove for binding BH3 peptides from pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-like proteins and they do not modulate apoptosis. Structure-based phylogenetic analysis of 32 cellular and viral Bcl-2-like protein structures reveals that A52 and B14 are more closely related to each other and to VACV N1 and myxoma virus M11 than they are to other viral or cellular Bcl-2-like proteins. This suggests that a progenitor poxvirus acquired a gene encoding a Bcl-2-like protein and, over the course of evolution, gene duplication events have allowed the virus to exploit this Bcl-2 scaffold for interfering with distinct host signalling pathways. PMID:18704168

Graham, Stephen C; Bahar, Mohammad W; Cooray, Samantha; Chen, Ron A-J; Whalen, Daniel M; Abrescia, Nicola G A; Alderton, David; Owens, Raymond J; Stuart, David I; Smith, Geoffrey L; Grimes, Jonathan M

2008-01-01

112

A novel human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protein, tev, shares sequences with tat, env, and rev proteins.  

PubMed Central

We have characterized a novel 28-kilodalton protein, p28tev, detected in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected cells. tev is recognized by both tat and rev monospecific antibodies. tev is initiated at the tat AUG and contains the first exon of tat at its amino terminus, a small portion of env in the middle, and the second exon of rev at its carboxy terminus. A cDNA clone producing tev was cloned and expressed in human cells. Sequence analysis revealed that the tev mRNA is generated by splicing to a novel exon located in the env region. This identifies a fourth class of multiply spliced human immunodeficiency virus mRNAs, produced in infected and transfected cells. tev is regulated during the virus life cycle similarly to the other regulatory proteins, tat, rev, and nef, and displays both tat and rev activities in functional assays. Since tev contains important functional domains of tat and rev and is produced very early after transfection, it may be an important regulator in the initial phase of virus expression. Another rev-related protein, p18(6)Drev, containing env and rev sequences, was characterized and was found not to have detectable rev activity. Images

Benko, D M; Schwartz, S; Pavlakis, G N; Felber, B K

1990-01-01

113

Parents Sharing Books with Young Deaf Children in Spoken English and in BSL: The Common and Diverse Features of Different Language Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twelve parents of young deaf children were recorded sharing books with their deaf child--six from families using British Sign Language (BSL) and six from families using spoken English. Although all families were engaged in sharing books with their deaf child and concerned to promote literacy development, they approached the task differently and…

Swanwick, Ruth; Watson, Linda

2007-01-01

114

Adenovirus E1A, simian virus 40 tumor antigen, and human papillomavirus E7 protein share the capacity to disrupt the interaction between transcription factor E2F and the retinoblastoma gene product.  

PubMed Central

The adenovirus E1A gene product, the simian virus 40 large tumor antigen, and the human papillomavirus E7 protein share a short amino acid sequence that constitutes a domain required for the transforming activity of these proteins. These sequences are also required for these proteins to bind to the retinoblastoma gene product (pRb). Recent experiments have shown that E1A can dissociate complexes containing the transcription factor E2F bound to pRb, dependent on this conserved sequence element. We now show that the E7 protein and the simian virus 40 large tumor antigen can dissociate the E2F-pRb complex, dependent on this conserved sequence element. We also find that the E2F-pRb complex is absent in various human cervical carcinoma cell lines that either express the E7 protein or harbor an RB1 mutation, suggesting that the loss of the E2F-pRb interaction may be an important aspect in human cervical carcinogenesis. We suggest that the ability of E1A, the simian virus 40 large tumor antigen, and E7 to dissociate the E2F-pRb complex may be a common activity of these viral proteins that has evolved to stimulate quiescent cells into a proliferating state so that viral replication can proceed efficiently. In circumstances in which a lytic infection does not proceed, the consequence of this action may be to initiate the oncogenic process in a manner analogous to the mutation of the RB1 gene. Images

Chellappan, S; Kraus, V B; Kroger, B; Munger, K; Howley, P M; Phelps, W C; Nevins, J R

1992-01-01

115

Studies of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells. I. Evidence using novel monoclonal antibodies that most human LAK precursor cells share a common surface marker.  

PubMed

Separation of LAK precursor (LAKp) cells (as defined by LAK effector generation after incubation with IL-2 for 7 d) from cells with NK activity/LGL morphology was achieved on Percoll gradients using a longer, slower centrifugation than that used for optimal NK enrichment. mAb were generated using the various Percoll fractions as the immunizing cells and used for separation and depletion studies. Two mAbs DM-1 (IgM,k) and DM-2 (IgM,k) recognizing 2-15% and 15-30% of PBL, respectively, abrogated a large proportion of LAK generative potential after complement depletion, but had little effect on NK or LAK effector activity. Cell sorting experiments indicated that the majority of LAKp cells are found within the DM-1+ population and that DM-1+ cells are not simply an accessory cell required for LAKp generation. Further, these two mAbs do not recognize cells that are responsible for generating cytotoxicity during MLC or co-culture with the PR-1 EBV lymphoblastoid cell line. Western blot analysis indicated that DM-1 and DM-2 recognize a 38,000 and 44,000 dalton moiety, respectively. The frequency of cells bearing these antigens and the intensity of cell surface staining decreased during the 7-d culture period, suggesting that these antibodies recognize determinants found only at the precursor level. These findings indicate that cells other than NK effectors or mature T cells are capable of generating a LAK cell response. These LAK precursor cells share a common differentiation surface antigen and are different from AK or antigen-specific CTL precursors. The possibility exists that these cells are identical to, or include, the NK precursor cell. PMID:2784480

Morris, D G; Pross, H F

1989-03-01

116

CMT-associated mutations in glycyl- and tyrosyl-tRNA synthetases exhibit similar pattern of toxicity and share common genetic modifiers in Drosophila.  

PubMed

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are ubiquitously expressed proteins that charge tRNAs with their cognate amino acids. By ensuring the fidelity of protein synthesis, these enzymes are essential for the viability of every cell. Yet, mutations in six tRNA synthetases specifically affect the peripheral nerves and cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease. The CMT-causing mutations in tyrosyl- and glycyl-tRNA synthetases (YARS and GARS, respectively) alter the activity of the proteins in a range of ways (some mutations do not impact charging function, while others abrogate it), making a loss of function in tRNA charging unlikely to be the cause of disease pathology. It is currently unknown which cellular mechanisms are triggered by the mutant enzymes and how this leads to neurodegeneration. Here, by expressing two pathogenic mutations (G240R, P234KY) in Drosophila, we generated a model for GARS-associated neuropathy. We observed compromised viability, and behavioral, electrophysiological and morphological impairment in flies expressing the cytoplasmic isoform of mutant GARS. Their features recapitulated several hallmarks of CMT pathophysiology and were similar to the phenotypes identified in our previously described Drosophila model of YARS-associated neuropathy. Furthermore, CG8316 and CG15599 - genes identified in a retinal degeneration screen to modify mutant YARS, also modified the mutant GARS phenotypes. Our study presents genetic evidence for common mutant-specific interactions between two CMT-associated aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, lending support for a shared mechanism responsible for the synthetase-induced peripheral neuropathies. PMID:24807208

Ermanoska, Biljana; Motley, William W; Leitão-Gonçalves, Ricardo; Asselbergh, Bob; Lee, LaTasha H; De Rijk, Peter; Sleegers, Kristel; Ooms, Tinne; Godenschwege, Tanja A; Timmerman, Vincent; Fischbeck, Kenneth H; Jordanova, Albena

2014-08-01

117

First Report of Spring Viremia of Carp Virus (SVCV) in Wild Common Carp in North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spring 2002, an estimated 1,500 common carp Cyprinus carpio in Cedar Lake, northwestern Wisconsin, died over a 6-week period from late April through the first week in June. Three moribund carp were necropsied and had signs consistent with spring viremia of carp (SVC) disease, including petechiae and ecchymotic hemorrhages on the skin, ascites, and edematous kidney and spleen. A

Audrey L. Dikkeboom; Craig Radi; Kathy Toohey-Kurth; Susan Marcquenski; Marty Engel; Andrew E. Goodwin; David M. Stone; Clare Longshaw

2004-01-01

118

A method to manage and share anti-retroviral (ARV) therapy information of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients in Vietnam.  

PubMed

Management of antiretroviral (ARV) drug and HIV patients data is an important component of Vietnam Administration of HIV/AIDS Control (VAAC) Department and hospitals/health care units when people often travel in other places of Vietnam; therefore, it would lead to a number of medical errors in treatment as well as patients do not adhere to ARV therapy. In this paper, we describe a system that manages and shares antiretroviral therapy information of 4438 HIV patients in three healthcare centers in Hanoi capital of Vietnam. The overall design considerations, architecture and the integration of centralized database and decentralized management for the system are also presented. The findings from this study can serve as a guide to consider in the implementation model of health care to manage and share information of patients not only in HIV infection, but also in the other chronic and non-communicable diseases. PMID:23769644

Nguyen, Phung Anh; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Minamareddy, Priti; Lee, Peisan; Ngo, Thuy Dieu; Iqbal, Usman; Nguyen, Phuong Hoang; Jian, Wen-Shan; Li, Yu-Chuan Jack

2013-08-01

119

TulaVirus: a NewlyDetected Hantavirus Carried by European CommonVoles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novelhantavirus hasbeendiscovered inEuropean common voles, Microtus arvalis and Microtus rossiaemeridionalis. According tosequencing dataforthegenomicRNA S segmentandnucleocapsid protein anddataolitained byimmunoblotting with a panelofmonoclonal antibodies, thevirus, designated Tulavirus, isadistinct novel memberofthegenus Hantavirus. Phylogenetic analysesofTulavirusindicate thatitismost closely related toProspect Hill, Puumala, andMuertoCanyonviruses. Theresults supporttheviewthatthe evolution ofhan.aviruses follows thatoftheir primary carriers. Comparison ofstrains circulating within a local rodent population revealed a genetic drift viaaccumulation

ALEXANDER PLYUSNIN; OLLI VAPALAHTI; HLKKA LANKINEN; NATALIA APEKINA; YURI MYASNIKOV; HANIMARI KALLIO-KOKKO; AKE LUNDKVIST; MARKUS BRUMMER-KORVENKONTIO

1994-01-01

120

Divergent Bro1 domains share the capacity to bind human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid and to enhance virus-like particle production  

Microsoft Academic Search

To promote the release of infectious virions, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) exploits the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) pathway by engaging Tsg101 and ALIX through late assembly (L) domains in p6 Gag. An LYPx(n)L motif in p6 serves as docking site for the central V domain of ALIX and is required for its ability to stimulate

Sergei Popov; Elena Popova; Michio Inoue; Heinrich G. Göttlinger

2009-01-01

121

Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Coinfection: Epidemiology, Natural History, Therapeutic Options and Clinical Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to shared risk factors for transmission, coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a very common event. The prevalence of HCV infection among HIV-positive patients averages about 35% in the United States and Europe, but in clinical populations where there is a great prevalence of intravenous drug use as a risk factor for acquiring

G. Verucchi; L. Calza; R. Manfredi; F. Chiodo

2004-01-01

122

6-sulfo sialyl Lewis X is the common receptor determinant recognized by H5, H6, H7 and H9 influenza viruses of terrestrial poultry  

PubMed Central

Background Influenza A viruses of domestic birds originate from the natural reservoir in aquatic birds as a result of interspecies transmission and adaptation to new host species. We previously noticed that influenza viruses isolated from distinct orders of aquatic and terrestrial birds may differ in their fine receptor-binding specificity by recognizing the structure of the inner parts of Neu5Ac?2-3Gal-terminated sialyloligosaccharide receptors. To further characterize these differences, we studied receptor-binding properties of a large panel of influenza A viruses from wild aquatic birds, poultry, pigs and horses. Results Using a competitive solid-phase binding assay, we determined viral binding to polymeric conjugates of sialyloligosaccharides differing by the type of Neu5Ac?-Gal linkage and by the structure of the more distant parts of the oligosaccharide chain. Influenza viruses isolated from terrestrial poultry differed from duck viruses by an enhanced binding to sulfated and/or fucosylated Neu5Ac?2-3Gal-containing sialyloligosaccharides. Most of the poultry viruses tested shared a high binding affinity for the 6-sulfo sialyl Lewis X (Su-SLex). Efficient binding of poultry viruses to Su-SLex was often accompanied by their ability to bind to Neu5Ac?2-6Gal-terminated (human-type) receptors. Such a dual receptor-binding specificity was demonstrated for the North American and Eurasian H7 viruses, H9N2 Eurasian poultry viruses, and H1, H3 and H9 avian-like virus isolates from pigs. Conclusion Influenza viruses of terrestrial poultry differ from ancestral duck viruses by enhanced binding to sulfated and/or fucosylated Neu5Ac?2-3Gal-terminated receptors and, occasionally, by the ability to bind to Neu5Ac?2-6Gal-terminated (human-type) receptors. These findings suggest that the adaptation to receptors in poultry can enhance the potential of an avian virus for avian-to-human transmission and pandemic spread.

Gambaryan, Alexandra S; Tuzikov, Alexander B; Pazynina, Galina V; Desheva, Julia A; Bovin, Nicolai V; Matrosovich, Mikhail N; Klimov, Alexander I

2008-01-01

123

African swine fever virus encodes two genes which share significant homology with the two largest subunits of DNA-dependent RNA polymerases.  

PubMed Central

A random sequencing strategy applied to two large SalI restriction fragments (SB and SD) of the African swine fever virus (ASFV) genome revealed that they might encode proteins similar to the two largest RNA polymerase subunits of eukaryotes, poxviruses and Escherichia coli. After further mapping by dot-blot hybridization, two large open reading frames (ORFs) were completely sequenced. The first ORF (NP1450L) encodes a protein of 1450 amino acids with extensive similarity to the largest subunit of RNA polymerases. The second one (EP1242L) codes for a protein of 1242 amino acids similar to the second largest RNA polymerase subunit. Proteins NP1450L and EP1242L are more similar to the corresponding subunits of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II than to those of vaccinia virus, the prototype poxvirus, which shares many functional characteristics with ASFV. ORFs NP1450L and EP1242L are mainly expressed late in ASFV infection, after the onset of DNA replication. Images

Yanez, R J; Boursnell, M; Nogal, M L; Yuste, L; Vinuela, E

1993-01-01

124

African swine fever virus encodes two genes which share significant homology with the two largest subunits of DNA-dependent RNA polymerases.  

PubMed

A random sequencing strategy applied to two large SalI restriction fragments (SB and SD) of the African swine fever virus (ASFV) genome revealed that they might encode proteins similar to the two largest RNA polymerase subunits of eukaryotes, poxviruses and Escherichia coli. After further mapping by dot-blot hybridization, two large open reading frames (ORFs) were completely sequenced. The first ORF (NP1450L) encodes a protein of 1450 amino acids with extensive similarity to the largest subunit of RNA polymerases. The second one (EP1242L) codes for a protein of 1242 amino acids similar to the second largest RNA polymerase subunit. Proteins NP1450L and EP1242L are more similar to the corresponding subunits of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II than to those of vaccinia virus, the prototype poxvirus, which shares many functional characteristics with ASFV. ORFs NP1450L and EP1242L are mainly expressed late in ASFV infection, after the onset of DNA replication. PMID:8506138

Yáñez, R J; Boursnell, M; Nogal, M L; Yuste, L; Viñuela, E

1993-05-25

125

Foamy Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Foamy viruses share complex genome organization with lentiviruses and certain oncoviruses. The open reading frame 3’ of env encodes a transcriptional transactivator. Distinct responsive sequences were identified in the long terminal repeats (LTRs) of simian (SFV-1 and SFV-3) and human foamy viruses (HFV). Transactivation of heterologous LTRs was described including those of simian and human immunodeficiency viruses. Foamy viruses

D. Neumann-Haefelin; U. Fleps; R. Renne; M. Schweizer

1993-01-01

126

Complete Genome Analysis of 33 Ecologically and Biologically Diverse Rift Valley Fever Virus Strains Reveals Widespread Virus Movement and Low Genetic Diversity due to Recent Common Ancestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus is a mosquito-borne RNA virus responsible for large explosive outbreaks of acute febrile disease in humans and livestock in Africa with significant mortality and economic impact. The successful high-throughput generation of the complete genome sequence was achieved for 33 diverse RVF virus strains collected from throughout Africa and Saudi Arabia from 1944 to 2000, including

Brian H. Bird; Marina L. Khristova; Pierre E. Rollin; Thomas G. Ksiazek; Stuart T. Nichol

2007-01-01

127

West Nile Virus T-Cell Ligand Sequences Shared with Other Flaviviruses: a Multitude of Variant Sequences as Potential Altered Peptide Ligands  

PubMed Central

Phylogenetic relatedness and cocirculation of several major human pathogen flaviviruses are recognized as a possible cause of deleterious immune responses to mixed infection or immunization and call for a greater understanding of the inter-Flavivirus protein homologies. This study focused on the identification of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-restricted West Nile virus (WNV) T-cell ligands and characterization of their distribution in reported sequence data of WNV and other flaviviruses. H-2-deficient mice transgenic for either A2, A24, B7, DR2, DR3, or DR4 HLA alleles were immunized with overlapping peptides of the WNV proteome, and peptide-specific T-cell activation was measured by gamma interferon (IFN-?) enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot) assays. Approximately 30% (137) of the WNV proteome peptides were identified as HLA-restricted T-cell ligands. The majority of these ligands were conserved in ??88% of analyzed WNV sequences. Notably, only 51 were WNV specific, and the remaining 86, chiefly of E, NS3, and NS5, shared an identity of nine or more consecutive amino acids with sequences of 64 other flaviviruses, including several major human pathogens. Many of the shared ligands had an incidence of >50% in the analyzed sequences of one or more of six major flaviviruses. The multitude of WNV sequences shared with other flaviviruses as interspecies variants highlights the possible hazard of defective T-cell activation by altered peptide ligands in the event of dual exposure to WNV and other flaviviruses, by either infection or immunization. The data suggest the possible preferred use of sequences that are pathogen specific with minimum interspecies sequence homology for the design of Flavivirus vaccines.

Jung, Keun-Ok; Khan, Asif M.; Tan, Benjamin Yong Liang; Hu, Yongli; Simon, Gregory G.; Nascimento, Eduardo J. M.; Lemonnier, Francois; Brusic, Vladimir; Miotto, Olivo; Tan, Tin Wee; Marques, Ernesto T. A.; Dhalia, Rafael; Salmon, Jerome

2012-01-01

128

Novel Common Integration Sites Targeted by Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus Insertion in Mammary Tumors Have Oncogenic Activity  

PubMed Central

Non-acute transforming retroviruses like mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) cause cancer, at least in part, through integration near cellular genes involved in growth control, thereby de-regulating their expression. It is well-established that MMTV commonly integrates near and activates expression of members of the Wnt and Fgf pathways in mammary tumors. However, there are a significant number of tumors for which the proviral integration sites have not been identified. Here, we used high through-put screening to identify common integration sites (CISs) in MMTV-induced tumors from C3H/HeN and BALB/c mice. As expected, members of both the Wnt and Fgf families were identified in this screen. In addition, a number of novel CISs were found, including Tcf7l2, Antxr1/Tem8, and Arhgap18. We show here that expression of these three putative oncogenes in normal murine mammary gland cells altered their growth kinetics and caused their morphological transformation when grown in three dimensional cultures. Additionally, expression of Tcf7l2 and Antxr1/Tem8 sensitized cells to exogenous WNT ligand. As Tcf7l2, Antxr1/Tem8, and Arhgap18 have been associated with human breast and other cancers, these data demonstrate that MMTV-induced insertional mutation remains an important means for identifying genes involved in breast cancer.

Kim, Hyoung H.; van den Heuvel, A. Pieter J.; Schmidt, John W.; Ross, Susan R.

2011-01-01

129

HIV-1 Gag shares a signature motif with annexin (Anx7), which is required for virus replication  

PubMed Central

Genetic and biochemical analyses of the Gag protein of HIV-1 indicate a crucial role for this protein in several functions related to viral replication, including viral assembly. It has been suggested that Gag may fulfill some of the functions by recruiting host cellular protein(s). In our effort to identify structural and functional homologies between Gag and cellular cytoskeletal and secretory proteins involved in transport, we observed that HIV-1 Gag contains a unique PGQM motif in the capsid region. This motif was initially noted in the regulatory domain of synexin the membrane fusion protein of Xenopus laevis. To evaluate the functional significance of the highly conserved PGQM motif, we introduced alanine (A) in place of individual residues of the PGQM and deleted the motif altogether in a Gag expression plasmid and in an HIV-1 proviral DNA. The proviral DNA containing mutations in the PGQM motif showed altered expression, assembly, and release of viral particles in comparison to parental (NL4-3) DNA. When tested in multiple- and single-round replication assays, the mutant viruses exhibited distinct replication phenotypes; the viruses containing the A for the G and Q residues failed to replicate, whereas A in place of the P and M residues did not inhibit viral replication. Deletion of the tetrapeptide also resulted in the inhibition of replication. These results suggest that the PGQM motif may play an important role in the infection process of HIV-1 by facilitating protein–protein interactions between viral and/or viral and cellular proteins.

Srivastava, M.; Cartas, M.; Rizvi, T. A.; Singh, S. P.; Serio, D.; Kalyanaraman, V. S.; Pollard, H. B.; Srinivasan, A.

1999-01-01

130

HIV-1 Gag shares a signature motif with annexin (Anx7), which is required for virus replication.  

PubMed

Genetic and biochemical analyses of the Gag protein of HIV-1 indicate a crucial role for this protein in several functions related to viral replication, including viral assembly. It has been suggested that Gag may fulfill some of the functions by recruiting host cellular protein(s). In our effort to identify structural and functional homologies between Gag and cellular cytoskeletal and secretory proteins involved in transport, we observed that HIV-1 Gag contains a unique PGQM motif in the capsid region. This motif was initially noted in the regulatory domain of synexin the membrane fusion protein of Xenopus laevis. To evaluate the functional significance of the highly conserved PGQM motif, we introduced alanine (A) in place of individual residues of the PGQM and deleted the motif altogether in a Gag expression plasmid and in an HIV-1 proviral DNA. The proviral DNA containing mutations in the PGQM motif showed altered expression, assembly, and release of viral particles in comparison to parental (NL4-3) DNA. When tested in multiple- and single-round replication assays, the mutant viruses exhibited distinct replication phenotypes; the viruses containing the A for the G and Q residues failed to replicate, whereas A in place of the P and M residues did not inhibit viral replication. Deletion of the tetrapeptide also resulted in the inhibition of replication. These results suggest that the PGQM motif may play an important role in the infection process of HIV-1 by facilitating protein-protein interactions between viral and/or viral and cellular proteins. PMID:10077575

Srivastava, M; Cartas, M; Rizvi, T A; Singh, S P; Serio, D; Kalyanaraman, V S; Pollard, H B; Srinivasan, A

1999-03-16

131

Determination of seed-born percentages of bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) in three genotypes of Phaseolus vulgaris.  

PubMed

Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) is one of the most damaging viruses of bean that naturally transmitted by aphid in non persistent manner and through the seeds. BCMNV belongs to the genus Potyvirus and the family Potyviridae. During the growing season of 2004, bean leaf samples with viral symptoms were collected from Tehran province, Karaj region. DAS-ELISA by using BCMNV polyclonal antiserum (AS-0239, prepared in DSMZ, Germany) was conducted and samples with viral infection were distinguished. IC-RT-PCR was done to amplify the cp gene of isolates. The nucleotide sequence of one isolate was determined and analysis of this and other published sequences confirmed this isolate as BCMNV. The confirmed isolate was inoculated on three bean genotypes (butter bean ks-21478, kidney bean ks-31170, navy bean ks-41235) using 0.01 M Potassium phosphate buffer (pH = 7). After appearance of symptoms, the inoculated plants were tested by DAS-ELISA and IC-RT-PCR. In DAS-ELISA test, 68% infection of butter bean and kidney bean genotypes and only 7% infection of navy bean genotype were confirmed. In IC-RT-PCR by using specific primers (NL3), a 922 bp fragment was amplified in all genotypes, even symptomless plants and the ones which were negative in ELISA test. To determine the percentages of infected seed, harvested seeds were planted. Most of the seedlings in two-leaf stage died with black root symptoms. All seedlings were tested by DAS-ELISA and IC-RT-PCR. The results of these assays showed that the percentage of seed infected was 78%. PMID:17390883

Peyambari, M; Habibi, M Koohi; Mosahebi, Gh; Izadpanah, K

2006-01-01

132

Epidemiologic Relationship between Toscana Virus Infection and Leishmania infantum Due to Common Exposure to Phlebotomus perniciosus Sandfly Vector  

PubMed Central

Sand flies are recognised vectors of parasites in the genus Leishmania and a number of arthropod-borne viruses, in particular viruses within the genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae. In southern France, Toscana phlebovirus (TOSV) is recognized as a prominent cause of summer meningitis. Since Leishmania and TOSV have a common vector (Phlebotomus perniciosus), an epidemiologic link has been assumed for a long time. However, there is no scientific evidence of such a link between human leishmaniosis and phleboviral infections. To identify a possible link, we investigated the presence and distribution of antibodies against these two microorganisms (i) in individuals and (ii) at a spatial level in the city of Marseille (south-eastern France). Five hundred sera were selected randomly in the biobank of the Department of Parasitology of the Public Hospitals of Marseille. All sera were previously tested for IgG against Leishmania by Western Blotting, and TOSV IgG were detected by indirect immunofluorescence. The seropositivity rates were 21.4% for TOSV and 28% for Leishmania. Statistical analysis demonstrated that seropositivity for one pathogen was significantly associated with seropositivity to the other pathogen. This result provided the first robust evidence for the existence of an epidemiological relationship between Leishmania infantum and TOSV. Addresses of tested patients were geolocalized and integrated into Geographical Information System software, in order to test spatial relationship between the two pathogens. Spatial analysis did not allow to identify (i) specific patterns for the spatial distribution of positive serological results for TOSV or Leishmania, and (ii) a spatial relationship between Leishmania and TOSV positive serological results. This may reflect the fact that the sample studied was not powerful enough to demonstrate either a spatial clustering or co-location, i.e. that the actual risk exposure area is smaller than the mean of distance between patients in our study (245 m).

Bichaud, Laurence; Souris, Marc; Mary, Charles; Ninove, Laetitia; Thirion, Laurence; Piarroux, Raphael P.; Piarroux, Renaud; De Lamballerie, Xavier; Charrel, Remi N.

2011-01-01

133

The Unknown Computer Viruses Detection Based on Similarity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New computer viruses are continually being generated and they cause damage all over the world. In general, current anti-virus software detects viruses by matching a pattern based on the signature; thus, unknown viruses without any signature cannot be detected. Although there are some static analysis technologies that do not depend on signatures, virus writers often use code obfuscation techniques, which make it difficult to execute a code analysis. As is generally known, unknown viruses and known viruses share a common feature. In this paper we propose a new static analysis technology that can circumvent code obfuscation to extract the common feature and detect unknown viruses based on similarity. The results of evaluation experiments demonstrated that this technique is able to detect unknown viruses without false positives.

Liu, Zhongda; Nakaya, Naoshi; Koui, Yuuji

134

A viral resistance gene from common bean functions across plant families and is up-regulated in a non-virus-specific manner  

PubMed Central

Genes involved in a viral resistance response in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Othello) were identified by inoculating a geminivirus reporter (Bean dwarf mosaic virus expressing the green fluorescent protein), extracting RNA from tissue undergoing the defense response, and amplifying sequences with degenerate R gene primers. One such gene (a TIR-NBS-LRR gene, RT4-4) was selected for functional analysis in which transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana were generated and screened for resistance to a range of viruses. This analysis revealed that RT4-4 did not confer resistance to the reporter geminivirus; however, it did activate a resistance-related response (systemic necrosis) to seven strains of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) from pepper or tomato, but not to a CMV strain from common bean. Of these eight CMV strains, only the strain from common bean systemically infected common bean cv. Othello. Additional evidence that RT4-4 is a CMV R gene came from the detection of resistance response markers in CMV-challenged leaves of RT4-4 transgenic plants, and the identification of the CMV 2a gene product as the elicitor of the necrosis response. These findings indicate that RT4-4 functions across two plant families and is up-regulated in a non-virus-specific manner. This experimental approach holds promise for providing insights into the mechanisms by which plants activate resistance responses against pathogens.

Seo, Young-Su; Rojas, Maria R.; Lee, Jung-Youn; Lee, Sang-Won; Jeon, Jong-Seong; Ronald, Pamela; Lucas, William J.; Gilbertson, Robert L.

2006-01-01

135

Remotely Operated Aircraft (ROA) Impact on the National Airspace System (NAS) Work Package: Data Modeling and Sharing Perspective for Development of a Common Operating Picture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents analyses that were performed in support of Task #3 of Work Package #3 (WP3), ROA Impact on the NAS. The purpose of the overall work package was to determine if there are any serious issues that would prevent or prohibit ROA's flying in the NAS on a routine basis, and if so, what actions should be taken to address them. The purpose of Task #3 was to look at this problem from the perspective of data modeling and sharing.

2007-01-01

136

Retroviral Insertions in Evi12, a Novel Common Virus Integration Site Upstream of Tra1/Grp94, Frequently Coincide with Insertions in the Gene Encoding the Peripheral Cannabinoid Receptor Cnr2  

PubMed Central

The common virus integration site (VIS) Evi11 was recently identified within the gene encoding the hematopoietic G-protein-coupled peripheral cannabinoid receptor Cnr2 (also referred to as Cb2). Here we show that Cnr2 is a frequent target (12%) for insertion of Cas-Br-M murine leukemia virus (MuLV) in primary tumors in NIH/Swiss mice. Multiple provirus insertions in Evi11 were cloned and shown to be located within the 3? untranslated region of the candidate proto-oncogene Cnr2. These results suggest that proviral insertion in the Cnr2 gene is an important step in Cas-Br-M MuLV-induced leukemogenesis in NIH/Swiss mice. To isolate Evi11/Cnr2 collaborating proto-oncogenes, we searched for novel common VISs in the Cas-Br-M MuLV-induced primary tumors and identified a novel frequent common VIS, Evi12 (14%). Interestingly, 54% of the Evi11/Cnr2-rearranged primary tumors contained insertions in Evi12 as well, which suggests cooperative action of the target genes in these two common VISs in leukemogenesis. By interspecific backcross analysis it was shown that Evi12 resides on mouse chromosome 10 in a region that shares homology with human chromosomes 12q and 19p. Sequence analysis demonstrated that Evi12 is located upstream of the gene encoding the molecular chaperone Tra1/Grp94, which was previously mapped to mouse chromosome 10 and human chromosome 12q22–24. Thus, Tra1/Grp94 is a candidate target gene for retroviral activation or inactivation in Evi12. However, Northern and Western blot analyses did not provide evidence that proviral insertion had altered the expression of Tra1/Grp94. Additional studies are required to determine whether Tra1/Grp94 or another candidate proto-oncogene in Evi12 is involved in leukemogenesis.

Valk, Peter J. M.; Vankan, Yolanda; Joosten, Marieke; Jenkins, Nancy A.; Copeland, Neal G.; Lowenberg, Bob; Delwel, Ruud

1999-01-01

137

T cell memory to evolutionarily conserved and shared hemagglutinin epitopes of H1N1 viruses: a pilot scale study  

PubMed Central

Background The 2009 pandemic influenza was milder than expected. Based on the apparent lack of pre-existing cross-protective antibodies to the A (H1N1)pdm09 strain, it was hypothesized that pre-existing CD4+ T cellular immunity provided the crucial immunity that led to an attenuation of disease severity. We carried out a pilot scale study by conducting in silico and in vitro T cellular assays in healthy population, to evaluate the pre-existing immunity to A (H1N1)pdm09 strain. Methods Large-scale epitope prediction analysis was done by examining the NCBI available (H1N1) HA proteins. NetMHCIIpan, an eptiope prediction tool was used to identify the putative and shared CD4+ T cell epitopes between seasonal H1N1 and A (H1N1)pdm09 strains. To identify the immunogenicity of these putative epitopes, human IFN-?-ELISPOT assays were conducted using the peripheral blood mononuclear cells from fourteen healthy human donors. All donors were screened for the HLA-DRB1 alleles. Results Epitope-specific CD4+ T cellular memory responses (IFN-?) were generated to highly conserved HA epitopes from majority of the donors (93%). Higher magnitude of the CD4+ T cell responses was observed in the older adults. The study identified two HA2 immunodominant CD4+ T cell epitopes, of which one was found to be novel. Conclusions The current study provides a compelling evidence of HA epitope specific CD4+ T cellular memory towards A (H1N1)pdm09 strain. These well-characterized epitopes could recruit alternative immunological pathways to overcome the challenge of annual seasonal flu vaccine escape.

2013-01-01

138

Identification of Common Biological Pathways and Drug Targets Across Multiple Respiratory Viruses Based on Human Host Gene Expression Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPandemic and seasonal respiratory viruses are a major global health concern. Given the genetic diversity of respiratory viruses and the emergence of drug resistant strains, the targeted disruption of human host-virus interactions is a potential therapeutic strategy for treating multi-viral infections. The availability of large-scale genomic datasets focused on host-pathogen interactions can be used to discover novel drug targets as

Steven B. Smith; William Dampier; Aydin Tozeren; James R. Brown; Michal Magid-Slav

2012-01-01

139

Genome-wide association study of CNVs in 16,000 cases of eight common diseases and 3,000 shared controls.  

PubMed

Copy number variants (CNVs) account for a major proportion of human genetic polymorphism and have been predicted to have an important role in genetic susceptibility to common disease. To address this we undertook a large, direct genome-wide study of association between CNVs and eight common human diseases. Using a purpose-designed array we typed approximately 19,000 individuals into distinct copy-number classes at 3,432 polymorphic CNVs, including an estimated approximately 50% of all common CNVs larger than 500 base pairs. We identified several biological artefacts that lead to false-positive associations, including systematic CNV differences between DNAs derived from blood and cell lines. Association testing and follow-up replication analyses confirmed three loci where CNVs were associated with disease-IRGM for Crohn's disease, HLA for Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis and type 1 diabetes, and TSPAN8 for type 2 diabetes-although in each case the locus had previously been identified in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based studies, reflecting our observation that most common CNVs that are well-typed on our array are well tagged by SNPs and so have been indirectly explored through SNP studies. We conclude that common CNVs that can be typed on existing platforms are unlikely to contribute greatly to the genetic basis of common human diseases. PMID:20360734

Craddock, Nick; Hurles, Matthew E; Cardin, Niall; Pearson, Richard D; Plagnol, Vincent; Robson, Samuel; Vukcevic, Damjan; Barnes, Chris; Conrad, Donald F; Giannoulatou, Eleni; Holmes, Chris; Marchini, Jonathan L; Stirrups, Kathy; Tobin, Martin D; Wain, Louise V; Yau, Chris; Aerts, Jan; Ahmad, Tariq; Andrews, T Daniel; Arbury, Hazel; Attwood, Anthony; Auton, Adam; Ball, Stephen G; Balmforth, Anthony J; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Barroso, Inês; Barton, Anne; Bennett, Amanda J; Bhaskar, Sanjeev; Blaszczyk, Katarzyna; Bowes, John; Brand, Oliver J; Braund, Peter S; Bredin, Francesca; Breen, Gerome; Brown, Morris J; Bruce, Ian N; Bull, Jaswinder; Burren, Oliver S; Burton, John; Byrnes, Jake; Caesar, Sian; Clee, Chris M; Coffey, Alison J; Connell, John M C; Cooper, Jason D; Dominiczak, Anna F; Downes, Kate; Drummond, Hazel E; Dudakia, Darshna; Dunham, Andrew; Ebbs, Bernadette; Eccles, Diana; Edkins, Sarah; Edwards, Cathryn; Elliot, Anna; Emery, Paul; Evans, David M; Evans, Gareth; Eyre, Steve; Farmer, Anne; Ferrier, I Nicol; Feuk, Lars; Fitzgerald, Tomas; Flynn, Edward; Forbes, Alistair; Forty, Liz; Franklyn, Jayne A; Freathy, Rachel M; Gibbs, Polly; Gilbert, Paul; Gokumen, Omer; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Gray, Emma; Green, Elaine; Groves, Chris J; Grozeva, Detelina; Gwilliam, Rhian; Hall, Anita; Hammond, Naomi; Hardy, Matt; Harrison, Pile; Hassanali, Neelam; Hebaishi, Husam; Hines, Sarah; Hinks, Anne; Hitman, Graham A; Hocking, Lynne; Howard, Eleanor; Howard, Philip; Howson, Joanna M M; Hughes, Debbie; Hunt, Sarah; Isaacs, John D; Jain, Mahim; Jewell, Derek P; Johnson, Toby; Jolley, Jennifer D; Jones, Ian R; Jones, Lisa A; Kirov, George; Langford, Cordelia F; Lango-Allen, Hana; Lathrop, G Mark; Lee, James; Lee, Kate L; Lees, Charlie; Lewis, Kevin; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Maisuria-Armer, Meeta; Maller, Julian; Mansfield, John; Martin, Paul; Massey, Dunecan C O; McArdle, Wendy L; McGuffin, Peter; McLay, Kirsten E; Mentzer, Alex; Mimmack, Michael L; Morgan, Ann E; Morris, Andrew P; Mowat, Craig; Myers, Simon; Newman, William; Nimmo, Elaine R; O'Donovan, Michael C; Onipinla, Abiodun; Onyiah, Ifejinelo; Ovington, Nigel R; Owen, Michael J; Palin, Kimmo; Parnell, Kirstie; Pernet, David; Perry, John R B; Phillips, Anne; Pinto, Dalila; Prescott, Natalie J; Prokopenko, Inga; Quail, Michael A; Rafelt, Suzanne; Rayner, Nigel W; Redon, Richard; Reid, David M; Renwick; Ring, Susan M; Robertson, Neil; Russell, Ellie; St Clair, David; Sambrook, Jennifer G; Sanderson, Jeremy D; Schuilenburg, Helen; Scott, Carol E; Scott, Richard; Seal, Sheila; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Shields, Beverley M; Simmonds, Matthew J; Smyth, Debbie J; Somaskantharajah, Elilan; Spanova, Katarina; Steer, Sophia; Stephens, Jonathan; Stevens, Helen E; Stone, Millicent A; Su, Zhan; Symmons, Deborah P M; Thompson, John R; Thomson, Wendy; Travers, Mary E; Turnbull, Clare; Valsesia, Armand; Walker, Mark; Walker, Neil M; Wallace, Chris; Warren-Perry, Margaret; Watkins, Nicholas A; Webster, John; Weedon, Michael N; Wilson, Anthony G; Woodburn, Matthew; Wordsworth, B Paul; Young, Allan H; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Carter, Nigel P; Frayling, Timothy M; Lee, Charles; McVean, Gil; Munroe, Patricia B; Palotie, Aarno; Sawcer, Stephen J; Scherer, Stephen W; Strachan, David P; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Brown, Matthew A; Burton, Paul R; Caulfield, Mark J; Compston, Alastair; Farrall, Martin; Gough, Stephen C L; Hall, Alistair S; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hill, Adrian V S; Mathew, Christopher G; Pembrey, Marcus; Satsangi, Jack; Stratton, Michael R; Worthington, Jane; Deloukas, Panos; Duncanson, Audrey; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P; McCarthy, Mark I; Ouwehand, Willem; Parkes, Miles; Rahman, Nazneen; Todd, John A; Samani, Nilesh J; Donnelly, Peter

2010-04-01

140

A Glimpse of the genomic diversity of haloarchaeal tailed viruses  

PubMed Central

Tailed viruses are the most common isolates infecting prokaryotic hosts residing in hypersaline environments. Archaeal tailed viruses represent only a small portion of all characterized tailed viruses of prokaryotes. But even this small dataset revealed that archaeal tailed viruses have many similarities to their counterparts infecting bacteria, the bacteriophages. Shared functional homologs and similar genome organizations suggested that all microbial tailed viruses have common virion architectural and assembly principles. Recent structural studies have provided evidence justifying this thereby grouping archaeal and bacterial tailed viruses into a single lineage. Currently there are 17 haloarchaeal tailed viruses with entirely sequenced genomes. Nine viruses have at least one close relative among the 17 viruses and, according to the similarities, can be divided into three groups. Two other viruses share some homologs and therefore are distantly related, whereas the rest of the viruses are rather divergent (or singletons). Comparative genomics analysis of these viruses offers a glimpse into the genetic diversity and structure of haloarchaeal tailed virus communities.

Sencilo, Ana; Roine, Elina

2014-01-01

141

Shared Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you're interested in checking out the social media shares for various websites, the Shared Count tool is a nice find. Visitors just need to enter the URL in question and then can find out how often the site has been shared on a range of social media platforms. This version is compatible with all operating systems.

Kumar, Neeraj

2014-03-27

142

Virus-independent and common transcriptome responses of leafhopper vectors feeding on maize infected with semi-persistently and persistent propagatively transmitted viruses  

PubMed Central

Background Insects are the most important epidemiological factors for plant virus disease spread, with >75% of viruses being dependent on insects for transmission to new hosts. The black-faced leafhopper (Graminella nigrifrons Forbes) transmits two viruses that use different strategies for transmission: Maize chlorotic dwarf virus (MCDV) which is semi-persistently transmitted and Maize fine streak virus (MFSV) which is persistently and propagatively transmitted. To date, little is known regarding the molecular and cellular mechanisms in insects that regulate the process and efficiency of transmission, or how these mechanisms differ based on virus transmission strategy. Results RNA-Seq was used to examine transcript changes in leafhoppers after feeding on MCDV-infected, MFSV-infected and healthy maize for 4 h and 7 d. After sequencing cDNA libraries constructed from whole individuals using Illumina next generation sequencing, the Rnnotator pipeline in Galaxy was used to reassemble the G. nigrifrons transcriptome. Using differential expression analyses, we identified significant changes in transcript abundance in G. nigrifrons. In particular, transcripts implicated in the innate immune response and energy production were more highly expressed in insects fed on virus-infected maize. Leafhoppers fed on MFSV-infected maize also showed an induction of transcripts involved in hemocoel and cell-membrane linked immune responses within four hours of feeding. Patterns of transcript expression were validated for a subset of transcripts by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction using RNA samples collected from insects fed on healthy or virus-infected maize for between a 4 h and seven week period. Conclusions We expected, and found, changes in transcript expression in G. nigrifrons feeding of maize infected with a virus (MFSV) that also infects the leafhopper, including induction of immune responses in the hemocoel and at the cell membrane. The significant induction of the innate immune system in G. nigrifrons fed on a foregut-borne virus (MCDV) that does not infect leafhoppers was less expected. The changes in transcript accumulation that occur independent of the mode of pathogen transmission could be key for identifying insect factors that disrupt vector-mediated plant virus transmission.

2014-01-01

143

Identification of hepatitis B virus-specific CTL epitopes presented by HLA-A*2402, the most common HLA class I allele in East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: The aim of this study was to identify and characterize hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) epitopes presented by human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A*2402, most common HLA class I allele in East Asia.Methods: HLA-A*2402-restricted CTL epitopes were identified by reverse immunogenetics. Immunogenecity of these epitopes was investigated using peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) from HLA-A24+ patients with acute

Yuji Sobao; Kazuhiro Sugi; Hiroko Tomiyama; Satoru Saito; Shigetoshi Fujiyama; Manabu Morimoto; Satoru Hasuike; Hirohito Tsubouchi; Katsuaki Tanaka; Masafumi Takiguchi

2001-01-01

144

Comparative study of inactivation of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 by commonly used antiseptic agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study of the different reactions of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 to Lysol, Listerine, bleach, rubbing alcohol, Alcide disinfectant (Alcide Corp., Westport, Conn.), and various pHs, temperatures, and UV light exposures was performed. Both types of stock virus (titers of approximately 10(6) and 10(5.5) for types 1 and 2, respectively) were inactivated by 0.5% Lysol in

W. S. Croughan; A. M. Behbehani

1988-01-01

145

Pasteurella multocida Heddleston Serovar 3 and 4 Strains Share a Common Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis Locus but Display both Inter- and Intrastrain Lipopolysaccharide Heterogeneity  

PubMed Central

Pasteurella multocida is a Gram-negative multispecies pathogen and the causative agent of fowl cholera, a serious disease of poultry which can present in both acute and chronic forms. The major outer membrane component lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is both an important virulence factor and a major immunogen. Our previous studies determined the LPS structures expressed by different P. multocida strains and revealed that a number of strains belonging to different serovars contain the same LPS biosynthesis locus but express different LPS structures due to mutations within glycosyltransferase genes. In this study, we report the full LPS structure of the serovar 4 type strain, P1662, and reveal that it shares the same LPS outer core biosynthesis locus, L3, with the serovar 3 strains P1059 and Pm70. Using directed mutagenesis, the role of each glycosyltransferase gene in LPS outer core assembly was determined. LPS structural analysis of 23 Australian field isolates that contain the L3 locus revealed that at least six different LPS outer core structures can be produced as a result of mutations within the LPS glycosyltransferase genes. Moreover, some field isolates produce multiple but related LPS glycoforms simultaneously, and three LPS outer core structures are remarkably similar to the globo series of vertebrate glycosphingolipids. Our in-depth analysis showing the genetics and full range of P. multocida lipopolysaccharide structures will facilitate the improvement of typing systems and the prediction of the protective efficacy of vaccines.

Harper, Marina; St. Michael, Frank; John, Marietta; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Steen, Jennifer A.; van Dorsten, Lieke; Steen, Jason A.; Turni, Conny; Blackall, Patrick J.; Adler, Ben; Cox, Andrew D.

2013-01-01

146

Proteins and Glycoproteins of Paramyxoviruses: a Comparison of Simian Virus 5, Newcastle Disease Virus, and Sendai Virus  

PubMed Central

The polypeptides of three paramyxoviruses (simian virus 5, Newcastle disease virus, and Sendai virus) were separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Glycoproteins were identified by the use of radioactive glucosamine as a carbohydrate precursor. The protein patterns reveal similarities among the three viruses. Each virus contains at least five or six proteins, two of which are glycoproteins. Four of the proteins found in each virus share common features with corresponding proteins in the other two viruses, including similar molecular weights. These four proteins are the nucleocapsid protein (molecular weight 56,000 to 61,000), a larger glycoprotein (molecular weight 65,000 to 74,000), a smaller glycoprotein (molecular weight 53,000 to 56,000), and a major protein which is the smallest protein in each virion (molecular weight 38,000 to 41,000).

Mountcastle, Walter E.; Compans, Richard W.; Choppin, Purnell W.

1971-01-01

147

HIV-1 Nef Disrupts Intracellular Trafficking of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I, CD4, CD8, and CD28 by Distinct Pathways That Share Common Elements?  

PubMed Central

The Nef protein is an important HIV virulence factor that promotes the degradation of host proteins to augment virus production and facilitate immune evasion. The best-characterized targets of Nef are major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) and CD4, but Nef also has been reported to target several other proteins, including CD8?, CD28, CD80, CD86, and CD1d. To compare and contrast the effects of Nef on each protein, we constructed a panel of chimeric proteins in which the extracellular and transmembrane regions of the MHC-I allele HLA-A2 were fused to the cytoplasmic tails of CD4, CD28, CD8?, CD80, CD86, and CD1d. We found that Nef coprecipitated with and disrupted the expression of molecules with cytoplasmic tails from MHC-I HLA-A2, CD4, CD8?, and CD28, but Nef did not bind to or alter the expression of molecules with cytoplasmic tails from CD80, CD86, and CD1d. In addition, we used short interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown and coprecipitation experiments to implicate AP-1 as a cellular cofactor for Nef in the downmodulation of both CD28 and CD8?. The interaction with AP-1 required for CD28 and CD8? differed from the AP-1 interaction required for MHC-I downmodulation in that it was mediated through the dileucine motif within Nef (LL164,165AA) and did not require the tyrosine binding pocket of the AP-1 ? subunit. In addition, we demonstrate a requirement for ?-COP as a cellular cofactor for Nef that was necessary for the degradation of targeted molecules HLA-A2, CD4, and CD8. These studies provide important new information on the similarities and differences with which Nef affects intracellular trafficking and help focus future research on the best potential pharmaceutical targets.

Leonard, Jolie A.; Filzen, Tracy; Carter, Christoph C.; Schaefer, Malinda; Collins, Kathleen L.

2011-01-01

148

Avian Endogenous Retrovirus EAV-HP Shares Regions of Identity with Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup J and the Avian Retrotransposon ART-CH  

PubMed Central

The existence of novel endogenous retrovirus elements in the chicken genome, designated EAV-HP, with close sequence identity to the env gene of avian leukosis virus (ALV) subgroup J has been reported (L. M. Smith, A. A. Toye, K. Howes, N. Bumstead, L. N. Payne, and K. Venugopal, J. Gen. Virol. 80:261–268, 1999). To resolve the genome structure of these retroviral elements, we have determined the complete sequence of two proviral clones of EAV-HP from a line N chicken genomic DNA yeast artificial chromosome library and from a meat-type chicken line 21 lambda library. The EAV-HP sequences from the two lines were 98% identical and had a typical provirus structure. The two EAV-HP clones showed identical large deletions spanning part of the gag, the entire pol, and part of the env genes. The env region of the EAV-HP clones was 97% identical to the env sequence of HPRS-103, the prototype subgroup J ALV. The 5? region of EAV-HP comprising the R and U5 regions of the long terminal repeat (LTR), the untranslated leader, and the 5? end of the putative gag region were 97% identical to the avian retrotransposon sequence, ART-CH. The remaining gag sequence shared less than 60% identity with other ALV sequences. The U3 region of the LTR was distinct from those of other retroviruses but contained some of the conserved motifs required for functioning as a promoter. To examine the ability of this endogenous retroviral LTR to function as a transcriptional promoter, the EAV-HP and HPRS-103 LTR U3 regions were compared in a luciferase reporter gene assay. The low luciferase activity detected with the EAV-HP LTR U3 constructs, at levels close to those observed for a control vector lacking the promoter or enhancer elements, suggested that these elements function as a weak promoter, possibly accounting for their low expression levels in chicken embryos.

Sacco, M. A.; Flannery, D. M. J.; Howes, K.; Venugopal, K.

2000-01-01

149

Multi-event capture-recapture modeling of host-pathogen dynamics among European rabbit populations exposed to myxoma and Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Viruses: common and heterogeneous patterns  

PubMed Central

Host–pathogen epidemiological processes are often unclear due both to their complexity and over-simplistic approaches used to quantify them. We applied a multi-event capture–recapture procedure on two years of data from three rabbit populations to test hypotheses about the effects on survival of, and the dynamics of host immunity to, both myxoma virus and Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (MV and RHDV). Although the populations shared the same climatic and management conditions, MV and RHDV dynamics varied greatly among them; MV and RHDV seroprevalences were positively related to density in one population, but RHDV seroprevalence was negatively related to density in another. In addition, (i) juvenile survival was most often negatively related to seropositivity, (ii) RHDV seropositives never had considerably higher survival, and (iii) seroconversion to seropositivity was more likely than the reverse. We suggest seropositivity affects survival depending on trade-offs among antibody protection, immunosuppression and virus lethality. Negative effects of seropositivity might be greater on juveniles due to their immature immune system. Also, while RHDV directly affects survival through the hemorrhagic syndrome, MV lack of direct lethal effects means that interactions influencing survival are likely to be more complex. Multi-event modeling allowed us to quantify patterns of host–pathogen dynamics otherwise difficult to discern. Such an approach offers a promising tool to shed light on causative mechanisms.

2014-01-01

150

Immunity related genes in dipterans share common enrichment of AT-rich motifs in their 5' regulatory regions that are potentially involved in nucleosome formation  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding the transcriptional regulation mechanisms in response to environmental challenges is of fundamental importance in biology. Transcription factors associated to response elements and the chromatin structure had proven to play important roles in gene expression regulation. We have analyzed promoter regions of dipteran genes induced in response to immune challenge, in search for particular sequence patterns involved in their transcriptional regulation. Results 5' upstream regions of D. melanogaster and A. gambiae immunity-induced genes and their corresponding orthologous genes in 11 non-melanogaster drosophilid species and Ae. aegypti share enrichment in AT-rich short motifs. AT-rich motifs are associated with nucleosome formation as predicted by two different algorithms. In A. gambiae and D. melanogaster, many immunity genes 5' upstream sequences also showed NF?B response elements, located within 500 bp from the transcription start site. In A. gambiae, the frequency of ATAA motif near the NF?B response elements was increased, suggesting a functional link between nucleosome formation/remodelling and NF?B regulation of transcription. Conclusion AT-rich motif enrichment in 5' upstream sequences in A. gambiae, Ae. aegypti and the Drosophila genus immunity genes suggests a particular pattern of nucleosome formation/chromatin organization. The co-occurrence of such motifs with the NF?B response elements suggests that these sequence signatures may be functionally involved in transcriptional activation during dipteran immune response. AT-rich motif enrichment in regulatory regions in this group of co-regulated genes could represent an evolutionary constrained signature in dipterans and perhaps other distantly species.

Hernandez-Romano, Jesus; Carlos-Rivera, Francisco J; Salgado, Heladia; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Hector; Valverde-Garduno, Veronica; Rodriguez, Mario H; Martinez-Barnetche, Jesus

2008-01-01

151

Experimental infections reveal that common Thai crustaceans are potential carriers for spread of exotic Taura syndrome virus.  

PubMed

Taura syndrome virus (TSV) was first reported as a serious cause of shrimp mortality limited to reared Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei in the Americas, where it spread principally through regional and international transfer of live post larvae (PL) and broodstock. Subsequently, through importation of infected broodstock, TSV outbreaks spread to Asia, first to Taiwan and China and then to Thailand, Indonesia and Korea. Since its introduction to Thailand, outbreaks have occasionally been reported from rearing ponds stocked with batches of specific pathogen free (SPF) P. vannamei PL that tested negative for TSV by nested RT-PCR assay. Since it was possible that the outbreaks may have occurred via horizontal transfer of TSV from wild carrier species, we tested 5 common native crustaceans that live in and around shrimp ponds (2 palaemonid shrimp species, Palaemon styliferus and Macrobrachium lanchesteri, and 3 species of crabs, Sesarma mederi, Scylla serrata and Uca vocans) for susceptibility to TSV in experimental challenges. We found that U. vocans, S. serrata and S. mederi did not die but, respectively, gave strong RT-PCR reactions indicating heavy viral load at 5, 10 and 15 d post-injection of TSV and 10, 15 and up to 50 d after feeding with TSV-infected P. vannamei carcasses. Also after feeding, P. styliferus did not die, but a high proportion gave strong RT-PCR reactions at 5 d post-challenge and no reactions at 15 d. Similarly after feeding, M. lanchesteri showed no mortality and gave only light RT-PCR reactions at 2 d, moderate reactions at 5 d and no reaction at 15 d. By contrast, transmission experiments from the TSV-infected crabs and palaemonid shrimp via water or feeding resulted in death of all the exposed P. vannamei from 8 to 12 d post-challenge and all were positive for heavy viral load by RT-PCR assay. Despite the results of these laboratory challenge tests, natural TSV infections were not detected by nested RT-PCR in samples of these species taken from the wild. These results indicated that transmission of TSV from infected crabs and palaemonid shrimp via water or feeding might pose a potential risk to shrimp aquaculture. PMID:18589994

Kiatpathomchai, Wansika; Jaroenram, Wansadaj; Arunrut, Narong; Gangnonngiw, Warachin; Boonyawiwat, Visanu; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

2008-05-01

152

Shared Destinies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes examples of high schools sharing their physical fitness and recreation facilities with other community groups, discussing the benefits and inevitable scheduling and programming challenges. (EV)

Bynum, Marvin

2003-01-01

153

Ligand-binding domains in vitellogenin receptors and other LDL-receptor family members share a common ancestral ordering of cysteine-rich repeats.  

PubMed

Insect vitellogenin and yolk protein receptors (VgR/YPR) are newly discovered members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family, which is characterized by a highly conserved arrangement of repetitive modular elements homologous to functionally unrelated proteins. The insect VgR/YPRs are unique in having two clusters of complement-type cysteine-rich (class A) repeats or modules, with five modules in the first cluster and seven in the second cluster, unlike classical LDLRs which have a single seven-module cluster, vertebrate VgRs and very low density lipoprotein receptors (VLDLR) which have a single eight-module cluster, and LDLR-related proteins (LRPs) and megalins which have four clusters of 2-7, 8, 10, and 11 modules. Alignment of clusters across subfamilies by conventional alignment programs is problematic because of the repetitive nature of the component modules which may have undergone rearrangements, duplications, and deletions during evolution. To circumvent this problem, we "fingerprinted" each class A module in the different clusters by identifying those amino acids that are both relatively conserved and relatively unique within the cluster. Intercluster reciprocal comparisons of fingerprints and aligned sequences allowed us to distinguish four cohorts of modules reflecting shared recent ancestry. All but two of the 57 modules examined could be assigned to one of these four cohorts designated A, B, C, and D. Alignment of clusters based on modular cohorts revealed that all clusters are derived from a single primordial cluster of at least seven modules with a consensus arrangement of CDCADBC. All extant clusters examined are consistent with this consensus, though none matches it perfectly. This analysis also revealed that the eight-module clusters in vertebrate VgRs, insect VgR/YPRs, and LRP/megalins are not directly homologous with one another. Assignment of modules to cohorts permitted us to properly align 32 class A clusters from all four LDLR subfamilies for phylogenetic analysis. The results revealed that smaller one-cluster and two-cluster members of the family did not originate from the breakup of a large two-cluster or four-cluster receptor. Similarly, the LRP/megalins did not arise from the duplication of a two-cluster insect VgR/YPR-like progenitor. Rather, it appears that the multicluster receptors were independently constructed from the same single-cluster ancestor. PMID:9541543

Sappington, T W; Raikhel, A S

1998-04-01

154

Involvement of M cells in the bacterial invasion of Peyer's patches: a common mechanism shared by Yersinia enterocolitica and other enteroinvasive bacteria.  

PubMed Central

Recent evidence indicates that ileal Peyer's patches represent the main infection route for Yersinia enterocolitica. In this study transmission and scanning electron microscopy have shown that only a small fraction of bacteria present in the lumen adhere to the follicle-associated murine epithelium with no discernible preference for either M or absorptive cells. Yersiniae attached to M cells are phagocytosed and transported from the lumen into the lamina propria. No invasion of columnar absorptive cells was observed. These data, in combination with recently published reports, indicate that the involvement of M cells is a common step in bacterial invasion of Peyer's patches. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7

Grutzkau, A; Hanski, C; Hahn, H; Riecken, E O

1990-01-01

155

Genes on chromosomes 4, 9, and 19 involved in 11q23 abnormalities in acute leukemia share sequence homology and/or common motifs.  

PubMed Central

Chromosome translocations involving band 11q23 are associated with human acute leukemias. These translocations fuse the ALL-1 gene, homolog of Drosophila trithorax and located at chromosome band 11q23, to genes from a variety of chromosomes. We cloned and sequenced cDNAs derived from transcripts of the AF-4 and AF-9 genes involved in the most common chromosome abnormalities, t(4:11)(q21:q23) and t(9:11)(p22:q23), respectively. Sequence analysis indicates high homology between the AF-9 gene protein product and the protein encoded by the ENL gene fused to ALL-1 in (11:19) chromosome translocations. AF-4, AF-9, and ENL proteins contain nuclear targeting sequences as well as serine-rich and proline-rich regions. Stretches abundant in basic amino acids are also present in the three proteins. These results suggest that the different proteins fused to ALL-1 polypeptide(s) provide similar functional domains. Images Fig. 2

Nakamura, T; Alder, H; Gu, Y; Prasad, R; Canaani, O; Kamada, N; Gale, R P; Lange, B; Crist, W M; Nowell, P C

1993-01-01

156

Structural Analysis of DFG-in and DFG-out Dual Src-Abl Inhibitors Sharing a Common Vinyl Purine Template  

SciTech Connect

Bcr-Abl is the oncogenic protein tyrosine kinase responsible for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Treatment of the disease with imatinib (Gleevec) often results in drug resistance via kinase mutations at the advanced phases of the disease, which has necessitated the development of new mutation-resistant inhibitors, notably against the T315I gatekeeper mutation. As part of our efforts to discover such mutation resistant Abl inhibitors, we have focused on optimizing purine template kinase inhibitors, leading to the discovery of potent DFG-in and DFG-out series of Abl inhibitors that are also potent Src inhibitors. Here we present crystal structures of Abl bound by two such inhibitors, based on a common N9-arenyl purine, and that represent both DFG-in and -out binding modes. In each structure the purine template is bound deeply in the adenine pocket and the novel vinyl linker forms a non-classical hydrogen bond to the gatekeeper residue, Thr315. Specific template substitutions promote either a DFG-in or -out binding mode, with the kinase binding site adjusting to optimize molecular recognition. Bcr-Abl T315I mutant kinase is resistant to all currently marketed Abl inhibitors, and is the focus of intense drug discovery efforts. Notably, our DFG-out inhibitor, AP24163, exhibits modest activity against this mutant, illustrating that this kinase mutant can be inhibited by DFG-out class inhibitors. Furthermore our DFG-out inhibitor exhibits dual Src-Abl activity, absent from the prototypical DFG-out inhibitor, imatinib as well as its analog, nilotinib. The data presented here provides structural guidance for the further design of novel potent DFG-out class inhibitors against Src, Abl and Abl T315I mutant kinases.

Zhou, Tianjun; Commodore, Lois; Huang, Wei-Sheng; Wang, Yihan; Sawyer, Tomi K.; Shakespeare, William C.; Clackson, Tim; Zhu, Xiaotian; Dalgarno, David C. (ARIAD)

2010-09-30

157

Making the Common Good Common  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How are independent schools to be useful to the wider world? Beyond their common commitment to educate their students for meaningful lives in service of the greater good, can they educate a broader constituency and, thus, share their resources and skills more broadly? Their answers to this question will be shaped by their independence. Any…

Chase, Barbara

2011-01-01

158

Direct demonstration of persistent Epstein-Barr virus gene expression in peripheral blood of infected common marmosets and analysis of virus-infected tissues in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in animal model systems has been studied previously in marmosets and tamarins using serology and PCR of saliva. Here we directly demonstrated long-term persistence of EBV in the peripheral blood of marmosets by assaying EBER RNA expression. A new reverse transcription-PCR assay, able to distinguish a natu- rally occurring strain polymorphism in EBER 2 that may

Paul J. Farrell; Martine Hollyoake; Gerald Niedobitek; Angelo Agathanggelou; Andrew Morgan; Nina Wedderburn

159

Sequences of the coat protein gene of five peanut stripe virus (PStV) strains from Thailand and their evolutionary relationship with other bean common mosaic virus sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?The coat protein gene and part of the 3? non-coding region of five strains of peanut stripe virus (PStV) from Thailand have\\u000a been cloned and sequenced. Phylogenetic comparisons of these strains, known as T1, T3, T5, T6 and T7, and related sequences\\u000a showed that these strains are indeed strains of PStV. Further, PStV strains appear to be related to each

C. M. Higgins; B. G. Cassidy; P.-Y. Teycheney; S. Wongkaew; R. G. Dietzgen

1998-01-01

160

Procurement Share versus Industry Share.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study tested the hypothesis that the disparity between the small firm Federal procurement share and the small firm share of total sales was the result of a mix of goods and services purchased by the Federal Government which is skewed toward large busi...

J. G. Faucett J. Skolnik H. J. Chmelynski

1986-01-01

161

Members of the low density lipoprotein receptor family mediate cell entry of a minor-group common cold virus.  

PubMed Central

A protein binding to a minor-group human rhinovirus (HRV2) was purified from HeLa cell culture supernatant. The amino acid sequences of tryptic peptides showed identity with the human low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR). LDL and HRV2 mutually competed for binding sites on human fibroblasts. Cells down-regulated for LDLR expression yielded much less HRV2 upon infection than cells with up-regulated LDLR. Virus also bound to the large subunit of the alpha 2-macroglobulin receptor/LDLR-related protein (alpha 2MR/LRP). LDLR-deficient fibroblasts yielded considerably less virus in the presence of receptor-associated protein (RAP), providing evidence that alpha 2MR/LRP also acts as a minor group HRV receptor. Images

Hofer, F; Gruenberger, M; Kowalski, H; Machat, H; Huettinger, M; Kuechler, E; Blass, D

1994-01-01

162

A common structural core in the internal ribosome entry sites of picornavirus, hepatitis C virus, and pestivirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cap-independent translations of viral RNAs of enteroviruses and rhinoviruses, cardioviruses and aphthoviruses, hepatitis A and C viruses (HAV and HCV), and pestivirus are initiated by the direct binding of 40S ribosomal subunits to acis-acting genetic element termed theinternal ribosome entry site (IRES) orribosome landing pad (RLP) in the 5' noncoding region (5'NCR). RNA higher ordered structure models for these IRES

Shu-Yun Le; Aleem Siddiqui; Jacob V. Maizel

1996-01-01

163

Comprehensive Mapping of Common Immunodominant Epitopes in the West Nile Virus Nonstructural Protein 1 Recognized by Avian Antibody Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that primarily infects birds but occasionally infects humans and horses. Certain species of birds, including crows, house sparrows, geese, blue jays and ravens, are considered highly susceptible hosts to WNV. The nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of WNV can elicit protective immune responses, including NS1-reactive antibodies, during infection of animals. The antigenicity of

Encheng Sun; Jing Zhao; Nihong Liu; Tao Yang; Qingyuan Xu; Yongli Qin; Zhigao Bu; Yinhui Yang; Ross A. Lunt; Linfa Wang; Donglai Wu

2012-01-01

164

Common Genotypes of Hepatitis B virus prevalent in Injecting drug abusers (addicts) of North West Frontier Province of Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background The epidemiological significance of Hepatitis B virus genotypes has been well established and becoming an essential concern day by day however, much little is known about the mixed infection with more than one Hepatitis B virus genotypes and their clinical relevance. Methods Intravenous drug abusers are considered as a major risk group for the acquisition and transmission of blood borne infections like hepatitis B, however, in Pakistan, no such data has ever been reported about the epidemiology of HBV and its genotypes in Injecting Drug Users. 250 individuals were analyzed for hepatitis B virus genotypes after prior screening with serological assay for the detection of HBsAg. Results 56 (22.4%) individuals were found positive on ELSIA for HBsAg. The genotype distribution was found to be as: genotype D, 62.5%; genotype A, 8.92% while 28.57% individuals were found to be infected with a mixture of genotype A and D. Conclusion There is an urgent need of the time to develop public health care policies with special emphasis towards the control of HBV transmission through high risk groups especially Injecting Drug Users.

Alam, Muhammad Masroor; Zaidi, Sohail Zahoor; Shaukat, Shehzad; Sharif, Salmaan; Angez, Mehar; Naeem, Asif; Saleha, Shamim; Butt, Javed Aslam; Malik, Salman Akbar

2007-01-01

165

Comparative study of inactivation of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 by commonly used antiseptic agents  

SciTech Connect

A comparative study of the different reactions of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 to Lysol, Listerine, bleach, rubbing alcohol, Alcide disinfectant (Alcide Corp., Westport, Conn.), and various pHs, temperatures, and UV light exposures was performed. Both types of stock virus (titers of approximately 10(6) and 10(5.5) for types 1 and 2, respectively) were inactivated by 0.5% Lysol in 5 min; by Listerine (1:1 mixtures) in 5 min; by 2000 ppm (2000 microliters/liter) of bleach in 10 min; by rubbing alcohol (1:1 mixtures) at zero time; by Alcide disinfectant (0.2 ml of virus plus 2.0 ml of Alcide) at zero time; by pHs 3, 5, and 11 in 10 min; and by a temperature of 56 degrees C in 30 min. A germicidal lamp at a distance of 48 cm failed to completely inactivate the two types in 15 min. Type 1 showed slightly more resistance to Listerine and bleach and significantly more resistance to heat; moreover, pH 9 did not affect the infectivity of either type after 10 min.

Croughan, W.S.; Behbehani, A.M.

1988-02-01

166

Identification of B-cell epitopes in the capsid protein of avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) that are common to human and swine HEVs or unique to avian HEV.  

PubMed

Avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) was recently discovered in chickens from the USA that had hepatitis-splenomegaly (HS) syndrome. The complete genomic sequence of avian HEV shares about 50 % nucleotide sequence identity with those of human and swine HEVs. The open reading frame 2 (ORF2) protein of avian HEV has been shown to cross-react with human and swine HEV ORF2 proteins, but the B-cell epitopes in the avian HEV ORF2 protein have not been identified. Nine synthetic peptides from the predicted four antigenic domains of the avian HEV ORF2 protein were synthesized and corresponding rabbit anti-peptide antisera were generated. Using recombinant ORF2 proteins, convalescent pig and chicken antisera, peptides and anti-peptide rabbit sera, at least one epitope at the C terminus of domain II (possibly between aa 477-492) that is unique to avian HEV, one epitope in domain I (aa 389-410) that is common to avian, human and swine HEVs, and one or more epitopes in domain IV (aa 583-600) that are shared between avian and human HEVs were identified. Despite the sequence difference in ORF2 proteins between avian and mammalian HEVs and similar ORF2 sequence between human and swine HEV ORF2 proteins, rabbit antiserum against peptide 6 (aa 389-399) recognized only human HEV ORF2 protein, suggesting complexity of the ORF2 antigenicity. The identification of these B-cell epitopes in avian HEV ORF2 protein may be useful for vaccine design and may lead to future development of immunoassays for differential diagnosis of avian, swine and human HEV infections. PMID:16361434

Guo, H; Zhou, E-M; Sun, Z F; Meng, X-J; Halbur, P G

2006-01-01

167

Factors of skin ageing share common mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ageing has been defined as the accumulation of molecular modificationswhich manifest as macroscopic clinical changes. Human skin, unique amongmammalians insofar as it is deprived of fur, is particularly sensitiveto environmental stress. Major environmental factors have beenrecognized to induce modifications of the morphological and biophysicalproperties of the skin. Metabolites from ingested or inhaled substancesdo affect skin, which is also sensitive to

Paolo U. Giacomoni; Glen Rein

2001-01-01

168

'Berries' and Rock Share Common Origins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This false-color composite image, taken at a region of the rock outcrop dubbed 'Shoemaker's Patio' near the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's landing site, shows finely layered sediments, which have been accentuated by erosion. The sphere-like grains or 'blueberries' distributed throughout the outcrop can be seen lining up with individual layers. This observation indicates that the spherules are geologic features called concretions, which form in pre-existing wet sediments. Other sphere-like grains, such as impact spherules or volcanic lapilli (fragments of material etween 2 and 64 millimeters or .08 and 2.5 inches in maximum dimension that are ejected from a volcano) are thought to be deposited with sediments and thus would form layers distinct from those of the rocks. This image was captured by the rover's panoramic camera on the 50th martian day, or sol, of the mission. Data from the camera's infrared, green and violet filters were used to create this false-color picture.

2004-01-01

169

Sharing a Common Future. Report from Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains seven previously published papers examining trends in adult education in Japan. "Deepening Democracy" (1992) examines democracy and adult education for special needs groups (women, dropouts, disabled persons, ethnic minorities, and refugees). "Literacy Movement" (1990) traces literacy education in Japan from its beginnings…

Yamaguchi, Makoto

170

Viral Uncoating Is Directional: Exit of the Genomic RNA in a Common Cold Virus Starts with the Poly-(A) Tail at the 3?-End  

PubMed Central

Upon infection, many RNA viruses reorganize their capsid for release of the genome into the host cell cytosol for replication. Often, this process is triggered by receptor binding and/or by the acidic environment in endosomes. In the genus Enterovirus, which includes more than 150 human rhinovirus (HRV) serotypes causing the common cold, there is persuasive evidence that the viral RNA exits single-stranded through channels formed in the protein shell. We have determined the time-dependent emergence of the RNA ends from HRV2 on incubation of virions at 56°C using hybridization with specific oligonucleotides and detection by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. We report that psoralen UV crosslinking prevents complete RNA release, allowing for identification of the sequences remaining inside the capsid. We also present the structure of uncoating intermediates in which parts of the RNA are condensed and take the form of a rod that is directed roughly towards a two-fold icosahedral axis, the presumed RNA exit point. Taken together, in contrast to schemes frequently depicted in textbooks and reviews, our findings demonstrate that exit of the RNA starts from the 3?-end. This suggests that packaging also occurs in an ordered manner resulting in the 3?-poly-(A) tail becoming located close to a position of pore formation during conversion of the virion into a subviral particle. This directional genome release may be common to many icosahedral non-enveloped single-stranded RNA viruses.

Sedivy, Arthur; Subirats, Xavier; Kowalski, Heinrich; Kohler, Gottfried; Blaas, Dieter

2013-01-01

171

Common mechanisms of DNA translocation motors in bacteria and viruses using one-way revolution mechanism without rotation.  

PubMed

Biomotors were once described into two categories: linear motor and rotation motor. Recently, a third type of biomotor with revolution mechanism without rotation has been discovered. By analogy, rotation resembles the Earth rotating on its axis in a complete cycle every 24h, while revolution resembles the Earth revolving around the Sun one circle per 365 days (see animations http://nanobio.uky.edu/movie.html). The action of revolution that enables a motor free of coiling and torque has solved many puzzles and debates that have occurred throughout the history of viral DNA packaging motor studies. It also settles the discrepancies concerning the structure, stoichiometry, and functioning of DNA translocation motors. This review uses bacteriophages Phi29, HK97, SPP1, P22, T4, and T7 as well as bacterial DNA translocase FtsK and SpoIIIE or the large eukaryotic dsDNA viruses such as mimivirus and vaccinia virus as examples to elucidate the puzzles. These motors use ATPase, some of which have been confirmed to be a hexamer, to revolve around the dsDNA sequentially. ATP binding induces conformational change and possibly an entropy alteration in ATPase to a high affinity toward dsDNA; but ATP hydrolysis triggers another entropic and conformational change in ATPase to a low affinity for DNA, by which dsDNA is pushed toward an adjacent ATPase subunit. The rotation and revolution mechanisms can be distinguished by the size of channel: the channels of rotation motors are equal to or smaller than 2 nm, that is the size of dsDNA, whereas channels of revolution motors are larger than 3 nm. Rotation motors use parallel threads to operate with a right-handed channel, while revolution motors use a left-handed channel to drive the right-handed DNA in an anti-chiral arrangement. Coordination of several vector factors in the same direction makes viral DNA-packaging motors unusually powerful and effective. Revolution mechanism that avoids DNA coiling in translocating the lengthy genomic dsDNA helix could be advantageous for cell replication such as bacterial binary fission and cell mitosis without the need for topoisomerase or helicase to consume additional energy. PMID:24913057

Guo, Peixuan; Zhao, Zhengyi; Haak, Jeannie; Wang, Shaoying; Wu, Dong; Meng, Bing; Weitao, Tao

2014-01-01

172

High Affinity Peptide Inhibitors of the Hepatitis C Virus NS3-4A Protease Refractory to Common Resistant Mutants  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3-4A protease is essential for viral replication. All current small molecular weight drugs against NS3-4A are substrate peptidomimetics that have a similar binding and resistance profile. We developed inhibitory peptides (IPs) capping the active site and binding via a novel “tyrosine” finger at an alternative NS3-4A site that is of particular interest for further HCV drug development. The peptides are not cleaved due to a combination of geometrical constraints and impairment of the oxyanion hole function. Selection and optimization through combinatorial phagemid display, protein crystallography, and further modifications resulted in a 32-amino acid peptide with a Ki of 0.53 nm. Inhibition of viral replication in cell culture was demonstrated by fusion to a cell-penetrating peptide. Negligible susceptibility to known (A156V and R155K) resistance mutations of the NS3-4A protease was observed. This work shows for the first time that antiviral peptides can target an intracellular site and reveals a novel druggable site on the HCV protease.

Kugler, Jonas; Schmelz, Stefan; Gentzsch, Juliane; Haid, Sibylle; Pollmann, Erik; van den Heuvel, Joop; Franke, Raimo; Pietschmann, Thomas; Heinz, Dirk W.; Collins, John

2012-01-01

173

Different functions of the common P/V/W and V-specific domains of rinderpest virus V protein in blocking IFN signalling  

PubMed Central

The V proteins of paramyxoviruses are composed of two evolutionarily distinct domains, the N-terminal 75?% being common to the viral P, V and W proteins, and not highly conserved between viruses, whilst the remaining 25?% consists of a cysteine-rich V-specific domain, which is conserved across almost all paramyxoviruses. There is evidence supporting a number of different functions of the V proteins of morbilliviruses in blocking the signalling pathways of type I and II IFNs, but it is not clear which domains of V are responsible for which activities and whether all these activities are required for effective blockade of IFN signalling. We have shown here that the two domains of rinderpest virus V protein have distinct functions: the N-terminal domain acted to bind STAT1, whilst the C-terminal V-specific domain interacted with the IFN receptor-associated kinases Jak1 and Tyk2. Effective blockade of IFN signalling required the intact V protein.

Chinnakannan, Senthil K.; Holzer, Barbara; Bernardo, Beatriz Sanz; Nanda, Sambit K.

2014-01-01

174

The genes encoding the peripheral cannabinoid receptor and alpha-L-fucosidase are located near a newly identified common virus integration site, Evi11.  

PubMed Central

A new common region of virus integration, Evi11, has been identified in two retrovirally induced murine myeloid leukemia cell lines, NFS107 and NFS78. By interspecific backcross analysis, it was shown that Evi11 is located at the distal end of mouse chromosome 4, in a region that shows homology with human 1p36. The genes encoding the peripheral cannabinoid receptor (Cnr2) and alpha-L-fucosidase (Fuca1) were identified near the integration site by using a novel exon trapping system. Cnr2 is suggested to be the target gene for viral interference in Evi11, since proviruses are integrated in the first intron of Cnr2 and retroviral integrations alter mRNA expression of Cnr2 in NFS107 and NFS78. In addition, proviral integrations were demonstrated within the 3' untranslated region of Cnr2 in five independent newly derived CasBrM-MuLV (mouse murine leukemia virus) tumors, CSL13, CSL14, CSL16, CSL27, and CSL97. The Cnr2 gene encodes a seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptor which is normally expressed in hematopoietic tissues. Our data suggest that the peripheral cannabinoid receptor gene might be involved in leukemogenesis as a result of aberrant expression of Cnr2 due to retroviral integration in Evi11.

Valk, P J; Hol, S; Vankan, Y; Ihle, J N; Askew, D; Jenkins, N A; Gilbert, D J; Copeland, N G; de Both, N J; Lowenberg, B; Delwel, R

1997-01-01

175

An evaluation of ultraviolet light (UV254) as a means to inactivate porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on common farm surfaces and materials.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to assess the effect of UV(254) on the concentration and viability of PRRSV on surfaces and materials commonly encountered on swine farms. A standard quantity (5 × 10(6)TCID(50), total dose) of a PRRSV modified live vaccine virus was inoculated onto 2 matched sets of surfaces/materials including wood, plastic, latex, rubber, styrofoam, metal, leather, cloth, concrete, cardboard, glass and paper. One set was exposed to UV(254) radiation (treatments) and the other to incandescent light (controls) for a 24h period. During this time, treatments and controls were swabbed at 10 min intervals from 0 to 60 min post-inoculation (PI) and again at 24h PI. The quantity of PRRSV RNA on each item at each sampling time was calculated by RT-PCR and the presence of viable PRRSV in each sample was determined by swine bioassay. A significant reduction (p<0.0001) in the quantity of PRRSV RNA was demonstrated at 24h PI independent of treatment. In addition, a significant reduction (p=0.012) in the number of UV(254)-treated surfaces which harbored viable virus was observed at 60 min (0/12 positive) when compared to control surfaces (5/12 positive). In addition, all UV(254) treated samples collected between 10 and 50 min PI were bioassay negative. These results suggest that UV(254) is an effective means to inactivate PRRSV on commonly encountered farm surfaces and materials and inactivation can be accomplished following 10 min of exposure. PMID:21330067

Dee, Scott; Otake, Satoshi; Deen, John

2011-05-12

176

Radiation Leukemia Virus Common Integration at the Kis2 Locus: Simultaneous Overexpression of a Novel Noncoding RNA and of the Proximal Phf6 Gene  

PubMed Central

Retroviral tagging has been used extensively and successfully to identify genes implicated in cancer pathways. In order to find oncogenes implicated in T-cell leukemia, we used the highly leukemogenic radiation leukemia retrovirus VL3 (RadLV/VL3). We applied the inverted PCR technique to isolate and analyze sequences flanking proviral integrations in RadLV/VL3-induced T lymphomas. We found retroviral integrations in c-myc and Pim1 as already reported but we also identified for the first time Notch1 as a RadLV common integration site. More interestingly, we found a new RadLV common integration site that is situated on mouse chromosome X (XA4 region, bp 45091000). This site has also been reported as an SL3-3 and Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site, which strengthens its implication in murine leukemia virus-induced T lymphomas. This locus, named Kis2 (Kaplan Integration Site 2), was found rearranged in 11% of the tumors analyzed. In this article, we report not only the alteration of the Kis2 gene located nearby in response to RadLV integration but also the induction of the expression of Phf6, situated about 250 kbp from the integration site. The Kis2 gene encodes five different alternatively spliced noncoding RNAs and the Phf6 gene codes for a 365-amino-acid protein which contains two plant homology domain fingers, recently implicated in the Börjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome in humans. With the recent release of the mouse genome sequence, high-throughput retroviral tagging emerges as a powerful tool in the quest for oncogenes. It also allows the analysis of large DNA regions surrounding the integration locus.

Landais, Severine; Quantin, Renaud; Rassart, Eric

2005-01-01

177

The G protein coupled receptor Gpr153 shares common evolutionary origin with Gpr162 and is highly expressed in central regions including the thalamus, cerebellum and the arcuate nucleus.  

PubMed

The Rhodopsin family of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) includes the phylogenetic ?-group consisting of about 100 human members. The ?-group is the only group of GPCRs that has many receptors for biogenic amines which are major drug targets. Several members of this group are orphan receptors and their functions are elusive. In this study we present a detailed phylogenetic and anatomical characterization of the Gpr153 receptor and also attempt to study its functional role. We identified the homologue of Gpr153 in the elephant shark genome and phylogenetic and synteny analyses revealed that Gpr162 and Gpr153 share a common ancestor that split most likely through a duplication event before the divergence of the tetrapods and the teleost lineage. A quantitative real-time PCR study reveals widespread expression of Gpr153 in the central nervous system and all the peripheral tissues investigated. Detailed in?situ hybridization on mouse brain showed specifically high expression in the thalamus, cerebellum and the arcuate nucleus. The antisense oligodeoxynucleotide knockdown of Gpr153 caused a slight reduction in food intake and the elevated plus maze test showed significant reduction in the percentage of time spent in the centre square, which points towards a probable role in decision making. This report provides the first detailed characterization of the evolution, expression and primary functional properties of the Gpr153 gene. PMID:21981325

Sreedharan, Smitha; Almén, Markus S; Carlini, Valeria P; Haitina, Tatjana; Stephansson, Olga; Sommer, Wolfgang H; Heilig, Markus; de Barioglio, Susana R; Fredriksson, Robert; Schiöth, Helgi B

2011-12-01

178

Vaccinia Virus Proteins A52 and B14 Share a Bcl2–Like Fold but Have Evolved to Inhibit NF-?B rather than Apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaccinia virus (VACV), the prototype poxvirus, encodes numerous proteins that modulate the host response to infection. Two such proteins, B14 and A52, act inside infected cells to inhibit activation of NF-?B, thereby blocking the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We have solved the crystal structures of A52 and B14 at 1.9 Å and 2.7 Å resolution, respectively. Strikingly, both these proteins

Stephen C. Graham; Mohammad W. Bahar; Samantha Cooray; Ron A.-J. Chen; Daniel M. Whalen; Nicola G. A. Abrescia; David Alderton; Raymond J. Owens; David I. Stuart; Geoffrey L. Smith; Jonathan M. Grimes

2008-01-01

179

Common host-derived chemicals increase catches of disease-transmitting mosquitoes and can improve early warning systems for Rift Valley fever virus.  

PubMed

Rift Valley fever (RVF), a mosquito-borne zoonosis, is a major public health and veterinary problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Surveillance to monitor mosquito populations during the inter-epidemic period (IEP) and viral activity in these vectors is critical to informing public health decisions for early warning and control of the disease. Using a combination of field bioassays, electrophysiological and chemical analyses we demonstrated that skin-derived aldehydes (heptanal, octanal, nonanal, decanal) common to RVF virus (RVFV) hosts including sheep, cow, donkey, goat and human serve as potent attractants for RVFV mosquito vectors. Furthermore, a blend formulated from the four aldehydes and combined with CO(2)-baited CDC trap without a light bulb doubled to tripled trap captures compared to control traps baited with CO(2) alone. Our results reveal that (a) because of the commonality of the host chemical signature required for attraction, the host-vector interaction appears to favor the mosquito vector allowing it to find and opportunistically feed on a wide range of mammalian hosts of the disease, and (b) the sensitivity, specificity and superiority of this trapping system offers the potential for its wider use in surveillance programs for RVFV mosquito vectors especially during the IEP. PMID:23326620

Tchouassi, David P; Sang, Rosemary; Sole, Catherine L; Bastos, Armanda D S; Teal, Peter E A; Borgemeister, Christian; Torto, Baldwyn

2013-01-01

180

Common Host-Derived Chemicals Increase Catches of Disease-Transmitting Mosquitoes and Can Improve Early Warning Systems for Rift Valley Fever Virus  

PubMed Central

Rift Valley fever (RVF), a mosquito-borne zoonosis, is a major public health and veterinary problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Surveillance to monitor mosquito populations during the inter-epidemic period (IEP) and viral activity in these vectors is critical to informing public health decisions for early warning and control of the disease. Using a combination of field bioassays, electrophysiological and chemical analyses we demonstrated that skin-derived aldehydes (heptanal, octanal, nonanal, decanal) common to RVF virus (RVFV) hosts including sheep, cow, donkey, goat and human serve as potent attractants for RVFV mosquito vectors. Furthermore, a blend formulated from the four aldehydes and combined with CO2-baited CDC trap without a light bulb doubled to tripled trap captures compared to control traps baited with CO2 alone. Our results reveal that (a) because of the commonality of the host chemical signature required for attraction, the host-vector interaction appears to favor the mosquito vector allowing it to find and opportunistically feed on a wide range of mammalian hosts of the disease, and (b) the sensitivity, specificity and superiority of this trapping system offers the potential for its wider use in surveillance programs for RVFV mosquito vectors especially during the IEP.

Tchouassi, David P.; Sang, Rosemary; Sole, Catherine L.; Bastos, Armanda D. S.; Teal, Peter E. A.; Borgemeister, Christian; Torto, Baldwyn

2013-01-01

181

Evidence for both Lytic Replication and Tightly Regulated Human Herpesvirus 8 Latency in Circulating Mononuclear Cells, with Virus Loads Frequently below Common Thresholds of Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

To address whether human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) might be the product of latent or lytic infection and to shed light on sporadic detection of HHV-8 DNA in individuals seropositive for the virus, we studied the frequency of infected cells, total virus load, and virus load per infected cell in PBMCs from men coinfected

Elisa Martro; Michael J. Cannon; Sheila C. Dollard; Thomas J. Spira; A. Scott Laney; Chin-Yih Ou; Philip E. Pellett

2004-01-01

182

Snapshot of haloarchaeal tailed virus genomes  

PubMed Central

The complete genome sequences of archaeal tailed viruses are currently highly underrepresented in sequence databases. Here, we report the genomic sequences of 10 new tailed viruses infecting different haloarchaeal hosts. Among these, only two viral genomes are closely related to each other and to previously described haloviruses HF1 and HF2. The approximately 760 kb of new genomic sequences in total shows no matches to CRISPR/Cas spacer sequences in haloarchaeal host genomes. Despite their high divergence, we were able to identify virion structural and assembly genes as well as genes coding for DNA and RNA metabolic functions. Interestingly, we identified many genes and genomic features that are shared with tailed bacteriophages, consistent with the hypothesis that haloarchaeal and bacterial tailed viruses share common ancestry, and that a viral lineage containing archaeal viruses, bacteriophages and eukaryotic viruses predates the division of the three major domains of non-viral life. However, as in tailed viruses in general and in haloarchaeal tailed viruses in particular, there are still a considerable number of predicted genes of unknown function.

Sencilo, Ana; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Russell, Daniel A.; Ko, Ching-Chung; Bowman, Charles A.; Atanasova, Nina S.; Osterlund, Eija; Oksanen, Hanna M.; Bamford, Dennis H.; Hatfull, Graham F.; Roine, Elina; Hendrix, Roger W.

2013-01-01

183

Sharing values, sharing a vision  

SciTech Connect

Teamwork, partnership and shared values emerged as recurring themes at the Third Technology Transfer/Communications Conference. The program drew about 100 participants who sat through a packed two days to find ways for their laboratories and facilities to better help American business and the economy. Co-hosts were the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, where most meetings took place. The conference followed traditions established at the First Technology Transfer/Communications Conference, conceived of and hosted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory in May 1992 in Richmond, Washington, and the second conference, hosted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in January 1993 in Golden, Colorado. As at the other conferences, participants at the third session represented the fields of technology transfer, public affairs and communications. They came from Department of Energy headquarters and DOE offices, laboratories and production facilities. Continued in this report are keynote address; panel discussion; workshops; and presentations in technology transfer.

Not Available

1993-12-31

184

Canonical Commonality Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Commonality analysis is a method of partitioning variance that has advantages over more traditional "OVA" methods. Commonality analysis indicates the amount of explanatory power that is "unique" to a given predictor variable and the amount of explanatory power that is "common" to or shared with at least one predictor variable. This paper outlines…

Leister, K. Dawn

185

Ovine and murine T cell epitopes from the non-structural protein 1 (NS1) of bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) are shared among viral serotypes  

PubMed Central

Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a non-enveloped dsRNA virus that causes a haemorrhagic disease mainly in sheep. It is an economically important Orbivirus of the Reoviridae family. In order to estimate the importance of T cell responses during BTV infection, it is essential to identify the epitopes targeted by the immune system. In the present work, we selected potential T cell epitopes (3 MHC-class II-binding and 8 MHC-class I binding peptides) for the C57BL/6 mouse strain from the BTV-8 non-structural protein NS1, using H2b-binding predictive algorithms. Peptide binding assays confirmed all MHC-class I predicted peptides bound MHC-class I molecules. The immunogenicity of these 11 predicted peptides was then determined using splenocytes from BTV-8-inoculated C57BL/6 mice. Four MHC-class I binding peptides elicited specific IFN-? production and generated cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in BTV-8 infected mice. CTL specific for 2 of these peptides were also able to recognise target cells infected with different BTV serotypes. Similarly, using a combination of IFN-? ELISPOT, intracellular cytokine staining and proliferation assays, two MHC-class II peptides were identified as CD4+ T cell epitopes in BTV-8 infected mice. Importantly, two peptides were also consistently immunogenic in sheep infected with BTV-8 using IFN-? ELISPOT assays. Both of these peptides stimulated CD4+ T cells that cross-reacted with other BTV serotypes. The characterisation of these T cell epitopes can help develop vaccines protecting against a broad spectrum of BTV serotypes and differentiate infected from vaccinated animals.

2014-01-01

186

Ovine and murine T cell epitopes from the non-structural protein 1 (NS1) of bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) are shared among viral serotypes.  

PubMed

Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a non-enveloped dsRNA virus that causes a haemorrhagic disease mainly in sheep. It is an economically important Orbivirus of the Reoviridae family. In order to estimate the importance of T cell responses during BTV infection, it is essential to identify the epitopes targeted by the immune system. In the present work, we selected potential T cell epitopes (3 MHC-class II-binding and 8 MHC-class I binding peptides) for the C57BL/6 mouse strain from the BTV-8 non-structural protein NS1, using H2b-binding predictive algorithms. Peptide binding assays confirmed all MHC-class I predicted peptides bound MHC-class I molecules. The immunogenicity of these 11 predicted peptides was then determined using splenocytes from BTV-8-inoculated C57BL/6 mice. Four MHC-class I binding peptides elicited specific IFN-? production and generated cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in BTV-8 infected mice. CTL specific for 2 of these peptides were also able to recognise target cells infected with different BTV serotypes. Similarly, using a combination of IFN-? ELISPOT, intracellular cytokine staining and proliferation assays, two MHC-class II peptides were identified as CD4+ T cell epitopes in BTV-8 infected mice. Importantly, two peptides were also consistently immunogenic in sheep infected with BTV-8 using IFN-? ELISPOT assays. Both of these peptides stimulated CD4+ T cells that cross-reacted with other BTV serotypes. The characterisation of these T cell epitopes can help develop vaccines protecting against a broad spectrum of BTV serotypes and differentiate infected from vaccinated animals. PMID:24621015

Rojas, José M; Peña, Lourdes; Martín, Verónica; Sevilla, Noemí

2014-01-01

187

Notes from the field: a cluster of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infections transmitted through organ transplantation - Iowa, 2013.  

PubMed

On April 26, 2013, the United Network for Organ Sharing reported to CDC a cluster of ill organ transplant recipients in Iowa with a common organ donor. Infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) was suspected. LCMV is a rodent-borne virus that most commonly causes nonfatal, influenza-like illness and occasional aseptic meningitis, but when transmitted through organ transplantation or in utero can cause severe, life-threatening disease. PMID:24647402

Schafer, Ilana J; Miller, Rachel; Ströher, Ute; Knust, Barbara; Nichol, Stuart T; Rollin, Pierre E

2014-03-21

188

Molecular characterization of coat protein gene of Garlic common latent virus isolates from India: an evidence for distinct phylogeny and recombination.  

PubMed

The coat protein (CP) gene of five Indian Garlic common latent virus (GarCLV) isolates was sequenced and it was 960 bp long in all the five isolates, encoding a protein of 319 amino acids. Comparative nucleotide sequence analysis revealed diversity of 4.3% among the Indian isolates and of 11.9% among all isolates worldwide. Amino acid sequence comparison showed a significant variability in the N-terminal of CP of GarCLV. Various protein analysis tools identified thirteen conserved domains and motifs including Carlavirus and Potexvirus-specific Flexi CP and Flexi N CP. Phylogenetic analysis clustered GarCLV isolates in the subgroup II with isolates from Australia, Brazil, Japan, and South Korea. Intraspecies recombination study revealed that only one of the Indian isolates was a recombinant. Interspecies recombination study suggested the absence of genetic exchange from Carlavirus species to GarCLV; conversely, GarCLV was identified as a putative donor for at least two other Carlavirus species. This is the first report of molecular variability and recombination in GarCLV isolates. PMID:23553322

Pramesh, D; Baranwal, Virendra K

2013-08-01

189

Cost Sharing Policy  

NSF Publications Database

... to the revised NSB- approved cost sharing policy: 1. The new cost sharing policy, as approved by the ... specific cost sharing, and requires only the existing statutory cost sharing requirement (1%). The ...

190

A Sensitive, Specific, and Cost-Effective Multiplex Reverse Transcriptase-PCR Assay for the Detection of Seven Common Respiratory Viruses in Respiratory Samples  

PubMed Central

Cell culture and direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) assays have been traditionally used for the laboratory diagnosis of respiratory viral infections. Multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (m-RT-PCR) is a sensitive, specific, and rapid method for detecting several DNA and RNA viruses in a single specimen. We developed a m-RT-PCR assay that utilizes multiple virus-specific primer pairs in a single reaction mix combined with an enzyme-linked amplicon hybridization assay (ELAHA) using virus-specific probes targeting unique gene sequences for each virus. Using this m-RT-PCR-ELAHA, we examined the presence of seven respiratory viruses in 598 nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) samples from patients with suspected respiratory infection. The specificity of each assay was 100%. The sensitivity of the DFA was 79.7% and the combined DFA/culture amplified-DFA (CA-DFA) was 88.6% when compared to the m-RT-PCR-ELAHA. Of the 598 NPA specimens screened by m-RT-PCR-ELAHA, 3% were positive for adenovirus (ADV), 2% for influenza A (Flu A) virus, 0.3% for influenza B (Flu B) virus, 1% for parainfluenza type 1 virus (PIV1), 1% for parainfluenza type 2 virus (PIV2), 5.5% for parainfluenza type 3 virus (PIV3), and 21% for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). The enhanced sensitivity, specificity, rapid result turnaround time and reduced expense of the m-RT-PCR-ELAHA compared to DFA and CA-DFA, suggests that this assay would be a significant improvement over traditional assays for the detection of respiratory viruses in a clinical laboratory.

Syrmis, Melanie W.; Whiley, David M.; Thomas, Marion; Mackay, Ian M.; Williamson, Jeanette; Siebert, David J.; Nissen, Michael D.; Sloots, Theo P.

2004-01-01

191

"Megavirales", a proposed new order for eukaryotic nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses  

PubMed Central

The nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) comprise a monophyletic group of viruses that infect animals and diverse unicellular eukaryotes. The NCLDV group includes the families Poxviridae, Asfarviridae, Iridoviridae, Ascoviridae, Phycodnaviridae, Mimiviridae and the proposed family “Marseilleviridae”. The family Mimiviridae includes the largest known viruses, with genomes in excess of one megabase, whereas the genome size in the other NCLDV families varies from 100 to 400 kilobase pairs. Most of the NCLDVs replicate in the cytoplasm of infected cells, within so-called virus factories. The NCLDVs share a common ancient origin, as demonstrated by evolutionary reconstructions that trace approximately 50 genes encoding key proteins involved in viral replication and virion formation to the last common ancestor of all these viruses. Taken together, these characteristics lead us to propose assigning an official taxonomic rank to the NCLDVs as the order “Megavirales”, in reference to the large size of the virions and genomes of these viruses.

Colson, Philippe; De Lamballerie, Xavier; Yutin, Natalya; Asgari, Sassan; Bigot, Yves; Bideshi, Dennis K.; Cheng, Xiao-Wen; Federici, Brian A.; Van Etten, James L.; Koonin, Eugene V.; La Scola, Bernard; Raoult, Didier

2014-01-01

192

Can power be shared?  

PubMed

Dental insurance began with a partnership between dental service organizations and state dental associations with a view toward expanding the number of Americans receiving oral health care and as a means for permitting firms and other organizations to offer employee benefits. The goals have been achieved, but the alliance between dentistry and insurance has become strained. A lack of dialogue has fostered mutual misconceptions, some of which are reviewed in this paper. It is possible that the public, the profession, and the dental insurance industry can all be strengthened, but only through power-sharing around the original common objective. PMID:24761578

Ten Pas, William S

2013-01-01

193

Common Antiviral Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Epitope for Diverse Arenaviruses†  

PubMed Central

Members of the Arenaviridae family have been isolated from mammalian hosts in disparate geographic locations, leading to their grouping as Old World types (i.e., lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus [LCMV], Lassa fever virus [LFV], Mopeia virus, and Mobala virus) and New World types (i.e., Junin, Machupo, Tacaribe, and Sabia viruses) (C. J. Peters, M. J. Buchmeier, P. E. Rollin, and T. G. Ksiazek, p. 1521–1551, in B. N. Fields, D. M. Knipe, and P. M. Howley [ed.], Fields virology, 3rd ed., 1996; P. J. Southern, p. 1505–1519, in B. N. Fields, D. M. Knipe, and P. M. Howley [ed.], Fields virology, 3rd ed., 1996). Several types in both groups—LFV, Junin, Machupo, and Sabia viruses—cause severe and often lethal human diseases. By sequence comparison, we noted that eight Old World and New World arenaviruses share several amino acids with the nucleoprotein (NP) that consists of amino acids (aa) 118 to 126 (NP 118–126) (RPQASGVYM) of LCMV that comprise the immunodominant cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) epitope for H-2d mice (32). This Ld-restricted epitope constituted >97% of the total bulk CTLs produced in the specific antiviral or clonal responses of H-2d BALB mice. NP 118–126 of the Old World arenaviruses LFV, Mopeia virus, and LCMV and the New World arenavirus Sabia virus bound at high affinity to Ld. The primary H-2d CTL anti-LCMV response as well as that of a CTL clone responsive to LCMV NP 118–126 recognized target cells coated with NP 118–126 peptides derived from LCMV, LFV, and Mopeia virus but not Sabia virus, indicating that a common functional NP epitope exists among Old World arenaviruses. Use of site-specific amino acid exchanges in the NP CTL epitope among these arenaviruses identified amino acids involved in major histocompatibility complex binding and CTL recognition.

Oldstone, Michael B. A.; Lewicki, Hanna; Homann, Dirk; Nguyen, Christophe; Julien, Sylvianne; Gairin, Jean Edouard

2001-01-01

194

Oncolytic Viruses Derived from the ?34.5-Deleted Herpes Simplex Virus Recombinant R3616 Encode a Truncated UL3 Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Replication-competent herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) mutants are used in clinical trials in the experimental treatment of cancer. Mutants G207, HSV1716, NV1020, and Oncovex GM-CSF share in common a defect in one or both copies of the gene encoding the neurovirulence factor, ICP34.5, and are thus neuroattenuated. These viruses are acknowledged to differ from one another (a) in the specific types

Megan J. Dambach; Jordan Trecki; Natalia Martin; Nancy S. Markovitz

2006-01-01

195

Arctic and Arctic-like rabies viruses: distribution, phylogeny and evolutionary history  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Forty-one newly sequenced isolates of Arctic and Arctic-like rabies viruses, were genetically compared to each other and to those available from GenBank. Four phylogenetic lineages of Arctic viruses were identified. Arctic-1 viruses circulate in Ontario, Arctic-2 viruses circulate in Siberia and Alaska, Arctic-3 viruses circulate circumpolarly, and a newly described lineage Arctic-4 circulates locally in Alaska. The oldest available isolates from Siberia (between 1950 and 1960) belong to the Arctic-2 and Arctic-3 lineages and share 98·6–99·2% N gene identity with contemporary viruses. Two lineages of Arctic-like viruses were identified in southern Asia and the Middle East (Arctic-like-1) and eastern Asia (Arctic-like-2). A time-scaled tree demonstrates that the time of the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of Arctic and Arctic-like viruses is dated between 1255 and 1786. Evolution of the Arctic viruses has occurred through a northerly spread. The Arctic-like-2 lineage diverged first, whereas Arctic viruses share a TMRCA with Arctic-like-1 viruses.

KUZMIN, I. V.; HUGHES, G. J.; BOTVINKIN, A. D.; GRIBENCHA, S. G.; RUPPRECHT, C. E.

2008-01-01

196

Cloning and functional expression of a chitinase cDNA from the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura, using a recombinant baculovirus lacking the virus-encoded chitinase gene.  

PubMed

A Chitinase cDNA named Slchi was cloned from the epidermis of the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura, and the enzymatic properties of its recombinant proteins were characterized. The Slchi cDNA encodes 552 amino-acid residues (aa) including a 19 aa putative signal peptide, with the calculated molecular mass of the putative mature protein 60,152 Da. A major transcript of Slchi about 2.8 kb was detected in the epidermis only during molting in the last instar larvae, suggesting its involvement in the digestive system for old cuticle. The E. coli-produced recombinant Slchi exhibited weak chitinolytic activity against 4MU-(GlcNAc)(3)>4MU-(GlcNAc)(2)>4MU-(GlcNAc)(4), in this order, but not against 4MU-(GlcNAc)(1). A recombinant Slchi with higher specific activity was obtained using recombinant Hyphantria cunea NPV (HycuNPV), which expresses Slchi under polyhedrin promoter. To discriminate chitinase activity of recombinant Slchi from an active chitinase encoded in HycuNPV genome (chiA), we further knocked out the chiA gene from the recombinant virus. The recombinant Slchi expressed in insect cell culture showed a similar substrate specificity against 4MU-(GlcNAc)(n) (n=1-4) to that produced in E. coli, while the viral chitinase showed the highest activity against 4MU-(GlcNAc)(2). The recombinant Slchi was secreted rapidly into the culture medium from the infected cells, whereas the viral chitinase retained predominantly in the cells. PMID:11267891

Shinoda, T; Kobayashi, J; Matsui, M; Chinzei, Y

2001-04-27

197

Molecular epidemiology of measles virus in Taiwan in 2010-2011: the common genotype changed from H1 to D9 and the first appearance of D4.  

PubMed

Measles has been controlled effectively in some countries because of high coverage rates with an effective vaccine. However, measles outbreaks still occasionally occur in areas with high vaccine coverage as a result of imported transmission. To identify the sources of measles infection and to determine whether measles cases are part of a single outbreak or due to multiple importations, measles virus (MV) genotyping is required and plays an important role in MV elimination. In Taiwan, genotype H1 of MV was detected most frequently before 2009. From 2006 to 2011, 47 of 48 genotype H1 cases were associated with the imported cases, indicating that genotype H1 was not an endemic genotype in Taiwan after 2006. The distribution of the other genotypes (D3, D4, D5, D8, D9, and G3) detected during 2006-2011 varied by year. Taiwan has a pattern of measles genotypes that is consistent with the elimination of MV and with the absence of endemic genotypes. In this study, the genotypes of 40 cases of MV detected during 2010-2011 were investigated and analyzed. In 2010, the most common genotype changed from H1 (3/40) to D9 (35/40). In 2011, genotype H1 was not detected, and genotype D4 first appeared and was imported from Europe. The dynamic change of detected genotypes of MV in Taiwan is influenced by the activity of a measles control program in WHO regions. This study emphasizes that global synchronous elimination is important for an individual country or area to maintain free from MV. PMID:23588738

Cheng, Wen-Yueh; Tung, Hsiao-Ping; Wang, Hsiao-Chi; Lee, Li-Li; Wu, Ho-Sheng; Liu, Ming-Tsan

2013-06-01

198

Testing for Common Trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cointegrated multiple time series share at least one common trend. Two tests are developed for the number of common stochastic trends (i.e., for the order of cointegration) in a multiple time series with and without drift. Both tests involve the roots of the ordinary least squares coefficient matrix obtained by regressing the series onto its first lag. Critical values for

James H. Stock; Mark W. Watson

1988-01-01

199

Cellulose acetate phthalate, a common pharmaceutical excipient, inactivates HIV-1 and blocks the coreceptor binding site on the virus envelope glycoprotein gp120  

PubMed Central

Background Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP), a pharmaceutical excipient used for enteric film coating of capsules and tablets, was shown to inhibit infection by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and several herpesviruses. CAP formulations inactivated HIV-1, herpesvirus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) and the major nonviral sexually transmitted disease (STD) pathogens and were effective in animal models for vaginal infection by HSV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus. Methods Enzyme-linked immunoassays and flow cytometry were used to demonstrate CAP binding to HIV-1 and to define the binding site on the virus envelope. Results 1) CAP binds to HIV-1 virus particles and to the envelope glycoprotein gp120; 2) this leads to blockade of the gp120 V3 loop and other gp120 sites resulting in diminished reactivity with HIV-1 coreceptors CXCR4 and CCR5; 3) CAP binding to HIV-1 virions impairs their infectivity; 4) these findings apply to both HIV-1 IIIB, an X4 virus, and HIV-1 BaL, an R5 virus. Conclusions These results provide support for consideration of CAP as a topical microbicide of choice for prevention of STDs, including HIV-1 infection.

Neurath, A Robert; Strick, Nathan; Li, Yun-Yao; Debnath, Asim K

2001-01-01

200

Spectrum sharing for unlicensed bands  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study a spectrum sharing problem in an unlicensed band where multiple systems coexist and interfere with each other. We first analyze a cooperative setting where all the systems collaborate to achieve a common goal. Under the assumptions that the systems communicate with Gaussian signals and treat interference as noise, we study the structure of the optimal power allocations. We

Raul Etkin; Abhay Parekh; David Tse

2007-01-01

201

Spectrum sharing for unlicensed bands  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study a spectrum sharing problem in an unlicensed band where multiple systems coexist and interfere with each other. We first analyze a cooperative setting where all the systems collaborate to achieve a common goal. Under the assumptions that the systems communicate with Gaussian signals and treat interference as noise, we study the structure of the optimal power allocations. We

Raul Etkin; Abhay Parekh; David Tse

2005-01-01

202

Tracking a Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students simulate the spread of a virus such as HIV through a population by "sharing" (but not drinking) the water in a plastic cup with several classmates. Although invisible, the water in a few of the cups has already be tainted with the "virus" (sodium carbonate). After all the students have shared their liquids, the contents of the cups are tested for the virus with phenolphthalein, a chemical that causes a striking color change in the presence of sodium carbonate. Students then set about trying to determine which of their classmates were the ones originally infected with the virus.

Engineering K-Phd Program

203

A Comparison of Trojan Virus Behavior in Linux and Windows Operating Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trojan virus attacks pose one of the most serious threats to computer security. A Trojan horse is typically separated into two parts - a server and a client. It is the client that is cleverly disguised as significant software and positioned in peer-to-peer file sharing networks, or unauthorized download websites. The most common means of infection is through email attachments.

Ghossoon. M. W. Al-Saadoon; Hilal M. Y. Al-Bayatti

2011-01-01

204

Similarity in gene organization and homology between proteins of animal picornaviruses and a plant comovirus suggest common ancestry of these virus families.  

PubMed Central

The amino acid sequences deduced from the nucleic acid sequences of several animal picornaviruses and cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), a plant virus, were compared. Good homology was found between CPMV and the picornaviruses in the region of the picornavirus 2C (P2-X protein), VPg, 3C pro (proteinase) and 3D pol (RNA polymerase) regions. The CPMV B genome was found to have a similar gene organization to the picornaviruses. A comparison of the 3C pro (proteinase) regions of all of the available picornavirus sequences and CPMV allowed us to identify residues that are completely conserved; of these only two residues, Cys-147 and His-161 (poliovirus proteinase) could be the reactive residues of the active site of a proteinase with analogous mechanism to a known proteinase. We conclude that the proteinases encoded by these viruses are probably cysteine proteinases, mechanistically related, but not homologous to papain.

Argos, P; Kamer, G; Nicklin, M J; Wimmer, E

1984-01-01

205

Shared versus distributed memory multiprocessors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The question of whether multiprocessors should have shared or distributed memory has attracted a great deal of attention. Some researchers argue strongly for building distributed memory machines, while others argue just as strongly for programming shared memory multiprocessors. A great deal of research is underway on both types of parallel systems. Special emphasis is placed on systems with a very large number of processors for computation intensive tasks and considers research and implementation trends. It appears that the two types of systems will likely converge to a common form for large scale multiprocessors.

Jordan, Harry F.

1991-01-01

206

Cellulose acetate phthalate, a common pharmaceutical excipient, inactivates HIV1 and blocks the coreceptor binding site on the virus envelope glycoprotein gp120  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP), a pharmaceutical excipient used for enteric film coating of capsules and tablets, was shown to inhibit infection by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and several herpesviruses. CAP formulations inactivated HIV-1, herpesvirus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) and the major nonviral sexually transmitted disease (STD) pathogens and were effective in animal models for

A Robert Neurath; Nathan Strick; Yun-Yao Li; Asim K Debnath

2001-01-01

207

Virus induces metal-binding proteins and changed trace element balance in the brain during the course of a common human infection (coxsackievirus B3) in mice.  

PubMed

Autopsy of the brain has shown a change in trace element balance in some virus-infected individuals, but it is not known whether this event was a result of the infection. In the present study coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) adapted to Balb/c mice was used to study whether infection induces gene expression of the metal-binding/transporting proteins metallothionein (MT1 and MT3) and divalent-metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and whether it changes the balance of trace elements in the brain. Virus and MT1, MT3, and DMT1 were quantitatively measured by RT-PCR on days 3, 6 and 9 of the infection. Trace elements (13) were measured in serum and the brain by ICP-MS. High numbers of virus were found in the brain on days 3 and 6, but virus counts were decreased and present only in 50% of the mice on day 9. Gene expression of MT1 tended to increase on all days, whereas that of MT3 only showed a minor and not significant increase on day 3. No clear effect was observed in the expression of DMT1. The increase of MT3 was correlated to the brain concentration of Cu. The Cu/Zn ratio in serum increased as a response to the infection. There was a similar decrease in Cd in serum and the brain. On day 6 of the infection, Hg increased in the brain (p<0.05) and was positively correlated to a concomitant decrease (p<0.05) in serum. Virus numbers in the brain were on day 6 positively correlated (p<0.05) to As concentrations. Enteroviral infections may therefore be an underlying factor regarding the changes in essential as well as potentially toxic trace elements in the brain. PMID:17467775

Ilbäck, Nils-Gunnar; Frisk, Peter; Mohamed, Nahla; Gadhasson, Inga-Lill; Blomberg, Jonas; Friman, Göran

2007-08-01

208

Abusing locality in shared web hosting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing popularity of the World Wide Web has made more and more individuals and companies to identify the need of acquiring a Web presence. The most common way of acquiring such a presence is through Web hosting companies and the most popular hosting solution is shared Web hosting. In this paper we investigate the workings of shared Web hosting

Nick Nikiforakis; Wouter Joosen; Martin Johns

2011-01-01

209

Nipah Virus V and W Proteins Have a Common STAT1Binding Domain yet Inhibit STAT1 Activation from the Cytoplasmic and Nuclear Compartments, Respectively  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous reports it was demonstrated that the Nipah virus V and W proteins have interferon (IFN) antagonist activity due to their ability to block signaling from the IFN-\\/ receptor (J. J. Rodriguez, J. P. Parisien, and C. M. Horvath, J. Virol. 76:11476-11483, 2002; M. S. Park et al., J. Virol. 77:1501-1511, 2003). The V, W, and P proteins are

Megan L. Shaw; A. Garcia-Sastre; Peter Palese; Christopher F. Basler

2004-01-01

210

Common human Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms—Role in susceptibility to respiratory syncytial virus infection and functional immunological relevance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence suggests that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) contributes to immune recognition of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). The TLR4 gene harbours a polymorphism–Asp299Gly–previously associated with reduced TLR4 signalling. To understand of how host genetic variation influences the outcome of RSV infection in children, we examined the association between the TLR4 299Gly allele and severe RSV disease. By genotyping 236 children with

Stéphane C. Paulus; Aaron F. Hirschfeld; Rachel E. Victor; John Brunstein; Eva Thomas; Stuart E. Turvey

2007-01-01

211

Human Commonalities and Art  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educator Ernest Boyer believed that well-educated students should do more than master isolated facts. They should understand the "connectedness of things." He suggested organizing curriculum thematically around eight commonalities shared by people around the world. In the book "The Basic School: A Community for Learning," Boyer recommends that…

Passmore, Kaye

2008-01-01

212

Learning to Share.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A consortium of large manufacturers was established to share costs of training programs. LearnShare pays for a director, two managers, a researcher, and an administrator; supports a website; covers rent; and helps buy materials. (JOW)

Blumfield, Michael

1997-01-01

213

The Common Geometry Module (CGM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Common Geometry Module (CGM) is a code library which provides geometry functionality used for mesh generation and other applications. This functionality includes that commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry creation, query and modification; CGM also includes capabilities not commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry decomposition tools and support for shared material interfaces. CGM is built

Tautges; Timothy James

2004-01-01

214

Share Prices and Investment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we examine two related propositions: the efficiency of pricing of Australian shares and the influences of share prices on business investment. In line with similar studies overseas, we find that the Australian share market may deviate from efficient pricing over short time horizons but that there is little evidence of inefficiency over longer time horizons. To investigate

Michael Andersen; Robert Subbaraman

1996-01-01

215

LACC Shared Governance Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document discusses Los Angeles City College's (LACC) (California) Shared Governance Model. In response to California Assembly Bill 1725, LACC set forth a plan to implement the statutory requirements of shared governance. Shared governance is a concept grounded in the idea that decision-making is a process that affects the entire campus…

Spangler, Mary

216

Community shared agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community shared agriculture is a concept that brings food producers and consumers together in a relationship that supports values associated with sustainable agriculture, community development, and food security. At the heart of the concept is the notion of sharing. Participants share the real costs of food production through fair prices for the farmer and by assuming part of the risk

Paul Fieldhouse; M. Phil

1996-01-01

217

STUDIES ON THE COMMON COLD  

PubMed Central

1. Studies of the cultivation of the virus of common cold in tissue medium, and the capacity of the culture virus to induce infection in human volunteers are reported. 2. Detailed descriptions are given of the methods employed to isolate the virus, preserve and cultivate it, and to test its activity in human volunteers. 3. The virus of common cold can easily be isolated from properly selected patients and cultivated in tissue medium. 4. When kept in the original nasopharyngeal washings, the virus will survive at ice box temperature under anaerobic conditions for at least 13 days. 5. If the nasopharyngeal washings are frozen and dried in vacuo, the virus retains its activity for at least 4 months. 6. The virus of common cold has been proven to multiply in medium containing chick embryo tissue. Such cultures retain their capacity to produce typical infections in human beings for many transfers involving a period of several months. Attempts to cultivate the virus have been successful in seven out of eight instances. 7. Prolonged cultivation of the virus in tissue medium eventually leads to a loss of activity. 8. Strains of virus under cultivation maintain their potency best when transfers are made at 2 and 3 day intervals. 9. After removal from the incubator a culture of virus rapidly becomes inactive whether it be kept under seal in the ice box or frozen and dried in vacuo. 10. The destructive action of the medium can be prevented if the culture is mixed with gum acacia before freezing and drying in vacuo.

Dochez, A. R.; Mills, K. C.; Kneeland, Yale

1936-01-01

218

Donkey orchid symptomless virus: a viral 'platypus' from Australian terrestrial orchids.  

PubMed

Complete and partial genome sequences of two isolates of an unusual new plant virus, designated Donkey orchid symptomless virus (DOSV) were identified using a high-throughput sequencing approach. The virus was identified from asymptomatic plants of Australian terrestrial orchid Diuris longifolia (Common donkey orchid) growing in a remnant forest patch near Perth, western Australia. DOSV was identified from two D. longifolia plants of 264 tested, and from at least one plant of 129 Caladenia latifolia (pink fairy orchid) plants tested. Phylogenetic analysis of the genome revealed open reading frames (ORF) encoding seven putative proteins of apparently disparate origins. A 69-kDa protein (ORF1) that overlapped the replicase shared low identity with MPs of plant tymoviruses (Tymoviridae). A 157-kDa replicase (ORF2) and 22-kDa coat protein (ORF4) shared 32% and 40% amino acid identity, respectively, with homologous proteins encoded by members of the plant virus family Alphaflexiviridae. A 44-kDa protein (ORF3) shared low identity with myosin and an autophagy protein from Squirrelpox virus. A 27-kDa protein (ORF5) shared no identity with described proteins. A 14-kDa protein (ORF6) shared limited sequence identity (26%) over a limited region of the envelope glycoprotein precursor of mammal-infecting Crimea-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (Bunyaviridae). The putative 25-kDa movement protein (MP) (ORF7) shared limited (27%) identity with 3A-like MPs of members of the plant-infecting Tombusviridae and Virgaviridae. Transmissibility was shown when DOSV systemically infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Structure and organization of the domains within the putative replicase of DOSV suggests a common evolutionary origin with 'potexvirus-like' replicases of viruses within the Alphaflexiviridae and Tymoviridae, and the CP appears to be ancestral to CPs of allexiviruses (Alphaflexiviridae). The MP shares an evolutionary history with MPs of dianthoviruses, but the other putative proteins are distant from plant viruses. DOSV is not readily classified in current lower order virus taxa. PMID:24223974

Wylie, Stephen J; Li, Hua; Jones, Michael G K

2013-01-01

219

Donkey Orchid Symptomless Virus: A Viral 'Platypus' from Australian Terrestrial Orchids  

PubMed Central

Complete and partial genome sequences of two isolates of an unusual new plant virus, designated Donkey orchid symptomless virus (DOSV) were identified using a high-throughput sequencing approach. The virus was identified from asymptomatic plants of Australian terrestrial orchid Diuris longifolia (Common donkey orchid) growing in a remnant forest patch near Perth, western Australia. DOSV was identified from two D. longifolia plants of 264 tested, and from at least one plant of 129 Caladenia latifolia (pink fairy orchid) plants tested. Phylogenetic analysis of the genome revealed open reading frames (ORF) encoding seven putative proteins of apparently disparate origins. A 69-kDa protein (ORF1) that overlapped the replicase shared low identity with MPs of plant tymoviruses (Tymoviridae). A 157-kDa replicase (ORF2) and 22-kDa coat protein (ORF4) shared 32% and 40% amino acid identity, respectively, with homologous proteins encoded by members of the plant virus family Alphaflexiviridae. A 44-kDa protein (ORF3) shared low identity with myosin and an autophagy protein from Squirrelpox virus. A 27-kDa protein (ORF5) shared no identity with described proteins. A 14-kDa protein (ORF6) shared limited sequence identity (26%) over a limited region of the envelope glycoprotein precursor of mammal-infecting Crimea-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (Bunyaviridae). The putative 25-kDa movement protein (MP) (ORF7) shared limited (27%) identity with 3A-like MPs of members of the plant-infecting Tombusviridae and Virgaviridae. Transmissibility was shown when DOSV systemically infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Structure and organization of the domains within the putative replicase of DOSV suggests a common evolutionary origin with ‘potexvirus-like’ replicases of viruses within the Alphaflexiviridae and Tymoviridae, and the CP appears to be ancestral to CPs of allexiviruses (Alphaflexiviridae). The MP shares an evolutionary history with MPs of dianthoviruses, but the other putative proteins are distant from plant viruses. DOSV is not readily classified in current lower order virus taxa.

Wylie, Stephen J.; Li, Hua; Jones, Michael G. K.

2013-01-01

220

Ocular Tropism of Respiratory Viruses  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Respiratory viruses (including adenovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus) cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from mild influenza-like symptoms to acute respiratory failure. While species D adenoviruses and subtype H7 influenza viruses are known to possess an ocular tropism, documented human ocular disease has been reported following infection with all principal respiratory viruses. In this review, we describe the anatomical proximity and cellular receptor distribution between ocular and respiratory tissues. All major respiratory viruses and their association with human ocular disease are discussed. Research utilizing in vitro and in vivo models to study the ability of respiratory viruses to use the eye as a portal of entry as well as a primary site of virus replication is highlighted. Identification of shared receptor-binding preferences, host responses, and laboratory modeling protocols among these viruses provides a needed bridge between clinical and laboratory studies of virus tropism.

Rota, Paul A.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

2013-01-01

221

Virus Movement Maintains Local Virus Population Diversity  

SciTech Connect

Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material.

J. Snyder; B. Wiedenheft; M. Lavin; F. Roberto; J. Spuhler; A. Ortmann; T. Douglas; M. Young

2007-11-01

222

Virus movement maintains local virus population diversity  

PubMed Central

Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material.

Snyder, Jamie C.; Wiedenheft, Blake; Lavin, Matthew; Roberto, Francisco F.; Spuhler, Josh; Ortmann, Alice C.; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark

2007-01-01

223

Uncoating of common cold virus is preceded by RNA switching as determined by X-ray and cryo-EM analyses of the subviral A-particle  

PubMed Central

During infection, viruses undergo conformational changes that lead to delivery of their genome into host cytosol. In human rhinovirus A2, this conversion is triggered by exposure to acid pH in the endosome. The first subviral intermediate, the A-particle, is expanded and has lost the internal viral protein 4 (VP4), but retains its RNA genome. The nucleic acid is subsequently released, presumably through one of the large pores that open at the icosahedral twofold axes, and is transferred along a conduit in the endosomal membrane; the remaining empty capsids, termed B-particles, are shuttled to lysosomes for degradation. Previous structural analyses revealed important differences between the native protein shell and the empty capsid. Nonetheless, little is known of A-particle architecture or conformation of the RNA core. Using 3D cryo-electron microscopy and X-ray crystallography, we found notable changes in RNA–protein contacts during conversion of native virus into the A-particle uncoating intermediate. In the native virion, we confirmed interaction of nucleotide(s) with Trp38 of VP2 and identified additional contacts with the VP1 N terminus. Study of A-particle structure showed that the VP2 contact is maintained, that VP1 interactions are lost after exit of the VP1 N-terminal extension, and that the RNA also interacts with residues of the VP3 N terminus at the fivefold axis. These associations lead to formation of a well-ordered RNA layer beneath the protein shell, suggesting that these interactions guide ordered RNA egress.

Pickl-Herk, Angela; Luque, Daniel; Vives-Adrian, Laia; Querol-Audi, Jordi; Garriga, Damia; Trus, Benes L.; Verdaguer, Nuria; Blaas, Dieter; Caston, Jose R.

2013-01-01

224

Uncoating of common cold virus is preceded by RNA switching as determined by X-ray and cryo-EM analyses of the subviral A-particle.  

PubMed

During infection, viruses undergo conformational changes that lead to delivery of their genome into host cytosol. In human rhinovirus A2, this conversion is triggered by exposure to acid pH in the endosome. The first subviral intermediate, the A-particle, is expanded and has lost the internal viral protein 4 (VP4), but retains its RNA genome. The nucleic acid is subsequently released, presumably through one of the large pores that open at the icosahedral twofold axes, and is transferred along a conduit in the endosomal membrane; the remaining empty capsids, termed B-particles, are shuttled to lysosomes for degradation. Previous structural analyses revealed important differences between the native protein shell and the empty capsid. Nonetheless, little is known of A-particle architecture or conformation of the RNA core. Using 3D cryo-electron microscopy and X-ray crystallography, we found notable changes in RNA-protein contacts during conversion of native virus into the A-particle uncoating intermediate. In the native virion, we confirmed interaction of nucleotide(s) with Trp(38) of VP2 and identified additional contacts with the VP1 N terminus. Study of A-particle structure showed that the VP2 contact is maintained, that VP1 interactions are lost after exit of the VP1 N-terminal extension, and that the RNA also interacts with residues of the VP3 N terminus at the fivefold axis. These associations lead to formation of a well-ordered RNA layer beneath the protein shell, suggesting that these interactions guide ordered RNA egress. PMID:24277846

Pickl-Herk, Angela; Luque, Daniel; Vives-Adrián, Laia; Querol-Audí, Jordi; Garriga, Damià; Trus, Benes L; Verdaguer, Nuria; Blaas, Dieter; Castón, José R

2013-12-10

225

Microevolution of canine influenza virus in shelters and its molecular epidemiology in the United States.  

PubMed

Canine influenza virus (CIV) emerged around 2000 when an equine influenza virus (EIV) was transmitted to dogs in Florida. After 2003, the canine virus was carried by infected greyhounds to various parts of the United States and then became established in several large animal shelters, where it has continued to circulate. To better understand the evolution of CIV since its emergence, and particularly its microevolution in spatially restricted populations, we examined multiple gene segments of CIV from dogs resident in two large animal shelters in New York City during the period 2006 to 2009. In particular, we focused on viruses circulating in the two shelters in 2008 and 2009, which we found shared a common ancestor. While viruses in each shelter were generally monophyletic, we observed some gene flow between them. These shelter sequences were compared to earlier CIV isolates. The shelter viruses differed in 1 to 6 amino acids in each gene segment compared to viruses isolated in Florida between 2003 and 2005 and in Colorado in 2006 and 2008. A comparison of the sequences of equine and canine viruses revealed amino acid replacements that distinguished the viruses from the two hosts, but no clear evidence of positive selection indicative of host adaptation was detected, suggesting that any host range adaptation in CIV occurred early in the emergence of this virus or even before it transferred to dogs. PMID:20943966

Hayward, Jessica J; Dubovi, Edward J; Scarlett, Janet M; Janeczko, Stephanie; Holmes, Edward C; Parrish, Colin R

2010-12-01

226

Food sharing at meals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of a kinship link between nuclear families is the strongest predictor of interhousehold sharing in an indigenous,\\u000a predominantly Dolgan food-sharing network in northern Russia. Attributes such as the summed number of hunters in paired households\\u000a also account for much of the variation in sharing between nuclear families. Differences in the number of hunters in partner\\u000a households, as well

John Ziker; Michael Schnegg

2005-01-01

227

Oxylipin Biosynthesis Genes Positively Regulate Programmed Cell Death during Compatible Infections with the Synergistic Pair Potato Virus X-Potato Virus Y and Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus  

PubMed Central

One of the most severe symptoms caused by compatible plant-virus interactions is systemic necrosis, which shares common attributes with the hypersensitive response to incompatible pathogens. Although several studies have identified viral symptom determinants responsible for systemic necrosis, mechanistic models of how they contribute to necrosis in infected plants remain scarce. Here, we examined the involvement of different branches of the oxylipin biosynthesis pathway in the systemic necrosis response caused either by the synergistic interaction of Potato virus X with Potato virus Y (PVX-PVY) or by Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in Nicotiana benthamiana. Silencing either 9-lipoxygenase (LOX), 13-LOX, or ?-dioxygenase-1 (?-DOX-1) attenuated the programmed cell death (PCD)-associated symptoms caused by infection with either PVX-PVY or TSWV. In contrast, silencing of the jasmonic acid perception gene, COI1 (Coronatine insensitive 1), expedited cell death during infection with compatible viruses. This correlated with an enhanced expression of oxylipin biosynthesis genes and dioxygenase activity in PVX-PVY-infected plants. Moreover, the Arabidopsis thaliana double lox1 ?-dox-1 mutant became less susceptible to TSWV infection. We conclude that oxylipin metabolism is a critical component that positively regulates the process of PCD during compatible plant-virus interactions but does not play a role in restraining virus accumulation in planta.

Garcia-Marcos, Alberto; Pacheco, Remedios; Manzano, Aranzazu; Aguilar, Emmanuel

2013-01-01

228

A common antiviral cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitope for diverse major histocompatibility complex haplotypes: implications for vaccination.  

PubMed Central

Of nine established murine haplotypes, mice of three types (H-2d, H-2u, and H-2q) possess major histocompatibility complex class I glycoproteins able to present an identical viral peptide for recognition and lysis by virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Incorporation of this viral epitope into a recombinant vaccinia vaccine and administration of a single dose protects mice with these three haplotypes from an ordinarily lethal challenge of virus. Hence, a common epitope can exist. The sharing of the ability to bind such epitopes among different MHC haplotypes underscores the feasibility of developing an effective cytotoxic T-lymphocyte vaccine for outbred populations like humans.

Oldstone, M B; Tishon, A; Geckeler, R; Lewicki, H; Whitton, J L

1992-01-01

229

Genome-Wide Association Study among Four Horse Breeds Identifies a Common Haplotype Associated with In Vitro CD3+ T Cell Susceptibility/Resistance to Equine Arteritis Virus Infection ?  

PubMed Central

Previously, we have shown that horses could be divided into susceptible and resistant groups based on an in vitro assay using dual-color flow cytometric analysis of CD3+ T cells infected with equine arteritis virus (EAV). Here, we demonstrate that the differences in in vitro susceptibility of equine CD3+ T lymphocytes to EAV infection have a genetic basis. To investigate the possible hereditary basis for this trait, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to compare susceptible and resistant phenotypes. Testing of 267 DNA samples from four horse breeds that had a susceptible or a resistant CD3+ T lymphocyte phenotype using both Illumina Equine SNP50 BeadChip and Sequenom's MassARRAY system identified a common, genetically dominant haplotype associated with the susceptible phenotype in a region of equine chromosome 11 (ECA11), positions 49572804 to 49643932. The presence of a common haplotype indicates that the trait occurred in a common ancestor of all four breeds, suggesting that it may be segregated among other modern horse breeds. Biological pathway analysis revealed several cellular genes within this region of ECA11 encoding proteins associated with virus attachment and entry, cytoskeletal organization, and NF-?B pathways that may be associated with the trait responsible for the in vitro susceptibility/resistance of CD3+ T lymphocytes to EAV infection. The data presented in this study demonstrated a strong association of genetic markers with the trait, representing de facto proof that the trait is under genetic control. To our knowledge, this is the first GWAS of an equine infectious disease and the first GWAS of equine viral arteritis.

Go, Yun Young; Bailey, Ernest; Cook, Deborah G.; Coleman, Stephen J.; MacLeod, James N.; Chen, Kuey-Chu; Timoney, Peter J.; Balasuriya, Udeni B. R.

2011-01-01

230

Hepatocellular carcinoma in patients co-infected with hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus.  

PubMed

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) share a common route of transmission so that about one third of HIV infected individuals show HCV co-infection. Highly active antiretroviral therapy has offered a longer and better life to infected patients. While has removed AIDS-related diseases from the list of most common causes of death their place has been taken by complications of HCV infection, such as cirrhosis, end stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HIV/HCV co-infection requires complex management, especially when HCC is present. Co-infected patients with HCC undergo the same therapeutic protocol as their mono-infected counterparts, but special issues such as interaction between regimens, withdrawal of therapy and choice of immunosuppressive agents, demand a careful approach by specialists. All these issues are analyzed in this minireview. PMID:23805356

Dimitroulis, Dimitrios; Valsami, Serena; Spartalis, Eleftherios; Pikoulis, Emmanuel; Kouraklis, Gregory

2013-06-27

231

Species-Specific Inhibition of Foamy Viruses from South American Monkeys by New World Monkey TRIM5? Proteins ? †  

PubMed Central

Foamy virus evolution closely parallels that of the host species, indicating virus-host coadaptation. We studied simian foamy viruses (SFVs) from common marmosets, spider monkeys, and squirrel monkeys, New World monkey (NWM) species that share geographic ranges. The TRIM5? protein from each of these NWM species inhibited the replication of at least one of the SFVs associated with the other two species but did not affect the replication of its own SFV. Thus, TRIM5? has potentially shaped the evolution of SFVs in NWM hosts. Conversely, SFVs may have influenced the evolution of TRIM5 variants in New World primates.

Pacheco, Beatriz; Finzi, Andres; McGee-Estrada, Kathleen; Sodroski, Joseph

2010-01-01

232

Species-specific inhibition of foamy viruses from South American monkeys by New World Monkey TRIM5{alpha} proteins.  

PubMed

Foamy virus evolution closely parallels that of the host species, indicating virus-host coadaptation. We studied simian foamy viruses (SFVs) from common marmosets, spider monkeys, and squirrel monkeys, New World monkey (NWM) species that share geographic ranges. The TRIM5alpha protein from each of these NWM species inhibited the replication of at least one of the SFVs associated with the other two species but did not affect the replication of its own SFV. Thus, TRIM5alpha has potentially shaped the evolution of SFVs in NWM hosts. Conversely, SFVs may have influenced the evolution of TRIM5 variants in New World primates. PMID:20130055

Pacheco, Beatriz; Finzi, Andrés; McGee-Estrada, Kathleen; Sodroski, Joseph

2010-04-01

233

Knowledge Sharing Effectiveness Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge would be considered as important element in knowledge-based economy and it makes a strong competitive advantage in dynamic business environment. In knowledge management, knowledge sharing is the most critical elements of effective knowledge processing. Several studies have been done to explain why people share knowledge and some of them have been mentioned in this paper. The next issue is

B. Zadjabbari; Pornpit Wongthongtham; Farookh Khadeer Hussain

2010-01-01

234

The Icsbp locus is a common proviral insertion site in mature B-cell lymphomas/plasmacytomas induced by exogenous murine leukemia virus  

SciTech Connect

ICSBP (interferon consensus sequence binding protein)/IRF8 (interferon regulatory factor 8) is an interferon gamma-inducible transcription factor expressed predominantly in hematopoietic cells, and down-regulation of this factor has been observed in chronic myelogenous leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia in man. By screening about 1200 murine leukemia virus (MLV)-induced lymphomas, we found proviral insertions at the Icsbp locus in 14 tumors, 13 of which were mature B-cell lymphomas or plasmacytomas. Only one was a T-cell lymphoma, although such tumors constituted about half of the samples screened. This indicates that the Icsbp locus can play a specific role in the development of mature B-lineage malignancies. Two proviral insertions in the last Icsbp exon were found to act by a poly(A)-insertion mechanism. The remaining insertions were found within or outside Icsbp. Since our results showed expression of Icsbp RNA and protein in all end-stage tumor samples, a simple tumor suppressor function of ICSBP is not likely. Interestingly, proviral insertions at Icsbp have not been reported from previous extensive screenings of mature B-cell lymphomas induced by endogenous MLVs. We propose that ICSBP might be involved in an early modulation of an immune response to exogenous MLVs that might also play a role in proliferation of the mature B-cell lymphomas.

Ma Shiliang [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Aarhus, C.F. Mollers Alle, Bldg. 130, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Sorensen, Annette Balle [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Aarhus, C.F. Mollers Alle, Bldg. 130, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Kunder, Sandra [Institute of Pathology, GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Sorensen, Karina Dalsgaard [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Aarhus, C.F. Mollers Alle, Bldg. 130, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia [Institute of Pathology, GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Morris, David W. [Sagres Discovery, Davis, CA 95617 (United States); Schmidt, Joerg [Department of Comparative Medicine, GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Pedersen, Finn Skou [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Aarhus, C.F. Mollers Alle, Bldg. 130, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)]. E-mail: fsp@mb.au.dk

2006-09-01

235

A complex hepatitis B virus (X/C) recombinant is common in Long An county, Guangxi and may have originated in southern China  

PubMed Central

Recently, a complex (X/C) hepatitis B virus (HBV) recombinant, first reported in 2000, was proposed as a new genotype; although this was refuted immediately because the strains differ by less than 8?% in nucleotide distance from genotype C. Over 13.5?% (38/281) of HBV isolates from the Long An cohort in China were not assigned to a specific genotype, using current genotyping tools to analyse surface ORF sequences, and these have about 98?% similarity to the X/C recombinants. To determine whether this close identity extends to the full-length sequences and to investigate the evolutionary history of the Long An X/C recombinants, 17 complete genome sequences were determined. They are highly similar (96–99?%) to the Vietnamese strains and, although some reach or exceed 8?% nucleotide sequence difference from all known genotypes, they cluster together in the same clade, separating in a phylogenetic tree from the genotype C branch. Analysis of recombination reveals that all but one of the Long An isolates resembles the Vietnamese isolates in that they result from apparent recombination between genotype C and a parent of unknown genotype (X), which shows similarity in part to genotype G. The exception, isolate QL523, has a greater proportion of genotype C parent. Phylogeographic analysis reveals that these recombinants probably arose in southern China and spread later to Vietnam and Laos.

Fang, Zhong-Liao; Hue, Stephane; Sabin, Caroline A.; Li, Guo-Jian; Yang, Jin-Ye; Chen, Qin-Yan; Fang, Kong-Xiong; Huang, Jian; Wang, Xue-Yan; Harrison, Tim J.

2011-01-01

236

Nucleotides at the extremities of the viral RNA of influenza C virus are involved in type-specific interactions with the polymerase complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influenza A and C viruses share common sequences in the terminal noncoding regions of the viral RNA segments. Differences at the 5«- and 3«-ends exist, however, that could contribute to the specificity with which the transcription\\/replication signals are recognized by the cognate polymerase complexes. Previously, by making use of a transient expression system for the transcription and replication of a

Bernadette Crescenzo-Chaigne; Sylvie van der Werf

237

Deformed wing virus implicated in overwintering honeybee colony losses.  

PubMed

The worldwide decline in honeybee colonies during the past 50 years has often been linked to the spread of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and its interaction with certain honeybee viruses. Recently in the United States, dramatic honeybee losses (colony collapse disorder) have been reported; however, there remains no clear explanation for these colony losses, with parasitic mites, viruses, bacteria, and fungal diseases all being proposed as possible candidates. Common characteristics that most failing colonies share is a lack of overt disease symptoms and the disappearance of workers from what appears to be normally functioning colonies. In this study, we used quantitative PCR to monitor the presence of three honeybee viruses, deformed wing virus (DWV), acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), and black queen cell virus (BQCV), during a 1-year period in 15 asymptomatic, varroa mite-positive honeybee colonies in Southern England, and 3 asymptomatic colonies confirmed to be varroa mite free. All colonies with varroa mites underwent control treatments to ensure that mite populations remained low throughout the study. Despite this, multiple virus infections were detected, yet a significant correlation was observed only between DWV viral load and overwintering colony losses. The long-held view has been that DWV is relatively harmless to the overall health status of honeybee colonies unless it is in association with severe varroa mite infestations. Our findings suggest that DWV can potentially act independently of varroa mites to bring about colony losses. Therefore, DWV may be a major factor in overwintering colony losses. PMID:19783750

Highfield, Andrea C; El Nagar, Aliya; Mackinder, Luke C M; Noël, Laure M-L J; Hall, Matthew J; Martin, Stephen J; Schroeder, Declan C

2009-11-01

238

Structure of the archaeal head-tailed virus HSTV-1 completes the HK97 fold story  

PubMed Central

It has been proposed that viruses can be divided into a small number of structure-based viral lineages. One of these lineages is exemplified by bacterial virus Hong Kong 97 (HK97), which represents the head-tailed dsDNA bacteriophages. Seemingly similar viruses also infect archaea. Here we demonstrate using genomic analysis, electron cryomicroscopy, and image reconstruction that the major coat protein fold of newly isolated archaeal Haloarcula sinaiiensis tailed virus 1 has the canonical coat protein fold of HK97. Although it has been anticipated previously, this is physical evidence that bacterial and archaeal head-tailed viruses share a common architectural principle. The HK97-like fold has previously been recognized also in herpesviruses, and this study expands the HK97-like lineage to viruses from all three domains of life. This is only the second established lineage to include archaeal, bacterial, and eukaryotic viruses. Thus, our findings support the hypothesis that the last common universal ancestor of cellular organisms was infected by a number of different viruses.

Pietila, Maija K.; Laurinmaki, Pasi; Russell, Daniel A.; Ko, Ching-Chung; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Hendrix, Roger W.; Bamford, Dennis H.; Butcher, Sarah J.

2013-01-01

239

Comparative genomic analysis of hyperthermophilic archaeal Fuselloviridae viruses.  

PubMed

The complete genome sequences of two Sulfolobus spindle-shaped viruses (SSVs) from acidic hot springs in Kamchatka (Russia) and Yellowstone National Park (United States) have been determined. These nonlytic temperate viruses were isolated from hyperthermophilic Sulfolobus hosts, and both viruses share the spindle-shaped morphology characteristic of the Fuselloviridae family. These two genomes, in combination with the previously determined SSV1 genome from Japan and the SSV2 genome from Iceland, have allowed us to carry out a phylogenetic comparison of these geographically distributed hyperthermal viruses. Each virus contains a circular double-stranded DNA genome of approximately 15 kbp with approximately 34 open reading frames (ORFs). These Fusellovirus ORFs show little or no similarity to genes in the public databases. In contrast, 18 ORFs are common to all four isolates and may represent the minimal gene set defining this viral group. In general, ORFs on one half of the genome are colinear and highly conserved, while ORFs on the other half are not. One shared ORF among all four genomes is an integrase of the tyrosine recombinase family. All four viral genomes integrate into their host tRNA genes. The specific tRNA gene used for integration varies, and one genome integrates into multiple loci. Several unique ORFs are found in the genome of each isolate. PMID:14747560

Wiedenheft, Blake; Stedman, Kenneth; Roberto, Francisco; Willits, Deborah; Gleske, Anne-Kathrin; Zoeller, Luisa; Snyder, Jamie; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark

2004-02-01

240

Why Do We Keep Catching the Common Cold?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes activities for biology teachers that will stimulate discussions on virus structure, cell biology, rhino viruses, and new trends in treating the common cold. Provides opportunity for inquiry and problem solving in exercises that emphasize an understanding of how common cold viruses might pack inside nasal epithelial cells. (14 references)…

Gillen, Alan L.; Mayor, Heather D.

1995-01-01

241

Common Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A web resource that contains Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Numbers for approximately 7,800 chemicals of widespread general public interest. Common Chemistry is helpful to non-chemists who know either a name or CAS Registry Number® of a common chemical and want to pair both pieces of information.

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)

242

RACE pulls for shared control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maintaining and supporting an aircraft fleet, in a climate of reduced manpower and financial resources, dictates effective utilization of robotics and automation technologies. To help develop a winning robotics and automation program the Air Force Logistics Command created the Robotics and Automation Center of Excellence (RACE). RACE is a command wide focal point. Race is an organic source of expertise to assist the Air Logistic Center (ALC) product directorates in improving process productivity through the judicious insertion of robotics and automation technologies. RACE is a champion for pulling emerging technologies into the aircraft logistic centers. One of those technology pulls is shared control. Small batch sizes, feature uncertainty, and varying work load conspire to make classic industrial robotic solutions impractical. One can view ALC process problems in the context of space robotics without the time delay. The ALC's will benefit greatly from the implementation of a common architecture that supports a range of control actions from fully autonomous to teleoperated. Working with national laboratories and private industry, we hope to transition shared control technology to the depot floor. This paper provides an overview of the RACE internal initiatives and customer support, with particular emphasis on production processes that will benefit from shared control technology.

Leahy, M. B., Jr.; Cassiday, B. K.

1993-01-01

243

Accelerating Spectrum Sharing Technologies  

SciTech Connect

Spectrum sharing potentially holds the promise of solving the emerging spectrum crisis. However, technology innovators face the conundrum of developing spectrum sharing technologies without the ability to experiment and test with real incumbent systems. Interference with operational incumbents can prevent critical services, and the cost of deploying and operating an incumbent system can be prohibitive. Thus, the lack of incumbent systems and frequency authorization for technology incubation and demonstration has stymied spectrum sharing research. To this end, industry, academia, and regulators all require a test facility for validating hypotheses and demonstrating functionality without affecting operational incumbent systems. This article proposes a four-phase program supported by our spectrum accountability architecture. We propose that our comprehensive experimentation and testing approach for technology incubation and demonstration will accelerate the development of spectrum sharing technologies.

Juan D. Deaton; Lynda L. Brighton; Rangam Subramanian; Hussein Moradi; Jose Loera

2013-09-01

244

Shared Object Hierarchy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the design and proposed implementation of a shared object hierarchy. The object hierarchy is stored in a relational database and objects referenced by an application program are cached in the program's address space. The paper describ...

L. A. Rowe

1987-01-01

245

Sharing the Road. (Video).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Helps motorists understand the special concerns of and dangers faced by pedestrians, truck drivers, motorcyclists, bicyclists, and ambulance drivers. Presents specific tips on how to reduce the risks of sharing the road.

1994-01-01

246

Petroleum Market Shares.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is one in a monthly series of reports that monitors changes in the aggregate market shares of motor gasoline retailers. The survey obtains data on the number of gallons sold by approximately 10,000 sample stations each month.

1977-01-01

247

Muju Virus, Harbored by Myodes regulus in Korea, Might Represent a Genetic Variant of Puumala Virus, the Prototype Arvicolid Rodent-Borne Hantavirus  

PubMed Central

The genome of Muju virus (MUJV), identified originally in the royal vole (Myodes regulus) in Korea, was fully sequenced to ascertain its genetic and phylogenetic relationship with Puumala virus (PUUV), harbored by the bank vole (My. glareolus), and a PUUV-like virus, named Hokkaido virus (HOKV), in the grey red-backed vole (My. rufocanus) in Japan. Whole genome sequence analysis of the 6544-nucleotide large (L), 3652-nucleotide medium (M) and 1831-nucleotide small (S) segments of MUJV, as well as the amino acid sequences of their gene products, indicated that MUJV strains from different capture sites might represent genetic variants of PUUV, the prototype arvicolid rodent-borne hantavirus in Europe. Distinct geographic-specific clustering of MUJV was found in different provinces in Korea, and phylogenetic analyses revealed that MUJV and HOKV share a common ancestry with PUUV. A better understanding of the taxonomic classification and pathogenic potential of MUJV must await its isolation in cell culture.

Lee, Jin Goo; Gu, Se Hun; Baek, Luck Ju; Shin, Ok Sarah; Park, Kwang Sook; Kim, Heung-Chul; Klein, Terry A.; Yanagihara, Richard; Song, Jin-Won

2014-01-01

248

Muju virus, harbored by Myodes regulus in Korea, might represent a genetic variant of Puumala virus, the prototype arvicolid rodent-borne hantavirus.  

PubMed

The genome of Muju virus (MUJV), identified originally in the royal vole (Myodes regulus) in Korea, was fully sequenced to ascertain its genetic and phylogenetic relationship with Puumala virus (PUUV), harbored by the bank vole (My. glareolus), and a PUUV-like virus, named Hokkaido virus (HOKV), in the grey red-backed vole (My. rufocanus) in Japan. Whole genome sequence analysis of the 6544-nucleotide large (L), 3652-nucleotide medium (M) and 1831-nucleotide small (S) segments of MUJV, as well as the amino acid sequences of their gene products, indicated that MUJV strains from different capture sites might represent genetic variants of PUUV, the prototype arvicolid rodent-borne hantavirus in Europe. Distinct geographic-specific clustering of MUJV was found in different provinces in Korea, and phylogenetic analyses revealed that MUJV and HOKV share a common ancestry with PUUV. A better understanding of the taxonomic classification and pathogenic potential of MUJV must await its isolation in cell culture. PMID:24736214

Lee, Jin Goo; Gu, Se Hun; Baek, Luck Ju; Shin, Ok Sarah; Park, Kwang Sook; Kim, Heung-Chul; Klein, Terry A; Yanagihara, Richard; Song, Jin-Won

2014-04-01

249

Structural studies of the parainfluenza virus 5 hemagglutinin-neuraminidase tetramer in complex with its receptor, sialyllactose.  

PubMed

The paramyxovirus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) functions in virus attachment to cells, cleavage of sialic acid from oligosaccharides, and stimulating membrane fusion during virus entry into cells. The structural basis for these diverse functions remains to be fully understood. We report the crystal structures of the parainfluenza virus 5 (SV5) HN and its complexes with sialic acid, the inhibitor DANA, and the receptor sialyllactose. SV5 HN shares common structural features with HN of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and human parainfluenza 3 (HPIV3), but unlike the previously determined HN structures, the SV5 HN forms a tetramer in solution, which is thought to be the physiological oligomer. The sialyllactose complex reveals intact receptor within the active site, but no major conformational changes in the protein. The SV5 HN structures do not support previously proposed models for HN action in membrane fusion and suggest alternative mechanisms by which HN may promote virus entry into cells. PMID:15893670

Yuan, Ping; Thompson, Thomas B; Wurzburg, Beth A; Paterson, Reay G; Lamb, Robert A; Jardetzky, Theodore S

2005-05-01

250

Range-wide genetic population structure of common pochard (Aythya ferina): a potentially important vector of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses  

PubMed Central

An understanding of the distribution and spatial structure of the natural vectors of zoonothic pathogens is of interest for effective disease control and prevention. Here, we investigate the range-wide population genetic structure of common pochard (Aythya ferina), a long-distance migratory duck and potential vector of highly pathogenic avian influenza. We collected several hundred samples from breeding and wintering grounds across Eurasia including some H5N1-positive individuals and generated partial sequences of the mitochondrial control region and multilocus microsatellite genotypes. Genetic differentiation among breeding populations was significant for both marker types but higher for maternally inherited mtDNA than for biparentally inherited nuclear markers. There was only weak genetic divergence between ducks sampled in Europe and East Asia, and genetic differentiation between populations was not generally associated with geographical distance. No evidence of genetic substructure was detected for ducks sampled on the European wintering grounds. Our results suggest limited breeding-site fidelity, especially in females, but extensive population admixture on the wintering grounds. The specific role of pochards as natural vectors of zoonotic pathogens and in particular H5N1 remains to be clarified but our results point to wintering grounds as potential hotspots for disease transmission.

Liu, Yang; Keller, Irene; Heckel, Gerald

2011-01-01

251

Performance of Virus Resistant Transgenic Yellow Summer Squash in Alabama  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of summer squash in Alabama and the southeastern United States is generally limited to spring and early summer due to the abundance of aphid transmitted viruses during the late summer and fall. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), and Papaya ring spot virus (PRSV) are the most common viruses affecting Cucurbits in

Edward J. Sikora; John F. Murphy; Jason Burkett

2006-01-01

252

Friendly progressive visual secret sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents a new method to achieve progressive image sharing. This new method simplifies the management of multi-secret sharing. The proposed method has all the advantages of traditional visual sharing combined with visual cryptography, namely fast decoding, lossless and prevention of secret disclosure without collecting enough shares. Additionally, it can easily distinguish the group to which the share belongs

Wen-pinn Fang

2008-01-01

253

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection Information for adults A A A When HIV is first contracted, there may be ... 1–6 weeks following exposure to HIV (the human immunodeficiency virus). Chronic infection with this virus can ...

254

Immunology of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 500 million people worldwide are persistently infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and\\/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) and are at risk of developing chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite many common features in the pathogenesis of HBV- and HCV-related liver disease, these viruses markedly differ in their virological properties and in their immune escape and

Michelina Nascimbeni; Barbara Rehermann

2005-01-01

255

Single primer pair designs that facilitate simultaneous detection and differentiation of peach mosaic virus and cherry mottle leaf virus.  

PubMed

Peach mosaic virus (PMV) and cherry mottle leaf virus (CMLV) are viruses which are related serologically and share common Prunus hosts, but cause distinct diseases. An RT-PCR procedure using a single oligonucleotide primer pair that allows simultaneous detection and differentiation of the two viruses was developed. A sense primer with 100% complementarity to PMV and 83% complementarity to the corresponding site of the CMLV genome was combined with either of two antisense primers (one of PMV origin and the other of CMLV origin) with 3' end complementarity at variable sites. This allowed the differential amplification of PMV and CMLV specific fragments, 419 and 705 bp, respectively. When oligo (dT) was used to generate the cDNA template, differential amplification was not observed, only amplification of the homologous virus associated with the antisense primer. This indicates polyadenylation of both viruses. Incorporation of the antisense primer into cDNA at the reverse transcription step was shown to be essential for this approach. The PMV primer pair reliably detected all isolates of PMV tested by RT-PCR analysis, both in peach leaf and budwood tissue. PMID:10598088

James, D; Upton, C

1999-12-01

256

Common Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents K-12 and college common areas considered outstanding in a competition, which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent two days reviewing projects, highlighting concepts and ideas that made them exceptional. For each citation, the article offers information on the firm, client,…

American School & University, 2003

2003-01-01

257

Viruses of botrytis.  

PubMed

Botrytis cinerea (gray mold) is one of the most widespread and destructive fungal diseases of horticultural crops. Propagation and dispersal is usually by asexual conidia but the sexual stage (Botryotinia fuckeliana (de Bary) Whetzel) also occurs in nature. DsRNAs, indicative of virus infection, are common in B. cinerea, but only four viruses (Botrytis virus F (BVF), Botrytis virus X (BVX), Botrytis cinerea mitovirus 1 (BcMV1), and Botrytis porri RNA virus) have been sequenced. BVF and BVX are unusual mycoviruses being ssRNA flexous rods and have been designated the type species of the genera Mycoflexivirus and Botrexvirus (family Betaflexivirdae), respectively. The reported effects of viruses on Botrytis range from negligible to severe, with Botrytis cinerea mitovirus 1 causing hypovirulence. Little is currently known about the effects of viruses on Botrytis metabolism but recent complete sequencing of the B. cinerea genome now provides an opportunity to investigate the host-pathogen interactions at the molecular level. There is interest in the possible use of mycoviruses as biological controls for Botrytis because of the common problem of fungicide resistance. Unfortunately, hyphal anastomosis is the only known mechanism of horizontal virus transmission and the large number of vegetative incompatibility groups in Botrytis is a potential constraint on the spread of an introduced virus. Although some Botrytis viruses, such as BVF and BVX, are known to have international distribution, there is a distinct lack of epidemiological data and the means of spread are unknown. PMID:23498909

Pearson, Michael N; Bailey, Andrew M

2013-01-01

258

Learning to Share  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the tug-of-war between researchers and IT for supercomputing resources, a centralized approach can help both sides get more bang for their buck. As 2010 began, the University of Washington was preparing to launch its first shared high-performance computing cluster, a 1,500-node system called Hyak, dedicated to research activities. Like other…

Raths, David

2010-01-01

259

Information Hiding: Sharing Secrets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity about cryptographic techniques illustrates a situation where information is shared, and yet none of it is revealed. A group of learners will calculate their average age without anyone revealing their own age. Use this activity to introduce learners to cryptographic protocols and internet security/privacy issues. Variations, extensions, background information, and further reading suggestions are included in the PDF.

Bell, Tim; Witten, Ian; Fellows, Mike

1998-01-01

260

Illegal File Sharing 101  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much of higher education's unease arises from the cost of dealing with illegal file sharing. Illinois State University, for example, calculated a cost of $76 to process a first claim of copyright infringement and $146 for a second. Responses range from simply passing along claims to elaborate programs architected with specific goals in mind.…

Wada, Kent

2008-01-01

261

Shared Health Governance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health and Social Justice (Ruger 2009a) developed the “health capability paradigm,” a conception of justice and health in domestic societies. This idea undergirds an alternative framework of social cooperation called “shared health governance” (SHG). SHG puts forth a set of moral responsibilities, motivational aspirations, and institutional arrangements, and apportions roles for implementation in striving for health justice. This article develops

Jennifer Prah Ruger

2011-01-01

262

Sharing New Knowledge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After researching information about the Sun, learners will discuss and share their expertise on related topics such as sunspots, the Earth's magnetosphere, and aurorae. This activity is a follow-on to the lesson titled "Understanding the Sun" in the Space Weather Action Center teacher's guide.

263

Think before You Share  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in the US are increasingly discovering that online socializing is far from private and that sharing personal details on social-networking Web sites, such as Facebook, can have unintended consequences. A growing number of colleges are moving to disabuse students of the notion that the Internet is their private playground and what they type…

Read, Brock

2006-01-01

264

Isolation and characterization of an H9N2 influenza virus isolated in Argentina.  

PubMed

As part of our ongoing efforts on animal influenza surveillance in Argentina, an H9N2 virus was isolated from a wild aquatic bird (Netta peposaca), A/rosy-billed pochard/Argentina/CIP051-559/2007 (H9N2) - herein referred to as 559/H9N2. Due to the important role that H9N2 viruses play in the ecology of influenza in nature, the 559/H9N2 isolate was characterized molecularly and biologically. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA gene revealed that the 559/H9N2 virus maintained an independent evolutionary pathway and shared a sister-group relationship with North American viruses, suggesting a common ancestor. The rest of the genome segments clustered with viruses from South America. Experimental inoculation of the 559/H9N2 in chickens and quail revealed efficient replication and transmission only in quail. Our results add to the notion of the unique evolutionary trend of avian influenza viruses in South America. Our study increases our understanding of H9N2 viruses in nature and emphasizes the importance of expanding animal influenza surveillance efforts to better define the ecology of influenza viruses at a global scale. PMID:22709552

Xu, Kemin; Ferreri, Lucas; Rimondi, Agustina; Olivera, Valeria; Romano, Marcelo; Ferreyra, Hebe; Rago, Virgina; Uhart, Marcela; Chen, Hongjun; Sutton, Troy; Pereda, Ariel; Perez, Daniel R

2012-09-01

265

Assessment of Genetic Associations between Common Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in RIG-I-Like Receptor and IL-4 Signaling Genes and Severe Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Children: A Candidate Gene Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

The majority of cases of severe pediatric respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection occur in otherwise healthy infants who have no identifiable risk factors, suggesting that additional subclinical factors, such as population genetic variation, influence the course of RSV infection. The objective of this study was to test if common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding for immune signalling components of the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) and IL-4-signalling pathways affect the outcome of RSV infection in early life. We genotyped 8 SNPs using allele-specific probes combined with real-time PCR. Each of the SNPs tested had previously been established to have a functional impact on immune responsiveness and two of the SNPs in the IL4 and IL4R genes had previously been associated with severe RSV bronchiolitis. Association with susceptibility to severe RSV infection was tested by statistically comparing genotype and allele frequencies in infants and young children hospitalized with severe RSV bronchiolitis (n?=?140) with two control groups—children who tested positive for RSV but did not require hospitalization (n?=?100), and a general population control group (n?=?285). Our study was designed with sufficient power (>80%) to detect clinically-relevant associations with effect sizes ?1.5. However, we detected no statistically significant differences in allele and genotype frequencies of the investigated SNPs between the inpatient and control groups. To conclude, we could not replicate the previously reported association with SNPs in the IL4 and IL4R genes in our independent cohort, nor did we find that common SNPs in genes encoding for RLRs and the downstream adapter MAVS were associated with susceptibility to severe RSV infections. Despite the existing evidence demonstrating a functional immunological impact of these SNPs, our data suggest that the biological effect of each individual SNP is unlikely to affect clinical outcomes of RSV infection.

Marr, Nico; Hirschfeld, Aaron F.; Lam, Angie; Wang, Shirley; Lavoie, Pascal M.; Turvey, Stuart E.

2014-01-01

266

Evolution of influenza A virus PB2 genes: implications for evolution of the ribonucleoprotein complex and origin of human influenza A virus.  

PubMed Central

Phylogenetic analysis of 20 influenza A virus PB2 genes showed that PB2 genes have evolved into the following four major lineages: (i) equine/Prague/56 (EQPR56); (ii and iii) two distinct avian PB2 lineages, one containing FPV/34 and H13 gull virus strains and the other containing North American avian and recent equine strains; and (iv) human virus strains joined with classic swine virus strains (i.e., H1N1 swine virus strains related to swine/Iowa/15/30). The human virus lineage showed the greatest divergence from its root relative to other lineages. The estimated nucleotide evolutionary rate for the human PB2 lineage was 1.82 x 10(-3) changes per nucleotide per year, which is within the range of published estimates for NP and NS genes of human influenza A viruses. At the amino acid level, PB2s of human viruses have accumulated 34 amino acid changes over the past 55 years. In contrast, the avian PB2 lineages showed much less evolution, e.g., recent avian PB2s showed as few as three amino acid changes relative to the avian root. The completion of evolutionary analyses of the PB1, PB2, PA and NP genes of the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex permits comparison of evolutionary pathways. Different patterns of evolution among the RNP genes indicate that the genes of the complex are not coevolving as a unit. Evolution of the PB1 and PB2 genes is less correlated with host-specific factors, and their proteins appear to be evolving more slowly than NP and PA. This suggests that protein functional constraints are limiting the evolutionary divergence of PB1 and PB2 genes. The parallel host-specific evolutionary pathways of the NP and PA genes suggest that these proteins are coevolving in response to host-specific factors. PB2s of human influenza A viruses share a common ancestor with classic swine virus PB2s, and the pattern of evolution suggests that the ancestor was an avian virus PB2. This same pattern of evolution appears in the other genes of the RNP complex. Antigenic studies of HA and NA proteins and sequence comparisons of NS and M genes also suggest a close ancestry for these genes in human and classic swine viruses. From our review of the evolutionary patterns of influenza A virus genes, we propose the following hypothesis: the common ancestor to current strains of human and classic swine influenza viruses predated the 1918 human pandemic virus and was recently derived from the avian host reservoir.

Gorman, O T; Donis, R O; Kawaoka, Y; Webster, R G

1990-01-01

267

Avian bic, a gene isolated from a common retroviral site in avian leukosis virus-induced lymphomas that encodes a noncoding RNA, cooperates with c-myc in lymphomagenesis and erythroleukemogenesis.  

PubMed

bic is a novel gene identified at a common retroviral integration site in avian leukosis virus-induced lymphomas and has been implicated as a collaborator with c-myc in B lymphomagenesis. It lacks an extensive open reading frame and is believed to function as an untranslated RNA (W. Tam, Gene 274:157-167, 2001; W. Tam, D. Ben-Yehuda, and W. S. Hayward, Mol. Cell. Biol. 17:1490-1502, 1997). The oncogenic potential of bic, particularly its ability to cooperate with c-myc in oncogenesis, was tested directly by expressing c-myc and bic, either singly or in pairwise combination, in cultured chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) and in chickens using replication-competent retrovirus vectors. Coexpression of c-myc and bic in CEFs caused growth enhancement of cells. Most importantly, chick oncogenicity assays demonstrated that bic can cooperate with c-myc in lymphomagenesis and erythroleukemogenesis. The present study provides direct evidence for the involvement of untranslated RNAs in oncogenesis and provides further support for the role of noncoding RNAs as riboregulators. PMID:11932393

Tam, Wayne; Hughes, Stephen H; Hayward, William S; Besmer, Peter

2002-05-01

268

Genetic Evidence for Rift Valley Fever Outbreaks in Madagascar Resulting from Virus Introductions from the East African Mainland rather than Enzootic Maintenance?†‡  

PubMed Central

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-borne phlebovirus, has been detected in Madagascar since 1979, with occasional outbreaks. In 2008 to 2009, a large RVFV outbreak was detected in Malagasy livestock and humans during two successive rainy seasons. To determine whether cases were due to enzootic maintenance of the virus within Madagascar or to importation from the East African mainland, nine RVFV whole genomic sequences were generated for viruses from the 1991 and 2008 Malagasy outbreaks. Bayesian coalescent analyses of available whole S, M, and L segment sequences were used to estimate the time to the most recent common ancestor for the RVFVs. The 1979 Madagascar isolate shared a common ancestor with strains on the mainland around 1972. The 1991 Madagascar isolates were in a clade distinct from that of the 1979 isolate and shared a common ancestor around 1987. Finally, the 2008 Madagascar viruses were embedded within a large clade of RVFVs from the 2006–2007 outbreak in East Africa and shared a common ancestor around 2003 to 2004. These results suggest that the most recent Madagascar outbreak was caused by a virus likely arriving in the country some time between 2003 and 2008 and that this outbreak may be an extension of the 2006–2007 East African outbreak. Clustering of the Malagasy sequences into subclades indicates that the viruses have continued to evolve during their short-term circulation within the country. These data are consistent with the notion that RVFV outbreaks in Madagascar result not from emergence from enzootic cycles within the country but from recurrent virus introductions from the East African mainland.

Carroll, Serena A.; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Khristova, Marina L.; Andriamandimby, Soa Fy; Rollin, Pierre E.; Nichol, Stuart T.

2011-01-01

269

Salicylic Acid-Dependent Expression of Host Genes in Compatible Arabidopsis-Virus Interactions1[w  

PubMed Central

Plant viruses elicit the expression of common sets of genes in susceptible hosts. Studies in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) indicate that at least one-third of the genes induced in common by viruses have been previously associated with plant defense and stress responses. The genetic and molecular requirements for the induction of these stress and defense-related genes during compatible host-virus interactions were investigated with a panel of Arabidopsis mutant and transgenic plants defective in one or more defense signaling pathways. pad4, eds5, NahG, npr1, jar1, ein2, sid2, eds1, and wild-type Columbia-0 and Wassilewskija-2 plants were infected with two different viruses, cucumber mosaic virus and oilseed rape mosaic virus. Gene expression was assayed by a high-throughput fiber-optic bead array consisting of 388 genes and by RNA gel blots. These analyses demonstrated that, in compatible host-virus interactions, the expression of the majority of defense-related genes is induced by a salicylic acid-dependent, NPR1-independent signaling pathway with a few notable exceptions that did require NPR1. Interestingly, none of the mutant or transgenic plants showed enhanced susceptibility to either cucumber mosaic virus or oilseed rape mosaic virus based on both symptoms and virus accumulation. This observation is in contrast to the enhanced disease susceptibility phenotypes that these mutations or transgenes confer to some bacterial and fungal pathogens. These experimental results suggest that expression of many defense-related genes in compatible host plants might share components of signaling pathways involved in incompatible host-pathogen interactions, but their increased expression has no negative effect on viral infection.

Huang, Zhonglian; Yeakley, Joanne M.; Garcia, Elizabeth Wickham; Holdridge, Jaime D.; Fan, Jian-Bing; Whitham, Steven A.

2005-01-01

270

Safe Computing: An Overview of Viruses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computer virus is a program that replicates itself, in conjunction with an additional program that can harm a computer system. Common viruses include boot-sector, macro, companion, overwriting, and multipartite. Viruses can be fast, slow, stealthy, and polymorphic. Anti-virus products are described. (MLH)

Wodarz, Nan

2001-01-01

271

Shared health governance.  

PubMed

Health and Social Justice (Ruger 2009a ) developed the "health capability paradigm," a conception of justice and health in domestic societies. This idea undergirds an alternative framework of social cooperation called "shared health governance" (SHG). SHG puts forth a set of moral responsibilities, motivational aspirations, and institutional arrangements, and apportions roles for implementation in striving for health justice. This article develops further the SHG framework and explains its importance and implications for governing health domestically. PMID:21745082

Ruger, Jennifer Prah

2011-07-01

272

Dare to Share Fairly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This iOS app from Math Playground is a visual math tool for children who are learning how to divide larger numbers. Children drag place value blocks, which model the given dividend to individual mats, which represent the divisor to demonstrate fair sharing. If needed, there is a place value exchange section and a bin for remainders. The standard division algorithm is presented for comparison.

King, Colleen

2013-06-13

273

Testing Shared Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Sequential consistency is the most-widely used correctness condition for multiprocessormemory systems. This paper studies the problem of testing shared memory multiprocessors todetermine if they are indeed providing a sequentially consistent memory. It presents the first formalstudy of this problem, which has applications to testing new memory system designs and realizations,providing run-time fault tolerance, and detecting bugs in parallel programs.A

Phillip B. Gibbons; Ephraim Korach

1997-01-01

274

Justice and Benefit Sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Benefit sharing as envisaged by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is a relatively new idea in international law.\\u000a In the context of non-human biological resources, it aims to guarantee the conservation of biodiversity and its sustainable\\u000a use by ensuring that its custodians are adequately rewarded for its preservation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Prior to the adoption of the CBD, biological resources were regarded

Doris Schroeder

275

Locks with Constrained Sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a new mode for locks that permits sharing in a constrained manner. We develop a family of locking protocols, the strictest of which is the two phase locking protocol while the most permissive recognizes all conflict-preserving serializable histories. This is the first locking-based protocol that can recognize the entire class of conflict-preserving serializable histories.

Divyakant Agrawal; Amr El Abbadi

1990-01-01

276

Characterization of K virus and its comparison with polyoma virus.  

PubMed Central

The antigenic relationship between the two murine papovaviruses, K virus and polyoma virus, was examined by serological techniques to determine whether they shared any antigenic components. No cross-reactivity was found associated with the viral (V) antigens by the indirect immunofluorescence, neutralization, or hemagglutination-inhibition tests. The tumor (T) antigens expressed in transformed cells or cells productively infected by either K or polyoma virus did not cross-react by indirect immunofluorescence. An antigenic relationship was detected, however, among the late proteins of K virus, polyoma virus, simian virus 40, and the human papovavirus BKV, when tested with either hyperimmune sera prepared against polyoma virus and simian virus 40 or sera prepared against disrupted virions. The nucleic acids of K and polyoma viruses were compared by agarose gel electrophoresis and restriction endonuclease analysis. No nucleotide sequence homology between the genomes of these two viruses was detectable by DNA-DNA hybridization techniques under stringent conditions. The genome of K virus was found to be slightly smaller than that of polyoma virus, and the cleavage patterns of the viral DNAs with six restriction endonucleases were different. These findings indicate that there is little relationship between these two murine papovaviruses. Images

Bond, S B; Howley, P M; Takemoto, K K

1978-01-01

277

Role-based control of shared application views  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collaboration often relies on all group members having a shared view of a single-user application. A common situation is a single active presenter sharing a live view of her workstation screen with a passive audience, using simple hardware-based video signal projection onto a large screen or simple bitmap-based sharing protocols. This offers simplicity and some advantages over more sophisticated software-based

Lior Berry; Lyn Bartram; Kellogg S. Booth

2005-01-01

278

MoBlogs, Sharing Situations, and Lived Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter considers shared encounters through blogging in the light of John Urry’s new mobilities paradigm. We review relevant\\u000a literature on mobile blogging (moblogging) – blogging, pervasive image capture and sharing, moblogging and video blogging\\u000a – and describe common issues with these digital content sharing practices. We then document some features of how technology\\u000a affords “reflexive encounters” through the description

Connor Graham; Mark Rouncefield; Christine Satchell

2010-01-01

279

Characterization of the Golgi Retention Motif of Rift Valley Fever Virus GN Glycoprotein  

Microsoft Academic Search

As Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus, and probably all members of the family Bunyaviridae, matures in the Golgi apparatus, the targeting of the virus glycoproteins to the Golgi apparatus plays a pivotal role in the virus replication cycle. No consensus Golgi localization motif appears to be shared among the glycoproteins of these viruses. The viruses of the family Bunyaviridae synthesize

Sonja R. Gerrard; Stuart T. Nichol

2002-01-01

280

Deep Sequencing of Small RNAs in Tomato for Virus and Viroid Identification and Strain Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Small RNAs (sRNA), including microRNAs (miRNA) and small interfering RNAs (siRNA), are produced abundantly in plants and animals and function in regulating gene expression or in defense against virus or viroid infection. Analysis of siRNA profiles upon virus infection in plant may allow for virus identification, strain differentiation, and de novo assembly of virus genomes. In the present study, four suspected virus-infected tomato samples collected in the U.S. and Mexico were used for sRNA library construction and deep sequencing. Each library generated between 5–7 million sRNA reads, of which more than 90% were from the tomato genome. Upon in-silico subtraction of the tomato sRNAs, the remaining highly enriched, virus-like siRNA pools were assembled with or without reference virus or viroid genomes. A complete genome was assembled for Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) using siRNA alone. In addition, a near complete virus genome (98%) also was assembled for Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV). A common mixed infection of two strains of PepMV (EU and US1), which shared 82% of genome nucleotide sequence identity, also could be differentially assembled into their respective genomes. Using de novo assembly, a novel potyvirus with less than 60% overall genome nucleotide sequence identity to other known viruses was discovered and its full genome sequence obtained. Taken together, these data suggest that the sRNA deep sequencing technology will likely become an efficient and powerful generic tool for virus identification in plants and animals.

Li, Rugang; Gao, Shan; Hernandez, Alvaro G.; Wechter, W. Patrick; Fei, Zhangjun; Ling, Kai-Shu

2012-01-01

281

Inhibitors of Dengue Virus and West Nile Virus Proteases Based on the Aminobenzamide Scaffold  

PubMed Central

Dengue and West Nile viruses (WNV) are mosquito-borne members of flaviviruses that cause significant morbidity and mortality. There is no approved vaccine or antiviral drugs for human use to date. In this study, a series of functionalized meta and para aminobenzamide derivatives were synthesized and subsequently screened in vitro against Dengue virus and West Nile virus proteases. Four active compounds were identified which showed comparable activity toward the two proteases and shared in common a meta or para(phenoxy)phenyl group. The inhibition constants (Ki) for the most potent compound 7n against Dengue and West Nile virus proteases were 8.77 and 5.55 ?M, respectively. The kinetics data support a competitive mode of inhibition of both proteases by compound 7n. This conclusion is further supported by molecular modeling. This study reveals a new chemical scaffold which is amenable to further optimization to yield potent inhibitors of the viral proteases via the combined utilization of iterative medicinal chemistry/structure-activity relationship studies and in vitro screening.

Aravapalli, Sridhar; Lai, Huiguo; Teramoto, Tadahisa; Alliston, Kevin R.; Lushington, Gerald H.; Ferguson, Eron L.; Padmanabhan, R.; Groutas, William C.

2012-01-01

282

Iodine Deficiency Common in Pregnancy, Pediatricians Warn  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Iodine Deficiency Common in Pregnancy, Pediatricians Warn Processed foods ... pregnant and breast-feeding women are deficient in iodine and should take a daily supplement containing iodide, ...

283

The Evolution of the Shared Services Business Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains shared services, where common business practices are applied by a staff unit focused entirely on delivering needed services at the highest value and lowest cost to internal customers. Highlights include accountability; examples of pioneering shared services organizations; customer focus transition; relationship management; expertise…

Forst, Leland

2000-01-01

284

Sharing Medicine: The Candidacy of Medicines and Other Household Items for Sharing, Dominican Republic  

PubMed Central

Background People share medicines and problems can result from this behavior. Successful interventions to change sharing behavior will require understanding people’s motives and purposes for sharing medicines. Better information about how medicines fit into the gifting and reciprocity system could be useful in designing interventions to modify medicine sharing behavior. However, it is uncertain how people situate medicines among other items that might be shared. This investigation is a descriptive study of how people sort medicines and other shareable items. Methods and Findings This study in the Dominican Republic examined how a convenience sample (31 people) sorted medicines and rated their shareability in relation to other common household items. We used non-metric multidimensional scaling to produce association maps in which the distances between items offer a visual representation of the collective opinion of the participants regarding the relationships among the items. In addition, from a pile sort constrained by four categories of whether sharing or loaning the item was acceptable (on a scale from not shareable to very shareable), we assessed the degree to which the participants rated the medicines as shareable compared to other items. Participants consistently grouped medicines together in all pile sort activities; yet, medicines were mixed with other items when rated by their candidacy to be shared. Compared to the other items, participants had more variability of opinion as to whether medicines should be shared. Conclusions People think of medicines as a distinct group, suggesting that interventions might be designed to apply to medicines as a group. People’s differing opinions as to whether it was appropriate to share medicines imply a degree of uncertainty or ambiguity that health promotion interventions might exploit to alter attitudes and behaviors. These findings have implications for the design of health promotion interventions to impact medicine sharing behavior.

Dohn, Michael N.; Pilkington, Hugo

2014-01-01

285

Share with Charm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SHARE with CHARM program (SHAREv3) implements the statistical hadronization model description of particle production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Given a set of statistical parameters, SHAREv3 program evaluates yields and therefore also ratios, and furthermore, statistical particle abundance fluctuations. The physical bulk properties of the particle source are evaluated based on all hadrons produced, including the fitted yields. The bulk properties can be prescribed as a fit input complementing and/or replacing the statistical parameters. The modifications and improvements in the SHARE suite of programs are oriented towards recent and forthcoming LHC hadron production results including charm hadrons. This SHAREv3 release incorporates all features seen previously in SHAREv1.x and v2.x and, beyond, we include a complete treatment of charm hadrons and their decays, which further cascade and feed lighter hadron yields. This article is a complete and self-contained manual explaining and introducing both the conventional and the extended capabilities of SHARE with CHARM. We complement the particle list derived from the Particle Data Group tabulation (Beringer, 2012) composed of up, down, strange u,d,s quarks (including resonances) with hadrons containing charm c,c¯ quarks. We provide a table of the charm hadron decays including partial widths. The branching ratios of each charm hadron decay add to unity, which is achieved by including some charm hadron decay channels based on theoretical consideration in the absence of direct experimental information. A very successful interpretation of all available LHC results has been already obtained using this program.

Petran, M.; Letessier, J.; Rafelski, J.; Torrieri, G.

2014-07-01

286

Share the Science!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students who participate in community outreach programs develop a positive awareness for civic duty and observe applications of their learning (Waldstein and Reiher 2001). Teachers and students discover the most vivid benefits of service learning when they participate themselves: Students are energized and the school builds a stronger link with the community. This article describes how high school chemistry students partnered with a local children's museum for service learning and outreach. The activities and benefits of the volunteer curriculum are also discussed. The project illustrates the powerful connection between what students learn and how they can share it with others.

Bergman, Daniel

2004-05-01

287

StepBrothers: inferring partially shared ancestries among recombinant viral sequences.  

PubMed

Phylogeneticists have developed several statistical methods to infer recombination among molecular sequences that are evolutionarily related. Of these methods, Markov change-point models currently provide the most coherent framework. Yet, the Markov assumption is faulty in that the inferred relatedness of homologous sequences across regions divided by recombinant events is not independent, particularly for nonrecombinant sequences as they share the same history. To correct this limitation, we introduce a novel random tips (RT) model. The model springs from the idea that a recombinant sequence inherits its characters from an unknown number of ancestral full-length sequences, of which one only observes the incomplete portions. The RT model decomposes recombinant sequences into their ancestral portions and then augments each portion onto the data set as unique partially observed sequences. This data augmentation generates a random number of sequences related to each other through a single inferable tree with the same random number of tips. While intuitively pleasing, this single tree corrects the independence assumptions plaguing previous methods while permitting the detection of recombination. The single tree also allows for inference of the relative times of recombination events and generalizes to incorporate multiple recombinant sequences. This generalization answers important questions with which previous models struggle. For example, we demonstrate that a group of human immunodeficiency type 1 recombinant viruses from Argentina, previously thought to have the same recombinant history, actually consist of 2 groups: one, a clonal expansion of a reference sequence and another that predates the formation of the reference sequence. In another example, we demonstrate that 2 hepatitis B virus recombinant strains share similar splicing locations, suggesting a common descent of the 2 viruses. We implement and run both examples in a software package called StepBrothers, freely available to interested parties. PMID:18562348

Bloomquist, Erik W; Dorman, Karin S; Suchard, Marc A

2009-01-01

288

Data sharing system for lithography APC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a simple and cost-effective data sharing system between fabs for lithography advanced process control (APC). Lithography APC requires process flow, inter-layer information, history information, mask information and so on. So, inter-APC data sharing system has become necessary when lots are to be processed in multiple fabs (usually two fabs). The development cost and maintenance cost also have to be taken into account. The system handles minimum information necessary to make trend prediction for the lots. Three types of data have to be shared for precise trend prediction. First one is device information of the lots, e.g., process flow of the device and inter-layer information. Second one is mask information from mask suppliers, e.g., pattern characteristics and pattern widths. Last one is history data of the lots. Device information is electronic file and easy to handle. The electronic file is common between APCs and uploaded into the database. As for mask information sharing, mask information described in common format is obtained via Wide Area Network (WAN) from mask-vender will be stored in the mask-information data server. This information is periodically transferred to one specific lithography-APC server and compiled into the database. This lithography-APC server periodically delivers the mask-information to every other lithography-APC server. Process-history data sharing system mainly consists of function of delivering process-history data. In shipping production lots to another fab, the product-related process-history data is delivered by the lithography-APC server from the shipping site. We have confirmed the function and effectiveness of data sharing systems.

Kawamura, Eiichi; Teranishi, Yoshiharu; Shimabara, Masanori

2007-03-01

289

Common cold  

PubMed Central

Introduction Each year, children suffer up to 5 colds and adults have 2-3 infections, leading to time off school or work, and considerable discomfort. Most symptoms resolve within a week, but coughs often persist for longer. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for common cold? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to May 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 19 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: analgesics or anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, antihistamines, decongestants (norephedrine, oxymetazoline, or pseudoephedrine), decongestants plus antihistamine, echinacea, steam inhalation, vitamin C, and zinc (intranasal gel or lozenges).

2008-01-01

290

Common cold  

PubMed Central

Introduction Each year, children suffer up to 5 colds and adults have two to three infections, leading to time off school or work, and considerable discomfort. Most symptoms resolve within 1 week, but coughs often persist for longer. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for common cold? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to January 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 21 systematic reviews and RCTs that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: analgesics or anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, antihistamines, decongestants for short-term and for long-term relief, decongestants plus antihistamines, echinacea, steam inhalation, vitamin C, and zinc (intranasal gel or lozenges).

2011-01-01

291

Disappearance of Chikungunya Virus from Bangkok.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although infections with Chikungunya virus were common in Bangkok during the 1960's and early 1970's, disease surveillance during the period 1979-1982 indicated that infections with this virus had virtually ceased.

D. S. Burke A. Nisalak S. Nimmannitya

1985-01-01

292

Profit Sharing and Employment Stability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The characteristics of profit sharing among small businesses meet the theoretical requirements for stabilizing employment, and there was evidence to support the hypothesis that workers whose pay is partially in the form of profit sharing have greater job ...

J. Chelius R. S. Smith

1989-01-01

293

A simple tool for neuroimaging data sharing.  

PubMed

Data sharing is becoming increasingly common, but despite encouragement and facilitation by funding agencies, journals, and some research efforts, most neuroimaging data acquired today is still not shared due to political, financial, social, and technical barriers to sharing data that remain. In particular, technical solutions are few for researchers that are not a part of larger efforts with dedicated sharing infrastructures, and social barriers such as the time commitment required to share can keep data from becoming publicly available. We present a system for sharing neuroimaging data, designed to be simple to use and to provide benefit to the data provider. The system consists of a server at the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility (INCF) and user tools for uploading data to the server. The primary design principle for the user tools is ease of use: the user identifies a directory containing Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) data, provides their INCF Portal authentication, and provides identifiers for the subject and imaging session. The user tool anonymizes the data and sends it to the server. The server then runs quality control routines on the data, and the data and the quality control reports are made public. The user retains control of the data and may change the sharing policy as they need. The result is that in a few minutes of the user's time, DICOM data can be anonymized and made publicly available, and an initial quality control assessment can be performed on the data. The system is currently functional, and user tools and access to the public image database are available at http://xnat.incf.org/. PMID:24904398

Haselgrove, Christian; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Kennedy, David N

2014-01-01

294

A simple tool for neuroimaging data sharing  

PubMed Central

Data sharing is becoming increasingly common, but despite encouragement and facilitation by funding agencies, journals, and some research efforts, most neuroimaging data acquired today is still not shared due to political, financial, social, and technical barriers to sharing data that remain. In particular, technical solutions are few for researchers that are not a part of larger efforts with dedicated sharing infrastructures, and social barriers such as the time commitment required to share can keep data from becoming publicly available. We present a system for sharing neuroimaging data, designed to be simple to use and to provide benefit to the data provider. The system consists of a server at the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility (INCF) and user tools for uploading data to the server. The primary design principle for the user tools is ease of use: the user identifies a directory containing Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) data, provides their INCF Portal authentication, and provides identifiers for the subject and imaging session. The user tool anonymizes the data and sends it to the server. The server then runs quality control routines on the data, and the data and the quality control reports are made public. The user retains control of the data and may change the sharing policy as they need. The result is that in a few minutes of the user’s time, DICOM data can be anonymized and made publicly available, and an initial quality control assessment can be performed on the data. The system is currently functional, and user tools and access to the public image database are available at http://xnat.incf.org/.

Haselgrove, Christian; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Kennedy, David N.

2014-01-01

295

A new species of nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV) associated with mortalities in Manitoba lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens.  

PubMed

A newly discovered virus, Namao virus, associated with morbidity and mortality, was detected among juvenile lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens being propagated by a conservation stocking program for this endangered species in Manitoba, Canada. The outbreaks resulted in cumulative mortalities of 62 to 99.6% among progeny of wild Winnipeg River or Nelson River lake sturgeon and occurred at 2 geographically separate facilities. Namao virus was detected in almost 94% of the moribund or dead lake sturgeon according to a conventional polymerase chain reaction (cPCR) test that is based upon amplification of a 219 bp fragment of the virus major capsid protein (MCP). The virus itself was large (242 to 282 nm) and icosahedral-shaped with 2 capsids and a condensed bar-shaped core. It was found in virus factories within the host cell cytoplasm and displayed a tropism for the integument. Namao virus caused cellular changes characterized by enlarged eosinophilic epithelial cells in the gills and skin. Samples suspected of containing Namao virus did not have cytopathic effects on primary lake sturgeon or established white sturgeon cell lines. However, viral nucleic acid was detected in the former after prolonged incubation periods. Using primers designed from conserved regions of the MCP from NCLDVs, an estimated 95 to 96% of the Namao virus MCP open reading frame was captured. Phylogenetic analysis using the MCP of Namao virus and 27 other NCLDVs suggested that Namao virus and white sturgeon iridovirus share a common evolutionary past and might be members of the family Mimiviridae or a new, as yet unrecognized, virus family. PMID:23446969

Clouthier, Sharon C; Vanwalleghem, Elissa; Copeland, Shelagh; Klassen, Cheryl; Hobbs, Gary; Nielsen, Ole; Anderson, Eric D

2013-02-28

296

Compiler Reorganization of Shared Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

False sharing in shared memory multiprocessors is caused by a mismatch between the layout of write shared data in memory and the cross-processor memory reference pattern to it. This mismatch can be eliminated by restructuring the data to match the pattern...

S. J. Eggers

1996-01-01

297

Assured Information Sharing Life Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes our approach to assured information sharing. The research is being carried out under a MURI 9Multiuniversity Research Initiative) project funded by the air force office of scientific research (AFOSR). The main objective of our project is: define, design and develop an assured information sharing lifecycle (AISL) that realizes the DoD's information sharing value chain. In this paper

Tim Finin; Anupam Joshi; Hillol Kargupta; Yelena Yesha; Joel Sachs; Elisa Bertino; Ninghui Li; Chris Clifton; Gene Spafford; Bhavani M. Thuraisingham; Murat Kantarcioglu; Alain Bensoussan; Nathan Berg; Latifur Khan; Jiawei Han; ChengXiang Zhai; Ravi S. Sandhu; Shouhuai Xu; Jim Massaro; Lada A. Adamic

2009-01-01

298

Fractions: How to Fair Share  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children learn from a very early age what it means to get their "fair share." Whether it is candy or birthday cake, many children successfully create equal-size groups or parts of a collection or whole but later struggle to create fair shares of multiple wholes, such as fairly sharing four pies among a family of seven. Recent research suggests…

Wilson, P. Holt; Edgington, Cynthia P.; Nguyen, Kenny H.; Pescosolido, Ryan S.; Confrey, Jere

2011-01-01

299

Social sharing and risk reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sharing important resources widely beyond direct kin group members is one of the core features characterizing human societies. Moreover, generalized exchange involving many community members (e.g., meat sharing in bands) seems to be a uniquely human practice. This paper explores a computational algorithm for the psychology of social sharing that may underlie such practices, based on the risk-reduction hypothesis in

Tatsuya Kameda; Masanori Takezawa; R. Scott Tindale; Christine M Smith

2002-01-01

300

Genetic Diversity in RNA Virus Quasispecies Is Controlled by Host-Virus Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many RNA viruses have genetically diverse populations known as quasispecies. Important biological char- acteristics may be related to the levels of diversity in the quasispecies (quasispecies cloud size), including adaptability and host range. Previous work using Tobacco mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus indicated that evolutionarily related viruses have very different levels of diversity in a common host. The quasispecies

WILLIAM L. SCHNEIDER; MARILYN J. ROOSSINCK

2001-01-01

301

Sharing a disparate landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Working across boundaries of power, identity, and political geography is fraught with difficulties and contradictions. In Tali Tal and Iris Alkaher's, " Collaborative environmental projects in a multicultural society: Working from within separate or mutual landscapes?" the authors describe their efforts to do this in the highly charged atmosphere of Israel. This forum article offers a response to their efforts. Writing from a framework of critical pedagogy, I use the concepts of space and time to anchor my analysis, as I examine the issue of power in this Jew/Arab collaborative environmental project. This response problematizes "sharing" in a landscape fraught with disparities. It also looks to further Tal and Alkaher's work by geographically and politically grounding it in the broader current conflict and by juxtaposing sustainability with equity.

Ali-Khan, Carolyne

2010-06-01

302

TASO: "Caring is sharing".  

PubMed

The AIDS Service Organization (TASO) in Uganda was launched in 1987 and has become one of the most successful community efforts to provide care to people with HIV/AIDS. Working in seven district centers, it has already helped more than 20,000 people with AIDS. The TASO philosophy calls upon individuals, families, and communities to uphold the rights and responsibilities of people affected by HIV/AIDS. Such rights and responsibilities should be fulfilled through education, counseling, dialogue, acceptance, and togetherness, not through coercion and stigmatization. Noerine Kaleeba is one of TASO's founders and was its leader until early 1995; her husband died of AIDS. "Caring is sharing" and "positive living" were adopted as slogans by TASO. They represent the organization's belief that caring for others and supporting them as needed is what must be done to successfully check the spread of HIV. TASO's philosophy is catching on in Kenya and Tanzania. PMID:12290670

1995-01-01

303

University Reactor Sharing Program  

SciTech Connect

Research projects supported by the program include items such as dating geological material and producing high current super conducting magnets. The funding continues to give small colleges and universities the valuable opportunity to use the NSC for teaching courses in nuclear processes; specifically neutron activation analysis and gamma spectroscopy. The Reactor Sharing Program has supported the construction of a Fast Neutron Flux Irradiator for users at New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology and the University of Houston. This device has been characterized and has been found to have near optimum neutron fluxes for A39/Ar 40 dating. Institution final reports and publications resulting from the use of these funds are on file at the Nuclear Science Center.

W.D. Reese

2004-02-24

304

Chlorella viruses isolated in China  

SciTech Connect

Plaque-forming viruses of the unicellular, eukaryotic, exsymbiotic, Chlorella-like green algae strain NC64A, which are common in the United States, were also present in fresh water collected in the People's Republic of China. Seven of the Chinese viruses were examined in detail and compared with the Chlorella viruses previously isolated in the United States. Like the American viruses, the Chinese viruses were large polyhedra and sensitive to chloroform. They contained numerous structural proteins and large double-stranded DNA genomes of at least 300 kilobase pairs. Each of the DNAs from the Chinese viruses contained 5-methyldeoxycytosine, which varied from 12.6 to 46.7% of the deoxycytosine, and N{sup 6}-methyldeoxyadenosine, which varied from 2.2 to 28.3% of the deoxyadenosine. Four of the Chinese virus DNAs hybridized extensively with {sup 32}P-labeled DNA from the American virus PBCV-1, and three hybridized poorly.

Zhang, Y.; Burbank, D.E.; Van Etten, J.L. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln (USA))

1988-09-01

305

HLA-Associated Alterations in Replication Capacity of Chimeric NL4-3 Viruses Carrying gag-protease from Elite Controllers of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 ?  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected persons who maintain plasma viral loads of <50 copies RNA/ml without treatment have been termed elite controllers (EC). Factors contributing to durable control of HIV in EC are unknown, but an HLA-dependent mechanism is suggested by overrepresentation of “protective” class I alleles, such as B*27, B*51, and B*57. Here we investigated the relative replication capacity of viruses (VRC) obtained from EC (n = 54) compared to those from chronic progressors (CP; n = 41) by constructing chimeric viruses using patient-derived gag-protease sequences amplified from plasma HIV RNA and inserted into an NL4-3 backbone. The chimeric viruses generated from EC displayed lower VRC than did viruses from CP (P < 0.0001). HLA-B*57 was associated with lower VRC (P = 0.0002) than were other alleles in both EC and CP groups. Chimeric viruses from B*57+ EC (n = 18) demonstrated lower VRC than did viruses from B*57+ CP (n = 8, P = 0.0245). Differences in VRC between EC and CP were also observed for viruses obtained from individuals expressing no described “protective” alleles (P = 0.0065). Intriguingly, two common HLA alleles, A*02 and B*07, were associated with higher VRC (P = 0.0140 and 0.0097, respectively), and there was no difference in VRC between EC and CP sharing these common HLA alleles. These findings indicate that cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) selection pressure on gag-protease alters VRC, and HIV-specific CTLs inducing escape mutations with fitness costs in this region may be important for strict viremia control in EC of HIV.

Miura, Toshiyuki; Brockman, Mark A.; Brumme, Zabrina L.; Brumme, Chanson J.; Pereyra, Florencia; Trocha, Alicja; Block, Brian L.; Schneidewind, Arne; Allen, Todd M.; Heckerman, David; Walker, Bruce D.

2009-01-01

306

A Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Nef Peptide Is a Dominant Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Epitope in Indian-Origin Rhesus Monkeys Expressing the Common MHC Class I Allele Mamu-A*02  

Microsoft Academic Search

The precise measurement of epitope-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)- and simian–human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-infected or vaccinated rhesus monkeys has been important in the evaluation of potential HIV vaccine strategies. This quantitation of CTL has been limited to date by the identification of only one dominant SIV\\/SHIV epitope in these monkeys. We have recently defined

Michael H. Newberg; Marcelo J. Kuroda; William A. Charini; Ayako Miura; Carol I. Lord; Jörn E. Schmitz; Darci A. Gorgone; Michelle A. Lifton; Kristine Kuus-Reichel; Norman L. Letvin

2002-01-01

307

Recoverable distributed shared virtual memory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of rollback recovery in distributed shared virtual environments, in which the shared memory is implemented in software in a loosely coupled distributed multicomputer system, is examined. A user-transparent checkpointing recovery scheme and a new twin-page disk storage management technique are presented for implementing recoverable distributed shared virtual memory. The checkpointing scheme can be integrated with the memory coherence protocol for managing the shared virtual memory. The twin-page disk design allows checkpointing to proceed in an incremental fashion without an explicit undo at the time of recovery. The recoverable distributed shared virtual memory allows the system to restart computation from a checkpoint without a global restart.

Wu, Kun-Lung; Fuchs, W. Kent

1990-01-01

308

Sharing Teaching Ideas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents ideas related to: (1) graphs (considering patterns, periodic functions, and problem-solving); (2) curing common errors (such as an incorrect way of canceling); (3) the median of a trapezoid; and (4) using a telephone directory to teach probability, graphing, random-number tables, reading tables, calculating percentages, and other topics.…

Mathematics Teacher, 1986

1986-01-01

309

Characterization and distribution of tomato yellow margin leaf curl virus, a begomovirus from Venezuela.  

PubMed

A begomovirus causing mottling and leaf deformation in tomato from the State of Mérida was cloned and sequenced. The virus has a bipartite genome comprised of a DNA-A (2,572 nucleotides) and a DNA-B (2,543 nucleotides) with a genome organization typical of New World begomoviruses. Both components share a common region of 115 nucleotides with 98 % sequence identity. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that while no virus sequences were closely related, the A component was distantly related to those of two other tomato-infecting viruses, tomato leaf deformation virus and Merremia mosaic virus; and the DNA-B, to those of pepper huasteco yellow vein virus and Rhynchosia golden mosaic Yucatan virus. The DNA-A and DNA-B sequences were submitted to GenBank (accession no. AY508993 and AY508994, respectively) and later accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses as the genome of a member of a unique virus species with the name Tomato yellow margin leaf curl virus (TYMLCV). Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. 'Fl. Lanai') plants inoculated with cloned TYMLCV DNA-A and DNA-B became systemically infected and showed chlorotic margins and leaf curling. The distribution of TYMLCV in tomato-producing states in Venezuela was determined by nucleic acid spot hybridization analysis of 334 tomato leaf samples collected from ten states using a TYMLCV-specific probe and confirmed by PCR and sequencing of the PCR fragment. TYMLCV was detected in samples from the states of Aragua, Guárico, and Mérida, suggesting that TYMLCV is widely distributed in Venezuela. PMID:23064695

Nava, A; Londoño, A; Polston, J E

2013-02-01

310

MODELLING OF THE INTERACTION BETWEEN GAS PIPELINES AND POWER TRANSMISSION LINES IN SHARED CORRIDORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sharing of common corridors by gas pipelines and overhead power transmission lines is becoming quite common. Voltages can be induced on gas pipelines from power transmission lines in the sections where they share the corridor. This paper reports on a recently completed study on the interaction between gas pipelines and power transmission lines in a utility common corridor in New

D. Markovic; V. Smith; S. Perera; S. Elphick

311

Sharing the Preservation Burden  

SciTech Connect

Preserving digitally encoded information which is not just to be rendered, as a document, but which must processed, like data, is even harder than one might think, because understandability of the information which is encoded in the digital object(s) is what is required. Information about Nuclear Waste will include both documents as well as data. Moreover one must be able to understand the relationship between the many individual pieces of information. Furthermore the volume of information involved will require us to allow automated processing of such information. Preserving the ability to understand and process digitally encoded information over long periods of time is especially hard when so many things will change, including hardware, software, environment and the tacit and implicit knowledge that people have. Since we cannot predict these changes this cannot be just a one-off action; continued effort is required. However it seems reasonable to say that no organization, project or person can ever say for certain that their ability to provide this effort is going to last forever. What can be done? Can anything be guaranteed? Probably not guaranteed - but at least one can try to reduce the risk of losing the information. We argue that if no single organization, project or person can guarantee funding or effort (or even interest), then somehow we must share the 'preservation load', and this is more than a simple chain of preservation consisting of handing on the collection of bits from one holder to the next. Clearly the bits must be passed on (but may be transformed along the way), however something more is required - because of the need to maintain understandability, not just access. This paper describes the tools, techniques and infrastructure components which the CASPAR project is producing to help in sharing the preservation burden. In summary: CASPAR is attempting to use OAIS concepts rigorously and to the fullest extent possible, supplementing these where appropriate. Based on these fundamental ideas about digital preservation, a number of components, tools and techniques are being created in order to provide a broadly applicable infrastructure to allow the spreading of the burden of preserving the understandability and usability of digitally encoded information. In the process the limits of the applicability of these OAIS concepts are themselves being tested. Most importantly a number of validation metrics have been produced. Further details are available from the CASPAR web site http://www.casparpreserves.eu. (authors)

Giaretta, D. [STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

2008-07-01

312

Viruses causing gastroenteritis.  

PubMed

Acute gastroenteritis is one of the most common diseases in humans worldwide. Viruses are recognized as important causes of this disease, particularly in children. Since the Norwalk virus was identified as a cause of gastroenteritis, the number of viral agents associated with diarrheal disease in humans has steadily increased. Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea in children under 5 years of age. Astrovirus, calicivirus and enteric adenovirus are also important etiologic agents of acute gastroenteritis. Other viruses, such as toroviruses, coronaviruses, picobirnaviruses and pestiviruses, are increasingly being identified as causative agents of diarrhea. In recent years, the availability of diagnostic tests, mainly immunoassays or molecular biology techniques, has increased our understanding of this group of viruses. The future development of a safe and highly effective vaccine against rotavirus could prevent, at least, cases of severe diarrhea and reduce mortality from this disease. PMID:12667234

Wilhelmi, I; Roman, E; Sánchez-Fauquier, A

2003-04-01

313

Shared Experience: Art & War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The use of artistic expression to convey the experience of war and the battlefield has been around since antiquity, and has given rise to glorious poetry, epic stories, and more recently, paintings. This online exhibit created by the people at the Australian War Memorial presents the experiences of Australians, Britons, and Canadians in the Second World War through paintings created during this turbulent period. As the homepage suggests, "The men and women that feature in these works are shown waiting, preparing, fighting, suffering, celebrating". First-time visitors will want to start by reading the introductory essay by Roger Tolson titled "A Shared Experience". After doing so, they should feel free to browse around the paintings offered here, all of which are grouped into thematic categories that include "Casualties", "Work", and "Battle". There are a number of rather haunting and evocative paintings scattered across these categories, but visitors should be sure to take a look at the work "Battlefield burial of three NCOs" by Ivor Hele and "Airmen In A Village Pub Yorkshire" by Miller Brittain. The site is rounded by brief biographies for each of the artists whose work is included on the site.

2006-01-01

314

Commonality Analysis with Multivariate Data Sets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Commonality analysis may be used as an adjunct to general linear methods as a means of determining the degree of predictive ability shared by two or more independent variables. For each independent variable, commonality analysis indicates how much of the variance of the dependent variable is unique to the predictor and how much of the predictor's…

Daniel, Larry G.

315

Sharing information among existing data sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sharing of information between law enforcement agencies is a premise for the success of all jurisdictions. A wealth of information resides in both the databases and infrastructures of local, state, and regional agencies. However, this information is often not available to the law enforcement professionals who require it. When the information is, available, individual investigators must not only know that it exists, but where it resides, and how to retrieve it. In many cases, these types of cross-jurisdictional communications are limited to personal relationships that result from telephone calls, faxes, and in some cases, e-mail. As criminal elements become more sophisticated and distributed, law enforcement agencies must begin to develop infrastructures and common sharing mechanisms that address a constantly evolving criminal threat. Historically, criminals have taken advantage of the lack of communication between law enforcement agencies. Examples of this are evident in the search for stolen property and monetary dealings. Pawned property, cash transactions, and failure to supply child support are three common cross- jurisdictional crimes that could be better enforced by strengthening the lines of communication. Criminal behavior demonstrates that it is easier to profit from their actions by dealing in separate jurisdictions. For example, stolen property is sold outside of the jurisdiction of its origin. In most cases, simply traveling a short distance to the adjoining county or municipality is sufficient to ensure that apprehension of the criminal or seizure of the stolen property is highly unlikely. In addition to the traditional burglar, fugitives often sell or pawn property to finance their continued evasion from the law. Sharing of information in a rapid manner would increase the ability of law enforcement personnel to track and capture fugitives, as well as criminals. In an example to combat this threat, the State of Florida recently acted on the need to share crucial investigative information across jurisdictional bounds by establishing a communications infrastructure for all of its law enforcement jurisdictions. The Criminal Justice Network (CJ-Net) is a statewide TCP/IP network, dedicated to the sharing of law enforcement information. CJ-Net is managed and maintained by the Florida Department of Law Enforcement (FDLE) and provides open access and privileges to any criminal justice agency, including the state court and penitentiary systems. In addition to Florida, other states, such as North Carolina, are also beginning to implement common protocol communication infrastructures and architectures in order to link local jurisdictions together throughout the state. The law enforcement domain in an optimum situation for information-sharing technologies. Communication infrastructures are continually established, and as such, action is required to effectively use these networks to their full potential. Information technologies that are best suited for the law enforcement domain, must be evaluated and implemented in a cost-effective manner. Unlike the Defense Department and other large federal agencies, individual jurisdictions at both the local and state level cannot afford to expend limited resources on research and development of prototype systems. Therefore, we must identify enabling technologies that have matured in related domains and transition them into law enforcement at a minimum cost. Crucial to this measure, is the selection of the appropriate levels of information-sharing technologies to be inserted. Information-sharing technologies that are unproven or have extensive recurring costs are not suitable for this domain. Information-sharing technologies traditionally exist between two distinct polar bounds: the data warehousing approach and mediation across distributed heterogeneous data sources. These two ends of the spectrum represent extremely different philosophies in accomplishing the same goal. In the following sections of this paper, discussions of information-sharing mechanisms will be addressed an

Ashley, W. R., III

1999-01-01

316

Information Sharing among Untrustworthy Entities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of current technologies that enable secure information sharing assume that entities that share information are mutually trustworthy. However, in recent applications this assumption is not realistic. As applications become sophisticated, information systems are required to share information securely even among untrustworthy entities. This paper discusses two kinds of problems about information sharing among untrustworthy entities, i.e. secure statistical data gathering and anonymous authentication, and proposes their solutions. The former is a problem to calculate statistics while ensuring that raw data are not disclosed to any entity including ones that calculate statistics, and the latter is a problem to authenticate entities while keeping their identities confidential.

Tamura, Shinsuke; Yanase, Tatsuro

317

Young Children's Understanding of Cultural Common Ground  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Human social interaction depends on individuals identifying the common ground they have with others, based both on personally shared experiences and on cultural common ground that all members of the group share. We introduced 3- and 5-year-old children to a culturally well-known object and a novel object. An experimenter then entered and asked,…

Liebal, Kristin; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

2013-01-01

318

Shared governance and shared leadership: meeting the challenges of implementation.  

PubMed

New forms of leadership are required if staff are to be effectively engaged and involved in decision-making and promoting clinical effectiveness. One such mechanism is shared governance and shared leadership to ensure practice is both practitioner owned and organizationally supported. Empowering staff is a great challenge requiring effective planning, preparation and commitment. Establishing the process of shared governance requires effective leadership, implementation of a suitable framework, multidisciplinary working and examination of the organization's structure and culture. This paper discusses the challenges of implementation, preparation of staff, and alignment with the organizational agenda. It emphasizes that shared governance is an ongoing and fluid process, requiring continual assessment and re-evaluation in order to be flexible and responsive to an ever-changing environment. The Christie model provides a sustainable framework for moving practice forward and successful implementation has led to greater coordination of practice development and sharing of best practice. PMID:15613089

Scott, Linda; Caress, Ann-Louise

2005-01-01

319

Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses  

PubMed Central

Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts.

Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

2014-01-01

320

Bat flight and zoonotic viruses.  

PubMed

Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host-virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts. PMID:24750692

O'Shea, Thomas J; Cryan, Paul M; Cunningham, Andrew A; Fooks, Anthony R; Hayman, David T S; Luis, Angela D; Peel, Alison J; Plowright, Raina K; Wood, James L N

2014-05-01

321

Shared Environmental Contributions to Substance Use  

PubMed Central

The current study examined the association between substance use in the household during childhood, parental attitudes towards substance use and lifetime substance use in males. Subjects included 1081 monozygotic and 707 dizygotic twins from the Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders. Retrospective reports of substance use and features of the family environment (adult household substance use and parental attitudes towards substance use) were obtained using a life history interview. A trivariate Cholesky decomposition was conducted using the program Mx to decompose common shared environmental variance. Findings suggest that family environmental factors accounted for a large proportion of the shared environmental effects for illicit drug use. Results illustrate an important way of extending behavior genetic research to reveal specific etiological environmental mechanisms.

Baker, Jessica H.; Maes, Hermine H.

2012-01-01

322

Probabilistic common-cause failures analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common-cause failures (CCF) are simultaneous failures of multiple components within a system due to a common-cause or a shared root cause. CCF can contribute significantly to the overall system unreliability. Therefore, it is important to incorporate CCF into the system reliability analysis. Traditional CCF analyses have assumed that the occurrence of a common-cause results in the deterministic\\/guaranteed failure of components

Liudong Xing; Wendai Wang

2008-01-01

323

Understanding Helicases as a Means of Virus Control  

PubMed Central

Helicases are promising antiviral drug targets because their enzymatic activities are essential for viral genome replication, transcription, and translation. Numerous potent inhibitors of helicases encoded by herpes simplex virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, hepatitis C virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, and human papillomavirus have been recently reported in the scientific literature. Some inhibitors have also been shown to decrease viral replication in cell culture and animal models. This review discusses recent progress in understanding the structure and function of viral helicases to help clarify how these potential antiviral compounds function and to facilitate the design of better inhibitors. The above helicases and all related viral proteins are classified here based on their evolutionary and functional similarities, and the key mechanistic features of each group are noted. All helicases share a common motor function fueled by ATP hydrolysis, but differ in exactly how the motor moves the protein and its cargo on a nucleic acid chain. The helicase inhibitors discussed here influence rates of helicase-catalyzed DNA (or RNA) unwinding by preventing ATP hydrolysis, nucleic acid binding, nucleic acid release, or by disrupting the interaction of a helicase with a required cofactor.

Frick, D. N.; Lam, A. M. I.

2012-01-01

324

Supporting social presence through lightweight photo sharing on and off the desktop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lightweight photo sharing, particularly via mobile devices, is fast becoming a common communication medium used for maintaining a presence in the lives of friends and family. How should such systems be designed to maximize this social presence while maintaining simplicity? An experimental photo sharing system was developed and tested that, compared to current systems, offers highly simplified, group-centric sharing, automatic

Scott Counts; Eric Fellheimer

2004-01-01

325

Genetic Evolution of H7N9 Virus in China, 2013  

MedlinePLUS

... in China, 2013 Domestic Ducks Wild Birds Domestic Poultry Setting: Habitats shared by wild and domestic birds and/or live bird/poultry markets Multiple Reassortment Events H7N3 virus H7N9 virus ...

326

The concurrent language, Shared Prolog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shared Prolog is a new concurrent logic language. A Shared Prolog system is composed of a set of parallel agents that are Prolog programs extended by a guard mechanism. The programmer controls the granularity of parallelism, coordinating communication and synchronization of the agents via a centralized data structure. The communication mechanism is inherited from the blackboard model of problem solving.

Antonio Brogi

1991-01-01

327

Dream Sharing as Social Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was administered to 241 individuals whose questionnaire responses were analyzed to determine if they told their dreams to others, to whom they told their dreams, for what purpose, and in what social contexts dreams were shared. Respondents were also asked whether there were types of dreams they would not tell and individuals with whom they would not share

Barbara Vann; Neil Alperstein

2000-01-01

328

Knowledge Sharing: Developing from within  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: If collaboration and knowledge sharing lie at the core of providing added-value to either services or products can we improve this process? The purpose of this paper is to suggest that it can be improved and this lies in how we develop the systems that support collaboration and knowledge sharing. This can be achieved within the…

Patrick, Keith; Dotsika, Fefie

2007-01-01

329

Iowa's Shared Vision: Early Childhood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a revised version of a 1990 document which identifies a direction for Iowa early childhood education through the year 2000. The document defines Iowa's shared vision for young children as: to ensure quality early childhood opportunities for all Iowa's young children. This vision is shared through the Iowa Department of Education's efforts…

Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines.

330

Information Sharing in Credit Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present a model with adverse selection where information sharing between lenders arises endogenously. Lenders' incentives to share information about borrowers are positively related to the mobility and heterogeneity of borrowers, to the size of the credit market, and to advances in information technology; such incentives are instead reduced by the fear of competition from potential entrants. In addition,

Marco Pagano; Tullio Jappelli

1993-01-01

331

Efficient Sharing of Encrypted Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design of a censorship-resistant distributed file sharing protocol which has been implemented on top of gnunet, an anonymous, reputation-based, network. We focus on the encoding layer of the gnunet file-sharing protocol which supports efficient dissemination of encrypted data as well as queries over encrypted data.

Krista Bennett; Christian Grothoff; Tzvetan Horozov; Ioana Patrascu

2002-01-01

332

Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of deformed wing viruses isolated from South Korea.  

PubMed

Deformed wing virus (DWV) is one of the most common viral infection in honeybees. Phylogenetic trees were constructed for 16 partial nucleotide sequences of the structural polyprotein region and the RNA helicase region of South Korean DWVs. The sequences were compared with 10 previously reported DWV sequences from different countries and the sequences of two closely related viruses, Kakugo virus (KGV) and Varroa destructor virus-1 (VDV-1). The phylogeny based on these two regions, the Korean DWV genomes were highly conserved with 95-100% identity, while they also shared 93-97% similarity with genotypes from other countries, although they formed a separate cluster. To investigate this phenomenon in more detail, the complete DWV genome sequences of Korea-1 and Korea-2 were determined and aligned with six previously reported complete DWV genome sequences from different countries, as well as KGV and VDV-1, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed. The two Korean DWVs shared 96.4% similarity. Interestingly, the Korea-2 genome was more similar to the USA (96.5%) genome than the Korea-1. The Korean genotypes highly conserved with USA (96%) but low similarity with the United Kingdom3 (UK3) genome (89%). The end of the 5' untranslated region (UTR), the start of the open reading frame (ORF) region, and the 3' UTR were variable and contained several substitutions/transitions. This phenomenon may be explained by intramolecular recombination between the Korean and other DWV genotypes. PMID:24035266

Reddy, Kondreddy Eswar; Noh, Jin Hyeong; Yoo, Mi-Sun; Kim, Young-Ha; Kim, Nam-Hee; Doan, Huong Thi Thanh; Ramya, Mummadireddy; Jung, Suk-Chan; Van Quyen, Dong; Kang, Seung-Won

2013-12-27

333

Oncolytic viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the cytotoxic effects of viruses are usually viewed in terms of pathogenicity, it is possible to harness this activity for therapeutic purposes. Viral genomes are highly versatile, and can be modified to direct their cytotoxicity towards cancer cells. These viruses are known as oncolytic viruses. How are viruses engineered to become tumour specific, and can they be used to

E. Antonio Chiocca

2002-01-01

334

Bench-to-bedside review: Rare and common viral infections in the intensive care unit – linking pathophysiology to clinical presentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral infections are common causes of respiratory tract disease in the outpatient setting but much less common in the intensive care unit. However, a finite number of viral agents cause respiratory tract disease in the intensive care unit. Some viruses, such as influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and varicella-zoster virus (VZV), are relatively common. Others, such as adenovirus,

Nicholas Stollenwerk; Richart W Harper; Christian E Sandrock

2008-01-01

335

Cedar Virus: A Novel Henipavirus Isolated from Australian Bats  

PubMed Central

The genus Henipavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae contains two viruses, Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) for which pteropid bats act as the main natural reservoir. Each virus also causes serious and commonly lethal infection of people as well as various species of domestic animals, however little is known about the associated mechanisms of pathogenesis. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a new paramyxovirus from pteropid bats, Cedar virus (CedPV), which shares significant features with the known henipaviruses. The genome size (18,162 nt) and organization of CedPV is very similar to that of HeV and NiV; its nucleocapsid protein displays antigenic cross-reactivity with henipaviruses; and it uses the same receptor molecule (ephrin- B2) for entry during infection. Preliminary challenge studies with CedPV in ferrets and guinea pigs, both susceptible to infection and disease with known henipaviruses, confirmed virus replication and production of neutralizing antibodies although clinical disease was not observed. In this context, it is interesting to note that the major genetic difference between CedPV and HeV or NiV lies within the coding strategy of the P gene, which is known to play an important role in evading the host innate immune system. Unlike HeV, NiV, and almost all known paramyxoviruses, the CedPV P gene lacks both RNA editing and also the coding capacity for the highly conserved V protein. Preliminary study indicated that CedPV infection of human cells induces a more robust IFN-? response than HeV.

Barr, Jennifer A.; Tachedjian, Mary; Smith, Craig; Middleton, Deborah; Yu, Meng; Todd, Shawn; Foord, Adam J.; Haring, Volker; Payne, Jean; Robinson, Rachel; Broz, Ivano; Crameri, Gary; Field, Hume E.; Wang, Lin-Fa

2012-01-01

336

Cedar virus: a novel Henipavirus isolated from Australian bats.  

PubMed

The genus Henipavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae contains two viruses, Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) for which pteropid bats act as the main natural reservoir. Each virus also causes serious and commonly lethal infection of people as well as various species of domestic animals, however little is known about the associated mechanisms of pathogenesis. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a new paramyxovirus from pteropid bats, Cedar virus (CedPV), which shares significant features with the known henipaviruses. The genome size (18,162 nt) and organization of CedPV is very similar to that of HeV and NiV; its nucleocapsid protein displays antigenic cross-reactivity with henipaviruses; and it uses the same receptor molecule (ephrin-B2) for entry during infection. Preliminary challenge studies with CedPV in ferrets and guinea pigs, both susceptible to infection and disease with known henipaviruses, confirmed virus replication and production of neutralizing antibodies although clinical disease was not observed. In this context, it is interesting to note that the major genetic difference between CedPV and HeV or NiV lies within the coding strategy of the P gene, which is known to play an important role in evading the host innate immune system. Unlike HeV, NiV, and almost all known paramyxoviruses, the CedPV P gene lacks both RNA editing and also the coding capacity for the highly conserved V protein. Preliminary study indicated that CedPV infection of human cells induces a more robust IFN-? response than HeV. PMID:22879820

Marsh, Glenn A; de Jong, Carol; Barr, Jennifer A; Tachedjian, Mary; Smith, Craig; Middleton, Deborah; Yu, Meng; Todd, Shawn; Foord, Adam J; Haring, Volker; Payne, Jean; Robinson, Rachel; Broz, Ivano; Crameri, Gary; Field, Hume E; Wang, Lin-Fa

2012-01-01

337

Virus-specific HLA-restricted lysis of herpes simplex virus-infected human monocytes and macrophages mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes  

SciTech Connect

Freshly-isolated peripheral blood human monocytes and 5 day in vitro cultured macrophages were infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), labeled with /sup 51/Cr, and used as target cells in a 12-14 hour cell-mediated cytotoxicity assay. Mononuclear leukocytes (MNL) from HSV-1 non-immune individuals, whether unstimulated or stimulated with HSV-1 antigen, did not mediate significant lysis of either target cell. HSV-immune MNL, both freshly-isolated and cultured for 5 days without antigen, demonstrated only low levels of natural killer (NK) cell-mediate lysis. MNL from HSV-immune individuals incubated for 5 days in vitro with HSV-1 antigen mediated significant virus-specific lysis of both target cells. Mean virus-specific lysis of autologous monocytes was 8.5(/+-/2.0)% compared to a three-fold greater virus-specific lysis of autologous macrophages. Greater than 70% of this lytic activity was mediated by Leu-11-negative, T3-positive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Allogeneic target cells lacking a common HLA determinant were not significantly lysed while T8-positive CTL mediated infrequent lysis of target cells sharing a common HLA-A and/or HLA-B determinant. T4-positive lymphocytes were demonstrated to be the predominant cell mediating lysis of autologous target cells and allogeneic target cells sharing both HLA-A and/or HLA-B plus HLA-DR determinants with the CTL; the T4-positive cell was the sole CTL mediator of lysis of allogeneic target cells having a common HLA-DR determinant.

Torpey, D.J. III

1987-01-01

338

Sharing Data in the Global Ocean Observing System (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the evolution of data sharing in the field of physical oceanography to highlight the challenges now before us. Synoptic global observation of the ocean from space and in situ platforms has significantly matured over the last two decades. In the early 1990’s the community data sharing challenges facing the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) largely focused on the behavior of individual scientists. Satellite data sharing depended on the policy of individual agencies. Global data sets were delivered with considerable delay and with enormous personal sacrifice. In the 2000’s the requirements for global data sets and sustained observations from the likes of the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change have led to data sharing and cooperation at a grander level. It is more effective and certainly more efficient. The Joint WMO/IOC Technical Commission on Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM) provided the means to organize many aspects of data collection and data dissemination globally, for the common good. In response the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites organized Virtual Constellations to enable the assembly and sharing of like kinds of satellite data (e.g., sea surface topography, ocean vector winds, and ocean color). Individuals in physical oceanography have largely adapted to the new rigors of sharing data for the common good, and as a result of this revolution new science has been enabled. Primary obstacles to sharing have shifted from the individual level to the national level. As we enter into the 2010’s the demands for ocean data continue to evolve with an expanded requirement for more real-time reporting and broader disciplinary coverage, to answer key scientific and societal questions. We are also seeing the development of more numerous national contributions to the global observing system. The drivers for the establishment of global ocean observing systems are expanding beyond climate to include biological and biogeochemical issues (e.g. biodiversity and ecosystem services, fisheries collapse, and ocean acidification). This expanded suite of demands and drivers challenge us further to share data for the common good across specialties. This requires that more ocean scientific communities and national ocean observing programs move towards maturity in terms of global data collection capability, sharing capacity, and data management standards. In oceanography the time has arrived for a cultural shift toward more shared collective observing capabilities. Necessarily we must also rapidly move toward harmony in national data sharing policies for the ocean environment. Building capacity to share ocean observations has been an objective for decades and has resulted in an expanded understanding of technologies and management policies that foster data sharing and provenance tracking.

Lindstrom, E. J.; McCurdy, A.; Young, J.; Fischer, A. S.

2010-12-01

339

Sharing polarization within quantum subspaces  

SciTech Connect

Given an ensemble of n spins, at least some of which are partially polarized, we investigate the sharing of this polarization within a subspace of k spins. We assume that the sharing results in a pseudopure state, characterized by a single purity parameter which we call the bias. As a concrete example we consider ensembles of spin-1/2 nuclei in liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance systems. The shared bias levels are compared with some current entanglement bounds to determine whether the reduced subspaces can give rise to entangled states.

Anwar, M. S.; Jones, J. A.; Duckett, S. B. [Centre for Quantum Computation, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom) and National Centre for Physics, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Centre for Quantum Computation, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Department of Chemistry, University of York, Heslington, York, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

2006-02-15

340

Confronting JC virus and Homo sapiens biological signatures.  

PubMed

The present report describes the peptide commonality between JC virus (JCV) and the human proteome at the heptamer level. In total, 53 viral heptapeptides occur in functionally important human proteins with potential consequences for host functions and JCV pathogenesis. A paradigmatic example of a crucial peptide match is the SGKTTLA sequence, shared by JCV LT antigen and human nicotinamide/nicotinic acid riboside kinase, an enzyme involved in myelination processes. In general, the JCV-versus-host heptapeptide overlap may result in a competition between viral sequences and identical motifs in host enzymic active sites, adhesive domains, regulatory signaling motifs, etc., thus interfering with essential reactions and posing disadvantages to the cell. Overall, this study provides a starting point for investigating the role of peptide commonality in host-pathogen interactions. PMID:23276955

Lucchese, Guglielmo

2013-01-01

341

Enteric hepatitis viruses  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis viruses are infectious agents that can infect liver and cause inflammation. The infection triggers immune response against infected cells that leads to the destruction of hepatic cells. This destruction has two consequences: leaking ALT and AST liver enzymes which increases during the course of disease and accumulation of bilirubin- a red pigmented compound released from dead red cells- which causes the yellow coloration of eyes and skin. These viruses transmit through diverse routes i.e. blood transfusion, sexual contacts and consuming water or food contaminated by feces. Enteric hepatitis viruses use the latter route for transmission; hence their outbreaks are more common in underdeveloped countries. There are currently two distinguished enteric hepatitis viruses, hepatitis A and hepatitis E. These viruses belong to different family of viruses and their epidemiological characteristics are different. These infections can be diagnosed by an ELISA for IgM antibody. A vaccine has been developed in last decade of twentieth century for hepatitis A virus, which is administered mostly in the developed world i.e. U.S and Japan. Treatment for these infections is mostly supportive; however, in the case of fulminant hepatitis the liver transplantation might be necessary.

Tahaei, Seyed Mohammad Ebrahim; Zali, Mohammad Reza

2012-01-01

342

Virus Ultra Structure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Linda Stannard of the University of Capetown, South Africa, has composed a page which, although it was intended to serve as an introductory manual for students of virology, can be appreciated by a wide audience. A section on the principles of virus architecture uses text and outstanding graphics to provide an introduction to why viruses look the way they do. Other parts of the site emphasize how virus shapes and structures are "seen" and recorded with sections on negative staining and electron microscopy of DNA- and RNA-containing viruses. This site's success relies on the use of well-chosen graphics and the inclusion of interesting factoids such as the following: "The head of a dress-maker's pin can provide seating accommodation for five hundred million rhinoviruses (cause of the common cold)!".

343

Sequence similarity between Borna disease virus p40 and a duplicated domain within the paramyxovirus and rhabdovirus polymerase proteins.  

PubMed Central

We report the sequence of a Borna disease virus clone (pBDV-40) that encodes a 40-kDa protein (p40) found in the nuclei of infected cells. Comparative sequence analysis indicates that p40 is distantly similar to two different regions in the L-polymerase proteins encoded by paramyxoviruses and rhabdoviruses. The p40 sequence similarity indicates a previously undetected duplication in these viral polymerases. Phylogenetic reconstruction suggests that the gene that encodes p40 last shared a common ancestor with these viral polymerase genes prior to the duplication event. These findings support the hypothesis that Borna disease virus is a negative-strand RNA virus and suggest that p40 is involved in transcription and/or replication. The discovery of a duplication within the polymerase proteins of paramyxoviruses and rhabdoviruses has profound implications for the mapping of enzymatic activities within these multifunctional proteins. Images

McClure, M A; Thibault, K J; Hatalski, C G; Lipkin, W I

1992-01-01

344

CD46 short consensus repeats III and IV enhance measles virus binding but impair soluble hemagglutinin binding.  

PubMed Central

The binding of a recombinant soluble form of the measles virus (MV) hemagglutinin (sH) to cells expressing hybrid CD46/CD4 proteins was compared to that of purified virus. For binding of both ligands, both CD46 external short consensus repeats I and II (SCR I and II) in the natural order were essential. The addition of SCR III and IV enhanced virus binding but inhibited sH binding. Accordingly, this lowered the ability of sH to compete with MV binding. Antihemagglutinin monoclonal antibodies selectively inhibited the binding of either sH or MV. Thus, sH and MV share a common binding site in SCR I and II but differ in their apparent avidity to CD46 under the influence of SCR III and IV.

Devaux, P; Buchholz, C J; Schneider, U; Escoffier, C; Cattaneo, R; Gerlier, D

1997-01-01

345

CD46 short consensus repeats III and IV enhance measles virus binding but impair soluble hemagglutinin binding.  

PubMed

The binding of a recombinant soluble form of the measles virus (MV) hemagglutinin (sH) to cells expressing hybrid CD46/CD4 proteins was compared to that of purified virus. For binding of both ligands, both CD46 external short consensus repeats I and II (SCR I and II) in the natural order were essential. The addition of SCR III and IV enhanced virus binding but inhibited sH binding. Accordingly, this lowered the ability of sH to compete with MV binding. Antihemagglutinin monoclonal antibodies selectively inhibited the binding of either sH or MV. Thus, sH and MV share a common binding site in SCR I and II but differ in their apparent avidity to CD46 under the influence of SCR III and IV. PMID:9094700

Devaux, P; Buchholz, C J; Schneider, U; Escoffier, C; Cattaneo, R; Gerlier, D

1997-05-01

346

Comparing the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics and the NAEP Framework. Achieving the Common Core  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) Initiative, states and territories have collaborated in the development of a common core of standards in English Language Arts and mathematics for grades kindergarten through twelve that are now being adopted by states. Designed not only for the purpose of providing strong, shared expectations, the…

Achieve, Inc., 2010

2010-01-01

347

Comparing the Common Core State Standards and Singapore's Mathematics Syllabus. Achieving the Common Core  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) Initiative, states and territories have collaborated in the development of a common core of standards in English Language Arts and mathematics for grades kindergarten through twelve that are now being adopted by states. Designed not only for the purpose of providing strong, shared expectations, the…

Achieve, Inc., 2010

2010-01-01

348

Identification of Pedigree Relationship from Genome Sharing  

PubMed Central

Determination of degree of relationship traditionally has been undertaken using genotypic data on individual loci, typically assumed to be independent. With dense marker data as now available, it is possible to identify the regions of the genome shared identical by descent (ibd). This information can be used to determine pedigree relationship (R), e.g., cousins vs. second cousins, and also to distinguish pedigrees that have the same Wright’s relationship (R) such as half-sibs and uncle–nephew. We use simulation to investigate the accuracy with which pedigree relationship can be inferred from genome sharing for uniparental relatives (a common ancestor on only one side of their pedigree), specifically the number, position (whether at chromosome ends), and length of shared regions ibd on each chromosome. Moments of the distribution of the likelihood ratio (including its expectation, the Kullback-Leibler distance) for alternative relationships are estimated for model human genomes, with the ratio of the mean to the SD of the likelihood ratio providing a useful reference point. Two relationships differing in R can be readily distinguished provided at least one has high R, e.g., approximately 98.5% correct assignment of cousins and half-cousins, but only approximately 75% for second cousins once removed and third cousins. Two relationships with the same R can be distinguished only if R is high, e.g., half-sibs and uncle–nephew, with probability of correct assignment being approximately 5/6.

Hill, William G.; White, Ian M. S.

2013-01-01

349

Information sharing promotes prosocial behaviour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More often than not, bad decisions are bad regardless of where and when they are made. Information sharing might thus be utilized to mitigate them. Here we show that sharing information about strategy choice between players residing on two different networks reinforces the evolution of cooperation. In evolutionary games, the strategy reflects the action of each individual that warrants the highest utility in a competitive setting. We therefore assume that identical strategies on the two networks reinforce themselves by lessening their propensity to change. Besides network reciprocity working in favour of cooperation on each individual network, we observe the spontaneous emergence of correlated behaviour between the two networks, which further deters defection. If information is shared not just between individuals but also between groups, the positive effect is even stronger, and this despite the fact that information sharing is implemented without any assumptions with regard to content.

Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

2013-05-01

350

The value of shared services.  

PubMed

A multisite shared services organization, combined with a robust business continuity plan, provides infrastructure and redundancies that mitigate risk for hospital CFOs. These structures can position providers to do the following: move essential operations out of a disaster impact zone, if necessary. Allow resources to focus on immediate patient care needs. Take advantage of economies of scale in temporary staffing. Leverage technology. Share in investments in disaster preparedness and business continuity solutions PMID:21789944

Wallace, Beverly B

2011-07-01

351

Information Sharing and Environmental Policies  

PubMed Central

Based on the assumption that in a standard eco-dumping model governments are uncertain about future product demand and allowing governments to obtain information from firms, we examine governments’ and firms’ incentives to share information. We show that when governments regulate polluting firms through emission standards, then governments and firms will reach an agreement concerning information sharing. The opposite holds when governments regulate pollution through emission taxes.

Antoniou, Fabio; Koundouri, Phoebe; Tsakiris, Nikos

2010-01-01

352

Common structure and toxic function of amyloid oligomers implies a common mechanism of pathogenesis.  

PubMed

Recent findings indicate that soluble amyloid oligomers may represent the primary pathologic species in degenerative diseases. These amyloid oligomers share common structural features and the ability to permeabilize membranes, suggesting that they also share a common primary mechanism of pathogenesis. Membrane permeabilization by amyloid oligomers may initiate a common group of downstream pathologic processes, including intracellular calcium dyshomeostasis, production of reactive oxygen species, altered signaling pathways, and mitochondrial dysfunction that represent key effectors of cellular dysfunction and cell death in amyloid-associated degenerative disease, such as sporadic inclusion-body myositis. PMID:16432151

Glabe, Charles G; Kayed, Rakez

2006-01-24

353

Split torque transmission load sharing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Split torque transmissions are attractive alternatives to conventional planetary designs for helicopter transmissions. The split torque designs can offer lighter weight and fewer parts but have not been used extensively for lack of experience, especially with obtaining proper load sharing. Two split torque designs that use different load sharing methods have been studied. Precise indexing and alignment of the geartrain to produce acceptable load sharing has been demonstrated. An elastomeric torque splitter that has large torsional compliance and damping produces even better load sharing while reducing dynamic transmission error and noise. However, the elastomeric torque splitter as now configured is not capable over the full range of operating conditions of a fielded system. A thrust balancing load sharing device was evaluated. Friction forces that oppose the motion of the balance mechanism are significant. A static analysis suggests increasing the helix angle of the input pinion of the thrust balancing design. Also, dynamic analysis of this design predicts good load sharing and significant torsional response to accumulative pitch errors of the gears.

Krantz, T. L.; Rashidi, M.; Kish, J. G.

1992-01-01

354

Human Immunodeficiency Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral health is an integral component of overall health and well-being in all patients. However, for an immunocompromised patient,\\u000a many common oral conditions may have a significant impact on quality of life. Intraoral pain, which is a common complaint\\u000a among patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), will compromise patients’ ability to maintain adequate and appropriate\\u000a oral intake. Furthermore, the polypharmacopeia

Anita Patel; Michael Glick

355

Systemic Spread and Propagation of a Plant-Pathogenic Virus in European Honeybees, Apis mellifera  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Emerging and reemerging diseases that result from pathogen host shifts are a threat to the health of humans and their domesticates. RNA viruses have extremely high mutation rates and thus represent a significant source of these infectious diseases. In the present study, we showed that a plant-pathogenic RNA virus, tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), could replicate and produce virions in honeybees, Apis mellifera, resulting in infections that were found throughout the entire body. Additionally, we showed that TRSV-infected individuals were continually present in some monitored colonies. While intracellular life cycle, species-level genetic variation, and pathogenesis of the virus in honeybee hosts remain to be determined, the increasing prevalence of TRSV in conjunction with other bee viruses from spring toward winter in infected colonies was associated with gradual decline of host populations and winter colony collapse, suggesting the negative impact of the virus on colony survival. Furthermore, we showed that TRSV was also found in ectoparasitic Varroa mites that feed on bee hemolymph, but in those instances the virus was restricted to the gastric cecum of Varroa mites, suggesting that Varroa mites may facilitate the spread of TRSV in bees but do not experience systemic invasion. Finally, our phylogenetic analysis revealed that TRSV isolates from bees, bee pollen, and Varroa mites clustered together, forming a monophyletic clade. The tree topology indicated that the TRSVs from arthropod hosts shared a common ancestor with those from plant hosts and subsequently evolved as a distinct lineage after transkingdom host alteration. This study represents a unique example of viruses with host ranges spanning both the plant and animal kingdoms.

Li, Ji Lian; Cornman, R. Scott; Evans, Jay D.; Pettis, Jeffery S.; Zhao, Yan; Murphy, Charles; Peng, Wen Jun; Wu, Jie; Hamilton, Michele; Boncristiani, Humberto F.; Zhou, Liang; Hammond, John; Chen, Yan Ping

2014-01-01

356

Shared genetic factors underlie chronic pain syndromes.  

PubMed

Chronic pain syndromes (CPS) are highly prevalent in the general population, and increasingly the evidence points to a common etiological pathway. Using a large cohort of twins (n=8564) characterized for chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain (CWP), chronic pelvic pain (PP), migraine (MIG), dry eye disease, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), we explored the underlying genetic and environmental factors contributing to CPS and the correlation between them. The sample was predominantly female (87.3%), with a mean age of 54.7 (±14.7) years. Prevalence of the different CPS ranged from 7.4% (PP) to 15.7% (MIG). For all CPS the within-twin correlation in monozygotic twin pairs was higher than in dizygotic pairs, suggesting a heritable component. Estimated heritability ranged from 19% (IBS) to 46% (PP). Except for MIG, we found significant pairwise phenotypic correlations between the CPS. The phenotypic correlation was highest between CWP and IBS (0.40; 95% confidence interval: 0.27 to 0.46). Excluding MIG from further analyses, cross-twin cross-trait correlations were higher in monozygotic compared with dizygotic twin pairs, suggestive of shared genetic factors between CWP, PP, IBS, and dry eye disease. Twin modeling analysis revealed the common pathway model as the model best explaining the observed pattern of correlation between the traits, with an estimated heritability of 66% of the underlying latent variable. These results are evidence of shared genetic factors in conditions manifesting chronic pain and justify the search for underlying genetic variants. PMID:24879916

Vehof, Jelle; Zavos, Helena M S; Lachance, Genevieve; Hammond, Christopher J; Williams, Frances M K

2014-08-01

357

Display Sharing: An Alternative Paradigm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current Johnson Space Center (JSC) Mission Control Center (MCC) Video Transport System (VTS) provides flight controllers and management the ability to meld raw video from various sources with telemetry to improve situational awareness. However, maintaining a separate infrastructure for video delivery and integration of video content with data adds significant complexity and cost to the system. When considering alternative architectures for a VTS, the current system's ability to share specific computer displays in their entirety to other locations, such as large projector systems, flight control rooms, and back supporting rooms throughout the facilities and centers must be incorporated into any new architecture. Internet Protocol (IP)-based systems also support video delivery and integration. IP-based systems generally have an advantage in terms of cost and maintainability. Although IP-based systems are versatile, the task of sharing a computer display from one workstation to another can be time consuming for an end-user and inconvenient to administer at a system level. The objective of this paper is to present a prototype display sharing enterprise solution. Display sharing is a system which delivers image sharing across the LAN while simultaneously managing bandwidth, supporting encryption, enabling recovery and resynchronization following a loss of signal, and, minimizing latency. Additional critical elements will include image scaling support, multi -sharing, ease of initial integration and configuration, integration with desktop window managers, collaboration tools, host and recipient controls. This goal of this paper is to summarize the various elements of an IP-based display sharing system that can be used in today's control center environment.

Brown, Michael A.

2010-01-01

358

A Functional MicroRNA155 Ortholog Encoded by the Oncogenic Marek's Disease Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-encoded microRNA (miRNA) MiR-K12-11 was recently shown to be a functional ortholog of miR-155, a miRNA that plays a major role in lymphoid malignancies and the modulation of immune responses. Here we show that miR-M4, encoded by the highly oncogenic Marek's disease virus of chickens, shares common targets with miR-155 and thus is also a functional ortholog of

Yuguang Zhao; Yongxiu Yao; Hongtao Xu; Luke Lambeth; Lorraine P. Smith; Lydia Kgosana; Xiaowei Wang; Venugopal Nair

2009-01-01

359

Unusual presentation of herpes simplex virus infection in a boxer: 'Boxing glove herpes'.  

PubMed

Herein, we describe a patient with lesions of cutaneous herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection over the knuckles of both hands in the context of an outbreak among boxers. Interestingly, the infection had an unusually long duration (4 weeks), and was not acquired directly through skin-to-skin contact, as it usually does among athletes (herpes gladiatorum). In our case, transmission was acquired through the use of shared boxing gloves contaminated by HSV-1. To the best of our knowledge, herpes gladiatorum, or wrestler's herpes, has not been described previously in boxers and infection over the knuckles is not commonly reported. PMID:23373892

García-García, Begoña; Galache-Osuna, Cristina; Coto-Segura, Pablo; Suárez-Casado, Héctor; Mallo-García, Susana; Jiménez, Jorge Santos-Juanes

2013-02-01

360

Isolation and characterization of influenza A virus (subtype H5N1) that caused the first highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreak in chicken in Bhutan.  

PubMed

We characterized Influenza A/H5N1 virus that caused the first outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in chickens in Bhutan in 2010. The virus was highly virulent to chicken, killing them within two days of the experimental inoculation with an intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI) of 2.88. For genetic and phylogenetic analyses, complete genome sequencing of 4 viral isolates was carried out. The isolates revealed multiple basic amino acids at their hemagglutinin (HA) cleavage site, similar to other "Qinghai-like" H5N1 isolates. The receptor-binding site of HA molecule contained avian-like amino acids ((222)Q and (224)G). The isolates also contained amino acid residue K at position 627 of the PB2 protein, and other markers in NS 1 and PB1 proteins, highlighting the risk to mammals. However, the isolates were sensitive to influenza drugs presently available in the market. The sequence analysis indicated that the Bhutan viruses shared 99.1-100% nucleotide homology in all the eight genes among themselves and 2010 chicken isolate from Bangladesh (A/chicken/Bangladesh/1151-11/2010) indicating common progenitor virus. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Bhutan isolates belonged to sub-clade 2.2.3 (EMA 3) and shared common progenitor virus with the 2010 Bangladesh virus. Based on the evidence of phylogeny and molecular markers, it could be concluded that the outbreaks in Bhutan and Bangladesh in 2010 were due to independent introductions of the virus probably through migratory birds. PMID:21885216

Dubey, S C; Dahal, N; Nagarajan, S; Tosh, C; Murugkar, H V; Rinzin, K; Sharma, B; Jain, R; Katare, M; Patil, S; Khandia, R; Syed, Z; Tripathi, S; Behera, P; Kumar, M; Kulkarni, D D; Krishna, Lal

2012-02-24

361

Naturally occurring genotype 2b/1a hepatitis C virus in the United States  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infected patients are frequently repeatedly exposed to the virus, but very few recombinants between two genotypes have been reported. Findings We describe the discovery of an HCV recombinant using a method developed in a United States clinical lab for HCV genotyping that employs sequencing of both 5' and 3' portions of the HCV genome. Over twelve months, 133 consecutive isolates were analyzed, and a virus from one patient was found with discordant 5' and 3' sequences suggesting it was a genotype 2b/1a recombinant. We ruled out a mixed infection and mapped a recombination point near the NS2/3 cleavage site. Conclusions This unique HCV recombinant virus described shares some features with other recombinant viruses although it is the only reported recombinant of a genotype 2 with a subtype 1a. This recombinant represents a conundrum for current clinical treatment guidelines, including treatment with protease inhibitors. This recombinant is also challenging to detect by the most commonly employed methods of genotyping that are directed primarily at the 5' structural portion of the HCV genome.

2011-01-01

362

DataONE: Survey of Earth Scientists, To Share or Not to Share Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A primary goal of the Data Observation Network for Earth (DataONE; http://dataone.org) is to ensure preservation and access to multi-scale, multi-discipline, and multi-national science data, particularly in the Earth and Environmental Sciences. As a means to measure project success and to better understand the needs of the community, we have conducted a baseline assessment of the data sharing practices and preferences of domain scientists. The survey is motivated by the understanding that improving access to the sharing of data requires changes in both technology and expectations of the scientific community. A follow-up survey conducted in the future will measure how data sharing initiatives such as DataONE have influenced attitudes and behaviors. A letter of invitation with a link to an online survey instrument was emailed to scientists. Scientists were contacted by several methods: through contacts at the universities where they work, through journal editors of science journals, and directly to biology and environmental science faculty at major U.S. universities. A total of 1329 responses were received. The overall findings from the baseline assessment demonstrate several key findings. -Data management practices vary: {56.1%of respondents did not use any metadata standard, 22.1% used a lab created metadata standard, and over half of respondents 59% (local site) and 55% (national site) mentioned that at least some of their data were available; only 42% (global) and 35% (regional site) respondents mentioned that their data were available.} -Many scientists are interested in sharing data. Over 80% of respondents agreed with the statements: {“I would use other researchers' datasets if their datasets were easily accessible.” and “I would be willing to share data across a broad group of researchers who use data in different ways.”} -There are many barriers to sharing data. The two most common barriers identified were: {Insufficient time (54%) and Lack of funding (40%)} -Some disciplines are using good data management practices: {90% of atmospheric scientists say they share data with others, and 49% of atmospheric scientists agree with the statement “Others can access my data easily”} Results will be compared with other recent surveys of data management practices, including Dryad digital repository efforts (NSF EF-0423641) and Permanent Access to the Records of Science in Europe (2010) study. Future work will seek to further investigate such findings by conducting in-depth profiles and possible personas development as an evidenced based rationale for earth scientists’ data sharing practices.

Branch, B. D.; Tenopir, C.; Allard, S.; Douglas, K.; Wu, L.; Frame, M.; Dataone-The Data Observation Network For Earth

2010-12-01

363

Gargle method to reduce the duration of common cold symptoms  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The common cold is caused by a virus. Antiviral compounds that kill viruses would then be most likely to serve as a remedy for the common cold. This invention seeks to offer a unique use of an antiviral agent, ethanol (with or without additional homeopathic and/or herb ingredients) through the unique topical application of a mouthwash to a sore throat that is often the first symptom of a common cold. The sore throat is caused by the virus setting up to enter the body after which a cascade of immune response symptoms will occur. Current cold remedies do nothing but treat these immune response symptoms. This invention is unique in that it destroys the virus directly, blocking the cold virus at its point of entry, and the remaining cold symptoms never appear. It does not matter how many cold viruses exist, because the antiviral nature of ethanol kills viruses upon contact. This is the first time that treatment of a sore-throat with antiviral agents (ethanol with or without additional homeopathic and/or herb ingredients) is being used to effectively block the common cold. Research testing this common cold remedy have shown it to be effective in 18 out of 20 case studies, and a double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trial is being conducted.

2003-11-04

364

Occurrence and prevalence of seven bee viruses in Apis mellifera and Apis cerana apiaries in China.  

PubMed

Populations of Apis mellifera and Apis cerana in China were surveyed for seven bee viruses: acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), deformed wing virus (DWV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), sacbrood virus (SBV), and Isreal acute paralysis virus (IAPV). No KBV was detected from any samples of the two species. In A. mellifera, DWV was the most prevalent virus, but in A. cerana, SBV was the dominant. Simultaneous multiple infections of viruses were common in both species. This is the first report of detection of IAPV and CBPV in A. cerana. PMID:22062807

Ai, Hongxia; Yan, Xun; Han, Richou

2012-01-01

365

Maritime domain awareness community of interest net centric information sharing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper highlights the approach taken by the Maritime Domain Awareness (MDA) Community of Interest (COI) in establishing an approach to data sharing that seeks to overcome many of the obstacles to sharing both within the federal government and with international and private sector partners. The approach uses the DOD Net Centric Data Strategy employed through Net Centric Enterprise Services (NCES) Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) foundation provided by Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA), but is unique in that the community is made up of more than just Defense agencies. For the first pilot project, the MDA COI demonstrated how four agencies from DOD, the Intelligence Community, Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and Department of Transportation (DOT) could share Automatic Identification System (AIS) data in a common format using shared enterprise service components.

Andress, Mark; Freeman, Brian; Rhiddlehover, Trey; Shea, John

2007-05-01

366

Prescription medication sharing: a systematic review of the literature.  

PubMed

We reviewed the literature on nonrecreational prescription medication sharing. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and a customized multidatabase for all relevant articles published through 2013; our final sample comprised 19 studies from 9 countries with 36?182 participants, ranging in age from children to older adults, and published between 1990 and 2011. The prevalence rate for borrowing someone's prescription medication was 5% to 51.9% and for lending prescription medication to someone else was 6% to 22.9%. A wide range of medicines were shared between family members, friends, and acquaintances. Sharing of many classes of prescription medication was common. Further research should explore why people share, how they decide to lend or borrow, whether they are aware of the risks, and how they assess the relevance of those risks. PMID:24524496

Beyene, Kebede A; Sheridan, Janie; Aspden, Trudi

2014-04-01

367

Clinical and biological differences between recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections  

SciTech Connect

The major features that distinguish recurrent herpes simplex virus infections from zoster are illustrated in this article by two case histories. The clinical and epidemiologic features that characterize recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections are reviewed. It is noted that herpesvirus infections are more common and severe in patients with cellular immune deficiency. Each virus evokes both humoral and cellular immune response in the course of primary infection. DNA hybridization studies with RNA probes labelled with sulfur-35 indicate that herpes simplex viruses persist within neurons, and that varicella-zoster virus is found in the satellite cells that encircle the neurons.

Straus, S.E. (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD (USA))

1989-12-01

368

Mothers and Daughters: Sharing Our Stories, Sharing Our Lives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contends that teaching English is about sharing stories and self-discovery. Notes that during the difficult teenage years, literature offers a way to talk about life's problems and relationships in a safe format. Details a multigenre project in a high school Women's Literature class, which included nonfiction, fiction, poetry, oral history, film,…

Morgan, Katherine R.

2002-01-01

369

Ky. Road-Tests Common Core  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results from new state tests in Kentucky--the first in the nation explicitly tied to the Common Core State Standards--show that the share of students scoring "proficient" or better in reading and math dropped by roughly a third or more in both elementary and middle school the first year the tests were given. Kentucky in 2010 was the first state to…

Ujifusa, Andrew

2012-01-01

370

Coalition Network Defence Common Operational Picture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Coalition Network Defence Common Operational Picture (CNet-D COP) has been identified as a future capability to support cyber defence in coalitions. A CNet-D COP is composed of two aspects of information assurance: secure communications for the sharing ...

E. Luiijf J. Lefebvre L. Beaudoin M. Gregoire P. Lagadec

2010-01-01

371

Common?core Curriculum: a Piagetian conceptualisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piaget's account of formal operational thinking and Further Education Unit proposals for a common?core curriculum share twin assumptions: there are general abilities and such abilities are transferable. Piaget's account is reviewed and the commitment to both assumptions is shown. The family of six general abilities which underlie formal operational thinking is reviewed as well as six types of cognitive constraint

Leslie Smith

1986-01-01

372

Science, values, and common ground1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I argue that there may be common ground shared by animal science and its critics insofar as animal scientists seek improvement in their field in four areas: the quality of their products, the quality of life for those who make their livelihood in food production, the fair treatment of human work- ers, and the humane treatment of

Chris Cuomo

2010-01-01

373

First Monday: Sharing Digital Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

First Monday has posted selected papers from the Conference on Libraries and Museums in the Digital World. The conference, also known as Web Wise 2004, was sponsored by the Institute of Museum and Library Services and co-hosted by University of Illinois at Chicgao. The theme of Sharing Digital Resources addressed the different meanings and implications of sharing in the digital environment. Items posted online include a video of the keynote address, project demonstrations, and extended papers on topics such as imaging, problems of public media, and the role of museums in teaching and learning.

374

Shared Decision-Making and Evidence-Based Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shared decision-making refers to a process of health care delivery in which practitioners and clients seeking help for problems or disorders collaborate to access relevant information and to enable client-centered selection of health care resources. Though nearly all clients express a desire for more information, preferences for participation in health care decisions vary by individual and by illness. Two common

Jared R. Adams; Robert E. Drake

2006-01-01

375

Risk-avoiding cultures toward achievement of knowledge sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The knowledge base of a firm is increasingly believed to underlie firm performance, and culture is commonly viewed as the major obstacle to effective knowledge management. This study seeks to evaluate the relevance of organizational culture and to explore how it can influence the achievement of knowledge sharing within an enterprise. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An empirical survey of Taiwan's

Ming-Fong Lai; Gwo-Guang Lee

2007-01-01

376

Communal winter nesting and food sharing in Taiga Voles  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.In central Alaska, Taiga Voles live in communal groups of five to ten individuals (mean = 7.1) for eight months of the year. During this winter period, they share a common stored food cache.2.Evidence from both field monitoring of nest temperatures and laboratory studies indicates that thermoregulatory advantages accrue from communal nesting. Cooperative defense against predators and food thieves probably

J. O. Wolff; William Z. Lidicker

1981-01-01

377

Study of Sharing Knowledge Resources in Business Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose a common business school framework based on knowledge resources that are available in business schools. To support the arguments made based on review literature, the paper presents the holistic framework of knowledge resources in a business school and also provides a knowledge value chain in sharing

Ranjan, Jayanthi

2011-01-01

378

Laser Capture Microdissection Assessment of Virus Compartmentalization in the Central Nervous Systems of Macaques Infected with Neurovirulent Simian Immunodeficiency Virus  

PubMed Central

Nonhuman primate-simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) models are powerful tools for studying the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in the brain. Our laboratory recently isolated a neuropathogenic viral swarm, SIVsmH804E, a derivative of SIVsmE543-3, which was the result of sequential intravenous passages of viruses isolated from the brains of rhesus macaques with SIV encephalitis. Animals infected with SIVsmH804E or its precursor (SIVsmH783Br) developed SIV meningitis and/or encephalitis at high frequencies. Since we observed macaques with a combination of meningitis and encephalitis, as well as animals in which meningitis or encephalitis was the dominant component, we hypothesized that distinct mechanisms could be driving the two pathological states. Therefore, we assessed viral populations in the meninges and the brain parenchyma by laser capture microdissection. Viral RNAs were isolated from representative areas of the meninges, brain parenchyma, terminal plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and from the inoculum, and the SIV envelope fragment was amplified by PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of envelope sequences from the conventional progressors revealed compartmentalization of viral populations between the meninges and the parenchyma. In one of these animals, viral populations in meninges were closely related to those from CSF and shared signature truncations in the cytoplasmic domain of gp41, consistent with a common origin. Apart from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging, CSF is the most accessible assess to the central nervous system for HIV-1-infected patients. However, our results suggest that the virus in the CSF may not always be representative of viral populations in the brain and that caution should be applied in extrapolating between the properties of viruses in these two compartments.

Matsuda, Kenta; Brown, Charles R.; Foley, Brian; Goeken, Robert; Whitted, Sonya; Dang, Que; Wu, Fan; Plishka, Ronald; Buckler-White, Alicia

2013-01-01

379

Virus maturation.  

PubMed

The formation of infectious virus particles is a highly complex process involving a series of sophisticated molecular events. In most cases, the assembly of virus structural elements results in the formation of immature virus particles unable to initiate a productive infection. Accordingly, for most viruses the final stage of the assembly pathway entails a set of structural transitions and/or biochemical modifications that transform inert precursor particles into fully infectious agents. In this chapter, we review the most relevant maturation mechanisms involved in the generation of infectious virions for a wide variety of viruses. PMID:23737059

Delgui, Laura R; Rodríguez, José F

2013-01-01

380

A recombinant influenza virus vaccine expressing the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus.  

PubMed

Infections with influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) rank high among the most common human respiratory diseases worldwide. Previously, we developed a replication-incompetent influenza virus by replacing the coding sequence of the PB2 gene, which encodes one of the viral RNA polymerase subunits, with that of a reporter gene. Here, we generated a PB2-knockout recombinant influenza virus expressing the F protein of RSV (PB2-RSVF virus) and tested its potential as a bivalent vaccine. In mice intranasally immunized with the PB2-RSVF virus, we detected high levels of antibodies against influenza virus, but not RSV. PB2-RSVF virus-immunized mice were protected from a lethal challenge with influenza virus but experienced severe body weight loss when challenged with RSV, indicating that PB2-RSVF vaccination enhanced RSV-associated disease. These results highlight one of the difficulties of developing an effective bivalent vaccine against influenza virus and RSV infections. PMID:24292020

Fonseca, Wendy; Ozawa, Makoto; Hatta, Masato; Orozco, Esther; Martínez, Máximo B; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

2014-05-01

381

Auction-Based Spectrum Sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study auction mechanisms for sharing spectrum among a group of users, subject to a constraint on the interference temperature at a measurement point. The users access the channel using spread spectrum signaling and so interfere with each other. Each user receives a utility that is a function of the received signal-to-interference plus noise ratio. We p ropose two auction

Jianwei Huang; Randall A. Berry; Michael L. Honig

2006-01-01

382

Shared Family Care Program Guidelines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shared family care has been defined as the planned provision of out-of-home care to parents and their children so that the parents, supported by the host caregiver, cares for the child and works toward independent in-house care; this approach is an alternative to the trauma of separation and lack of continuity inherent to foster care placement.…

Price, Amy; Barth, Richard P.

383

Adelaide + Arizona: Sharing Our Knowledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a cooperative international education project involving Adelaide College (South Australia), Rio Salado Community College (Arizona), and Austin Community College (Texas). Considers each institution's contributions, program goals (e.g., cross-cultural sharing of experiences by students studying a similar subject, bridging long distances…

Whitaker, Janet

1990-01-01

384

DOE/university reactor sharing  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the US Department of Energy's program of reactor sharing is to strengthen nuclear science and engineering instruction and nuclear research opportunities in non-reactor-owning colleges and universities. The benefits of the program and need for the continuation of the program in the future are discussed.

Young, H.H.

1985-01-01

385

Band sharing - A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various aspects of the decision to allow the DOD Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS) to operate in the 960-1215 MHz band simultaneously with existing TACAN\\/DME radio navigation services and Air Traffic Control Radar Beacon System (ATCRBS) air traffic control services are examined. Attention is given to the technical factors that must be considered in band sharing. It is pointed

A. L. Covitt; D. D. Neuman

1979-01-01

386

Intelligent information-sharing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Information Lens system is a prototype intelligent information-sharing system that is designed to include not only good user interfaces for supporting the problem-solving activity of individuals, but also good organizational interfaces for supporting the problem-solving activities of groups.

Thomas W. Malone; Kenneth R. Grant; Franklyn A. Turbak; Stephen A. Brobst; Michael D. Cohen

1987-01-01

387

Meat sharing for coalitional support  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I review hypotheses about why hunters share meat, and I use quantitative data on meat transfers between households of Achuar, Quichua, and Zapara speakers in Conambo, an indigenous community of horticultural foragers in the Ecuadorian Amazon, to test them. I show that meat is distributed to political allies in Conambo and argue that meat is strategically transferred

John Q. Patton

2005-01-01

388

Stimulating Knowledge Discovery and Sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the available knowledge management systems pay little attention to two important aspects: the need of supporting emerging communities of interest together with the official organizational structure; and the need of cluing together knowledge associated with any kind of involved entity including people, communities, and informal knowledge. The MILK system enhances knowledge discovery and sharing by providing services addressing

A. Agostini; S. Albolino; R. Boselli; G. De Michelis; F. De Paoli; R. Dondi; Piazza Giovine Italia

389

Dream Sharing as Social Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the small communities of hunter–gatherers, dream sharing is widespread. The entities within their world (animals, plants, etc.) were regarded as sentient, responsive beings, with whom discourse could be established via dreams, visions, and trances, together with song, dance, and ritual. Their temporal orientation was mythic\\/paradigmatic (kairotic) rather than chronologic, so that creation could continually be recurring. In critical contrast,

Murray L. Wax

2004-01-01

390

How Common is Male Infertility, and What Are Its Causes?  

MedlinePLUS

... Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How common is male infertility, and what are its causes? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Infertility is defined clinically in women and men who cannot achieve pregnancy after 1 year of having intercourse without using ...

391

Mine, Yours, Ours? Sharing Data on Human Genetic Variation  

PubMed Central

The achievement of a robust, effective and responsible form of data sharing is currently regarded as a priority for biological and bio-medical research. Empirical evaluations of data sharing may be regarded as an indispensable first step in the identification of critical aspects and the development of strategies aimed at increasing availability of research data for the scientific community as a whole. Research concerning human genetic variation represents a potential forerunner in the establishment of widespread sharing of primary datasets. However, no specific analysis has been conducted to date in order to ascertain whether the sharing of primary datasets is common-practice in this research field. To this aim, we analyzed a total of 543 mitochondrial and Y chromosomal datasets reported in 508 papers indexed in the Pubmed database from 2008 to 2011. A substantial portion of datasets (21.9%) was found to have been withheld, while neither strong editorial policies nor high impact factor proved to be effective in increasing the sharing rate beyond the current figure of 80.5%. Disaggregating datasets for research fields, we could observe a substantially lower sharing in medical than evolutionary and forensic genetics, more evident for whole mtDNA sequences (15.0% vs 99.6%). The low rate of positive responses to e-mail requests sent to corresponding authors of withheld datasets (28.6%) suggests that sharing should be regarded as a prerequisite for final paper acceptance, while making authors deposit their results in open online databases which provide data quality control seems to provide the best-practice standard. Finally, we estimated that 29.8% to 32.9% of total resources are used to generate withheld datasets, implying that an important portion of research funding does not produce shared knowledge. By making the scientific community and the public aware of this important aspect, we may help popularize a more effective culture of data sharing.

Montinaro, Francesco; Capocasa, Marco; Sanna, Emanuele; Bisol, Giovanni Destro

2012-01-01

392

PC viruses: How do they do that  

SciTech Connect

The topic of PC Viruses has been an issue for a number of years now. They've been reported in every major newspaper, tabloids, television and radio. People from all fields get viruses: government, private sector businesses, home computers, schools, computer software suppliers. A definition is proposed to introduce the virus phenomenon. Virus authors come from a variety of communities. Motives and ideologies of authors are discussed, and examples of viruses are offered. Also mentioned is the growing number of viruses developed, isolated, and never distributed to the public at large, but kept within the antivirus research community. Virus examples are offered as well. Viruses are distributed not only through bulletin boards and shareware, but also from areas previously assumed to be safe, including the threat of receiving a virus through a standard in-house function, such as an in-house hardware maintenance shop. Three categories of viruses are presented: File Infecter viruses, Boot Sector Infecters, and the new category of Directory Entry Infecter virus. Also discussed are crossover viruses, that is, viruses which utilize a variety of techniques to ensure survival. An explanation of what is occurring within every stage of various viruses is given. Replication strategies common to all three types is noted, mainly the two different replication strategies of memory resident infecters and active selection infecters. A detailed definition, description and application of a stealth virus is presented. Detection strategies are discussed as each topic in this section is completed; a high level schemata of the operation of various virus detection programs ispresented. Since most eradication today is done using virus detection/eradication software, this paper attempts to reveal the techniques used by these packages.Included in the paper is the topic of manual eradication.

Pichnarczyk, K.

1992-07-01

393

PC viruses: How do they do that?  

SciTech Connect

The topic of PC Viruses has been an issue for a number of years now. They`ve been reported in every major newspaper, tabloids, television and radio. People from all fields get viruses: government, private sector businesses, home computers, schools, computer software suppliers. A definition is proposed to introduce the virus phenomenon. Virus authors come from a variety of communities. Motives and ideologies of authors are discussed, and examples of viruses are offered. Also mentioned is the growing number of viruses developed, isolated, and never distributed to the public at large, but kept within the antivirus research community. Virus examples are offered as well. Viruses are distributed not only through bulletin boards and shareware, but also from areas previously assumed to be safe, including the threat of receiving a virus through a standard in-house function, such as an in-house hardware maintenance shop. Three categories of viruses are presented: File Infecter viruses, Boot Sector Infecters, and the new category of Directory Entry Infecter virus. Also discussed are crossover viruses, that is, viruses which utilize a variety of techniques to ensure survival. An explanation of what is occurring within every stage of various viruses is given. Replication strategies common to all three types is noted, mainly the two different replication strategies of memory resident infecters and active selection infecters. A detailed definition, description and application of a stealth virus is presented. Detection strategies are discussed as each topic in this section is completed; a high level schemata of the operation of various virus detection programs ispresented. Since most eradication today is done using virus detection/eradication software, this paper attempts to reveal the techniques used by these packages.Included in the paper is the topic of manual eradication.

Pichnarczyk, K.

1992-07-01

394

Gene from a novel plant virus satellite from grapevine identifies a viral satellite lineage.  

PubMed

We have identified the genome of a novel viral satellite in deep sequence analysis of double-stranded RNA from grapevine. The genome was 1,060 bases in length, and encoded two open reading frames. Neither frame was related to any known plant virus gene. But translation of the longer frame showed a protein sequence similar to those of other plant virus satellites. Other than in commonalities they shared in this gene sequence, members of that group were extensively divergent. The reading frame in this gene from the novel satellite could be translationally coupled to an adjacent reading frame in the -1 register, through overlapping start/stop codons. These overlapping AUGA start/stop codons were adjacent to a sequence that could be folded into a pseudoknot structure. Field surveys with PCR probes specific for the novel satellite revealed its presence in 3% of the grapevines (n = 346) sampled. PMID:23703624

Al Rwahnih, Maher; Daubert, Steve; Sudarshana, Mysore R; Rowhani, Adib

2013-08-01

395

Sharing the burden: antigen transport and firebreaks in immune responses  

PubMed Central

Communication between cells is crucial for immune responses. An important means of communication during viral infections is the presentation of viral antigen on the surface of an infected cell. Recently, it has been shown that antigen can be shared between infected and uninfected cells through gap junctions, connexin-based channels, that allow the transport of small molecules. The uninfected cell receiving antigen can present it on its surface. Cells presenting viral antigen are detected and killed by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. The killing of uninfected cells can lead to increased immunopathology. However, the immune response might also profit from killing those uninfected bystander cells. One benefit might be the removal of future ‘virus factories’. Another benefit might be through the creation of ‘firebreaks’, areas void of target cells, which increase the diffusion time of free virions, making their clearance more likely. Here, we use theoretical models and simulations to explore how the mechanism of gap junction-mediated antigen transport (GMAT) affects the dynamics of the virus and immune response. We show that under the assumption of a well-mixed system, GMAT leads to increased immunopathology, which always outweighs the benefit of reduced virus production due to the removal of future virus factories. By contrast, a spatially explicit model leads to quite different results. Here we find that the firebreak mechanism reduces both viral load and immunopathology. Our study thus shows the potential benefits of GMAT and illustrates how spatial effects may be crucial for the quantitative understanding of infection dynamics and immune responses.

Handel, Andreas; Yates, Andrew; Pilyugin, Sergei S.; Antia, Rustom

2008-01-01

396

Database Maintenance, Data Sharing Policy, Collaboration  

SciTech Connect

Scientific questions of today are now more global than ever before. The answers to these questions are buried within multiple disciplines and across a diverse range of scientists and institutions. The expanse and complexity of data required by researchers often exceed the means of a single scientist. Data sharing in the form of its distributed collection and analysis is increasingly common. Collective research now takes place in what may be called 'collaboratories' or in 'centers without walls' (Clery 2006). Creating effective artifacts, which enable scientists to collaborate on data analyses, continues to be a significant challenge for today's science activities. It is rare that providing a file system abstraction on distributed data enables acceleration of scientific discoveries. By explicitly identifying and addressing the different requirements for data contributors, data curators, and data consumers, we can create a data management architecture which enables the creation of datasets that evolve over time with growing and changing data, data annotations, participants, and use rules. This involves also a crucial contribution by the teams and people collecting the data, that in addition to carefully acquire and process the measurements and to be ready to share their measurements within the scientific community, need to follow general rules that help to make their data well documented and safely stored and to maximize visibility to their works and sites. In this chapter, we provide examples of the types of functions and capabilities typically provided within the data management systems, focusing in particular on databases structures and characteristics, data practices, and data user services. Finally, the importance and advantages of collective efforts like data sharing for synthesis activities and the relative data policy options are discussed and analyzed.

Papale, D. [University of Tuscia; Agarwal, D.A [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Baldocchi, D. D. [University of California, Berkeley; Cook, Robert B [ORNL; Fisher, J.B. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA; Ingen, C. van [Microsoft Research

2012-01-01

397

You Share, I Share: Network Effects and Economic Incentives in P2P File-Sharing Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the interaction between network effects and external incentives on file sharing behavior in Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks. Many current or envisioned P2P networks reward individuals for sharing files, via financial incentives or social recognition. Peers weigh this reward against the cost of sharing incurred when others download the shared file. As a result, if other nearby nodes share files

Mahyar Salek; Shahin Shayandeh; David Kempe

2011-01-01

398

You Share, I Share: Network Effects and Economic Incentives in P2P File-Sharing Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We study the interaction between network effects and external incentives on file sharing behavior in Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks.\\u000a Many current or envisioned P2P networks reward individuals for sharing files, via financial incentives or social recognition.\\u000a Peers weigh this reward against the cost of sharing incurred when others download the shared file. As a result, if other nearby\\u000a nodes share files

Mahyar Salek; Shahin Shayandeh; David Kempe

2010-01-01

399

Avian malaria parasites share congeneric mosquito vectors.  

PubMed

Assessing parasite specificity to vector is crucial to understanding the emergence of vector-borne diseases and the evolution of parasite diversity. Avian malaria parasites have a cosmopolitan distribution and broad avian host range, which together predict they are vector generalists, but little is known about parasite-vector associations in the wild. We tested this prediction by asking if 5 different mosquito species, known to feed on birds and abundant in the northeastern United States, were naturally infected in the field with identical avian Plasmodium spp. lineages. Mosquitoes were not pooled but rather analyzed individually, and, possibly as a result, lineage diversity was higher than reported in previous avian malaria vector studies. Plasmodium spp. lineages were rare in Aedes canadensis and absent in Aedes aurifer and Culiseta melanura. We sequenced a standard Plasmodium cytochrome b marker from Culex pipiens pipiens, Culex restuans, and Ae. canadensis. Most Plasmodium clades were shared by Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans. In addition, 4 individual lineages were shared by both mosquito species, including the most common lineage. One Plasmodium clade, however, was only found in Cx. restuans. We therefore found limited support for our prediction that avian Plasmodium spp. vector breadth accompanies host breadth. The association of both Culex species with most Plasmodium clades, and the presence of a single parasite lineage in 3 mosquito species representing 2 genera, suggests that avian Plasmodium species are not tightly coevolved with vector species. PMID:19697968

Kimura, M; Darbro, J M; Harrington, L C

2010-02-01

400

Visual secret sharing for multiple secrets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional visual secret sharing schemes are designed for a single secret image so it is inefficient to generate numerous share images for multiple secret images simultaneously. Therefore, a novel visual secret sharing scheme for multiple secret images is proposed in this paper. In the proposed encryption process, a stacking relationship graph of secret pixels and share blocks is generated to

Jen-bang Feng; Hsien-chu Wu; Chwei-shyong Tsai; Ya-fen Chang; Yen-ping Chu

2008-01-01

401

CHLORELLA VIRUSES  

PubMed Central

Chlorella viruses or chloroviruses are large, icosahedral, plaque?forming, double?stranded?DNA—containing viruses that replicate in certain strains of the unicellular green alga Chlorella. DNA sequence analysis of the 330?kbp genome of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV?1), the prototype of this virus family (Phycodnaviridae), predict ?366 protein?encoding genes and 11 tRNA genes. The predicted gene products of ?50% of these genes resemble proteins of known function, including many that are completely unexpected for a virus. In addition, the chlorella viruses have several features and encode many gene products that distinguish them from most viruses. These products include: (1) multiple DNA methyltransferases and DNA site?specific endonucleases, (2) the enzymes required to glycosylate their proteins and synthesize polysaccharides such as hyaluronan and chitin, (3) a virus?encoded K+ channel (called Kcv) located in the internal membrane of the virions, (4) a SET domain containing protein (referred to as vSET) that dimethylates Lys27 in histone 3, and (5) PBCV?1 has three types of introns; a self?splicing intron, a spliceosomal processed intron, and a small tRNA intron. Accumulating evidence indicates that the chlorella viruses have a very long evolutionary history. This review mainly deals with research on the virion structure, genome rearrangements, gene expression, cell wall degradation, polysaccharide synthesis, and evolution of PBCV?1 as well as other related viruses.

Yamada, Takashi; Onimatsu, Hideki; Van Etten, James L.

2007-01-01

402

Chlorella viruses.  

PubMed

Chlorella viruses or chloroviruses are large, icosahedral, plaque-forming, double-stranded-DNA-containing viruses that replicate in certain strains of the unicellular green alga Chlorella. DNA sequence analysis of the 330-kbp genome of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1), the prototype of this virus family (Phycodnaviridae), predict approximately 366 protein-encoding genes and 11 tRNA genes. The predicted gene products of approximately 50% of these genes resemble proteins of known function, including many that are completely unexpected for a virus. In addition, the chlorella viruses have several features and encode many gene products that distinguish them from most viruses. These products include: (1) multiple DNA methyltransferases and DNA site-specific endonucleases, (2) the enzymes required to glycosylate their proteins and synthesize polysaccharides such as hyaluronan and chitin, (3) a virus-encoded K(+) channel (called Kcv) located in the internal membrane of the virions, (4) a SET domain containing protein (referred to as vSET) that dimethylates Lys27 in histone 3, and (5) PBCV-1 has three types of introns; a self-splicing intron, a spliceosomal processed intron, and a small tRNA intron. Accumulating evidence indicates that the chlorella viruses have a very long evolutionary history. This review mainly deals with research on the virion structure, genome rearrangements, gene expression, cell wall degradation, polysaccharide synthesis, and evolution of PBCV-1 as well as other related viruses. PMID:16877063

Yamada, Takashi; Onimatsu, Hideki; Van Etten, James L

2006-01-01

403

Consortium sandbox: building and sharing resources.  

PubMed

Some common challenges of biomedical product translation-scientific, regulatory, adoption, and reimbursement-can best be addressed by the broad sharing of resources or tools. But, such aids remain undeveloped because the undertaking requires expertise from multiple research sectors as well as validation across organizations. Biomedical resource development can benefit from directed consortia-a partnership framework that provides neutral and temporary collaborative environments for several, oftentimes competing, organizations and leverages the aggregated intellect and resources of stakeholders so as to create versatile solutions. By analyzing 369 biomedical research consortia, we tracked consortia growth around the world and gained insight into how this partnership model advances biomedical research. Our analyses suggest that research-by-consortium provides benefit to biomedical science, but the model needs further optimization before it can be fully integrated into the biomedical research pipeline. PMID:24964986

Lim, Mark D

2014-06-25

404

Virus assembly, allostery, and antivirals  

PubMed Central

Assembly of virus capsids and surface proteins must be regulated to ensure that the resulting complex is an infectious virion. Here we examine assembly of virus capsids, focusing on hepatitis B virus and bacteriophage MS2, and formation of glycoproteins in the alphaviruses. These systems are structurally and biochemically well-characterized and are simplest-case paradigms of self-assembly. Published data suggest that capsid and glycoprotein assembly is subject to allosteric regulation, that is, regulation at the level of conformational change. The hypothesis that allostery is a common theme in viruses suggests that deregulation of capsid and glycoprotein assembly by small molecule effectors will be an attractive antiviral strategy, as has been demonstrated with hepatitis B virus.

Zlotnick, Adam; Mukhopadhyay, Suchetana

2010-01-01

405

Oncolytic viruses derived from the gamma34.5-deleted herpes simplex virus recombinant R3616 encode a truncated UL3 protein.  

PubMed

Replication-competent herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) mutants are used in clinical trials in the experimental treatment of cancer. Mutants G207, HSV1716, NV1020, and Oncovex GM-CSF share in common a defect in one or both copies of the gene encoding the neurovirulence factor, ICP34.5, and are thus neuroattenuated. These viruses are acknowledged to differ from one another (a) in the specific types of mutations intentionally introduced during their derivation and (b) in the inherent genetic differences retained from the different parent strains used in their construction. Unintended mutations are expected to emerge at some low frequency during the selection for and passage of mutant viruses. Here we demonstrate that during the construction of the oncolytic virus R3616, a nonsense mutation arose in an untargeted region of the HSV-1 genome that resulted in a substantial truncation of the viral protein known as UL3. This report is the first published documentation that oncolytic herpesviruses developed and used in clinical trials contain adventitious mutations. The implications of these findings for the characterization and development of vectors proposed for use in clinical trials are discussed. PMID:16574492

Dambach, Megan J; Trecki, Jordan; Martin, Natalia; Markovitz, Nancy S

2006-05-01

406

Computational genomic analysis of hemorrhagic fever viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of distinct viruses are known as hemorrhagic fever viruses based on a shared ability to induce hemorrhage by poorly\\u000a understood mechanisms, typically involving the formation of blood clots (“disseminated intravascular coagulation”). It is\\u000a well documented that selenium plays a significant role in the regulation of blood clotting via its effects on the thromboxane\\/prostacyclin\\u000a ratio, and effects on the

Chandra Sekar Ramanathan; Ethan Will Taylor

1997-01-01

407

Enhanced visual secret sharing for graphical password authentication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Password is a very common and widely used authentication method to provide security to valuable data. It is desirable to make password more memorable and easier for people to use. Traditionally passwords are alphanumeric, numbers & symbols. Some problems of normal password appear like stolen the password, forgetting the password, week password. Study shows that text-based passwords suffer with both security and authentication problems. To overcome these problems, Graphical passwords have been developed. Visual secret sharing (VSS) scheme is a secret sharing scheme in which an image is converted into shares. No information can be revealed by observing any share (Dotted image). The information about the original image will be revealed only after stacking sufficient number of shares (Dotted images). In this paper, we have used XNOR operation instead of OR operation and contrast of the decrypted image is clearer than existing Enhanced Visual Secret Sharing (EVSS) scheme. Also, we are presenting new approach to authenticate graphical password image using 2-out-of-2 EVSS scheme. Which can be used to protect machines with additional security.

Rajendra, A. B.; Sheshadri, H. S.

2013-03-01

408

Gammasphaerolipovirus, a newly proposed bacteriophage genus, unifies viruses of halophilic archaea and thermophilic bacteria within the novel family Sphaerolipoviridae.  

PubMed

A new family of viruses named Sphaerolipoviridae has been proposed recently. It comprises icosahedral, tailless haloarchaeal viruses with an internal lipid membrane located between the protein capsid and the dsDNA genome. The proposed family Sphaerolipoviridae was divided into two genera: Alphasphaerolipovirus, including Haloarcula hispanica viruses SH1, PH1 and HHIV-2, and Betasphaerolipovirus, including Natrinema virus SNJ1. Here, we propose to expand the family Sphaerolipoviridae to include a group of bacteriophages infecting extreme thermophilic Thermus thermophilus and sharing a number of structural and genomic properties with archaeal sphaerolipoviruses. This new group comprises two members, lytic phage P23-77 and temperate phage IN93, as well as putative members P23-72 and P23-65H. In addition, several related proviruses have been discovered as integrated elements in bacterial genomes of the families Thermus and Meiothermus. Morphology of the virus particles and the overall capsid architecture of these bacteriophages resembles that of archaeal members of t