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1

Do human polyoma viruses and human immunodeficiency virus share common co-receptors?  

PubMed

Host and/or viral factors involved in human polyomavirus (HPoV) infection in persons living with HIV remain unknown. A hypothesis is outlined suggesting the importance of the co-receptors CCR5, CCR2, and CXCR4 not only for HIV, but also for HPoV. Functionally capable receptors coded by wild-type (wt) genotypes could facilitate internalization of HPoV in the cell resulting in brain and/or kidney infection/s in HIV infected individuals. Forty-nine Bulgarians with HIV, all treated by HAART, without neurological and/or kidney disorders, were tested for JCV and BKV and genotyped for CCR5 (CCR5del32), CCR2 (CCR2-64I), and CXCR4 (SDF1-3'A). In 27/49 (55.1%) individuals a co-infection with HPoV was identified-BKV in 12/49 (24.5%), JCV-in another 12/49 (24.5%), and both viruses-in 3/49 (6.1%). A high frequency of wt CCR5 was found in patients with HPoV (91.7% for BKV and JCV and in 100% with both viruses). V/V of CCR2 was presented in 75% for BKV and JCV and in 66.7% for BKV plus JCV. SDF1-3'G/G predominated in JCV infected patients (75%), while G/A and A/A genotypes were more frequent in patients with BKV (41.7%). Also, 21/22 (95.4%) persons without HPoV infection were heterozygous for SDF1 and CCR2. The number of individuals bearing wt of all co-receptors in the group of persons not infected with HPoV was lower (P = 0.03) than that with polymorphism/s in one or two genes (SDF1 and CCR2) in the same group. The results suggest a probable role of co-receptors used by HIV to facilitate infection with HPoV. PMID:19950235

Borissov, Kalin; Tsekov, Iliya; Gavazova, Rayna; Kalvatchev, Zlatko; Argirova, Radka

2010-01-01

2

Vibrio chromosomes share common history  

PubMed Central

Background While most gamma proteobacteria have a single circular chromosome, Vibrionales have two circular chromosomes. Horizontal gene transfer is common among Vibrios, and in light of this genetic mobility, it is an open question to what extent the two chromosomes themselves share a common history since their formation. Results Single copy genes from each chromosome (142 genes from chromosome I and 42 genes from chromosome II) were identified from 19 sequenced Vibrionales genomes and their phylogenetic comparison suggests consistent phylogenies for each chromosome. Additionally, study of the gene organization and phylogeny of the respective origins of replication confirmed the shared history. Conclusions Thus, while elements within the chromosomes may have experienced significant genetic mobility, the backbones share a common history. This allows conclusions based on multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) for one chromosome to be applied equally to both chromosomes.

2010-01-01

3

Structural analysis on the single-stranded genomic DNAs of the virus newly isolated from silkworm: the DNA molecules share a common terminal sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Recently, a parvo-like virus was newly isolated from silkworm larvae and the two viral DNAs (VD1 and VD2) with different electro-mobilities were identified. We cloned the viral DNAs in a plasmid pUC119 and demonstrated that these two DNAs were not a bimorphic molecules though they shared a common terminal sequence of 53 nucleotides. In addition, the sequence at the

H. Bando; H. Choi; Y. Ito; M. Nakagaki; S. Kawase

1992-01-01

4

Mauritian Cynomolgus Macaques Share Two Exceptionally Common Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Alleles That Restrict Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cells? †  

PubMed Central

Vaccines that elicit CD8+ T-cell responses are routinely tested for immunogenicity in nonhuman primates before advancement to clinical trials. Unfortunately, the magnitude and specificity of vaccine-elicited T-cell responses are variable in currently utilized nonhuman primate populations, owing to heterogeneity in major histocompatibility (MHC) class I genetics. We recently showed that Mauritian cynomolgus macaques (MCM) have unusually simple MHC genetics, with three common haplotypes encoding a shared pair of MHC class IA alleles, Mafa-A*25 and Mafa-A*29. Based on haplotype frequency, we hypothesized that CD8+ T-cell responses restricted by these MHC class I alleles would be detected in nearly all MCM. We examine here the frequency and functionality of these two alleles, showing that 88% of MCM express Mafa-A*25 and Mafa-A*29 and that animals carrying these alleles mount three newly defined simian immunodeficiency virus-specific CD8+ T-cell responses. The epitopes recognized by each of these responses accumulated substitutions consistent with immunologic escape, suggesting these responses exert antiviral selective pressure. The demonstration that Mafa-A*25 and Mafa-A*29 restrict CD8+ T-cell responses that are shared among nearly all MCM indicates that these animals are an advantageous nonhuman primate model for comparing the immunogenicity of vaccines that elicit CD8+ T-cell responses.

Burwitz, Benjamin J.; Pendley, Chad J.; Greene, Justin M.; Detmer, Ann M.; Lhost, Jennifer J.; Karl, Julie A.; Piaskowski, Shari M.; Rudersdorf, Richard A.; Wallace, Lyle T.; Bimber, Benjamin N.; Loffredo, John T.; Cox, Daryl G.; Bardet, Wilfried; Hildebrand, William; Wiseman, Roger W.; O'Connor, Shelby L.; O'Connor, David H.

2009-01-01

5

847. Adeno-Associated Virus Capsids from Divergent AAV Clades and Subgroup C Adenovirus Capsids Share a Common Microtubule-Binding Mechanism Relevant to Virus Trafficking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based and adenovirus (Ad)-based gene therapy vectors as therapeutic vehicles is derived in part from their ability to efficiently penetrate cell membranes and translocate rapidly to the nucleus where their genetic cargo is delivered. Both Ad and AAV are known to utilize the microtubule cytoskeleton and the molecular motor, cytoplasmic dynein, to move in an

Samir A. Kelkar; Bishnu P. De; Guangping Gao; James M. Wilson; Ronald G. Crystal; Philip L. Leopold

2005-01-01

6

Multiple Virus Lineages Sharing Recent Common Ancestry Were Associated with a Large Rift Valley Fever Outbreak among Livestock in Kenya during 2006-2007? †  

PubMed Central

Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus historically has caused widespread and extensive outbreaks of severe human and livestock disease throughout Africa, Madagascar, and the Arabian Peninsula. Following unusually heavy rainfall during the late autumn of 2006, reports of human and animal illness consistent with RVF virus infection emerged across semiarid regions of the Garissa District of northeastern Kenya and southern Somalia. Following initial RVF virus laboratory confirmation, a high-throughput RVF diagnostic facility was established at the Kenyan Central Veterinary Laboratories in Kabete, Kenya, to support the real-time identification of infected livestock and to facilitate outbreak response and control activities. A total of 3,250 specimens from a variety of animal species, including domesticated livestock (cattle, sheep, goats, and camels) and wildlife collected from a total of 55 of 71 Kenyan administrative districts, were tested by molecular and serologic assays. Evidence of RVF infection was found in 9.2% of animals tested and across 23 districts of Kenya, reflecting the large number of affected livestock and the geographic extent of the outbreak. The complete S, M, and/or L genome segment sequence was obtained from a total of 31 RVF virus specimens spanning the entire known outbreak period (December-May) and geographic areas affected by RVF virus activity. Extensive genomic analyses demonstrated the concurrent circulation of multiple virus lineages, gene segment reassortment, and the common ancestry of the 2006/2007 outbreak viruses with those from the 1997-1998 east African RVF outbreak. Evidence of recent increases in genomic diversity and effective population size 2 to 4 years prior to the 2006-2007 outbreak also was found, indicating ongoing RVF virus activity and evolution during the interepizootic/epidemic period. These findings have implications for further studies of basic RVF virus ecology and the design of future surveillance/diagnostic activities, and they highlight the critical need for safe and effective vaccines and antiviral compounds to combat this significant veterinary and public health threat.

Bird, Brian H.; Githinji, Jane W. K.; Macharia, Joseph M.; Kasiiti, Jacqueline L.; Muriithi, Rees M.; Gacheru, Stephen G.; Musaa, Joseph O.; Towner, Jonathan S.; Reeder, Serena A.; Oliver, Jennifer B.; Stevens, Thomas L.; Erickson, Bobbie R.; Morgan, Laura T.; Khristova, Marina L.; Hartman, Amy L.; Comer, James A.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Nichol, Stuart T.

2008-01-01

7

Managing shared access to a spectrum commons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The open access, unlicensed or spectrum commons approach to managing shared access to RF spectrum offers many attractive benefits, especially when implemented in conjunction with and as a complement to a regime of market-based, flexible use, tradable licensed spectrum ([Benkler02], [Lehr04], [Werbach03]). However, as a number of critics have pointed out, implementing the unlicensed model poses difficult challenges that have

William Lehr; Jon Crowcroft

2005-01-01

8

Multiple Virus Lineages Sharing Recent Common Ancestry Were Associated with a Large Rift Valley Fever Outbreak among Livestock in Kenya during 2006-2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus historically has caused widespread and extensive outbreaks of severe human and livestock disease throughout Africa, Madagascar, and the Arabian Peninsula. Following unusually heavy rainfall during the late autumn of 2006, reports of human and animal illness consistent with RVF virus infection emerged across semiarid regions of the Garissa District of northeastern Kenya and southern Somalia.

Brian H. Bird; Jane W. K. Githinji; Joseph M. Macharia; Jacqueline L. Kasiiti; Rees M. Muriithi; Stephen G. Gacheru; Joseph O. Musaa; Jonathan S. Towner; Serena A. Reeder; Jennifer B. Oliver; Thomas L. Stevens; Bobbie R. Erickson; Laura T. Morgan; Marina L. Khristova; Amy L. Hartman; James A. Comer; Pierre E. Rollin; Thomas G. Ksiazek; Stuart T. Nichol

2008-01-01

9

Shared office space and the risk of the common cold  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common cold persists as a major economic and public health problem worldwide. Despite its long-established ubiquity, little is yet certain about the determinants of indoor environment in spreading of the infection, and even less about the role of indoor air quality as a mediator. The effect of sharing an office with one or more colleagues on the risk of

Jouni J. K. Jaakkola; Olli P. Heinonen

1995-01-01

10

Revitalization of the Shared Commons: Education for Sustainability and Marginalized Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Education for sustainability provides a vision for revitalizing the environmental commons while preserving cultural traditions and human rights. What happens if the environmental commons is shared by two politically disparate and conflicting cultures? As in many shared common lands, what happens if one culture is dominant and represents a more…

Glasson, George E.

2010-01-01

11

Many trypanosome messenger RNAs share a common 5' terminal sequence.  

PubMed Central

The mRNAs for different variant surface antigens of Trypanosoma brucei start with the same 35 nucleotides. This sequence is encoded by a separate mini-exon, located in a 1.35-kb repetitive element. We have reported that trypanosomes contain many transcripts that hybridize to mini-exon probes, even if they do not make the surface antigens. We show here that these transcripts have the mini-exon sequence at their 5' end; they do not contain other sequences from the mini-exon repeat element and are polyadenylated. We have cloned DNA complementary to trypanosome mRNAs and randomly selected 17 clones containing mini-exon sequences. Thirteen of these are derived from different genes that do not code for surface antigens. We conclude that the mini-exon sequence is a common element at the 5' end of many trypanosome mRNAs. As the 200 genes for mini-exons are highly clustered, linkage of the mini-exon sequence to the remainder of most mRNAs may require discontinuous transcription. Images

De Lange, T; Michels, P A; Veerman, H J; Cornelissen, A W; Borst, P

1984-01-01

12

Density-dependent effects of multiple predators sharing a common prey in an endophytic habitat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple predator species feeding on a common prey can lead to higher or lower predation than would be expected by simply combining their individual effects. Such emergent multiple predator effects may be especially prevalent if predators share feeding habitat. Despite the prevalence of endophagous insects, no studies have examined how multiple predators sharing an endophytic habitat affect prey or predator

Brian H. Aukema; Murray K. Clayton; Kenneth F. Raffa

2004-01-01

13

RSVP: an investigation of remote shared visual presence as common ground for human-robot teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents mobile robots as a way of augmenting communication in distributed teams through a remote shared visual presence (RSVP) consisting of the robot's view. By giving all team members access to the shared visual display provided by a robot situated in a remote workspace, the robot can serve as a source of common ground for the distributed team.

Jenny Burke; Robin Murphy

2007-01-01

14

Mapping Resistance to Peanut Mottle Virus in Common Bean  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanut mottle virus (PeMoV) causes severe symptoms of systemic vein necrosis in susceptible snap beans, resembling those caused by Bean common mosaic necrosis virus. During 2008 and 2009, PeMoV was identified in snap bean fields in Frio County, TX. In lieu of the recent PeMoV outbreak, our objectiv...

15

Destruction of Human Cancers by an Altered Common Cold Virus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports on what appears to be a promising approach to the treatment and spread of cancer. Utilizes a mutant of the common cold virus that appears to kill many kinds of cancer cells but not normal cells. (DDR)|

Oppenheimer, Steven B.

1998-01-01

16

Marburg Virus Infection Detected in a Common African Bat  

PubMed Central

Marburg and Ebola viruses can cause large hemorrhagic fever (HF) outbreaks with high case fatality (80–90%) in human and great apes. Identification of the natural reservoir of these viruses is one of the most important topics in this field and a fundamental key to understanding their natural history. Despite the discovery of this virus family almost 40 years ago, the search for the natural reservoir of these lethal pathogens remains an enigma despite numerous ecological studies. Here, we report the discovery of Marburg virus in a common species of fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus) in Gabon as shown by finding virus-specific RNA and IgG antibody in individual bats. These Marburg virus positive bats represent the first naturally infected non-primate animals identified. Furthermore, this is the first report of Marburg virus being present in this area of Africa, thus extending the known range of the virus. These data imply that more areas are at risk for MHF outbreaks than previously realized and correspond well with a recently published report in which three species of fruit bats were demonstrated to be likely reservoirs for Ebola virus.

Towner, Jonathan S.; Pourrut, Xavier; Albarino, Cesar G.; Nkogue, Chimene Nze; Bird, Brian H.; Grard, Gilda; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Nichol, Stuart T.; Leroy, Eric M.

2007-01-01

17

Shared catalysis in virus entry and bacterial cell wall depolymerization  

PubMed Central

Summary Bacterial virus entry and cell wall depolymerization require the breakdown of peptidoglycan (PG), the peptide cross-linked polysaccharide matrix that surrounds bacterial cells. Structural studies of lysostaphin, a PG lytic enzyme (autolysin), have suggested that residues in the active site facilitate hydrolysis, but a clear mechanism for this reaction has remained unsolved. The active site residues and a structural pattern of ?-sheets are conserved among lysostaphin homologs (such as LytM of Staphylococcus aureus) and the C-terminal domain of gene product 13 (gp13), a protein at the tail tip of the Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage ?29. gp13 activity on PG and muropeptides was assayed using high performance liquid chromatography, and gp13 was found to be a D,D-endopeptidase that cleaved the peptide cross-link. Computational modeling of the B. subtilis cross-linked peptide into the gp13 active site suggested that Asp195 may facilitate scissile bond activation and His247 is oriented to mediate nucleophile generation. This is the first model of a Zn2+-metallopeptidase and its substrate to our knowledge. Residue Asp195 of gp13 was found to be critical for Zn2+-binding and catalysis by substitution mutagenesis with Ala or Cys. Circular dichroism and particle induced X-ray emission spectroscopy showed that the general protein folding and Zn2+-binding was maintained in the Cys mutant but reduced in the Ala mutant. These findings together support a model where the Asp195 and His247 in gp13 and homologous residues in the LytM and lysostaphin active sites facilitate hydrolysis of the peptide substrate that cross-links PG. Thus, these autolysins and phage entry enzymes have a shared chemical mechanism of action.

Cohen, Daniel N.; Sham, Yuk Y.; Haugstad, Greg D.; Xiang, Ye; Rossmann, Michael G.; Anderson, Dwight L.; Popham, David L.

2009-01-01

18

Shared catalysis in virus entry and bacterial cell wall depolymerization.  

PubMed

Bacterial virus entry and cell wall depolymerization require the breakdown of peptidoglycan (PG), the peptide-cross-linked polysaccharide matrix that surrounds bacterial cells. Structural studies of lysostaphin, a PG lytic enzyme (autolysin), have suggested that residues in the active site facilitate hydrolysis, but a clear mechanism for this reaction has remained unsolved. The active-site residues and a structural pattern of beta-sheets are conserved among lysostaphin homologs (such as LytM of Staphylococcus aureus) and the C-terminal domain of gene product 13 (gp13), a protein at the tail tip of the Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage varphi29. gp13 activity on PG and muropeptides was assayed using high-performance liquid chromatography, and gp13 was found to be a d,d-endopeptidase that cleaved the peptide cross-link. Computational modeling of the B. subtilis cross-linked peptide into the gp13 active site suggested that Asp195 may facilitate scissile-bond activation and that His247 is oriented to mediate nucleophile generation. To our knowledge, this is the first model of a Zn(2)(+) metallopeptidase and its substrate. Residue Asp195 of gp13 was found to be critical for Zn(2)(+) binding and catalysis by substitution mutagenesis with Ala or Cys. Circular dichroism and particle-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy showed that the general protein folding and Zn(2)(+) binding were maintained in the Cys mutant but reduced in the Ala mutant. These findings together support a model in which the Asp195 and His247 in gp13 and homologous residues in the LytM and lysostaphin active sites facilitate hydrolysis of the peptide substrate that cross-links PG. Thus, these autolysins and phage-entry enzymes have a shared chemical mechanism of action. PMID:19361422

Cohen, Daniel N; Sham, Yuk Y; Haugstad, Greg D; Xiang, Ye; Rossmann, Michael G; Anderson, Dwight L; Popham, David L

2009-02-09

19

The Childhood Muscular Dystrophies: Diseases Sharing a Common Pathogenesis of Membrane Instability  

Microsoft Academic Search

New observations demonstrate that several childhood forms of muscular dystrophy share a common pathogenesis. In muscle, dystrophin occurs as part of a membrane complex (dystrophin-glycoprotein) linking the cytoskeleton to the basal lamina. In Duchenne muscular dystrophy, dystrophin deficiency disrupts the linkage of the integral glycoproteins of the sarcolemma and leads to muscle fiber necrosis. In severe childhood autosomal recessive muscular

Jerry R. Mendell; Zarife Sahenk; Thomas W. Prior

1995-01-01

20

Globin-coupled sensors and protoglobins share a common signaling mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The globin-coupled sensors (GCSs) and protoglobins (Pgbs) form one lineage of the globin superfamily. The GCSs are multidomain sensory proteins involved in aerotaxis or gene regulation, while the Pgbs are single-domain globins of yet unknown function. We postulate that the GCSs and Pgbs share a common signaling mechanism to modulate diverse physiological functions. To elucidate the signaling properties of individual

Jennifer A. Saito; Xuehua Wan; Kit Shan Lee; Shaobin Hou; Maqsudul Alam

2008-01-01

21

Antiviral agent blocks breathing of the common cold virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic capsid is critical to the events that shape the viral life cycle; events such as cell attachment, cell entry, and nucleic acid release demand a highly mobile viral surface. Protein mass mapping of the common cold virus, human rhinovirus 14 (HRV14), revealed both viral structural dynamics and the inhibition of such dynamics with an anti- viral agent, WIN

J. KATHLEEN LEWIS; BRIAN BOTHNER; THOMAS J. SMITH; GARY SIUZDAK

1998-01-01

22

Viruses and Bacteria in the Etiology of the Common Cold  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred young adults with common colds were studied during a 10-month period. Virus culture, antigen detection, PCR, and serology with paired samples were used to identify the infection. Viral etiology was es- tablished for 138 of the 200 patients (69%). Rhinoviruses were detected in 105 patients, coronavirus OC43 or 229E infection was detected in 17, influenza A or B

MIKA J. MAKELA; TUOMO PUHAKKA; OLLI RUUSKANEN; MAIJA LEINONEN; PEKKA SAIKKU; MARKO KIMPIMAKI; SOILE BLOMQVIST; TIMO HYYPIA; PERTTI ARSTILA

1998-01-01

23

Coverage Performance of Common/Shared Control Signals Using Transmit Diversity in Evolved UTRA Downlink  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the best transmit diversity schemes for three types of common/shared control signals from the viewpoint of the block error rate (BLER) performance in the Evolved UTRA downlink employing OFDM radio access. This paper also presents the coverage performance of the common/shared control signals using transmit diversity with respect to the outage probability that satisfies the required BLER performance, which is a major factor determining the cell configuration. Simulation results clarify that Space-Frequency Block Code (SFBC) and the combination of SFBC and Frequency Switched Transmit Diversity (FSTD) are the best transmit diversity schemes among the open-loop type transmit diversity candidates for two-antenna and four-antenna transmission cases, respectively. Furthermore, we show through system-level simulations that SFBC is very effective in reducing the outage probability at the required BLER for the physical broadcast channel (PBCH), for the common control signal with resource block (RB)-level assignment such as the dynamic broadcast channel (D-BCH) and paging channel (PCH), and in increasing the number of accommodated L1/L2 control signals over one transmission time interval duration, using mini-control channel element (CCE)-level assignment.

Taoka, Hidekazu; Morimoto, Akihito; Kawai, Hiroyuki; Higuchi, Kenichi; Sawahashi, Mamoru

24

Synteny mapping between common bean and soybean reveals extensive blocks of shared loci  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding syntentic relationship between two species is critical to assessing the potential for comparative genomic analysis. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.), the two most important members of the Phaseoleae legumes, appear to have a diploid and polyploidy recent past, respectively. Determining the syntentic relationship between these two species will allow researchers to leverage not only genomic resources but also genetic data for important agronomic traits to improve both of these species. Results Genetically-positioned transcript loci of common bean were mapped relative to the recent soybean 1.01 pseudochromosome assembly. In nearly every case, each common bean locus mapped to two loci in soybean, a result consistent with the duplicate polyploidy history of soybean. Blocks of synteny averaging 32 cM in common bean and 4.9 Mb in soybean were observed for all 11 common bean linkage groups, and these blocks mapped to all 20 soybean pseudochromosomes. The median physical-to-genetic distance ratio in common bean (based on soybean physical distances) was ~120 kb/cM. ~15,000 common bean sequences (primarily EST contigs and EST singletons) were electronically positioned onto the common bean map using the shared syntentic blocks as references points. Conclusion The collected evidence from this mapping strongly supports the duplicate history of soybean. It further provides evidence that the soybean genome was fractionated and reassembled at some point following the duplication event. These well mapped syntentic relationships between common bean and soybean will enable researchers to target specific genomic regions to discover genes or loci that affect phenotypic expression in both species.

2010-01-01

25

Cell polarity proteins: common targets for tumorigenic human viruses  

PubMed Central

Loss of polarity and disruption of cell junctions are common features of epithelial-derived cancer cells, and mounting evidence indicates that such defects have a direct function in the pathology of cancer. Supporting this idea, results with several different human tumor viruses indicate that their oncogenic potential depends in part on a common ability to inactivate key cell polarity proteins. For example, adenovirus (Ad) type 9 is unique among human Ads by causing exclusively estrogen-dependent mammary tumors in experimental animals and in having E4 region-encoded open reading frame 1 (E4-ORF1) as its primary oncogenic determinant. The 125-residue E4-ORF1 protein consists of two separate protein-interaction elements, one of which defines a PDZ domain-binding motif (PBM) required for E4-ORF1 to induce both cellular transformation in vitro and tumorigenesis in vivo. Most notably, the E4-ORF1 PBM mediates interactions with a selected group of cellular PDZ proteins, three of which include the cell polarity proteins Dlg1, PATJ and ZO-2. Data further indicate that these interactions promote disruption of cell junctions and a loss of cell polarity. In addition, one or more of the E4-ORF1-interacting cell polarity proteins, as well as the cell polarity protein Scribble, are common targets for the high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 or human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax oncoproteins. Underscoring the significance of these observations, in humans, high-risk HPV and HTLV-1 are causative agents for cervical cancer and adult T-cell leukemia, respectively. Consequently, human tumor viruses should serve as powerful tools for deciphering mechanisms whereby disruption of cell junctions and loss of cell polarity contribute to the development of many human cancers. This review article discusses evidence supporting this hypothesis, with an emphasis on the human Ad E4-ORF1 oncoprotein.

Javier, RT

2012-01-01

26

Globin-coupled sensors and protoglobins share a common signaling mechanism.  

PubMed

The globin-coupled sensors (GCSs) and protoglobins (Pgbs) form one lineage of the globin superfamily. The GCSs are multidomain sensory proteins involved in aerotaxis or gene regulation, while the Pgbs are single-domain globins of yet unknown function. We postulate that the GCSs and Pgbs share a common signaling mechanism to modulate diverse physiological functions. To elucidate the signaling properties of individual globin domains, we constructed and expressed chimeric receptors in Escherichia coli. We demonstrate that all the chimeric receptors reversibly bind oxygen in vitro and trigger aerotactic responses in vivo. Thus, oxygen binding to the globin domains of diverse GCSs and Pgbs form a common signaling state that can trigger aerotactic responses. PMID:18486614

Saito, Jennifer A; Wan, Xuehua; Lee, Kit Shan; Hou, Shaobin; Alam, Maqsudul

2008-05-16

27

Influenza virus RNA structure: unique and common features.  

PubMed

The influenza A virus genome consists of eight negative-sense RNA segments. Here we review the currently available data on structure-function relationships in influenza virus RNAs. Various ideas and hypotheses about the roles of influenza virus RNA folding in the virus replication are also discussed in relation to other viruses. PMID:20923332

Gultyaev, Alexander P; Fouchier, Ron A M; Olsthoorn, René C L

2010-10-05

28

Risk of Hepatitis C Virus Infection among Young Adult Injection Drug Users Who Share Injection Equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designing studies to examine hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission via the shared use of drug injection paraphernalia other than syringes is difficult because of saturation levels of HCV infection in most samples of injection drug users (IDUs). The authors measured the incidence of HCV infection in a large cohort of young IDUs from Chicago, Illinois, and determined the risk of

Lorna E. Thorpe; Lawrence J. Ouellet; Ronald Hershow; Susan L. Bailey; Ian T. Williams; John Williamson; Edgar R. Monterroso; Richard S. Garfein

29

CHARACTERIZATION AND PRESENCE OF BEAN COMMON MOSAIC NECROSIS VIRUS IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An outbreak of virus symptoms in the San Juan Valley of the southeastern part of the Dominican Republic during the 1999/2000 dry bean production season was studied. The virus was determined by USDA-ARS at Prosser, WA, to be the NL-8 strain of bean common mosaic necrosis virus. The virus was observed...

30

Failed Lactation and Perinatal Depression: Common Problems with Shared Neuroendocrine Mechanisms?  

PubMed Central

Abstract In the early postpartum period, mother and infant navigate a critical neuroendocrine transition from pregnancy to lactation. Two major clinical problems that occur during this transition are failed lactation and perinatal mood disorders. These disorders often overlap in clinical settings. Failed lactation is common. Although all major medical organizations recommend 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding, only 13% of women in the United States achieve this recommendation. Perinatal mood disorders affect 10% of mothers, with substantial morbidity for mother and child. We hypothesize that shared neuroendocrine mechanisms contribute to both failed lactation and perinatal mood disorders. In this hypothesis article, we discuss data from both animal models and clinical studies that suggest neuroendocrine mechanisms that may underlie these two disorders. Research to elucidate the role of these underlying mechanisms may identify treatment strategies both to relieve perinatal depression and to enable women to achieve their infant feeding goals.

Grewen, Karen; Pedersen, Cort A.; Propper, Cathi; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha

2012-01-01

31

The mammary gland-specific marsupial ELP and eutherian CTI share a common ancestral gene  

PubMed Central

Background The marsupial early lactation protein (ELP) gene is expressed in the mammary gland and the protein is secreted into milk during early lactation (Phase 2A). Mature ELP shares approximately 55.4% similarity with the colostrum-specific bovine colostrum trypsin inhibitor (CTI) protein. Although ELP and CTI both have a single bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI)-Kunitz domain and are secreted only during the early lactation phases, their evolutionary history is yet to be investigated. Results Tammar ELP was isolated from a genomic library and the fat-tailed dunnart and Southern koala ELP genes cloned from genomic DNA. The tammar ELP gene was expressed only in the mammary gland during late pregnancy (Phase 1) and early lactation (Phase 2A). The opossum and fat-tailed dunnart ELP and cow CTI transcripts were cloned from RNA isolated from the mammary gland and dog CTI from cells in colostrum. The putative mature ELP and CTI peptides shared 44.6%-62.2% similarity. In silico analyses identified the ELP and CTI genes in the other species examined and provided compelling evidence that they evolved from a common ancestral gene. In addition, whilst the eutherian CTI gene was conserved in the Laurasiatherian orders Carnivora and Cetartiodactyla, it had become a pseudogene in others. These data suggest that bovine CTI may be the ancestral gene of the Artiodactyla-specific, rapidly evolving chromosome 13 pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (PTI), spleen trypsin inhibitor (STI) and the five placenta-specific trophoblast Kunitz domain protein (TKDP1-5) genes. Conclusions Marsupial ELP and eutherian CTI evolved from an ancestral therian mammal gene before the divergence of marsupials and eutherians between 130 and 160 million years ago. The retention of the ELP gene in marsupials suggests that this early lactation-specific milk protein may have an important role in the immunologically naïve young of these species.

2012-01-01

32

Cucurbit leaf crumple virus Identified in Common Bean in Florida  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Detection of Cucurbit leaf crumple virus in green beans in Florida suggests that this virus may be more widely distributed than previously known in the state and that green bean (and potentially other legumes) are potential reservoirs for Cucurbit leaf crumple virus....

33

Common Genetic Determinants of Uveitis Shared with Other Autoimmune Disorders1  

PubMed Central

Uveitis is a complex multifactorial autoimmune disease of the eye characterized by inflammation of the uvea and retina, degeneration of the retina, and blindness in genetically predisposed patients. Using the rat model of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU), we previously identified three quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with EAU on rat chromosomes 4, 12, and 10 (Eau1, Eau2, and Eau3). The primary goal of the current study is to delineate additional non-MHC chromosomal regions that control susceptibility to EAU, and to identify any QTLs that overlap with the QTLs of other autoimmune diseases. Using a set of informative microsatellite markers and F2 generations of resistant and susceptible MHC class II-matched rat strains (F344 and LEW), we have identified several new significant or suggestive QTLs on rat chromosomes 2, 3, 7, 10, and 19 that control susceptibility to EAU. A protective allele was identified in the susceptible LEW strain in the Eau5 locus at D7Wox18, and epistatic interactions between QTLs were found to influence the severity of disease. The newly identified regions (Eau4 through Eau9) colocalize with the genetic determinants of other autoimmune disease models, and to disease-regulating syntenic regions identified in autoimmune patients on human chromosomes 4q21-31, 5q31-33, 16q22-24, 17p11-q12, 20q11-13, and 22q12-13. Our results suggest that uveitis shares some of the pathogenic mechanisms associated with other autoimmune diseases, and lends support to the “common gene, common pathway” hypothesis for autoimmune disorders.

Mattapallil, Mary J.; Sahin, Azize; Silver, Phyllis B.; Sun, Shu-Hui; Chan, Chi-Chao; Remmers, Elaine F.; Hejtmancik, J. Fielding; Caspi, Rachel R.

2008-01-01

34

ERp57 is essential for efficient folding of glycoproteins sharing common structural domains  

PubMed Central

ERp57 is a member of the protein disulphide isomerase family of oxidoreductases, which are involved in native disulphide bond formation in the endoplasmic reticulum of mammalian cells. This enzyme has been shown to be associated with both calnexin and calreticulin and, therefore, has been proposed to be a glycoprotein-specific oxidoreductase. Here, we identify endogenous substrates for ERp57 by trapping mixed disulphide intermediates between enzyme and substrate. Our results demonstrate that the substrates for this enzyme are mostly heavily glycosylated, disulphide bonded proteins. In addition, we show that the substrate proteins share common structural domains, indicating that substrate specificity may involve specific structural features as well as the presence of an oligosaccharide side chain. We also show that the folding of two of the endogenous substrates for ERp57 is impaired in ERp57 knockout cells and that prevention of an interaction with calnexin or calreticulin perturbs the folding of some, but not all, substrates with multiple disulphide bonds. These results suggest a specific role for ERp57 in the isomerisation of non-native disulphide bonds in specific glycoprotein substrates.

Jessop, Catherine E; Chakravarthi, Seema; Garbi, Natalio; Hammerling, Gunter J; Lovell, Simon; Bulleid, Neil J

2007-01-01

35

ERp57 is essential for efficient folding of glycoproteins sharing common structural domains.  

PubMed

ERp57 is a member of the protein disulphide isomerase family of oxidoreductases, which are involved in native disulphide bond formation in the endoplasmic reticulum of mammalian cells. This enzyme has been shown to be associated with both calnexin and calreticulin and, therefore, has been proposed to be a glycoprotein-specific oxidoreductase. Here, we identify endogenous substrates for ERp57 by trapping mixed disulphide intermediates between enzyme and substrate. Our results demonstrate that the substrates for this enzyme are mostly heavily glycosylated, disulphide bonded proteins. In addition, we show that the substrate proteins share common structural domains, indicating that substrate specificity may involve specific structural features as well as the presence of an oligosaccharide side chain. We also show that the folding of two of the endogenous substrates for ERp57 is impaired in ERp57 knockout cells and that prevention of an interaction with calnexin or calreticulin perturbs the folding of some, but not all, substrates with multiple disulphide bonds. These results suggest a specific role for ERp57 in the isomerisation of non-native disulphide bonds in specific glycoprotein substrates. PMID:17170699

Jessop, Catherine E; Chakravarthi, Seema; Garbi, Natalio; Hämmerling, Günter J; Lovell, Simon; Bulleid, Neil J

2006-12-14

36

Monkeys and Humans Share a Common Computation for Face/Voice Integration  

PubMed Central

Speech production involves the movement of the mouth and other regions of the face resulting in visual motion cues. These visual cues enhance intelligibility and detection of auditory speech. As such, face-to-face speech is fundamentally a multisensory phenomenon. If speech is fundamentally multisensory, it should be reflected in the evolution of vocal communication: similar behavioral effects should be observed in other primates. Old World monkeys share with humans vocal production biomechanics and communicate face-to-face with vocalizations. It is unknown, however, if they, too, combine faces and voices to enhance their perception of vocalizations. We show that they do: monkeys combine faces and voices in noisy environments to enhance their detection of vocalizations. Their behavior parallels that of humans performing an identical task. We explored what common computational mechanism(s) could explain the pattern of results we observed across species. Standard explanations or models such as the principle of inverse effectiveness and a “race” model failed to account for their behavior patterns. Conversely, a “superposition model”, positing the linear summation of activity patterns in response to visual and auditory components of vocalizations, served as a straightforward but powerful explanatory mechanism for the observed behaviors in both species. As such, it represents a putative homologous mechanism for integrating faces and voices across primates.

Chandrasekaran, Chandramouli; Lemus, Luis; Trubanova, Andrea; Gondan, Matthias; Ghazanfar, Asif A.

2011-01-01

37

Cambrian Burgess Shale-type deposits share a common mode of fossilization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although Cambrian Burgess Shale-type (BST) biotas arefundamental to understanding the radiation of metazoans, thenature of their extraordinary preservation remains controversial.There remains disagreement about the importance of the roleof early mineral replication of soft tissues versus the conservationof primary organic remains. Most prior work focused on soft-bodiedfossils from the two most important BST biotas, those of theBurgess Shale (Canada) and Maotianshan Shale (Chengjiang, China).Fossils from these two deposits do not provide ideal candidatesfor specimen-level taphonomic study because they have been altered:the Burgess Shale by greenschist facies metamorphism and theMaotianshan Shale by intensive subsurface weathering. Elementalmapping of soft-bodied fossils from 11 other BST deposits worldwidedemonstrates that BST preservation represents a single majortaphonomic pathway that may share a common cause wherever itoccurs. The conservation of organic tissues, and not early authigenicmineralization, is the primary mechanism responsible for thepreservation of BST assemblages. Early authigenic mineral replacementpreserves certain anatomical features of some specimens, butthe preservation of non-biomineralized BST fossils requiressuppression of the processes that normally lead to the degradationof organic remains in marine environments.

Gaines, Robert R.; Briggs, Derek E. G.; Yuanlong, Zhao

2008-10-01

38

Implementation of a Shared Data Repository and Common Data Dictionary for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Research  

PubMed Central

Many previous attempts by fetal alcohol spectrum disorders researchers to compare data across multiple prospective and retrospective human studies have failed due to both structural differences in the collected data as well as difficulty in coming to agreement on the precise meaning of the terminology used to describe the collected data. Although some groups of researchers have an established track record of successfully integrating data, attempts to integrate data more broadly amongst different groups of researchers have generally faltered. Lack of tools to help researchers share and integrate data has also hampered data analysis. This situation has delayed improving diagnosis, intervention, and treatment before and after birth. We worked with various researchers and research programs in the Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (CI-FASD) to develop a set of common data dictionaries to describe the data to be collected, including definitions of terms and specification of allowable values. The resulting data dictionaries were the basis for creating a central data repository (CI-FASD Central Repository) and software tools to input and query data. Data entry restrictions ensure that only data which conform to the data dictionaries reach the CI-FASD Central Repository. The result is an effective system for centralized and unified management of the data collected and analyzed by the initiative, including a secure, long-term data repository. CI-FASD researchers are able to integrate and analyze data of different types, collected using multiple methods, and collected from multiple populations, and data are retained for future reuse in a secure, robust repository.

Arenson, Andrew D.; Bakhireva, Ludmila; Chambers, Christina D.; Deximo, Christina; Foroud, Tatiana; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Mattson, Sarah N.; May, Philip A.; Moore, Elizabeth; Ogle, Kimberly; Riley, Edward P.; Robinson, Luther K.; Rogers, Jeffrey; Streissguth, Ann P.; Tavares, Michel; Urbanski, Joseph; Yezerets, Yelena; Surya, Radha; Stewart, Craig A.; Barnett, William K.

2010-01-01

39

Thermotolerance and heat acclimation may share a common mechanism in humans.  

PubMed

Thermotolerance and heat acclimation are key adaptation processes that have been hitherto viewed as separate phenomena. Here, we provide evidence that these processes may share a common basis, as both may potentially be governed by the heat shock response. We evaluated the effects of a heat shock response-inhibitor (quercetin; 2,000 mg/day) on established markers of thermotolerance [gastrointestinal barrier permeability, plasma TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-10 concentrations, and leukocyte heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) content]. Heat acclimation reduced body temperatures, heart rate, and physiological strain during exercise/heat stress) in male subjects (n = 8) completing a 7-day heat acclimation protocol. These same subjects completed an identical protocol under placebo supplementation (placebo). Gastrointestinal barrier permeability and TNF-? were increased on the 1st day of exercise/heat stress in quercetin; no differences in these variables were reported in placebo. Exercise HSP70 responses were increased, and plasma cytokines (IL-6, IL-10) were decreased on the 7th day of heat acclimation in placebo; with concomitant reductions in exercise body temperatures, heart rate, and physiological strain. In contrast, gastrointestinal barrier permeability remained elevated, HSP70 was not increased, and IL-6, IL-10, and exercise body temperatures were not reduced on the 7th day of heat acclimation in quercetin. While exercise heart rate and physiological strain were reduced in quercetin, this occurred later in exercise than with placebo. Consistent with the concept that thermotolerance and heat acclimation are related through the heat shock response, repeated exercise/heat stress increases cytoprotective HSP70 and reduces circulating cytokines, contributing to reductions in cellular and systemic markers of heat strain. Exercising under a heat shock response-inhibitor prevents both cellular and systemic heat adaptations. PMID:21613575

Kuennen, Matthew; Gillum, Trevor; Dokladny, Karol; Bedrick, Edward; Schneider, Suzanne; Moseley, Pope

2011-05-25

40

Distribution of baboon endogenous virus among species of African monkeys suggests multiple ancient cross-species transmissions in shared habitats.  

PubMed Central

PCR amplification of baboon endogenous virus (BaEV) long terminal repeat, reverse transcriptase gene, and env fragments from 24 different species of African monkeys indicates that BaEV is less widespread than was formerly thought. Instead of being present in every species of African primates, BaEV can be found only in baboons, geladas, and mangabeys (all belonging to the Papionini tribe) and in African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops)subspecies. BaEV, which can be activated from baboon and gelada tissues, was most likely introduced in the germ line only recently (less than a few million years ago) and has not been inherited from a common ancestor of all extant African monkeys. Neighbor-joining and maximum-likelihood analyses of the sequences obtained showed that two distinct virus clusters can be distinguished: the first containing baboon, gelada, and African green monkey BaEV sequences and the second consisting of mandrill and mangabey BaEV sequences. This viral evolutionary tree does not follow host phylogeny, indicating the cross-species transmissions and multiple germ line fixations of the virus must have occurred in the past. BaEV sequences are found in monkeys inhabiting savannas (baboons, geladas, and African green monkeys) as well as forests (managabeys and mandrills) and cluster according to the habitats of their hosts, providing evidence for cross-species transmission in shared habitats.

van der Kuyl, A C; Dekker, J T; Goudsmit, J

1995-01-01

41

Immunological detection of bean common mosaic virus in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaves.  

PubMed

Bean common mosaic potyvirus (BCMV) is an important seed borne pathogen of French bean. Differential inoculation with bean common mosaic virus at cotylodonary trifoliate leaf stage and pre-flowering stage of crop growth revealed that cotyledonary leaf infection favored maximum disease expression. Under immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM) the virus particles of filamentous structure having a diameter of 750 nm (l) and 15 nm (w) were observed. These particles gave positive precipitin tests with polyclonal antiserum of Potato virus Y. PMID:23100839

Verma, Poonam; Gupta, U P

2010-04-29

42

Formation of share market prices under heterogeneous beliefs and common knowledge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Financial economic models often assume that investors know (or agree on) the fundamental value of the shares of the firm, easing the passage from the individual to the collective dimension of the financial system generated by the Share Exchange over time. Our model relaxes that heroic assumption of one unique "true value" and deals with the formation of share market prices through the dynamic formation of individual and social opinions (or beliefs) based upon a fundamental signal of economic performance and position of the firm, the forecast revision by heterogeneous individual investors, and their social mood or sentiment about the ongoing state of the market pricing process. Market clearing price formation is then featured by individual and group dynamics that make its collective dimension irreducible to its individual level. This dynamic holistic approach can be applied to better understand the market exuberance generated by the Share Exchange over time.

Biondi, Yuri; Giannoccolo, Pierpaolo; Galam, Serge

2012-11-01

43

Genome of Phaeocystis globosa virus PgV-16T highlights the common ancestry of the largest known DNA viruses infecting eukaryotes.  

PubMed

Large dsDNA viruses are involved in the population control of many globally distributed species of eukaryotic phytoplankton and have a prominent role in bloom termination. The genus Phaeocystis (Haptophyta, Prymnesiophyceae) includes several high-biomass-forming phytoplankton species, such as Phaeocystis globosa, the blooms of which occur mostly in the coastal zone of the North Atlantic and the North Sea. Here, we report the 459,984-bp-long genome sequence of P. globosa virus strain PgV-16T, encoding 434 proteins and eight tRNAs and, thus, the largest fully sequenced genome to date among viruses infecting algae. Surprisingly, PgV-16T exhibits no phylogenetic affinity with other viruses infecting microalgae (e.g., phycodnaviruses), including those infecting Emiliania huxleyi, another ubiquitous bloom-forming haptophyte. Rather, PgV-16T belongs to an emerging clade (the Megaviridae) clustering the viruses endowed with the largest known genomes, including Megavirus, Mimivirus (both infecting acanthamoeba), and a virus infecting the marine microflagellate grazer Cafeteria roenbergensis. Seventy-five percent of the best matches of PgV-16T-predicted proteins correspond to two viruses [Organic Lake phycodnavirus (OLPV)1 and OLPV2] from a hypersaline lake in Antarctica (Organic Lake), the hosts of which are unknown. As for OLPVs and other Megaviridae, the PgV-16T sequence data revealed the presence of a virophage-like genome. However, no virophage particle was detected in infected P. globosa cultures. The presence of many genes found only in Megaviridae in its genome and the presence of an associated virophage strongly suggest that PgV-16T shares a common ancestry with the largest known dsDNA viruses, the host range of which already encompasses the earliest diverging branches of domain Eukarya. PMID:23754393

Santini, Sebastien; Jeudy, Sandra; Bartoli, Julia; Poirot, Olivier; Lescot, Magali; Abergel, Chantal; Barbe, Valérie; Wommack, K Eric; Noordeloos, Anna A M; Brussaard, Corina P D; Claverie, Jean-Michel

2013-06-10

44

Differing Circumstances, Shared Challenges: Finding Common Ground between Urban and Rural Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The shared struggles facing urban and rural schools, such as changing cultural and linguistic classroom profiles, increased childhood poverty, and residential segregation patterns, influence financial inequities between people and communities thus contributing to gaps in academic achievement and teacher shortages in both settings. The…

Truscott, Diane M.; Truscott, Stephen D.

2005-01-01

45

Shared parental care is costly for nestlings of common cuckoos and their great reed warbler hosts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obligate avian brood parasitism typically involves one of 2 strategies: parasite chicks are either 1) virulent and evict all other eggs and nest mates to be raised alone or 2) more tolerant and share foster parental care with host chicks for some or the entirety of the nestling period. We studied the consequences of experimentally forced mixed broods of age-matched

Márk E. Hauber; Csaba Moskát

2008-01-01

46

Shared parental care is costly for nestlings of common cuckoos and their great reed warbler hosts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obligate avian brood parasitism typically involves one of 2 strategies: parasite chicks are either 1) virulent and evict all other eggs and nest mates to be raised alone or 2) more tolerant and share foster parental care with host chicks for some or the entirety of the nestling period. We studied the consequences of experimentally forced mixed broods of age-matched

Mark E. Hauber; Csaba Moskat

2007-01-01

47

Common, emerging, vector-borne and infrequent abortogenic virus infections of cattle.  

PubMed

This review deals with the aetiology and the diagnosis of bovine viral abortion. While the abortion rates on beef and dairy cattle farms usually do not exceed 10%, significant economic losses because of abortion storms may be encountered. Determining the cause of abortions is usually a challenge, and it generally remains obscure in more than 50% of the necropsy submitted foetuses. Bovine viral diarrhoea virus and bovine herpesvirus-1 are the most common viruses causally associated with bovine abortions in farmed cattle globally. Rift Valley fever virus and bluetongue virus are important insect-transmitted abortogenic viruses. The geographic distribution of these two viruses is primarily dependent on the distribution of the insect vector, but direct transmission is possible. Recent global warming and subsequent insect vector expansion, coupled with the increase in international trade of animals and animal products, have been important factors in recent geographic advances of those two viruses. Bovine herpesviruses-4 and 5 in cattle, as well as other less frequent vector-borne viruses including epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus, Aino virus, Wesselsbron virus and lumpy skin disease virus, are discussed. PMID:21733134

Ali, H; Ali, A A; Atta, M S; Cepica, A

2011-07-07

48

Blood Pressure and Cerebral White Matter Share Common Genetic Factors in Mexican-Americans  

PubMed Central

Elevated arterial pulse pressure (PP) and blood pressure (BP) can lead to atrophy of cerebral white matter (WM), potentially due to shared genetic factors. We calculated the magnitude of shared genetic variance between BP and fractional anisotropy (FA) of water diffusion, a sensitive measurement of WM integrity in a well-characterized population of Mexican-Americans. The patterns of whole-brain and regional genetic overlap between BP and FA were interpreted in the context the pulse-wave encephalopathy (PWE) theory. We also tested whether regional pattern in genetic pleiotropy is modulated by the phylogeny of WM development. BP and high-resolution (1.7×1.7×3mm, 55 directions) diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data were analyzed for 332 (202 females; mean age=47.9±13.3years) members of the San Antonio Family Heart Study. Bivariate genetic correlation analysis was used to calculate the genetic overlap between several BP measurements [PP, systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP)] and FA (whole-brain and regional values). Intersubject variance in PP and SBP exhibited a significant genetic overlap with variance in whole-brain FA values, sharing 36% and 22% of genetic variance, respectively. Regionally, shared genetic variance was significantly influenced by rates of WM development (r=?.75, p=0.01). The pattern of genetic overlap between BP and WM integrity was generally in-agreement with the PWE theory. Our study provides evidence that a set of pleiotropically acting genetic factors jointly influence phenotypic variation in BP and WM integrity. The magnitude of this overlap appears to be influenced by phylogeny of WM development suggesting a possible role for genotype-by-age interactions.

Kochunov, Peter; Glahn, David C; Lancaster, Jack; Winkler, Anderson; Karlsgodt, Kathrin; Olvera, Rene L; Curran, Joanna E; Carless, Melanie A; Dyer, Thomas D; Almasy, Laura; Duggirala, Ravi; Fox, Peter T; Blangero, John

2010-01-01

49

Common Psychiatric Disorders and Caffeine Use, Tolerance, and Withdrawal: An Examination of Shared Genetic and Environmental Effects  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies examined caffeine use and caffeine dependence and risk for the symptoms, or diagnosis, of psychiatric disorders. The current study aimed to determine if generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder, phobias, major depressive disorder (MDD), anorexia nervosa (AN), or bulimia nervosa (BN) shared common genetic or environmental factors with caffeine use, caffeine tolerance, or caffeine withdrawal. Method Using 2,270 women from the Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders, bivariate Cholesky decomposition models were used to determine if any of the psychiatric disorders shared genetic or environmental factors with caffeine use phenotypes. Results GAD, phobias, and MDD shared genetic factors with caffeine use, with genetic correlations estimated to be 0.48, 0.25, and 0.38, respectively. Removal of the shared genetic and environmental parameter for phobias and caffeine use resulted in a significantly worse fitting model. MDD shared unique environmental factors (environmental correlation = 0.23) with caffeine tolerance; the genetic correlation between AN and caffeine tolerance and BN and caffeine tolerance were 0.64 and 0.49, respectively. Removal of the genetic and environmental correlation parameters resulted in significantly worse fitting models for GAD, phobias, MDD, AN, and BN, which suggested that there was significant shared liability between each of these phenotypes and caffeine tolerance. GAD had modest genetic correlations with caffeine tolerance, 0.24, and caffeine withdrawal, 0.35. Conclusions There was suggestive evidence of shared genetic and environmental liability between psychiatric disorders and caffeine phenotypes. This might inform us about the etiology of the comorbidity between these phenotypes.

Bergin, Jocilyn E.; Kendler, Kenneth S.

2012-01-01

50

Common Cell-Surface Antigen Associated with Murine and Feline C-Type RNA Leukemia Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new common cell-surface antigen associated with murine and feline C-type RNA leukemia viruses was demonstrated by the use of rabbit antiserum against feline leukemia virus and the indirect membrane immunofluorescence test. Common cell-surface antigen was found in all leukemias of all strains of mice tested, in normal lymphoid tissues of Gross-positive (high incidence of leukemia) mouse strains AKR, AKR\\\\cdot

Takashi Yoshiki; Robert C. Mellors; William D. Hardy

1973-01-01

51

NL-3K STRAIN IS A STABLE AND NATURALLY OCCURRING INTERSPECIFIC RECOMBINANT DERIVED FROM BEAN COMMON MOSAIC NECROSIS VIRUS AND BEAN COMMON MOSAIC VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A strain of Bean common mosaic necrosis virus from Idaho was identified by ELISA using monoclonal antibodies and by differential dry bean host range studies to be similar to the NL-3 D strain of Drifjhout. However, the strain (NL-3 K) caused earlier and more severe symptoms on bean plants representi...

52

Glass sponges and bilaterian animals share derived mitochondrial genomic features: a common ancestry or parallel evolution?  

PubMed

Glass sponges (Hexactinellida) are a group of deep-water benthic animals that have a unique syncytial organization and possess a characteristic siliceous skeleton. Although hexactinellids are traditionally grouped with calcareous and demosponges in the phylum Porifera, the monophyly of sponges and the phylogenetic position of the Hexactinellida remain contentious. We determined and analyzed the nearly complete mitochondrial genome sequences of the hexactinellid sponges Iphiteon panicea and Sympagella nux. Unexpectedly, our analysis revealed several mitochondrial genomic features shared between glass sponges and bilaterian animals, including an Arg --> Ser change in the genetic code, a characteristic secondary structure of one of the serine tRNAs, highly derived tRNA and rRNA genes, and the presence of a single large noncoding region. At the same time, glass sponge mtDNA contains atp9, a gene previously found only in the mtDNA of demosponges (among animals), and encodes a tRNA(Pro);(UGG) with an atypical A11-U24 pair that is also found in demosponges and placozoans. Most of our sequence-based phylogenetic analyses place Hexactinellida as the sister group to the Bilateria; however, these results are suspect given accelerated rates of mitochondrial sequence evolution in these groups. Thus, it remains an open question whether shared mitochondrial genomic features in glass sponges and bilaterian animals reflect their close phylogenetic affinity or provide a remarkable example of parallel evolution. PMID:17434903

Haen, Karri M; Lang, B Franz; Pomponi, Shirley A; Lavrov, Dennis V

2007-04-13

53

A Common onc Gene Sequence Transduced by Avian Carcinoma Virus MH2 and by Murine Sarcoma Virus 3611  

Microsoft Academic Search

A common cellular sequence was independently transduced by avian carcinoma virus MH2 (v-mht) and murine sarcoma virus (MSV) 3611 (v-raf). Comparison of the nucleotide sequences of v-mht and v-raf revealed a region of homology that extends over 969 nucleotides. The homology between the corresponding amino acids was about 95 percent with only 19 of 323 amino acids being different. With

Nancy C. Kan; Christos S. Flordellis; George E. Mark; Peter H. Duesberg; Takis S. Papas

1984-01-01

54

A national HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) database that facilitates data sharing  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this communication is to stimulate discussion on a National Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Database that facilitates and coordinates data sharing. We argue for the creation of a new database because significant gaps exists in the type of information that are available on HIV. Databases that extensively survey the published literature on HIV are widely available, however, databases that contain either raw data or that describe ongoing HIV research efforts are not widely available. For epidemiologists, sociologists and mathematical modelers, who need to draw on raw epidemiologic and behavior data from a broad range of fields, the existing databases are inadequate. In this paper we emphasize the particular requirements of epidemiologists, sociologists and modelers, and suggest a plan to accommodate their database needs.

Layne, S.P.; Marr, T.G.; Stanley, E.A.; Hyman, J.M.; Colgate, S.A.

1988-01-01

55

A Phylogenomic Approach to Bacterial Phylogeny: Evidence of a Core of Genes Sharing a Common History  

PubMed Central

It has been claimed that complete genome sequences would clarify phylogenetic relationships between organisms, but up to now, no satisfying approach has been proposed to use efficiently these data. For instance, if the coding of presence or absence of genes in complete genomes gives interesting results, it does not take into account the phylogenetic information contained in sequences and ignores hidden paralogies by using a BLAST reciprocal best hit definition of orthology. In addition, concatenation of sequences of different genes as well as building of consensus trees only consider the few genes that are shared among all organisms. Here we present an attempt to use a supertree method to build the phylogenetic tree of 45 organisms, with special focus on bacterial phylogeny. This led us to perform a phylogenetic study of congruence of tree topologies, which allows the identification of a core of genes supporting similar species phylogeny. We then used this core of genes to infer a tree. This phylogeny presents several differences with the rRNA phylogeny, notably for the position of hyperthermophilic bacteria.

Daubin, Vincent; Gouy, Manolo; Perriere, Guy

2002-01-01

56

Mating-related interactions share common features with anxiety in the mouse.  

PubMed

Anxiety is an important modulator of social behavior across species and parallel defects in anxiety and social interaction are frequently observed in mental illnesses such as autism and schizophrenia. The mouse is a powerful model organism to study the molecular genetic basis of these behaviors. Here we analyzed the relationship between social behavior and innate anxiety in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice using a mating-related interaction (MRI) test in which a resident male was observed during exposure to a sexually receptive female. Unlike male-male encounters where social interaction is brief and tentative and aggressive behaviors are prominent, male-female encounters are characterized by a strong motivation for extensive social interaction with the potential for modulation by innate anxiety. We hypothesized that differences in innate avoidance behavior between mouse-inbred strains would contribute to mating-related social interaction strategies. Our observations showed that C57BL/6 and BALB/c males exhibited distinct approach strategies in the mating-related interaction test that correlated with specific features of anxiety as observed in the open field. These findings suggest that mating-related social approach behavior shares similar genetic determinants with non-social approach-avoidance behaviors. PMID:17854918

Carola, Valeria; Scalera, Elisabetta; Brunamonti, Emiliano; Gross, Cornelius; D'Amato, Francesca

2007-08-10

57

Studies on Parainfluenza Type 2 and 4 Viruses Obtained from Patients with Common Colds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four agents which were obtained from adults with common colds were cultivated and identified—one was influenza type B and the others were parainfluenza viruses of types 2 and 4. Their cultivation was assisted by the use of organ cultures of human embryo tracheal or nasal epithelium. They infected and caused typical common colds in volunteers.

D. A. J. Tyrrell; M. L. Bynoe

1969-01-01

58

Type VI secretion apparatus and phage tail-associated protein complexes share a common evolutionary origin  

PubMed Central

Protein secretion is a common property of pathogenic microbes. Gram-negative bacterial pathogens use at least 6 distinct extracellular protein secretion systems to export proteins through their multilayered cell envelope and in some cases into host cells. Among the most widespread is the newly recognized Type VI secretion system (T6SS) which is composed of 15–20 proteins whose biochemical functions are not well understood. Using crystallographic, biochemical, and bioinformatic analyses, we identified 3 T6SS components, which are homologous to bacteriophage tail proteins. These include the tail tube protein; the membrane-penetrating needle, situated at the distal end of the tube; and another protein associated with the needle and tube. We propose that T6SS is a multicomponent structure whose extracellular part resembles both structurally and functionally a bacteriophage tail, an efficient machine that translocates proteins and DNA across lipid membranes into cells.

Leiman, Petr G.; Basler, Marek; Ramagopal, Udupi A.; Bonanno, Jeffrey B.; Sauder, J. Michael; Pukatzki, Stefan; Burley, Stephen K.; Almo, Steven C.; Mekalanos, John J.

2009-01-01

59

Type VI secretion apparatus and phage tail-associated protein complexes share a common evolutionary origin  

SciTech Connect

Protein secretion is a common property of pathogenic microbes. Gram-negative bacterial pathogens use at least 6 distinct extracellular protein secretion systems to export proteins through their multilayered cell envelope and in some cases into host cells. Among the most widespread is the newly recognized Type VI secretion system (T6SS) which is composed of 15--20 proteins whose biochemical functions are not well understood. Using crystallographic, biochemical, and bioinformatic analyses, we identified 3 T6SS components, which are homologous to bacteriophage tail proteins. These include the tail tube protein; the membrane-penetrating needle, situated at the distal end of the tube; and another protein associated with the needle and tube. We propose that T6SS is a multicomponent structure whose extracellular part resembles both structurally and functionally a bacteriophage tail, an efficient machine that translocates proteins and DNA across lipid membranes into cells.

Leiman, Petr G.; Basler, Marek; Ramagopal, Udupi A.; Bonanno, Jeffrey B.; Sauder, J. Michael; Pukatzki, Stefan; Burley, Stephen K.; Almo, Steven C.; Mekalanos, John J.; (Harvard-Med); (SGX); (Alberta); (Einstein); (Purdue)

2009-04-22

60

Bacterial Polysaccharide Co-Polymerases Share a Common Framework for Control of Polymer Length  

SciTech Connect

The chain length distribution of complex polysaccharides present on the bacterial surface is determined by polysaccharide co-polymerases (PCPs) anchored in the inner membrane. We report crystal structures of the periplasmic domains of three PCPs that impart substantially different chain length distributions to surface polysaccharides. Despite very low sequence similarities, they have a common protomer structure with a long central alpha-helix extending 100 Angstroms into the periplasm. The protomers self-assemble into bell-shaped oligomers of variable sizes, with a large internal cavity. Electron microscopy shows that one of the full-length PCPs has a similar organization as that observed in the crystal for its periplasmic domain alone. Functional studies suggest that the top of the PCP oligomers is an important region for determining polysaccharide modal length. These structures provide a detailed view of components of the bacterial polysaccharide assembly machinery.

Tocilj,A.; Munger, C.; Proteau, A.; Morona, R.; Purins, L.; Ajamian, E.; Wagner, J.; Papadopoulos, M.; Van Den bosch, L.; et al

2008-01-01

61

Does low birth weight share common genetic or environmental risk with childhood disruptive disorders?  

PubMed

Although advances in neonatal care over the past century have resulted in increased rates of survival among at-risk births, including infants with low birth weight, we have much to learn about psychological outcomes in this population. In particular, despite growing evidence that low birth weight may be associated with an increased risk for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) symptoms in childhood, few studies have examined birth weight as a risk factor for disruptive disorders that commonly co-occur with ADHD. In addition, the etiology of the relation between birth weight and these disorders is unknown. The current investigation aimed to better understand these associations in the context of potentially confounding genetic and environmental influences by examining phenotypic associations between birth weight and disruptive disorder symptoms both between families and within families in two independent twin samples (Sample 1: N = 1,676 individuals; Sample 2: N = 4,038 individuals). We found negative associations between birth weight and inattentive, hyperactive-impulsive, and broad externalizing symptoms in both samples. Nonetheless, the overall magnitude of these associations was very small, contributing to less than 1% of the variance in these symptom dimensions. Within-family associations between birth weight and disruptive disorder symptoms did not differ for monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs, suggesting that nonshared environmental influences rather than common genetic influences are responsible for these associations. Overall, the consistent albeit weak associations between birth weight and disruptive disorder symptoms suggest that low birth weight may not represent a major risk factor in the development of these symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23834065

Ficks, Courtney A; Lahey, Benjamin B; Waldman, Irwin D

2013-07-08

62

Spread of Avian Influenza Viruses by Common Teal (Anas crecca) in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the recent spread of highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 subtypes, avian influenza virus (AIV) dispersal has become an increasing focus of research. As for any other bird-borne pathogen, dispersal of these viruses is related to local and migratory movements of their hosts. In this study, we investigated potential AIV spread by Common Teal (Anas crecca) from the Camargue area, in

Camille Lebarbenchon; Frédéric Albespy; Anne-Laure Brochet; Viviane Grandhomme; François Renaud; Hervé Fritz; Andy J. Green; Frédéric Thomas; Sylvie van der Werf; Philippe Aubry; Matthieu Guillemain; Michel Gauthier-Clerc

2009-01-01

63

Complete nucleotide sequence and affinities of the genomic RNA of Narcissus common latent virus (genus Carlavirus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  The complete sequence of an isolate of Narcissus common latent virus (NCLV) from Zhangzhou city, Fujian, China was determined\\u000a from amplified fragments of purified viral RNA. Excluding the poly(A) tail, the genomic RNA of NCLV was 8539 nucleotides (nt)\\u000a long and had the typical organization for a member of the genus Carlavirus. The most closely related species were Potato virus

H.-Y. Zheng; J. Chen; M. J. Adams; J.-P. Chen

2006-01-01

64

Dogs and Humans Share a Common Susceptibility Gene SRBD1 for Glaucoma Risk.  

PubMed

Glaucoma is a degenerative optic neuropathy that is associated with elevated intraocular pressure. Primary open angle glaucoma is the most common type of glaucoma in canines, and its highest incidence among dog breeds has been reported in Shiba-Inus, followed by Shih-Tzus. These breeds are known to have an abnormal iridocorneal angle and dysplastic prectinate ligament. However, the hereditary and genetic backgrounds of these dogs have not yet been clarified. In this study, we investigated the association between polymorphisms of the glaucoma candidate genes, SRBD1, ELOVL5, and ADAMTS10, and glaucoma in Shiba-Inus and Shih-Tzus. We analyzed 11 polymorphisms in these three genes using direct DNA sequencing. Three SRBD1 SNPs, rs8655283, rs22018514 and rs22018513 were significantly associated with glaucoma in Shiba-Inus, while rs22018513, a synonymous SNP in exon 4, showed the strongest association (P?=?0.00039, OR?=?3.03). Conditional analysis revealed that rs22018513 could account for most of the association of these SNPs with glaucoma in Shiba-Inus. In Shih-Tzus, only rs9172407 in the SRBD1 intron 1 was significantly associated with glaucoma (P?=?0.0014, OR?=?5.25). There were no significant associations between the ELOVL5 or ADAMTS10 polymorphisms and glaucoma in Shiba-Inus and Shih-Tzus. The results showed that SRBD1 polymorphisms play an important role in glaucoma pathology in both Shiba-Inus and Shih-Tzus. SRBD1 polymorphisms have also been associated with normal- and high-tension glaucomas in humans. Therefore, SRBD1 may be a common susceptibility gene for glaucoma in humans and dogs. We anticipate that the nucleotide sequencing data from this study can be used in genetic testing to determine for the first time, the genetic status and susceptibility of glaucoma in dogs, with high precision. Moreover, canine glaucoma resulting from SRBD1 polymorphisms could be a useful animal model to study human glaucoma. PMID:24040232

Kanemaki, Nobuyuki; Tchedre, Kissaou T; Imayasu, Masaki; Kawarai, Shinpei; Sakaguchi, Masahiro; Yoshino, Atsushi; Itoh, Norihiko; Meguro, Akira; Mizuki, Nobuhisa

2013-09-11

65

Human and mouse switch-like genes share common transcriptional regulatory mechanisms for bimodality  

PubMed Central

Background Gene expression is controlled over a wide range at the transcript level through complex interplay between DNA and regulatory proteins, resulting in profiles of gene expression that can be represented as normal, graded, and bimodal (switch-like) distributions. We have previously performed genome-scale identification and annotation of genes with switch-like expression at the transcript level in mouse, using large microarray datasets for healthy tissue, in order to study the cellular pathways and regulatory mechanisms involving this class of genes. We showed that a large population of bimodal mouse genes encoding for cell membrane and extracellular matrix proteins is involved in communication pathways. This study expands on previous results by annotating human bimodal genes, investigating their correspondence to bimodality in mouse orthologs and exploring possible regulatory mechanisms that contribute to bimodality in gene expression in human and mouse. Results Fourteen percent of the human genes on the HGU133A array (1847 out of 13076) were identified as bimodal or switch-like. More than 40% were found to have bimodal mouse orthologs. KEGG pathways enriched for bimodal genes included ECM-receptor interaction, focal adhesion, and tight junction, showing strong similarity to the results obtained in mouse. Tissue-specific modes of expression of bimodal genes among brain, heart, and skeletal muscle were common between human and mouse. Promoter analysis revealed a higher than average number of transcription start sites per gene within the set of bimodal genes. Moreover, the bimodal gene set had differentially methylated histones compared to the set of the remaining genes in the genome. Conclusion The fact that bimodal genes were enriched within the cell membrane and extracellular environment make these genes as candidates for biomarkers for tissue specificity. The commonality of the important roles bimodal genes play in tissue differentiation in both the human and mouse indicates the potential value of mouse data in providing context for human tissue studies. The regulation motifs enriched in the bimodal gene set (TATA boxes, alternative promoters, methlyation) have known associations with complex diseases, such as cancer, providing further potential for the use of bimodal genes in studying the molecular basis of disease.

Ertel, Adam; Tozeren, Aydin

2008-01-01

66

Components of coated vesicles and nuclear pore complexes share a common molecular architecture.  

PubMed

Numerous features distinguish prokaryotes from eukaryotes, chief among which are the distinctive internal membrane systems of eukaryotic cells. These membrane systems form elaborate compartments and vesicular trafficking pathways, and sequester the chromatin within the nuclear envelope. The nuclear pore complex is the portal that specifically mediates macromolecular trafficking across the nuclear envelope. Although it is generally understood that these internal membrane systems evolved from specialized invaginations of the prokaryotic plasma membrane, it is not clear how the nuclear pore complex could have evolved from organisms with no analogous transport system. Here we use computational and biochemical methods to perform a structural analysis of the seven proteins comprising the yNup84/vNup107-160 subcomplex, a core building block of the nuclear pore complex. Our analysis indicates that all seven proteins contain either a beta-propeller fold, an alpha-solenoid fold, or a distinctive arrangement of both, revealing close similarities between the structures comprising the yNup84/vNup107-160 subcomplex and those comprising the major types of vesicle coating complexes that maintain vesicular trafficking pathways. These similarities suggest a common evolutionary origin for nuclear pore complexes and coated vesicles in an early membrane-curving module that led to the formation of the internal membrane systems in modern eukaryotes. PMID:15523559

Devos, Damien; Dokudovskaya, Svetlana; Alber, Frank; Williams, Rosemary; Chait, Brian T; Sali, Andrej; Rout, Michael P

2004-11-02

67

APP cleavage dependent and independent axonal degeneration programs share a common Nmnat1-sensitive pathway  

PubMed Central

Axonal degeneration is a hallmark of many debilitating neurological disorders and is thought to be regulated by mechanisms distinct from those governing cell body death. Recently, caspase 6 activation via APP cleavage and activation of DR6 was discovered to induce axon degeneration after NGF withdrawal. We tested whether this pathway is involved in axonal degeneration caused by withdrawal of other trophic support, axotomy or vincristine exposure. Neurturin deprivation, like NGF withdrawal activated this APP/DR6/caspase 6 pathway and resulted in axonal degeneration, however, APP cleavage and caspase 6 activation were not involved in axonal degeneration induced by mechanical or toxic insults. However, loss of surface APP (sAPP) and caspase 6 activation were observed during axonal degeneration induced by dynactin 1(Dctn1) dysfunction, which disrupts axonal transport. Mutations in Dctn1 are associated with motor neuron disease and frontal temporal dementia, thus suggesting that the APP/caspase 6 pathway could be important in specific types of disease-associated axonal degeneration. The NGF deprivation paradigm, with its defined molecular pathway, was used to examine the context of Nmnat-mediated axonal protection. We found that although Nmnat blocks axonal degeneration after trophic factor withdrawal, it did not prevent loss of axon sAPP or caspase 6 activation within the axon, suggesting it acts downstream of caspase 6. These results indicate that diverse insults induce axonal degeneration via multiple pathways and that these degeneration signals converge on a common, Nmnat-sensitive program that is uniquely involved in axonal, but not cell body, degeneration.

Vohra, Bhupinder P.S.; Sasaki, Yo; Miller, Bradley R; Chang, Jufang; DiAntonio, Aaron; Milbrandt, Jeffrey

2011-01-01

68

Recognition of Conserved Amino Acid Motifs of Common Viruses and Its Role in Autoimmunity  

PubMed Central

The triggers of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) remain elusive. Epidemiological studies suggest that common pathogens can exacerbate and also induce MS, but it has been difficult to pinpoint individual organisms. Here we demonstrate that in vivo clonally expanded CD4+ T cells isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid of a MS patient during disease exacerbation respond to a poly-arginine motif of the nonpathogenic and ubiquitous Torque Teno virus. These T cell clones also can be stimulated by arginine-enriched protein domains from other common viruses and recognize multiple autoantigens. Our data suggest that repeated infections with common pathogenic and even nonpathogenic viruses could expand T cells specific for conserved protein domains that are able to cross-react with tissue-derived and ubiquitous autoantigens.

2005-01-01

69

IRGM Is a Common Target of RNA Viruses that Subvert the Autophagy Network  

PubMed Central

Autophagy is a conserved degradative pathway used as a host defense mechanism against intracellular pathogens. However, several viruses can evade or subvert autophagy to insure their own replication. Nevertheless, the molecular details of viral interaction with autophagy remain largely unknown. We have determined the ability of 83 proteins of several families of RNA viruses (Paramyxoviridae, Flaviviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Retroviridae and Togaviridae), to interact with 44 human autophagy-associated proteins using yeast two-hybrid and bioinformatic analysis. We found that the autophagy network is highly targeted by RNA viruses. Although central to autophagy, targeted proteins have also a high number of connections with proteins of other cellular functions. Interestingly, immunity-associated GTPase family M (IRGM), the most targeted protein, was found to interact with the autophagy-associated proteins ATG5, ATG10, MAP1CL3C and SH3GLB1. Strikingly, reduction of IRGM expression using small interfering RNA impairs both Measles virus (MeV), Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1)-induced autophagy and viral particle production. Moreover we found that the expression of IRGM-interacting MeV-C, HCV-NS3 or HIV-NEF proteins per se is sufficient to induce autophagy, through an IRGM dependent pathway. Our work reveals an unexpected role of IRGM in virus-induced autophagy and suggests that several different families of RNA viruses may use common strategies to manipulate autophagy to improve viral infectivity.

Gregoire, Isabel Pombo; Azocar, Olga; Baguet, Joel; Le Breton, Marc; Mangeot, Philippe E.; Navratil, Vincent; Joubert, Pierre-Emmanuel; Flacher, Monique; Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier; Andre, Patrice; Lotteau, Vincent; Biard-Piechaczyk, Martine; Rabourdin-Combe, Chantal; Faure, Mathias

2011-01-01

70

Identification of a putative shared epitope between Coxsackie virus B4 and alpha cardiac myosin heavy chain.  

PubMed Central

Molecular mimicry is an important postulated mechanism for autoimmunity in viral myocarditis. The 356-1 monoclonal antibody neutralizes Coxsackie virus B4 by binding to the VP1 protein and cross-reacts with mouse alpha cardiac myosin heavy chain. We used this monoclonal antibody to screen a lambda gt11 expression library made from CD-1 mouse hearts. Of the 48 positive plaques/10(6) recombinant phages examined, 14 of the strongest-reacting clones were purified for additional studies. The inserts were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and the amplified products ranged from about 150 to 1400 bp in size. Northern hybridization using these inserts demonstrated that 11 out of 14 reacted with a message equivalent to that of cardiac myosin in size. Additional Southern hybridization studies suggested that these 11 inserts contained overlapping sequences in the light meromyosin fragment of cardiac myosin. Sequence analysis confirmed that these 11 independent, recombinant clones contained a common sequence representing amino acid residues 1299-1647. Within this fragment only one isoform-specific site matched the observed reactivity pattern of 356-1 among hearts from various species. Thus, we were able to identify a putative shared epitope represented by residues 1632-1647. Images Fig. 1

Beisel, K W; Srinivasappa, J; Prabhakar, B S

1991-01-01

71

Genome-wide association study of 14,000 cases of seven common diseases and 3,000 shared controls  

PubMed Central

There is increasing evidence that genome-wide association (GWA) studies represent a powerful approach to the identification of genes involved in common human diseases. We describe a joint GWA study (using the Affymetrix GeneChip 500K Mapping Array Set) undertaken in the British population, which has examined ~2,000 individuals for each of 7 major diseases and a shared set of ~3,000 controls. Case-control comparisons identified 24 independent association signals at P<5×10-7: 1 in bipolar disorder, 1 in coronary artery disease, 9 in Crohn’s disease, 3 in rheumatoid arthritis, 7 in type 1 diabetes and 3 in type 2 diabetes. On the basis of prior findings and replication studies thus-far completed, almost all of these signals reflect genuine susceptibility effects. We observed association at many previously identified loci, and found compelling evidence that some loci confer risk for more than one of the diseases studied. Across all diseases, we identified a large number of further signals (including 58 loci with single-point P values between 10-5 and 5×10-7) likely to yield additional susceptibility loci. The importance of appropriately large samples was confirmed by the modest effect sizes observed at most loci identified. This study thus represents a thorough validation of the GWA approach. It has also demonstrated that careful use of a shared control group represents a safe and effective approach to GWA analyses of multiple disease phenotypes; has generated a genome-wide genotype database for future studies of common diseases in the British population; and shown that, provided individuals with non-European ancestry are excluded, the extent of population stratification in the British population is generally modest. Our findings offer new avenues for exploring the pathophysiology of these important disorders. We anticipate that our data, results and software, which will be widely available to other investigators, will provide a powerful resource for human genetics research.

2009-01-01

72

Intraoral herpes simplex virus infection in a patient with common variable immunodeficiency.  

PubMed

We report a challenging case of an atypical presentation of recrudescent herpes simplex virus infection in a patient with common variable immunodeficiency. Oral infections in immunosuppressed patients may present with unusual clinical features that can mimic non-infectious diseases. This report discusses the diagnostic steps necessary for definitive diagnosis and to guide appropriate and effective management. PMID:23933299

Villa, Alessandro; Treister, Nathaniel S

2013-08-08

73

The visualization of local lesions caused by the common bean mosaic virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A very simple and quick procedure for the visualization of local lesions caused by the common bean mosaic virus was developed.\\u000a It consists in a treatment of bean leaves in 96 % èthanol 50 °C warm and in the subsequent staining of the leaves in Lugol\\u000a solution and washing in 30 % ethanol.

J. Polák; J. Chod

1972-01-01

74

Spread of Avian Influenza Viruses by Common Teal (Anas crecca) in Europe  

PubMed Central

Since the recent spread of highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 subtypes, avian influenza virus (AIV) dispersal has become an increasing focus of research. As for any other bird-borne pathogen, dispersal of these viruses is related to local and migratory movements of their hosts. In this study, we investigated potential AIV spread by Common Teal (Anas crecca) from the Camargue area, in the South of France, across Europe. Based on bird-ring recoveries, local duck population sizes and prevalence of infection with these viruses, we built an individual-based spatially explicit model describing bird movements, both locally (between wintering areas) and at the flyway scale. We investigated the effects of viral excretion duration and inactivation rate in water by simulating AIV spread with varying values for these two parameters. The results indicate that an efficient AIV dispersal in space is possible only for excretion durations longer than 7 days. Virus inactivation rate in the environment appears as a key parameter in the model because it allows local persistence of AIV over several months, the interval between two migratory periods. Virus persistence in water thus represents an important component of contamination risk as ducks migrate along their flyway. Based on the present modelling exercise, we also argue that HP H5N1 AIV is unlikely to be efficiently spread by Common Teal dispersal only.

Lebarbenchon, Camille; Albespy, Frederic; Brochet, Anne-Laure; Grandhomme, Viviane; Renaud, Francois; Fritz, Herve; Green, Andy J.; Thomas, Frederic; van der Werf, Sylvie; Aubry, Philippe; Guillemain, Matthieu; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel

2009-01-01

75

Identification of the common antigenic determinant shared by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 33A, 35A, and 20 capsular polysaccharides.  

PubMed

In order to better understand cross-reactions of serogroup 33 polysaccharides and the typing sera, the structure of pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide serotype 33A was elucidated. Serotype 33A has been shown to have an identical polysaccharide backbone as that of serotype 33F, with two additional sites of O-acetylation at C5, and C6 of the 3-?-Galf residue in serotype 33A. This finding is consistent with the presence of an additional functional acetyltransferase gene (wcjE) in the cps biosynthetic locus of serotype 33A compared to 33F. The identical polysaccharide backbone with at least one common O-acetylation site (C2 of 5-?-Galf) shared by serotype 33A and 33F polysaccharides is proposed to be the epitope recognized by typing serum 33b. In addition, a 5,6-di-O-acetylated ?3)-?-d-Galf5,6Ac-(1?3)-?-d-Glcp-(1? disaccharide unit, a common structural motif present in serotypes 33A, 20, and 35A polysaccharides, is proposed to be the antigenic determinant recognized by typing serum 20b. PMID:23981856

Lin, Fiona L; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Deng, Chenghua; Zeller, Sandra; Green, Bruce A; Jansen, Kathrin U; Pavliak, Viliam

2013-08-11

76

Complete genome sequence of a dahlia common mosaic virus isolate from New Zealand.  

PubMed

Dahlia mosaic disease of the ornamental flowering plant Dahlia is caused by two caulimoviruses, dahlia mosaic virus (DMV) and dahlia common mosaic virus (DCMV). We used a rolling-circle amplification method to amplify, clone and determine for the first time the full genome sequence of a DCMV isolate from New Zealand (DCMV-NZ). Within the 7949-bp circular double-stranded retro-transcribing DCMV-NZ DNA, we identified six putative open reading frames, typical of all genomes in the family Caulimoviridae. The availability of the complete DCMV sequence provides a reference genome against which all others can be compared. PMID:21960043

Hadfield, James; Linderme, Daphné; Shepherd, Dionne N; Bezuidenhout, Marion; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Martin, Darren P; Varsani, Arvind

2011-09-30

77

Genetics of resistance to the geminivirus, Bean dwarf mosaic virus , and the role of the hypersensitive response in common bean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bean dwarf mosaic virus (BDMV) is a single-stranded DNA virus (genus: Begomovirus, family: Geminiviridae) that infects common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and causes stunted plant growth, and mosaic and mottle symptoms in leaves. BDMV shows differential pathogenicity in common bean, infecting germplasm of the Andean gene pool (e.g., the snap bean cultivar Topcrop), but not that of the Middle

Y.-S. Seo; P. Gepts; R. L. Gilbertson

2004-01-01

78

Interference Between the Vaccinal Virus and the Common Rabies Virus (Interference Entre le Virus Vaccinal et le Virus Rabique des Rues).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An interference between the vaccinal virus and the virus of rabies has been demonstrated using the rabbit. The method of inoculation for the vaccinal virus as well as for the rabies virus was the intradermal method and this method allowed the demonstratio...

J. Vieuchange M. A. Chabaud C. Vialat

1969-01-01

79

FOXO3 Shares Common Targets with ASCL1 Genome-wide and Inhibits ASCL1-Dependent Neurogenesis.  

PubMed

FOXO transcription factors are central regulators of longevity from worms to humans. FOXO3, the FOXO isoform associated with exceptional human longevity, preserves adult neural stem cell pools. Here, we identify FOXO3 direct targets genome-wide in primary cultures of adult neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Interestingly, FOXO3-bound sites are enriched for motifs for bHLH transcription factors, and FOXO3 shares common targets with the proneuronal bHLH transcription factor ASCL1/MASH1 in NPCs. Analysis of the chromatin landscape reveals that FOXO3 and ASCL1 are particularly enriched at the enhancers of genes involved in neurogenic pathways. Intriguingly, FOXO3 inhibits ASCL1-dependent neurogenesis in NPCs and direct neuronal conversion in fibroblasts. FOXO3 also restrains neurogenesis in vivo. Our study identifies a genome-wide interaction between the prolongevity transcription factor FOXO3 and the cell-fate determinant ASCL1 and raises the possibility that FOXO3's ability to restrain ASCL1-dependent neurogenesis may help preserve the neural stem cell pool. PMID:23891001

Webb, Ashley E; Pollina, Elizabeth A; Vierbuchen, Thomas; Urbán, Noelia; Ucar, Duygu; Leeman, Dena S; Martynoga, Ben; Sewak, Madhavi; Rando, Thomas A; Guillemot, François; Wernig, Marius; Brunet, Anne

2013-07-25

80

Microbial Gutta-Percha Degradation Shares Common Steps with Rubber Degradation by Nocardia nova SH22a  

PubMed Central

Nocardia nova SH22a, a bacterium capable of degrading gutta-percha (GP) and natural rubber (NR), was used to investigate the GP degradation mechanism and the relations between the GP and NR degradation pathways. For this strain, a protocol of electroporation was systematically optimized, and an efficiency of up to 4.3 × 107 CFU per ?g of plasmid DNA was achieved. By applying this optimized protocol to N. nova SH22a, a Tn5096-based transposon mutagenesis library of this bacterium was constructed. Among about 12,000 apramycin-resistant transformants, we identified 76 stable mutants defective in GP or NR utilization. Whereas 10 mutants were specifically defective in GP utilization, the growth of the other 66 mutants was affected on both GP and NR. This indicated that the two degradation pathways are quite similar and share many common steps. The larger number of GP-degrading defective mutants could be explained in one of two ways: either (i) the GP pathway is more complex and harbors more specific steps or (ii) the steps for both pathways are almost identical, but in the case of GP degradation there are fewer enzymes involved in each step. The analysis of transposition loci and genetic studies on interesting genes confirmed the crucial role of an ?-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase in the degradation of both GP and NR. We also demonstrated the probable involvement of enzymes participating in oxidoreduction reactions, ?-oxidation, and the synthesis of complex cell envelope lipids in the degradation of GP.

Luo, Quan; Hiessl, Sebastian; Poehlein, Anja

2013-01-01

81

The Three-dimensional Structure of Carnocyclin A Reveals That Many Circular Bacteriocins Share a Common Structural Motif*  

PubMed Central

Carnocyclin A (CclA) is a potent antimicrobial peptide from Carnobacterium maltaromaticum UAL307 that displays a broad spectrum of activity against numerous Gram-positive organisms. An amide bond links the N and C termini of this bacteriocin, imparting stability and structural integrity to this 60-amino acid peptide. CclA interacts with lipid bilayers in a voltage-dependent manner and forms anion selective pores. Several other circular bacteriocins have been reported, yet only one (enterocin AS-48) has been structurally characterized. We have now determined the solution structure of CclA by NMR and further examined its anion binding and membrane channel properties. The results reveal that CclA preferentially binds halide anions and has a structure that is surprisingly similar to that of AS-48 despite low sequence identity, different oligomeric state, and disparate function. CclA folds into a compact globular bundle, comprised of four helices surrounding a hydrophobic core. NMR studies show two fluoride ion binding modes for CclA. Our findings suggest that although other circular bacteriocins are likely to have diverse mechanisms of action, many may have a common structural motif. This shared three-dimensional arrangement resembles the fold of mammalian saposins, peptides that either directly lyse membranes or serve as activators of lipid-degrading enzymes.

Martin-Visscher, Leah A.; Gong, Xiandi; Duszyk, Marek; Vederas, John C.

2009-01-01

82

Coffee and tomato share common gene repertoires as revealed by deep sequencing of seed and cherry transcripts  

PubMed Central

An EST database has been generated for coffee based on sequences from approximately 47,000 cDNA clones derived from five different stages/tissues, with a special focus on developing seeds. When computationally assembled, these sequences correspond to 13,175 unigenes, which were analyzed with respect to functional annotation, expression profile and evolution. Compared with Arabidopsis, the coffee unigenes encode a higher proportion of proteins related to protein modification/turnover and metabolism—an observation that may explain the high diversity of metabolites found in coffee and related species. Several gene families were found to be either expanded or unique to coffee when compared with Arabidopsis. A high proportion of these families encode proteins assigned to functions related to disease resistance. Such families may have expanded and evolved rapidly under the intense pathogen pressure experienced by a tropical, perennial species like coffee. Finally, the coffee gene repertoire was compared with that of Arabidopsis and Solanaceous species (e.g. tomato). Unlike Arabidopsis, tomato has a nearly perfect gene-for-gene match with coffee. These results are consistent with the facts that coffee and tomato have a similar genome size, chromosome karyotype (tomato, n=12; coffee n=11) and chromosome architecture. Moreover, both belong to the Asterid I clade of dicot plant families. Thus, the biology of coffee (family Rubiacaeae) and tomato (family Solanaceae) may be united into one common network of shared discoveries, resources and information.

Lin, Chenwei; Mueller, Lukas A.; Carthy, James Mc; Crouzillat, Dominique; Petiard, Vincent

2005-01-01

83

Induction of antibody responses in the common mucosal immune system by respiratory syncytical virus immunostimulating complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunostimulating complexes (ISCOMs) containing envelope proteins of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) were explored as a\\u000a mucosal delivery system for the capacity of inducing a common mucosal antibody response. Two intranasal (i.n.) administrations\\u000a of BALB\\/c mice with ISCOMs induced potent serum IgG, and strong IgA responses to RSV locally in the lungs and the upper respiratory,\\u000a and remotely in the genital

Ke-Fei Hu; Jill Ekström; Malik Merza; Karin Lövgren-Bengtsson; Bror Morein

1999-01-01

84

The bean common mosaic virus lineage of potyviruses: where did it arise and when?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are more than 30 species in the bean common mosaic virus lineage of the genus Potyvirus. We have used their partial coat protein gene sequences to infer their phylogenies and have compared these with host and\\u000a provenance information. Members of six species of the lineage have been isolated from crops distributed around the world,\\u000a but three of these show

A. J. Gibbs; J. W. H. Trueman; M. J. Gibbs

2008-01-01

85

Detection of Shared MHC-Restricted Human Melanoma Antigens after Vaccinia Virus-Mediated Transduction of Genes Coding for HLA  

PubMed Central

To detect shared human melanoma Ag that are recognized by HLA-A2 restricted, melanoma-specific CTL derived from tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, we have developed a convenient method to insert and express foreign HLA genes capable of presenting Ag on target cell lines. Seventeen melanoma cell lines and 11 nonmelanoma cell lines were infected with recombinant vaccinia virus containing the HLA-A2.1 gene. Infection by the vaccinia virus resulted in expression of functional HLA-A2 molecules on the cell surface of virtually 100% of infected cells within a 3.5-h period. The results showed that 11 of 17 (65%) naturally HLA-A2? melanoma cell lines were specifically lysed by the HLA-A2-restricted, melanoma-specfic TIL after infection with the vaccinia-HLA-A2.1 virus. None of the nine human nonmelanoma cell lines tested (three colon cancer, four breast cancer, or two immortalized non-tumor cell lines) or two murine melanoma cell lines were lysed by the HLA-A2-restricted TIL after vaccinia-HLA-A2.1 infection. Coinfection of the vaccinia virus containing the ?2-microglobulin gene with the vaccinia-HLA-A2.1 virus increased the surface expression of HLA-A2 and subsequent lysis by melanoma-specific tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. With this new method we could extend previous findings demonstrating that shared melanoma Ag recognized by HLA-A2-restricted tumor infiltrating lymphocytes exist among melanoma cells from different patients regardless of HLA type. These Ag represent excellent candidates for the development of vaccines to induce T cell responses for the immunotherapy of patients with melanoma.

O'Neil, Bert H.; Kawakami, Yutaka; Restifo, Nicholas P.; Bennink, Jack R.; Yewdell, Jonathan W.; Rosenberg, Steven A.

2007-01-01

86

Developmental and hypoxia-induced cell death share common ultrastructural and biochemical apoptotic features in the central nervous system.  

PubMed

Hypoxic insults during the perinatal period lead to motor and cognitive impairments that later appear during childhood. In the adult brain, hypoxic events often lead to necrotic neuronal death, depending on the region and intensity of the event. During development an active apoptotic cell death occurs and could be an important variable affecting the hypoxic insult outcome. In the present work we performed a comparative study, in a chick embryo model, of the phenotypes and molecular markers exhibited during developmental and hypoxic cell death (HxCD). Ultrastructural analysis of optic tectum cells of embryos subjected to hypoxia (8% O2, 60min) revealed a clear apoptotic morphology that did not differ from the one exhibited during developmental cell death. Integrity of plasma membrane, condensation of chromatin in round well-defined bodies, and gradual shrinkage of the cell are all hallmarks of the apoptotic process and were present in both control and hypoxic cells. To elucidate if hypoxic and developmental cell deaths share a common mechanism we evaluated the activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. A basal cleavage of caspase-9 and cytochrome c release was observed by co-immunofluorescence in control embryos, but hypoxic insult significantly increased the incidence of this colocalization. Caspase-8 cleavage remained unchanged after the hypoxic insult, suggesting that the extrinsic pathway would not be involved in hypoxic death. We also observed a significant decrease of Akt activation immediately after hypoxia, possibly facilitating the later release of cytochrome c. In addition we analyzed the influence of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) in neuronal survival. Transection of RGC fibers at embryonic day (ED) 3 did not induce any change in developmental and HxCD at ED12. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that a hypoxic insult in the developing brain triggers the same apoptotic pathway as the active developmental death. PMID:23933309

Pozo Devoto, V M; Bogetti, M E; Fiszer de Plazas, S

2013-08-08

87

Microbial gutta-percha degradation shares common steps with rubber degradation by Nocardia nova SH22a.  

PubMed

Nocardia nova SH22a, a bacterium capable of degrading gutta-percha (GP) and natural rubber (NR), was used to investigate the GP degradation mechanism and the relations between the GP and NR degradation pathways. For this strain, a protocol of electroporation was systematically optimized, and an efficiency of up to 4.3 × 10(7) CFU per ?g of plasmid DNA was achieved. By applying this optimized protocol to N. nova SH22a, a Tn5096-based transposon mutagenesis library of this bacterium was constructed. Among about 12,000 apramycin-resistant transformants, we identified 76 stable mutants defective in GP or NR utilization. Whereas 10 mutants were specifically defective in GP utilization, the growth of the other 66 mutants was affected on both GP and NR. This indicated that the two degradation pathways are quite similar and share many common steps. The larger number of GP-degrading defective mutants could be explained in one of two ways: either (i) the GP pathway is more complex and harbors more specific steps or (ii) the steps for both pathways are almost identical, but in the case of GP degradation there are fewer enzymes involved in each step. The analysis of transposition loci and genetic studies on interesting genes confirmed the crucial role of an ?-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase in the degradation of both GP and NR. We also demonstrated the probable involvement of enzymes participating in oxidoreduction reactions, ?-oxidation, and the synthesis of complex cell envelope lipids in the degradation of GP. PMID:23220954

Luo, Quan; Hiessl, Sebastian; Poehlein, Anja; Steinbüchel, Alexander

2012-12-07

88

Psychological Factors Determining Individual Compliance with Rules for Common Pool Resource Management: The Case of a Cuban Community Sharing a Solar Energy System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on individuals’ subjective reasons for complying with rules for common pool resource management. We examine\\u000a the topic of individual rule compliance, which the commons literature has addressed only marginally, and outline recent empirical\\u000a findings. Hypotheses are derived based on rule compliance theory and explored using data gathered in a Cuban community sharing\\u000a a solar energy system. The

Annette Jenny; Fernando Hechavarria Fuentes; Hans-Joachim Mosler

2007-01-01

89

Effective simian immunodeficiency virus-specific CD8+ T cells lack an easily detectable, shared characteristic.  

PubMed

The immune correlates of human/simian immunodeficiency virus control remain elusive. While CD8(+) T lymphocytes likely play a major role in reducing peak viremia and maintaining viral control in the chronic phase, the relative antiviral efficacy of individual virus-specific effector populations is unknown. Conventional assays measure cytokine secretion of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells after cognate peptide recognition. Cytokine secretion, however, does not always directly translate into antiviral efficacy. Recently developed suppression assays assess the efficiency of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells to control viral replication, but these assays often use cell lines or clones. We therefore designed a novel virus production assay to test the ability of freshly ex vivo-sorted simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-specific CD8(+) T cells to suppress viral replication from SIVmac239-infected CD4(+) T cells. Using this assay, we established an antiviral hierarchy when we compared CD8(+) T cells specific for 12 different epitopes. Antiviral efficacy was unrelated to the disease status of each animal, the protein from which the tested epitopes were derived, or the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I restriction of the tested epitopes. Additionally, there was no correlation with the ability to suppress viral replication and epitope avidity, epitope affinity, CD8(+) T-cell cytokine multifunctionality, the percentage of central and effector memory cell populations, or the expression of PD-1. The ability of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells to suppress viral replication therefore cannot be determined using conventional assays. Our results suggest that a single definitive correlate of immune control may not exist; rather, a successful CD8(+) T-cell response may be comprised of several factors. PMID:19889785

Vojnov, Lara; Reed, Jason S; Weisgrau, Kim L; Rakasz, Eva G; Loffredo, John T; Piaskowski, Shari M; Sacha, Jonah B; Kolar, Holly L; Wilson, Nancy A; Johnson, R Paul; Watkins, David I

2009-11-04

90

Inactivation of avian influenza virus using four common chemicals and one detergent.  

PubMed

Five disinfectant chemicals were tested individually for effectiveness against low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV), A/H7N2/Chick/MinhMa/04, on hard, nonporous surfaces. The tested agents included acetic acid, calcium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, sodium hydroxide, and a powdered laundry detergent without bleach. Multiple common chemicals including acetic acid (1 and 3%), sodium hydroxide (2%), and calcium hydroxide (1%) effectively inactivated LPAIV on a metal surface. The laundry detergent without bleach, sodium carbonate (4%), and the lower concentration of sodium hydroxide (1%) were not able to consistently inactivate LPAIV on hard, nonporous surfaces. PMID:19439628

Alphin, R L; Johnson, K J; Ladman, B S; Benson, E R

2009-06-01

91

A PCR BASED ASSAY FOR DIFFERENTIATION OF CLOVER YELLOW VEIN VIRUS AND BEAN YELLOW MOSAIC VIRUS IN COMMON BEAN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Clover yellow vein virus (CYVV) and Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) (Family: Potyviridae) are important viruses of snap and dry bean. Serological differentiation of the two viruses has typically been difficult because of the close relationship between their respective coat proteins. An RT-PCR assa...

92

Visualization of resistance responses in Phaseolus vulgaris using reporter tagged clones of Bean common mosaic virus.  

PubMed

Reporter tagged virus clones can provide detailed information on virus-host interactions. In Phaseolus vulgaris (bean), four recessive and one dominant gene are known to control infection by strains of the potyvirus species Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV). To study the interactions between BCMV and bean genotypes with different resistance gene combinations, an infectious clone of the strain RU1 was tagged with the UidA gene encoding ?-glucuronidase (GUS). The clone was agroinoculated to bean genotypes with different combinations of the resistance genes bc-u, bc-1, bc-2, bc-3 and I. In situ histochemical GUS assays showed new details of the resistance responses, which were previously analysed by immunological methods and symptom descriptions. In some instances GUS assays suggested that resistance breaking strains appeared at single foci in uninoculated leaves. To allow recovery of resistance breaking strains for further studies, BCMV RU1 was tagged with the sequence encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP), which was visualized directly without destruction of the tissue. In this paper we present details of the construction of the infectious clone and discuss its application in studies of BCMV resistance in bean. PMID:21549773

Naderpour, Masoud; Johansen, Ida Elisabeth

2011-04-28

93

Spread of Influenza Virus A (H5N1) Clade 2.3.2.1 to Bulgaria in Common Buzzards  

PubMed Central

On March 15, 2010, a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus was isolated from the carcass of a common buzzard (Buteo buteo) in Bulgaria. Phylogenetic analyses of the virus showed a close genetic relationship with influenza virus A (H5N1) clade 2.3.2.1 viruses isolated from wild birds in the Tyva Republic and Mongolia during 2009–2010. Designated A/common buzzard/Bulgaria/38WB/2010, this strain was highly pathogenic in chickens but had low pathogenicity in mice and ferrets and no molecular markers of increased pathogenicity in mammals. The establishment of clade 2.3.2.1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H5N1 subtype in wild birds in Europe would increase the likelihood of health threats to humans and poultry in the region.

Marinova-Petkova, Atanaska; Georgiev, Georgi; Seiler, Patrick; Darnell, Daniel; Franks, John; Krauss, Scott; Webby, Richard J.

2012-01-01

94

Using Formal Concept Analysis and Information Flow for Modelling and Sharing Common Semantics: Lessons Learnt and Emergent Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have been witnessing an explosion of user involvement in knowl- edge creation, publication and access both from within and between organisa- tions. This is partly due to the widespread adoption of Web technology. But, it also introduces new challenges for knowledge engineers, who have to find suit- able ways for sharing and integrating all this knowledge in meaningful chunks.

Yannis Kalfoglou; W. Marco Schorlemmer

2005-01-01

95

Transferable Antibiotic Resistance Elements in Haemophilus influenzae Share a Common Evolutionary Origin with a Diverse Family of Syntenic Genomic Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transferable antibiotic resistance in Haemophilus influenzae was first detected in the early 1970s. After this, resistance spread rapidly worldwide and was shown to be transferred by a large 40- to 60-kb conjugative ele- ment. Bioinformatics analysis of the complete sequence of a typical H. influenzae conjugative resistance ele- ment, ICEHin1056, revealed the shared evolutionary origin of this element. ICEHin1056 has

Zaini Mohd-Zain; Sarah L. Turner; Ana M. Cerdeno-Tarraga; Andrew K. Lilley; Thomas J. Inzana; A. Jane Duncan; Rosalind M. Harding; Derek W. Hood; Timothy E. Peto; Derrick W. Crook

2004-01-01

96

Urologists' attitudes regarding information sharing with prostate cancer patients--is there a common ground for collaboration with family physicians?  

PubMed

Clinicians often fail to adequately meet prostate cancer patients' information needs, and patients may receive different kinds of information from their doctors. This study aims to describe urologists' attitudes regarding information sharing with prostate cancer patients and to compare these findings with the previously published attitudes of Israeli family physicians. A questionnaire (11 items) was mailed to 87 board-certified practicing urologists. Fifty-four physicians (66%) completed the questionnaires. Sixty-one percent of respondents stated that patients should be told the complete truth about their disease. Ninety-six percent of respondents felt competent at breaking bad news and stated they would discuss emotions with patients. The majority of physicians would provide general information when referring for a medical procedure, discussing treatment options or a patient's prognosis. Fifty-seven percent of respondents preferred that patients be autonomous in their decision making. Only 26% of respondents believed that family physicians should communicate medical information to patients at the preliminary diagnostic stages. There was no significant difference in the attitudes expressed by urologists and family physicians towards the amount of information they would share with prostate cancer patients and in their preferences regarding treatment decision making. Urologists in Israel recognize the importance of sharing information with prostate cancer patients. Although urologists share similar attitudes with family physicians, they do not recognize the role that family physicians play in caring for prostate cancer patients. Further studies are needed to design and implement effective ways to improve the communication and collaboration between urologists and family physicians for the benefit of prostate cancer patients. PMID:20972846

Cohen Castel, Orit; Alperin, Mordechai; Ungar, Lea; Kravtsov, Ina; Amiel, Gilad E; Karkabi, Khaled

2011-06-01

97

Role of a Common Frame of Reference in Cognitive Cooperation: Sharing Tasks between Agents in Air Traffic Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   This study deals with cognitive cooperation in the context of the design of cooperative computer support for sharing aircraft\\u000a conflict detection and resolution tasks between human and machine in air traffic control. In order to specify some necessary\\u000a cooperative capabilities of such a system, we have observed an artificial situation on a simulator where two radar controllers\\u000a (RCs) had

Jean-michel Hoc; X. Carlier

2002-01-01

98

Common success and failure in simulating the Pacific surface currents shared by four high-resolution ocean models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using statistical methods, the Pacific Ocean surface current field for the four high-resolution models was described with skill index to estimate the realism against the recent Ocean Surface Currents Analysis-Real time (OSCAR) data. The high-resolution modeling improved the realism of simulated mean surface currents. The improvements are mainly seen in regions with strong mean currents rather than regions with strong eddy activities. The common distinctive aspects of the models are shown. The common features with high skill can be interpreted as successful features in the model, whereas common features with low skill can suggest common problems among the models. Understanding these features as a common modeling problem may help advance high-resolution modeling techniques

Suzuki, Tatsuo; Sasaki, Hideharu; Nakashiki, Norikazu; Nakano, Hideyuki

99

Cloning and subcellular location of an arabidopsis receptor-like protein that shares common features with protein-sorting receptors of eukaryotic cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many receptors involved in clathrin-mediated protein transport through the endocytic and secretary pathways of yeast and animal cells share common features. They are all type I integral membrane proteins containing cysteine-rich lumenal domains and cytoplasmic tails with tyrosine-containing sorting signals. The cysteine-rich domains are thought to be involved in ligand binding, whereas the cytoplasmic tyrosine motifs interact with clathrin-associated adaptor

Sharif U. Ahmed; Maor Bar-Peled; Natasha V. Raikhel

1997-01-01

100

Induction of antibody responses in the common mucosal immune system by respiratory syncytical virus immunostimulating complexes.  

PubMed

Immunostimulating complexes (ISCOMs) containing envelope proteins of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) were explored as a mucosal delivery system for the capacity of inducing a common mucosal antibody response. Two intranasal (i.n.) administrations of BALB/c mice with ISCOMs induced potent serum IgG, and strong IgA responses to RSV locally in the lungs and the upper respiratory, and remotely in the genital and the intestinal tracts. Virtually no measurable IgA response was found in these mucosal organs after two subcutaneous (s.c.) immunizations. Virus neutralizing (VN) antibodies were detected in serum and in all of the mucosal organ extracts after both s.c. and i.n. immunizations indicating that the neutralizing epitopes were preserved after both mucosal and parenteral modes of administration. While the mucosal IgA response appears to be of mucosal origin, the IgG antibodies to RSV detected in the mucosal organs were likely of serum origin. However, the mucosal VN antibodies correlated with the IgG rather than the IgA levels. An enhanced IgA response to gp120 in various mucosal organs was recorded after i.n. immunization with gp120 incorporated in RSV ISCOMs, indicating a role of RSV envelope proteins in enhancing and targeting mucosal responses to passenger antigens. PMID:10363675

Hu, K F; Ekström, J; Merza, M; Lövgren-Bengtsson, K; Morein, B

1999-05-01

101

The complete nucleotide sequence of a common cold virus: human rhinovirus 14.  

PubMed Central

The complete nucleotide sequence of the single-stranded RNA genome of human rhinovirus 14, one of the causative agents of the common cold, has been determined from cDNA cloned in E. coli. The genome is typical of the picornaviridae family, comprising a 5' non-coding region of 624 nucleotides, a long open reading frame of 6537 nucleotides (90.8% of the genome) and a 3' non-coding region of 47 nucleotides. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence and the predicted amino acid sequence with those of the polioviruses reveals a surprising degree of homology which may allow recognition of regions of antigenic importance and prediction of the virus polyprotein cleavage sites. The results presented here imply a closer genetic relationship between the rhinovirus and enterovirus genera than previously suspected.

Stanway, G; Hughes, P J; Mountford, R C; Minor, P D; Almond, J W

1984-01-01

102

DIFFERENT FECAL SHEDDING PATTERNS OF TWO COMMON STRAINS OF HEPATITIS E VIRUS AT THREE JAPANESE SWINE FARMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Zoonotic infections caused by eating the meat of deer, wild boar, and pig have been suggested in Japan, a country that is not epidemic,for hepatitis E caused,by hepatitis E virus (HEV). This virus is widely spread in domestic pigs in both epidemic,and,non-epidemic,countries. We studied fecal HEV shedding patterns on three Japanese farms that had two,common,genotype,III HEV strains. Two of

Izumi Nakai; Kanako Kato; Ayako Miyazaki; Masaaki Yoshii; Tian-cheng Li; Naokazu Takeda; Hiroshi Tsunemitsu; Hidetoshi Ikeda

103

Hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus and pseudomonas phage PS5 triad share epitopes of immunogenic determinants  

PubMed Central

A lytic phage for Pseudomonas aeruginosa belongs to the Myoviridea family was isolated from urine for use in therapeutics. Pair of hepatitis C virus (HCV) primers highlighted segments on the genome of this phage. The sequence of these PCR products as well as the possible serological cross reactivity/relationship between HCV and the phage were investigated. One hundred HCV positive human sera were analyzed by ELISA. Ninety six well plates were coated with multiple epitopes of HCV proteins (Kit), phage and Pseudomonas cells. Initially the positive and negative control sera supplied in the test kit were used to evaluate the cross reactivity between the phage and anti-HCV antibodies. The results suggested a value over than 0.105 for a HCV positive reaction. Of the 100 HCV positive sera tested, sixty five and thirty percent showed cross reaction with phage lysate and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively. High HCV antibody titer correlated to high cut off value for phage cross reaction, whereas no such correlation existed between HCV antibody titer and Pseudomonas cross reaction. The PCR products were sequenced and aligned with the HCV genome of H77. Sequence homology was detected in the 5', 3' UTRs and NS3 regions. Further these products showed similarity with HIV-1 Env, Pol & 3'LTR regions as well.

2010-01-01

104

Common Themes of Antibody Maturation to Simian Immunodeficiency Virus, Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterization of virus-specific immune responses to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) is important to understanding the early virus-host interactions that may determine the course of virus infection and disease. Using a comprehensive panel of serological assays, we have previously demonstrated a complex and lengthy maturation of virus-specific antibody responses elicited by attenuated strains of

KELLY STEFANO COLE; MICHAEL MURPHEY-CORB; OPENDRA NARAYAN; SANJAY V. JOAG; GEORGE M. SHAW; RONALD C. MONTELARO; Marion Merrell Dow

1998-01-01

105

From the Cover: Structure of an archaeal virus capsid protein reveals a common ancestry to eukaryotic and bacterial viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Archaea and their viruses are poorly understood when compared with the Eukarya and Bacteria domains of life. We report here the crystal structure of the major capsid protein (MCP) of the Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus, an archaeal virus isolated from an acidic hot spring (pH 2-4, 72-92°C) in Yellowstone National Park. The structure is nearly identical to the MCP structures

Reza Khayat; Liang Tang; Eric T. Larson; C. Martin Lawrence; Mark Young; John E. Johnson

2005-01-01

106

Discovering Common Ground: How Future Search Conferences Bring People Together To Achieve Breakthrough Innovation, Empowerment, Shared Vision, and Collaborative Action.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book contains 35 papers about planning and holding future search conferences, as well as their benefits and likely future directions. The following papers are included: "Applied Common Sense" (Weisbord); "Inventing the Search Conference" (Weisbord); "Building Collaborative Communities" (Schindler-Rainman, Lippitt); "Parallel Paths to…

Weisbord, Marvin R.; And Others

107

Diverse strategies engaged in establishing stereotypic wiring patterns among neurons sharing a common input at the visual system's first synapse  

PubMed Central

Sensory circuits use common strategies such as convergence and divergence, typically at different synapses, to pool or distribute inputs. Inputs from different presynaptic cell types converge onto a common postsynaptic cell, acting together to shape neuronal output (Klausberger and Somogyi, 2008). Also, individual presynaptic cells contact several postsynaptic cell types, generating divergence of signals. Attaining such complex wiring patterns relies on the orchestration of many events across development, including axonal and dendritic growth and synapse formation and elimination (reviewed by Waites et al., 2005; Sanes and Yamagata, 2009). Recent work has focused on how distinct presynaptic cell types form stereotypic connections with an individual postsynaptic cell (Williams et al., 2011; Morgan et al., 2011), but how a single presynaptic cell type diverges to form distinct wiring patterns with multiple postsynaptic cell types during development remains unexplored. Here we take advantage of the compactness of the visual system's first synapse to observe development of such a circuit in mouse retina. By imaging three types of postsynaptic bipolar cells and their common photoreceptor targets across development, we found that distinct bipolar cell types engage in disparate dendritic growth behaviors, exhibit targeted or exploratory approaches to contact photoreceptors, and adhere differently to the synaptotropic model of establishing synaptic territories. Furthermore each type establishes their final connectivity patterns with the same afferents on separate time-scales. We propose that such differences in strategy and timeline could facilitate the division of common inputs among multiple postsynaptic cell types to create parallel circuits with diverse function.

Dunn, Felice A.; Wong, Rachel O.L.

2012-01-01

108

Interferon Antagonism as a Common Virulence Factor of Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We examined the ability of viruses in the Hantavirus and Nairovirus genera of the family Bunyaviridae to interfere with host signaling pathways involved in Innate Immunity. For the nairovirus Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), we found that th...

A. G. Sastre C. S. Schmaljohn

2008-01-01

109

The shared CTLA4-ICOS risk locus in celiac disease, IgA deficiency and common variable immunodeficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

IgA deficiency (IgAD) and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) often co-occur in families, associating with chronic inflammatory diseases such as celiac disease (CD). ICOS (inducible co-stimulator) and CTLA4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein-4) may be important in both disorders, as ICOS is necessary for Ig class-switching and CTLA4 negatively regulates T-cell activation. Linkage and association of CD with CTLA4-ICOS is well documented, we

K Haimila; E Einarsdottir; A de Kauwe; L L E Koskinen; Q Pan-Hammarström; T Kaartinen; K Kurppa; F Ziberna; S Vatta; A Ventura; I R Korponay-Szabo; R Ádány; Z Pocsai; G Széles; E Dukes; K Kaukinen; M Mäki; S Koskinen; J Partanen; L Hammarström; P Saavalainen

2009-01-01

110

Isolation of an influenza virus, similar to A\\/Port Chalmers\\/1\\/73 (H3N2) from a common murre at Sakhalin Island in U.S.S.R (Strain A\\/CommonMurre\\/Sakhalin\\/1\\/74)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary An influenza A virus isolated from the cloaca of a common murre was characterized antigenically as H3N2 and was most closely related to the A\\/Port Chalmers\\/1\\/73 strain. Serological studies of sera collected from common murres in the area of virus isolation showed that 21 per cent of the birds had antibodies to Hong Kong influenza virus.

A. A. Sazonov; D. K. Lvov; R. G. Webster; T. V. Sokolova; N. A. Braude; N. V. Portyanko

1977-01-01

111

Comprehensive mapping of common immunodominant epitopes in the West Nile virus nonstructural protein 1 recognized by avian antibody responses.  

PubMed

West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that primarily infects birds but occasionally infects humans and horses. Certain species of birds, including crows, house sparrows, geese, blue jays and ravens, are considered highly susceptible hosts to WNV. The nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of WNV can elicit protective immune responses, including NS1-reactive antibodies, during infection of animals. The antigenicity of NS1 suggests that NS1-reactive antibodies could provide a basis for serological diagnostic reagents. To further define serological reagents for diagnostic use, the antigenic sites in NS1 that are targeted by host immune responses need to be identified and the potential diagnostic value of individual antigenic sites also needs to be defined. The present study describes comprehensive mapping of common immunodominant linear B-cell epitopes in the WNV NS1 using avian WNV NS1 antisera. We screened antisera from chickens, ducks and geese immunized with purified NS1 for reactivity against 35 partially overlapping peptides covering the entire WNV NS1. This study identified twelve, nine and six peptide epitopes recognized by chicken, duck and goose antibody responses, respectively. Three epitopes (NS1-3, 14 and 24) were recognized by antibodies elicited by immunization in all three avian species tested. We also found that NS1-3 and 24 were WNV-specific epitopes, whereas the NS1-14 epitope was conserved among the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) serocomplex viruses based on the reactivity of avian WNV NS1 antisera against polypeptides derived from the NS1 sequences of viruses of the JEV serocomplex. Further analysis showed that the three common polypeptide epitopes were not recognized by antibodies in Avian Influenza Virus (AIV), Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), Duck Plague Virus (DPV) and Goose Parvovirus (GPV) antisera. The knowledge and reagents generated in this study have potential applications in differential diagnostic approaches and subunit vaccines development for WNV and other viruses of the JEV serocomplex. PMID:22347477

Sun, Encheng; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Nihong; Yang, Tao; Xu, Qingyuan; Qin, Yongli; Bu, Zhigao; Yang, Yinhui; Lunt, Ross A; Wang, Linfa; Wu, Donglai

2012-02-09

112

Comprehensive Mapping of Common Immunodominant Epitopes in the West Nile Virus Nonstructural Protein 1 Recognized by Avian Antibody Responses  

PubMed Central

West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that primarily infects birds but occasionally infects humans and horses. Certain species of birds, including crows, house sparrows, geese, blue jays and ravens, are considered highly susceptible hosts to WNV. The nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of WNV can elicit protective immune responses, including NS1-reactive antibodies, during infection of animals. The antigenicity of NS1 suggests that NS1-reactive antibodies could provide a basis for serological diagnostic reagents. To further define serological reagents for diagnostic use, the antigenic sites in NS1 that are targeted by host immune responses need to be identified and the potential diagnostic value of individual antigenic sites also needs to be defined. The present study describes comprehensive mapping of common immunodominant linear B-cell epitopes in the WNV NS1 using avian WNV NS1 antisera. We screened antisera from chickens, ducks and geese immunized with purified NS1 for reactivity against 35 partially overlapping peptides covering the entire WNV NS1. This study identified twelve, nine and six peptide epitopes recognized by chicken, duck and goose antibody responses, respectively. Three epitopes (NS1-3, 14 and 24) were recognized by antibodies elicited by immunization in all three avian species tested. We also found that NS1-3 and 24 were WNV-specific epitopes, whereas the NS1-14 epitope was conserved among the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) serocomplex viruses based on the reactivity of avian WNV NS1 antisera against polypeptides derived from the NS1 sequences of viruses of the JEV serocomplex. Further analysis showed that the three common polypeptide epitopes were not recognized by antibodies in Avian Influenza Virus (AIV), Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), Duck Plague Virus (DPV) and Goose Parvovirus (GPV) antisera. The knowledge and reagents generated in this study have potential applications in differential diagnostic approaches and subunit vaccines development for WNV and other viruses of the JEV serocomplex.

Sun, Encheng; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Nihong; Yang, Tao; Xu, Qingyuan; Qin, Yongli; Bu, Zhigao; Yang, Yinhui; Lunt, Ross A.; Wang, Linfa; Wu, Donglai

2012-01-01

113

Metagenomic analysis of the viromes of three North American bat species: viral diversity among different bat species that share a common habitat.  

PubMed

Effective prediction of future viral zoonoses requires an in-depth understanding of the heterologous viral population in key animal species that will likely serve as reservoir hosts or intermediates during the next viral epidemic. The importance of bats as natural hosts for several important viral zoonoses, including Ebola, Marburg, Nipah, Hendra, and rabies viruses and severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV), has been established; however, the large viral population diversity (virome) of bats has been partially determined for only a few of the ?1,200 bat species. To assess the virome of North American bats, we collected fecal, oral, urine, and tissue samples from individual bats captured at an abandoned railroad tunnel in Maryland that is cohabitated by 7 to 10 different bat species. Here, we present preliminary characterization of the virome of three common North American bat species, including big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), tricolored bats (Perimyotis subflavus), and little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus). In samples derived from these bats, we identified viral sequences that were similar to at least three novel group 1 CoVs, large numbers of insect and plant virus sequences, and nearly full-length genomic sequences of two novel bacteriophages. These observations suggest that bats encounter and disseminate a large assortment of viruses capable of infecting many different animals, insects, and plants in nature. PMID:20926577

Donaldson, Eric F; Haskew, Aimee N; Gates, J Edward; Huynh, Jeremy; Moore, Clea J; Frieman, Matthew B

2010-10-06

114

A rapid screening technique to combine resistance to halo blight and bean common mosaic virus in Phaseolus vulgaris L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven bean lines (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with differential resistance or susceptibility to race 2 of halo blight (Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola) and a necrosis-inducing isolate of bean common mosaic virus were inoculated with one or both pathogens in combination, to determine the feasibility of dual screening to identify resistance to both pathogens simultaneously. Dual screening yielded the same results as

L. J. Mills; M. J. Silbernagel

1991-01-01

115

Ocelots on Barro Colorado Island are infected with feline immunodeficiency virus but not other common feline and canine viruses.  

PubMed

Transmission of pathogens from domestic animals to wildlife populations (spill-over) has precipitated local wildlife extinctions in multiple geographic locations. Identifying such events before they cause population declines requires differentiating spillover from endemic disease, a challenge complicated by a lack of baseline data from wildlife populations that are isolated from domestic animals. We tested sera collected from 12 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) native to Barro Colorado Island, Panama, which is free of domestic animals, for antibodies to feline herpes virus, feline calicivirus, feline corona virus, feline panleukopenia virus, canine distemper virus, and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), typically a species-specific infection. Samples also were tested for feline leukemia virus antigens. Positive tests results were only observed for FIV; 50% of the ocelots were positive. We hypothesize that isolation of this population has prevented introduction of pathogens typically attributed to contact with domestic animals. The high density of ocelots on Barro Colorado Island may contribute to a high prevalence of FIV infection, as would be expected with increased contact rates among conspecifics in a geographically restricted population. PMID:18689668

Franklin, Samuel P; Kays, Roland W; Moreno, Ricardo; TerWee, Julie A; Troyer, Jennifer L; VandeWoude, Sue

2008-07-01

116

Ocelots on Barro Colorado Island Are Infected with Feline Immunodeficiency Virus but Not Other Common Feline and Canine Viruses  

PubMed Central

Transmission of pathogens from domestic animals to wildlife populations (spill-over) has precipitated local wildlife extinctions in multiple geographic locations. Identifying such events before they cause population declines requires differentiating spillover from endemic disease, a challenge complicated by a lack of baseline data from wildlife populations that are isolated from domestic animals. We tested sera collected from 12 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) native to Barro Colorado Island, Panama, which is free of domestic animals, for antibodies to feline herpes virus, feline calicivirus, feline corona virus, feline panleukopenia virus, canine distemper virus, and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), typically a species-specific infection. Samples also were tested for feline leukemia virus antigens. Positive tests results were only observed for FIV; 50% of the ocelots were positive. We hypothesize that isolation of this population has prevented introduction of pathogens typically attributed to contact with domestic animals. The high density of ocelots on Barro Colorado Island may contribute to a high prevalence of FIV infection, as would be expected with increased contact rates among conspecifics in a geographically restricted population.

Franklin, Samuel P.; Kays, Roland W.; Moreno, Ricardo; TerWee, Julie A.; Troyer, Jennifer L.; VandeWoude, Sue

2011-01-01

117

Ashkenazi-Jewish and non-Jewish adult GM2 gangliosidosis patients share a common genetic defect.  

PubMed Central

The adult form of Tay-Sachs disease, adult GM2 gangliosidosis, is an autosomal recessive neurological disorder caused by a partial deficiency of beta-hexosaminidase A. We had previously identified, in Ashkenazi-Jewish adult GM2 gangliosidosis patients, a Gly269----Ser mutation in the beta-hexosaminidase alpha-subunit. All of the Ashkenazi patients were found to be compound heterozygotes with an allele containing the Gly269----Ser mutation together with one of the Ashkenazi infantile Tay-Sachs alleles. We have now found the same Gly269----Ser mutation in six adult GM2 gangliosidosis patients from four different non-Jewish families. Genomic DNA from three of the patients, two of whom were brothers, exhibited a hybridization pattern consistent with homozygosity for the Gly269----Ser mutation. The remaining non-Jewish patients were compound heterozygotes of the Gly269----Ser mutation together with an unidentified alpha-subunit mutation. The results demonstrate that individuals homozygous for the Gly269----Ser change can be clinically affected. The same Gly269----Ser mutation in both the Ashkenazi and non-Jewish patients may be the result of a common ancestor, given that the ancestry of these non-Jewish patients, like the Ashkenazim, can be traced to eastern Europe. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3

Navon, R; Kolodny, E H; Mitsumoto, H; Thomas, G H; Proia, R L

1990-01-01

118

Substitution of Feline Leukemia Virus Long Terminal Repeat Sequences into Murine Leukemia Virus Alters the Pattern of Insertional Activation and Identifies New Common Insertion Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recombinant retrovirus, MoFe2-MuLV (MoFe2), was constructed by replacing the U3 region of Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV) with homologous sequences from the FeLV-945 LTR. NIH\\/Swiss mice neonatally inoculated with MoFe2 developed T-cell lymphomas of immature thymocyte surface phenotype. MoFe2 integrated infrequently (0 to 9%) near common insertion sites (CISs) previously identified for either parent virus. Using three different strategies,

Chassidy Johnson; Patricia A. Lobelle-Rich; Adriane Puetter; Laura S. Levy

2005-01-01

119

Structure of Flexible Filamentous Plant Viruses  

SciTech Connect

Flexible filamentous viruses make up a large fraction of the known plant viruses, but in comparison with those of other viruses, very little is known about their structures. We have used fiber diffraction, cryo-electron microscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy to determine the symmetry of a potyvirus, soybean mosaic virus; to confirm the symmetry of a potexvirus, potato virus X; and to determine the low-resolution structures of both viruses. We conclude that these viruses and, by implication, most or all flexible filamentous plant viruses share a common coat protein fold and helical symmetry, with slightly less than 9 subunits per helical turn.

Kendall, Amy; McDonald, Michele; Bian, Wen; Bowles, Timothy; Baumgarten, Sarah C.; Shi, Jian; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Bullitt, Esther; Gore, David; Irving, Thomas C.; Havens, Wendy M.; Ghabrial, Said A.; Wall, Joseph S.; Stubbs, Gerald (IIT); (BU-M); (Vanderbilt); (Kentucky); (BNL)

2008-10-23

120

Structure of Flexible Filamentous Plant Viruses ?  

PubMed Central

Flexible filamentous viruses make up a large fraction of the known plant viruses, but in comparison with those of other viruses, very little is known about their structures. We have used fiber diffraction, cryo-electron microscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy to determine the symmetry of a potyvirus, soybean mosaic virus; to confirm the symmetry of a potexvirus, potato virus X; and to determine the low-resolution structures of both viruses. We conclude that these viruses and, by implication, most or all flexible filamentous plant viruses share a common coat protein fold and helical symmetry, with slightly less than 9 subunits per helical turn.

Kendall, Amy; McDonald, Michele; Bian, Wen; Bowles, Timothy; Baumgarten, Sarah C.; Shi, Jian; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Bullitt, Esther; Gore, David; Irving, Thomas C.; Havens, Wendy M.; Ghabrial, Said A.; Wall, Joseph S.; Stubbs, Gerald

2008-01-01

121

Human intestinal epithelial cells express functional cytokine receptors sharing the common gamma c chain of the interleukin 2 receptor.  

PubMed Central

Interleukin (IL) 2 signaling requires the dimerization of the IL-2 receptor beta (IL-2R beta) and common gamma (gamma c) chains. The gamma is also a component of the receptors for IL-4, IL-7, and IL-9. To assess the extent and role of the receptor signal transducing system utilizing the gamma c chain on human intestinal epithelial cells, the expression of gamma c, IL-2R beta, and receptor chains specific for IL-4, IL-7, and IL-9 was assessed by reverse transcription-coupled PCR on human intestinal epithelial cell lines and on isolated primary human intestinal epithelial cells. Caco-2, HT-29, and T-84 cells were found to express transcripts for the gamma c and IL-4R chains constitutively. IL-2R beta chain expression was demonstrated in Caco-2 and HT-29 but not in T-84 cells. None of the cell lines expressed mRNA for the IL-2R alpha chain. After stimulation with epidermal growth factor for 24 h Caco-2, HT-29, and T-84 cells expressed transcripts for IL-7R. In addition, Caco-2 and HT-29 cells expressed mRNA for the IL-9R. Receptors for IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, and IL-9 on intestinal epithelial cells lines appeared to be functional; stimulation with these cytokines caused rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins. The relevance of the observations in intestinal epithelial cell lines for intestinal epithelial function in vivo was supported by the demonstration of transcripts for gamma c, IL-2R beta, IL-4R, IL-7R, and IL-9R in primary human intestinal epithelial cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7

Reinecker, H C; Podolsky, D K

1995-01-01

122

Neuroinflammation Resulting from Covert Brain Invasion by Common Viruses--a Potential Role in Local and Global Neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

Neurodegenerative diseases are a horrendous burden for their victims, their families, and society as a whole. For half a century scientists have pursued the hypothesis that these diseases involve a chronic viral infection in the brain. However, efforts to consistently detect a specific virus in brains of patients with such diseases as Alzheimer's or multiple sclerosis have generally failed. Neuropathologists have become increasingly aware that most patients with neurodegenerative diseases demonstrate marked deterioration of the brain olfactory bulb in addition to brain targets that define the specific disease. In fact, the loss of the sense of smell may precede overt neurological symptoms by many years. This realization that the olfactory bulb is a common target in neurodegenerative diseases suggests the possibility that microbes and/or toxins in inhaled air may play a role in their pathogenesis. With regard to inhaled viruses, neuropathologists have focused on those viruses that infect and kill neurons. However, a recent study shows that a respiratory virus with no neurotropic properties can rapidly invade the mouse olfactory bulb from the nasal cavity. Available data suggest that this strain of influenza is passively transported to the bulb via the olfactory nerves (mechanism unknown), and is taken up by glial cells in the outer layers of the bulb. The infected glial cells appear to be activated by the virus, secrete proinflammatory cytokines, and block further spread of virus within the brain. At the time that influenza symptoms become apparent (15 h post-infection), but not prior to symptom onset (10 h post-infection), proinflammatory cytokine-expressing neurons are increased in olfactory cortical pathways and hypothalamus as well as in the olfactory bulb. The mice go on to die of pneumonitis with severe acute phase and respiratory disease symptoms but no classical neurological symptoms. While much remains to be learned about this intranasal influenza-brain invasion model, it suggests the hypothesis that common viruses encountered in our daily life may initiate neuroinflammation via olfactory neural networks. The numerous viruses that we inhale during a lifetime might cause the death of only a few neurons per infection, but this minor damage would accumulate over time and contribute to age-related brain shrinkage and/or neurodegenerative diseases. Elderly individuals with a strong innate inflammatory system, or ongoing systemic inflammation (or both), might be most susceptible to these outcomes. The evidence for the hypothesis that common respiratory viruses may contribute to neurodegenerative processes is developed in the accompanying article.

Majde, Jeannine A.

2010-01-01

123

Interpretation of positive molecular tests of common viruses in the cerebrospinal fluid.  

PubMed

Many central nervous system infections are historically difficult to diagnose. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has revolutionized the diagnosis of these infections because of their high sensitivity despite the lack of data on clinical usefulness. We conducted a retrospective study that included patients with positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) PCR for herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus, JC virus, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) between January 2009 and December 2011. The positive results were grouped into definite, likely, and possible true positives and likely false-positive categories based on pre-specified definitions specific to each virus. Of 1663 CSF viral PCR tests, 88 were positive (5%). The combined positive predictive value (PPV) was 58%. The PPVs were least for CMV and EBV at 29 and 37%, respectively. A positive CSF viral PCR result has to be interpreted with caution due to several false-positive results. PMID:24035384

Bhaskaran, Archana; Racsa, Lori; Gander, Rita; Southern, Paul; Cavuoti, Dominick; Alatoom, Adnan

2013-09-12

124

Population structure within lineages of Wheat streak mosaic virus derived from a common founding event exhibits stochastic variation inconsistent with the deterministic quasi-species model  

SciTech Connect

Structure of Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) populations derived from a common founding event and subjected to serial passage at high multiplicity of infection (MOI) was evaluated. The founding population was generated by limiting dilution inoculation. Lineages of known pedigree were sampled at passage 9 (two populations) and at passage 15, with (three populations) or without mixing (four populations) of lineages at passage 10. Polymorphism within each population was assessed by sequencing 17-21 clones containing a 1371 nt region (WSMV-Sidney 81 nts 8001-9371) encompassing the entire coat protein cistron and flanking regions. Mutation frequency averaged {approx}5.0 x 10{sup -4}/nt across all populations and ranged from 2.4 to 11.6 x 10{sup -4}/nt within populations, but did not consistently increase or decrease with the number of passages removed from the founding population. Shared substitutions (19 nonsynonymous, 10 synonymous, and 3 noncoding) occurred at 32 sites among 44 haplotypes. Only four substitutions became fixed (frequency = 100%) within a population and nearly one third (10/32) never achieved a frequency of 10% or greater in any sampled population. Shared substitutions were randomly distributed with respect to genome position, with transitions outnumbering transversions 5.4:1 and a clear bias for A to G and U to C substitutions. Haplotype composition of each population was unique with complexity of each population varying unpredictably, in that the number and frequency of haplotypes within a lineage were not correlated with number of passages removed from the founding population or whether the population was derived from a single or mixed lineage. The simplest explanation is that plant virus lineages, even those propagated at high MOI, are subject to frequent, narrow genetic bottlenecks during systemic movement that result in low effective population size and stochastic changes in population structure upon serial passage.

French, Roy [Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture and Department of Plant Pathology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583 (United States); Stenger, Drake C. [Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture and Department of Plant Pathology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583 (United States)]. E-mail: dstenger@unlnotes.unl.edu

2005-12-20

125

Virus-Specific CD8+ Lymphocytes Share the Same Effector-Memory Phenotype but Exhibit Functional Differences in Acute Hepatitis B and C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses (HBV and HCV) are both noncytopathic and can cause acute and chronic infections of the liver. Although they share tropism for the same organ, development of chronic hepatitis is much more frequent following HCV infection, suggesting different mechanisms of viral persistence. In this study, we show that circulating HBV- and HCV-specific tetramer-positive CD8 cells

Simona Urbani; Carolina Boni; Gabriele Missale; Gianfranco Elia; Cristina Cavallo; Marco Massari; Giovanni Raimondo; Carlo Ferrari

2002-01-01

126

Crystal Structures of the Staphylococcal Toxin SSL5 in Complex With Sialyl-Lewis X Reveal a Conserved Binding Site That Shares Common Features With Viral And Bacterial Sialic Acid-Binding Proteins  

SciTech Connect

Staphylococcus aureus is a significant human pathogen. Among its large repertoire of secreted toxins is a group of staphylococcal superantigen-like proteins (SSLs). These are homologous to superantigens but do not have the same activity. SSL5 is shown here to bind to human granulocytes and to the cell surface receptors for human IgA (Fc alphaRI) and P-selectin [P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1)] in a sialic acid (Sia)-dependent manner. Co-crystallization of SSL5 with the tetrasaccharide sialyl Lewis X (sLe(X)), a key determinant of PSGL-1 binding to P-selectin, led to crystal structures of the SSL5-sLe(X) complex at resolutions of 1.65 and 2.75 A for crystals at two pH values. In both structures, sLe(X) bound to a specific site on the surface of the C-terminal domain of SSL5 in a conformation identical with that bound by P-selectin. Conservation of the key carbohydrate binding residues indicates that this ability to bind human glycans is shared by a substantial subgroup of the SSLs, including SSL2, SSL3, SSL4, SSL5, SSL6, and SSL11. This indicates that the ability to target human glycans is an important property of this group of toxins. Structural comparisons also showed that the Sia binding site in SSL5 contains a substructure that is shared by other Sia binding proteins from bacteria as well as viruses and represents a common binding motif.

Baker, H.M.; Basu, I.; Chung, M.C.; Caradoc-Davies, T.; Fraser, J.D.; Baker, E.N.

2009-06-02

127

Virus-Host Coevolution: Common Patterns of Nucleotide Motif Usage in Flaviviridae and Their Hosts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virus-host biological interaction is a continuous coevolutionary process involving both host immune system and viral escape mechanisms. Flaviviridae family is composed of fast evolving RNA viruses that infects vertebrate (mammals and birds) and\\/or invertebrate (ticks and mosquitoes) organisms. These host groups are very distinct life forms separated by a long evolutionary time, so lineage-specific anti-viral mechanisms are likely to have

Francisco P. Lobo; Bruno E. F. Mota; Sérgio D. J. Pena; Vasco Azevedo; Andréa M. Macedo; Andreas Tauch; Carlos R. Machado; Glória R. Franco; Lark L. Coffey

2009-01-01

128

FIRST REPORT OF ONION YELLOW DWARF VIRUS, LEEK YELLOW STRIPE VIRUS AND GARLIC COMMON LATENT VIRUS IN GARLIC IN WASHINGTON STATE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Washington State ranks fourth in the United States in terms of garlic (Allium sativum) production, but little specific documentation is available for specific viruses infecting garlic. Virus-like symptoms appeared in June, 2004, in several varieties of garlic grown by the USDA-ARS Western Regional ...

129

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) sequence variation of cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes is not common in patients with chronic HBV infection.  

PubMed Central

It has been suggested that immune selection pressure exerted by the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response could be responsible for viral persistence during chronic hepatitis B virus infection. To address this question, in the current study we compared the DNA and amino acid sequences of, and the CTL responses to, multiple HLA-A2-restricted CTL epitopes in the hepatitis B virus in several HLA-A2-positive patients with acute and chronic hepatitis. Our results indicate that the CTL response to these epitopes is barely detectable in the majority of patients with chronic hepatitis. Further, we show that the weak CTL response is not secondary in infection by mutant viruses lacking these epitopes, and we show that the CTL response did not select for escape mutants in any of these patients. We conclude that an ineffective hepatitis B virus specific CTL response is the primary determinant of viral persistence in chronic hepatitis and that immune selection of viral variants is not a common event in the majority of patients.

Rehermann, B; Pasquinelli, C; Mosier, S M; Chisari, F V

1995-01-01

130

Comprehensive Mapping of Common Immunodominant Epitopes in the Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus E2 Protein Recognized by Avian Antibody Responses  

PubMed Central

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne virus that can cause both human and equine encephalitis with high case fatality rates. EEEV can also be widespread among birds, including pheasants, ostriches, emu, turkeys, whooping cranes and chickens. The E2 protein of EEEV and other Alphaviruses is an important immunogenic protein that elicits antibodies of diagnostic value. While many therapeutic and diagnostic applications of E2 protein-specific antibodies have been reported, the specific epitopes on E2 protein recognized by the antibody responses of different susceptible hosts, including avian species, remain poorly defined. In the present study, the avian E2-reactive polyclonal antibody (PAb) response was mapped to linear peptide epitopes using PAbs elicited in chickens and ducks following immunization with recombinant EEEV E2 protein and a series of 42 partially overlapping peptides covering the entire EEEV E2 protein. We identified 12 and 13 peptides recognized by the chicken and duck PAb response, respectively. Six of these linear peptides were commonly recognized by PAbs elicited in both avian species. Among them five epitopes recognized by both avian, the epitopes located at amino acids 211–226 and 331–352 were conserved among the EEEV antigenic complex, but not other associated alphaviruses, whereas the epitopes at amino acids 11–26, 30–45 and 151–166 were specific to EEEV subtype I. The five common peptide epitopes were not recognized by avian PAbs against Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) and Duck Plague Virus (DPV). The identification and characterization of EEEV E2 antibody epitopes may be aid the development of diagnostic tools and facilitate the design of epitope-based vaccines for EEEV. These results also offer information with which to study the structure of EEEV E2 protein.

Sun, EnCheng; Zhao, Jing; Sun, Liang; Xu, QingYuan; Yang, Tao; Qin, YongLi; Wang, WenShi; Wei, Peng; Sun, Jing; Wu, DongLai

2013-01-01

131

Comprehensive mapping of common immunodominant epitopes in the eastern equine encephalitis virus E2 protein recognized by avian antibody responses.  

PubMed

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne virus that can cause both human and equine encephalitis with high case fatality rates. EEEV can also be widespread among birds, including pheasants, ostriches, emu, turkeys, whooping cranes and chickens. The E2 protein of EEEV and other Alphaviruses is an important immunogenic protein that elicits antibodies of diagnostic value. While many therapeutic and diagnostic applications of E2 protein-specific antibodies have been reported, the specific epitopes on E2 protein recognized by the antibody responses of different susceptible hosts, including avian species, remain poorly defined. In the present study, the avian E2-reactive polyclonal antibody (PAb) response was mapped to linear peptide epitopes using PAbs elicited in chickens and ducks following immunization with recombinant EEEV E2 protein and a series of 42 partially overlapping peptides covering the entire EEEV E2 protein. We identified 12 and 13 peptides recognized by the chicken and duck PAb response, respectively. Six of these linear peptides were commonly recognized by PAbs elicited in both avian species. Among them five epitopes recognized by both avian, the epitopes located at amino acids 211-226 and 331-352 were conserved among the EEEV antigenic complex, but not other associated alphaviruses, whereas the epitopes at amino acids 11-26, 30-45 and 151-166 were specific to EEEV subtype I. The five common peptide epitopes were not recognized by avian PAbs against Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) and Duck Plague Virus (DPV). The identification and characterization of EEEV E2 antibody epitopes may be aid the development of diagnostic tools and facilitate the design of epitope-based vaccines for EEEV. These results also offer information with which to study the structure of EEEV E2 protein. PMID:23922704

Sun, Encheng; Zhao, Jing; Sun, Liang; Xu, Qingyuan; Yang, Tao; Qin, Yongli; Wang, Wenshi; Wei, Peng; Sun, Jing; Wu, Donglai

2013-07-26

132

Characterization of a protein found in cells infected with the spleen focus-forming virus that shares immunological cross-reactivity with the gp70 found in mink cell focus-inducing virus particles.  

PubMed Central

Previously we detected an antigen in cells infected with the spleen focus-forming virus (SFFV) with a radioimmunoassay specific for the gp 70's of murine leukemia mink cell focus-inducing (MCF) viruses. This antigen has now been characterized in competition radioimmunoassays with limiting dilutions of antibody and in pulse-labeling studies under conditions of antibody excess. Both methods of analysis indicate that the SFFV-encoded antigen is a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of approximately 52,000. The gp52 shared immunological reactivity and methionine-containing tryptic peptides with the gp70 of a Friend MCF virus and was expressed on the surface of SFFV-infected cells as well as in the cytoplasm. The gp52 could be detected (i) in fibroblastic cell lines from several species when these cells were infected with SFFV; (ii) in several established erythroleukemic cell lines; and (iii) in the spleens of mice recently infected with SFFV. Although it shared immunochemical properties with the gp70 of Friend MCF virus, the gp52 could be distinguished from the MCF gp70 (i) by its apparent lack of group and interspecies immunological determinants compared with MCF virus-derived gp70's; (ii) by its failure to be released from cells infected with SFFV or SFFV plus helper virus; (iii) by its molecular weight; and (iv) by tryptic peptide analysis. The results indicate that SFFV codes for an MCF gp70-related gp52 which is apparently no longer a virion structural protein like the MCF gp70 from which it was originally derived. Images

Ruscetti, S K; Linemeyer, D; Feild, J; Troxler, D; Scolnick, E M

1979-01-01

133

Cloning and subcellular location of an Arabidopsis receptor-like protein that shares common features with protein-sorting receptors of eukaryotic cells.  

PubMed Central

Many receptors involved in clathrin-mediated protein transport through the endocytic and secretory pathways of yeast and animal cells share common features. They are all type I integral membrane proteins containing cysteine-rich lumenal domains and cytoplasmic tails with tyrosine-containing sorting signals. The cysteine-rich domains are thought to be involved in ligand binding, whereas the cytoplasmic tyrosine motifs interact with clathrin-associated adaptor proteins during protein sorting along these pathways. In addition, tyrosine-containing signals are required for the retention and recycling of some of these membrane proteins to the trans-Golgi network. Here we report the characterization of an approximately 80-kD epidermal growth factor receptor-like type I integral membrane protein containing all of these functional motifs from Arabidopsis thaliana (called AtELP for A. thaliana Epidermal growth factor receptor-Like Protein). Biochemical analysis indicates that AtELP is a membrane protein found at high levels in the roots of both monocots and dicots. Subcellular fractionation studies indicate that the AtELP protein is present in two membrane fractions corresponding to a novel, undefined compartment and a fraction enriched in vesicles containing clathrin and its associated adaptor proteins. AtELP may therefore serve as a marker for compartments involved in intracellular protein trafficking in the plant cell.

Ahmed, S U; Bar-Peled, M; Raikhel, N V

1997-01-01

134

Constraints on Viral Evolution during Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection Arising from a Common-Source Exposure  

PubMed Central

Extraordinary viral sequence diversity and rapid viral genetic evolution are hallmarks of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Viral sequence evolution has previously been shown to mediate escape from cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) and neutralizing antibody responses in acute HCV infection. HCV evolution continues during chronic infection, but the pressures driving these changes are poorly defined. We analyzed plasma virus sequence evolution in 5.2-kb hemigenomes from multiple longitudinal time points isolated from individuals in the Irish anti-D cohort, who were infected with HCV from a common source in 1977 to 1978. We found phylogenetically distinct quasispecies populations at different plasma time points isolated late in chronic infection, suggesting ongoing viral evolution and quasispecies replacement over time. We saw evidence of early pressure driving net evolution away from a computationally reconstructed common ancestor, known as Bole1b, in predicted CTL epitopes and E1E2, with balanced evolution toward and away from the Bole1b amino acid sequence in the remainder of the genome. Late in chronic infection, the rate of evolution toward the Bole1b sequence increased, resulting in net neutral evolution relative to Bole1b across the entire 5.2-kb hemigenome. Surprisingly, even late in chronic infection, net amino acid evolution away from the infecting inoculum sequence still could be observed. These data suggest that, late in chronic infection, ongoing HCV evolution is not random genetic drift but rather the product of strong pressure toward a common ancestor and concurrent net ongoing evolution away from the inoculum virus sequence, likely balancing replicative fitness and ongoing immune escape.

Bailey, Justin R.; Laskey, Sarah; Wasilewski, Lisa N.; Munshaw, Supriya; Fanning, Liam J.; Kenny-Walsh, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

135

An effective virus-based gene silencing method for functional genomics studies in common bean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a crop of economic and nutritious importance in many parts of the world. The lack of genomic resources have impeded\\u000a the advancement of common bean genomics and thereby crop improvement. Although concerted efforts from the \\

Claudia Díaz-Camino; Padmanaban Annamalai; Federico Sanchez; Aardra Kachroo; Said A Ghabrial

2011-01-01

136

Studies of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells. I. Evidence using novel monoclonal antibodies that most human LAK precursor cells share a common surface marker  

PubMed Central

Separation of LAK precursor (LAKp) cells (as defined by LAK effector generation after incubation with IL-2 for 7 d) from cells with NK activity/LGL morphology was achieved on Percoll gradients using a longer, slower centrifugation than that used for optimal NK enrichment. mAb were generated using the various Percoll fractions as the immunizing cells and used for separation and depletion studies. Two mAbs DM-1 (IgM,k) and DM-2 (IgM,k) recognizing 2-15% and 15-30% of PBL, respectively, abrogated a large proportion of LAK generative potential after complement depletion, but had little effect on NK or LAK effector activity. Cell sorting experiments indicated that the majority of LAKp cells are found within the DM-1+ population and that DM-1+ cells are not simply an accessory cell required for LAKp generation. Further, these two mAbs do not recognize cells that are responsible for generating cytotoxicity during MLC or co-culture with the PR-1 EBV lymphoblastoid cell line. Western blot analysis indicated that DM-1 and DM-2 recognize a 38,000 and 44,000 dalton moiety, respectively. The frequency of cells bearing these antigens and the intensity of cell surface staining decreased during the 7-d culture period, suggesting that these antibodies recognize determinants found only at the precursor level. These findings indicate that cells other than NK effectors or mature T cells are capable of generating a LAK cell response. These LAK precursor cells share a common differentiation surface antigen and are different from AK or antigen-specific CTL precursors. The possibility exists that these cells are identical to, or include, the NK precursor cell.

1989-01-01

137

Shared HLA class II-associated genetic susceptibility and resistance, related to the HLA-DQB1 gene, in IgA deficiency and common variable immunodeficiency.  

PubMed Central

Most cases of selective IgA deficiency (IgA-D) and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) occur sporadically. However, familial clustering is not uncommon, and the two disorders can occur within the same family. We have previously described positive associations with three DR-DQ haplotypes as well as a strong negative association with DRw15,DQw6,Dw2 in IgA-D. Different amino acids at position 57 of the HLA-DQ beta chain were found to be related to susceptibility and resistance to IgA-D. Now we have found identical, although somewhat weaker, positive and negative DR-DQ associations in a large group of CVID patients (n = 86), as well as the same associations with codon 57 of the DQB1 gene. In addition, we have confirmed our earlier observations in an independent group of IgA-D individuals (n = 69), and in sib-pair analysis we have found linkage of the genetic susceptibility to IgA-D to the HLA class II region. In IgA-D individuals not carrying the three overrepresented DR-DQ haplotypes, the same positive association with a non-aspartic acid residue at position 57 of the HLA-DQ beta chain was seen. The previously reported associations with deletions of the HLA class III genes C4A (fourth component of complement) and CYP21P (steroid 21-hydroxylase pseudogene) were, in our groups of immunodeficient individuals, statistically secondary to the association with the DQB1 allele 0201. The shared HLA class II associations in the two humoral immunodeficiencies support the hypothesis that IgA-D and CVID are related disorders. Disease susceptibility and resistance are most closely associated with a gene(s) within the DR-DQ region, alleles of the DQB1 locus being candidate genes. Images

Olerup, O; Smith, C I; Bjorkander, J; Hammarstrom, L

1992-01-01

138

A novel human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protein, tev, shares sequences with tat, env, and rev proteins.  

PubMed Central

We have characterized a novel 28-kilodalton protein, p28tev, detected in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected cells. tev is recognized by both tat and rev monospecific antibodies. tev is initiated at the tat AUG and contains the first exon of tat at its amino terminus, a small portion of env in the middle, and the second exon of rev at its carboxy terminus. A cDNA clone producing tev was cloned and expressed in human cells. Sequence analysis revealed that the tev mRNA is generated by splicing to a novel exon located in the env region. This identifies a fourth class of multiply spliced human immunodeficiency virus mRNAs, produced in infected and transfected cells. tev is regulated during the virus life cycle similarly to the other regulatory proteins, tat, rev, and nef, and displays both tat and rev activities in functional assays. Since tev contains important functional domains of tat and rev and is produced very early after transfection, it may be an important regulator in the initial phase of virus expression. Another rev-related protein, p18(6)Drev, containing env and rev sequences, was characterized and was found not to have detectable rev activity. Images

Benko, D M; Schwartz, S; Pavlakis, G N; Felber, B K

1990-01-01

139

Recognition of Conserved Amino Acid Motifs of Common Viruses and Its Role in Autoimmunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The triggers of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) remain elusive. Epidemiological studies suggest that common pathogens can exacerbate and also induce MS, but it has been difficult to pinpoint individual organisms. Here we demonstrate that in vivo clonally expanded CD4+ T cells isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid of a MS patient during disease exacerbation respond to a poly-arginine

Mireia Sospedra; Yingdong Zhao; Harald zur Hausen; Paolo A Muraro; Christa Hamashin; Ethel-Michele de Villiers; Clemencia Pinilla; Roland Martin

2005-01-01

140

Structural Basis for Ubiquitin-like ISG 15 Protein Binding to the NS1 Protein of Influenza B Virus: A Protein–Protein Interaction Function That Is Not Shared by the Corresponding N-terminal Domain of the NS1 Protein of Influenza A Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The N-terminal domains of the NS1 protein of influenza B virus (NS1B protein) and the NS1 protein of influenza A virus (NS1A protein) share one function: binding double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Here we show that the N-terminal domain of the NS1B protein possesses an additional function that is not shared by its NS1A counterpart: binding the ubiquitin-like ISG15 protein that is

Weiming Yuan; James M. Aramini; Gaetano T. Montelione; Robert M. Krug

2002-01-01

141

Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Coinfection: Epidemiology, Natural History, Therapeutic Options and Clinical Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to shared risk factors for transmission, coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a very common event. The prevalence of HCV infection among HIV-positive patients averages about 35% in the United States and Europe, but in clinical populations where there is a great prevalence of intravenous drug use as a risk factor for acquiring

G. Verucchi; L. Calza; R. Manfredi; F. Chiodo

2004-01-01

142

Novel Common Integration Sites Targeted by Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus Insertion in Mammary Tumors Have Oncogenic Activity  

PubMed Central

Non-acute transforming retroviruses like mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) cause cancer, at least in part, through integration near cellular genes involved in growth control, thereby de-regulating their expression. It is well-established that MMTV commonly integrates near and activates expression of members of the Wnt and Fgf pathways in mammary tumors. However, there are a significant number of tumors for which the proviral integration sites have not been identified. Here, we used high through-put screening to identify common integration sites (CISs) in MMTV-induced tumors from C3H/HeN and BALB/c mice. As expected, members of both the Wnt and Fgf families were identified in this screen. In addition, a number of novel CISs were found, including Tcf7l2, Antxr1/Tem8, and Arhgap18. We show here that expression of these three putative oncogenes in normal murine mammary gland cells altered their growth kinetics and caused their morphological transformation when grown in three dimensional cultures. Additionally, expression of Tcf7l2 and Antxr1/Tem8 sensitized cells to exogenous WNT ligand. As Tcf7l2, Antxr1/Tem8, and Arhgap18 have been associated with human breast and other cancers, these data demonstrate that MMTV-induced insertional mutation remains an important means for identifying genes involved in breast cancer.

Kim, Hyoung H.; van den Heuvel, A. Pieter J.; Schmidt, John W.; Ross, Susan R.

2011-01-01

143

West Nile Virus T-Cell Ligand Sequences Shared with Other Flaviviruses: a Multitude of Variant Sequences as Potential Altered Peptide Ligands  

PubMed Central

Phylogenetic relatedness and cocirculation of several major human pathogen flaviviruses are recognized as a possible cause of deleterious immune responses to mixed infection or immunization and call for a greater understanding of the inter-Flavivirus protein homologies. This study focused on the identification of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-restricted West Nile virus (WNV) T-cell ligands and characterization of their distribution in reported sequence data of WNV and other flaviviruses. H-2-deficient mice transgenic for either A2, A24, B7, DR2, DR3, or DR4 HLA alleles were immunized with overlapping peptides of the WNV proteome, and peptide-specific T-cell activation was measured by gamma interferon (IFN-?) enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot) assays. Approximately 30% (137) of the WNV proteome peptides were identified as HLA-restricted T-cell ligands. The majority of these ligands were conserved in ??88% of analyzed WNV sequences. Notably, only 51 were WNV specific, and the remaining 86, chiefly of E, NS3, and NS5, shared an identity of nine or more consecutive amino acids with sequences of 64 other flaviviruses, including several major human pathogens. Many of the shared ligands had an incidence of >50% in the analyzed sequences of one or more of six major flaviviruses. The multitude of WNV sequences shared with other flaviviruses as interspecies variants highlights the possible hazard of defective T-cell activation by altered peptide ligands in the event of dual exposure to WNV and other flaviviruses, by either infection or immunization. The data suggest the possible preferred use of sequences that are pathogen specific with minimum interspecies sequence homology for the design of Flavivirus vaccines.

Jung, Keun-Ok; Khan, Asif M.; Tan, Benjamin Yong Liang; Hu, Yongli; Simon, Gregory G.; Nascimento, Eduardo J. M.; Lemonnier, Francois; Brusic, Vladimir; Miotto, Olivo; Tan, Tin Wee; Marques, Ernesto T. A.; Dhalia, Rafael; Salmon, Jerome

2012-01-01

144

West Nile virus T-cell ligand sequences shared with other flaviviruses: a multitude of variant sequences as potential altered peptide ligands.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic relatedness and cocirculation of several major human pathogen flaviviruses are recognized as a possible cause of deleterious immune responses to mixed infection or immunization and call for a greater understanding of the inter-Flavivirus protein homologies. This study focused on the identification of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-restricted West Nile virus (WNV) T-cell ligands and characterization of their distribution in reported sequence data of WNV and other flaviviruses. H-2-deficient mice transgenic for either A2, A24, B7, DR2, DR3, or DR4 HLA alleles were immunized with overlapping peptides of the WNV proteome, and peptide-specific T-cell activation was measured by gamma interferon (IFN-?) enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot) assays. Approximately 30% (137) of the WNV proteome peptides were identified as HLA-restricted T-cell ligands. The majority of these ligands were conserved in ??88% of analyzed WNV sequences. Notably, only 51 were WNV specific, and the remaining 86, chiefly of E, NS3, and NS5, shared an identity of nine or more consecutive amino acids with sequences of 64 other flaviviruses, including several major human pathogens. Many of the shared ligands had an incidence of >50% in the analyzed sequences of one or more of six major flaviviruses. The multitude of WNV sequences shared with other flaviviruses as interspecies variants highlights the possible hazard of defective T-cell activation by altered peptide ligands in the event of dual exposure to WNV and other flaviviruses, by either infection or immunization. The data suggest the possible preferred use of sequences that are pathogen specific with minimum interspecies sequence homology for the design of Flavivirus vaccines. PMID:22573867

Jung, Keun-Ok; Khan, Asif M; Tan, Benjamin Yong Liang; Hu, Yongli; Simon, Gregory G; Nascimento, Eduardo J M; Lemonnier, Francois; Brusic, Vladimir; Miotto, Olivo; Tan, Tin Wee; Marques, Ernesto T A; Dhalia, Rafael; Salmon, Jerome; August, J Thomas

2012-05-09

145

Vpu Downmodulates Two Distinct Targets, Tetherin and Gibbon Ape Leukemia Virus Envelope, through Shared Features in the Vpu Cytoplasmic Tail  

PubMed Central

During human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) assembly, the host proteins CD4 (the HIV-1 receptor) and tetherin (an interferon stimulated anti-viral protein) both reduce viral fitness. The HIV-1 accessory gene Vpu counteracts both of these proteins, but it is thought to do so through two distinct mechanisms. Modulation of CD4 likely occurs through proteasomal degradation from the endoplasmic reticulum. The exact mechanism of tetherin modulation is less clear, with possible roles for degradation and alteration of protein transport to the plasma membrane. Most investigations of Vpu function have used different assays for CD4 and tetherin. In addition, many of these investigations used exogenously expressed Vpu, which could result in variable expression levels. Thus, few studies have investigated these two Vpu functions in parallel assays, making direct comparisons difficult. Here, we present results from a rapid assay used to simultaneously investigate Vpu-targeting of both tetherin and a viral glycoprotein, gibbon ape leukemia virus envelope (GaLV Env). We previously reported that Vpu modulates GaLV Env and prevents its incorporation into HIV-1 particles through a recognition motif similar to that found in CD4. Using this assay, we performed a comprehensive mutagenic scan of Vpu in its native proviral context to identify features required for both types of activity. We observed considerable overlap in the Vpu sequences required to modulate tetherin and GaLV Env. We found that features in the cytoplasmic tail of Vpu, specifically within the cytoplasmic tail hinge region, were required for modulation of both tetherin and GaLV Env. Interestingly, these same regions features have been determined to be critical for CD4 downmodulation. We also observed a role for the transmembrane domain in the restriction of tetherin, as previously reported, but not of GaLV Env. We propose that Vpu may target both proteins in a mechanistically similar manner, albeit in different cellular locations.

Stephens, Edward B.; Johnson, Marc C.

2012-01-01

146

HIV-1 Gag shares a signature motif with annexin (Anx7), which is required for virus replication  

PubMed Central

Genetic and biochemical analyses of the Gag protein of HIV-1 indicate a crucial role for this protein in several functions related to viral replication, including viral assembly. It has been suggested that Gag may fulfill some of the functions by recruiting host cellular protein(s). In our effort to identify structural and functional homologies between Gag and cellular cytoskeletal and secretory proteins involved in transport, we observed that HIV-1 Gag contains a unique PGQM motif in the capsid region. This motif was initially noted in the regulatory domain of synexin the membrane fusion protein of Xenopus laevis. To evaluate the functional significance of the highly conserved PGQM motif, we introduced alanine (A) in place of individual residues of the PGQM and deleted the motif altogether in a Gag expression plasmid and in an HIV-1 proviral DNA. The proviral DNA containing mutations in the PGQM motif showed altered expression, assembly, and release of viral particles in comparison to parental (NL4-3) DNA. When tested in multiple- and single-round replication assays, the mutant viruses exhibited distinct replication phenotypes; the viruses containing the A for the G and Q residues failed to replicate, whereas A in place of the P and M residues did not inhibit viral replication. Deletion of the tetrapeptide also resulted in the inhibition of replication. These results suggest that the PGQM motif may play an important role in the infection process of HIV-1 by facilitating protein–protein interactions between viral and/or viral and cellular proteins.

Srivastava, M.; Cartas, M.; Rizvi, T. A.; Singh, S. P.; Serio, D.; Kalyanaraman, V. S.; Pollard, H. B.; Srinivasan, A.

1999-01-01

147

HIV-1 Gag shares a signature motif with annexin (Anx7), which is required for virus replication.  

PubMed

Genetic and biochemical analyses of the Gag protein of HIV-1 indicate a crucial role for this protein in several functions related to viral replication, including viral assembly. It has been suggested that Gag may fulfill some of the functions by recruiting host cellular protein(s). In our effort to identify structural and functional homologies between Gag and cellular cytoskeletal and secretory proteins involved in transport, we observed that HIV-1 Gag contains a unique PGQM motif in the capsid region. This motif was initially noted in the regulatory domain of synexin the membrane fusion protein of Xenopus laevis. To evaluate the functional significance of the highly conserved PGQM motif, we introduced alanine (A) in place of individual residues of the PGQM and deleted the motif altogether in a Gag expression plasmid and in an HIV-1 proviral DNA. The proviral DNA containing mutations in the PGQM motif showed altered expression, assembly, and release of viral particles in comparison to parental (NL4-3) DNA. When tested in multiple- and single-round replication assays, the mutant viruses exhibited distinct replication phenotypes; the viruses containing the A for the G and Q residues failed to replicate, whereas A in place of the P and M residues did not inhibit viral replication. Deletion of the tetrapeptide also resulted in the inhibition of replication. These results suggest that the PGQM motif may play an important role in the infection process of HIV-1 by facilitating protein-protein interactions between viral and/or viral and cellular proteins. PMID:10077575

Srivastava, M; Cartas, M; Rizvi, T A; Singh, S P; Serio, D; Kalyanaraman, V S; Pollard, H B; Srinivasan, A

1999-03-16

148

Vpu downmodulates two distinct targets, tetherin and gibbon ape leukemia virus envelope, through shared features in the Vpu cytoplasmic tail.  

PubMed

During human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) assembly, the host proteins CD4 (the HIV-1 receptor) and tetherin (an interferon stimulated anti-viral protein) both reduce viral fitness. The HIV-1 accessory gene Vpu counteracts both of these proteins, but it is thought to do so through two distinct mechanisms. Modulation of CD4 likely occurs through proteasomal degradation from the endoplasmic reticulum. The exact mechanism of tetherin modulation is less clear, with possible roles for degradation and alteration of protein transport to the plasma membrane. Most investigations of Vpu function have used different assays for CD4 and tetherin. In addition, many of these investigations used exogenously expressed Vpu, which could result in variable expression levels. Thus, few studies have investigated these two Vpu functions in parallel assays, making direct comparisons difficult. Here, we present results from a rapid assay used to simultaneously investigate Vpu-targeting of both tetherin and a viral glycoprotein, gibbon ape leukemia virus envelope (GaLV Env). We previously reported that Vpu modulates GaLV Env and prevents its incorporation into HIV-1 particles through a recognition motif similar to that found in CD4. Using this assay, we performed a comprehensive mutagenic scan of Vpu in its native proviral context to identify features required for both types of activity. We observed considerable overlap in the Vpu sequences required to modulate tetherin and GaLV Env. We found that features in the cytoplasmic tail of Vpu, specifically within the cytoplasmic tail hinge region, were required for modulation of both tetherin and GaLV Env. Interestingly, these same regions features have been determined to be critical for CD4 downmodulation. We also observed a role for the transmembrane domain in the restriction of tetherin, as previously reported, but not of GaLV Env. We propose that Vpu may target both proteins in a mechanistically similar manner, albeit in different cellular locations. PMID:23284757

Lucas, Tiffany M; Janaka, Sanath K; Stephens, Edward B; Johnson, Marc C

2012-12-19

149

A MULTIPLEX REAL TIME PCR ASSAY FOR SIMULTANEOUSLY GENOTYPING BEANS FOR BC-12 AND I, TWO GENES CONDITIONING RESISTANCE TO BEAN COMMON MOSAIC VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our objective was to simultaneously genotype plants for the bc-12 and I alleles, which condition resistance in beans to bean common mosaic virus. A segregating F2 population was derived from the cross between pinto bean breeding line P94207-189A (I I bc-1 bc 1) x Olathe (i i bc-12 bc-12). Real-time ...

150

Genome-wide association study of CNVs in 16,000 cases of eight common diseases and 3,000 shared controls.  

PubMed

Copy number variants (CNVs) account for a major proportion of human genetic polymorphism and have been predicted to have an important role in genetic susceptibility to common disease. To address this we undertook a large, direct genome-wide study of association between CNVs and eight common human diseases. Using a purpose-designed array we typed approximately 19,000 individuals into distinct copy-number classes at 3,432 polymorphic CNVs, including an estimated approximately 50% of all common CNVs larger than 500 base pairs. We identified several biological artefacts that lead to false-positive associations, including systematic CNV differences between DNAs derived from blood and cell lines. Association testing and follow-up replication analyses confirmed three loci where CNVs were associated with disease-IRGM for Crohn's disease, HLA for Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis and type 1 diabetes, and TSPAN8 for type 2 diabetes-although in each case the locus had previously been identified in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based studies, reflecting our observation that most common CNVs that are well-typed on our array are well tagged by SNPs and so have been indirectly explored through SNP studies. We conclude that common CNVs that can be typed on existing platforms are unlikely to contribute greatly to the genetic basis of common human diseases. PMID:20360734

Craddock, Nick; Hurles, Matthew E; Cardin, Niall; Pearson, Richard D; Plagnol, Vincent; Robson, Samuel; Vukcevic, Damjan; Barnes, Chris; Conrad, Donald F; Giannoulatou, Eleni; Holmes, Chris; Marchini, Jonathan L; Stirrups, Kathy; Tobin, Martin D; Wain, Louise V; Yau, Chris; Aerts, Jan; Ahmad, Tariq; Andrews, T Daniel; Arbury, Hazel; Attwood, Anthony; Auton, Adam; Ball, Stephen G; Balmforth, Anthony J; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Barroso, Inês; Barton, Anne; Bennett, Amanda J; Bhaskar, Sanjeev; Blaszczyk, Katarzyna; Bowes, John; Brand, Oliver J; Braund, Peter S; Bredin, Francesca; Breen, Gerome; Brown, Morris J; Bruce, Ian N; Bull, Jaswinder; Burren, Oliver S; Burton, John; Byrnes, Jake; Caesar, Sian; Clee, Chris M; Coffey, Alison J; Connell, John M C; Cooper, Jason D; Dominiczak, Anna F; Downes, Kate; Drummond, Hazel E; Dudakia, Darshna; Dunham, Andrew; Ebbs, Bernadette; Eccles, Diana; Edkins, Sarah; Edwards, Cathryn; Elliot, Anna; Emery, Paul; Evans, David M; Evans, Gareth; Eyre, Steve; Farmer, Anne; Ferrier, I Nicol; Feuk, Lars; Fitzgerald, Tomas; Flynn, Edward; Forbes, Alistair; Forty, Liz; Franklyn, Jayne A; Freathy, Rachel M; Gibbs, Polly; Gilbert, Paul; Gokumen, Omer; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Gray, Emma; Green, Elaine; Groves, Chris J; Grozeva, Detelina; Gwilliam, Rhian; Hall, Anita; Hammond, Naomi; Hardy, Matt; Harrison, Pile; Hassanali, Neelam; Hebaishi, Husam; Hines, Sarah; Hinks, Anne; Hitman, Graham A; Hocking, Lynne; Howard, Eleanor; Howard, Philip; Howson, Joanna M M; Hughes, Debbie; Hunt, Sarah; Isaacs, John D; Jain, Mahim; Jewell, Derek P; Johnson, Toby; Jolley, Jennifer D; Jones, Ian R; Jones, Lisa A; Kirov, George; Langford, Cordelia F; Lango-Allen, Hana; Lathrop, G Mark; Lee, James; Lee, Kate L; Lees, Charlie; Lewis, Kevin; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Maisuria-Armer, Meeta; Maller, Julian; Mansfield, John; Martin, Paul; Massey, Dunecan C O; McArdle, Wendy L; McGuffin, Peter; McLay, Kirsten E; Mentzer, Alex; Mimmack, Michael L; Morgan, Ann E; Morris, Andrew P; Mowat, Craig; Myers, Simon; Newman, William; Nimmo, Elaine R; O'Donovan, Michael C; Onipinla, Abiodun; Onyiah, Ifejinelo; Ovington, Nigel R; Owen, Michael J; Palin, Kimmo; Parnell, Kirstie; Pernet, David; Perry, John R B; Phillips, Anne; Pinto, Dalila; Prescott, Natalie J; Prokopenko, Inga; Quail, Michael A; Rafelt, Suzanne; Rayner, Nigel W; Redon, Richard; Reid, David M; Renwick; Ring, Susan M; Robertson, Neil; Russell, Ellie; St Clair, David; Sambrook, Jennifer G; Sanderson, Jeremy D; Schuilenburg, Helen; Scott, Carol E; Scott, Richard; Seal, Sheila; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Shields, Beverley M; Simmonds, Matthew J; Smyth, Debbie J; Somaskantharajah, Elilan; Spanova, Katarina; Steer, Sophia; Stephens, Jonathan; Stevens, Helen E; Stone, Millicent A; Su, Zhan; Symmons, Deborah P M; Thompson, John R; Thomson, Wendy; Travers, Mary E; Turnbull, Clare; Valsesia, Armand; Walker, Mark; Walker, Neil M; Wallace, Chris; Warren-Perry, Margaret; Watkins, Nicholas A; Webster, John; Weedon, Michael N; Wilson, Anthony G; Woodburn, Matthew; Wordsworth, B Paul; Young, Allan H; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Carter, Nigel P; Frayling, Timothy M; Lee, Charles; McVean, Gil; Munroe, Patricia B; Palotie, Aarno; Sawcer, Stephen J; Scherer, Stephen W; Strachan, David P; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Brown, Matthew A; Burton, Paul R; Caulfield, Mark J; Compston, Alastair; Farrall, Martin; Gough, Stephen C L; Hall, Alistair S; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hill, Adrian V S; Mathew, Christopher G; Pembrey, Marcus; Satsangi, Jack; Stratton, Michael R; Worthington, Jane; Deloukas, Panos; Duncanson, Audrey; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P; McCarthy, Mark I; Ouwehand, Willem; Parkes, Miles; Rahman, Nazneen; Todd, John A; Samani, Nilesh J; Donnelly, Peter

2010-04-01

151

Impaired late suppression of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-induced immunoglobulin synthesis: A common feature of autoimmune disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined regulation of Epstein-Barr virus-induced plaque-forming cell generation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from several autoimmune and seronegative diseases and correlated these results with Epstein-Barr virus-induced proliferation. We confirmed the defective regulation of Epstein-Barr virus-induced plaque-forming cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and scleroderma. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with seronegative arthropathies and

A. Shore; Rhonda Klock; P. Lee; Krista M. Snow; E. C. Keystone

1989-01-01

152

Identification of Common Biological Pathways and Drug Targets Across Multiple Respiratory Viruses Based on Human Host Gene Expression Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPandemic and seasonal respiratory viruses are a major global health concern. Given the genetic diversity of respiratory viruses and the emergence of drug resistant strains, the targeted disruption of human host-virus interactions is a potential therapeutic strategy for treating multi-viral infections. The availability of large-scale genomic datasets focused on host-pathogen interactions can be used to discover novel drug targets as

Steven B. Smith; William Dampier; Aydin Tozeren; James R. Brown; Michal Magid-Slav

2012-01-01

153

Analysis of the murine ecotropic leukemia virus receptor reveals a common biochemical determinant on diverse cell surface receptors that is essential to retrovirus entry.  

PubMed Central

Two residues, tyrosine 235 and glutamic acid 237, of the ecotropic murine leukemia virus receptor (ATRC1) have been shown to be essential for receptor-mediated virus envelope binding and entry. We performed genetic analyses to examine the biochemical contribution of these residues in a productive virus-receptor interaction. Altered ATRC1 receptors bearing either a phenylalanine, a tryptophan, a histidine, or a methionine at position 235 mediated ecotropic virus entry comparable to that mediated by ATRC1. In contrast, altered ATRC1 receptors bearing alanine, threonine, serine, or proline at position 235 exhibited a 300- to 10,000-fold decrease in receptor capability. Furthermore, substitution of tyrosine or phenylalanine into the corresponding position (242) of the homologous human protein that lacks ecotropic virus receptor capability resulted in acquisition of ecotropic virus receptor function comparable to that of ATRC1. Substitution of a tryptophan or a histidine at that position of the human protein, however, resulted in a much-reduced receptor capability, suggesting a preference for a benzene ring in the hydrophobic side chain. A similar analysis of proteins substituted at position 237 revealed that aspartic acid, but not arginine or lysine, can functionally substitute for glutamic acid 237 in ATRC1 or at the corresponding position in the human protein. These results suggest a requirement for an acidic and a nearby hydrophobic amino acid for efficient ecotropic virus entry. Similar motifs have been identified in the virus binding sites of other retrovirus receptors, suggesting that the initial step of retrovirus entry may be governed by a common mechanism.

Malhotra, S; Scott, A G; Zavorotinskaya, T; Albritton, L M

1996-01-01

154

Human RPB5, a subunit shared by eukaryotic nuclear RNA polymerases, binds human hepatitis B virus X protein and may play a role in X transactivation.  

PubMed Central

The X gene of human hepatitis B virus encodes the polypeptide HBx which transactivates viral and host genes through a variety of cis-acting enhancer elements present in RNA polymerases I, II and III promoters. To better understand the mechanism of X transactivation, we cloned cDNAs of proteins that bind HBx. Here we demonstrate that one of these cDNAs is a full-length cDNA of human RPB5, a subunit shared by RNA polymerases. The HBx transactivation domain and the central region of human RPB5 were necessary for the specific binding of the two proteins as shown by: (i) in vitro assays using deletion mutants of fusion proteins; (ii) in vivo assays which detect associated proteins by co-immunoprecipitation of the non-fused proteins from transfected HepG2 cells. Over-expressed HBx seemed to associate with assembled forms of endogenous human RPB5 in HBx-transfected cells, since the endogenous RPB5 co-immunoprecipitated with HBx. The HBx binding region of human RPB5 by itself stimulated chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activities from several different reporters having X-responsive element(s). Our results support the idea that the interaction of HBx and human RPB5 can facilitate HBx transactivation and that human RPB5 has a domain which can communicate with transcriptional regulators. Images

Cheong, J H; Yi, M; Lin, Y; Murakami, S

1995-01-01

155

Shared HLA Class II-Associated Genetic Susceptibility and Resistance, Related to the HLA-DQB1 Gene, in IgA Deficiency and Common Variable Immunodeficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most cases of selective IgA deficiency (IgA-D) and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) occur sporadically. However, familial clustering is not uncommon, and the two disorders can occur within the same family. We have previously described positive associations with three DR-DQ haplotypes as well as a strong negative association with DRw15,DQw6,Dw2 in IgA-D. Different amino acids at position 57 of the HLA-DQbeta

Olle Olerup; C. I. Edvard Smith; Janne Bjorkander; Lennart Hammarstrom

1992-01-01

156

Pasteurella multocida Heddleston Serovar 3 and 4 Strains Share a Common Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis Locus but Display both Inter- and Intrastrain Lipopolysaccharide Heterogeneity.  

PubMed

Pasteurella multocida is a Gram-negative multispecies pathogen and the causative agent of fowl cholera, a serious disease of poultry which can present in both acute and chronic forms. The major outer membrane component lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is both an important virulence factor and a major immunogen. Our previous studies determined the LPS structures expressed by different P. multocida strains and revealed that a number of strains belonging to different serovars contain the same LPS biosynthesis locus but express different LPS structures due to mutations within glycosyltransferase genes. In this study, we report the full LPS structure of the serovar 4 type strain, P1662, and reveal that it shares the same LPS outer core biosynthesis locus, L3, with the serovar 3 strains P1059 and Pm70. Using directed mutagenesis, the role of each glycosyltransferase gene in LPS outer core assembly was determined. LPS structural analysis of 23 Australian field isolates that contain the L3 locus revealed that at least six different LPS outer core structures can be produced as a result of mutations within the LPS glycosyltransferase genes. Moreover, some field isolates produce multiple but related LPS glycoforms simultaneously, and three LPS outer core structures are remarkably similar to the globo series of vertebrate glycosphingolipids. Our in-depth analysis showing the genetics and full range of P. multocida lipopolysaccharide structures will facilitate the improvement of typing systems and the prediction of the protective efficacy of vaccines. PMID:23974032

Harper, Marina; St Michael, Frank; John, Marietta; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Steen, Jennifer A; van Dorsten, Lieke; Steen, Jason A; Turni, Conny; Blackall, Patrick J; Adler, Ben; Cox, Andrew D; Boyce, John D

2013-08-23

157

Phylogenetic analysis of spring virema of carp virus reveals distinct subgroups with common origins for recent isolates in North America and the UK.  

PubMed

Genetic relationships between 35 spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) genogroup Ia isolates were determined based on the nucleotide sequences of the phosphoprotein (P) gene and glycoprotein (G) genes. Phylogenetic analysis based on P gene sequences revealed 2 distinct subgroups within SVCV genogroup Ia, designated SVCV Iai and Iaii, and suggests at least 2 independent introductions of the virus into the USA in 2002. Combined P- and G-sequence data support the emergence of SVCV in Illinois, USA, and in Lake Ontario, Canada, from the initial outbreak in Wisconsin, USA, and demonstrate a close genetic link to viruses isolated during routine import checks on fish brought into the UK from Asia. The data also showed a genetic link between SVCV isolations made in Missouri and Washington, USA, in 2004 and the earlier isolation made in North Carolina, USA, in 2002. However, based on the close relationship to a 2004 UK isolate, the data suggest than the Washington isolate represents a third introduction into the US from a common source, rather than a reemergence from the 2002 isolate. There was strong phylogenetic support for an Asian origin for 9 of 16 UK viruses isolated either from imported fish, or shown to have been in direct contact with fish imported from Asia. In one case, there was 100% nucleotide identity in the G-gene with a virus isolated in China. PMID:17803105

Miller, O; Fuller, F J; Gebreyes, W A; Lewbart, G A; Shchelkunov, I S; Shivappa, R B; Joiner, C; Woolford, G; Stone, D M; Dixon, P F; Raley, M E; Levine, J F

2007-07-16

158

To Share or Not To Share?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intuitively, aggressive work sharing among concurrent queries in a database system should always improve performance by eliminating redundant computation or data accesses. We show that, contrary to common intuition, this is not always the case in practice, especially in the highly parallel world of chip multi- processors. As the number of cores in the system increases, a trade-off appears between

Ryan Johnson; Nikos Hardavellas; Ippokratis Pandis; Naju Mancheril; Stavros Harizopoulos; Kivanc Sabirli; Anastassia Ailamaki; Babak Falsafi

2007-01-01

159

Avian Endogenous Retrovirus EAV-HP Shares Regions of Identity with Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup J and the Avian Retrotransposon ART-CH  

PubMed Central

The existence of novel endogenous retrovirus elements in the chicken genome, designated EAV-HP, with close sequence identity to the env gene of avian leukosis virus (ALV) subgroup J has been reported (L. M. Smith, A. A. Toye, K. Howes, N. Bumstead, L. N. Payne, and K. Venugopal, J. Gen. Virol. 80:261–268, 1999). To resolve the genome structure of these retroviral elements, we have determined the complete sequence of two proviral clones of EAV-HP from a line N chicken genomic DNA yeast artificial chromosome library and from a meat-type chicken line 21 lambda library. The EAV-HP sequences from the two lines were 98% identical and had a typical provirus structure. The two EAV-HP clones showed identical large deletions spanning part of the gag, the entire pol, and part of the env genes. The env region of the EAV-HP clones was 97% identical to the env sequence of HPRS-103, the prototype subgroup J ALV. The 5? region of EAV-HP comprising the R and U5 regions of the long terminal repeat (LTR), the untranslated leader, and the 5? end of the putative gag region were 97% identical to the avian retrotransposon sequence, ART-CH. The remaining gag sequence shared less than 60% identity with other ALV sequences. The U3 region of the LTR was distinct from those of other retroviruses but contained some of the conserved motifs required for functioning as a promoter. To examine the ability of this endogenous retroviral LTR to function as a transcriptional promoter, the EAV-HP and HPRS-103 LTR U3 regions were compared in a luciferase reporter gene assay. The low luciferase activity detected with the EAV-HP LTR U3 constructs, at levels close to those observed for a control vector lacking the promoter or enhancer elements, suggested that these elements function as a weak promoter, possibly accounting for their low expression levels in chicken embryos.

Sacco, M. A.; Flannery, D. M. J.; Howes, K.; Venugopal, K.

2000-01-01

160

Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma and hyalinizing spindle cell tumor with giant rosettes share a common t(7;16)(q34;p11) translocation.  

PubMed

Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare metastasizing soft tissue tumor with deceptively bland histologic features. The hyalinizing spindle cell tumor with giant rosettes (HSCT) is thought to be a closely related tumor differing only by the presence of collagen rosettes. We report the occurrence of a common t(7;16)(q34;p11) translocation in 2 cases of HSCT and 2 cases of LGFMS, thereby providing the first cytogenetic proof that LGFMS and HSCT are variants of the same entity. The tumors occurred in the thighs of 2 females and in the buttock and supraclavicular fossa of 2 males. One HSCT had a spectrum of unusual histologic features, including the presence of plump epithelioid cells with abundant cytoplasm and strands and nests of clear epithelioid cells separated by eosinophilic hyalinized stroma. Two cases showed a hitherto unreported, focal staining with epithelial membrane antigen, thus adding to the immunohistochemical profile of these tumors. LGFMS and HSCT probably have a wider spectrum of morphologic features than previously thought, the awareness of which will help pathologists to avoid diagnostic pitfalls. Demonstration of the t(7;16)(q34;p11) translocation will help to diagnose difficult cases with unusual histologic features. PMID:12960807

Reid, Robin; de Silva, M V Chandu; Paterson, Lindsay; Ryan, Eleanor; Fisher, Cyril

2003-09-01

161

Structural Analysis of DFG-in and DFG-out Dual Src-Abl Inhibitors Sharing a Common Vinyl Purine Template  

SciTech Connect

Bcr-Abl is the oncogenic protein tyrosine kinase responsible for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Treatment of the disease with imatinib (Gleevec) often results in drug resistance via kinase mutations at the advanced phases of the disease, which has necessitated the development of new mutation-resistant inhibitors, notably against the T315I gatekeeper mutation. As part of our efforts to discover such mutation resistant Abl inhibitors, we have focused on optimizing purine template kinase inhibitors, leading to the discovery of potent DFG-in and DFG-out series of Abl inhibitors that are also potent Src inhibitors. Here we present crystal structures of Abl bound by two such inhibitors, based on a common N9-arenyl purine, and that represent both DFG-in and -out binding modes. In each structure the purine template is bound deeply in the adenine pocket and the novel vinyl linker forms a non-classical hydrogen bond to the gatekeeper residue, Thr315. Specific template substitutions promote either a DFG-in or -out binding mode, with the kinase binding site adjusting to optimize molecular recognition. Bcr-Abl T315I mutant kinase is resistant to all currently marketed Abl inhibitors, and is the focus of intense drug discovery efforts. Notably, our DFG-out inhibitor, AP24163, exhibits modest activity against this mutant, illustrating that this kinase mutant can be inhibited by DFG-out class inhibitors. Furthermore our DFG-out inhibitor exhibits dual Src-Abl activity, absent from the prototypical DFG-out inhibitor, imatinib as well as its analog, nilotinib. The data presented here provides structural guidance for the further design of novel potent DFG-out class inhibitors against Src, Abl and Abl T315I mutant kinases.

Zhou, Tianjun; Commodore, Lois; Huang, Wei-Sheng; Wang, Yihan; Sawyer, Tomi K.; Shakespeare, William C.; Clackson, Tim; Zhu, Xiaotian; Dalgarno, David C. (ARIAD)

2010-09-30

162

Identification of the proton pathway in bacterial reaction centers: Both protons associated with reduction of QB to QBH2 share a common entry point  

PubMed Central

The reaction center from Rhodobacter sphaeroides uses light energy for the reduction and protonation of a quinone molecule, QB. This process involves the transfer of two protons from the aqueous solution to the protein-bound QB molecule. The second proton, H+(2), is supplied to QB by Glu-L212, an internal residue protonated in response to formation of QA? and QB?. In this work, the pathway for H+(2) to Glu-L212 was studied by measuring the effects of divalent metal ion binding on the protonation of Glu-L212, which was assayed by two types of processes. One was proton uptake from solution after the one-electron reduction of QA (DQA?D+QA?) and QB (DQB?D+QB?), studied by using pH-sensitive dyes. The other was the electron transfer kAB(1) (QA?QB?QAQB?). At pH 8.5, binding of Zn2+, Cd2+, or Ni2+ reduced the rates of proton uptake upon QA? and QB? formation as well as kAB(1) by ?an order of magnitude, resulting in similar final values, indicating that there is a common rate-limiting step. Because D+QA? is formed 105-fold faster than the induced proton uptake, the observed rate decrease must be caused by an inhibition of the proton transfer. The Glu-L212?Gln mutant reaction centers displayed greatly reduced amplitudes of proton uptake and exhibited no changes in rates of proton uptake or electron transfer upon Zn2+ binding. Therefore, metal binding specifically decreased the rate of proton transfer to Glu-L212, because the observed rates were decreased only when proton uptake by Glu-L212 was required. The entry point for the second proton H+(2) was thus identified to be the same as for the first proton H+(1), close to the metal binding region Asp-H124, His-H126, and His-H128.

Adelroth, Pia; Paddock, Mark L.; Sagle, Laura B.; Feher, George; Okamura, Melvin Y.

2000-01-01

163

New methods for finding common insertion sites and co-occurring common insertion sites in transposon- and virus-based genetic screens  

PubMed Central

Insertional mutagenesis screens in mice are used to identify individual genes that drive tumor formation. In these screens, candidate cancer genes are identified if their genomic location is proximal to a common insertion site (CIS) defined by high rates of transposon or retroviral insertions in a given genomic window. In this article, we describe a new method for defining CISs based on a Poisson distribution, the Poisson Regression Insertion Model, and show that this new method is an improvement over previously described methods. We also describe a modification of the method that can identify pairs and higher orders of co-occurring common insertion sites. We apply these methods to two data sets, one generated in a transposon-based screen for gastrointestinal tract cancer genes and another based on the set of retroviral insertions in the Retroviral Tagged Cancer Gene Database. We show that the new methods identify more relevant candidate genes and candidate gene pairs than found using previous methods. Identification of the biologically relevant set of mutations that occur in a single cell and cause tumor progression will aid in the rational design of single and combinatorial therapies in the upcoming age of personalized cancer therapy.

Bergemann, Tracy L.; Starr, Timothy K.; Yu, Haoyu; Steinbach, Michael; Erdmann, Jesse; Chen, Yun; Cormier, Robert T.; Largaespada, David A.; Silverstein, Kevin A. T.

2012-01-01

164

CHARACTERIZATION OF AN OPEN READING FRAME IN THE GENOME OF MAREK'S DISEASE VIRUS COMMON TO ALL THREE SEROTYPES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

DNA sequence data of the GA and Md5 strains of Marek's disease virus (MDV) revealed a large open reading frame (LORF11) located in the unique long region of MDV genome and comprising 2711 nucleotides in length and potentially encoding a protein of 903 amino acids. Sequence comparison between MDV se...

165

Common distribution of antigenic determinants and complementation activity on matrix proteins of two vesicular stomatitis virus serotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To compare the antigenic and functional domains of the matrix (M) proteins of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) serotypes Indiana (VSV-Ind) and New Jersey (VSV-NJ), deletion mutants and chimeras were cloned in pBSM13 and expressed as in-frame lacZ fusion proteins in Escheriehia eoli. Non-cross-reactive monoclonal anti- bodies directed to the two antigenieally distinct M proteins were tested by Western blot analysis

Wei Sun; Liping Huang; Robert R. Wagner

1994-01-01

166

Comprehensive Mapping of Common Immunodominant Epitopes in the West Nile Virus Nonstructural Protein 1 Recognized by Avian Antibody Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that primarily infects birds but occasionally infects humans and horses. Certain species of birds, including crows, house sparrows, geese, blue jays and ravens, are considered highly susceptible hosts to WNV. The nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of WNV can elicit protective immune responses, including NS1-reactive antibodies, during infection of animals. The antigenicity of

Encheng Sun; Jing Zhao; Nihong Liu; Tao Yang; Qingyuan Xu; Yongli Qin; Zhigao Bu; Yinhui Yang; Ross A. Lunt; Linfa Wang; Donglai Wu

2012-01-01

167

Genome organization of ageratum yellow vein virus, a monopartite whitefly-transmitted geminivirus isolated from a common weed  

Microsoft Academic Search

A full-length copy of a single genomic component of the whitefly-transmitted geminivirus ageratum yellow vein virus (AYVV) has been cloned from an extract of infected Ageratum conyzoides originating from Singapore. Sequence analysis shows that the genomic component encodes two virion-sense (V1 and V2) and four complementary-sense open reading frames (C1-C4), Phaseolus vulgaris and Lycopersicon esculentum when introduced into plants by

Priscilla H. N. Tan; Sek Man Wong; Mian Wu; Ian D. Bedford; Keith Saunders; John Stanley

1995-01-01

168

Identification of a common viral integration region in Cas-Br-E murine leukemia virus-induced non-T-, non-B-cell lymphomas.  

PubMed Central

The Cas-Br-E murine leukemia virus is a nondefective retrovirus that induces non-T-, non-B-cell lymphomas in susceptible NIH/Swiss mice. By using a DNA probe derived from Cas-Br-E provirus-flanking sequences, we identified a DNA region, originally called Sic-1, rearranged in 16 of 24 tumors analyzed (67%). All proviruses were integrated in a DNA segment smaller than 100 bp and were in the same 5'-to-3' orientation. Ecotropic as well as mink cell focus-forming virus types were found integrated in that specific DNA region. On the basis of Southern blot analysis of somatic cell hybrids and progeny of an interspecies backcross, the Sic-1 region was localized on mouse chromosome 9 near the previously described proto-oncogenes or common viral integration sites: Ets-1, Cbl-2, Tpl-1, and Fli-1. Restriction map analysis shows that this region is identical to the Fli-1 locus identified in Friend murine leukemia virus-induced erythroleukemia cell lines and thus may contain sequences also responsible for the development of mouse non-T-, non-B-cell lymphomas. Images

Bergeron, D; Poliquin, L; Kozak, C A; Rassart, E

1991-01-01

169

Response of hepatitis C virus to long-term passage in the presence of alpha interferon: multiple mutations and a common phenotype.  

PubMed

Cell culture-produced hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been subjected to up to 100 serial passages in human hepatoma cells in the absence or presence of different doses of alpha interferon (IFN-?). Virus survival, genetic changes, fitness levels, and phenotypic traits have been examined. While high initial IFN-? doses (increasing from 1 to 4 IU/ml) did not allow HCV survival beyond passage 40, a gradual exposure (from 0.25 to 10 IU/ml) allowed the virus to survive for at least 100 passages. The virus passaged in the presence of IFN-? acquired IFN-? resistance as evidenced by enhanced progeny production and viral protein expression in an IFN-? environment. A partial IFN-? resistance was also noted in populations passaged in the absence of IFN-?. All lineages acquired adaptative mutations, and multiple, nonsynonymous mutations scattered throughout the genome were present in IFN-?-selected populations. Comparison of consensus sequences indicates a dominance of synonymous versus nonsynonymous substitutions. IFN-?-resistant populations displayed decreased sensitivity to a combination of IFN-? and ribavirin. A phenotypic trait common to all assayed viral populations is the ability to increase shutoff host cell protein synthesis, accentuated in infections with IFN-?-selected populations carried out in the presence of IFN-?. The trait was associated with enhanced phosphorylation of protein kinase R (PKR) and eIF2?, although other contributing factors are likely. The results suggest that multiple, independent mutational pathways can confer IFN-? resistance to HCV and might explain why no unified picture has been obtained regarding IFN-? resistance in vivo. PMID:23637397

Perales, Celia; Beach, Nathan M; Gallego, Isabel; Soria, Maria Eugenia; Quer, Josep; Esteban, Juan Ignacio; Rice, Charles; Domingo, Esteban; Sheldon, Julie

2013-05-01

170

Identification and mapping of a common proviral integration site Fli-1 in erythroleukemia cells induced by Friend murine leukemia virus.  

PubMed Central

Friend murine leukemia virus (F-MuLV) induces erythroleukemia when inoculated into newborn BALB/c or NIH/Swiss mice. We have molecularly cloned F-MuLV host cell DNA junction fragments from an erythroleukemia cell line induced by F-MuLV to identify cellular genes involved in the leukemogenic process. One particular proviral integration site, Fli-1, is rearranged in 75% (9/12) of independently isolated erythroleukemia cell lines derived from either BALB/c or NIH/Swiss mice inoculated at birth with F-MuLV. Other hematopoietic neoplasms induced by F-MuLV, including myeloid (granulocytic) and lymphoid tumors, did not show rearrangements of the Fli-1 locus. Similarly, none of 35 erythroleukemia cell lines induced by the Friend virus complexes (FV-A and FV-P) was rearranged at the Fli-1 locus. In contrast, no rearrangements were detected at the Sfpi-1 locus, a preferred site of integration in either FV-P- or FV-A-induced leukemias. Using recombinant inbred mice, the Fli-1 locus was situated on mouse chromosome 9 close to the cellular protooncogene c-ets-1. DNA and RNA analysis suggests, however, that Fli-1 is different from ets-1. Thus, Fli-1 appears to define a distinct locus specifically involved in the induction of erythroid leukemias by F-MuLV. Images

Ben-David, Y; Giddens, E B; Bernstein, A

1990-01-01

171

Viral Uncoating Is Directional: Exit of the Genomic RNA in a Common Cold Virus Starts with the Poly-(A) Tail at the 3?-End  

PubMed Central

Upon infection, many RNA viruses reorganize their capsid for release of the genome into the host cell cytosol for replication. Often, this process is triggered by receptor binding and/or by the acidic environment in endosomes. In the genus Enterovirus, which includes more than 150 human rhinovirus (HRV) serotypes causing the common cold, there is persuasive evidence that the viral RNA exits single-stranded through channels formed in the protein shell. We have determined the time-dependent emergence of the RNA ends from HRV2 on incubation of virions at 56°C using hybridization with specific oligonucleotides and detection by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. We report that psoralen UV crosslinking prevents complete RNA release, allowing for identification of the sequences remaining inside the capsid. We also present the structure of uncoating intermediates in which parts of the RNA are condensed and take the form of a rod that is directed roughly towards a two-fold icosahedral axis, the presumed RNA exit point. Taken together, in contrast to schemes frequently depicted in textbooks and reviews, our findings demonstrate that exit of the RNA starts from the 3?-end. This suggests that packaging also occurs in an ordered manner resulting in the 3?-poly-(A) tail becoming located close to a position of pore formation during conversion of the virion into a subviral particle. This directional genome release may be common to many icosahedral non-enveloped single-stranded RNA viruses.

Sedivy, Arthur; Subirats, Xavier; Kowalski, Heinrich; Kohler, Gottfried; Blaas, Dieter

2013-01-01

172

Shared Cataloguing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Program for Acquisition and Cataloging (NPAC) authorized under Title IIC of the Higher Education Act of 1965 is called the Shared Cataloging Program. Under this Act the Library of Congress is authorized to: (1) acquire for its own collections all materials currently published throughout the world that are of value to scholarship and…

Westby, Barbara M.

173

Shared Cataloging.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Program for Acquisition and Cataloging (NPAC) authorized under Title IIC of the Higher Education Act of 1965 is called the Shared Cataloging Program. Under this Act the Library of Congress is authorized to: (1) acquire for its own collections...

B. M. Westby

1969-01-01

174

Shared experience.  

PubMed

An innovative parenting programme in Luton is supporting vulnerable families by helping mothers to interact positively with their children and recognise the past experiences that have influenced their parenting styles. Nurses who facilitate the programme's group sessions are required to share personal experiences with the other participants and reflect on their own parenting. PMID:22953402

Agnew, Thelma

175

Common Cold  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site provides comprehensive information, selected by medical doctors, about the common cold. The goal is to provide a framework for critical thinking which will allow informed decisions about medical care for the common cold. The section entitled Understanding Colds gives a detailed overview of how the cold virus invades the human body and how cold symptoms are caused. Information about preventing colds, and some of the complications that can occur are also included. The Special Features section includes one of the most interesting parts of the site -- Myths of the Common Cold. This site should be interesting to almost anyone, but perhaps more so for those of us who have recently had a cold.

2007-12-12

176

Common Threads in Persistent Viral Infections?  

PubMed Central

Most viral infections are self-limiting, resulting in either clearance of the pathogen or death of the host. However, a subset of viruses can establish permanent infection and persist indefinitely within the host. Even though persisting viruses are derived from various viral families with distinct replication strategies, they all utilize common mechanisms for establishment of long-lasting infections. Here, we discuss the commonalities between persistent infections with herpes-, retro-, flavi-, arena-, and polyomaviruses that distinguish them from acutely infecting viral pathogens. These shared strategies include selection of cell subsets ideal for long-term maintenance of the viral genome, modulation of viral gene expression, viral subversion of apoptotic pathways, and avoidance of clearance by the immune system.

Kane, Melissa; Golovkina, Tatyana

2010-01-01

177

A Common HLA–DPA1 Variant is a Major Determinant of Hepatitis B Virus Clearance in Han Chinese  

PubMed Central

A recent genome-wide study showed that the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the HLA-DP region were associated with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Japanese and Thai persons. We tested the effects of HLA-DP SNPs for all major HBV outcomes in Han Chinese (n = 1742): HBV resistance, clearance, chronic infection, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. HLA - DPA1 rs3077 T was strongly associated with decreased risk of chronic HBV infection (odds ratio, .62; P = .001), consistent with the previous report. We showed for the first time to our knowledge that it is a predictor for HBV clearance (odds ratio, 2.41; P < .001). However, rs3077 was not associated with the development of cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma.

Guan, Li; O'Brien, Stephen J.

2011-01-01

178

Inflammation and Epstein-Barr Virus Infection Are Common Features of Myasthenia Gravis Thymus: Possible Roles in Pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

The thymus plays a major role in myasthenia gravis (MG). Our recent finding of a persistent Epstein-Barr (EBV) virus infection in some MG thymuses, combined with data showing that the thymus is in a proinflammatory state in most patients, supports a viral contribution to the pathogenesis of MG. Aim of this study was to gain further evidence for intrathymic chronic inflammation and EBV infection in MG patients. Transcriptional profiling by low density array and real-time PCR showed overexpression of genes involved in inflammatory and immune response in MG thymuses. Real-time PCR for EBV genome, latent (EBER1, EBNA1, LMP1) and lytic (BZLF1) transcripts, and immunohistochemistry for LMP1 and BZLF1 proteins confirmed an active intrathymic EBV infection, further supporting the hypothesis that EBV might contribute to onset or perpetuation of the autoimmune response in MG. Altogether, our results support a role of inflammation and EBV infection as pathogenic features of MG thymus.

Cavalcante, Paola; Maggi, Lorenzo; Colleoni, Lara; Caldara, Rosa; Motta, Teresio; Giardina, Carmelo; Antozzi, Carlo; Berrih-Aknin, Sonia; Bernasconi, Pia; Mantegazza, Renato

2011-01-01

179

Novel ssDNA virus recovered from estuarine Mollusc (Amphibola crenata) whose replication associated protein (Rep) shares similarities with Rep-like sequences of bacterial origin.  

PubMed

Over the past couple of years highly diverse novel ssDNA viruses have been discovered. Here, we present the first ssDNA virus, Gastropod-associated circular ssDNA virus (GaCSV), recovered from a mollusc Amphibola crenata Martyn 1784, which is a deposit feeder that grazes micro-organisms and organic detritus on the surface of tidal mudflats. The GaCSV (2351 nt) genome contains two large bidirectionally transcribed ORFs. The smaller ORF (874 nt) has similarities to viral replication-associated protein (Rep) sequences of some bacteria and circoviruses, whereas the larger ORF (955 nt) does not relate to any sequences in public databases and we presume it potentially encodes the capsid protein. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the GaCSV Rep clusters with Rep-like sequences of bacterial origin, highlighting the role of ssDNA viruses in horizontal gene transfer. The occurrence of previously unknown viruses in organisms associated with human pollution is a relatively unexplored field. PMID:23364192

Dayaram, Anisha; Goldstien, Sharyn; Zawar-Reza, Peyman; Gomez, Christopher; Harding, Jon S; Varsani, Arvind

2013-01-30

180

The duck hepatitis B virus polymerase and core proteins accumulate in different patterns from their common mRNA.  

PubMed

Hepadnaviral reverse transcription occurs in capsids in which the core (C) protein surrounds the reverse transcriptase (P) and pregenomic RNA (pgRNA). We analyzed the accumulation patterns of duck hepatitis B virus P, C, and pgRNA in transfected LMH cells, infected primary duck hepatocytes (PDH), and infected duck liver. In all three systems, P accumulated over time in a different pattern compared with C, despite translation of both proteins from the pgRNA. Although the accumulation patterns of the proteins varied between the systems, in each case P became detectable at the same time or earlier than C and the ratio of P relative to C dropped with time. These accumulation patterns were consistent with the translation rates and half-lives of P and C. Comparing the translation rates of P and C with the pgRNA level over time revealed that translation of P and C was negatively regulated in LMH cells. These data provide a framework for comparing replication studies performed in LMH cells, PDHs and ducks. PMID:12832205

Yao, Ermei; Schaller, Heinz; Tavis, John E

2003-06-20

181

The G protein coupled receptor Gpr153 shares common evolutionary origin with Gpr162 and is highly expressed in central regions including the thalamus, cerebellum and the arcuate nucleus.  

PubMed

The Rhodopsin family of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) includes the phylogenetic ?-group consisting of about 100 human members. The ?-group is the only group of GPCRs that has many receptors for biogenic amines which are major drug targets. Several members of this group are orphan receptors and their functions are elusive. In this study we present a detailed phylogenetic and anatomical characterization of the Gpr153 receptor and also attempt to study its functional role. We identified the homologue of Gpr153 in the elephant shark genome and phylogenetic and synteny analyses revealed that Gpr162 and Gpr153 share a common ancestor that split most likely through a duplication event before the divergence of the tetrapods and the teleost lineage. A quantitative real-time PCR study reveals widespread expression of Gpr153 in the central nervous system and all the peripheral tissues investigated. Detailed in?situ hybridization on mouse brain showed specifically high expression in the thalamus, cerebellum and the arcuate nucleus. The antisense oligodeoxynucleotide knockdown of Gpr153 caused a slight reduction in food intake and the elevated plus maze test showed significant reduction in the percentage of time spent in the centre square, which points towards a probable role in decision making. This report provides the first detailed characterization of the evolution, expression and primary functional properties of the Gpr153 gene. PMID:21981325

Sreedharan, Smitha; Almén, Markus S; Carlini, Valeria P; Haitina, Tatjana; Stephansson, Olga; Sommer, Wolfgang H; Heilig, Markus; de Barioglio, Susana R; Fredriksson, Robert; Schiöth, Helgi B

2011-10-31

182

Morphological evidence for identifying the viruses of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome as candidate members of the bunyaviridae family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Thin section immuno-electron microscopy has been succesfully applied to investigate and identify the classical and mild form of HFRS viruses isolated in the People's Republic of China. The results showed that all the 8 strains studied (derived from different parts of China, adapted in different cell lines) share a common morphology and morphogenesis. Essentially, the viruses possess characteristics of

T. Hung; S. M. Xia; T. X. Zhao; J. Y. Zhou; G. Song; G. X. H. Liao; W. W. Ye; Y. L. Chu; C. S. Hang

1983-01-01

183

Fair Shares: Predict Equal Shares  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use this activity to build division and number sense into any snack time or whenever there is a limited set of things to share among a group: If we deal these out, could everyone get two pieces? five pieces? more? Predict how much everyone will get, then try it and see. For a harder variation, try to find a way to divide up the food so that there is just one item left. Available as a web page, downloadable pdf, and in Spanish.

Terc

2010-01-01

184

Functional equivalence of common and unique sequences in the 3' untranslated regions of alfalfa mosaic virus RNAs 1, 2, and 3.  

PubMed Central

The 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) RNAs 1, 2, and 3 consist of a common 3'-terminal sequence of 145 nucleotides (nt) and upstream sequences of 18 to 34 nt that are unique for each RNA. The common sequence can be folded into five stem-loop structures, A to E, despite the occurrence of 22 nt differences between the three RNAs in this region. Exchange of the common sequences or full-length UTRs between the three genomic RNAs did not affect the replication of these RNAs in vivo, indicating that the UTRs are functionally equivalent. Mutations that disturbed base pairing in the stem of hairpin E reduced or abolished RNA replication, whereas compensating mutations restored RNA replication. In vitro, the 3' UTRs of the three RNAs were recognized with similar efficiencies by the AMV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). A deletion analysis of template RNAs indicated that a 3'-terminal sequence of 127 nt in each of the three AMV RNAs was not sufficient for recognition by the RdRp. Previously, it has been shown that this 127-nt sequence is sufficient for coat protein binding. Apparently, sequences required for recognition of AMV RNAs by the RdRp are longer than sequences required for CP binding.

van Rossum, C M; Brederode, F T; Neeleman, L; Bol, J F

1997-01-01

185

The genes encoding the peripheral cannabinoid receptor and alpha-L-fucosidase are located near a newly identified common virus integration site, Evi11.  

PubMed Central

A new common region of virus integration, Evi11, has been identified in two retrovirally induced murine myeloid leukemia cell lines, NFS107 and NFS78. By interspecific backcross analysis, it was shown that Evi11 is located at the distal end of mouse chromosome 4, in a region that shows homology with human 1p36. The genes encoding the peripheral cannabinoid receptor (Cnr2) and alpha-L-fucosidase (Fuca1) were identified near the integration site by using a novel exon trapping system. Cnr2 is suggested to be the target gene for viral interference in Evi11, since proviruses are integrated in the first intron of Cnr2 and retroviral integrations alter mRNA expression of Cnr2 in NFS107 and NFS78. In addition, proviral integrations were demonstrated within the 3' untranslated region of Cnr2 in five independent newly derived CasBrM-MuLV (mouse murine leukemia virus) tumors, CSL13, CSL14, CSL16, CSL27, and CSL97. The Cnr2 gene encodes a seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptor which is normally expressed in hematopoietic tissues. Our data suggest that the peripheral cannabinoid receptor gene might be involved in leukemogenesis as a result of aberrant expression of Cnr2 due to retroviral integration in Evi11.

Valk, P J; Hol, S; Vankan, Y; Ihle, J N; Askew, D; Jenkins, N A; Gilbert, D J; Copeland, N G; de Both, N J; Lowenberg, B; Delwel, R

1997-01-01

186

An evaluation of ultraviolet light (UV254) as a means to inactivate porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on common farm surfaces and materials.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to assess the effect of UV(254) on the concentration and viability of PRRSV on surfaces and materials commonly encountered on swine farms. A standard quantity (5 × 10(6)TCID(50), total dose) of a PRRSV modified live vaccine virus was inoculated onto 2 matched sets of surfaces/materials including wood, plastic, latex, rubber, styrofoam, metal, leather, cloth, concrete, cardboard, glass and paper. One set was exposed to UV(254) radiation (treatments) and the other to incandescent light (controls) for a 24h period. During this time, treatments and controls were swabbed at 10 min intervals from 0 to 60 min post-inoculation (PI) and again at 24h PI. The quantity of PRRSV RNA on each item at each sampling time was calculated by RT-PCR and the presence of viable PRRSV in each sample was determined by swine bioassay. A significant reduction (p<0.0001) in the quantity of PRRSV RNA was demonstrated at 24h PI independent of treatment. In addition, a significant reduction (p=0.012) in the number of UV(254)-treated surfaces which harbored viable virus was observed at 60 min (0/12 positive) when compared to control surfaces (5/12 positive). In addition, all UV(254) treated samples collected between 10 and 50 min PI were bioassay negative. These results suggest that UV(254) is an effective means to inactivate PRRSV on commonly encountered farm surfaces and materials and inactivation can be accomplished following 10 min of exposure. PMID:21330067

Dee, Scott; Otake, Satoshi; Deen, John

2011-01-15

187

Secret Sharing System and Secret Sharing Matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

To make the secret sharing management more effective and safe, based on the (k, n) threshold secret sharing scheme, this article propose a new concept of generalized (k, n)-secret sharing matrix, and proposed a more safe (t, k, n) threshold secret sharing scheme by generalizing the (t, k, n) threshold secret sharing matrix. This article gave the concept of the

Guangliang Liu; Lingyun Li; Shengxian Xie; Junqing Li

2009-01-01

188

Canonical Commonality Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Commonality analysis is a method of partitioning variance that has advantages over more traditional "OVA" methods. Commonality analysis indicates the amount of explanatory power that is "unique" to a given predictor variable and the amount of explanatory power that is "common" to or shared with at least one predictor variable. This paper outlines…

Leister, K. Dawn

189

Avian Endogenous Retrovirus EAV-HP Shares Regions of Identity with Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup J and the Avian Retrotransposon ART-CH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of novel endogenous retrovirus elements in the chicken genome, designated EAV-HP, with close sequence identity to the env gene of avian leukosis virus (ALV) subgroup J has been reported (L. M. Smith, A. A. Toye, K. Howes, N. Bumstead, L. N. Payne, and K. Venugopal, J. Gen. Virol. 80:261-268, 1999). To resolve the genome structure of these retroviral

M. A. Sacco; D. M. J. Flannery; K. Howes; K. Venugopal

2000-01-01

190

Common Host-Derived Chemicals Increase Catches of Disease-Transmitting Mosquitoes and Can Improve Early Warning Systems for Rift Valley Fever Virus  

PubMed Central

Rift Valley fever (RVF), a mosquito-borne zoonosis, is a major public health and veterinary problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Surveillance to monitor mosquito populations during the inter-epidemic period (IEP) and viral activity in these vectors is critical to informing public health decisions for early warning and control of the disease. Using a combination of field bioassays, electrophysiological and chemical analyses we demonstrated that skin-derived aldehydes (heptanal, octanal, nonanal, decanal) common to RVF virus (RVFV) hosts including sheep, cow, donkey, goat and human serve as potent attractants for RVFV mosquito vectors. Furthermore, a blend formulated from the four aldehydes and combined with CO2-baited CDC trap without a light bulb doubled to tripled trap captures compared to control traps baited with CO2 alone. Our results reveal that (a) because of the commonality of the host chemical signature required for attraction, the host-vector interaction appears to favor the mosquito vector allowing it to find and opportunistically feed on a wide range of mammalian hosts of the disease, and (b) the sensitivity, specificity and superiority of this trapping system offers the potential for its wider use in surveillance programs for RVFV mosquito vectors especially during the IEP.

Tchouassi, David P.; Sang, Rosemary; Sole, Catherine L.; Bastos, Armanda D. S.; Teal, Peter E. A.; Borgemeister, Christian; Torto, Baldwyn

2013-01-01

191

Common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) as a primate model of dengue virus infection: development of high levels of viraemia and demonstration of protective immunity.  

PubMed

Dengue virus (DENV) causes a wide range of illnesses in humans: dengue fever (DF), dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Animal models that constantly develop high levels of viraemia are required for the development of protective and preventive measures. Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) demonstrated high levels of viraemia after inoculation with clinical isolates of four serotypes of DENV; in particular, over 10(6) genome copies ml(-1) after inoculation with DENV-2. Non-structural protein 1 and DENV-specific IgM and IgG antibodies were consistently detected. The DENV-2 genome was detected in lymphoid organs including the lymph nodes, spleen and thymus, and also in non-lymphoid organs. DENV antigen was detected by immunohistochemistry in the liver and spleen from inoculated marmosets. Four marmosets were reinoculated with DENV-2 at 33 weeks after primary inoculation with DENV-2. The DENV-2 genome was not detected in any of these marmosets, indicating protection from a secondary infection. The results indicate that common marmosets are highly sensitive to DENV infection, and suggest that marmosets could be a reliable primate model for the evaluation of candidate vaccines. PMID:21697346

Omatsu, Tsutomu; Moi, Meng Ling; Hirayama, Takanori; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Tajima, Shigeru; Ito, Mikako; Yoshida, Tomoyuki; Saito, Akatsuki; Katakai, Yuko; Akari, Hirofumi; Kurane, Ichiro

2011-06-22

192

Preventing West Nile Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... carriers of the virus by feeding on infected birds. Although other animals have been infected with the virus—including horses, bats, squirrels, and domestic animals—birds are the most common reservoir. Once the virus ...

193

Structural basis for ubiquitin-like ISG 15 protein binding to the NS1 protein of influenza B virus: a protein-protein interaction function that is not shared by the corresponding N-terminal domain of the NS1 protein of influenza A virus.  

PubMed

The N-terminal domains of the NS1 protein of influenza B virus (NS1B protein) and the NS1 protein of influenza A virus (NS1A protein) share one function: binding double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Here we show that the N-terminal domain of the NS1B protein possesses an additional function that is not shared by its NS1A counterpart: binding the ubiquitin-like ISG15 protein that is induced by influenza B virus infection. Homology modeling predicts that the dimeric six-helical N-terminal domain of the NS1B protein differs from its NS1A protein counterpart in containing large loops between helices 1 and 2 (loops 1 and 1') and between helices 2 and 3 (loops 2 and 2'). Mutagenesis establishes that residues located in loop 1/1' together with residues located in polypeptide segment 94-103 form the ISG15 protein-binding site of NS1B protein. Loop 1/1' is not required for dsRNA binding, which instead requires arginine residues R50, R53, R50', and R53' located in antiparallel helices 1 and 1'. Further, we demonstrate that the binding sites for RNA and protein are independent of each other. In particular, ISG15 and dsRNA can bind simultaneously; the binding of the ISG15 protein does not have a detectable effect on the binding of dsRNA, and vice versa. PMID:12504570

Yuan, Weiming; Aramini, James M; Montelione, Gaetano T; Krug, Robert M

2002-12-20

194

Sharing values, sharing a vision  

SciTech Connect

Teamwork, partnership and shared values emerged as recurring themes at the Third Technology Transfer/Communications Conference. The program drew about 100 participants who sat through a packed two days to find ways for their laboratories and facilities to better help American business and the economy. Co-hosts were the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, where most meetings took place. The conference followed traditions established at the First Technology Transfer/Communications Conference, conceived of and hosted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory in May 1992 in Richmond, Washington, and the second conference, hosted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in January 1993 in Golden, Colorado. As at the other conferences, participants at the third session represented the fields of technology transfer, public affairs and communications. They came from Department of Energy headquarters and DOE offices, laboratories and production facilities. Continued in this report are keynote address; panel discussion; workshops; and presentations in technology transfer.

Not Available

1993-12-31

195

A series of eIF4E alleles at the Bc-3 locus are associated with recessive resistance to Clover yellow vein virus in common bean.  

PubMed

Clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV) is capable of causing severe damage to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production worldwide. The snap bean market class is particularly vulnerable because infection may lead to distortion and necrosis of the fresh green pods and rejection of the harvest. Three putatively independent recessive genes (cyv, desc, bc-3) have been reported to condition resistance to ClYVV; however, their allelic relationships have not been resolved. We identified, evaluated, and characterized the phenotypic and molecular genetic variation present in 21 informative common bean genotypes for resistance to ClYVV. Allelism testing phenotypes from multiple populations provided clear evidence that the three genes were a series of recessive alleles at the Bc-3 locus that condition unique potyvirus strain- and species-specific resistance spectra. Candidate gene analysis revealed complete association between the recessive resistance alleles and unique patterns of predicted amino acid substitutions in P. vulgaris eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (PveIF4E). This led to the discovery and characterization of two novel PveIF4E alleles associated with resistance to ClYVV, PveIF4E (3) , and PveIF4E (4) . We developed KASPar allele-specific SNP genotyping assays and demonstrated their ability to accurately detect and differentiate all of the PveIF4E haplotypes present in the germplasm, allelism testing, and in three separate segregating populations. The results contribute to an enhanced understanding and accessibility of the important potyvirus resistance conditioned by recessive alleles at Bc-3. The KASPar assays should be useful to further enable germplasm exploration, allelic discrimination, and marker-assisted introgression of bc-3 alleles in common bean. PMID:23933781

Hart, John P; Griffiths, Phillip D

2013-08-11

196

Reticuloendotheliosis virus: Detection of immunological relationship to mammalian type C retroviruses. [¹²⁵I tracer technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) p30 shares cross-reactive determinants and a common NHâ-terminal tripeptide with mammalian type C viral p30's. An interspecies competition radioimmunoassay was developed, using iodinated REV p30 and a broadly reactive antiserum to mammalian virus p30's. The avian leukosis-sarcoma viruses and mammalian non-type C retroviruses did not compete in this assay. Previous data indicating that the REV group is

H. P. Charman; R. V. Gilden; S. Oroszlan

1979-01-01

197

The DNA Element Controlling Expression of the Varicella-Zoster Virus Open Reading Frame 28 and 29 Genes Consists of Two Divergent Unidirectional Promoters Which Have a Common USF Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of the divergent expression of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) ORF 28 and ORF 29 genes from a common intergenic DNA element, the ORF 28\\/29 promoter, is of interest based on the observation that both genes are expressed during VZV lytic infection but only the ORF 29 gene is expressed in latently infected neurons. In the work presented here,

Min Yang; John Hay; William T. Ruyechan

2004-01-01

198

Pseudorabies Virus Tegument Protein Us2 Recruits the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Extracellular-Regulated Kinase (ERK) to Membranes through Interaction with the ERK Common Docking Domain? †  

PubMed Central

The pseudorabies virus (PRV) Us2 protein binds to the extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) and inhibits the activation of ERK nuclear targets by sequestering cytoplasmic ERK on cellular membranes. Utilizing a series of Us2 truncations, we determined that the minimal portion of Us2 required for interaction with ERK is contained within its amino-terminal 214 amino acids. The loss of the ability of Us2 to bind to ERK in coimmunoprecipitation experiments was accompanied by a failure of Us2 to form oligomers, raising the possibility that higher-order Us2 structures are required for ERK interaction. To map the Us2 interaction site on ERK, we introduced mutations into the region of ERK that interacts with the ERK kinase, MEK, or into the common docking (CD) domain that mediates interactions with many ERK substrates. ERK carrying mutations within the MEK binding region maintained the ability to bind Us2, whereas ERK carrying mutations within the CD domain did not. Furthermore, the ERK CD domain was required for the Us2-mediated recruitment of ERK to membranes. Taken together, these findings suggest that Us2 regulates ERK activity by spatially restricting ERK localization and also by interfering with select ERK-substrate interactions.

Kang, Ming-Hsi; Banfield, Bruce W.

2010-01-01

199

Molecular characterization of coat protein gene of Garlic common latent virus isolates from India: an evidence for distinct phylogeny and recombination.  

PubMed

The coat protein (CP) gene of five Indian Garlic common latent virus (GarCLV) isolates was sequenced and it was 960 bp long in all the five isolates, encoding a protein of 319 amino acids. Comparative nucleotide sequence analysis revealed diversity of 4.3% among the Indian isolates and of 11.9% among all isolates worldwide. Amino acid sequence comparison showed a significant variability in the N-terminal of CP of GarCLV. Various protein analysis tools identified thirteen conserved domains and motifs including Carlavirus and Potexvirus-specific Flexi CP and Flexi N CP. Phylogenetic analysis clustered GarCLV isolates in the subgroup II with isolates from Australia, Brazil, Japan, and South Korea. Intraspecies recombination study revealed that only one of the Indian isolates was a recombinant. Interspecies recombination study suggested the absence of genetic exchange from Carlavirus species to GarCLV; conversely, GarCLV was identified as a putative donor for at least two other Carlavirus species. This is the first report of molecular variability and recombination in GarCLV isolates. PMID:23553322

Pramesh, D; Baranwal, Virendra K

2013-04-04

200

Who shall live when not all can live? Intellectual property in accessing and benefit-sharing influenza viruses through the World Health Organisation.  

PubMed

This article addresses the development of the World Health Organisation's (WHO) arrangements for accessing viruses and the development of vaccines to respond to potential pandemics (and other lesser outbreaks). It examines the ongoing "conflict" between the United Nations' Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the World Trade Organisation's Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) in the context of the debates about the paramountcy of intellectual property, and the potential for other (equity and development) imperatives to over-ride respect for intellectual property and TRIPS. The article concludes that the same intellectual property fault lines are evident in the WHO forum as those apparent at the CBD and the WTO fora, and an ongoing failure to properly address questions of equity and development. This poses a challenge for the Australian Government in guaranteeing a satisfactory pandemic influenza preparation and response. PMID:21528740

Lawson, Charles

2011-03-01

201

Haggling over viruses: the downside risks of securitizing infectious disease.  

PubMed

This article analyses how the 'securitization' of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) contributed to the rise of a protracted international virus-sharing dispute between developing and developed countries. As fear about the threat of a possible human H5N1 pandemic spread across the world, many governments scrambled to stockpile anti-viral medications and vaccines, albeit in a context where there was insufficient global supply to meet such a rapid surge in demand. Realizing that they were the likely 'losers' in this international race, some developing countries began to openly question the benefits of maintaining existing forms of international health cooperation, especially the common practice of sharing national virus samples with the rest of the international community. Given that such virus samples were also crucial to the high-level pandemic preparedness efforts of the West, the Indonesian government in particular felt emboldened to use international access to its H5N1 virus samples as a diplomatic 'bargaining chip' for negotiating better access to vaccines and other benefits for developing countries. The securitized global response to H5N1 thus ended up unexpectedly entangling the long-standing international virus-sharing mechanism within a wider set of political disputes, as well as prompting governments to subject existing virus-sharing arrangements to much narrower calculations of national interest. In the years ahead, those risks to international health cooperation must be balanced with the policy attractions of the global health security agenda. PMID:20961948

Elbe, Stefan

2010-11-01

202

Toward worldwide data sharing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade the nature of space science research has changed dramatically. Earlier investigators could carry out meaningful research by looking at observations from a single instrument on a single spacecraft. Today that is rapidly changing and researchers regularly use data from multiple instruments on multiple spacecraft as well as observations from ground observatories. Increasingly those observations come from missions flown by many countries. Recent advances in distributed data management have made it possible for researchers located around the world to access and use data from multiple nations. By using virtual observatory technology it no longer matters where data are housed they can be freely accessed wherever they reside. In this presentation we will discuss two initiatives designed to make space science data access worldwide. One is the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA) and the other is the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium (HDMC). In both cases the key to worldwide data sharing is adopting common metadata standards. In this talk we will review how these two groups are addressing the worldwide data sharing and their progress in achieving their goals. IPDA and HDMC are two of several efforts to promote broad based data sharing. Talks in the remainder of the symposium will discuss this is more detail.

Walker, Raymond; Joy, Steven; King, Todd

2012-07-01

203

Replication Advantage and Host Factor-Independent Phenotypes Attributable to a Common Naturally Occurring Capsid Mutation (I97L) in Human Hepatitis B Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations of human hepatitis B virus (HBV) occur frequently within the capsid (core) protein in natural infections. The most frequent mutation of the core protein in HBV from Southeast Asia occurs at amino acid 97, changing an isoleucine (I) to a leucine (L). In our systematic study of virus-host interactions, we have examined the replication efficiency of a site-directed mutant,

Fat-Moon Suk; Min-Hui Lin; Margaret Newman; Shann Pan; Sheng-Hsuan Chen; Jean-Dean Liu; Chiaho Shih

2002-01-01

204

The late spliced 19S and 16S RNAs of simian virus 40 can be synthesized from a common pool of transcripts.  

PubMed Central

The late transcripts from the simian virus 40 (SV40) are alternatively spliced into two classes of spliced RNAs, 19S and 16S in size. We are interested in understanding the precursor-product relationships that result in the excision of different intervening sequences (introns) from the late transcripts. SV40 mutants containing precise deletions of the introns for each of the spliced 19S and 16S RNA species, including a previously undetected doubly spliced 19S RNA species, were isolated. Analysis by S1 mapping and a modified primer extension technique of the viral RNAs made in monkey cells transfected with each of these mutants led to the following conclusions. (i) Spliced late 19S RNA is not an intermediate in the synthesis of the late 16S RNAs. (ii) The 3' splice site used in the synthesis of the late 16S RNAs can join, albeit inefficiently, with alternative 5' splice sites in the absence of the 5' splice site normally used to synthesize 16S RNA. (iii) There is no obligatory order of excision of introns in the formation of the doubly spliced SV40 late 19S and 16S RNA species. A mutant was constructed by site-directed mutagenesis in which the 5'-proximal 3' splice site used in the synthesis of the doubly spliced RNAs is inactive. Cells transfected with this mutant processed transcripts into 19S RNA which, in wild-type-transfected cells, would have become doubly spliced 16S RNA. Therefore, we conclude that some of the spliced late 19S and 16S RNA can be synthesized from a common pool of transcripts. Images

Good, P J; Welch, R C; Ryu, W S; Mertz, J E

1988-01-01

205

Diverse circular ssDNA viruses discovered in dragonflies (Odonata: Epiprocta).  

PubMed

Viruses with circular ssDNA genomes that encode a replication initiator protein (Rep) are among the smallest viruses known to infect both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. In the past few years an overwhelming diversity of novel circular Rep-encoding ssDNA (CRESS-DNA) viruses has been unearthed from various hosts and environmental sources. Since there is limited information regarding CRESS-DNA viruses in invertebrates, this study explored the diversity of CRESS-DNA viruses circulating among insect populations by targeting dragonflies (Epiprocta), top insect predators that accumulate viruses from their insect prey over space and time. Using degenerate PCR and rolling circle amplification coupled with restriction digestion, 17 CRESS-DNA viral genomes were recovered from eight different dragonfly species collected in tropical and temperate regions. Nine of the genomes are similar to cycloviruses and represent five species within this genus, suggesting that cycloviruses are commonly associated with insects. Three of the CRESS-DNA viruses share conserved genomic features with recently described viruses similar to the mycovirus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirulence-associated DNA virus 1, leading to the proposal of the genus Gemycircularvirus. The remaining viruses are divergent species representing four novel CRESS-DNA viral genera, including a gokushovirus-like prokaryotic virus (microphage) and three eukaryotic viruses with Reps similar to circoviruses. The novelty of CRESS-DNA viruses identified in dragonflies using simple molecular techniques indicates that there is an unprecedented diversity of ssDNA viruses among insect populations. PMID:22915694

Rosario, Karyna; Dayaram, Anisha; Marinov, Milen; Ware, Jessica; Kraberger, Simona; Stainton, Daisy; Breitbart, Mya; Varsani, Arvind

2012-08-22

206

Application of West Nile virus diagnostic techniques.  

PubMed

West Nile virus (WNV) is an enveloped RNA virus in the family Flaviviridae and belongs to Japanese encephalitis virus serocomplex group. The WNV has a wide geographic distribution that includes Africa, Europe, Asia, America and Australia. Recently, it has re-emerged as an important pathogenic organism, illustrated by the series of WNV outbreaks in North America and in Europe. Several hundred people are sacrificed by WNV infection every year. WNV can infect many mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians. A variety of diagnoses for WNV infection have been developed, such as virus isolation, nucleotide amplification, antigen detection and serology. Flaviviruses, including WNV, share common nucleotide sequences and antigenic epitopes. Understanding these properties that can influence cross-reactivity is important for accurate diagnosis, especially because areas with multiple flaviviruses are currently expanding. Herein, the authors outline the different diagnostic methods for detecting WNV infection as well as important considerations in using these methods. PMID:23977935

Hirota, Jiro; Shimizu, Shinya; Shibahara, Tomoyuki

2013-08-01

207

Arctic and Arctic-like rabies viruses: distribution, phylogeny and evolutionary history  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Forty-one newly sequenced isolates of Arctic and Arctic-like rabies viruses, were genetically compared to each other and to those available from GenBank. Four phylogenetic lineages of Arctic viruses were identified. Arctic-1 viruses circulate in Ontario, Arctic-2 viruses circulate in Siberia and Alaska, Arctic-3 viruses circulate circumpolarly, and a newly described lineage Arctic-4 circulates locally in Alaska. The oldest available isolates from Siberia (between 1950 and 1960) belong to the Arctic-2 and Arctic-3 lineages and share 98·6–99·2% N gene identity with contemporary viruses. Two lineages of Arctic-like viruses were identified in southern Asia and the Middle East (Arctic-like-1) and eastern Asia (Arctic-like-2). A time-scaled tree demonstrates that the time of the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of Arctic and Arctic-like viruses is dated between 1255 and 1786. Evolution of the Arctic viruses has occurred through a northerly spread. The Arctic-like-2 lineage diverged first, whereas Arctic viruses share a TMRCA with Arctic-like-1 viruses.

KUZMIN, I. V.; HUGHES, G. J.; BOTVINKIN, A. D.; GRIBENCHA, S. G.; RUPPRECHT, C. E.

2008-01-01

208

Share Food Case Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Share Food Case Study was prepared for use in the 2007 Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award Examiner Preparation Course. The Share Food Case Study describes a fictitious nonprofit organization. There is no connection between the fictitious Share Fo...

2007-01-01

209

6-sulfo sialyl Lewis X is the common receptor determinant recognized by H5, H6, H7 and H9 influenza viruses of terrestrial poultry  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Influenza A viruses of domestic birds originate from the natural reservoir in aquatic birds as a result of interspecies transmission and adaptation to new host species. We previously noticed that influenza viruses isolated from distinct orders of aquatic and terrestrial birds may differ in their fine receptor-binding specificity by recognizing the structure of the inner parts of Neu5Ac?2-3Gal-terminated sialyloligosaccharide

Alexandra S Gambaryan; Alexander B Tuzikov; Galina V Pazynina; Julia A Desheva; Nicolai V Bovin; Mikhail N Matrosovich; Alexander I Klimov

2008-01-01

210

The distinct disease phenotypes of the common and yellow vein strains of Tomato golden mosaic virus are determined by nucleotide differences in the 3«-terminal region of the gene encoding the movement protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Nicotiana benthamiana, the common strain of the bipartite geminivirus Tomato golden mosaic virus (csTGMV) induces extensive chlorosis whereas the yellow vein strain (yvTGMV) produces veinal chlorosis on systemically infected leaves. In Datura stramonium, csTGMV produces leaf distortion and a severe chlorotic mosaic whereas yvTGMV produces only small chlorotic lesions on systemically infected leaves. Genetic recombination and site-directed mutagenesis studies

Keith Saunders; Christina Wege; Karuppannan Veluthambi; Holger Jeske; John Stanley

211

Activation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by DNA damage in human cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies indicate that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) gene expression can be dramatically enhanced by certain heterologous viral1,2 and chemical2-6 agents, implicating these as potential reactivating agents of latent virus infection. A common denominator shared by these agents is their ability to cause stress responses in cells7-9. In an effort to determine whether stress responses affect HIV gene

Kristoffer Valerie; Anne Delers; Claudine Bruck; Clotilde Thiriart; Hagai Rosenberg; Christine Debouck; Martin Rosenberg

1988-01-01

212

Immunogenicity of infectious bursal disease viruses in chickens.  

PubMed

Cross-protective properties of infectious bursal disease viruses (IBDVs) were studied. Viruses represented different subtypes of serotype 1, including recently isolated viruses (variants), and a serotype 2 virus. Chickens were vaccinated at 3 weeks of age with inactivated vaccines containing 10(5), 10(6), 10(7), or 10(8) mean tissue-culture infectious dose of a given virus and challenged 2 weeks later using either 10(2) or 10(3.5) mean embryo infectious dose (EID50) of either a standard virus or a variant serotype 1 virus. Protection was evaluated at 5 and 10 days post-challenge, based on gross and microscopic lesions, body weight, and bursa/body-weight ratios. The serotype 2 virus did not confer protection on birds challenged with the serotype 1 viruses. Vaccines made of variant viruses at the low doses protected chickens challenged with the high or low doses of either the standard or the variant viruses. Vaccines made of the standard or variant strains at low doses protected against high or low challenge doses of the standard strain. Vaccines made of the high dose of any of the standard strains protected chickens against the variant virus when the low challenge dose (10(2) EID50) was used, but not when the high challenge dose (10(3.5) EID50) was used. The lowest dose of the standard viruses vaccines required to confer protection against the variant virus varied depending on the strain. Results indicated that protection depended on the strain and dose of both the vaccine and challenge viruses and that the variant strains and standard strains share a common protective antigen(s). PMID:1659364

Ismail, N M; Saif, Y M

213

The prevalence of Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV) is common and increases with the age of growing pigs in the United States.  

PubMed

Infection with the Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV) is believed to be common yet limited information is available on the epidemiology of TTSuV. The objectives of this study were to develop novel and improve existing diagnostic methods for TTSuV infection and to investigate the prevalence of TTSuV species 1 (TTSuV1) and 2 (TTSuV2) in the USA. Three hundred and four blood or fetal thoracic fluid samples were collected from pigs on 40 US farms in 12 States. Samples were collected from fetuses and in pre-suckle neonates (n=73), suckling pigs (1-20 days of age; n=27), nursery pigs (21-55 days of age; n=60), finisher pigs (8-25 weeks of age; n=90) and adults (>25 weeks of age; n=54). Samples were tested by a new quantitative differential real-time PCR for TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 DNA and by ELISA for detection of anti-TTSuV2-antibodies. The prevalence of TTSuV1 DNA ranged from 8.2% (fetuses and neonates) to 81% (finisher pigs) and the prevalence of TTSuV2 DNA ranged from 3.7% (suckling pigs) to 67% (finisher pigs). Evidence of fetal TTSuV infection was minimal. Mixed infection of TTSuV1 and TTSuV2 was seen in 6.7% of the nursery pigs, 52.2% of the finisher pigs, and 22.2% of the mature pigs. The prevalence of TTSuV1 was higher than that of TTSuV2. Anti-TTSuV2 antibodies were not detected in the fetuses and neonates and the seroprevalence of TTSuV2 was between 3.8% and 100% in growing pigs. The results of this study indicate that vertical transmission may not be a main route of TTSuV transmission in pigs in the USA. PMID:22484614

Xiao, Chao-Ting; Giménez-Lirola, Luis; Huang, Yao-Wei; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Halbur, Patrick G; Opriessnig, Tanja

2012-03-31

214

Image Secret Sharing Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents an image secret sharing method which essentially incorporates two k-out-of-n secret sharing schemes: (1) Shamir's secret sharing scheme and (2) matrix projection secret sharing scheme. The technique allows a secret image to be divided ...

A. Ortiz D. Dalessandro L. Bai S. Biswas

2006-01-01

215

Publicly Verifiable Secret Sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

. A secret sharing scheme allows to share a secret among several participants such that only certain groups of them can recover it. Verifiable secret sharing has been proposed to achieve security against cheating participants. Its first realization had the special property that everybody, not only the participants, can verify that the shares are correctly distributed. We will call such

Markus Stadler

1996-01-01

216

Mobile proactive secret sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This thesis describes mobile proactive secret sharing (MPSS), an extension of proac- tive secret sharing. Mobile proactive secret sharing is much more flexible than proac- tive secret sharing in terms of group membership: instead of the group of shareholders being exactly the same from one epoch to the next, we allow the group to change arbitrarily. In addition, we

David A. Schultz; Barbara Liskov; Moses Liskov

2008-01-01

217

Generalized quantum secret sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore a generalization of quantum secret sharing (QSS) in which classical shares play a complementary role to quantum shares, exploring further consequences of an idea first studied by Nascimento, Mueller-Quade, and Imai [Phys. Rev. A 64, 042311 (2001)]. We examine three ways, termed inflation, compression, and twin thresholding, by which the proportion of classical shares can be augmented. This

Sudhir Kumar Singh; R. Srikanth

2005-01-01

218

Performance of shared cache for parallel-pipelined computer systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shared-cache memory organizations for parallel-pipelined multiple instruction stream processors avoid the cache coherence problem of private caches by sharing single copies of common blocks. A shared cache may have a higher hit ratio, but suffers performance degradation due to access conflicts. Effective shared cache organizations are proposed which retain the cache coherency advantage and which have very low access conflict

Phil C. C. Yeh; Janak H. Patel; Edward S. Davidson

1983-01-01

219

Genetic variation of wild Puumala viruses within the serotype, local rodent populations and individual animal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction cloning and sequencing were used to determine the range of S gene\\/N protein variability in wild Puumala virus (PUU) strains and to study phylogenetic relationships between two groups of strains which originated from Finland and from European Russia. Analyses of the nucleotide and predicted aino acid sequences showed: (1) all PUU strains shared a common

Alexander Plyusnin; Olli Vapalahti; Heikki Lehväslaiho; Natalia Apekina; Tatiana Mikhailova; Irina Gavrilovskaya; Juha Laakkonen; Jukka Niemimaa; Heikki Henttonen; Markus Brummer-Korvenkontio; Antti Vaeri

1995-01-01

220

To share or not to share?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio spectrum and network infrastructure are two essential resources for mobile service delivery, which are both costly and increasingly scarce. In this paper we consider drivers and barriers of network sharing, which is seen as a potential solution for scarcity in these resources. We considered a full sharing scenario for a Mobile Network Operator using the Business Model Canvas method,

Frank Berkers; Gijs Hendrix; Ioanna Chatzicharistou; Thomas de Haas; Dominik Hamera

2010-01-01

221

Cellulose acetate phthalate, a common pharmaceutical excipient, inactivates HIV1 and blocks the coreceptor binding site on the virus envelope glycoprotein gp120  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP), a pharmaceutical excipient used for enteric film coating of capsules and tablets, was shown to inhibit infection by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and several herpesviruses. CAP formulations inactivated HIV-1, herpesvirus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) and the major nonviral sexually transmitted disease (STD) pathogens and were effective in animal models for

A Robert Neurath; Nathan Strick; Yun-Yao Li; Asim K Debnath

2001-01-01

222

Molecular Epidemiology of Vesicular Stomatitis New Jersey Virus from the 2004-2005 United States Outbreak Indicates a Common Origin with Mexico Strains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Outbreaks of vesicular stomatitis occur at 8-10 year intervals in the southwestern United States (US) with the most recent outbreak starting in 2004 and continuing in 2005. Phylogenetic relationships among 116 vesicular stomatitis-New Jersey virus (VSNJV) isolates obtained from this outbreak and end...

223

Collaboratively Sharing Scientific Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific research becomes increasingly reliant on multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional collaboration through sharing experimental data. Indeed, data sharing is mandatory by government research agencies such as NIH. The major hurdles for data sharing come from: i) the lack of data sharing infrastructure to make data sharing convenient for users; ii) users’ fear of losing control of their data; iii) difficulty on sharing schemas and incompatible data from sharing partners; and iv) inconsistent data under schema evolution. In this paper, we develop a collaborative data sharing system SciPort, to support consistency preserved data sharing among multiple distributed organizations. The system first provides Central Server based lightweight data integration architecture, so data and schemas can be conveniently shared across multiple organizations. Through distributed schema management, schema sharing and evolution is made possible, while data consistency is maintained and data compatibility is enforced. With this data sharing system, distributed sites can now consistently share their research data and their associated schemas with much convenience and flexibility. SciPort has been successfully used for data sharing in biomedical research, clinical trials and large scale research collaboration.

Wang, Fusheng; Vergara-Niedermayr, Cristobal

224

Abusing locality in shared web hosting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing popularity of the World Wide Web has made more and more individuals and companies to identify the need of acquiring a Web presence. The most common way of acquiring such a presence is through Web hosting companies and the most popular hosting solution is shared Web hosting. In this paper we investigate the workings of shared Web hosting

Nick Nikiforakis; Wouter Joosen; Martin Johns

2011-01-01

225

Awareness and coordination in shared workspaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Awareness of individual and group activities is critical to successful collaboration and is commonly supported in CSCW systems by active, information generation mechanisms separate from the shared workspace. These mechanisms pena~ise information providers, presuppose relevance to the recipient, and make access difficult, We discuss a study of shared editor use which suggests that awareness information provided and exploited passively through

Paul Dourish; Victoria Bellotti

1992-01-01

226

Small-World File-Sharing Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web caches, content distribution networks, peer-to-peer file sharing networks, distributed file system s, and data grids all have in common that they involve a community of users who generate requests for shared data. In each case, overall system performance can be improved significantly if we can first identify and then exploit interesting structure within a community's access patterns. To this

Adriana Iamnitchi; Matei Ripeanu; Ian T. Foster

2003-01-01

227

Characterization of H5N1 influenza viruses isolated from migratory birds in Qinghai province of China in 2006.  

PubMed

Avian influenza H5N1 viruses pose a significant threat to human health because of their ability to infect humans directly. In the paper, three highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses were isolated from three species of migratory birds in Qinghai Province of China in 2006. The analysis of the genome sequences indicated that the three isolates shared high homology with each other (94% to 99%). Three isolates shared a common ancestor and were closest to strains isolated from Qinghai and Siberia in 2005, but distinct from poultry viruses found in Southeast Asia. In experimental infection, all three viruses were highly pathogenic to chickens and mice. The results suggest that highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses still exist in the migratory birds and could spread to other regions with wild bird migration. PMID:17626485

Lei, Fumin; Tang, Shuang; Zhao, Delong; Zhang, Xiaowei; Kou, Zheng; Li, Yongdong; Zhang, Zhong; Yin, Zuohua; Chen, Shengliang; Li, Sandan; Zhang, Dehai; Yan, Baoping; Li, Tianxian

2007-06-01

228

Common Cold  

MedlinePLUS

... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...

229

Nipah Virus V and W Proteins Have a Common STAT1Binding Domain yet Inhibit STAT1 Activation from the Cytoplasmic and Nuclear Compartments, Respectively  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous reports it was demonstrated that the Nipah virus V and W proteins have interferon (IFN) antagonist activity due to their ability to block signaling from the IFN-\\/ receptor (J. J. Rodriguez, J. P. Parisien, and C. M. Horvath, J. Virol. 76:11476-11483, 2002; M. S. Park et al., J. Virol. 77:1501-1511, 2003). The V, W, and P proteins are

Megan L. Shaw; A. Garcia-Sastre; Peter Palese; Christopher F. Basler

2004-01-01

230

Mapping of a type 1-specific and a type-common epitope on the E2 (gp53) protein of bovine viral diarrhea virus with neutralization escape mutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine viral diarrhoea viruses (BVDV) have recently been segregated into two genotypes, BVDV 1 and BVDV 2. However, the antigenic differences and similarities of BVDV 1 and BVDV 2 remain poorly defined. In this study, the E2 epitopes of two neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) produced against an isolate of BVDV 1 were mapped. The mAb 157, previously determined to be

Dirk Deregt; Steven R Bolin; Jan van den Hurk; Julia F Ridpath; Scott A Gilbert

1998-01-01

231

Escape is a more common mechanism than avidity reduction for evasion of CD8+ T cell responses in primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  CD8+ T cells play an important role in control of viral replication during acute and early human immunodeficiency virus type\\u000a 1 (HIV-1) infection, contributing to containment of the acute viral burst and establishment of the prognostically-important\\u000a persisting viral load. Understanding mechanisms that impair CD8+ T cell-mediated control of HIV replication in primary infection\\u000a is thus of importance. This study addressed

Emma L Turnbull; Joshua Baalwa; Karen E Conrod; Shuyi Wang; Xiping Wei; MaiLee Wong; Joanna Turner; Pierre Pellegrino; Ian Williams; George M Shaw; Persephone Borrow

2011-01-01

232

Complete sequence of the RNA genome of human rhinovirus 16, a clinically useful common cold virus belonging to the ICAM-1 receptor group  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report here the complete nucleotide sequence and predicted polyprotein sequence of HeLa cell-adapted human rhinovirus 16 (HRV16). This virus is more suitable than human rhinovirus 14 (HRV14) for clinical studies, and its growth and physical properties are favorable for biochemical and crystallographic analysis. The complete message-sense RNA genome of HRV16 is composed of 7124 bases, not including the poly(A)

Wai-Ming Lee; Wensheng Wang; Roland R. Rueckert

1995-01-01

233

Secondary Structure Model of the Mason-Pfizer Monkey Virus 59Leader Sequence: Identification of a Structural Motif Common to a Variety of Retroviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astablesecondarystructuremodelispresentedfortheregion3*oftheprimer-bindingsiteto130basesinto thegagsequence of the prototype type D retrovirus Mason-Pfizer monkey virus. Using biochemical probing of RNA from this region in association with free energy minimization, we have identified a stem-loop structure in the region, which from other studies has been shown to be important for genomic RNA encapsidation. The structure involves a highly stable stem of five G-C pairs terminating

GEOFFREY P. HARRISON; ERIC HUNTER; ANDANDREW M. L. LEVER

1995-01-01

234

De Novo Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Infection of Human Lymphocytes in NOD-SCID, Common  Chain Knockout Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia, a disease that is triggered after a long latency period. HTLV-1 is known to spread through cell-to-cell contact. In an attempt to study the events in early stages of HTLV-1 infection, we inoculated uninfected human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the HTLV-1-producing cell line MT-2

Paola Miyazato; Jun-ichirou Yasunaga; Yuko Taniguchi; Yoshio Koyanagi; Hiroaki Mitsuya; Masao Matsuoka

2006-01-01

235

Collect, boil and amplify--a simple approach for the detection of three common viruses associated with epidemic keratoconjunctivitis, conjunctivitis and dendritic ulcers.  

PubMed

During 2011' an outbreak of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis led to increased clinical requests for molecular screening of viruses from conjunctival swabs. To maximise throughput with minimal cost, a simple boil extraction on dry swabs followed by amplification and real-time detection using 'in-house' assays for herpes simplex viruses (HSV) and adenoviruses with RNaseP as an internal control was validated and introduced. Data from 541 patients who were tested for one or more viral targets was analysed. Adenovirus was most frequently detected accounting for 30% of all cases including the community outbreak. Genotyping of the hexon gene identified the cause as an adenovirus type 8. HSV was detected in 7% of the samples tested, predominantly HSV-1 with a single case of HSV-2. Invalid results due to poor RNaseP signals were reported in 10.5% of samples but for the HSV-1 assay 23% of the samples were invalid due to interference of the fluorescein dye used by ophthalmologists resulting in repeat sampling to obtain a valid result. Despite this, when compared to conventional techniques such as direct immunofluorescence, collect, boil and amplify increased significantly the detection of DNA viruses in conjunctival samples ensuring improved diagnosis, patient management and infection control measures at a modest cost. PMID:23411346

Moore, Catherine; Gatica, Leonardo; Jones, Tim; Matthews, Paul; Watkins, Joanne; Tyson, Linda; Keelan, Paula; Corden, Sally; Phillips, Ian; Jones, Rachel

2013-02-11

236

Quick Screen Share  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Quick Screen Share is pretty much the easiest way to share a screen, and it doesn't require registration or installation. The program allows visitors to also remotely control the mouse and keyboard, and it is a great way to share information on a range of projects. This version is compatible with all operating systems, including Linux.

2011-01-01

237

Revenue Sharing Briefing Packet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document explains the main features of Federal Revenue Sharing. The publication begins by describing the historical background of revenue sharing in the United States from action taken during the Johnson administration and by the 91st Congress, the Nixon proposal for general and special revenue sharing, to the State and Local Fiscal…

Office of Youth Development (DHEW), Washington, DC. Div. of Youth Activities.

238

Enabling information sharing within organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organizations which have invested heavily in Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems, intranets and Enterprise Information\\u000a Portals (EIP) with standardized workflows, data definitions and a common data repository, have provided the technlogical capability\\u000a to their workgroups to share information at the enterprise level. However, the responsibility of populating the repository\\u000a with relevant and high quality data required for customized data analyses

Anitesh Barua; Suryanarayanan Ravindran; Andrew B. Whinston

2007-01-01

239

Geminiviruses: a tale of a plasmid becoming a virus  

PubMed Central

Background Geminiviruses (family Geminiviridae) are small single-stranded (ss) DNA viruses infecting plants. Their virion morphology is unique in the known viral world – two incomplete T = 1 icosahedra are joined together to form twinned particles. Geminiviruses utilize a rolling-circle mode to replicate their genomes. A limited sequence similarity between the three conserved motifs of the rolling-circle replication initiation proteins (RCR Reps) of geminiviruses and plasmids of Gram-positive bacteria allowed Koonin and Ilyina to propose that geminiviruses descend from bacterial replicons. Results Phylogenetic and clustering analyses of various RCR Reps suggest that Rep proteins of geminiviruses share a most recent common ancestor with Reps encoded on plasmids of phytoplasmas, parasitic wall-less bacteria replicating both in plant and insect cells and therefore occupying a common ecological niche with geminiviruses. Capsid protein of Satellite tobacco necrosis virus was found to be the best template for homology-based structural modeling of the geminiviral capsid protein. Good stereochemical quality of the generated models indicates that the geminiviral capsid protein shares the same structural fold, the viral jelly-roll, with the vast majority of icosahedral plant-infecting ssRNA viruses. Conclusion We propose a plasmid-to-virus transition scenario, where a phytoplasmal plasmid acquired a capsid-coding gene from a plant RNA virus to give rise to the ancestor of geminiviruses.

Krupovic, Mart; Ravantti, Janne J; Bamford, Dennis H

2009-01-01

240

Linear Secret Sharing with Divisible Shares  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Shamir secret sharing is being considered in the broader context of linear secret sharing. It is shown that any Shamir scheme\\u000a built over GF(q\\u000a \\u000a v\\u000a ) can be converted into its linear equivalent defined over GF(q). A notion of uniform perfectness is introduced and it is proved that Shamir schemes built over GF(q\\u000a \\u000a v\\u000a ) are not uniformly perfect. Probabilistic

Josef Pieprzyk

1999-01-01

241

The discovery of common recurrent transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2)-erythroblastosis virus E26 transforming sequence (ETS) gene fusions in prostate cancer: significance and clinical implications.  

PubMed

Recurrent gene fusions and chromosomal rearrangements were previously thought to be the primary oncogenic mechanism of hematological malignancies and sarcomas. The recent discovery of recurrent gene fusions in a majority of prostate cancers represents a paradigm shift in understanding the molecular mechanisms of one of the most prevalent epithelial malignancies, with important clinical and biologic implications. The prostate cancer gene fusions that have been identified so far are characterized by 5'-genomic regulatory elements, most notably the androgen-controlled prostate specific gene, transmembrane protease serine 2, fused to members of the erythroblastosis virus E26 transforming sequence family of transcription factors, most notably ERG, leading to the overexpression of oncogenic transcription factors. The erythroblastosis virus E26 transforming sequence gene fusions most likely define a distinct class of prostate cancer with potential implications for early diagnosis, prognosis, and rational therapeutic targeting. In this review, we summarize the bioinformatics approach that led to the discovery of gene fusions, the current state of the frequency, and diversity of gene fusions that define the molecular heterogeneity of prostate cancer, their associations with prostate cancer progression and clinical outcome, the subsequent morphological characteristics, and the potential application of gene fusions as biomarkers in the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. PMID:19395877

Shah, Rajal B; Chinnaiyan, Arul M

2009-05-01

242

Insights into the evolution of a complex virus from the crystal structure of vaccinia virus D13.  

PubMed

The morphogenesis of poxviruses such as vaccinia virus (VACV) sees the virion shape mature from spherical to brick-shaped. Trimeric capsomers of the VACV D13 protein form a transitory, stabilizing lattice on the surface of the initial spherical immature virus particle. The crystal structure of D13 reveals that this major scaffolding protein comprises a double ? barrel "jelly-roll" subunit arranged as pseudo-hexagonal trimers. These structural features are characteristic of the major capsid proteins of a lineage of large icosahedral double-stranded DNA viruses including human adenovirus and the bacteriophages PRD1 and PM2. Structure-based phylogenetic analysis confirms that VACV belongs to this lineage, suggesting that (analogously to higher organism embryogenesis) early poxvirus morphogenesis reflects their evolution from a lineage of viruses sharing a common icosahedral ancestor. PMID:21742267

Bahar, Mohammad W; Graham, Stephen C; Stuart, David I; Grimes, Jonathan M

2011-07-13

243

West Nile Virus: Symptoms and Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . West Nile Virus Share Compartir Add this to... Añadir en... ... Most people (70-80%) who become infected with West Nile virus do not develop any symptoms. Febrile illness ...

244

Common cold  

MedlinePLUS

... C for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007, Issue 3. Art. ... M, Das RR. Zinc for the common cold. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011, Issue 2. Art. ...

245

Common Warts  

MedlinePLUS

Common warts Basics In-Depth Multimedia Resources Reprints A single copy of this article may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Common warts By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http://www. ...

246

Multiplex RT-PCR assays for the simultaneous detection of both RNA and DNA viruses infecting cassava and the common occurrence of mixed infections by two cassava brown streak viruses in East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uniplex and multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocols were developed for the detection of cassava brown streak viruses (CBSVs) in single and mixed infections with cassava mosaic begomoviruses (CMBs) in a tropical crop plant, cassava (Manihot esculenta). CMBs contain ssDNA as their genome (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) while CBSVs are made up of positive sense ssRNA (genus Ipomovirus, family

M. M. Abarshi; I. U. Mohammed; S. C. Jeremiah; J. P. Legg; P. Lava Kumar; R. J. Hillocks; M. N. Maruthi

247

Software Architecture as a Shared Mental Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software architecture is commonly considered to be the structure of a large piece of software -- commonly presented as a nested set of box and arrow diagrams. This paper takes a different position, claiming that software architecture is most usefully thought of as a mental model shared among the people responsible for software. This point of view leads to a

Ric Holt

2002-01-01

248

Food sharing at meals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of a kinship link between nuclear families is the strongest predictor of interhousehold sharing in an indigenous,\\u000a predominantly Dolgan food-sharing network in northern Russia. Attributes such as the summed number of hunters in paired households\\u000a also account for much of the variation in sharing between nuclear families. Differences in the number of hunters in partner\\u000a households, as well

John Ziker; Michael Schnegg

2005-01-01

249

General secret sharing scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the idea in (J. Benaloh, J. Leichter, Generalized secret sharing and monotone functions, in: Advances in Cryptology-CRYPTO’88, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer, Berlin, 1990, pp. 27–35.), a method to realize general secret sharing scheme is given in this research note. It is not necessary for the group participants to store several shares but an interpolating polynomial. However,

Kaijun Tan; Hongwen Zhu

1999-01-01

250

Share Your Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this cooperative game, learners devise strategies about sharing a small space with each other. Similar to musical chairs, this game has players sharing a smaller and smaller number of "planets" (circles on the floor) until they find a way to share just one remaining planet. After the game, learners discuss how they managed to fit everyone in one planet, what "rules" of sharing they made up as they went along, and whether there were disagreements. This game can be a great activity for indoor recess. This activity can be found on pages 12-13 of the activity guide.

Terc

2007-01-01

251

Genome-Wide Association Study among Four Horse Breeds Identifies a Common Haplotype Associated with In Vitro CD3+ T Cell Susceptibility/Resistance to Equine Arteritis Virus Infection ?  

PubMed Central

Previously, we have shown that horses could be divided into susceptible and resistant groups based on an in vitro assay using dual-color flow cytometric analysis of CD3+ T cells infected with equine arteritis virus (EAV). Here, we demonstrate that the differences in in vitro susceptibility of equine CD3+ T lymphocytes to EAV infection have a genetic basis. To investigate the possible hereditary basis for this trait, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to compare susceptible and resistant phenotypes. Testing of 267 DNA samples from four horse breeds that had a susceptible or a resistant CD3+ T lymphocyte phenotype using both Illumina Equine SNP50 BeadChip and Sequenom's MassARRAY system identified a common, genetically dominant haplotype associated with the susceptible phenotype in a region of equine chromosome 11 (ECA11), positions 49572804 to 49643932. The presence of a common haplotype indicates that the trait occurred in a common ancestor of all four breeds, suggesting that it may be segregated among other modern horse breeds. Biological pathway analysis revealed several cellular genes within this region of ECA11 encoding proteins associated with virus attachment and entry, cytoskeletal organization, and NF-?B pathways that may be associated with the trait responsible for the in vitro susceptibility/resistance of CD3+ T lymphocytes to EAV infection. The data presented in this study demonstrated a strong association of genetic markers with the trait, representing de facto proof that the trait is under genetic control. To our knowledge, this is the first GWAS of an equine infectious disease and the first GWAS of equine viral arteritis.

Go, Yun Young; Bailey, Ernest; Cook, Deborah G.; Coleman, Stephen J.; MacLeod, James N.; Chen, Kuey-Chu; Timoney, Peter J.; Balasuriya, Udeni B. R.

2011-01-01

252

Evolution Towards Dynamic Spectrum Sharing in Mobile Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a broad overview of a number of approaches to dynamic spectrum sharing, and presents a specific case study involving hierarchical co-channel macro- and pico-cells. This case study demonstrates the feasibility of implementing a private commons approach to spectrum sharing in a near term, commercial application. Finally, a roadmap for evolution towards dynamic spectrum sharing is put forward

Hamid Reza Karimi; Lester T. W. Ho; Holger Claussen; Louis G. Samuel

2006-01-01

253

Rethinking Resource Sharing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes the need for rethinking resource sharing to offer both library users and nonlibrary users options to obtain the material they seek from both libraries and commerical sources. The article discusses several programs that are emerging including the "GoGetter" function, the Rethinking Resource Sharing Manifesto, user needs, and…

Beaubien, Anne; Stevens, Patricia

2008-01-01

254

Hadza meat sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most human foraging societies, the meat of large animals is widely shared. Many assume that people follow this practice because it helps to reduce the risk inherent in big game hunting. In principle, a hunter can offset the chance of many hungry days by exchanging some of the meat earned from a successful strike for shares in future kills

K. Hawkes; J. F. O'Connell; N. G. Blurton Jones

2001-01-01

255

Rethinking Resource Sharing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the need for rethinking resource sharing to offer both library users and nonlibrary users options to obtain the material they seek from both libraries and commerical sources. The article discusses several programs that are emerging including the "GoGetter" function, the Rethinking Resource Sharing Manifesto, user needs, and…

Beaubien, Anne; Stevens, Patricia

2008-01-01

256

Ocean mineral revenue sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers the importance of ocean mineral revenue sharing, from both the oil and gas of the continental margin and the manganese nodules of the deep seabed, at the United Nations Law of the Sea Conference. First the paper examines margin revenue sharing as proposed in Article 82, Informal Composite Negotiating Text. It estimates the amount of oil and

Vincent J. Nigrelli

1978-01-01

257

Hierarchical Threshold Secret Sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of threshold secret sharing in groups with hierarchical structure. In such settings, the secret is shared among a group of participants that is partitioned into levels. The access structure is then determined by a sequence of threshold requirements: a subset of participants is authorized if it has at least k0 members from the highest level, as

Tamir Tassa

2004-01-01

258

The roles of time, place, value and relationships in collocated photo sharing with camera phones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photo sharing on camera phones is becoming a common way to maintain closeness and relationships with friends and family. How people share their photos in collocated settings using camera phones, with whom they share, and what factors influence their sharing experience were the themes explored in this study. Results showed that people exhibit different photo sharing behaviour depending on who

Hanna Stelmaszewska; Bob Fields; Ann Blandford

2008-01-01

259

The Icsbp locus is a common proviral insertion site in mature B-cell lymphomas/plasmacytomas induced by exogenous murine leukemia virus  

SciTech Connect

ICSBP (interferon consensus sequence binding protein)/IRF8 (interferon regulatory factor 8) is an interferon gamma-inducible transcription factor expressed predominantly in hematopoietic cells, and down-regulation of this factor has been observed in chronic myelogenous leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia in man. By screening about 1200 murine leukemia virus (MLV)-induced lymphomas, we found proviral insertions at the Icsbp locus in 14 tumors, 13 of which were mature B-cell lymphomas or plasmacytomas. Only one was a T-cell lymphoma, although such tumors constituted about half of the samples screened. This indicates that the Icsbp locus can play a specific role in the development of mature B-lineage malignancies. Two proviral insertions in the last Icsbp exon were found to act by a poly(A)-insertion mechanism. The remaining insertions were found within or outside Icsbp. Since our results showed expression of Icsbp RNA and protein in all end-stage tumor samples, a simple tumor suppressor function of ICSBP is not likely. Interestingly, proviral insertions at Icsbp have not been reported from previous extensive screenings of mature B-cell lymphomas induced by endogenous MLVs. We propose that ICSBP might be involved in an early modulation of an immune response to exogenous MLVs that might also play a role in proliferation of the mature B-cell lymphomas.

Ma Shiliang [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Aarhus, C.F. Mollers Alle, Bldg. 130, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Sorensen, Annette Balle [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Aarhus, C.F. Mollers Alle, Bldg. 130, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Kunder, Sandra [Institute of Pathology, GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Sorensen, Karina Dalsgaard [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Aarhus, C.F. Mollers Alle, Bldg. 130, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia [Institute of Pathology, GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Morris, David W. [Sagres Discovery, Davis, CA 95617 (United States); Schmidt, Joerg [Department of Comparative Medicine, GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Pedersen, Finn Skou [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Aarhus, C.F. Mollers Alle, Bldg. 130, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)]. E-mail: fsp@mb.au.dk

2006-09-01

260

Oxylipin Biosynthesis Genes Positively Regulate Programmed Cell Death during Compatible Infections with the Synergistic Pair Potato Virus X-Potato Virus Y and Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus  

PubMed Central

One of the most severe symptoms caused by compatible plant-virus interactions is systemic necrosis, which shares common attributes with the hypersensitive response to incompatible pathogens. Although several studies have identified viral symptom determinants responsible for systemic necrosis, mechanistic models of how they contribute to necrosis in infected plants remain scarce. Here, we examined the involvement of different branches of the oxylipin biosynthesis pathway in the systemic necrosis response caused either by the synergistic interaction of Potato virus X with Potato virus Y (PVX-PVY) or by Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in Nicotiana benthamiana. Silencing either 9-lipoxygenase (LOX), 13-LOX, or ?-dioxygenase-1 (?-DOX-1) attenuated the programmed cell death (PCD)-associated symptoms caused by infection with either PVX-PVY or TSWV. In contrast, silencing of the jasmonic acid perception gene, COI1 (Coronatine insensitive 1), expedited cell death during infection with compatible viruses. This correlated with an enhanced expression of oxylipin biosynthesis genes and dioxygenase activity in PVX-PVY-infected plants. Moreover, the Arabidopsis thaliana double lox1 ?-dox-1 mutant became less susceptible to TSWV infection. We conclude that oxylipin metabolism is a critical component that positively regulates the process of PCD during compatible plant-virus interactions but does not play a role in restraining virus accumulation in planta.

Garcia-Marcos, Alberto; Pacheco, Remedios; Manzano, Aranzazu; Aguilar, Emmanuel

2013-01-01

261

Hepatocellular carcinoma in patients co-infected with hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus.  

PubMed

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) share a common route of transmission so that about one third of HIV infected individuals show HCV co-infection. Highly active antiretroviral therapy has offered a longer and better life to infected patients. While has removed AIDS-related diseases from the list of most common causes of death their place has been taken by complications of HCV infection, such as cirrhosis, end stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HIV/HCV co-infection requires complex management, especially when HCC is present. Co-infected patients with HCC undergo the same therapeutic protocol as their mono-infected counterparts, but special issues such as interaction between regimens, withdrawal of therapy and choice of immunosuppressive agents, demand a careful approach by specialists. All these issues are analyzed in this minireview. PMID:23805356

Dimitroulis, Dimitrios; Valsami, Serena; Spartalis, Eleftherios; Pikoulis, Emmanuel; Kouraklis, Gregory

2013-06-27

262

Virus Movement Maintains Local Virus Population Diversity  

SciTech Connect

Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material.

J. Snyder; B. Wiedenheft; M. Lavin; F. Roberto; J. Spuhler; A. Ortmann; T. Douglas; M. Young

2007-11-01

263

Common Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A web resource that contains Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Numbers for approximately 7,800 chemicals of widespread general public interest. Common Chemistry is helpful to non-chemists who know either a name or CAS Registry Number® of a common chemical and want to pair both pieces of information.

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)

264

Cooperative shared memory: software and hardware for scalable multiprocessors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We believe the paucity of massively parallel, shared-memory machines follows from the lack of a shared-memory programming performance model that can inform programmers of the cost of operations (so they can avoid expensive ones) and can tell hardware designers which cases are common (so they can build simple hardware to optimize them). Cooperative shared memory, our approach to shared-memory design,

Mark D. Hill; James R. Larus; Steven K. Reinhardt; David A. Wood

1993-01-01

265

Metabolism and proliferation share common regulatory pathways in cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Cancer development involves major alterations of cells’ metabolism. Enhanced glycolysis and de novo fatty acids synthesis are indeed characteristic features of cancer. Cell proliferation and metabolism are tightly linked cellular processes. Others and we have previously demonstrated a close relationship between metabolic responses and proliferative stimuli. In addition to trigger proliferative and survival signaling pathways, most oncoproteins also trigger metabolic changes in order to transform the cell. We present herein the view that participation of cell-cycle regulators and oncogenic proteins to cancer development extend beyond the control of cell proliferation, and discuss how these new functions may be implicated in metabolic alterations concomitant to the pathogenesis of human cancers.

Fritz, Vanessa; Fajas, Lluis

2010-01-01

266

Share with thy neighbors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peer to peer (P2P) systems are traditionally designed to scale to a large number of nodes. However, we focus on scenarios where the sharing is effected only among neighbors. Localized sharing is particularly attractive in scenarios where wide area network connectivity is undesirable, expensive or unavailable. On the other hand, local neighbors may not offer the wide variety of objects possible in a much larger system. The goal of this paper is to investigate a P2P system that shares contents with its neighbors. We analyze the sharing behavior of Apple iTunes users in an University setting. iTunes restricts the sharing of audio and video objects to peers within the same LAN sub-network. We show that users are already making a significant amount of content available for local sharing. We show that these systems are not appropriate for applications that require access to a specific object. We argue that mechanisms that allow the user to specify classes of interesting objects are better suited for these systems. Mechanisms such as bloom filters can allow each peer to summarize the contents available in the neighborhood, reducing network search overhead. This research can form the basis for future storage systems that utilize the shared storage available in neighbors and build a probabilistic storage for local consumption.

Chandra, Surendar; Yu, Xuwen

2007-01-01

267

A contribution to the parasite fauna in winter nests of the common mole (Talpa europaea L.) and incidence of its infection with tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBE) and rickettsia Coxiella burnetii.  

PubMed

A total of 45 winter nests of the common mole (Talpa europaea L.) from the Záhorska lowland (western Slovakia) were investigated in January through March during the years 1981-1985. Seven species of fleas with the eudominant species Ctenophthalmus assimilis were found in them, the other species were subrecedent. The acarinium of the mole winter nests was composed of 19 mite species. Predominant were euryphagous species Haemogamasus nidi, H. hirsutus, Eulaelaps stabularis and Androlaelaps fahrenholzi. TBE virus was detected in samples prepared from suspensions of the mites H. nidi, H. hirsutus, Hirstionyssus talpae and A. fahrenholzi and the fleas Ct. assimilis collected in three localities: Laksárska Nová Ves, Stupava, Pernek. C. burnetii was found neither in mites nor in fleas. PMID:3169646

Kocianová, E; Kozuch, O

1988-01-01

268

On secret sharing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract-A,“secret sharing,system”,permits,a secret,to be shared among n trustees in such a way that any k of them can recover the secret, but any k - 1 have complete,uncertainty,about it. A linear coding,scheme for secret sharing is exhibited which subsumes,the polynomial,interpolation method,proposed,by Shamir,and,can also he viewed,as a deterministic version of Blakley’s probabilistic method. Bounds on the maximum,value of n for a

Ehud D. Karnin; J. W. Greene; Martin E. Hellman

1983-01-01

269

Efficient dsRNA-mediated transgenic resistance to Beet necrotic yellow vein virus in sugar beets is not affected by other soilborne and aphid-transmitted viruses.  

PubMed

Rhizomania caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) is one of the most devastating sugar beet diseases. Sugar beet plants engineered to express a 0.4 kb inverted repeat construct based on the BNYVV replicase gene accumulated the transgene mRNA to similar levels in leaves and roots, whereas accumulation of the transgene-homologous siRNA was more pronounced in roots. The roots expressed high levels of resistance to BNYVV transmitted by the vector, Polymyxa betae. Resistance to BNYVV was not decreased following co-infection of the plants with Beet soil borne virus and Beet virus Q that share the same vector with BNYVV. Similarly, co-infection with the aphid-transmitted Beet mild yellowing virus, Beet yellows virus (BYV), or with all of the aforementioned viruses did not affect the resistance to BNYVV, while they accumulated in roots. These viruses are common in most of the sugar beet growing areas in Europe and world wide. However, there was a competitive interaction between BYV and BMYV in sugar beet leaves, as infection with BYV decreased the titres of BMYV. Other interactions between the viruses studied were not observed. The results suggest that the engineered resistance to BNYVV expressed in the sugar beets of this study is efficient in roots and not readily compromised following infection of the plants with heterologous viruses. PMID:17431806

Lennefors, Britt-Louise; van Roggen, Petra M; Yndgaard, Flemming; Savenkov, Eugene I; Valkonen, Jari P T

2007-04-13

270

Functional differentiation in the leucine-rich repeat domains of closely related plant virus-resistance proteins that recognize common avr proteins.  

PubMed

The N' gene of Nicotiana sylvestris and L genes of Capsicum plants confer the resistance response accompanying the hypersensitive response (HR) elicited by tobamovirus coat proteins (CP) but with different viral specificities. Here, we report the identification of the N' gene. We amplified and cloned an N' candidate using polymerase chain reaction primers designed from L gene sequences. The N' candidate gene was a single 4143 base pairs fragment encoding a coiled-coil nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-type resistance protein of 1,380 amino acids. The candidate gene induced the HR in response to the coexpression of tobamovirus CP with the identical specificity as reported for N'. Analysis of N'-containing and tobamovirus-susceptible N. tabacum accessions supported the hypothesis that the candidate is the N' gene itself. Chimera analysis between N' and L(3) revealed that their LRR domains determine the spectrum of their tobamovirus CP recognition. Deletion and mutation analyses of N' and L(3) revealed that the conserved sequences in their C-terminal regions have important roles but contribute differentially to the recognition of common avirulence proteins. The results collectively suggest that Nicotiana N' and Capsicum L genes, which most likely evolved from a common ancestor, differentiated in their recognition specificity through changes in the structural requirements for LRR function. PMID:22690804

Sekine, Ken-Taro; Tomita, Reiko; Takeuchi, Shigeharu; Atsumi, Go; Saitoh, Hiromasa; Mizumoto, Hiroyuki; Kiba, Akinori; Yamaoka, Naoto; Nishiguchi, Masamichi; Hikichi, Yasufumi; Kobayashi, Kappei

2012-09-01

271

Oncolytic myxoma virus: the path to clinic.  

PubMed

Many common neoplasms are still noncurative with current standards of cancer therapy. More therapeutic modalities need to be developed to significantly prolong the lives of patients and eventually cure a wider spectrum of cancers. Oncolytic virotherapy is one of the promising new additions to clinical cancer therapeutics. Successful oncolytic virotherapy in the clinic will be those strategies that best combine tumor cell oncolysis with enhanced immune responses against tumor antigens. The current candidate oncolytic viruses all share the common property that they are relatively nonpathogenic to humans, yet they have the ability to replicate selectively in human cancer cells and induce cancer regression by direct oncolysis and/or induction of improved anti-tumor immune responses. Many candidate oncolytic viruses are in various stages of clinical and preclinical development. One such preclinical candidate is myxoma virus (MYXV), a member of the Poxviridae family that, in its natural setting, exhibits a very restricted host range and is only pathogenic to European rabbits. Despite its narrow host range in nature, MYXV has been shown to productively infect various classes of human cancer cells. Several preclinical in vivo modeling studies have demonstrated that MYXV is an attractive and safe candidate oncolytic virus, and hence, MYXV is currently being developed as a potential therapeutic for several cancers, such as pancreatic cancer, glioblastoma, ovarian cancer, melanoma, and hematologic malignancies. This review highlights the preclinical cancer models that have shown the most promise for translation of MYXV into human clinical trials. PMID:23726825

Chan, Winnie M; Rahman, Masmudur M; McFadden, Grant

2013-05-29

272

RACE pulls for shared control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maintaining and supporting an aircraft fleet, in a climate of reduced manpower and financial resources, dictates effective utilization of robotics and automation technologies. To help develop a winning robotics and automation program the Air Force Logistics Command created the Robotics and Automation Center of Excellence (RACE). RACE is a command wide focal point. Race is an organic source of expertise to assist the Air Logistic Center (ALC) product directorates in improving process productivity through the judicious insertion of robotics and automation technologies. RACE is a champion for pulling emerging technologies into the aircraft logistic centers. One of those technology pulls is shared control. Small batch sizes, feature uncertainty, and varying work load conspire to make classic industrial robotic solutions impractical. One can view ALC process problems in the context of space robotics without the time delay. The ALC's will benefit greatly from the implementation of a common architecture that supports a range of control actions from fully autonomous to teleoperated. Working with national laboratories and private industry, we hope to transition shared control technology to the depot floor. This paper provides an overview of the RACE internal initiatives and customer support, with particular emphasis on production processes that will benefit from shared control technology.

Leahy, M. B., Jr.; Cassiday, B. K.

1993-02-01

273

RACE pulls for shared control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maintaining and supporting an aircraft fleet, in a climate of reduced manpower and financial resources, dictates effective utilization of robotics and automation technologies. To help develop a winning robotics and automation program the Air Force Logistics Command created the Robotics and Automation Center of Excellence (RACE). RACE is a command wide focal point. An organic source of expertise to assist the Air Logistic Center (ALC) product directorates in improving process productivity through the judicious insertion of robotics and automation technologies. RACE is a champion for pulling emerging technologies into the aircraft logistic centers. One of those technology pulls is shared control. The small batch sizes, feature uncertainty, and varying work load conspire to make classic industrial robotic solutions impractical. One can view ALC process problems in the context of space robotics without the time delay. The ALCs will benefit greatly from the implementation of a common architecture that supports a range of control actions from fully autonomous to teleoperated. Working with national laboratories and private industry we hope to transition shared control technology to the depot floor. This paper provides an overview of the RACE internal initiatives and customer support, with particular emphasis on production processes that will benefit from shared control technology.

Leahy, Michael B.; Cassiday, Brian K.

1992-11-01

274

Culture as shared cognitive representations.  

PubMed Central

Culture consists of shared cognitive representations in the minds of individuals. This paper investigates the extent to which English speakers share the "same" semantic structure of English kinship terms. The semantic structure is defined as the arrangement of the terms relative to each other as represented in a metric space in which items judged more similar are placed closer to each other than items judged as less similar. The cognitive representation of the semantic structure, residing in the mind of an individual, is measured by judged similarity tasks involving comparisons among terms. Using six independent measurements, from each of 122 individuals, correspondence analysis represents the data in a common multidimensional spatial representation. Judged by a variety of statistical procedures, the individuals in our sample share virtually identical cognitive representations of the semantic structure of kinship terms. This model of culture accounts for 70-90% of the total variability in these data. We argue that our findings on kinship should generalize to all semantic domains--e.g., animals, emotions, etc. The investigation of semantic domains is important because they may reside in localized functional units in the brain, because they relate to a variety of cognitive processes, and because they have the potential to provide methods for diagnosing individual breakdowns in the structure of cognitive representations typical of such ailments as Alzheimer disease.

Romney, A K; Boyd, J P; Moore, C C; Batchelder, W H; Brazill, T J

1996-01-01

275

Beyond Processor Sharing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

While the (Egalitarian) Processor-Sharing (PS) discipline offers crucial insights in the performance of fair resource allocation mechanisms, it is inherently limited in analyzing and designing differentiated scheduling algorithms such as Weighted Fair Que...

R. Nunez Queija S. Aalto S. C. Borst U. Ayesta V. Misra

2007-01-01

276

A Sharing Proposition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how the University of Vermont and St. Michael's College in Burlington, Vermont cooperated to share a single card access system. Discusses the planning, financial, and marketplace advantages of the cooperation. (EV)

Sturgeon, Julie

2002-01-01

277

Captioning: Shared Perspectives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The conference format was designed to allow meetings of special interest groups as well as to facilitate sharing among all participants. The whole group participated in several sessions addressing different philosophies of captioning, including verbatim a...

B. Braverman B. Cronin M. Hertzog

1979-01-01

278

Share Food Scorebook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This case study scorebook was developed as an instructional tool for the 2007 Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award Examiner Preparation Course. A team of experienced Baldrige Examiners evaluated the Share Food Case Study, using the Independent and Cons...

2007-01-01

279

Shared Mental Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The notion of a shared mental model is well known in the literature regarding team work among humans. It has been used to\\u000a explain team functioning. The idea is that team performance improves if team members have a shared understanding of the task\\u000a that is to be performed and of the involved team work. We maintain that the notion of

Catholijn M. Jonker; M. Birna van Riemsdijk; Bas Vermeulen

280

Hierarchical Threshold Secret Sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of threshold secret sharing in groups with hierarchical structure. In such settings, the secret is\\u000a shared among a group of participants that is partitioned into levels. The access structure is then determined by a sequence\\u000a of threshold requirements: a subset of participants is authorized if it has at least k0 0 members from the highest level,

Tamir Tassa

2007-01-01

281

Deformed wing virus implicated in overwintering honeybee colony losses.  

PubMed

The worldwide decline in honeybee colonies during the past 50 years has often been linked to the spread of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and its interaction with certain honeybee viruses. Recently in the United States, dramatic honeybee losses (colony collapse disorder) have been reported; however, there remains no clear explanation for these colony losses, with parasitic mites, viruses, bacteria, and fungal diseases all being proposed as possible candidates. Common characteristics that most failing colonies share is a lack of overt disease symptoms and the disappearance of workers from what appears to be normally functioning colonies. In this study, we used quantitative PCR to monitor the presence of three honeybee viruses, deformed wing virus (DWV), acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), and black queen cell virus (BQCV), during a 1-year period in 15 asymptomatic, varroa mite-positive honeybee colonies in Southern England, and 3 asymptomatic colonies confirmed to be varroa mite free. All colonies with varroa mites underwent control treatments to ensure that mite populations remained low throughout the study. Despite this, multiple virus infections were detected, yet a significant correlation was observed only between DWV viral load and overwintering colony losses. The long-held view has been that DWV is relatively harmless to the overall health status of honeybee colonies unless it is in association with severe varroa mite infestations. Our findings suggest that DWV can potentially act independently of varroa mites to bring about colony losses. Therefore, DWV may be a major factor in overwintering colony losses. PMID:19783750

Highfield, Andrea C; El Nagar, Aliya; Mackinder, Luke C M; Noël, Laure M-L J; Hall, Matthew J; Martin, Stephen J; Schroeder, Declan C

2009-09-25

282

Deformed Wing Virus Implicated in Overwintering Honeybee Colony Losses ?  

PubMed Central

The worldwide decline in honeybee colonies during the past 50 years has often been linked to the spread of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and its interaction with certain honeybee viruses. Recently in the United States, dramatic honeybee losses (colony collapse disorder) have been reported; however, there remains no clear explanation for these colony losses, with parasitic mites, viruses, bacteria, and fungal diseases all being proposed as possible candidates. Common characteristics that most failing colonies share is a lack of overt disease symptoms and the disappearance of workers from what appears to be normally functioning colonies. In this study, we used quantitative PCR to monitor the presence of three honeybee viruses, deformed wing virus (DWV), acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), and black queen cell virus (BQCV), during a 1-year period in 15 asymptomatic, varroa mite-positive honeybee colonies in Southern England, and 3 asymptomatic colonies confirmed to be varroa mite free. All colonies with varroa mites underwent control treatments to ensure that mite populations remained low throughout the study. Despite this, multiple virus infections were detected, yet a significant correlation was observed only between DWV viral load and overwintering colony losses. The long-held view has been that DWV is relatively harmless to the overall health status of honeybee colonies unless it is in association with severe varroa mite infestations. Our findings suggest that DWV can potentially act independently of varroa mites to bring about colony losses. Therefore, DWV may be a major factor in overwintering colony losses.

Highfield, Andrea C.; El Nagar, Aliya; Mackinder, Luke C. M.; Noel, Laure M.-L. J.; Hall, Matthew J.; Martin, Stephen J.; Schroeder, Declan C.

2009-01-01

283

Comparative genomic analysis of hyperthermophilic archaeal fuselloviridae viruses  

SciTech Connect

The complete genome sequences of two Sulfolobus spindle-shaped viruses (SSVs) from acidic hot springs in Kamchatka (Russia) and Yellowstone National Park (United States) have been determined. These nonlytic temperate viruses were isolated from hyperthermophilic Sulfolobus hosts, and both viruses share the spindleshaped morphology characteristic of the Fuselloviridae family. These two genomes, in combination with the previously determined SSV1 genome from Japan and the SSV2 genome from Iceland, have allowed us to carry out a phylogenetic comparison of these geographically distributed hyperthermal viruses. Each virus contains a circular double-stranded DNA genome of _15 kbp with approximately 34 open reading frames (ORFs). These Fusellovirus ORFs show little or no similarity to genes in the public databases. In contrast, 18 ORFs are common to all four isolates and may represent the minimal gene set defining this viral group. In general, ORFs on one half of the genome are colinear and highly conserved, while ORFs on the other half are not. One shared ORF among all four genomes is an integrase of the tyrosine recombinase family. All four viral genomes integrate into their host tRNA genes. The specific tRNA gene used for integration varies, and one genome integrates into multiple loci. Several unique ORFs are found in the genome of each isolate.

B. Wiedenheft; K. Stedman; F. Roberto; D. Willits; A. K. Gleske; L. Zoeller; J. Snyder; T. Douglas; M. Young

2004-02-01

284

Why Do We Keep Catching the Common Cold?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes activities for biology teachers that will stimulate discussions on virus structure, cell biology, rhino viruses, and new trends in treating the common cold. Provides opportunity for inquiry and problem solving in exercises that emphasize an understanding of how common cold viruses might pack inside nasal epithelial cells. (14…

Gillen, Alan L.; Mayor, Heather D.

1995-01-01

285

Theory of quantum secret sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

I present a variety of results on the theory of quantum secret sharing. I show that any mixed state quantum secret sharing scheme can be derived by discarding a share from a pure state scheme, and that the size of each share in a quantum secret sharing scheme must be at least as large as the size of the secret.

Daniel Gottesman

2000-01-01

286

Adding an Rb-binding site to an N-terminally truncated simian virus 40 T antigen restores growth to high cell density, and the T common region in trans provides anchorage-independent growth and rapid growth in low serum concentrations.  

PubMed

The simian virus 40 large T antigen is sufficient to confer on cells multiple transformed cell growth characteristics, including growth to a high cell density, rapid growth in medium containing low serum concentrations, and anchorage-independent growth. We showed previously that distinct regions of the protein were involved in conferring these properties and that removal of the first 127 amino acids of T antigen abrogated all three activities. At least three large-T-antigen transformation-related activities have been localized to that region: binding of the tumor suppressor gene product Rb and two independent activities contained within the common region shared by large T and small t antigens. The experiments described here were directed toward determining whether these were the only activities from the N terminus that were needed. To do so we reintroduced an Rb-binding region into the N-terminally truncated T antigen (T128-708) and examined the growth properties of cells immortalized by it in the presence and absence of small t antigen, which can provide the T-common-region transformation-related activities in trans. We show that an Rb-binding region consisting of amino acids 101 to 118, when introduced into a heterologous site in T128-708, is capable of physically binding Rb and that binding is sufficient for cells expressing the protein to acquire the ability to grow to a high saturation density. However, in low-serum medium, the growth rate of the cells and maximal cell density are reduced relative to those of wild-type-T-antigen-expressing cells, and the cells cannot divide without anchorage. This result suggests that although Rb binding is sufficient in the context of T128-708 to confer growth to a high density, one or more other N-terminally located T-antigen activities are needed for cells to acquire the additional growth properties. Small t antigen in trans supplied those activities. These results indicate that the T-common-region activities and Rb binding are the only activities from the T-antigen N terminus needed to restore full transforming activity to the N-terminally truncated T antigen. PMID:9032319

Tevethia, M J; Lacko, H A; Kierstead, T D; Thompson, D L

1997-03-01

287

Adding an Rb-binding site to an N-terminally truncated simian virus 40 T antigen restores growth to high cell density, and the T common region in trans provides anchorage-independent growth and rapid growth in low serum concentrations.  

PubMed Central

The simian virus 40 large T antigen is sufficient to confer on cells multiple transformed cell growth characteristics, including growth to a high cell density, rapid growth in medium containing low serum concentrations, and anchorage-independent growth. We showed previously that distinct regions of the protein were involved in conferring these properties and that removal of the first 127 amino acids of T antigen abrogated all three activities. At least three large-T-antigen transformation-related activities have been localized to that region: binding of the tumor suppressor gene product Rb and two independent activities contained within the common region shared by large T and small t antigens. The experiments described here were directed toward determining whether these were the only activities from the N terminus that were needed. To do so we reintroduced an Rb-binding region into the N-terminally truncated T antigen (T128-708) and examined the growth properties of cells immortalized by it in the presence and absence of small t antigen, which can provide the T-common-region transformation-related activities in trans. We show that an Rb-binding region consisting of amino acids 101 to 118, when introduced into a heterologous site in T128-708, is capable of physically binding Rb and that binding is sufficient for cells expressing the protein to acquire the ability to grow to a high saturation density. However, in low-serum medium, the growth rate of the cells and maximal cell density are reduced relative to those of wild-type-T-antigen-expressing cells, and the cells cannot divide without anchorage. This result suggests that although Rb binding is sufficient in the context of T128-708 to confer growth to a high density, one or more other N-terminally located T-antigen activities are needed for cells to acquire the additional growth properties. Small t antigen in trans supplied those activities. These results indicate that the T-common-region activities and Rb binding are the only activities from the T-antigen N terminus needed to restore full transforming activity to the N-terminally truncated T antigen.

Tevethia, M J; Lacko, H A; Kierstead, T D; Thompson, D L

1997-01-01

288

Range-wide genetic population structure of common pochard (Aythya ferina): a potentially important vector of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses  

PubMed Central

An understanding of the distribution and spatial structure of the natural vectors of zoonothic pathogens is of interest for effective disease control and prevention. Here, we investigate the range-wide population genetic structure of common pochard (Aythya ferina), a long-distance migratory duck and potential vector of highly pathogenic avian influenza. We collected several hundred samples from breeding and wintering grounds across Eurasia including some H5N1-positive individuals and generated partial sequences of the mitochondrial control region and multilocus microsatellite genotypes. Genetic differentiation among breeding populations was significant for both marker types but higher for maternally inherited mtDNA than for biparentally inherited nuclear markers. There was only weak genetic divergence between ducks sampled in Europe and East Asia, and genetic differentiation between populations was not generally associated with geographical distance. No evidence of genetic substructure was detected for ducks sampled on the European wintering grounds. Our results suggest limited breeding-site fidelity, especially in females, but extensive population admixture on the wintering grounds. The specific role of pochards as natural vectors of zoonotic pathogens and in particular H5N1 remains to be clarified but our results point to wintering grounds as potential hotspots for disease transmission.

Liu, Yang; Keller, Irene; Heckel, Gerald

2011-01-01

289

Hadza meat sharing.  

PubMed

In most human foraging societies, the meat of large animals is widely shared. Many assume that people follow this practice because it helps to reduce the risk inherent in big game hunting. In principle, a hunter can offset the chance of many hungry days by exchanging some of the meat earned from a successful strike for shares in future kills made by other hunters. If hunting and its associated risks of failure have great antiquity, then meat sharing might have been the evolutionary foundation for many other distinctively human patterns of social exchange. Here we use previously unpublished data from the Tanzanian Hadza to test hypotheses drawn from a simple version of this argument. Results indicate that Hadza meat sharing does not fit the expectations of risk-reduction reciprocity. We comment on some variations of the "sharing as exchange" argument; then elaborate an alternative based partly on the observation that a successful hunter does not control the distribution of his kill. Instead of family provisioning, his goal may be to enhance his status as a desirable neighbor. If correct, this alternative argument has implications for the evolution of men's work. PMID:11282309

Hawkes, K; O'Connell, J F.; Blurton Jones, N G.

2001-03-01

290

Common Beans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the most widely cultivated legumes in the world, occupying over 27 million hectares of tropical and temperate\\u000a agricultural land in the Americas, Europe, Africa and Asia (FAO, 2003). The genus Phaseolus is of American origin and comprises over 30 species (Debouck, 1999). P. vulgaris is the most widely grown legume, occupying

Francisco J. Morales

291

Molecular Evolution of Viruses of the Family Filoviridae Based on 97 Whole-Genome Sequences  

PubMed Central

Viruses in the Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus genera (family Filoviridae) have been associated with large outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever in human and nonhuman primates. The first documented cases occurred in primates over 45 years ago, but the amount of virus genetic diversity detected within bat populations, which have recently been identified as potential reservoir hosts, suggests that the filoviruses are much older. Here, detailed Bayesian coalescent phylogenetic analyses are performed on 97 whole-genome sequences, 55 of which are newly reported, to comprehensively examine molecular evolutionary rates and estimate dates of common ancestry for viruses within the family Filoviridae. Molecular evolutionary rates for viruses belonging to different species range from 0.46 × 10?4 nucleotide substitutions/site/year for Sudan ebolavirus to 8.21 × 10?4 nucleotide substitutions/site/year for Reston ebolavirus. Most recent common ancestry can be traced back only within the last 50 years for Reston ebolavirus and Zaire ebolavirus species and suggests that viruses within these species may have undergone recent genetic bottlenecks. Viruses within Marburg marburgvirus and Sudan ebolavirus species can be traced back further and share most recent common ancestors approximately 700 and 850 years before the present, respectively. Examination of the whole family suggests that members of the Filoviridae, including the recently described Lloviu virus, shared a most recent common ancestor approximately 10,000 years ago. These data will be valuable for understanding the evolution of filoviruses in the context of natural history as new reservoir hosts are identified and, further, for determining mechanisms of emergence, pathogenicity, and the ongoing threat to public health.

Carroll, Serena A.; Towner, Jonathan S.; Sealy, Tara K.; McMullan, Laura K.; Khristova, Marina L.; Burt, Felicity J.; Swanepoel, Robert; Rollin, Pierre E.

2013-01-01

292

Structural Studies of the Parainfluenza Virus 5 Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase Tetramer in Complex with Its Receptor, Sialyllactose  

SciTech Connect

The paramyxovirus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) functions in virus attachment to cells, cleavage of sialic acid from oligosaccharides, and stimulating membrane fusion during virus entry into cells. The structural basis for these diverse functions remains to be fully understood. We report the crystal structures of the parainfluenza virus 5 (SV5) HN and its complexes with sialic acid, the inhibitor DANA, and the receptor sialyllactose. SV5 HN shares common structural features with HN of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and human parainfluenza 3 (HPIV3), but unlike the previously determined HN structures, the SV5 HN forms a tetramer in solution, which is thought to be the physiological oligomer. The sialyllactose complex reveals intact receptor within the active site, but no major conformational changes in the protein. The SV5 HN structures do not support previously proposed models for HN action in membrane fusion and suggest alternative mechanisms by which HN may promote virus entry into cells.

Yuan, Ping; Thompson, Thomas B.; Wurzburg, Beth A.; Paterson, Reay G.; Lamb, Robert A.; Jardetzky, Theodore S. (NWU)

2010-03-08

293

Sinusitis in the common cold  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Acute community-acquired sinusitis is considered a bacterial complication of the common cold. Radiologic abnormalities in sinuses occur, however, in most patients with upper respiratory virus infections.Objective: Assessment of the occurrence, clinical profile, laboratory findings, and outcome of radiologically confirmed sinusitis was carried out as part of a common cold study in young adults.Methods: Clinical examinations and radiography of the

Tuomo Puhakka; Mika J. Mäkelä; Anu Alanen; Timo Kallio; Leo Korsoff; Pertti Arstila; Maija Leinonen; Markku Pulkkinen; Jouko Suonpää; Jussi Mertsola; Olli Ruuskanen

1998-01-01

294

Coalition Information Sharing: Lessons from Kosovo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased civil-military involvement in peacekeeping and humanitarian operations around the world is matched in part by the rise in the number and complexity of these situations. There are many more actors on today's peace operations battlefield with competing as well as common interests and expectations. The need to improve coordination and more open information sharing is on the rise. Efforts

Larry K. Wentz

295

Shared Practices, Understanding, Language and Joint Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In responding to the commentaries from Hobson (2007), Moore (2007) and Rakoczy (2007), we first discuss the commonalities our approach has with other theories and then elaborate on the nature of shared practices and their relationship with language and understanding. We then address views of representation, arguing against an empiricist approach…

Racine, Timothy P.; Carpendale, Jeremy I. M.

2007-01-01

296

The Share 709 System: A Cooperative Effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

SHARE was created in August 1955. From the beginning, its aim has been to reduce redundant effort among various users of the IBM 704, insofar as the preparation of commonly used routines is concerned. The organization has operated on a cooperative basis—establishing a standard language of communication and exchanging a large number of programs which form the tools for effectively

Donald L. Shell

1959-01-01

297

Performance of shared cache for parallel-pipelined computer systems  

SciTech Connect

Shared-cache memory organizations for parallel-pipelined multiple instruction stream processors avoid the cache coherence problem of private caches by sharing single copies of common blocks. A shared cache may have a higher hit ratio, but suffers performance degradation due to access conflicts. Effective shared cache organizations are proposed which retain the cache coherency advantage and which have very low access conflict even with very high request rates. Analytic expressions for performance based on a Markov model have been found for several important cases. Performance of shared cache organizations and design tradeoffs are discussed. 12 references.

Yeh, P.C.C.; Patel, J.H.; Davidson, E.S.

1983-01-01

298

New common fragile sites.  

PubMed

We report the finding of a large number of new common fragile sites. Thirty-one (56%) of 55 common fragile sites found in a sample of human lymphocytes were ones not described at the Eighth International Workshop on Human Gene Mapping (HGM 8). The sample consisted of 3023 lymphocytes from nine unrelated individuals with a history of genitourinary malignancy. The lymphocytes were challenged in culture with aphidicolin (Apc), fluorodeoxyuridine (FUdR), 5-azacytidine (Aza), and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Thirteen of the new common fragile sites were induced by Apc and FUdR, nine by Aza, five by BrdU, and four by combined means. The sites induced by Apc and FUdR were cross-induced by BrdU. The fragile sites induced by a diminished concentration of Aza were largely located in heterochromatic regions and were cross-induced by BrdU and FUdR. Exposure to BrdU for 24 hours, a technique hitherto restricted to rare fragile sites, induced several common fragile sites. Control lymphocytes had far fewer gaps and breaks, but these were clustered predominantly at high-expression fragile sites. Because more than half of the common fragile sites in this study were new, it is clear that much remains to be learned. Because the classes of fragile sites reveal cross-induction, we propose that fragile sites share structures in DNA. PMID:2454726

Hecht, F; Tajara, E H; Lockwood, D; Sandberg, A A; Hecht, B K

1988-07-01

299

The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of Barley yellow dwarf virus-RMV reveals it to be a new Polerovirus distantly related to other yellow dwarf viruses  

PubMed Central

The yellow dwarf viruses (YDVs) of the Luteoviridae family represent the most widespread group of cereal viruses worldwide. They include the Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs) of genus Luteovirus, the Cereal yellow dwarf viruses (CYDVs) and Wheat yellow dwarf virus (WYDV) of genus Polerovirus. All of these viruses are obligately aphid transmitted and phloem-limited. The first described YDVs (initially all called BYDV) were classified by their most efficient vector. One of these viruses, BYDV-RMV, is transmitted most efficiently by the corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis. Here we report the complete 5612 nucleotide sequence of the genomic RNA of a Montana isolate of BYDV-RMV (isolate RMV MTFE87, Genbank accession no. KC921392). The sequence revealed that BYDV-RMV is a polerovirus, but it is quite distantly related to the CYDVs or WYDV, which are very closely related to each other. Nor is BYDV-RMV closely related to any other particular polerovirus. Depending on the gene that is compared, different poleroviruses (none of them a YDV) share the most sequence similarity to BYDV-RMV. Because of its distant relationship to other YDVs, and because it commonly infects maize via its vector, R. maidis, we propose that BYDV-RMV be renamed Maize yellow dwarf virus-RMV (MYDV-RMV).

Krueger, Elizabeth N.; Beckett, Randy J.; Gray, Stewart M.; Miller, W. Allen

2013-01-01

300

The Sharing Tree: Preschool Children Learn to Share.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes a learning activity in which preschool children learn cooperative skills and metacognitive strategies as they master sharing strategies guided by leaves on a "sharing tree." Leaf colors (red, yellow, green) cue the child to stop, slow down and think about sharing and playing with others, and go ahead with a sharing…

Wolf, Arlene; Fine, Elaine

1996-01-01

301

Think before You Share  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in the US are increasingly discovering that online socializing is far from private and that sharing personal details on social-networking Web sites, such as Facebook, can have unintended consequences. A growing number of colleges are moving to disabuse students of the notion that the Internet is their private playground and what they type…

Read, Brock

2006-01-01

302

Information Hiding: Sharing Secrets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity about cryptographic techniques illustrates a situation where information is shared, and yet none of it is revealed. A group of learners will calculate their average age without anyone revealing their own age. Use this activity to introduce learners to cryptographic protocols and internet security/privacy issues. Variations, extensions, background information, and further reading suggestions are included in the PDF.

Bell, Tim; Witten, Ian; Fellows, Mike

1998-01-01

303

Sharing Research Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are many ways to share a collection of data and students' thinking about that data. Explaining the results of science inquiry is important--working scientists and amateurs both contribute information to the body of scientific knowledge. Students can collect data about an activity that is already happening in a classroom (e.g., the qualities…

Ashbrook, Peggy

2011-01-01

304

The Shared Information Network.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of shared information networks within organizations to decrease information hoarding and maximize operating efficiencies. Network development issues discussed include choosing the department responsible for development, selecting information to be included in the network, designing the information format, distribution strategies,…

Stanat, Ruth

1990-01-01

305

DNA Secret Sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the paper is to obtain a DNA secret sharing scheme for general access structure that plays an important role in cryptography. Our scheme involves two very simple DNA computing techniques known as mixing and DNA sequencing. The simplicity of these two techniques and the compact nature of DNA make the system easy to implement. Moreover the scheme

Avishek Adhikari

2006-01-01

306

Think before You Share  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students in the US are increasingly discovering that online socializing is far from private and that sharing personal details on social-networking Web sites, such as Facebook, can have unintended consequences. A growing number of colleges are moving to disabuse students of the notion that the Internet is their private playground and what they…

Read, Brock

2006-01-01

307

Secret Sharing and Splitting  

Microsoft Academic Search

From nuclear weapons to governments to class projects, the prob- lem of mistrust in any working relationship requires a secure system to prevent access, power, or information from being compromised by a single member, or a small group of members. While our project does not claim unbreakable security for high-level government secrets, the concept of Secret Sharing or Secret Splitting

Laurence Grant; Brian Fleming

308

Market Share Reports Catalog.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This 20 page pamphlet describes and lists the Market Share Reports, which are prepared and published annually by the Bureau of International Commerce. The catalog contains a table of contents; a complete listing of the 73 country and 1,109 commodity repor...

1972-01-01

309

Sharing Expertise: Consulting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A special breed of superintendents who have developed expertise in a particular area find ways of sharing it in other venues as outside consultants. They pull extra duty to put their special skills into practice, to give back to their communities, to stay current and grounded in the field, or to enhance their professional reputations. They teach…

Graves, Bill

2011-01-01

310

Illegal File Sharing 101  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Much of higher education's unease arises from the cost of dealing with illegal file sharing. Illinois State University, for example, calculated a cost of $76 to process a first claim of copyright infringement and $146 for a second. Responses range from simply passing along claims to elaborate programs architected with specific goals in mind.…

Wada, Kent

2008-01-01

311

General Linear Secret Sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent work by Ito, Saito, and Nishizeki and by Benaloh and Lichter have shown that it is possible to share a secret according to any monotone access structure. However, even if the access structure has a simple description, such a scheme may require that each shareholder be given a very large amount of information relative to the size of the

Josh Benaloh

1996-01-01

312

information sharing among firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Firms may have efficiency or strategic incentives to share information about current and past behaviour or intended future conduct. This article examines those incentives and the welfare consequences from the perspective of static oligopoly and monopolistic competition models. It concludes with a review of the available evidence.

Xavier Vives

313

Chimeric Sindbis-Ross River Viruses To Study Interactions between Alphavirus Nonstructural and Structural Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sindbis virus and Ross River virus are alphaviruses whose nonstructural proteins share 64% identity and whose structural proteins share 48% identity. Starting from full-length cDNA clones of both viruses, we have generated two reciprocal Sindbis-Ross River chimeric viruses in which the structural and nonstructural regionshavebeenexchanged.Thesechimericvirusesreplicatereadilyinseveralcelllines.Bothchimerasgrow more poorly than do the parental viruses, with the chimera containing Sindbis virus nonstructural proteins

RICHARD J. KUHN; DIANE E. GRIFFIN; KATHERINE E. OWEN; HUBERT G. M. NIESTERS; ANDJAMES H. STRAUSS

1996-01-01

314

Double-stranded DNA and double-stranded RNA induce a common antiviral signaling pathway in human cells  

PubMed Central

Virus infection triggers IFN immune defenses in infected cells in part through viral nucleic acid interactions, but the pathways by which dsDNA and DNA viruses trigger innate defenses are only partially understood. Here we present evidence that both retinoic acid-induced gene I (RIG-I) and mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) are required for dsDNA-induced IFN-? promoter activation in a human hepatoma cell line (Huh-7), and that activation is efficiently blocked by the hepatitis C virus NS3/4A protease, which is known to block dsRNA signaling by cleaving MAVS. These findings suggest that dsDNA and dsRNA share a common pathway to trigger the innate antiviral defense response in human cells, although dsDNA appears to trigger that pathway upstream of the dsRNA-interacting protein RIG-I.

Cheng, Guofeng; Zhong, Jin; Chung, Josan; Chisari, Francis V.

2007-01-01

315

A peptide talk between JC virus and the human host: from silent infection to autoimmunity.  

PubMed

Analysis of JC virus (JCV) polyprotein for peptide sharing with the human proteome reveals that the virus has hundreds of pentapeptide sequences in common with the human proteins. The datum is interesting in light of the fundamental role exerted by short amino acid sequences in protein-protein interactions and, consequently, in biochemical reactions and immune recognition. Searching for new approaches to understand the JCV infection scenarios, from the immunoevasion phenomenon underlying the viral asymptomatic stay in the human host to the (re)activation phase and associated pathogenic sequelae, the present study describes the diffuse pentapeptide communication network between JCV and the human host. PMID:22594935

Lucchese, Guglielmo

2012-05-18

316

Ideal Hierarchical Secret Sharing Schemes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hierarchical secret sharing is among the most natural generalizations of threshold secret sharing, and it has attracted a lot of attention since the invention of secret sharing until nowadays. Several constructions of ideal hierarchical secret sharing schemes have been proposed, but it was not known what access structures admit such a scheme. We solve this problem by providing a natural

Oriol Farras; Carles Padro

2012-01-01

317

Tracking a Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students simulate the spread of a virus such as HIV through a population by âsharingâ (but not drinking) the water in a plastic cup with several classmates. Although invisible, the water in a few of the cups will already be tainted with the âvirusâ (sodium carbonate). After all the students have shared their liquids, the contents of the cups will be tested for the virus with phenolphthalein, a chemical that causes a striking color change in the presence of sodium carbonate. Students will then set about trying to determine which of their classmates were the ones originally infected with the virus.

Engineering K-Ph.d. Program

318

The political economy of fixed regional investment shares with an illustration for Belgian Railway investments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many local public goods are allocated by federal governments using fixed regional shares: every region is entitled a fixed share of the total budget for a particular type of public good. This paper compares this fixed regional sharing rule with two alternative allocation rules: first best and common pool allocation. We find that the fixed regional sharing rule performs relatively

Stef PROOST; Vera ZAPOROZHETS

2010-01-01

319

Sharing our stories.  

PubMed

HOW MANY TIMES over the years have nurses exclaimed, "I could write a book!"? Well now, together, we have. Nurses from all over the world contributed their stories to Chicken Soup for the Nurse's Soul and the recently released Chicken Soup for the Nurse's Soul, Second Dose. In this new department, I'll share some of these stories with you-real anecdotes about the challenges and joys of being a nurse.Forever, nurses have been sharing their stories at bedsides, break rooms, and nurses' stations to inspire and uphold each other. Stories from students help us recall why we entered this profession in the first place. Stories from seasoned nurses reveal why we stay. Some stories reflect on the "good old days"-many of which didn't seem all that good at the time! But all of them give us hope. PMID:18497635

Thieman, Leann

2008-06-01

320

Welding Qualification Sharing  

SciTech Connect

ASME Section IX, 'Welding Qualifications', requires that each organization qualify its own welders and welding procedures. Qualification responsibility cannot be subcontracted, and qualifications administered by one organization cannot be transferred to another organization. This requirement has become the subject of close scrutiny as the demand for efficiency, particularly among nuclear plant owners, has increased. Two recent Code Cases change procedure and performance qualification requirements for the better. The first, N-573, enables nuclear plant owners to share welding procedure qualifications. The second, N-600, enables nuclear plant owners to share welder performance qualifications. Several owners have reduced costs using N-573. N-600, because it is relatively new, has not yet been implemented. Its potential for cost savings, though, is equivalent to that afforded by N-573. This paper discusses ASME Section IX's procedure and performance qualification philosophy, assesses that philosophy in light of today's welding environment, and discusses implementation of Code Cases N-573 and N-600. (authors)

Newton, Bruce [Welding Services, Inc., 2225 Skyland Court, Norcross, GA 30071 (United States)

2002-07-01

321

Share-A-Home  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Share-A-Home Program operated by Lutheran Social Service of Minnesota was designed to keep senlor citizens living in their own homes by finding live-in companions who are willing to help with chores and provides security and companionship in return for an inexpensive place to live. This aper describes the three years of operation of the program from September 1980 to

Sandra E. Pranschke

1987-01-01

322

Research data sharing: Lessons from forensic genetics.  

PubMed

In this study, we present an empirical assessment of the extent and way in which data are shared in forensic genetic papers. The analysis is based on the scrutiny of datasets published between 2008 and 2011. The elevated sharing rate of forensic genetic datasets (86.06%), is discussed in relation to: (i) the editorial policies of the two main journals in the field (Forensic Science International: Genetics and International Journal of Legal Medicine); (ii) the cooperative efforts to develop common standards and achieve full reproducibility of genotyping techniques in the forensic genetic community. PMID:23972948

Anagnostou, P; Capocasa, M; Milia, N; Bisol, G Destro

2013-08-02

323

Radar resource sharing study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Radar Resource Sharing Study was undertaken to evaluate the relative advantages or three candidate technologies for implementing a shared beamformer for a dual band (S and UHF) airborne surveillance radar. The beamformer was required to interface with the two active array apertures and perform the signal combining and distribution functions necessary to produce the receive and transmit beams required for each band. The objective was to compare the three approaches in terms of size, weight, power consumption and hardware sharing, based on 1997 technology projections. The candidate beam-former technologies investigated were Conventional, Digital and Optical beamformers. In the digital and optical cases, technology limitations precluded accomplishing all of the required beamformer functions. Therefore, hybrid approaches which employed each of these technologies to the maximum practical extent were devised. The study commenced in September 1992 and was conducted primarily on the basis of beamformer requirements for monostatic operation. Later the scope was expanded to consider a bistatic receive implementation having significantly different beam requirements.

Gouse, Ronald; Clancy, John

1995-03-01

324

Immunology of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 500 million people worldwide are persistently infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and\\/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) and are at risk of developing chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite many common features in the pathogenesis of HBV- and HCV-related liver disease, these viruses markedly differ in their virological properties and in their immune escape and

Michelina Nascimbeni; Barbara Rehermann

2005-01-01

325

MoBlogs, Sharing Situations, and Lived Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter considers shared encounters through blogging in the light of John Urry’s new mobilities paradigm. We review relevant\\u000a literature on mobile blogging (moblogging) – blogging, pervasive image capture and sharing, moblogging and video blogging\\u000a – and describe common issues with these digital content sharing practices. We then document some features of how technology\\u000a affords “reflexive encounters” through the description

Connor Graham; Mark Rouncefield; Christine Satchell

2010-01-01

326

Sharing To-Do Lists with a Distributed Task Manager  

Microsoft Academic Search

: We describe a simple and powerful tool for the management of distributedwork: the Task Manager. Common tasks may be shared and manipulated independentlyby a number of people. They are represented as shared to-do lists at the user interface.With the help of the tool, users may organize cooperative tasks, monitor their progress,share documents and services, and exchange messages during task

Thomas Kreifelts; Elke Hinrichs; Gerd Woetzel

1993-01-01

327

HIV1 and microvesicles from T cells share a common glycome, arguing for a common origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

HIV-1 is a master at deceiving the immune system and usurping host biosynthetic machinery. Although HIV-1 is coated with host-derived glycoproteins, only glycosylation of viral gp120 has been described. Here we use lectin microarray technology to analyze the glycome of intact HIV-1 virions. We show that the glycan coat of human T cell line–derived HIV-1 matches that of native immunomodulatory

Lakshmi Krishnamoorthy; Julian W Bess; Alex B Preston; Kunio Nagashima; Lara K Mahal

2009-01-01

328

Previously unknown and highly divergent ssDNA viruses populate the oceans.  

PubMed

Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses are economically important pathogens of plants and animals, and are widespread in oceans; yet, the diversity and evolutionary relationships among marine ssDNA viruses remain largely unknown. Here we present the results from a metagenomic study of composite samples from temperate (Saanich Inlet, 11 samples; Strait of Georgia, 85 samples) and subtropical (46 samples, Gulf of Mexico) seawater. Most sequences (84%) had no evident similarity to sequenced viruses. In total, 608 putative complete genomes of ssDNA viruses were assembled, almost doubling the number of ssDNA viral genomes in databases. These comprised 129 genetically distinct groups, each represented by at least one complete genome that had no recognizable similarity to each other or to other virus sequences. Given that the seven recognized families of ssDNA viruses have considerable sequence homology within them, this suggests that many of these genetic groups may represent new viral families. Moreover, nearly 70% of the sequences were similar to one of these genomes, indicating that most of the sequences could be assigned to a genetically distinct group. Most sequences fell within 11 well-defined gene groups, each sharing a common gene. Some of these encoded putative replication and coat proteins that had similarity to sequences from viruses infecting eukaryotes, suggesting that these were likely from viruses infecting eukaryotic phytoplankton and zooplankton. PMID:23842650

Labonté, Jessica M; Suttle, Curtis A

2013-07-11

329

Infotech. Cyber security. Health care learns to share scares and solutions.  

PubMed

Health care information technology leaders and others are coming together to share scary experiences and develop best practices to guard against crippling computer viruses, scheming hackers and other cyber threats. PMID:15192882

Colias, Mike

2004-05-01

330

Environmental Contributions to the Stability of Antisocial Behavior over Time: Are They Shared or Non-shared?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has recently been argued that shared environmental influences are moderate, identifiable, and persistent sources of individual\\u000a differences in most forms of child and adolescent psychopathology, including antisocial behavior. Unfortunately, prior studies\\u000a examining the stability of shared environmental influences over time were limited by possible passive gene-environment correlations,\\u000a shared informants effects, and\\/or common experiences of trauma. The current study sought

S. Alexandra Burt; Matt McGue; William G. Iacono

2010-01-01

331

Enforcing Fair Sharing of Peer-to-Peer Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooperative peer-to-peer applications are designed to share the resources of each computer in an overlay net- work for the common good of everyone. However, users do not necessarily have an incentive to donate resources to the system if they can get the system's resources for free. This paper presents architectures for fair sharing of storage resources that are robust against

Tsuen-wan Ngan; Dan S. Wallach; Peter Druschel

2003-01-01

332

A leader election protocol for eventually synchronous shared memory systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

While protocols that elect an eventual common leader in asynchonous message-passing systems have been proposed, to our knowledge, no such protocol has been proposed for the shared memory communication model. This paper presents a leader election protocol suited to the shared memory model. In addition to its design simplicity, the proposed protocol has two noteworthy properties, namely, it does not

Rachid GUERRAOUI; Michel RAYNAL

2006-01-01

333

[The Alkhurma virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus): an emerging pathogen responsible for hemorrhage fever in the Middle East].  

PubMed

To date tick-borne flaviviruses causing hemorrhagic fevers in humans have been isolated in Siberia (Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus), India (Kyasanur Forest disease virus), and Saudi Arabia (Akhurma virus). Because of their potential use as biological weapons for bioterrorism, these 3 viruses require level 4 biosafety handling facilities and have been listed as hypervirulent pathogens by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Alkhurma virus was isolated in 1995 from patients with hemorrhagic fever in Saudi Arabia. Current evidence suggests that transmission to humans can occur either transcutaneously either by contamination of a skin wound with the blood of an infected vertebrate or bites of an infected tick or orally by drinking unpasteurized contaminated milk. To date a total of 24 symptomatic human cases have been recorded with a mortality rate at 25% (6/24). Pauci-symptomatic or asymptomatic cases are likely but epidemiologic data are currently unavailable. The complete coding sequence of the prototype strain of Alkhurma virus was determined and published in 2001 based on international research project involving investigators from France, Great Britain, and Saudi Arabia. Phylogenetic studies demonstrate that closest known relative of Alkhurma virus is Kyasanur Forest disease virus and that both viruses share a common ancestor. Genetic analysis of several human strains sequentially isolated over a 5-year period showed a very low diversity. This finding has important potential implications for diagnosis and vaccination. PMID:14579470

Charrel, R N; de Lamballerie, X

2003-01-01

334

Characterization of H5N2 influenza viruses from Italian poultry.  

PubMed

From October 1997 to January 1998, highly pathogenic H5N2 avian influenza viruses caused eight outbreaks of avian influenza in northern Italy. A nonpathogenic H5N9 influenza virus was also isolated during the outbreaks as a result of virological and epidemiological surveillance to control the spread of avian influenza to neighbouring regions. Antigenic analysis showed that the Italian H5N2 isolates were antigenically similar to, although distinguishable from, A/HK/156/97, a human influenza H5N1 virus isolated in Hong Kong in 1997. Phylogenetic analysis of the haemagglutinin (HA) genes showed that the highly pathogenic Italian viruses clustered with the Hong Kong strains, whereas the nonpathogenic H5N9 virus, despite its epidemiological association with the highly pathogenic Italian isolates, was most closely related to the highly pathogenic A/Turkey/England/91 (H5N1) strain. Like the HA phylogenetic tree, the nonstructural (NS) phylogenetic tree showed that the H5N2 Italian virus genes are clearly separate from those of the H5N9 strain. In contrast, results of the phylogenetic analysis of nucleoprotein (NP) genes indicated a closer genetic relationship between the two Italian virus groups, a finding suggesting a common progenitor. Comparison of the HA, NS and NP genes of the Italian H5 strains with those of the H5N1 viruses simultaneously circulating in Hong Kong revealed that the two groups of viruses do not share a recent common ancestor. No virological and serological evidence of bird-to-human transmission of the Italian H5N2 influenza viruses was found. PMID:11172104

Donatelli, I; Campitelli, L; Di Trani, L; Puzelli, S; Selli, L; Fioretti, A; Alexander, D J; Tollis, M; Krauss, S; Webster, R G

2001-03-01

335

Salicylic Acid-Dependent Expression of Host Genes in Compatible Arabidopsis-Virus Interactions1[w  

PubMed Central

Plant viruses elicit the expression of common sets of genes in susceptible hosts. Studies in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) indicate that at least one-third of the genes induced in common by viruses have been previously associated with plant defense and stress responses. The genetic and molecular requirements for the induction of these stress and defense-related genes during compatible host-virus interactions were investigated with a panel of Arabidopsis mutant and transgenic plants defective in one or more defense signaling pathways. pad4, eds5, NahG, npr1, jar1, ein2, sid2, eds1, and wild-type Columbia-0 and Wassilewskija-2 plants were infected with two different viruses, cucumber mosaic virus and oilseed rape mosaic virus. Gene expression was assayed by a high-throughput fiber-optic bead array consisting of 388 genes and by RNA gel blots. These analyses demonstrated that, in compatible host-virus interactions, the expression of the majority of defense-related genes is induced by a salicylic acid-dependent, NPR1-independent signaling pathway with a few notable exceptions that did require NPR1. Interestingly, none of the mutant or transgenic plants showed enhanced susceptibility to either cucumber mosaic virus or oilseed rape mosaic virus based on both symptoms and virus accumulation. This observation is in contrast to the enhanced disease susceptibility phenotypes that these mutations or transgenes confer to some bacterial and fungal pathogens. These experimental results suggest that expression of many defense-related genes in compatible host plants might share components of signaling pathways involved in incompatible host-pathogen interactions, but their increased expression has no negative effect on viral infection.

Huang, Zhonglian; Yeakley, Joanne M.; Garcia, Elizabeth Wickham; Holdridge, Jaime D.; Fan, Jian-Bing; Whitham, Steven A.

2005-01-01

336

Salicylic acid-dependent expression of host genes in compatible Arabidopsis-virus interactions.  

PubMed

Plant viruses elicit the expression of common sets of genes in susceptible hosts. Studies in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) indicate that at least one-third of the genes induced in common by viruses have been previously associated with plant defense and stress responses. The genetic and molecular requirements for the induction of these stress and defense-related genes during compatible host-virus interactions were investigated with a panel of Arabidopsis mutant and transgenic plants defective in one or more defense signaling pathways. pad4, eds5, NahG, npr1, jar1, ein2, sid2, eds1, and wild-type Columbia-0 and Wassilewskija-2 plants were infected with two different viruses, cucumber mosaic virus and oilseed rape mosaic virus. Gene expression was assayed by a high-throughput fiber-optic bead array consisting of 388 genes and by RNA gel blots. These analyses demonstrated that, in compatible host-virus interactions, the expression of the majority of defense-related genes is induced by a salicylic acid-dependent, NPR1-independent signaling pathway with a few notable exceptions that did require NPR1. Interestingly, none of the mutant or transgenic plants showed enhanced susceptibility to either cucumber mosaic virus or oilseed rape mosaic virus based on both symptoms and virus accumulation. This observation is in contrast to the enhanced disease susceptibility phenotypes that these mutations or transgenes confer to some bacterial and fungal pathogens. These experimental results suggest that expression of many defense-related genes in compatible host plants might share components of signaling pathways involved in incompatible host-pathogen interactions, but their increased expression has no negative effect on viral infection. PMID:15728340

Huang, Zhonglian; Yeakley, Joanne M; Garcia, Elizabeth Wickham; Holdridge, Jaime D; Fan, Jian-Bing; Whitham, Steven A

2005-02-22

337

Let's You Do That: Sharing the Cognitive Burdens of Dialogue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Three accounts of common ground maintenance make different assumptions about speakers' responsibilities regarding listener-privileged information. Duplicated responsibility requires each interlocutor to assimilate the other's knowledge before designing appropriate utterances. Shared responsibility appeals to least collaborative effort [Clark, H.…

Bard, E. G.; Anderson, A. H.; Chen, Y.; Nicholson, H. B. M.; Havard, C.; Dalzel-Job, S.

2007-01-01

338

Shared decision-making.  

PubMed

Shared decision-making has been called the crux of patient-centred care and identified as a key part of change for improved quality and safety in healthcare. However, it rarely happens, is hard to do and is not taught - for many reasons. Talking with patients about options is not embedded in the attitudes or communication skills training of most healthcare professionals. Information tools such as patient decision aids, personal health records and the Internet will help to shift this state, as will policy that drives patient and public involvement in healthcare delivery and training. PMID:19667767

Godolphin, William

2009-01-01

339

Share the Science!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students who participate in community outreach programs develop a positive awareness for civic duty and observe applications of their learning (Waldstein and Reiher 2001). Teachers and students discover the most vivid benefits of service learning when they participate themselves: Students are energized and the school builds a stronger link with the community. This article describes how high school chemistry students partnered with a local children's museum for service learning and outreach. The activities and benefits of the volunteer curriculum are also discussed. The project illustrates the powerful connection between what students learn and how they can share it with others.

Bergman, Daniel

2004-05-01

340

On the Size of Shares for Secret Sharing Schemes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A secret sharing scheme permits a secret to be shared among participants insuch a way that only qualified subsets of participants can recover the secret, butany non-qualified subset has absolutely no information on the secret. The set ofall qualified subsets defines the access structure to the secret. Sharing schemes areuseful in the management of cryptographic keys and in multy-party secure

Renato M. Capocelli; Alfredo De Santis; Luisa Gargano; Ugo Vaccaro

1991-01-01

341

Data sharing system for lithography APC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a simple and cost-effective data sharing system between fabs for lithography advanced process control (APC). Lithography APC requires process flow, inter-layer information, history information, mask information and so on. So, inter-APC data sharing system has become necessary when lots are to be processed in multiple fabs (usually two fabs). The development cost and maintenance cost also have to be taken into account. The system handles minimum information necessary to make trend prediction for the lots. Three types of data have to be shared for precise trend prediction. First one is device information of the lots, e.g., process flow of the device and inter-layer information. Second one is mask information from mask suppliers, e.g., pattern characteristics and pattern widths. Last one is history data of the lots. Device information is electronic file and easy to handle. The electronic file is common between APCs and uploaded into the database. As for mask information sharing, mask information described in common format is obtained via Wide Area Network (WAN) from mask-vender will be stored in the mask-information data server. This information is periodically transferred to one specific lithography-APC server and compiled into the database. This lithography-APC server periodically delivers the mask-information to every other lithography-APC server. Process-history data sharing system mainly consists of function of delivering process-history data. In shipping production lots to another fab, the product-related process-history data is delivered by the lithography-APC server from the shipping site. We have confirmed the function and effectiveness of data sharing systems.

Kawamura, Eiichi; Teranishi, Yoshiharu; Shimabara, Masanori

2007-03-01

342

A Unified Formalization of Four Shared-Memory Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a shared-memory model, data-race-free-1, that unifiesfour earlier models: weak order- ing, release consistency (with sequentially consistent special operations), the VAX memory model, and data- race-free-0. The most intuitive and commonly assumed shared-memory model, sequential consistency, limits per- formance. The models of weak ordering, release consistency, the VAX, and data-race-free-0 are based on the common intuition that if

Sarita V. Adve; Mark D. Hill

1993-01-01

343

Measles Virus for Cancer Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measles virus offers an ideal platform from which to build a new generation of safe, effective oncolytic viruses. Occasional\\u000a so-called spontaneous tumor regressions have occurred during natural measles infections, but common tumors do not express\\u000a SLAM, the wild-type MV receptor, and are therefore not susceptible to the virus. Serendipitously, attenuated vaccine strains\\u000a of measles virus have adapted to use CD46,

S. J. Russell; K. W. Peng

344

Characterization of the Golgi Retention Motif of Rift Valley Fever Virus GN Glycoprotein  

Microsoft Academic Search

As Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus, and probably all members of the family Bunyaviridae, matures in the Golgi apparatus, the targeting of the virus glycoproteins to the Golgi apparatus plays a pivotal role in the virus replication cycle. No consensus Golgi localization motif appears to be shared among the glycoproteins of these viruses. The viruses of the family Bunyaviridae synthesize

Sonja R. Gerrard; Stuart T. Nichol

2002-01-01

345

The DNA Element Controlling Expression of the Varicella-Zoster Virus Open Reading Frame 28 and 29 Genes Consists of Two Divergent Unidirectional Promoters Which Have a Common USF Site  

PubMed Central

The mechanism of the divergent expression of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) ORF 28 and ORF 29 genes from a common intergenic DNA element, the ORF 28/29 promoter, is of interest based on the observation that both genes are expressed during VZV lytic infection but only the ORF 29 gene is expressed in latently infected neurons. In the work presented here, expression driven by the ORF 28/29 intergenic region was examined. We found that the promoter activity towards the ORF 29 direction is more responsive to activation by the major viral transactivator IE62 than that towards the ORF 28 direction in the context of our experimental system. Analysis of the functional DNA elements involved in IE62 activation of the bidirectional ORF 28/29 regulatory element revealed that in both transfected and VZV-superinfected cells it is a fusion of two unidirectional promoters overlapping an essential USF binding site but with distinct TATA elements. A single TATA element directs expression in the ORF 28 direction, whereas the two TATA elements directing ORF 29 gene expression are alternatively and differentially utilized for transcription initiation. We also identified an Sp1 site localized proximal to the ORF 28 gene which functions as an activator element for expression in both directions. These results indicate that the ORF 28 and ORF 29 genes can be expressed either coordinately or independently and that the observed expression of only the ORF 29 gene during VZV latency may involve neuron-specific cellular factors and/or structural aspects of the latent viral genome.

Yang, Min; Hay, John; Ruyechan, William T.

2004-01-01

346

Ideal Hierarchical Secret Sharing Schemes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Hierarchical secret sharing is among the most natural generalizations of threshold secret sharing, and it has attracted a\\u000a lot of attention from the invention of secret sharing until nowadays. Several constructions of ideal hierarchical secret sharing\\u000a schemes have been proposed, but it was not known what access structures admit such a scheme. We solve this problem by providing\\u000a a natural

Oriol Farràs; Carles Padró

2010-01-01

347

On-line secret sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a perfect secret sharing scheme the dealer distributes shares to participants so that qualified subsets can recover the\\u000a secret, while unqualified subsets have no information on the secret. In an on-line secret sharing scheme the dealer assigns\\u000a shares in the order the participants show up, knowing only those qualified subsets whose all members she has seen. We often\\u000a assume

László Csirmaz; Gábor Tardos

348

MoBlogs, Sharing Situations, and Lived Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter considers shared encounters through blogging in the light of John Urry's new mobilities paradigm. We review relevant literature on mobile blogging (moblogging) - blogging, pervasive image capture and sharing, moblogging and video blogging - and describe common issues with these digital content sharing practices. We then document some features of how technology affords "reflexive encounters" through the description of a blogging study involving smokers trying to quit, describing important connections between mobilities - physical, object, and communicative mobility. Finally, we present some challenges for new blogging technologies, their relevance to social encounters, and possible future directions through considering the mobile self; the new digital life document; and digital content sharing practices.

Graham, Connor; Rouncefield, Mark; Satchell, Christine

349

Data sharing in group work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data sharing is fundamental to computer-supported cooperative work: People share information through explicit communication channels and through their coordinated use of shared databases. This paper examines the data management requirements of group work applications on the basis of experience with three prototype systems and on observations from the literature. Database and object management technologies that support these requirements are briefly

Irene Greif; Sunil K. Sarin

1987-01-01

350

The Case for Shared Nothing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: There are three dominent themes in building high transaction rate multiprocessor systems, namelyshared memory (e.g. Synapse, IBM\\/AP configurations), shared disk (e.g. VAX\\/cluster, any multi-porteddisk system), and shared nothing (e.g. Tandem, Tolerant). This paper argues that shared nothing is the preferredapproach.

Michael Stonebraker

1986-01-01

351

Fractions: How to Fair Share  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children learn from a very early age what it means to get their "fair share." Whether it is candy or birthday cake, many children successfully create equal-size groups or parts of a collection or whole but later struggle to create fair shares of multiple wholes, such as fairly sharing four pies among a family of seven. Recent research suggests…

Wilson, P. Holt; Edgington, Cynthia P.; Nguyen, Kenny H.; Pescosolido, Ryan S.; Confrey, Jere

2011-01-01

352

Frameworks for Sharing Teaching Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many organizations, collaborating with peers, sharing resources, and codifying know-how are not typical facets of work activity. For such organizations, knowledge management support must help people identify and orient to opportunities for collaboration and sharing, articulate values and best practices, and assimilate sharing knowledge as an everyday experience. We discuss a participatory design project in which we are exploring

John M. Carroll; Mary Beth Rosson; Dan Dunlap; Philip L. Isenhour

2005-01-01

353

Shared Governance: Balancing the Euphoria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents an alternative view of shared governance within higher education institutions, examining the major problems encountered by institutions as they implement a shared governance model. Based on a review of the literature, it argues that shared governance, though increasingly popular in recent years, is an issue that should be…

Guffey, J. Stephen; Rampp, Lary C.

354

1 Shamir's secret sharing scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the previous lecture, we saw a fairly simple secret sharing scheme with ' = n 1. In today's lecture we will consider some effective schemes. First, we will study Shamir's (',' + 1)-secret sharing scheme (1). Shamir's (',' + 1)-secret sharing scheme Consider D = Fq, where q n Step 1) Pick a random polynomial P(x) 2 Fq(x) of

Atri Rudra; Kanke Gao

355

Management and Sharing of Bibliographies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managing bibliographic data is a requirement for many re- searchers, and in the group setting within which the majority of research takes place, the managing and sharing of bibliographic data is an impor- tant facet of organizing the research work. Managing and sharing bibli- ographies has to balance dierent levels of shared access (public catalogs, closed research group bibliographies, and

Erik Wilde; Sai Anand; Petra Zimmermann

2005-01-01

356

Inhibitors of Dengue Virus and West Nile Virus Proteases Based on the Aminobenzamide Scaffold  

PubMed Central

Dengue and West Nile viruses (WNV) are mosquito-borne members of flaviviruses that cause significant morbidity and mortality. There is no approved vaccine or antiviral drugs for human use to date. In this study, a series of functionalized meta and para aminobenzamide derivatives were synthesized and subsequently screened in vitro against Dengue virus and West Nile virus proteases. Four active compounds were identified which showed comparable activity toward the two proteases and shared in common a meta or para(phenoxy)phenyl group. The inhibition constants (Ki) for the most potent compound 7n against Dengue and West Nile virus proteases were 8.77 and 5.55 ?M, respectively. The kinetics data support a competitive mode of inhibition of both proteases by compound 7n. This conclusion is further supported by molecular modeling. This study reveals a new chemical scaffold which is amenable to further optimization to yield potent inhibitors of the viral proteases via the combined utilization of iterative medicinal chemistry/structure-activity relationship studies and in vitro screening.

Aravapalli, Sridhar; Lai, Huiguo; Teramoto, Tadahisa; Alliston, Kevin R.; Lushington, Gerald H.; Ferguson, Eron L.; Padmanabhan, R.; Groutas, William C.

2012-01-01

357

Character Sharing in World of Warcraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many online games are played through characters that act out players' intentions in the game world. The practice of character\\u000a sharing — allowing others to use one's characters, or using others' — is prohibited in many RPGs, but anecdotal evidence suggests\\u000a that the practice is common, and that it may play an important role in the game. To shed light

Nelson Wong; Anthony Tang; Ian Livingston; Carl Gutwin; Regan Mandryk

358

Virus Resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Identification, characterization and deployment of virus resistant maize are complex tasks requiring multidisciplinary approaches. Insect transmission of viruses in nature and the potential presence of biologically distinct virus strains complicate screening for virus resistance. At least ten maize...

359

SHARED TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER PROGRAM  

SciTech Connect

The program established a collaborative process with domestic industries for the purpose of sharing Navy-developed technology. Private sector businesses were educated so as to increase their awareness of the vast amount of technologies that are available, with an initial focus on technology applications that are related to the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies (Hydrogen) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. Specifically, the project worked to increase industry awareness of the vast technology resources available to them that have been developed with taxpayer funding. NAVSEA-Carderock and the Houston Advanced Research Center teamed with Nicholls State University to catalog NAVSEA-Carderock unclassified technologies, rated the level of readiness of the technologies and established a web based catalog of the technologies. In particular, the catalog contains technology descriptions, including testing summaries and overviews of related presentations.

GRIFFIN, JOHN M. HAUT, RICHARD C.

2008-03-07

360

Sharing a disparate landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Working across boundaries of power, identity, and political geography is fraught with difficulties and contradictions. In Tali Tal and Iris Alkaher's, " Collaborative environmental projects in a multicultural society: Working from within separate or mutual landscapes?" the authors describe their efforts to do this in the highly charged atmosphere of Israel. This forum article offers a response to their efforts. Writing from a framework of critical pedagogy, I use the concepts of space and time to anchor my analysis, as I examine the issue of power in this Jew/Arab collaborative environmental project. This response problematizes "sharing" in a landscape fraught with disparities. It also looks to further Tal and Alkaher's work by geographically and politically grounding it in the broader current conflict and by juxtaposing sustainability with equity.

Ali-Khan, Carolyne

2010-06-01

361

CPAP Machines: Tips for Avoiding 10 Common Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. CPAP machines: Tips for avoiding 10 common problems By Mayo ... share your e-mail address Sign up CPAP machines: Tips for avoiding 10 common problems CPAP is ...

362

Nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis of a new potexvirus: Malva mosaic virus.  

PubMed

A filamentous virus isolated from Malva neglecta Wallr. (common mallow) and propagated in Chenopodium quinoa was grown, cloned and the complete nucleotide sequence was determined (GenBank accession # DQ660333). The genomic RNA is 6858 nt in length and contains five major open reading frames (ORFs). The genomic organization is similar to members and the viral encoded proteins shared homology with the group of the Potexvirus genus in the Flexiviridae family. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a close relationship with narcissus mosaic virus (NMV), scallion virus X (ScaVX) and, to a lesser extent, to Alstroemeria virus X (AlsVX) and pepino mosaic virus (PepMV). A novel putative pseudoknot structure is predicted in the 3'-UTR of a subgroup of potexviruses, including this newly described virus. The consensus GAAAA sequence is detected at the 5'-end of the genomic RNA and experimental data strongly suggest that this motif could be a distinctive hallmark of this genus. The name Malva mosaic virus is proposed. PMID:18054524

Côté, Fabien; Paré, Christine; Majeau, Nathalie; Bolduc, Marilène; Leblanc, Eric; Bergeron, Michel G; Bernardy, Michael G; Leclerc, Denis

2007-10-25

363

Characterization of recent H5 subtype avian influenza viruses from US poultry.  

PubMed

In the US, the isolation of H5 subtype avian influenza (AI) viruses has been uncommon in commercial chickens and turkeys, although sporadic isolations have been made from the live bird markets or its supply chain since 1986. In 2002, two different outbreaks of H5 AI occurred in commercial chicken or turkey operations. The first occurred in Texas and was identified as a H5N3 subtype AI virus. The second outbreak was caused by a H5N2 virus isolated from a turkey farm in California. In this study we analyzed recent H5 subtype AI viruses from different avian species and different sources in the US. Most recent H5 subtype isolates shared a high sequence identity and phylogenetically assorted into a separate clade from the Pennsylvania/83 lineage isolates. However, no established lineage was found within this clade and the recent H5 subtype isolates seemed to be the result of separate introductions from the wild bird reservoir. The Texas H5N3 isolate shared the lowest homology with the other recent isolates in the haemagglutinin gene and had a unique haemagglutinin cleavage site sequence of REKR/G (other recent isolates have the typical avirulent motif, RETR/G). Furthermore, this isolate had a 28 amino acid deletion in the stalk region of the neuraminidase protein, a common characteristic of chicken adapted influenza viruses, and may indicate that this virus had actually been circulating in poultry for an extended period of time before it was isolated. In agreement with genetic evidence, the Texas H5N3 isolate replicated better than other H5 isolates in experimentally infected chickens. The outbreak in Texas with a more chicken-adapted H5N3 virus underscores the importance of ongoing surveillance and control efforts regarding the H5 subtype AI virus in the US. PMID:15223555

Lee, Chang-Won; Senne, Dennis A; Linares, Jose A; Woolcock, Peter R; Stallknecht, David E; Spackman, Erica; Swayne, David E; Suarez, David L

2004-06-01

364

Environmental Contributions to the Stability of Antisocial Behavior over Time: Are They Shared or Non-shared?  

PubMed Central

It has recently been argued that shared environmental influences are moderate, identifiable, and persistent sources of individual differences in most forms of child and adolescent psychopathology, including antisocial behavior. Unfortunately, prior studies examining the stability of shared environmental influences over time were limited by possible passive gene-environment correlations, shared informants effects, and/or common experiences of trauma. The current study sought to address each of these limitations. We examined adolescent self-reported antisocial behavior in a 3.5 year longitudinal sample of 610 biological and adoptive sibling pairs from the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study (SIBS). Results revealed that 74–81% of shared environmental influences present at time 1 were also present at time 2, whereas most non-shared environmental influences (88–89%) were specific to a particular assessment period. Such results provide an important constructive replication of prior research, strongly suggesting that shared environmental contributions to antisocial behavior are systematic in nature.

Burt, S. Alexandra; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

2010-01-01

365

A new species of nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV) associated with mortalities in Manitoba lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens.  

PubMed

A newly discovered virus, Namao virus, associated with morbidity and mortality, was detected among juvenile lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens being propagated by a conservation stocking program for this endangered species in Manitoba, Canada. The outbreaks resulted in cumulative mortalities of 62 to 99.6% among progeny of wild Winnipeg River or Nelson River lake sturgeon and occurred at 2 geographically separate facilities. Namao virus was detected in almost 94% of the moribund or dead lake sturgeon according to a conventional polymerase chain reaction (cPCR) test that is based upon amplification of a 219 bp fragment of the virus major capsid protein (MCP). The virus itself was large (242 to 282 nm) and icosahedral-shaped with 2 capsids and a condensed bar-shaped core. It was found in virus factories within the host cell cytoplasm and displayed a tropism for the integument. Namao virus caused cellular changes characterized by enlarged eosinophilic epithelial cells in the gills and skin. Samples suspected of containing Namao virus did not have cytopathic effects on primary lake sturgeon or established white sturgeon cell lines. However, viral nucleic acid was detected in the former after prolonged incubation periods. Using primers designed from conserved regions of the MCP from NCLDVs, an estimated 95 to 96% of the Namao virus MCP open reading frame was captured. Phylogenetic analysis using the MCP of Namao virus and 27 other NCLDVs suggested that Namao virus and white sturgeon iridovirus share a common evolutionary past and might be members of the family Mimiviridae or a new, as yet unrecognized, virus family. PMID:23446969

Clouthier, Sharon C; Vanwalleghem, Elissa; Copeland, Shelagh; Klassen, Cheryl; Hobbs, Gary; Nielsen, Ole; Anderson, Eric D

2013-02-28

366

Data sharing in neuroimaging research.  

PubMed

Significant resources around the world have been invested in neuroimaging studies of brain function and disease. Easier access to this large body of work should have profound impact on research in cognitive neuroscience and psychiatry, leading to advances in the diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric and neurological disease. A trend toward increased sharing of neuroimaging data has emerged in recent years. Nevertheless, a number of barriers continue to impede momentum. Many researchers and institutions remain uncertain about how to share data or lack the tools and expertise to participate in data sharing. The use of electronic data capture (EDC) methods for neuroimaging greatly simplifies the task of data collection and has the potential to help standardize many aspects of data sharing. We review here the motivations for sharing neuroimaging data, the current data sharing landscape, and the sociological or technical barriers that still need to be addressed. The INCF Task Force on Neuroimaging Datasharing, in conjunction with several collaborative groups around the world, has started work on several tools to ease and eventually automate the practice of data sharing. It is hoped that such tools will allow researchers to easily share raw, processed, and derived neuroimaging data, with appropriate metadata and provenance records, and will improve the reproducibility of neuroimaging studies. By providing seamless integration of data sharing and analysis tools within a commodity research environment, the Task Force seeks to identify and minimize barriers to data sharing in the field of neuroimaging. PMID:22493576

Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Breeze, Janis L; Ghosh, Satrajit; Gorgolewski, Krzysztof; Halchenko, Yaroslav O; Hanke, Michael; Haselgrove, Christian; Helmer, Karl G; Keator, David B; Marcus, Daniel S; Poldrack, Russell A; Schwartz, Yannick; Ashburner, John; Kennedy, David N

2012-04-05

367

Serological relationship of the Tacaribe complex of viruses to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus.  

PubMed

By means of the indirect fluorescent-antibody test, cross serological reactivity was demonstrated between lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) virus and the viruses of the Tacaribe complex. Antisera to all members of the Tacaribe complex reacted with LCM virus; LCM antisera gave significant staining of Amapari virus, but minimal or inconsistent reactions with Tacaribe virus, and no reaction with two other viruses of the Tacaribe complex. A low level cross-reaction was observed in complement fixation tests of Machupo and Pichinde antisera against LCM antigen. Immunization with Tacaribe and Amapari viruses did not protect mice against challenge with LCM virus. Because of the identical appearance of the virions, the sharing of antigens, and the many biological similarities between LCM and the Tacaribe complex viruses, it is proposed that they be considered as constituting a new taxonomic group of viruses. PMID:4985595

Rowe, W P; Pugh, W E; Webb, P A; Peters, C J

1970-03-01

368

Serological Relationship of the Tacaribe Complex of Viruses to Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus  

PubMed Central

By means of the indirect fluorescent-antibody test, cross serological reactivity was demonstrated between lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) virus and the viruses of the Tacaribe complex. Antisera to all members of the Tacaribe complex reacted with LCM virus; LCM antisera gave significant staining of Amapari virus, but minimal or inconsistent reactions with Tacaribe virus, and no reaction with two other viruses of the Tacaribe complex. A low level cross-reaction was observed in complement fixation tests of Machupo and Pichinde antisera against LCM antigen. Immunization with Tacaribe and Amapari viruses did not protect mice against challenge with LCM virus. Because of the identical appearance of the virions, the sharing of antigens, and the many biological similarities between LCM and the Tacaribe complex viruses, it is proposed that they be considered as constituting a new taxonomic group of viruses.

Rowe, Wallace P.; Pugh, Wendell E.; Webb, Patricia A.; Peters, Clarence J.

1970-01-01

369

Virus-Induced Neuronal Apoptosis Blocked by the Herpes Simplex Virus Latency-Associated Transcript  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latent infections with periodic reactivation are a common outcome after acute infection with many viruses. The latency-associated transcript (LAT) gene is required for wild-type reactivation of herpes simplex virus (HSV). However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In rabbit trigeminal ganglia, extensive apoptosis occurred with LAT- virus but not with LAT+ viruses. In addition, a plasmid expressing LAT blocked apoptosis in

Guey-Chuen Perng; Clinton Jones; Janice Ciacci-Zanella; Melissa Stone; Gail Henderson; Ada Yukht; Susan M. Slanina; Florence M. Hofman; Homayon Ghiasi; Anthony B. Nesburn; Steven L. Wechsler

2000-01-01

370

Genetic Diversity in RNA Virus Quasispecies Is Controlled by Host-Virus Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many RNA viruses have genetically diverse populations known as quasispecies. Important biological char- acteristics may be related to the levels of diversity in the quasispecies (quasispecies cloud size), including adaptability and host range. Previous work using Tobacco mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus indicated that evolutionarily related viruses have very different levels of diversity in a common host. The quasispecies

WILLIAM L. SCHNEIDER; MARILYN J. ROOSSINCK

2001-01-01

371

Some Ideal Secret Sharing Schemes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a secret sharing scheme, a dealer has a secret. The dealer gives each participant in the scheme a share of the secret.\\u000a There is a set ? of subsets of the participants with the property that any subset of participants that is in ? can determine\\u000a the secret. In a perfect secret sharing scheme, any subset of participants that

Ernest F. Brickell

1989-01-01

372

Optimum General Threshold Secret Sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important issue of a secret sharing (SS) scheme is to minimize the entropy of a share. This issue is perfectly resolved for the simpler classes called (k,n)- threshold SS (TSS) scheme and (k,L,n)-threshold ramp SS (TRSS) scheme. That is, for these two classes, an opti- mum construction which minimizes the entropy of a share was presented. The goal of

Maki Yoshida; Toru Fujiwara; Marc Fossorier

2008-01-01

373

Dynamically Controlling False Sharing in Distributed Shared Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed shared memory (DSM) alleviates the need to program message passing explicitlyon a distributed-memory machine. In order to reduce memory latency, a DSM replicates copiesof data. This paper examines several current approaches to controlling thrashing caused by falsesharing in a DSM. Then it introduces a novel memory consistency protocol, writer-owns, whichdetects and eliminates false sharing at run time. In iterative

Vincent W. Freeh; Gregory R. Andrews

1996-01-01

374

ECG INTERPRETATION TASK SHARING RULES IN A DISTRIBUTED WEARABLE MONITORING SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of interpretation task sharing between the central server and the remote wearable ECG recorder. Adaptive task sharing is presented as an alternative to the remote embedded and to the centralized interpretation commonly used today. The patient-dependent adaptation of the task sharing needs an extreme care, since it is advantageous only if based on medically justified

Piotr Augustyniak; Andrzej Izworski

375

Supporting social presence through lightweight photo sharing on and off the desktop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lightweight photo sharing, particularly via mobile devices, is fast becoming a common communication medium used for maintaining a presence in the lives of friends and family. How should such systems be designed to maximize this social presence while maintaining simplicity? An experimental photo sharing system was developed and tested that, compared to current systems, offers highly simplified, group-centric sharing, automatic

Scott Counts; Eric Fellheimer

2004-01-01

376

Shared environmental contributions to substance use.  

PubMed

The current study examined the association between substance use in the household during childhood, parental attitudes towards substance use and lifetime substance use in males. Subjects included 1081 monozygotic and 707 dizygotic twins from the Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders. Retrospective reports of substance use and features of the family environment (adult household substance use and parental attitudes towards substance use) were obtained using a life history interview. A trivariate Cholesky decomposition was conducted using the program Mx to decompose common shared environmental variance. Findings suggest that family environmental factors accounted for a large proportion of the shared environmental effects for illicit drug use. Results illustrate an important way of extending behavior genetic research to reveal specific etiological environmental mechanisms. PMID:22038498

Baker, Jessica H; Maes, Hermine H; Kendler, Kenneth S

2011-10-30

377

Chicken anemia virus strains with a mutated enhancer\\/promoter region share reduced virus spread and cytopathogenicity 1 Published in conjunction with A Wisconsin Gathering Honoring Waclaw Szybalski on the occasion of his 75th year and 20years of Editorship-in-Chief of Gene, 10–11 August 1997, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasmid pCAV\\/E contains an infectious cloned double-stranded CAV (chicken anemia virus) DNA genome (Noteborn et al., J. Virol. 65 (1991) 3131–3139). We have constructed mutated CAV genomes by introducing mutations into the CAV promoter\\/enhancer region of pCAV\\/E. Various mutated CAV strains were functional and had a smaller cytopathogenic effect in chicken T cells than wild-type CAV. In particular, mutations within

Mathieu H. M. Noteborn; Claudia A. J. Verschueren; Hans van Ormondt; Alex J. van der Eb

1998-01-01

378

Analysis of cassava brown streak viruses reveals the presence of distinct virus species causing cassava brown streak disease in East Africa.  

PubMed

Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) isolates were analysed from symptomatic cassava collected between 1997 and 2008 in the major cultivation regions of East Africa. An analysis of complete RNA genomes of seven isolates from Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, Uganda and Malawi revealed a common genome structure, but the isolates clearly clustered in two distinct clades. The first comprised isolates from Kenya, Uganda, Malawi, north-western Tanzania and the CBSV described previously, and shared between 87 and 95% nucleotide sequence identity, whilst the second included isolates from coastal regions of Mozambique and Tanzania, which shared only 70% nucleotide sequence identities with isolates of the first clade. When the amino acid sequences of viral proteins were compared, identities as low as 47% (Ham1) and 59% (P1) between the two clades were found. An antiserum obtained against the capsid protein of a clade 1 isolate identified a 43 kDa protein in clade 1 isolates and a 45 kDa protein in clade 2 isolates. Several cassava cultivars were susceptible to isolates of clade 2 but resistant to those of clade 1. The differences observed both in biological behaviour and in genomic and protein sequences indicate that cassava brown streak disease in East Africa is caused by at least two distinct virus species. It is suggested that those of clade 1 retain the species name Cassava brown streak virus, whilst those of clade 2 be classified as Cassava brown streak Mozambique virus. PMID:20071490

Winter, Stephan; Koerbler, Marianne; Stein, Beate; Pietruszka, Agnes; Paape, Martina; Butgereitt, Anja

2010-01-13

379

Transforming Institutions through Shared Governance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shared governance is a basic tenet of higher education and is frequently referred to. For shared governance to be successful, board members, administrators, and faculty members must learn to have respect for and confidence in each other, acting inclusively, transparently, and responsibly. Boards need to be active and involved, participating in…

Bornstein, Rita

2012-01-01

380

The Future of Shared Governance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education has relied on the power of collaborative decision making on college and university campuses through the model of shared governance since the early 1900s. However, the principles of shared governance are now more thoroughly tested than ever before. In response to these simultaneous pressures and challenges, the leadership of…

Crellin, Matthew A.

2010-01-01

381

SMG: SHARED MEMORY FOR GRIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses some of the salient issues involved in implementing the illusion of a shared-memory program- ming model across a group of distributed memory proces- sors from a cluster through to an entire Grid. This illusion can be provided by a distributed shared memory (DSM) runtime system. Mechanisms that have the potential to increase the perfor- mance by minimizing

John P. Ryan; Brian A. Coghlan

382

On Unstructured File Sharing Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the interaction among users of unstruc- tured file sharing applications, who compete for available net- work resources (link bandwidth or capacity) by opening multiple connections on multiple paths so as to accelerate data transfer. We model this interaction with an unstructured file sharing game. Users are players and their strategies are the numbers of sessions on available paths.

Honggang Zhang; Giovanni Neglia; Donald F. Towsley; Giuseppe Lo Presti

2007-01-01

383

Dream Sharing as Social Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was administered to 241 individuals whose questionnaire responses were analyzed to determine if they told their dreams to others, to whom they told their dreams, for what purpose, and in what social contexts dreams were shared. Respondents were also asked whether there were types of dreams they would not tell and individuals with whom they would not share

Barbara Vann; Neil Alperstein

2000-01-01

384

Shared Governance: Promises and Perils.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Shared governance in the community college district has both advantages and disadvantages. Among the three "perils" of implementing shared governance are that the process is difficult, lengthy, and sometimes tedious; that responsibility for decisions and actions must somehow be maintained; and that an appropriate role for faculty, staff, and…

Wirth, Patricia L.

385

Shared Governance at Sierra College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The development of shared governance at Sierra College (SC) in California is chronicled in this report. The first sections of the report provide a chronology of team, board, and committee meetings and colloquia involved in the process of implementing shared governance at the college; present summaries of breakout group reports, evaluative…

Sumner, Jo; And Others

386

Studying team shared mental models  

Microsoft Academic Search

As technology is used to support team-based activities, one important factor affecting the performance of teams is the kind of mental model shared between team members. This paper describes a novel conceptual graph based methodology to study these mental models to better understand how shared mental models affect performance and other factors of a team's behavior.

Sandra Carpenter; Julie L. Fortune; Harry S. Delugach; Letha H. Etzkorn; Dawn R. Utley; Phillip A. Farrington; Shamsnaz Virani

2008-01-01

387

Dream Sharing: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dream reports were tape recorded each morning independently for 10 weeks by both members of an adult heterosexual couple who alleged they regularly shared dreams. The transcribed reports were evaluated blind by 12 trained analysts using quantitative dream-content analysis. The couple had identified 13 pairs of dreams (17% of the sample) as shared. The mean percentage content overlap score of

W. Jackson Davis; Marcos Frank

1994-01-01

388

Work sharing in Kerala's fisheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier studies suggest that once population growth and market integration reach a certain critical level, traditional practices of work sharing tend to degenerate or disappear altogether. Work sharing has, however, survived to date in small-scale fisheries in Kerala, India. Artisanal fishermen strongly favor the system, for ethical reasons as well as for their personal benefit. Besides, boat owners appear not

Marrit van den Berg; Bart Jan Lensing

2007-01-01

389

Car pooling / ride sharing project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A car pooling scheme known as Easy Share was developed using a computer program to match car trips so that ride sharing becomes an option for a community as a means of reducing transport costs and conserving energy. The study also considered factors which...

R. Trayford J. Marshall

1995-01-01

390

Young children's understanding of cultural common ground.  

PubMed

Human social interaction depends on individuals identifying the common ground they have with others, based both on personally shared experiences and on cultural common ground that all members of the group share. We introduced 3- and 5-year-old children to a culturally well-known object and a novel object. An experimenter then entered and asked, 'What is that?', either as a request for information or in a recognitory way. When she was requesting information, both 3- and 5-year-olds assumed she was asking about the novel object. When she seemed to recognize an object, 5-year-olds assumed she was referring to the culturally well-known object. Thus, by 3 years of age, children are beginning to understand that they share cultural common ground with other members of their group. PMID:23331108

Liebal, Kristin; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

2012-05-30

391

Virus-Specific Cofactor Requirement and Chimeric Hepatitis C Virus\\/GB Virus B Nonstructural Protein 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

GB virus B (GBV-B) is closely related to hepatitis C virus (HCV) and causes acute hepatitis in tamarins (Saguinus species), making it an attractive surrogate virus for in vivo testing of anti-HCV inhibitors in a small monkey model. It has been reported that the nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) serine protease of GBV-B shares similar substrate specificity with its counterpart in

NANCY BUTKIEWICZ; NANHUA YAO; WEIDONG ZHONG; JACQUELYN WRIGHT-MINOGUE; PAUL INGRAVALLO; RUMIN ZHANG; JAMES DURKIN; DAVID N. STANDRING; BAHIGE M. BAROUDY; DAVID V. SANGAR; STANLEY M. LEMON; JOHNSON Y. N. LAU; ZHI HONG

2000-01-01

392

Sharing of drug preparation equipment as a risk factor for hepatitis C.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the sharing of drug preparation equipment as a possible route of hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission. METHODS: HCV seroconversion was measured in a cohort of 317 injection drug users who tested negative for HCV antibody at recruitment. RESULTS: Cumulative HCV incidence was 16.7% per year. Among those who did not share syringes, HCV seroconversion was associated with sharing drug cookers and filtration cotton (adjusted risk ratio = 5.9; 95% confidence interval = 1.1, 31.7); 54% of HCV infections in injection drug users who did not share syringes were attributable to cooker/cotton sharing. CONCLUSIONS: Among injection drug users who do not share syringes, an important proportion of HCV infections may be attributed to cooker/cotton sharing.

Hagan, H; Thiede, H; Weiss, N S; Hopkins, S G; Duchin, J S; Alexander, E R

2001-01-01

393

46 CFR 535.311 - Low market share agreements-exemption.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS...market share agreement means any agreement among ocean common carriers which contains none of...

2011-10-01

394

Identification and comparative analysis of hepatitis C virus-host cell protein interactions.  

PubMed

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) alters the global behavior of the host cell to create an environment conducive to its own replication, but much remains unknown about how HCV proteins elicit these changes. Thus, a better understanding of the interface between the virus and host cell is required. Here we report the results of a large-scale yeast two-hybrid screen to identify protein-protein interactions between HCV genotype 2a (strain JFH1) and cellular factors. Our study identified 112 unique interactions between 7 HCV and 94 human proteins, over 40% of which have been linked to HCV infection by other studies. These interactions develop a more complete picture of HCV infection, providing insight into HCV manipulation of pathways, such as lipid and cholesterol metabolism, that were previously linked to HCV infection and implicating novel targets within microtubule-organizing centers, the complement system and cell cycle regulatory machinery. In an effort to understand the relationship between HCV and related viruses, we compared the HCV 2a interactome to those of other HCV genotypes and to the related dengue virus. Greater overlap was observed between HCV and dengue virus targets than between HCV genotypes, demonstrating the value of parallel screening approaches when comparing virus-host cell interactomes. Using siRNAs to inhibit expression of cellular proteins, we found that five of the ten shared targets tested (CUL7, PCM1, RILPL2, RNASET2, and TCF7L2) were required for replication of both HCV and dengue virus. These shared interactions provide insight into common features of the viral life cycles of the family Flaviviridae. PMID:24136289

Dolan, Patrick T; Zhang, Chaoying; Khadka, Sudip; Arumugaswami, Vaithilingaraja; Vangeloff, Abbey D; Heaton, Nicholas S; Sahasrabudhe, Sudhir; Randall, Glenn; Sun, Ren; Lacount, Douglas J

2013-10-18

395

Sharing Data in the Global Ocean Observing System (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the evolution of data sharing in the field of physical oceanography to highlight the challenges now before us. Synoptic global observation of the ocean from space and in situ platforms has significantly matured over the last two decades. In the early 1990’s the community data sharing challenges facing the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) largely focused on the behavior of individual scientists. Satellite data sharing depended on the policy of individual agencies. Global data sets were delivered with considerable delay and with enormous personal sacrifice. In the 2000’s the requirements for global data sets and sustained observations from the likes of the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change have led to data sharing and cooperation at a grander level. It is more effective and certainly more efficient. The Joint WMO/IOC Technical Commission on Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM) provided the means to organize many aspects of data collection and data dissemination globally, for the common good. In response the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites organized Virtual Constellations to enable the assembly and sharing of like kinds of satellite data (e.g., sea surface topography, ocean vector winds, and ocean color). Individuals in physical oceanography have largely adapted to the new rigors of sharing data for the common good, and as a result of this revolution new science has been enabled. Primary obstacles to sharing have shifted from the individual level to the national level. As we enter into the 2010’s the demands for ocean data continue to evolve with an expanded requirement for more real-time reporting and broader disciplinary coverage, to answer key scientific and societal questions. We are also seeing the development of more numerous national contributions to the global observing system. The drivers for the establishment of global ocean observing systems are expanding beyond climate to include biological and biogeochemical issues (e.g. biodiversity and ecosystem services, fisheries collapse, and ocean acidification). This expanded suite of demands and drivers challenge us further to share data for the common good across specialties. This requires that more ocean scientific communities and national ocean observing programs move towards maturity in terms of global data collection capability, sharing capacity, and data management standards. In oceanography the time has arrived for a cultural shift toward more shared collective observing capabilities. Necessarily we must also rapidly move toward harmony in national data sharing policies for the ocean environment. Building capacity to share ocean observations has been an objective for decades and has resulted in an expanded understanding of technologies and management policies that foster data sharing and provenance tracking.

Lindstrom, E. J.; McCurdy, A.; Young, J.; Fischer, A. S.

2010-12-01

396

DCOS: cache embedded switch architecture for distributed shared memory multiprocessor SoCs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shared memory is a common inter-processor com- munication paradigm for on-chip multiprocessor SoC (MPSoC) platforms. The latency overhead of switch-based interconnection networks plays a critical role in shared memory MPSoC designs. In this paper, we propose a directory-cache embedded switch architecture with distributed shared cache and distributed shared memory. It is able to reduce the number of home node cache

Daewook Kim; Manho Kim; Gerald E. Sobelman

2006-01-01

397

Loss of Anti-Viral Immunity by Infection with a Virus Encoding a Cross-Reactive Pathogenic Epitope  

PubMed Central

T cell cross-reactivity between different strains of the same virus, between different members of the same virus group, and even between unrelated viruses is a common occurrence. We questioned here how an intervening infection with a virus containing a sub-dominant cross-reactive T cell epitope would affect protective immunity to a previously encountered virus. Pichinde virus (PV) and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) encode subdominant cross-reactive NP205–212 CD8 T cell epitopes sharing 6 of 8 amino acids, differing only in the MHC anchoring regions. These pMHC epitopes induce cross-reactive but non-identical T cell receptor (TCR) repertoires, and structural studies showed that the differing anchoring amino acids altered the conformation of the MHC landscape presented to the TCR. PV-immune mice receiving an intervening infection with wild type but not NP205-mutant LCMV developed severe immunopathology in the form of acute fatty necrosis on re-challenge with PV, and this pathology could be predicted by the ratio of NP205-specific to the normally immunodominant PV NP38–45 -specific T cells. Thus, cross-reactive epitopes can exert pathogenic properties that compromise protective immunity by impairing more protective T cell responses.

Chen, Alex T.; Cornberg, Markus; Gras, Stephanie; Guillonneau, Carole; Rossjohn, Jamie; Trees, Andrew; Emonet, Sebastien; de la Torre, Juan C.; Welsh, Raymond M.; Selin, Liisa K.

2012-01-01

398

Emergence of Divergent Zaire Ebola Virus Strains in Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2007 and 2008  

PubMed Central

?Background.?Zaire ebolavirus was responsible for 2 outbreaks in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), in 1976 and 1995. The virus reemerged in DRC 12 years later, causing 2 successive outbreaks in the Luebo region, Kasai Occidental province, in 2007 and 2008. Methods.?Viruses of each outbreak were isolated and the full-length genomes were characterized. Phylogenetic analysis was then undertaken to characterize the relationships with previously described viruses. Results.?The 2 Luebo viruses are nearly identical but are not related to lineage A viruses known in DRC or to descendants of the lineage B viruses encountered in the Gabon–Republic of the Congo area, with which they do, however, share a common ancestor. Conclusions.?Our findings strongly suggest that the Luebo 2007 outbreak did not result from viral spread from previously identified foci but from an independent viral emergence. The previously identified epidemiological link with migratory bat species known to carry Zaire ebolavirus RNA support the hypothesis of viral spillover from this widely dispersed reservoir. The high level of similarity between the Luebo2007 and Luebo2008 viruses suggests that local wildlife populations (most likely bats) became infected and allowed local viral persistence and reemergence from year to year.

Biek, Roman; Muyembe Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Fair, Joseph; Wolfe, Nathan; Formenty, Pierre; Paweska, Janusz; Leroy, Eric

2011-01-01

399

Soochong virus: an antigenically and genetically distinct hantavirus isolated from Apodemus peninsulae in Korea.  

PubMed

Hantaan (HTN) virus, the etiologic agent of clinically severe hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), was first isolated in 1976 from lung tissue of a striped-field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) captured in Songnae-ri, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea. Found primarily in mountainous areas, the Korean field mouse (A. peninsulae) is the second-most dominant field rodent species found throughout Korea. A new hantavirus, designated Soochong (SOO), was isolated in Vero E6 cells from four A. peninsulae captured in August 1997 at Mt. Gyebang in Hongcheon-gun, Mt. Gachil, Inje-gun, Gangwon Province, and in September 1998 at Mt. Deogyu, Muju-gun, Jeollabuk Province. The entire S, M, and L genomic segments of SOO virus, amplified by RT-PCR from lung tissues of seropositive A. peninsulae and from virus-infected Vero E6 cells, diverged from HTN virus (strain 76-118) by 15.6%, 22.8%, and 21.7% at the nucleotide level and 3.5%, 9.5%, and 4.6% at the amino acid level, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences, using the maximum parsimony and neighbor-joining methods, indicated that SOO virus was distinct from A. agrarius-borne HTN virus. SOO virus shared a common ancestry with Amur virus from Far East Russia, as well as with H5 and B78 hantaviruses, previously isolated from HFRS patients in China. Cross-focus-reduction neutralizating antibody tests showed that SOO virus, which is the first hantavirus isolated in cell culture from A. peninsulae, could be classified as a new hantavirus serotype. PMID:16372283

Baek, Luck Ju; Kariwa, Hiroaki; Lokugamage, Kumari; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Arikawa, Jiro; Takashima, Ikuo; Kang, Ju-Il; Moon, Sung Sil; Chung, Su Yong; Kim, Eun Ju; Kang, Hae Ji; Song, Ki-Joon; Klein, Terry A; Yanagihara, Richard; Song, Jin-Won

2006-02-01

400

Bench-to-bedside review: Rare and common viral infections in the intensive care unit – linking pathophysiology to clinical presentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral infections are common causes of respiratory tract disease in the outpatient setting but much less common in the intensive care unit. However, a finite number of viral agents cause respiratory tract disease in the intensive care unit. Some viruses, such as influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and varicella-zoster virus (VZV), are relatively common. Others, such as adenovirus,

Nicholas Stollenwerk; Richart W Harper; Christian E Sandrock

2008-01-01

401

Public sharing of research datasets: a pilot study of associations  

PubMed Central

The public sharing of primary research datasets potentially benefits the research community but is not yet common practice. In this pilot study, we analyzed whether data sharing frequency was associated with funder and publisher requirements, journal impact factor, or investigator experience and impact. Across 397 recent biomedical microarray studies, we found investigators were more likely to publicly share their raw dataset when their study was published in a high-impact journal and when the first or last authors had high levels of career experience and impact. We estimate the USA’s National Institutes of Health (NIH) data sharing policy applied to 19% of the studies in our cohort; being subject to the NIH data sharing plan requirement was not found to correlate with increased data sharing behavior in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Studies published in journals that required a database submission accession number as a condition of publication were more likely to share their data, but this trend was not statistically significant. These early results will inform our ongoing larger analysis, and hopefully contribute to the development of more effective data sharing initiatives.

Piwowar, Heather A.; Chapman, Wendy W.

2010-01-01

402

Isolation and characterization of avian influenza viruses, including highly pathogenic H5N1, from poultry in live bird markets in Hanoi, Vietnam, in 2001.  

PubMed

Since 1997, outbreaks of highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 and circulation of H9N2 viruses among domestic poultry in Asia have posed a threat to public health. To better understand the extent of transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIV) to humans in Asia, we conducted a cross-sectional virologic study in live bird markets (LBM) in Hanoi, Vietnam, in October 2001. Specimens from 189 birds and 18 environmental samples were collected at 10 LBM. Four influenza A viruses of the H4N6 (n = 1), H5N2 (n = 1), and H9N3 (n = 2) subtypes were isolated from healthy ducks for an isolation frequency of over 30% from this species. Two H5N1 viruses were isolated from healthy geese. The hemagglutinin (HA) genes of these H5N1 viruses possessed multiple basic amino acid motifs at the cleavage site, were HP for experimentally infected chickens, and were thus characterized as HP AIV. These HA genes shared high amino acid identities with genes of other H5N1 viruses isolated in Asia during this period, but they were genetically distinct from those of H5N1 viruses isolated from poultry and humans in Vietnam during the early 2004 outbreaks. These viruses were not highly virulent for experimentally infected ducks, mice, or ferrets. These results establish that HP H5N1 viruses with properties similar to viruses isolated in Hong Kong and mainland China circulated in Vietnam as early as 2001, suggest a common source for H5N1 viruses circulating in these Asian countries, and provide a framework to better understand the recent widespread emergence of HP H5N1 viruses in Asia. PMID:15767421

Nguyen, Doan C; Uyeki, Timothy M; Jadhao, Samadhan; Maines, Taronna; Shaw, Michael; Matsuoka, Yumiko; Smith, Catherine; Rowe, Thomas; Lu, Xiuhua; Hall, Henrietta; Xu, Xiyan; Balish, Amanda; Klimov, Alexander; Tumpey, Terrence M; Swayne, David E; Huynh, Lien P T; Nghiem, Ha K; Nguyen, Hanh H T; Hoang, Long T; Cox, Nancy J; Katz, Jacqueline M

2005-04-01

403

Secret Sharing Over Infinite Domains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let ?\\u000a n\\u000a be a monotone, nontrivial family of sets over {1, 2, …,n}. An ?\\u000a n\\u000a perfect secret-sharing scheme is a probabilistic mapping of a secret ton shares, such that:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a The secret can be reconstructed from any setT of shares such thatT ? ?\\u000a n\\u000a .\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a No subsetT ? ?\\u000a n\\u000a of shares reveals any partial information

Benny Chor; Eyal Kushilevitz

1993-01-01

404

Shared Awareness in Urban Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The confluence of increasing future urbanization of world population, along with the DoD's vision of full spectrum dominance, enabled by the network- centric concept of shared situational awareness, drives the question of what benefits the military can ex...

C. H. Block

2005-01-01

405

Information shared by many objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

If Kolmogorov complexity [25] measures information in one object and Information Distance measures information shared by two objects, how do we measure information shared by many objects? This paper provides an initial pragmatic study of this fundamental data mining question. Firstly, Em(x1,x2,...,xn) is defined to be the minimum amount of thermodynamic energy needed to convert from any xi to any

Chong Long; Xiaoyan Zhu; Ming Li; Bin Ma

2008-01-01

406

On Secure Distributed Data Sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we discuss the research challenges in secure dis- tributed data sharing, including the con?ict between the requirements of security and accuracy, and the di-culty to achieve e-ciency. We then give a detailed survey on related work of the speciflc problems in secure distributed data sharing, including privacy-preserving set operations, se- cure two-party vector dominance and privacy-preserving data

Yingpeng Sang; Hong Shen

407

Information Sharing using Semantic Reasoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—In both the commercial,and,defense sectors a compelling need is emerging for highly dynamic, yet risk op- timized, sharing of information across traditional organizational boundaries. Risk optimal decisions to disseminate mission critical tactical intelligence information to the pertinent actors in a timely manner is critical for a mission’s success. In this paper ,, we,argue that traditionally decision support mechanisms,for information sharing

Achille Fokoue; Mudhakar Srivatsa; Pankaj Rohatgi; Peter Wrobel; John Yesberg

408

Information Sharing and Environmental Policies  

PubMed Central

Based on the assumption that in a standard eco-dumping model governments are uncertain about future product demand and allowing governments to obtain information from firms, we examine governments’ and firms’ incentives to share information. We show that when governments regulate polluting firms through emission standards, then governments and firms will reach an agreement concerning information sharing. The opposite holds when governments regulate pollution through emission taxes.

Antoniou, Fabio; Koundouri, Phoebe; Tsakiris, Nikos

2010-01-01

409

INFECTIOUS DOSE OF NORWALK VIRUS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Norwalk virus and related viruses (caliciviruses) have been identified as a common cause of waterborne disease. Moreover, there are many outbreaks of waterborne disease every year where the causative agent was never identified, and it is thought that many of these are due to ...

410

Virus-specific HLA-restricted lysis of herpes simplex virus-infected human monocytes and macrophages mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes  

SciTech Connect

Freshly-isolated peripheral blood human monocytes and 5 day in vitro cultured macrophages were infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), labeled with /sup 51/Cr, and used as target cells in a 12-14 hour cell-mediated cytotoxicity assay. Mononuclear leukocytes (MNL) from HSV-1 non-immune individuals, whether unstimulated or stimulated with HSV-1 antigen, did not mediate significant lysis of either target cell. HSV-immune MNL, both freshly-isolated and cultured for 5 days without antigen, demonstrated only low levels of natural killer (NK) cell-mediate lysis. MNL from HSV-immune individuals incubated for 5 days in vitro with HSV-1 antigen mediated significant virus-specific lysis of both target cells. Mean virus-specific lysis of autologous monocytes was 8.5(/+-/2.0)% compared to a three-fold greater virus-specific lysis of autologous macrophages. Greater than 70% of this lytic activity was mediated by Leu-11-negative, T3-positive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Allogeneic target cells lacking a common HLA determinant were not significantly lysed while T8-positive CTL mediated infrequent lysis of target cells sharing a common HLA-A and/or HLA-B determinant. T4-positive lymphocytes were demonstrated to be the predominant cell mediating lysis of autologous target cells and allogeneic target cells sharing both HLA-A and/or HLA-B plus HLA-DR determinants with the CTL; the T4-positive cell was the sole CTL mediator of lysis of allogeneic target cells having a common HLA-DR determinant.

Torpey, D.J. III

1987-01-01

411

Cedar Virus: A Novel Henipavirus Isolated from Australian Bats  

PubMed Central

The genus Henipavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae contains two viruses, Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) for which pteropid bats act as the main natural reservoir. Each virus also causes serious and commonly lethal infection of people as well as various species of domestic animals, however little is known about the associated mechanisms of pathogenesis. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a new paramyxovirus from pteropid bats, Cedar virus (CedPV), which shares significant features with the known henipaviruses. The genome size (18,162 nt) and organization of CedPV is very similar to that of HeV and NiV; its nucleocapsid protein displays antigenic cross-reactivity with henipaviruses; and it uses the same receptor molecule (ephrin- B2) for entry during infection. Preliminary challenge studies with CedPV in ferrets and guinea pigs, both susceptible to infection and disease with known henipaviruses, confirmed virus replication and production of neutralizing antibodies although clinical disease was not observed. In this context, it is interesting to note that the major genetic difference between CedPV and HeV or NiV lies within the coding strategy of the P gene, which is known to play an important role in evading the host innate immune system. Unlike HeV, NiV, and almost all known paramyxoviruses, the CedPV P gene lacks both RNA editing and also the coding capacity for the highly conserved V protein. Preliminary study indicated that CedPV infection of human cells induces a more robust IFN-? response than HeV.

Barr, Jennifer A.; Tachedjian, Mary; Smith, Craig; Middleton, Deborah; Yu, Meng; Todd, Shawn; Foord, Adam J.; Haring, Volker; Payne, Jean; Robinson, Rachel; Broz, Ivano; Crameri, Gary; Field, Hume E.; Wang, Lin-Fa

2012-01-01

412

Common features of the yes and src gene products defined by peptide-specific antibodies.  

PubMed Central

Anti-peptide antibodies generated against a hydrophilic domain of pp60src comprising amino acid residues 498 through 512 were shown to be cross-reactive with the corresponding region in the yes transforming proteins encoded by Yamaguchi 73 and Esh sarcoma viruses. This cross-reactivity was demonstrated by immunoblot and immunoprecipitation analyses, and the identity of the proteins was verified by partial proteolytic mapping. By utilizing a combination of immunofluorescence and interference-reflection microscopy, these cross-reactive anti-peptide antibodies were shown to produce an immunofluorescence staining pattern in Yamaguchi 73 and Esh sarcoma virus-transformed chicken embryo fibroblasts remarkably similar to that pp60src in Rous sarcoma virus-infected chicken cells. Like the src gene products, the yes transformation-specific polyproteins were found to be concentrated within adhesion plaque structures and needle-like interdigitating cell-cell junctions. This analogous subcellular distribution suggests that these onc proteins are functionally related and may share common intracellular targets. Images

Gentry, L E; Rohrschneider, L R

1984-01-01

413

Sobemoviruses possess a common CfMV-like genomic organization.  

PubMed

Based on structural differences in the ORF2 region, the sobemoviruses have been subdivided into southern cowpea mosaic virus (SCPMV)-like and cocksfoot mottle virus (CfMV)-like types of genome organization. However, nearly identical amino acid sequences are encoded by these subgroups in different reading frames of ORF2, suggesting that insertion or deletion of appropriate nucleotides could restore similar genomic organizations for these viruses. We resequenced the regions of inconsistency for isolates of four SCPMV-like viruses: lucerne transient streak virus, ryegrass mottle virus, southern bean mosaic virus, and SCPMV. A comparison of nucleic acid composition of these sequences with previously published ones revealed crucial differences that established a common CfMV-like genomic organization for these sobemoviruses. PMID:17115301

Meier, M; Truve, E

2006-11-20

414

Confronting JC virus and Homo sapiens biological signatures.  

PubMed

The present report describes the peptide commonality between JC virus (JCV) and the human proteome at the heptamer level. In total, 53 viral heptapeptides occur in functionally important human proteins with potential consequences for host functions and JCV pathogenesis. A paradigmatic example of a crucial peptide match is the SGKTTLA sequence, shared by JCV LT antigen and human nicotinamide/nicotinic acid riboside kinase, an enzyme involved in myelination processes. In general, the JCV-versus-host heptapeptide overlap may result in a competition between viral sequences and identical motifs in host enzymic active sites, adhesive domains, regulatory signaling motifs, etc., thus interfering with essential reactions and posing disadvantages to the cell. Overall, this study provides a starting point for investigating the role of peptide commonality in host-pathogen interactions. PMID:23276955

Lucchese, Guglielmo

2013-01-01

415

MEASLES VIRUS VACCINE LIVE (ATTENUVAX)  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Measles is a common childhood disease, caused by measles virus (paramyxovirus), that may be associated with serious complications and/or ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/vaccines

416

Newport: enabling sharing during mobile calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Newport is a collaborative application for sharing context (e.g. location) and content (e.g. photos and notes) during mobile phone calls. People can share during a phone call and sharing ends when the call ends. Newport also supports using a computer during a call to make it easier to share content from the phone or launch screen sharing if the caller

Junius A. Gunaratne; A. J. Bernheim Brush

2010-01-01

417

A series of insights: location sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

People share their private data with others on a daily basis. This makes it necessary to find a balance between sharing information and protecting private data. We studied location sharing and weighed different factors that impact people's decisions on sharing their location. We present our findings from conducting 12 interviews on the topic of location sharing. The most important findings

Andre Doria; Daniel Wagner; Iryna Pavlyshak; Mariana Lopez

418

Detecting Dealer Cheating in Secret Sharing Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of secret sharing can be used in a wide range of business application. A secret sharing system can implement the policies of secret sharing, and control the distribution of the secrets to the participants under the secret sharing policies. But, it can be damaged when the dealer cheating occurs. If the secret sharing system is implemented by Shamir's

Chin-chen Chang; Chao-wen Chan

2000-01-01

419

On the Theory of Quantum Secret Sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

I present a variety of results on the theory of quantum secret sharing. I show that any mixed state quantum secret sharing scheme can be derived by discarding a share from a pure state scheme, and that the size of each share in a quantum secret sharing scheme must be at least as large as the size of the secret.

Daniel Gottesman

1999-01-01

420

Isolation from the Asian Mouse Mus caroli of an Endogenous Type C Virus Related to Infectious Primate Type C Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of a cell line derived from the Asian feral mouse Mus caroli with 5-bromodeoxyuridine induces an infectious, xenotropic type C virus. This virus shares strongly cross-reactive reverse transcriptase (RNA-dependent DNA polymerase) and p30 antigens and cross-interferes with type C viruses isolated from a woolly monkey (SSAV) and gibbon apes (GALV). By similar criteria, the caroli virus is much less

Michael M. Lieber; Charles J. Sherr; George J. Todaro; Raoul E. Benveniste; Robert Callahan; Hayden G. Coon

1975-01-01

421

Science, values, and common ground1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I argue that there may be common ground shared by animal science and its critics insofar as animal scientists seek improvement in their field in four areas: the quality of their products, the quality of life for those who make their livelihood in food production, the fair treatment of human work- ers, and the humane treatment of

Chris Cuomo

2010-01-01

422

Catalog of 'Common Use' Rail Corridors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a catalog of 'common use' rail corridors. These are defined as corridors where non-Federal Railroad Administration (FRA)-compliant light rail or rail rapid transit vehicles operate adjacent to, or on track shared with, rail freight or passe...

R. R. Resor

2003-01-01

423

Human immunodeficiency virus seropositivity in intravenous drug users in Ohio.  

PubMed

A seroprevalence survey of 508 intravenous (IV) drug users enrolled in methadone treatment programs in Ohio for evidence of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) demonstrated a positivity prevalence of 1.4%. This seropositivity prevalence is low compared with 10% to 72% positive from surveys conducted in the IV drug-using populations of New York, New Jersey, Detroit and San Francisco. Although needle sharing was common (71% since 1983), the number of sharing partners was usually limited and regular. A potential for cross-infection from urban centers with higher seropositivity prevalence was indicated by patterns of travel and needle sharing while traveling to higher risk metropolitan centers such as New York. Hispanics appeared to be at greater risk for HIV infection (OR 17.7, 95% CI 2.4-133.0), as were male IV drug users with gay/bisexual lifestyles (OR 14.1, 95% CI 1.3-153.0). HIV positive individuals were identified in Cleveland (1.6%), Dayton (3.1%), and Columbus (0.8%), but not in the four other Ohio metropolitan areas participating in the survey. Study participants indicated that knowledge of AIDS had changed their IV drug-using habits with 60% reporting that fear of AIDS had caused them to give up IV drugs or needle sharing. Sampling from methadone clinics may underestimate the HIV seropositivity in Ohio's IV drug-using community; however, it appears that relatively few IV drug users in Ohio are currently infected with HIV. The low prevalence of HIV infection in the Ohio IV drug-using community provides the opportunity to intervene in limiting the spread of the virus by educating individuals to reduce or eliminate risk factors for the transmission of the disease. PMID:2927870

Seligman, P J; Campbell, R J; Keeler, G P; Halpin, T J

1989-01-01

424

The dengue virus nonstructural-1 protein (NS1) generatesantibodies to common epitopes on human blood clotting,integrin\\/adhesin proteins and binds to humanendothelial cells: potential implications in haemorrhagic fever pathogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?Antibody responses generated by mice to the dengue-2 virus NS1 protein (D-2V NS1) were influenced by MHC class II (I-A) haplotype\\u000a but each antiserum cross-reacted with human fibrinogen, thrombocytes and endothelial cells. To investigate these findings,\\u000a a highly avid subclone (MAb 1G5.4-A1-C3) was selected from a parent hybridoma that secreted a monoclonal antibody (MAb) specific\\u000a for the native dimeric form

A. K. I. Falconar

1997-01-01

425

Two versions of the tragedy of the commons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The commons are a one input-one output production process with increasing marginal cost. In the everage return game, each\\u000a agent chooses his input contribution and total output is shared in proportion to individual contributions. In the average\\u000a cost game, each agent chooses his output share and total input cost is shared in proportion to individual demands. The tragedy\\u000a is that

Hervé Moulin; Alison Watts

1996-01-01

426

Ideal Multipartite Secret Sharing Schemes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multipartite secret sharing schemes are those having a multipartite access structure, in which the set of participants is divided into several parts and all participants in the same part play an equivalent role. Several particular families of multipartite schemes, such as the weighted threshold schemes, the hierarchical and the compartmented schemes, and the ones with bipartite or tripartite access structure have been considered in the literature. The characterization of the access structures of ideal secret sharing schemes is one of the main open problems in secret sharing. In this work, the characterization of ideal multipartite access structures is studied with all generality. Our results are based on the well-known connections between ideal secret sharing schemes and matroids. One of the main contributions of this paper is the application of discrete polymatroids to secret sharing. They are proved to be a powerful tool to study the properties of multipartite matroids. In this way, we obtain some necessary conditions and some sufficient conditions for a multipartite access structure to be ideal.

Farràs, Oriol; Martí-Farré, Jaume; Padró, Carles

427

Cedar Virus: A Novel Henipavirus Isolated from Australian Bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Henipavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae contains two viruses, Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) for which pteropid bats act as the main natural reservoir. Each virus also causes serious and commonly lethal infection of people as well as various species of domestic animals, however little is known about the associated mechanisms of pathogenesis. Here, we report the

Glenn A. Marsh; Carol de Jong; Jennifer A. Barr; Mary Tachedjian; Craig Smith; Deborah Middleton; Meng Yu; Shawn Todd; Adam J. Foord; Volker Haring; Jean Payne; Rachel Robinson; Ivano Broz; Gary Crameri; Hume E. Field; Lin-Fa Wang

2012-01-01

428

Virus Ultra Structure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Linda Stannard of the University of Capetown, South Africa, has composed a page which, although it was intended to serve as an introductory manual for students of virology, can be appreciated by a wide audience. A section on the principles of virus architecture uses text and outstanding graphics to provide an introduction to why viruses look the way they do. Other parts of the site emphasize how virus shapes and structures are "seen" and recorded with sections on negative staining and electron microscopy of DNA- and RNA-containing viruses. This site's success relies on the use of well-chosen graphics and the inclusion of interesting factoids such as the following: "The head of a dress-maker's pin can provide seating accommodation for five hundred million rhinoviruses (cause of the common cold)!".

429

Maritime domain awareness community of interest net centric information sharing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper highlights the approach taken by the Maritime Domain Awareness (MDA) Community of Interest (COI) in establishing an approach to data sharing that seeks to overcome many of the obstacles to sharing both within the federal government and with international and private sector partners. The approach uses the DOD Net Centric Data Strategy employed through Net Centric Enterprise Services (NCES) Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) foundation provided by Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA), but is unique in that the community is made up of more than just Defense agencies. For the first pilot project, the MDA COI demonstrated how four agencies from DOD, the Intelligence Community, Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and Department of Transportation (DOT) could share Automatic Identification System (AIS) data in a common format using shared enterprise service components.

Andress, Mark; Freeman, Brian; Rhiddlehover, Trey; Shea, John

2007-05-01

430

Food sharing in black lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysopygus).  

PubMed

Food sharing behavior was investigated by studying 10 captive black lion tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysopygus) infants (six litters) between the ages of four and 26 weeks. The frequency of sharing by parents in response to infant begging increased steadily from the age of five to nine weeks, but then declined gradually, although infants were still receiving food even at 26 weeks. Until the age of 15 weeks, infants received more food items by transfer from other group members than they did from self-feeding. Thereafter, self-feeding predominated. Offering of food by adults without prior infant begging occurred at low frequencies (5.3% of items transferred) and ceased at 20 weeks of age. Begging success (the proportion of infant begs which resulted in food sharing) remained relatively constant, averaging 65%. In common with other lion tamarins, black lion tamarins appear to continue to share food with infants well after weaning, and until at least six months of age. PMID:10993137

Feistner, A T; Price, E C

2000-09-01

431

Malware prevalence in the KaZaA file-sharing network  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, more than 200 viruses have been reported to use a peer-to-peer (P2P) file-sharing network as a propagation vector. Disguised as files that are frequently exchanged over P2P networks, these malicious programs infect the user's host if downloaded and opened, leaving their copies in the user's sharing folder for fur- ther propagation. Using a light-weight crawler built for

Seungwon Shin; Jaeyeon Jung; Hari Balakrishnan

2006-01-01

432

Complete genome sequence of arracacha mottle virus.  

PubMed

Arracacha mottle virus (AMoV) is the only potyvirus reported to infect arracacha (Arracacia xanthorrhiza) in Brazil. Here, the complete genome sequence of an isolate of AMoV was determined to be 9,630 nucleotides in length, excluding the 3' poly-A tail, and encoding a polyprotein of 3,135 amino acids and a putative P3N-PIPO protein. Its genomic organization is typical of a member of the genus Potyvirus, containing all conserved motifs. Its full genome sequence shared 56.2 % nucleotide identity with sunflower chlorotic mottle virus and verbena virus Y, the most closely related viruses. PMID:23001696

Orílio, Anelise F; Lucinda, Natalia; Dusi, André N; Nagata, Tatsuya; Inoue-Nagata, Alice K

2012-09-22

433

Plasmablastic lymphoma with MYC translocation: evidence for a common pathway in the generation of plasmablastic features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasmablastic lymphoma, which is considered a subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, shares many similar morphological and immunophenotypic features with plasmablastic transformation of plasma cell myeloma. In the setting of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, both types of neoplasms can be associated with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), thus making their distinction challenging. Moreover, the biological relationship between these entities remains unclear.

Lekidelu Taddesse-Heath; Aurelia Meloni-Ehrig; Jay Scheerle; JoAnn C Kelly; Elaine S Jaffe

2010-01-01

434

Common vocabularies for collective intelligence - work in progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web based applications and tools offer a great potential to increase the effectiveness of information flow and improve communication among disparate agents in support of distributed operations. One of the factors that hinders the integration and interoperability of information models, is a lack of common, shared vocabularies. This paper discusses research aimed at placing shared vocabularies at the heart of

P. Di Maio

2009-01-01

435

First Monday: Sharing Digital Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

First Monday has posted selected papers from the Conference on Libraries and Museums in the Digital World. The conference, also known as Web Wise 2004, was sponsored by the Institute of Museum and Library Services and co-hosted by University of Illinois at Chicgao. The theme of Sharing Digital Resources addressed the different meanings and implications of sharing in the digital environment. Items posted online include a video of the keynote address, project demonstrations, and extended papers on topics such as imaging, problems of public media, and the role of museums in teaching and learning.

436

Human Immunodeficiency Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral health is an integral component of overall health and well-being in all patients. However, for an immunocompromised patient,\\u000a many common oral conditions may have a significant impact on quality of life. Intraoral pain, which is a common complaint\\u000a among patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), will compromise patients’ ability to maintain adequate and appropriate\\u000a oral intake. Furthermore, the polypharmacopeia

Anita Patel; Michael Glick

437

Common interferometer control systems architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomical interferometry at the JPL has grown rapidly in the last two years. JPL is now engaged in a number of interferometry projects and is also developing a number of internal testbeds to support those projects. While each of these projects and testbeds has its own unique properties, they do share a lot of common features, and JPL is striving, through its interferometer technology program (ITP), to develop common components, software, and hardware that can be reused by multiple projects. The discipline where this commonality is probably most apparent is in the area of realtime control systems, specifically the software and electronics that drive the instrument control loops and sequence the subsystems. To this end, within the ITP, JPL has developed the realtime interferometer control systems testbed (RICST) as a facility where a common software and electronics core, essentially a control system for a generic interferometer, can be developed. The realtime control (RTC) team in the ITP program consists of about 20 full-time equivalent engineers, technicians, quality assurance personnel, architects, and managers. The remainder of this paper will describe the interferometry landscape at JPL, the RTC effort, an overview of the RICST testbed, and the generic interferometer control system architecture that has been developed.

Hines, Braden E.; Johnson, Richard L.; Starr, Kenneth M.

1998-07-01

438

Shared Decision-Making and Evidence-Based Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shared decision-making refers to a process of health care delivery in which practitioners and clients seeking help for problems or disorders collaborate to access relevant information and to enable client-centered selection of health care resources. Though nearly all clients express a desire for more information, preferences for participation in health care decisions vary by individual and by illness. Two common

Jared R. Adams; Robert E. Drake

2006-01-01

439

Urdu and Hindi: Translation and sharing of linguistic resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hindi and Urdu share a common phonol- ogy, morphology and grammar but are written in different scripts. In addition, the vocabularies have also diverged signif- icantly especially in the written form. In this paper we show that we can get rea- sonable quality translations (we estimated the Translation Error rate at 18%) between the two languages even in absence of

Karthik Visweswariah; Vijil Chenthamarakshan; Nandakishore Kambhatla

2010-01-01

440

Communal winter nesting and food sharing in Taiga Voles  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.In central Alaska, Taiga Voles live in communal groups of five to ten individuals (mean = 7.1) for eight months of the year. During this winter period, they share a common stored food cache.2.Evidence from both field monitoring of nest temperatures and laboratory studies indicates that thermoregulatory advantages accrue from communal nesting. Cooperative defense against predators and food thieves probably

J. O. Wolff; William Z. Lidicker

1981-01-01