These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Spiroplasma species share common DNA sequences among their viruses, plasmids and genomes.  

PubMed

Alkaline-Southern-blot analyses showed that a spiroplasma plasmid, pRA1, obtained from Spiroplasma citri (Maroc-R8A2), contained DNA sequences that were homologous to spiroplasma type 3 viruses (SV3) obtained from S. citri (Maroc-R8A2), S. citri (608) and S. mirum (SMCA). In addition, pRA1 and SV3(608) DNA shared common, but not necessarily related, sequences with extrachromosomal DNA derived from 11 Spiroplasma species or strains. Furthermore, SV3(608) had DNA homology with the chromosome from 6 distinct spiroplasmas but not with chromosomal DNA from eight other Spiroplasma species or strains. The biological function of these common sequences is unknown. PMID:2830894

Ranhand, J M; Nur, I; Rose, D L; Tully, J G

1987-01-01

2

Vibrio chromosomes share common history  

E-print Network

Abstract Background While most gamma proteobacteria have a single circular chromosome, Vibrionales have two circular chromosomes. Horizontal gene transfer is common among Vibrios, and in light of this genetic mobility, it ...

Kirkup, Benjamin C.

3

Vibrio chromosomes share common history  

E-print Network

Background: While most gamma proteobacteria have a single circular chromosome, Vibrionales have two circular chromosomes. Horizontal gene transfer is common among Vibrios, and in light of this genetic mobility, it is an ...

Kirkup, Benjamin C.

4

Specific nuclear proteins interact with the Rous sarcoma virus internal enhancer and share a common element with the enhancer located in the long terminal repeat of the virus.  

PubMed Central

We have documented that the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) internal enhancer functions in the nontransformed Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK) cell line. The sequences within this region were assayed for their ability to bind to specific factors present in BHK nuclear extracts using the gel retardation assay and DNAse I footprinting. At least two sequences within the internal enhancer which can specifically bind nuclear factors in vitro have been identified. These regions are located between nucleotides 813-850 and 856-877. These sites map within the overall region of the internal enhancer which has been shown to be essential for enhancer activity and within the specific region which can function as an orientation independent enhancer. Using the DNase I footprinting and binding data to design an oligonucleotide, we have demonstrated that an oligonucleotide extending from nucleotides 804-877 will substitute efficiently as an enhancer. We also demonstrate that the SV40 enhancer does not compete for the factors which bind to the RSV internal enhancer, whereas an oligonucleotide to the binding site for EFII in the LTR can compete for factor binding to the internal enhancer. Images PMID:2827114

Karnitz, L; Faber, S; Chalkley, R

1987-01-01

5

Multiple Virus Lineages Sharing Recent Common Ancestry Were Associated with a Large Rift Valley Fever Outbreak among Livestock in Kenya during 2006-2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus historically has caused widespread and extensive outbreaks of severe human and livestock disease throughout Africa, Madagascar, and the Arabian Peninsula. Following unusually heavy rainfall during the late autumn of 2006, reports of human and animal illness consistent with RVF virus infection emerged across semiarid regions of the Garissa District of northeastern Kenya and southern Somalia.

Brian H. Bird; Jane W. K. Githinji; Joseph M. Macharia; Jacqueline L. Kasiiti; Rees M. Muriithi; Stephen G. Gacheru; Joseph O. Musaa; Jonathan S. Towner; Serena A. Reeder; Jennifer B. Oliver; Thomas L. Stevens; Bobbie R. Erickson; Laura T. Morgan; Marina L. Khristova; Amy L. Hartman; James A. Comer; Pierre E. Rollin; Thomas G. Ksiazek; Stuart T. Nichol

2008-01-01

6

'Bounce' and Shergotty Share Common Ground  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This illustration compares the spectrum of 'Bounce,' a rock at Meridiani Planum, to that of a martian meteorite found on Earth called Shergotty. Bounce's spectrum, and thus mineral composition, is unique to the rocks studied so far at Merdiani Planum and Gusev Crater, the landings sites of the Mars Exploration Rovers Opportunity and Spirit. However, the results here indicate that Bounce is not a one-of-a-kind rock, but shares origins with Shergotty. Shergotty landed in India in 1865. Bounce's spectra were taken on sol 67 by Opportunity's Moessbauer spectrometer.

2004-01-01

7

Metabolism and proliferation share common regulatory pathways in cancer  

E-print Network

Metabolism and proliferation share common regulatory pathways in cancer cells. Vanessa Fritz, proliferation, and cancer inserm-00491405,version1-11Jun2010 Author manuscript, published in "Oncogene 2010;29(31):4369-77" DOI : 10.1038/onc.2010.182 #12;Metabolism, proliferation and cancer Fritz and Fajas 2 Abstract Cancer

Boyer, Edmond

8

Shared mechanisms in stemness and carcinogenesis: lessons from oncogenic viruses  

PubMed Central

A rise in technologies for epigenetic reprogramming of cells to pluripotency, highlights the potential of understanding and manipulating cellular plasticity in unprecedented ways. Increasing evidence points to shared mechanisms between cellular reprogramming and the carcinogenic process, with the emerging possibility to harness these parallels in future therapeutics. In this review, we present a synopsis of recent work from oncogenic viruses which contributes to this body of knowledge, establishing a nexus between infection, cancer, and stemness. PMID:24400225

Iacovides, Demetris; Michael, Stella; Achilleos, Charis; Strati, Katerina

2013-01-01

9

Shared gene expression in distinct neurons expressing common selector genes  

PubMed Central

Expression of the mec-3/unc-86 selector gene complex induces the differentiation of the touch receptor neurons (TRNs) of Caenorhabditis elegans. These genes are also expressed in another set of embryonically derived mechanosensory neurons, the FLP neurons, but these cells do not share obvious TRN traits or proteins. We have identified ?300 genes in each cell type that are up-regulated at least threefold using DNA microarrays. Twenty-three percent of these genes are up-regulated in both cells. Surprisingly, some of the common genes had previously been identified as TRN-specific. Although the FLP neurons contain low amounts of the mRNAs for these TRN genes, they do not have detectable proteins. These results suggest that transcription control is relatively inexact but that these apparent errors of transcription are tolerated and do not alter cell fate. Previous studies showed that loss of the EGL-44 and EGL-46 transcription factors cause the FLP neurons to acquire TRN-like traits. Here, we show that similar changes occur (e.g., the expression of both the TRN mRNAs and proteins) when the FLP neurons ectopically express the auxiliary transcription factor ALR-1 (Aristaless related), which ensures, but does not direct, TRN differentiation. Thus, the FLP neurons can acquire a TRN-like fate but use multiple levels of regulation to ensure they do not. Our data indicate that expression of common master regulators in different cell types can result in inappropriate expression of effector genes. This misexpression makes these cells vulnerable to influences that could cause them to acquire alternative fates. PMID:22087002

Topalidou, Irini; Chalfie, Martin

2011-01-01

10

Explaining Common Variance Shared by Early Numeracy and Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How can it be explained that early literacy and numeracy share variance? We specifically tested whether the correlation between four early literacy skills (rhyming, letter knowledge, emergent writing, and orthographic knowledge) and simple sums (non-symbolic and story condition) reduced after taking into account preschool attention control,…

Davidse, N. J.; De Jong, M. T.; Bus, A. G.

2014-01-01

11

Marburg virus infection detected in a common African bat.  

PubMed

Marburg and Ebola viruses can cause large hemorrhagic fever (HF) outbreaks with high case fatality (80-90%) in human and great apes. Identification of the natural reservoir of these viruses is one of the most important topics in this field and a fundamental key to understanding their natural history. Despite the discovery of this virus family almost 40 years ago, the search for the natural reservoir of these lethal pathogens remains an enigma despite numerous ecological studies. Here, we report the discovery of Marburg virus in a common species of fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus) in Gabon as shown by finding virus-specific RNA and IgG antibody in individual bats. These Marburg virus positive bats represent the first naturally infected non-primate animals identified. Furthermore, this is the first report of Marburg virus being present in this area of Africa, thus extending the known range of the virus. These data imply that more areas are at risk for MHF outbreaks than previously realized and correspond well with a recently published report in which three species of fruit bats were demonstrated to be likely reservoirs for Ebola virus. PMID:17712412

Towner, Jonathan S; Pourrut, Xavier; Albariño, César G; Nkogue, Chimène Nze; Bird, Brian H; Grard, Gilda; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Nichol, Stuart T; Leroy, Eric M

2007-01-01

12

Global food crisis and crude oil price changes: Do they share common cyclical features?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores shared trends and shared cycles between crude oil market and global food commodity markets for wheat, rice, sugar, beef, coffee and groundnut. The results of the paper indicate that there is no evidence of shared trend and common cycle between crude oil market and each of the food commodity markets, suggesting that each market responds differently to

Ibrahim A. Onour

2010-01-01

13

What is the Deaf Community? A community is a group of people who share common interests and a common  

E-print Network

· What is the Deaf Community? A community is a group of people who share common interests and a common heritage. The Deaf Community is comprised of individuals, both deaf and hearing, who to varying degrees embrace particular community goals that come from Deaf cultural influences. This topic card

O'Toole, Alice J.

14

GB virus B and hepatitis C virus NS3 serine proteases share substrate specificity.  

PubMed Central

GB virus B (GBV-B) is a recently discovered virus responsible for hepatitis in tamarins (Saguinus species). GBV-B belongs to the Flaviviridae family and is closely related to the human pathogen hepatitis C virus (HCV). Nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) of HCV has been shown to encompass a serine protease domain required for viral maturation. GBV-B and HCV share only about 30% of the amino acid sequence within the NS3 protease domain. The catalytic triad is conserved, and the residue Phe-154, presumed to be a crucial amino acid for determining the S1 specificity pocket of the HCV NS3 protease, is also conserved. We have expressed a synthetic gene encoding the GBV-B NS3 protease domain in Escherichia coli and have characterized the purified recombinant protein for its activity on HCV substrates. We have shown that the NS3 region of the GBV-B genome actually encodes a serine protease that, despite the low sequence homology, shares substrate specificity with the HCV NS3 protease. PMID:9188562

Scarselli, E; Urbani, A; Sbardellati, A; Tomei, L; De Francesco, R; Traboni, C

1997-01-01

15

West Nile Virus: Transmission  

MedlinePLUS

... About CDC.gov . West Nile Virus Share Compartir Transmission West Nile virus is most commonly transmitted to ... fully cooking meat from either birds or mammals. Transmission cycle West Nile Virus Transmission Cycle [PDF - 1 ...

16

Serological and biological relationships among viruses in the bean common mosaic virus subgroup.  

PubMed

Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV), blackeye cowpea mosaic virus (B1CMV), cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), azuki bean mosaic virus (AzMV), and peanut stripe virus (PStV) are five species of the genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae which are seed-transmitted in beans or cowpeas. Eighteen isolates of BCMV, five isolates of B1CMV, four isolates of CABMV, and one isolate each of AzMV, and PStV were compared serologically using a panel of 13 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) raised against BCMV, B1CMV, CABMV, or PStV in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Four MAbs detected all virus isolates; one detected all isolates except those of CABMV. Three MAbs were specific only for serotype A isolates of BCMV. Four MAbs detected all serotype B isolates of BCMV plus all isolates of B1CMV, AzMV, and PStV. None of the antibodies distinguished among these four viruses. However, in biological tests with 11 bean cultivars selected for differentiating BCMV pathotypes, all isolates of B1CMV, AzMV, and PStV could be differentiated from the BCMV serotype B isolates by their reactions on a few bean cultivars in host group I and the cowpea cultivar California Blackeye #5. Potential problems that can arise from the use of nonauthenticated isolates are also discussed. PMID:1450766

Mink, G I; Silbernagel, M J

1992-01-01

17

Glass Sponges and Bilaterian Animals Share Derived Mitochondrial Genomic Features: A Common Ancestry or Parallel Evolution?  

E-print Network

Glass Sponges and Bilaterian Animals Share Derived Mitochondrial Genomic Features: A Common Oceanographic Institution, Fort Pierce, Florida Glass sponges (Hexactinellida) are a group of deep-water benthic glass sponges and bilaterian animals, including an Arg / Ser change in the genetic code

Lavrov, Dennis V.

18

Brain Overview The brain is composed of 1011 neurons. While they are share common mech-  

E-print Network

subsequently cannot name the item on the card then this part of the memory is deemed important and the surgeonChapter 2 Brain Overview The brain is composed of 1011 neurons. While they are share common mech of circuitry needed to develop behavioral programs. Initially much of what we know about the brain's subsystems

Ballard, Dana H.

19

Two closely related endocytic proteins that share a common OCRL-binding motif with APPL1  

E-print Network

Two closely related endocytic proteins that share a common OCRL-binding motif with APPL1 Laura E effector APPL1 (Adaptor Protein containing pleck- strin homology [PH] domain, PTB domain and Leucine zipper motif 1) APPL1 for OCRL binding. Ses binding is mutually exclusive with APPL1 binding, and is disrupted

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

20

ARTICLE Patch occupancy of two hemipterans sharing a common host plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim Two hemipteran species were chosen as a study system for the comparative analysis of patch occupancy and spatial population structure of insects sharing a common host plant. This study tested whether (1) the incidence in the host plant patches differed between the two species, and (2) the two species exhibited a different spatial population structure, i.e. were they affected

Robert Biedermann

21

Effectiveness of common healthcare disinfectants against H1N1 influenza virus on reusable elastomeric respirators.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the efficacy of 3 common hospital disinfectants to inactivate influenza virus on elastomeric respirators. Quaternary ammonium/isopropyl alcohol and bleach detergent wipes eliminated live virus, whereas 70% isopropyl alcohol alone was ineffective. PMID:24915224

Subhash, Shobha S; Cavaiuolo, Maria; Radonovich, Lewis J; Eagan, Aaron; Lee, Martin L; Campbell, Sheldon; Martinello, Richard A

2014-07-01

22

Risk of Hepatitis C Virus Infection among Young Adult Injection Drug Users Who Share Injection Equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designing studies to examine hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission via the shared use of drug injection paraphernalia other than syringes is difficult because of saturation levels of HCV infection in most samples of injection drug users (IDUs). The authors measured the incidence of HCV infection in a large cohort of young IDUs from Chicago, Illinois, and determined the risk of

Lorna E. Thorpe; Lawrence J. Ouellet; Ronald Hershow; Susan L. Bailey; Ian T. Williams; John Williamson; Edgar R. Monterroso; Richard S. Garfein

23

[Experimental infection caused by influenza A (H5N1) virus in common gull (Larus canus)].  

PubMed

The influenza A/common gull/Chany/P/2006 (HSN1) virus strain Isolated from a clinically healthy common gull (Larus canus) caused no death of Its natural host (a common gull). The virus was shown to be capable for effective replication in the tissues of the lung, spleen, and upper respiratory tract and in the intestinal mucosal cells of the common gull with further environmental virus liberation elimination along with mucinous discharges from the cloaca and fauces for 2 weeks. The potential role of this bird species in the circulation of influenza virus is discussed. PMID:23248859

Za?kovskaia, A V; Sharshov, K A; Sherstkov, E A; Iurlov, A K; Shestopalov, A M

2012-01-01

24

Evolutionarily Related Sindbis-Like Plant Viruses Maintain Different Levels of Population Diversity in a Common Host  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of population diversity of three related Sindbis-like plant viruses, Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), and Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), in infections of a common host, Nicotiana benthamiana, established from genetically identical viral RNA were examined. Despite probably having a common evolutionary ancestor, the three viruses maintained different levels of population diversity. CMV had the

WILLIAM L. SCHNEIDER; MARILYN J. ROOSSINCK

2000-01-01

25

Spread of Avian Influenza Viruses by Common Teal (Anas crecca) in Europe  

E-print Network

Spread of Avian Influenza Viruses by Common Teal (Anas crecca) in Europe Camille Lebarbenchon1 influenza virus (AIV) dispersal has become an increasing focus of research. As for any other bird: Lebarbenchon C, Albespy F, Brochet A-L, Grandhomme V, Renaud F, et al. (2009) Spread of Avian Influenza Viruses

Green, Andy J.

26

C --needs 4 e's to complete its outer shell ---> forms 4 covalent bonds by sharing e's with the other common elements ---> relatively equal sharing of electrons --->  

E-print Network

1 C -- needs 4 e's to complete its outer shell ---> forms 4 covalent bonds by sharing e's with the other common elements ---> relatively equal sharing of electrons ---> strong covalent bonds. The 4 atoms--O--H, >C==O 4 sp3 hybrid orbitals -- 2 have lone electron pairs and 2 form covalent bonds PRECURSOR

Frey, Terry

27

Synteny mapping between common bean and soybean reveals extensive blocks of shared loci  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding syntentic relationship between two species is critical to assessing the potential for comparative genomic analysis. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.), the two most important members of the Phaseoleae legumes, appear to have a diploid and polyploidy recent past, respectively. Determining the syntentic relationship between these two species will allow researchers to leverage not only genomic resources but also genetic data for important agronomic traits to improve both of these species. Results Genetically-positioned transcript loci of common bean were mapped relative to the recent soybean 1.01 pseudochromosome assembly. In nearly every case, each common bean locus mapped to two loci in soybean, a result consistent with the duplicate polyploidy history of soybean. Blocks of synteny averaging 32 cM in common bean and 4.9 Mb in soybean were observed for all 11 common bean linkage groups, and these blocks mapped to all 20 soybean pseudochromosomes. The median physical-to-genetic distance ratio in common bean (based on soybean physical distances) was ~120 kb/cM. ~15,000 common bean sequences (primarily EST contigs and EST singletons) were electronically positioned onto the common bean map using the shared syntentic blocks as references points. Conclusion The collected evidence from this mapping strongly supports the duplicate history of soybean. It further provides evidence that the soybean genome was fractionated and reassembled at some point following the duplication event. These well mapped syntentic relationships between common bean and soybean will enable researchers to target specific genomic regions to discover genes or loci that affect phenotypic expression in both species. PMID:20298570

2010-01-01

28

Common Mechanism for RNA Encapsidation by Negative-Strand RNA Viruses  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The nucleocapsid of a negative-strand RNA virus is assembled with a single nucleocapsid protein and the viral genomic RNA. The nucleocapsid protein polymerizes along the length of the single-strand genomic RNA (viral RNA) or its cRNA. This process of encapsidation occurs concomitantly with genomic replication. Structural comparisons of several nucleocapsid-like particles show that the mechanism of RNA encapsidation in negative-strand RNA viruses has many common features. Fundamentally, there is a unifying mechanism to keep the capsid protein protomer monomeric prior to encapsidation of viral RNA. In the nucleocapsid, there is a cavity between two globular domains of the nucleocapsid protein where the viral RNA is sequestered. The viral RNA must be transiently released from the nucleocapsid in order to reveal the template RNA sequence for transcription/replication. There are cross-molecular interactions among the protein subunits linearly along the nucleocapsid to stabilize its structure. Empty capsids can form in the absence of RNA. The common characteristics of RNA encapsidation not only delineate the evolutionary relationship of negative-strand RNA viruses but also provide insights into their mechanism of replication. IMPORTANCE What separates negative-strand RNA viruses (NSVs) from the rest of the virosphere is that the nucleocapsid of NSVs serves as the template for viral RNA synthesis. Their viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase can induce local conformational changes in the nucleocapsid to temporarily release the RNA genome so that the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase can use it as the template for RNA synthesis during both transcription and replication. After RNA synthesis at the local region is completed, the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase processes downstream, and the RNA genome is restored in the nucleocapsid. We found that the nucleocapsid assembly of all NSVs shares three essential elements: a monomeric capsid protein protomer, parallel orientation of subunits in the linear nucleocapsid, and a (5H + 3H) motif that forms a proper cavity for sequestration of the RNA. This observation also suggests that all NSVs evolved from a common ancestor that has this unique nucleocapsid. PMID:24429372

Green, Todd J.; Cox, Robert; Tsao, Jun; Rowse, Michael; Qiu, Shihong

2014-01-01

29

Malignant Phyllodes Tumor and Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia Sharing a Common Clonal Origin  

PubMed Central

There is a well-known association in male patients between mediastinal germ cell tumors (GCT) and hematologic malignancies, with a propensity towards acute megakaryoblastic leukemia. These rare malignancies have been shown to share a common clonal origin, often deduced from the finding of isochromosome 12p, i(12p), in cells from both the solid tumor and the leukemia, and thus are now known to represent different manifestations of the same clonal process. We treated a young female patient with a malignant phyllodes tumor followed by an acute megakaryoblastic leukemia and found several of the same marker chromosomes by karyotype analysis of cells from both the tumor and the leukemia implying a common clonal origin of the two. To the best of our knowledge, this has not been demonstrated in phyllodes tumors before, but indicates that the same type of leukemization may occur of this tumor as has been described in mediastinal GCT. PMID:24455338

Fl?isand, Yngvar; Beiske, Klaus; Tj?nnfjord, Geir Erland; Heldal, Dag; Bjerkehagen, Bodil; Revheim, Mona-Elisabeth; Heim, Sverre; Bruland, ?yvind Sverre; Hall, Kirsten Sundby; Tierens, Anne; Delabie, Jan

2013-01-01

30

A conserved G1 regulatory circuit promotes asynchronous behavior of nuclei sharing a common cytoplasm  

PubMed Central

Synthesis and accumulation of conserved cell cycle regulators such as cyclins are thought to promote G1/S and G2/M transitions in most eukaryotes.1 When cells at different stages of the cell cycle are fused to form heterokaryons, the shared complement of regulators in the cytoplasm induces the nuclei to become synchronized.2 However, multinucleate fungi often display asynchronous nuclear division cycles, even though the nuclei inhabit a shared cytoplasm.3 Similarly, checkpoints can induce nuclear asynchrony in multinucleate cells by arresting only the nucleus that receives damage.4–6 The cell biological basis for nuclear autonomy in a common cytoplasm is not known. Here we show that in the filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii, sister nuclei born from one mitosis immediately lose synchrony in the subsequent G1 interval. A conserved G1 transcriptional regulatory circuit involving the Rb-analog Whi5p promotes the asynchronous behavior yet Whi5 protein is uniformly distributed among nuclei throughout the cell cycle. The homologous Whi5p circuit in S. cerevisiae employs positive feedback to promote robust and coherent entry into the cell cycle. We propose that positive feedback in this same circuit generates timing variability in a multinucleate cell. These unexpected findings indicate that a regulatory program whose products (mRNA transcripts) are translated in a common cytoplasm can nevertheless promote variability in the individual behavior of sister nuclei. PMID:20930528

Nair, Dhanalakshmi R; D'Ausilio, Cori A; Occhipinti, Patricia; Borsuk, Mark E

2010-01-01

31

Knowledge Sharing among University Students Facilitated with a Creative Commons Licensing Mechanism: A Case Study in a Programming Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Creative Commons (CC) mechanism has been suggested as a potential means to foster a reliable environment for online knowledge sharing activity. This study investigates the role of the CC mechanism in supporting knowledge sharing among a group of university students studying programming from the perspectives of social cognitive and social capital…

Liu, Chen-Chung; Lin, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chun-Yi; Chao, Po-Yao

2014-01-01

32

Modularity in the mammalian dentition: Mice and monkeys share a common dental genetic architecture  

PubMed Central

The concept of modularity provides a useful tool for exploring the relationship between genotype and phenotype. Here, we use quantitative genetics to identify modularity within the mammalian dentition, connecting the genetics of organogenesis to the genetics of population-level variation for a phenotype well represented in the fossil record. We estimated the correlations between dental traits due to the shared additive effects of genes (pleiotropy) and compared the pleiotropic relationships among homologous traits in two evolutionary distant taxa – mice and baboons. We find that in both mice and baboons, who shared a common ancestor >60 Ma, incisor size variation is genetically independent of molar size variation. Furthermore, baboon premolars show independent genetic variation from incisors, suggesting that a modular architecture separates incisors from these posterior teeth as well. Such genetic independence between modules provides an explanation for the extensive diversity of incisor size variation seen throughout mammalian evolution--variation uncorrelated with equivalent levels of postcanine tooth size variation. The modularity identified here is supported by the odontogenic homeobox code proposed for the patterning of the rodent dentition. The baboon postcanine pattern of incomplete pleiotropy is also consistent with predictions from the morphogenetic field model. PMID:20922775

Hlusko, Leslea J.; Sage, Richard D.; Mahaney, Michael C.

2010-01-01

33

Failed Lactation and Perinatal Depression: Common Problems with Shared Neuroendocrine Mechanisms?  

PubMed Central

Abstract In the early postpartum period, mother and infant navigate a critical neuroendocrine transition from pregnancy to lactation. Two major clinical problems that occur during this transition are failed lactation and perinatal mood disorders. These disorders often overlap in clinical settings. Failed lactation is common. Although all major medical organizations recommend 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding, only 13% of women in the United States achieve this recommendation. Perinatal mood disorders affect 10% of mothers, with substantial morbidity for mother and child. We hypothesize that shared neuroendocrine mechanisms contribute to both failed lactation and perinatal mood disorders. In this hypothesis article, we discuss data from both animal models and clinical studies that suggest neuroendocrine mechanisms that may underlie these two disorders. Research to elucidate the role of these underlying mechanisms may identify treatment strategies both to relieve perinatal depression and to enable women to achieve their infant feeding goals. PMID:22204416

Grewen, Karen; Pedersen, Cort A.; Propper, Cathi; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha

2012-01-01

34

Emerging theme: cellular PDZ proteins as common targets of pathogenic viruses.  

PubMed

More than a decade ago, three viral oncoproteins, adenovirus type 9 E4-ORF1, human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 Tax, and high-risk human papillomavirus E6, were found to encode a related carboxyl-terminal PDZ domain-binding motif (PBM) that mediates interactions with a select group of cellular PDZ proteins. Recent studies have shown that many other viruses also encode PBM-containing proteins that bind to cellular PDZ proteins. Interestingly, these recently recognized viruses include not only some with oncogenic potential (hepatitis B virus, rhesus papillomavirus, cottontail rabbit papillomavirus) but also many without this potential (influenza virus, Dengue virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, rabies virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, human immunodeficiency virus). Examination of the cellular PDZ proteins that are targets of viral PBMs reveals that the viral proteins often interact with the same or similar types of PDZ proteins, most notably Dlg1 and other members of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase protein family, as well as Scribble. In addition, cellular PDZ protein targets of viral PBMs commonly control tight junction formation, cell polarity establishment, and apoptosis. These findings reveal a new theme in virology wherein many different virus families encode proteins that bind and perturb the function of cellular PDZ proteins. The inhibition or perturbation of the function of cellular PDZ proteins appears to be a widely used strategy for viruses to enhance their replication, disseminate in the host, and transmit to new hosts. PMID:21775458

Javier, Ronald T; Rice, Andrew P

2011-11-01

35

Mycorrhizal networks: common goods of plants shared under unequal terms of trade.  

PubMed

Plants commonly live in a symbiotic association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). They invest photosynthetic products to feed their fungal partners, which, in return, provide mineral nutrients foraged in the soil by their intricate hyphal networks. Intriguingly, AMF can link neighboring plants, forming common mycorrhizal networks (CMNs). What are the terms of trade in such CMNs between plants and their shared fungal partners? To address this question, we set up microcosms containing a pair of test plants, interlinked by a CMN of Glomus intraradices or Glomus mosseae. The plants were flax (Linum usitatissimum; a C(3) plant) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor; a C(4) plant), which display distinctly different (13)C/(12)C isotope compositions. This allowed us to differentially assess the carbon investment of the two plants into the CMN through stable isotope tracing. In parallel, we determined the plants' "return of investment" (i.e. the acquisition of nutrients via CMN) using (15)N and (33)P as tracers. Depending on the AMF species, we found a strong asymmetry in the terms of trade: flax invested little carbon but gained up to 94% of the nitrogen and phosphorus provided by the CMN, which highly facilitated growth, whereas the neighboring sorghum invested massive amounts of carbon with little return but was barely affected in growth. Overall biomass production in the mixed culture surpassed the mean of the two monocultures. Thus, CMNs may contribute to interplant facilitation and the productivity boosts often found with intercropping compared with conventional monocropping. PMID:22517410

Walder, Florian; Niemann, Helge; Natarajan, Mathimaran; Lehmann, Moritz F; Boller, Thomas; Wiemken, Andres

2012-06-01

36

The mammary gland-specific marsupial ELP and eutherian CTI share a common ancestral gene  

PubMed Central

Background The marsupial early lactation protein (ELP) gene is expressed in the mammary gland and the protein is secreted into milk during early lactation (Phase 2A). Mature ELP shares approximately 55.4% similarity with the colostrum-specific bovine colostrum trypsin inhibitor (CTI) protein. Although ELP and CTI both have a single bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI)-Kunitz domain and are secreted only during the early lactation phases, their evolutionary history is yet to be investigated. Results Tammar ELP was isolated from a genomic library and the fat-tailed dunnart and Southern koala ELP genes cloned from genomic DNA. The tammar ELP gene was expressed only in the mammary gland during late pregnancy (Phase 1) and early lactation (Phase 2A). The opossum and fat-tailed dunnart ELP and cow CTI transcripts were cloned from RNA isolated from the mammary gland and dog CTI from cells in colostrum. The putative mature ELP and CTI peptides shared 44.6%-62.2% similarity. In silico analyses identified the ELP and CTI genes in the other species examined and provided compelling evidence that they evolved from a common ancestral gene. In addition, whilst the eutherian CTI gene was conserved in the Laurasiatherian orders Carnivora and Cetartiodactyla, it had become a pseudogene in others. These data suggest that bovine CTI may be the ancestral gene of the Artiodactyla-specific, rapidly evolving chromosome 13 pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (PTI), spleen trypsin inhibitor (STI) and the five placenta-specific trophoblast Kunitz domain protein (TKDP1-5) genes. Conclusions Marsupial ELP and eutherian CTI evolved from an ancestral therian mammal gene before the divergence of marsupials and eutherians between 130 and 160 million years ago. The retention of the ELP gene in marsupials suggests that this early lactation-specific milk protein may have an important role in the immunologically naïve young of these species. PMID:22681678

2012-01-01

37

Density-dependent effects of multiple predators sharing a common prey in an endophytic habitat.  

PubMed

Multiple predator species feeding on a common prey can lead to higher or lower predation than would be expected by simply combining their individual effects. Such emergent multiple predator effects may be especially prevalent if predators share feeding habitat. Despite the prevalence of endophagous insects, no studies have examined how multiple predators sharing an endophytic habitat affect prey or predator reproduction. We investigated density-dependent predation of Thanasimus dubius (Coleoptera: Cleridae) and Platysoma cylindrica (Coleoptera: Histeridae) on a bark beetle prey, Ips pini (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), in a laboratory assay. I. pini utilize aggregation pheromones to group-colonize and reproduce within the stems of conifers. T. dubius and P. cylindrica exploit these aggregation pheromones to arrive simultaneously with the herbivore. Adult T. dubius prey exophytically, while P. cylindrica adults enter and prey within the bark beetle galleries. Larvae of both predators prey endophytically. We used a multiple regression analysis, which avoids confounding predator composition with density, to examine the effects of varying predator densities alone and in combination on herbivore establishment, herbivore reproduction, and predator reproduction. Predators reduced colonization success by both sexes, and decreased I. pini reproduction on a per male and per female basis. The combined effects of these predators did not enhance or reduce prey establishment or reproduction in unexpected manners, and these predators were entirely substitutable. The herbivore's net replacement rate was never reduced significantly below one at prey and predator densities emulating field conditions. Similar numbers of each predator species emerged from the logs, but predator reproduction suffered from high intraspecific interference. The net replacement rate of P. cylindrica was not affected by conspecifics or T. dubius. In contrast, the net replacement rate of T. dubius decreased with the presence of conspecifics or P. cylindrica. Combinations of both predators led to an emergent effect, a slightly increased net replacement rate of T. dubius. This may have been due to predation by larval T. dubius on pupal P. cylindrica, as P. cylindrica develops more rapidly than T. dubius within this shared habitat. PMID:14968356

Aukema, Brian H; Clayton, Murray K; Raffa, Kenneth F

2004-05-01

38

Recombinants of bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and genetic determinants of BCMV involved in overcoming resistance in common bean.  

PubMed

Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) exists as a complex of strains classified by reactions to resistance genes found in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); seven BCMV pathotypes have been distinguished thus far, numbered I to VII. Virus genetic determinants involved in pathogenicity interactions with resistance genes have not yet been identified. Here, we describe the characterization of two novel field isolates of BCMV that helped to narrow down these genetic determinants interacting with specific P. vulgaris resistance factors. Based on a biological characterization on common bean differentials, both isolates were classified as belonging to pathotype VII, similar to control isolate US10, and both isolates exhibited the B serotype. The whole genome was sequenced for both isolates and found to be 98 to 99% identical to the BCMV isolate RU1 (pathotype VI), and a single name was retained: BCMV RU1-OR. To identify a genetic determinant of BCMV linked to the BCMV pathotype VII, the whole genome was also sequenced for two control isolates, US10 and RU1-P. Inspection of the nucleotide sequences for BCMV RU1-OR and US10 (both pathotype VII) and three closely related sequences of BCMV (RU1-P, RU1-D, and RU1-W, all pathotype VI) revealed that RU1-OR originated through a series of recombination events between US10 and an as-yet-unidentified BCMV parental genome, resulting in changes in virus pathology. The data obtained suggest that a fragment of the RU1-OR genome between positions 723 and 1,961 nucleotides that is common to US10 and RU1-OR in the P1-HC-Pro region of the BCMV genome may be responsible for the ability to overcome resistance in bean conferred by the bc-2(2) gene. This is the first report of a virus genetic determinant responsible for overcoming a specific BCMV resistance gene in common bean. PMID:24915430

Feng, Xue; Poplawsky, Alan R; Nikolaeva, Olga V; Myers, James R; Karasev, Alexander V

2014-07-01

39

Viruses and Fullerenes - Symmetry as a Common Thread?  

E-print Network

We apply here the principle of affine symmetry to the nested fullerene cages (carbon onions) that arise in the context of carbon chemistry. Previous work on affine extensions of the icosahedral group has revealed a new organisational principle in virus structure and assembly. We adapt this group theoretic framework here to the physical requirements dictated by carbon chemistry, and show that we can derive mathematical models for carbon onions within this affine symmetry approach. This suggests the applicability of affine symmetry in a wider context in Nature, as well as offering a novel perspective on the geometric principles underpinning carbon chemistry.

Dechant, Pierre-Philippe; Keef, Tom; Twarock, Reidun

2014-01-01

40

Viruses and Fullerenes - Symmetry as a Common Thread?  

E-print Network

We apply here the principle of affine symmetry to the nested fullerene cages (carbon onions) that arise in the context of carbon chemistry. Previous work on affine extensions of the icosahedral group has revealed a new organisational principle in virus structure and assembly. We adapt this group theoretic framework here to the physical requirements dictated by carbon chemistry, and show that we can derive mathematical models for carbon onions within this affine symmetry approach. This suggests the applicability of affine symmetry in a wider context in Nature, as well as offering a novel perspective on the geometric principles underpinning carbon chemistry.

Pierre-Philippe Dechant; Jess Wardman; Tom Keef; Reidun Twarock

2014-02-18

41

HIV-1 and microvesicles from T-cells share a common glycome, arguing for a common origin  

PubMed Central

HIV-1 is a master at deceiving the immune system, usurping host biosynthetic machinery. Although HIV-1 is coated with host-derived glycoproteins only glycosylation of viral gp120 has been described. Herein we utilize lectin microarray technology to analyze the glycome of intact HIV-1 virions. We show that the glycan coat of human T-cell line-derived HIV-1 matches that of native immunomodulatory microvesicles. The carbohydrate composition of both virus and microvesicles is cell-line dependent, suggesting a mechanism to rapidly camouflage the virus within the host. In addition, binding of both virus and microvesicles to antiviral lectins is enriched over the host cell, raising concern about targeting these glycans for therapeutics. This work also sheds light on the binding of HIV-1 to galectin-1, an important human immune lectin. Overall, our work strongly supports the theory that HIV-1 co-opts the exocytic pathway of microvesicles, potentially explaining why eliciting a protective antiviral immune response is difficult. PMID:19234452

Krishnamoorthy, Lakshmi; Bess, Julian W.; Preston, Alex B.; Nagashima, Kunio; Mahal, Lara K.

2009-01-01

42

Genetic diversity and phylogeography of Seewis virus in the Eurasian common shrew in Finland and Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent identification of a newfound hantavirus, designated Seewis virus (SWSV), in the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), captured in Switzerland, corroborates decades-old reports of hantaviral antigens in this shrew species from Russia. To ascertain the spatial or geographic variation of SWSV, archival liver tissues from 88 Eurasian common shrews, trapped in Finland in 1982 and in Hungary during 1997, 1999

Hae Ji Kang; Satoru Arai; Andrew G Hope; Jin-Won Song; Joseph A Cook; Richard Yanagihara

2009-01-01

43

Seewis virus, a genetically distinct hantavirus in the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 20 years ago, hantaviral antigens were reported in tissues of the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens) and common mole (Talpa europea), suggesting that insectivores, or soricomorphs, might serve as reservoirs of unique hantaviruses. Using RT-PCR, sequences of a genetically distinct hantavirus, designated Seewis virus (SWSV), were amplified from lung tissue of a Eurasian

Jin-Won Song; Se Hun Gu; Shannon N Bennett; Satoru Arai; Maria Puorger; Monika Hilbe; Richard Yanagihara

2007-01-01

44

Genetically Divergent Strains of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus from the Domestic Cat (Felis catus) and the African Lion (Panthera leo) Share Usage of CD134 and CXCR4 as Entry Receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The env open reading frames of African lion (Panthera leo) lentivirus (feline immunodeficiency virus (FIVPle)) subtypes B and E from geographically distinct regions of Africa suggest two distinct ancestries, with FIVPle-E sharing a common ancestor with the domestic cat (Felis catus) lentivirus (FIVFca). Here we demon- strate that FIVPle-E and FIVFca share the use of CD134 (OX40) and CXCR4 as

William A. McEwan; Elizabeth L. McMonagle; Nicola Logan; Rodrigo C. Serra; Pieter Kat; Sue VandeWoude; Margaret J. Hosie; Brian J. Willett

2008-01-01

45

Spread of Avian Influenza Viruses by Common Teal (Anas crecca) in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the recent spread of highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 subtypes, avian influenza virus (AIV) dispersal has become an increasing focus of research. As for any other bird-borne pathogen, dispersal of these viruses is related to local and migratory movements of their hosts. In this study, we investigated potential AIV spread by Common Teal (Anas crecca) from the Camargue area, in

Camille Lebarbenchon; Frédéric Albespy; Anne-Laure Brochet; Viviane Grandhomme; François Renaud; Hervé Fritz; Andy J. Green; Frédéric Thomas; Sylvie van der Werf; Philippe Aubry; Matthieu Guillemain; Michel Gauthier-Clerc

2009-01-01

46

Neomycin, spermine and hexaamminecobalt (III) share common structural motifs in converting B- to A-DNA.  

PubMed

The (dG)n.(dC)n-containing 34mer DNA duplex [d(A2G15C15T2)]2 can be effectively converted from the B-DNA to the A-DNA conformation by neomycin, spermine and Co(NH3)6(3+). Conversion is demonstrated by a characteristic red shift in the circular dichroism spectra and dramatic NMR spectral changes in chemical shifts. Additional support comes from the substantially stronger CH6/GH8-H3'NOE intensities of the ligand-DNA complexes than those from the native DNA duplex. Such changes are consistent with a deoxyribose pucker transition from the predominate C2'-endo (S-type) to the C3'-endo (N-type). The changes for all three ligand-DNA complexes are identical, suggesting that those three complex cations share common structural motifs for the B- to A-DNA conversion. The A-DNA structure of the 4:1 complex of Co(NH3)6(3+)/d(ACCCGCGGGT) has been analyzed by NOE-restrained refinement. The structural basis of the transition may be related to the closeness of the two negatively charged sugar-phosphate backbones along the major groove in A-DNA, which can be effectively neutralized by the multivalent positively charged amine functions of these ligands. In addition, ligands like spermine or Co(NH3)6(3+) can adhere to guanine bases in the deep major groove of the double helix, as is evident from the significant direct NOE cross-peaks from the protons of Co(NH3)6(3+) to GH8, GH1 (imino) and CH4 (amino) protons. Our results point to future directions in preparing more potent derivatives of Co(NH3)6(3+) for RNA binding or the induction of A-DNA. PMID:8604309

Robinson, H; Wang, A H

1996-02-15

47

Recognition of Conserved Amino Acid Motifs of Common Viruses and Its Role in Autoimmunity  

PubMed Central

The triggers of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) remain elusive. Epidemiological studies suggest that common pathogens can exacerbate and also induce MS, but it has been difficult to pinpoint individual organisms. Here we demonstrate that in vivo clonally expanded CD4+ T cells isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid of a MS patient during disease exacerbation respond to a poly-arginine motif of the nonpathogenic and ubiquitous Torque Teno virus. These T cell clones also can be stimulated by arginine-enriched protein domains from other common viruses and recognize multiple autoantigens. Our data suggest that repeated infections with common pathogenic and even nonpathogenic viruses could expand T cells specific for conserved protein domains that are able to cross-react with tissue-derived and ubiquitous autoantigens. PMID:16362076

2005-01-01

48

Two Zebrafish Alcohol Dehydrogenases Share Common Ancestry with Mammalian Class I, II, IV, and V Alcohol Dehydrogenase  

E-print Network

Two Zebrafish Alcohol Dehydrogenases Share Common Ancestry with Mammalian Class I, II, IV, and V Alcohol Dehydrogenase Genes but Have Distinct Functional Characteristics* Received for publication the isolation and characterization of two cDNAs encoding zebrafish alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs). Phylogenetic

Tullos, Desiree

49

Formation of share market prices under heterogeneous beliefs and common knowledge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Financial economic models often assume that investors know (or agree on) the fundamental value of the shares of the firm, easing the passage from the individual to the collective dimension of the financial system generated by the Share Exchange over time. Our model relaxes that heroic assumption of one unique “true value” and deals with the formation of share market prices through the dynamic formation of individual and social opinions (or beliefs) based upon a fundamental signal of economic performance and position of the firm, the forecast revision by heterogeneous individual investors, and their social mood or sentiment about the ongoing state of the market pricing process. Market clearing price formation is then featured by individual and group dynamics that make its collective dimension irreducible to its individual level. This dynamic holistic approach can be applied to better understand the market exuberance generated by the Share Exchange over time.

Biondi, Yuri; Giannoccolo, Pierpaolo; Galam, Serge

2012-11-01

50

A national HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) database that facilitates data sharing  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this communication is to stimulate discussion on a National Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Database that facilitates and coordinates data sharing. We argue for the creation of a new database because significant gaps exists in the type of information that are available on HIV. Databases that extensively survey the published literature on HIV are widely available, however, databases that contain either raw data or that describe ongoing HIV research efforts are not widely available. For epidemiologists, sociologists and mathematical modelers, who need to draw on raw epidemiologic and behavior data from a broad range of fields, the existing databases are inadequate. In this paper we emphasize the particular requirements of epidemiologists, sociologists and modelers, and suggest a plan to accommodate their database needs.

Layne, S.P.; Marr, T.G.; Stanley, E.A.; Hyman, J.M.; Colgate, S.A.

1988-01-01

51

Sharing Scarce Resources: Group-Outcome Orientation, External Disaster, and Stealing in a Simulated Commons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conducted two studies in which subjects (N=216) faced the dilemma of how to harvest resources from a shared pool when faced with external catastrophies and given opportunities to steal. Results showed that tying the individual's outcome to the rest of the group is good for the group. (LLL)

Edney, Julian J.; Bell, Paul A.

1984-01-01

52

Differing Circumstances, Shared Challenges: Finding Common Ground between Urban and Rural Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The shared struggles facing urban and rural schools, such as changing cultural and linguistic classroom profiles, increased childhood poverty, and residential segregation patterns, influence financial inequities between people and communities thus contributing to gaps in academic achievement and teacher shortages in both settings. The…

Truscott, Diane M.; Truscott, Stephen D.

2005-01-01

53

Plant Disease Note 2005 | First Report of Onion yellow dwarf virus, Leek ye... stripe virus, and Garlic common latent virus in Garlic in Washington State Overview Current Issue Past Issues Search PD Search APS Journals  

E-print Network

, and Garlic common latent virus in Garlic in Washington State Overview Current Issue Past Issues Search PD, and Garlic common latent virus in Garlic in Washington State. H. R. Pappu, Department of Plant Pathology in the country in garlic (Allium sativum) production (2). The impact of viruses on garlic production may

Pappu, Hanu R.

54

Spread of avian influenza viruses by common teal (Anas crecca) in Europe.  

PubMed

Since the recent spread of highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 subtypes, avian influenza virus (AIV) dispersal has become an increasing focus of research. As for any other bird-borne pathogen, dispersal of these viruses is related to local and migratory movements of their hosts. In this study, we investigated potential AIV spread by Common Teal (Anas crecca) from the Camargue area, in the South of France, across Europe. Based on bird-ring recoveries, local duck population sizes and prevalence of infection with these viruses, we built an individual-based spatially explicit model describing bird movements, both locally (between wintering areas) and at the flyway scale. We investigated the effects of viral excretion duration and inactivation rate in water by simulating AIV spread with varying values for these two parameters. The results indicate that an efficient AIV dispersal in space is possible only for excretion durations longer than 7 days. Virus inactivation rate in the environment appears as a key parameter in the model because it allows local persistence of AIV over several months, the interval between two migratory periods. Virus persistence in water thus represents an important component of contamination risk as ducks migrate along their flyway. Based on the present modelling exercise, we also argue that HP H5N1 AIV is unlikely to be efficiently spread by Common Teal dispersal only. PMID:19802387

Lebarbenchon, Camille; Albespy, Frédéric; Brochet, Anne-Laure; Grandhomme, Viviane; Renaud, François; Fritz, Hervé; Green, Andy J; Thomas, Frédéric; van der Werf, Sylvie; Aubry, Philippe; Guillemain, Matthieu; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel

2009-01-01

55

Spread of Avian Influenza Viruses by Common Teal (Anas crecca) in Europe  

PubMed Central

Since the recent spread of highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 subtypes, avian influenza virus (AIV) dispersal has become an increasing focus of research. As for any other bird-borne pathogen, dispersal of these viruses is related to local and migratory movements of their hosts. In this study, we investigated potential AIV spread by Common Teal (Anas crecca) from the Camargue area, in the South of France, across Europe. Based on bird-ring recoveries, local duck population sizes and prevalence of infection with these viruses, we built an individual-based spatially explicit model describing bird movements, both locally (between wintering areas) and at the flyway scale. We investigated the effects of viral excretion duration and inactivation rate in water by simulating AIV spread with varying values for these two parameters. The results indicate that an efficient AIV dispersal in space is possible only for excretion durations longer than 7 days. Virus inactivation rate in the environment appears as a key parameter in the model because it allows local persistence of AIV over several months, the interval between two migratory periods. Virus persistence in water thus represents an important component of contamination risk as ducks migrate along their flyway. Based on the present modelling exercise, we also argue that HP H5N1 AIV is unlikely to be efficiently spread by Common Teal dispersal only. PMID:19802387

Lebarbenchon, Camille; Albespy, Frederic; Brochet, Anne-Laure; Grandhomme, Viviane; Renaud, Francois; Fritz, Herve; Green, Andy J.; Thomas, Frederic; van der Werf, Sylvie; Aubry, Philippe; Guillemain, Matthieu; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel

2009-01-01

56

Structured representation for core elements of common clinical decision support interventions to facilitate knowledge sharing.  

PubMed

At present, there are no widely accepted, standard approaches for representing computer-based clinical decision support (CDS) intervention types and their structural components. This study aimed to identify key requirements for the representation of five widely utilized CDS intervention types: alerts and reminders, order sets, infobuttons, documentation templates/forms, and relevant data presentation. An XML schema was proposed for representing these interventions and their core structural elements (e.g., general metadata, applicable clinical scenarios, CDS inputs, CDS outputs, and CDS logic) in a shareable manner. The schema was validated by building CDS artifacts for 22 different interventions, targeted toward guidelines and clinical conditions called for in the 2011 Meaningful Use criteria. Custom style sheets were developed to render the XML files in human-readable form. The CDS knowledge artifacts were shared via a public web portal. Our experience also identifies gaps in existing standards and informs future development of standards for CDS knowledge representation and sharing. PMID:23920543

Zhou, Li; Hongsermeier, Tonya; Boxwala, Aziz; Lewis, Janet; Kawamoto, Kensaku; Maviglia, Saverio; Gentile, Douglas; Teich, Jonathan M; Rocha, Roberto; Bell, Douglas; Middleton, Blackford

2013-01-01

57

Different chemical cues originating from a shared predator induce common defense responses in two prey species.  

PubMed

In freshwater ecosystems, inducible defenses that involve behavioral or morphological changes in response to chemical cue detection are key phenomena in prey-predator interactions. Many species with different phylogenetic and ecological traits (e.g., general activity patterns and microhabitats) use chemical cues to avoid predators. We hypothesized that prey species with a shared predator, but having different ecological traits, would be adapted to detect different chemical cues from the predator. However, the proximate mechanisms by which prey use chemical cues to avoid predation remain little known. Here, we tested our hypothesis by using fractionated chemical components from predatory dragonfly nymphs (Lesser Emperor, Anax parthenope julius) to trigger anti-predator behavioral responses in two anuran tadpoles, the wrinkled frog Glandirana (Rana) rugosa and the Japanese tree frog Hyla japonica. Glandirana rugosa detected chemical cues that had either high or low hydrophobic properties, but H. japonica responded only to chemical cues with hydrophilic properties. During the normal behaviors of these tadpole species, G. rugosa remains immobile in benthic habitats, whereas H. japonica exhibits active swimming at the surface or in the middle of the water column. As we had hypothesized, these tadpole species, which have different general activity levels and microhabitats, detected different chemical cues that were exuded by their shared predator and responded by changing their activities to avoid predation. The specific chemical cues detected by each tadpole species are likely to have characteristics that optimize effective predator detection and encounter avoidance of the shared dragonfly predator. PMID:23065237

Takahara, Teruhiko; Doi, Hideyuki; Kohmatsu, Yukihiro; Yamaoka, Ryohei

2013-01-01

58

Genome-wide association study of 14,000 cases of seven common diseases and 3,000 shared controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing evidence that genome-wide association (GWA) studies represent a powerful approach to the identification of genes involved in common human diseases. We describe a joint GWA study (using the Affymetrix GeneChip 500K Mapping Array Set) undertaken in the British population, which has examined ~2,000 individuals for each of 7 major diseases and a shared set of ~3,000 controls.

Paul R. Burton; David G. Clayton; Lon R. Cardon; Nick Craddock; Panos Deloukas; Audrey Duncanson; Dominic P. Kwiatkowski; Mark I. McCarthy; Willem H. Ouwehand; Nilesh J. Samani; John A. Todd; Peter Donnelly; Jeffrey C. Barrett; Dan Davison; Doug Easton; David Evans; Hin-Tak Leung; Jonathan L. Marchini; Andrew P. Morris; Chris C. A. Spencer; Martin D. Tobin; Antony P. Attwood; James P. Boorman; Barbara Cant; Ursula Everson; Judith M. Hussey; Jennifer D. Jolley; Alexandra S. Knight; Kerstin Koch; Elizabeth Meech; Sarah Nutland; Christopher V. Prowse; Helen E. Stevens; Niall C. Taylor; Graham R. Walters; Neil M. Walker; Nicholas A. Watkins; Thilo Winzer; Richard W. Jones; Wendy L. McArdle; Susan M. Ring; David P. Strachan; Marcus Pembrey; Gerome Breen; David St Clair; Sian Caesar; Katherine Gordon-Smith; Lisa Jones; Christine Fraser; Elaine K. Green; Detelina Grozeva; Marian L. Hamshere; Peter A. Holmans; Ian R. Jones; George Kirov; Valentina Moskvina; Ivan Nikolov; Michael C. O'Donovan; Michael J. Owen; David A. Collier; Amanda Elkin; Anne Farmer; Richard Williamson; Peter McGuffin; Allan H. Young; I. Nicol Ferrier; Stephen G. Ball; Anthony J. Balmforth; Jennifer H. Barrett; D. Timothy Bishop; Mark M. Iles; Azhar Maqbool; Nadira Yuldasheva; Alistair S. Hall; Peter S. Braund; Richard J. Dixon; Massimo Mangino; Suzanne Stevens; John R. Thompson; Francesca Bredin; Mark Tremelling; Miles Parkes; Hazel Drummond; Charles W. Lees; Elaine R. Nimmo; Jack Satsangi; Sheila A. Fisher; Alastair Forbes; Cathryn M. Lewis; Clive M. Onnie; Natalie J. Prescott; Jeremy Sanderson; Christopher G. Mathew; Jamie Barbour; M. Khalid Mohiuddin; Catherine E. Todhunter; John C. Mansfield; Tariq Ahmad; Fraser R. Cummings; Derek P. Jewell; John Webster; Morris J. Brown; G. Mark Lathrop; John Connell; Anna Dominiczak; Carolina A. Braga Marcano; Beverley Burke; Richard Dobson; Johannie Gungadoo; Kate L. Lee; Patricia B. Munroe; Stephen J. Newhouse; Abiodun Onipinla; Chris Wallace; Mingzhan Xue; Mark Caulfield; Martin Farrall; Anne Barton; Ian N. Bruce; Hannah Donovan; Steve Eyre; Paul D. Gilbert; Samantha L. Hider; Anne M. Hinks; Sally L. John; Catherine Potter; Alan J. Silman; Deborah P. M. Symmons; Wendy Thomson; Jane Worthington; David B. Dunger; Barry Widmer; Timothy M. Frayling; Rachel M. Freathy; Hana Lango; John R. B. Perry; Beverley M. Shields; Michael N. Weedon; Andrew T. Hattersley; Graham A. Hitman; Mark Walker; Kate S. Elliott; Christopher J. Groves; Cecilia M. Lindgren; Nigel W. Rayner; Nicholas J. Timpson; Eleftheria Zeggini; Melanie Newport; Giorgio Sirugo; Emily Lyons; Fredrik Vannberg; Adrian V. S. Hill; Linda A. Bradbury; Claire Farrar; Jennifer J. Pointon; Paul Wordsworth; Matthew A. Brown; Jayne A. Franklyn; Joanne M. Heward; Matthew J. Simmonds; Stephen C. L. Gough; Sheila Seal; Michael R. Stratton; Nazneen Rahman; Maria Ban; An Goris; Stephen J. Sawcer; Alastair Compston; David Conway; Muminatou Jallow; Kirk A. Rockett; Suzannah J. Bumpstead; Amy Chaney; Kate Downes; Mohammed J. R. Ghori; Rhian Gwilliam; Sarah E. Hunt; Michael Inouye; Andrew Keniry; Emma King; Ralph McGinnis; Simon Potter; Rathi Ravindrarajah; Pamela Whittaker; Claire Widden; David Withers; Niall J. Cardin; Teresa Ferreira; Joanne Pereira-Gale; Ingileif B. Hallgrimsdóttir; Bryan N. Howie; Zhan Su; Yik Ying Teo; Damjan Vukcevic; David Bentley; Alistair Compston

2007-01-01

59

Lineage-specific adjacent IFNG and IL26 genes share a common distal enhancer element  

PubMed Central

Certain groups of physically linked genes remain linked over long periods of evolutionary time. The general view is that such evolutionary conservation confers ‘fitness’ to the species. Why gene order confers ‘fitness’ to the species is incompletely understood. For example, linkage of IL26 and IFNG is preserved over evolutionary time yet Th17 lineages express IL26 and Th1 lineages express IFNG. We considered the hypothesis that distal enhancer elements may be shared between adjacent genes, which would require linkage be maintained in evolution. We test this hypothesis using a bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic model with deletions of specific conserved non-coding sequences. We identify one enhancer element uniquely required for IL26 expression but not IFNG expression. We identify a second enhancer element positioned between IL26 and IFNG required for both IL26 and IFNG expression. One function of this enhancer is to facilitate recruitment of RNA polymerase II to promoters of both genes. Thus, sharing of distal enhancers between adjacent genes may contribute to evolutionary preservation of gene order. PMID:22622197

Collins, Patrick L.; Henderson, Melodie A.; Aune, Thomas M.

2014-01-01

60

Identification of an antigenic domain in the N-terminal region of avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) capsid protein that is not common to swine and human HEVs.  

PubMed

The antigenic domains located in the C-terminal 268 amino acid residues of avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) capsid protein have been characterized. This region shares common epitopes with swine and human HEVs. However, epitopes in the N-terminal 338 amino acid residues have never been reported. In this study, an antigenic domain located between amino acids 23 and 85 was identified by indirect ELISA using the truncated recombinant capsid proteins as coating antigens and anti-avian HEV chicken sera as primary antibodies. In addition, this domain did not react with anti-swine and human HEV sera. These results indicated that the N-terminal 338 amino acid residues of avian HEV capsid protein do not share common epitopes with swine and human HEVs. This finding is important for our understanding of the antigenicity of the avian HEV capsid protein. Furthermore, it has important implications in the selection of viral antigens for serological diagnosis. PMID:25209807

Wang, Lizhen; Sun, Yani; Du, Taofeng; Wang, Chengbao; Xiao, Shuqi; Mu, Yang; Zhang, Gaiping; Liu, Lihong; Widén, Frederik; Hsu, Walter H; Zhao, Qin; Zhou, En-Min

2014-12-01

61

New hosts of Potato virus Y (PVY) among common wild plants in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The infection capacity of Potato virus Y (PVY, genus Potyvirus) for wild-living plants, commonly occurring as arable weeds in Europe and native to or naturalised in other continents, was\\u000a evaluated. In total, 3,712 and 802 seedlings representing 21 weed species were aphid and sap-inoculated with PVY, respectively.\\u000a Experimentally-inoculated plants of Erodium cicutarium, Geranium pusillum, Lactuca serriola and Lamium purpureum tested

Agnieszka Kaliciak; Jerzy Syller

2009-01-01

62

Absence of Ross River virus amongst Common brushtail possums ( Trichosurus vulpecula ) from metropolitan Sydney, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ross River virus (RRV) is a mosquito-transmitted Alphavirus emerging in urban centres throughout Australia. The Common brushtail\\u000a possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), a native marsupial that has successfully adapted to human settlement, has been implicated as a maintenance reservoir for\\u000a RRV. In the present study, RRV exposure was assessed amongst 72 urban-adapted possums from Northern Sydney and ten possums\\u000a from a woodland

Nichola J. Hill; Michelle L. Power; Elizabeth M. Deane

2009-01-01

63

Do age-related macular degeneration and cardiovascular disease share common antecedents?  

PubMed

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible vision loss and blindness in elderly Americans. The etiology of this condition remains unknown and treatment options are limited. Some epidemiological findings point to a cardiovascular risk profile among persons with AMD. Documented risk factors for cardiovascular disease (such as age, smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, post-menopausal estrogen use, diabetes, and dietary intake of fats, alcohol and antioxidants) have also been associated with AMD in some studies. This raises the possibility that the causal pathways for cardiovascular disease and AMD may share similar risk factors. Future research on this hypothesis could lead to important insights into etiologic factors for AMD. Research could also identify modifiable risk factors and suggest new treatment options which could prevent AMD, slow its progression, or reduce visual loss. Susceptible individuals could then be targeted for improved health promotion and disease prevention measures for this disabling and highly prevalent disorder. PMID:10420212

Snow, K K; Seddon, J M

1999-06-01

64

Giardia mitosomes and trichomonad hydrogenosomes share a common mode of protein targeting  

PubMed Central

Mitochondria are archetypal organelles of endosymbiotic origin in eukaryotic cells. Some unicellular eukaryotes (protists) were considered to be primarily amitochondrial organisms that diverged from the eukaryotic lineage before the acquisition of the premitochondrial endosymbiont, but their amitochondrial status was recently challenged by the discovery of mitochondria-like double membrane-bound organelles called mitosomes. Here, we report that proteins targeted into mitosomes of Giardia intestinalis have targeting signals necessary and sufficient to be recognized by the mitosomal protein import machinery. Expression of these mitosomal proteins in Trichomonas vaginalis results in targeting to hydrogenosomes, a hydrogen-producing form of mitochondria. We identify, in Giardia and Trichomonas, proteins related to the component of the translocase in the inner membrane from mitochondria and the processing peptidase. A shared mode of protein targeting supports the hypothesis that mitosomes, hydrogenosomes, and mitochondria represent different forms of the same fundamental organelle having evolved under distinct selection pressures. PMID:16040811

Dolezal, Pavel; Smid, Ondrej; Rada, Petr; Zubacova, Zuzana; Bursac, Dejan; Sutak, Robert; Nebesarova, Jana; Lithgow, Trevor; Tachezy, Jan

2005-01-01

65

Lymphoid tissue and plasmacytoid dendritic cells and macrophages do not share a common macrophage-dendritic cell-restricted progenitor.  

PubMed

The relationship between dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages is often debated. Here we ask whether steady-state, lymphoid-tissue-resident conventional DCs (cDCs), plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs), and macrophages share a common macrophage-DC-restricted precursor (MDP). Using new clonal culture assays combined with adoptive transfer, we found that MDP fractions isolated by previous strategies are dominated by precursors of macrophages and monocytes, include some multipotent precursors of other hematopoietic lineages, but contain few precursors of resident cDCs and pDCs and no detectable common precursors restricted to these DC types and macrophages. Overall we find no evidence for a common restricted MDP leading to both macrophages and FL-dependent, resident cDCs and pDCs. PMID:25035955

Sathe, Priyanka; Metcalf, Donald; Vremec, David; Naik, Shalin H; Langdon, Wallace Y; Huntington, Nicholas D; Wu, Li; Shortman, Ken

2014-07-17

66

Experimental Infection of Rhesus Macaques and Common Marmosets with a European Strain of West Nile Virus  

PubMed Central

West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that infects humans and other mammals. In some cases WNV causes severe neurological disease. During recent years, outbreaks of WNV are increasing in worldwide distribution and novel genetic variants of the virus have been detected. Although a substantial amount of data exists on WNV infections in rodent models, little is known about early events during WNV infection in primates, including humans. To gain a deeper understanding of this process, we performed experimental infections of rhesus macaques and common marmosets with a virulent European WNV strain (WNV-Ita09) and monitored virological, hematological, and biochemical parameters. WNV-Ita09 productively infected both monkey species, with higher replication and wider tissue distribution in common marmosets compared to rhesus macaques. The animals in this study however, did not develop clinical signs of WNV disease, nor showed substantial deviations in clinical laboratory parameters. In both species, the virus induced a rapid CD56dimCD16bright natural killer response, followed by IgM and IgG antibody responses. The results of this study show that healthy rhesus macaques and common marmosets are promising animal models to study WNV-Ita09 infection. Both models may be particularly of use to evaluate potential vaccine candidates or to investigate WNV pathogenesis. PMID:24743302

Verstrepen, Babs E.; Fagrouch, Zahra; van Heteren, Melanie; Buitendijk, Hester; Haaksma, Tom; Beenhakker, Niels; Palu, Giorgio; Richner, Justin M.; Diamond, Michael S.; Bogers, Willy M.; Barzon, Luisa; Chabierski, Stefan; Ulbert, Sebastian; Kondova, Ivanela; Verschoor, Ernst J.

2014-01-01

67

Virus-Host Coevolution: Common Patterns of Nucleotide Motif Usage in Flaviviridae and Their Hosts  

PubMed Central

Virus-host biological interaction is a continuous coevolutionary process involving both host immune system and viral escape mechanisms. Flaviviridae family is composed of fast evolving RNA viruses that infects vertebrate (mammals and birds) and/or invertebrate (ticks and mosquitoes) organisms. These host groups are very distinct life forms separated by a long evolutionary time, so lineage-specific anti-viral mechanisms are likely to have evolved. Flaviviridae viruses which infect a single host lineage would be subjected to specific host-induced pressures and, therefore, selected by them. In this work we compare the genomic evolutionary patterns of Flaviviridae viruses and their hosts in an attempt to uncover coevolutionary processes inducing common features in such disparate groups. Especially, we have analyzed dinucleotide and codon usage patterns in the coding regions of vertebrate and invertebrate organisms as well as in Flaviviridae viruses which specifically infect one or both host types. The two host groups possess very distinctive dinucleotide and codon usage patterns. A pronounced CpG under-representation was found in the vertebrate group, possibly induced by the methylation-deamination process, as well as a prominent TpA decrease. The invertebrate group displayed only a TpA frequency reduction bias. Flaviviridae viruses mimicked host nucleotide motif usage in a host-specific manner. Vertebrate-infecting viruses possessed under-representation of CpG and TpA, and insect-only viruses displayed only a TpA under-representation bias. Single-host Flaviviridae members which persistently infect mammals or insect hosts (Hepacivirus and insect-only Flavivirus, respectively) were found to posses a codon usage profile more similar to that of their hosts than to related Flaviviridae. We demonstrated that vertebrates and mosquitoes genomes are under very distinct lineage-specific constraints, and Flaviviridae viruses which specifically infect these lineages appear to be subject to the same evolutionary pressures that shaped their host coding regions, evidencing the lineage-specific coevolutionary processes between the viral and host groups. PMID:19617912

Lobo, Francisco P.; Mota, Bruno E. F.; Pena, Sérgio D. J.; Azevedo, Vasco; Macedo, Andréa M.; Tauch, Andreas; Machado, Carlos R.; Franco, Glória R.

2009-01-01

68

virus  

E-print Network

The nucleotide sequences of the L gene and 5 ? trailer region of Ebola virus strain Mayinga (subtype Zaire) have been determined, thus completing the sequence of the Ebola virus genome. The putative transcription start signal of the L gene was identical to the determined 5 ? terminus of the L mRNA (5 ? GAGGAAGAUUAA) and showed a high degree of similarity to the corresponding regions of other Ebola virus genes. The 3 ? end of the L mRNA terminated with 5 ? AUUAUAAAAAA, a sequence which is distinct from the proposed transcription termination signals of other genes. The 5 ? trailer sequence of the Ebola virus genomic RNA consisted of 676 nt and revealed a selfcomplementary sequence at the extreme end which may play an important role in virus replication. The L gene contained a single ORF encoding a polypeptide of 2212 aa. The deduced amino acid sequence showed identities of about 73 and 44 % to the L proteins of Ebola virus strain Maleo (subtype Sudan) and Marburg virus, respectively. Sequence comparison studies of the Ebola virus L proteins with several corresponding proteins of other non-segmented, negative-strand RNA viruses, including Marburg viruses, confirmed a close relationship between filoviruses and members of the Paramyxovirinae. The presence of several conserved linear domains commonly found within L proteins of other members of the order Mononegavirales identified this protein as the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of Ebola virus.

Viktor E. Volchkov; Valentina A. Volchkova; R A. Chepurnov; Vladimir M. Blinov; Olga Dolnik; Sergej V. Netesov; Heinz Feldmann

69

Seewis virus, a genetically distinct hantavirus in the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus)  

PubMed Central

More than 20 years ago, hantaviral antigens were reported in tissues of the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens) and common mole (Talpa europea), suggesting that insectivores, or soricomorphs, might serve as reservoirs of unique hantaviruses. Using RT-PCR, sequences of a genetically distinct hantavirus, designated Seewis virus (SWSV), were amplified from lung tissue of a Eurasian common shrew, captured in October 2006 in Graubünden, Switzerland. Pair-wise analysis of the full-length S and partial M and L segments of SWSV indicated approximately 55%–72% similarity with hantaviruses harbored by Murinae, Arvicolinae, Neotominae and Sigmodontinae rodents. Phylogenetically, SWSV grouped with other recently identified shrew-borne hantaviruses. Intensified efforts are underway to clarify the genetic diversity of SWSV throughout the geographic range of the Eurasian common shrew, as well as to determine its relevance to human health. PMID:17967200

Song, Jin-Won; Gu, Se Hun; Bennett, Shannon N; Arai, Satoru; Puorger, Maria; Hilbe, Monika; Yanagihara, Richard

2007-01-01

70

Experimental respiratory Marburg virus haemorrhagic fever infection in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)  

PubMed Central

Marburg virus causes a highly infectious and lethal haemorrhagic fever in primates and may be exploited as a potential biothreat pathogen. To combat the infection and threat of Marburg haemorrhagic fever, there is a need to develop and license appropriate medical countermeasures. To determine whether the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) would be an appropriate model to assess therapies against Marburg haemorrhagic fever, initial susceptibility, lethality and pathogenesis studies were performed. Low doses of virus, between 4 and 28 TCID50, were sufficient to cause a lethal, reproducible infection. Animals became febrile between days 5 and 6, maintaining a high fever before succumbing to disease between 8 and 11 days postchallenge. Typical signs of Marburg virus infection were observed including haemorrhaging and a transient rash. In pathogenesis studies, virus was isolated from the animals’ lungs from day 3 postchallenge and from the liver, spleen and blood from day 5 postchallenge. Early signs of histopathology were apparent in the kidney and liver from day 3. The most striking features were observed in animals exhibiting severe clinical signs, which included high viral titres in all organs, with the highest levels in the blood, increased levels in liver function enzymes and blood clotting times, decreased levels in platelets, multifocal moderate-to-severe hepatitis and perivascular oedema. PMID:23441639

Smither, Sophie J; Nelson, Michelle; Eastaugh, Lin; Laws, Thomas R; Taylor, Christopher; Smith, Simon A; Salguero, Francisco J; Lever, Mark S

2013-01-01

71

Legal Agreements and the Governance of Research Commons: Lessons from Materials Sharing in Mouse Genomics  

PubMed Central

Abstract Omics research infrastructure such as databases and bio-repositories requires effective governance to support pre-competitive research. Governance includes the use of legal agreements, such as Material Transfer Agreements (MTAs). We analyze the use of such agreements in the mouse research commons, including by two large-scale resource development projects: the International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) and International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC). We combine an analysis of legal agreements and semi-structured interviews with 87 members of the mouse model research community to examine legal agreements in four contexts: (1) between researchers; (2) deposit into repositories; (3) distribution by repositories; and (4) exchanges between repositories, especially those that are consortium members of the IKMC and IMPC. We conclude that legal agreements for the deposit and distribution of research reagents should be kept as simple and standard as possible, especially when minimal enforcement capacity and resources exist. Simple and standardized legal agreements reduce transactional bottlenecks and facilitate the creation of a vibrant and sustainable research commons, supported by repositories and databases. PMID:24552652

Mishra, Amrita

2014-01-01

72

Does low birth weight share common genetic or environmental risk with childhood disruptive disorders?  

PubMed

Although advances in neonatal care over the past century have resulted in increased rates of survival among at-risk births, including infants with low birth weight, we have much to learn about psychological outcomes in this population. In particular, despite growing evidence that low birth weight may be associated with an increased risk for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) symptoms in childhood, few studies have examined birth weight as a risk factor for disruptive disorders that commonly co-occur with ADHD. In addition, the etiology of the relation between birth weight and these disorders is unknown. The current investigation aimed to better understand these associations in the context of potentially confounding genetic and environmental influences by examining phenotypic associations between birth weight and disruptive disorder symptoms both between families and within families in two independent twin samples (Sample 1: N = 1,676 individuals; Sample 2: N = 4,038 individuals). We found negative associations between birth weight and inattentive, hyperactive-impulsive, and broad externalizing symptoms in both samples. Nonetheless, the overall magnitude of these associations was very small, contributing to less than 1% of the variance in these symptom dimensions. Within-family associations between birth weight and disruptive disorder symptoms did not differ for monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs, suggesting that nonshared environmental influences rather than common genetic influences are responsible for these associations. Overall, the consistent albeit weak associations between birth weight and disruptive disorder symptoms suggest that low birth weight may not represent a major risk factor in the development of these symptoms. PMID:23834065

Ficks, Courtney A; Lahey, Benjamin B; Waldman, Irwin D

2013-08-01

73

An effective virus-based gene silencing method for functional genomics studies in common bean  

PubMed Central

Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a crop of economic and nutritious importance in many parts of the world. The lack of genomic resources have impeded the advancement of common bean genomics and thereby crop improvement. Although concerted efforts from the "Phaseomics" consortium have resulted in the development of several genomic resources, functional studies have continued to lag due to the recalcitrance of this crop for genetic transformation. Results Here we describe the use of a bean pod mottle virus (BPMV)-based vector for silencing of endogenous genes in common bean as well as for protein expression. This BPMV-based vector was originally developed for use in soybean. It has been successfully employed for both protein expression and gene silencing in this species. We tested this vector for applications in common bean by targeting common bean genes encoding nodulin 22 and stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase for silencing. Our results indicate that the BPMV vector can indeed be employed for reverse genetics studies of diverse biological processes in common bean. We also used the BPMV-based vector for expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) in common bean and demonstrate stable GFP expression in all common bean tissues where BPMV was detected. Conclusions The availability of this vector is an important advance for the common bean research community not only because it provides a rapid means for functional studies in common bean, but also because it does so without generating genetically modified plants. Here we describe the detailed methodology and provide essential guidelines for the use of this vector for both gene silencing and protein expression in common bean. The entire VIGS procedure can be completed in 4-5 weeks. PMID:21668993

2011-01-01

74

Experimental infection of common garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) with West Nile virus.  

PubMed

The role of various reptilian species in the infectious cycle of several arboviruses is documented, but their role in that of West Nile virus (WNV) is uncertain. Common garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) were infected subcutaneously with 10(5) plaque forming units (PFU) WNV-Isr 98, five of nine snakes became viremic, and five exhibited persistent low levels of neutralizing antibodies. Four of the parentally infected snakes died and high titers of virus were found in multiple organ samples. In contrast, orally infected garter snakes did not become viremic, but viral RNA was detected in cloacal swabs. Since oral infection of predator birds by WNV is known, their ingestion of infected snakes may also result in their becoming infected. PMID:17187570

Steinman, Amir; Banet-Noach, Caroline; Simanov, Lubov; Grinfeld, Nurit; Aizenberg, Zachi; Levi, Ohad; Lahav, Dan; Malkinson, Mertyn; Perk, Shimon; Shpigel, Nahum Y

2006-01-01

75

Dogs and Humans Share a Common Susceptibility Gene SRBD1 for Glaucoma Risk  

PubMed Central

Glaucoma is a degenerative optic neuropathy that is associated with elevated intraocular pressure. Primary open angle glaucoma is the most common type of glaucoma in canines, and its highest incidence among dog breeds has been reported in Shiba-Inus, followed by Shih-Tzus. These breeds are known to have an abnormal iridocorneal angle and dysplastic prectinate ligament. However, the hereditary and genetic backgrounds of these dogs have not yet been clarified. In this study, we investigated the association between polymorphisms of the glaucoma candidate genes, SRBD1, ELOVL5, and ADAMTS10, and glaucoma in Shiba-Inus and Shih-Tzus. We analyzed 11 polymorphisms in these three genes using direct DNA sequencing. Three SRBD1 SNPs, rs8655283, rs22018514 and rs22018513 were significantly associated with glaucoma in Shiba-Inus, while rs22018513, a synonymous SNP in exon 4, showed the strongest association (P?=?0.00039, OR?=?3.03). Conditional analysis revealed that rs22018513 could account for most of the association of these SNPs with glaucoma in Shiba-Inus. In Shih-Tzus, only rs9172407 in the SRBD1 intron 1 was significantly associated with glaucoma (P?=?0.0014, OR?=?5.25). There were no significant associations between the ELOVL5 or ADAMTS10 polymorphisms and glaucoma in Shiba-Inus and Shih-Tzus. The results showed that SRBD1 polymorphisms play an important role in glaucoma pathology in both Shiba-Inus and Shih-Tzus. SRBD1 polymorphisms have also been associated with normal- and high-tension glaucomas in humans. Therefore, SRBD1 may be a common susceptibility gene for glaucoma in humans and dogs. We anticipate that the nucleotide sequencing data from this study can be used in genetic testing to determine for the first time, the genetic status and susceptibility of glaucoma in dogs, with high precision. Moreover, canine glaucoma resulting from SRBD1 polymorphisms could be a useful animal model to study human glaucoma. PMID:24040232

Kanemaki, Nobuyuki; Tchedre, Kissaou T.; Imayasu, Masaki; Kawarai, Shinpei; Sakaguchi, Masahiro; Yoshino, Atsushi; Itoh, Norihiko; Meguro, Akira; Mizuki, Nobuhisa

2013-01-01

76

Genetic diversity and phylogeography of Seewis virus in the Eurasian common shrew in Finland and Hungary  

PubMed Central

Recent identification of a newfound hantavirus, designated Seewis virus (SWSV), in the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), captured in Switzerland, corroborates decades-old reports of hantaviral antigens in this shrew species from Russia. To ascertain the spatial or geographic variation of SWSV, archival liver tissues from 88 Eurasian common shrews, trapped in Finland in 1982 and in Hungary during 1997, 1999 and 2000, were analyzed for hantavirus RNAs by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. SWSV RNAs were detected in 12 of 22 (54.5%) and 13 of 66 (19.7%) Eurasian common shrews from Finland and Hungary, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of S- and L-segment sequences of SWSV strains, using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, revealed geographic-specific genetic variation, similar to the phylogeography of rodent-borne hantaviruses, suggesting long-standing hantavirus-host co-evolutionary adaptation. PMID:19930716

2009-01-01

77

Components of Coated Vesicles and Nuclear Pore Complexes Share a Common Molecular Architecture  

PubMed Central

Numerous features distinguish prokaryotes from eukaryotes, chief among which are the distinctive internal membrane systems of eukaryotic cells. These membrane systems form elaborate compartments and vesicular trafficking pathways, and sequester the chromatin within the nuclear envelope. The nuclear pore complex is the portal that specifically mediates macromolecular trafficking across the nuclear envelope. Although it is generally understood that these internal membrane systems evolved from specialized invaginations of the prokaryotic plasma membrane, it is not clear how the nuclear pore complex could have evolved from organisms with no analogous transport system. Here we use computational and biochemical methods to perform a structural analysis of the seven proteins comprising the yNup84/vNup107–160 subcomplex, a core building block of the nuclear pore complex. Our analysis indicates that all seven proteins contain either a ?-propeller fold, an ?-solenoid fold, or a distinctive arrangement of both, revealing close similarities between the structures comprising the yNup84/vNup107–160 subcomplex and those comprising the major types of vesicle coating complexes that maintain vesicular trafficking pathways. These similarities suggest a common evolutionary origin for nuclear pore complexes and coated vesicles in an early membrane-curving module that led to the formation of the internal membrane systems in modern eukaryotes. PMID:15523559

2004-01-01

78

Reduced Response to Multiple Vaccines Sharing Common Protein Epitopes That Are Administered Simultaneously to Infants  

PubMed Central

The plethora of newly discovered vaccines implies that, in the future, many vaccines will have to be administered simultaneously to infants. We examined the potential interference with the immune response of several coadministered vaccines containing the same protein component, namely, tetanus toxoid (TT). Infants simultaneously receiving a tetravalent pneumococcal vaccine conjugated to TT (PncT) and a diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis–poliovirus–Haemophilus influenzae type b-tetanus conjugate vaccine showed significantly lower anti-H. influenzae type b polysaccharide (polyribosylribitol phosphate [PRP]) antibody concentrations than those receiving either a tetravalent pneumococcal vaccine conjugated to diphtheria toxoid or placebo. A dose range study showed that anti-PRP antibody concentrations were inversely related to the TT content of the PncT vaccines administered in infancy. Postimmunization antitetanus antibody concentrations were also affected adversely as the TT content of the coadministered vaccines was increased. This phenomenon, which we believe derives from interference by a common protein carrier, should be taken into account when the introduction of an immunization program including multiple conjugate vaccines is considered. PMID:9573094

Dagan, Ron; Eskola, Juhani; Leclerc, Claude; Leroy, Odile

1998-01-01

79

Plant Disease Note 2007 | First Report of Onion yellow dwarf virus, Leek yellow stripe virus, and Garlic common latent virus in Garlic in Oregon Overview Current Issue Past Issues Search PD Search APS Journals  

E-print Network

, and Garlic common latent virus in Garlic in Oregon Overview Current Issue Past Issues Search PD Search APS, and Garlic common latent virus in Garlic in Oregon. S. L. Gieck, Hermiston Agricultural Research of garlic (Allium sativum L., Late, Early, and Germinador) were observed in two seed-production fields

Pappu, Hanu R.

80

Nomenclature and relationships of some Brazilian leguminous potyviruses related to bean common mosaic and/or passionfruit woodiness viruses.  

PubMed

The main Brazilian literature of the last 10 years on potyviruses of leguminous plants related to bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and/or to passionfruit woodiness virus (PWV) is discussed and summarized. The viruses dealt with are canavalia acronecrosis, mosaico de canavalia, cassia yellow spot, cowpea green vein-banding, cowpea rugose mosaic and cowpea severe mottle. The viruses have similar biological properties, such as a host range restricted mainly to the Leguminosae, aphid transmission, seed transmission in leguminous plants, and various degrees of serological relationships with BCMV and PWV. PMID:1450754

Lovisolo, O; Kitajima, E W

1992-01-01

81

Spread of Influenza Virus A (H5N1) Clade 2.3.2.1 to Bulgaria in Common Buzzards  

PubMed Central

On March 15, 2010, a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus was isolated from the carcass of a common buzzard (Buteo buteo) in Bulgaria. Phylogenetic analyses of the virus showed a close genetic relationship with influenza virus A (H5N1) clade 2.3.2.1 viruses isolated from wild birds in the Tyva Republic and Mongolia during 2009–2010. Designated A/common buzzard/Bulgaria/38WB/2010, this strain was highly pathogenic in chickens but had low pathogenicity in mice and ferrets and no molecular markers of increased pathogenicity in mammals. The establishment of clade 2.3.2.1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H5N1 subtype in wild birds in Europe would increase the likelihood of health threats to humans and poultry in the region. PMID:23017273

Marinova-Petkova, Atanaska; Georgiev, Georgi; Seiler, Patrick; Darnell, Daniel; Franks, John; Krauss, Scott; Webby, Richard J.

2012-01-01

82

Shedding of a Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus in a Common Synanthropic Mammal – The Cottontail Rabbit  

PubMed Central

Background Cottontails (Sylvilagus spp.) are common mammals throughout much of the U.S. and are often found in peridomestic settings, potentially interacting with livestock and poultry operations. If these animals are susceptible to avian influenza virus (AIV) infections and shed the virus in sufficient quantities they may pose a risk for movement of avian influenza viruses between wildlife and domestic animals in certain situations. Methodology/Principal Findings To assess the viral shedding potential of AIV in cottontails, we nasally inoculated fourteen cottontails with a low pathogenic AIV (H4N6). All inoculated cottontails shed relatively large quantities of viral RNA both nasally (?106.94 PCR EID50 equivalents/mL) and orally (?105.09 PCR EID50 equivalents/mL). However, oral shedding tended to decline more quickly than did nasal shedding. No animals showed any obvious signs of disease throughout the study. Evidence of a serological response was found in all infected rabbits at 22 days post infection in convalescent sera. Conclusions/Significance To our knowledge, cottontails have not been previously assessed for AIV shedding. However, it was obvious that they shed AIV RNA extensively via the nasal and oral routes. This is significant, as cottontails are widely distributed throughout the U.S. and elsewhere. These mammals are often found in highly peridomestic situations, such as farms, parks, and suburban neighborhoods, often becoming habituated to human activities. Thus, if infected these mammals could easily transport AIVs short distances. PMID:25111780

Root, J. Jeffrey; Shriner, Susan A.; Bentler, Kevin T.; Gidlewski, Thomas; Mooers, Nicole L.; Spraker, Terry R.; VanDalen, Kaci K.; Sullivan, Heather J.; Franklin, Alan B.

2014-01-01

83

Evidence for common ancestry of a chestnut blight hypovirulence-associated double-stranded RNA and a group of positive-strand RNA plant viruses.  

PubMed Central

Computer-assisted analysis of the putative polypeptide products encoded by the two open reading frames present in a large virus-like double-stranded RNA, L-dsRNA, associated with hypovirulence of the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, revealed five distinct domains with significant sequence similarity to previously described conserved domains within plant potyvirus-encoded polyproteins. These included the putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, RNA helicase, two papain-like cysteine proteases related to the potyvirus helper-component protease, and a cysteine-rich domain of unknown function similar to the N-terminal portion of the potyvirus helper-component protein. Phylogenetic trees derived from the alignment of the polymerase domains of L-dsRNA, a subset of positive-stranded RNA viruses, and double-stranded RNA viruses, using three independent algorithms, suggested that the hypovirulence-associated dsRNA and potyvirus genomes share a common ancestry. However, comparison of the organization of the conserved domains within the encoded polyproteins of the respective viruses indicated that the proposed subsequent evolution involved extensive genome rearrangement. Images PMID:1961731

Koonin, E V; Choi, G H; Nuss, D L; Shapira, R; Carrington, J C

1991-01-01

84

Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) A parent's guide to condition and treatment information A A A Though more common near the lips, ... eruption of skin or mouth sores with the herpes simplex virus (HSV) is called primary herpes. This may ...

85

Identification of Common Biological Pathways and Drug Targets Across Multiple Respiratory Viruses Based on Human Host Gene Expression Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Pandemic and seasonal respiratory viruses are a major global health concern. Given the genetic diversity of respiratory viruses and the emergence of drug resistant strains, the targeted disruption of human host-virus interactions is a potential therapeutic strategy for treating multi-viral infections. The availability of large-scale genomic datasets focused on host-pathogen interactions can be used to discover novel drug targets as well as potential opportunities for drug repositioning. Methods/Results In this study, we performed a large-scale analysis of microarray datasets involving host response to infections by influenza A virus, respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, SARS-coronavirus, metapneumonia virus, coxsackievirus and cytomegalovirus. Common genes and pathways were found through a rigorous, iterative analysis pipeline where relevant host mRNA expression datasets were identified, analyzed for quality and gene differential expression, then mapped to pathways for enrichment analysis. Possible repurposed drugs targets were found through database and literature searches. A total of 67 common biological pathways were identified among the seven different respiratory viruses analyzed, representing fifteen laboratories, nine different cell types, and seven different array platforms. A large overlap in the general immune response was observed among the top twenty of these 67 pathways, adding validation to our analysis strategy. Of the top five pathways, we found 53 differentially expressed genes affected by at least five of the seven viruses. We suggest five new therapeutic indications for existing small molecules or biological agents targeting proteins encoded by the genes F3, IL1B, TNF, CASP1 and MMP9. Pathway enrichment analysis also identified a potential novel host response, the Parkin-Ubiquitin Proteasomal System (Parkin-UPS) pathway, which is known to be involved in the progression of neurodegenerative Parkinson's disease. Conclusions Our study suggests that multiple and diverse respiratory viruses invoke several common host response pathways. Further analysis of these pathways suggests potential opportunities for therapeutic intervention. PMID:22432004

Smith, Steven B.; Dampier, William; Tozeren, Aydin; Brown, James R.; Magid-Slav, Michal

2012-01-01

86

Long-Term Evolution of the Hypervariable Region of Hepatitis C Virus in a Common-Source-Infected Cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term evolution of the hepatitis C virus hypervariable region (HVR) and flanking regions of the E1 and E2 envelope proteins have been studied in a cohort of women infected from a common source of anti-D immunoglobulin. Whereas virus sequences in the infectious source were relatively homogeneous, distinct HVR variants were observed in each anti-D recipient, indicating that this region

JANE MCALLISTER; CARMELA CASINO; FIONA DAVIDSON; JOAN POWER; EMER LAWLOR; PENG LEE YAP; PETER SIMMONDS; DONALD B. SMITH

1998-01-01

87

Induction of antibody responses in the common mucosal immune system by respiratory syncytical virus immunostimulating complexes.  

PubMed

Immunostimulating complexes (ISCOMs) containing envelope proteins of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) were explored as a mucosal delivery system for the capacity of inducing a common mucosal antibody response. Two intranasal (i.n.) administrations of BALB/c mice with ISCOMs induced potent serum IgG, and strong IgA responses to RSV locally in the lungs and the upper respiratory, and remotely in the genital and the intestinal tracts. Virtually no measurable IgA response was found in these mucosal organs after two subcutaneous (s.c.) immunizations. Virus neutralizing (VN) antibodies were detected in serum and in all of the mucosal organ extracts after both s.c. and i.n. immunizations indicating that the neutralizing epitopes were preserved after both mucosal and parenteral modes of administration. While the mucosal IgA response appears to be of mucosal origin, the IgG antibodies to RSV detected in the mucosal organs were likely of serum origin. However, the mucosal VN antibodies correlated with the IgG rather than the IgA levels. An enhanced IgA response to gp120 in various mucosal organs was recorded after i.n. immunization with gp120 incorporated in RSV ISCOMs, indicating a role of RSV envelope proteins in enhancing and targeting mucosal responses to passenger antigens. PMID:10363675

Hu, K F; Ekström, J; Merza, M; Lövgren-Bengtsson, K; Morein, B

1999-05-01

88

Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Gastrointestinal Disease: Common Endoscopic Biopsy Diagnoses  

PubMed Central

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a major site of disease in HIV infection: almost half of HIV-infected patients present with GI symptoms, and almost all patients develop GI complications. GI symptoms such as anorexia, weight loss, dysphagia, odynophagia, abdominal pain, and diarrhea are frequent and usually nonspecific among these patients. Endoscopy is the diagnostic test of choice for most HIV-associated GI diseases, as endoscopic and histopathologic evaluation can render diagnoses in patients with non-specific symptoms. In the past three decades, studies have elucidated a variety of HIV-associated inflammatory, infectious, and neoplastic GI diseases, often with specific predilection for various sites. HIV-associated esophageal disease, for example, commonly includes candidiasis, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection, Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), and idiopathic ulceration. Gastric disease, though less common than esophageal disease, frequently involves CMV, Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI), and neoplasia (KS, lymphoma). Small bowel biopsies and intestinal aspirates from HIV-infected patients often show HIV enteropathy, MAI, protozoa (Giardia, Isospora, Cryptosporidia, amebae, Microsporidia), and helminths (Strongyloides stercoralis). Colorectal biopsies demonstrate viral (CMV, HSV), bacterial (Clostridia, Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter), fungal (cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis), and neoplastic (KS, lymphoma) processes. Herein, we review HIV-associated GI pathology, with emphasis on common endoscopic biopsy diagnoses. PMID:21559197

Bhaijee, Feriyl; Subramony, Charu; Tang, Shou-Jiang; Pepper, Dominique J.

2011-01-01

89

Genetically divergent strains of feline immunodeficiency virus from the domestic cat (Felis catus) and the African lion (Panthera leo) share usage of CD134 and CXCR4 as entry receptors.  

PubMed

The env open reading frames of African lion (Panthera leo) lentivirus (feline immunodeficiency virus [FIV(Ple)]) subtypes B and E from geographically distinct regions of Africa suggest two distinct ancestries, with FIV(Ple)-E sharing a common ancestor with the domestic cat (Felis catus) lentivirus (FIV(Fca)). Here we demonstrate that FIV(Ple)-E and FIV(Fca) share the use of CD134 (OX40) and CXCR4 as a primary receptor and coreceptor, respectively, and that both lion CD134 and CXCR4 are functional receptors for FIV(Ple)-E. The shared usage of CD134 and CXCR4 by FIV(Fca) and FIV(Ple)-E may have implications for in vivo cell tropism and the pathogenicity of the E subtype among free-ranging lion populations. PMID:18715917

McEwan, William A; McMonagle, Elizabeth L; Logan, Nicola; Serra, Rodrigo C; Kat, Pieter; Vandewoude, Sue; Hosie, Margaret J; Willett, Brian J

2008-11-01

90

Coffee and tomato share common gene repertoires as revealed by deep sequencing of seed and cherry transcripts  

PubMed Central

An EST database has been generated for coffee based on sequences from approximately 47,000 cDNA clones derived from five different stages/tissues, with a special focus on developing seeds. When computationally assembled, these sequences correspond to 13,175 unigenes, which were analyzed with respect to functional annotation, expression profile and evolution. Compared with Arabidopsis, the coffee unigenes encode a higher proportion of proteins related to protein modification/turnover and metabolism—an observation that may explain the high diversity of metabolites found in coffee and related species. Several gene families were found to be either expanded or unique to coffee when compared with Arabidopsis. A high proportion of these families encode proteins assigned to functions related to disease resistance. Such families may have expanded and evolved rapidly under the intense pathogen pressure experienced by a tropical, perennial species like coffee. Finally, the coffee gene repertoire was compared with that of Arabidopsis and Solanaceous species (e.g. tomato). Unlike Arabidopsis, tomato has a nearly perfect gene-for-gene match with coffee. These results are consistent with the facts that coffee and tomato have a similar genome size, chromosome karyotype (tomato, n=12; coffee n=11) and chromosome architecture. Moreover, both belong to the Asterid I clade of dicot plant families. Thus, the biology of coffee (family Rubiacaeae) and tomato (family Solanaceae) may be united into one common network of shared discoveries, resources and information. PMID:16273343

Lin, Chenwei; Mueller, Lukas A.; Carthy, James Mc; Crouzillat, Dominique; Petiard, Vincent

2005-01-01

91

The Three-dimensional Structure of Carnocyclin A Reveals That Many Circular Bacteriocins Share a Common Structural Motif*  

PubMed Central

Carnocyclin A (CclA) is a potent antimicrobial peptide from Carnobacterium maltaromaticum UAL307 that displays a broad spectrum of activity against numerous Gram-positive organisms. An amide bond links the N and C termini of this bacteriocin, imparting stability and structural integrity to this 60-amino acid peptide. CclA interacts with lipid bilayers in a voltage-dependent manner and forms anion selective pores. Several other circular bacteriocins have been reported, yet only one (enterocin AS-48) has been structurally characterized. We have now determined the solution structure of CclA by NMR and further examined its anion binding and membrane channel properties. The results reveal that CclA preferentially binds halide anions and has a structure that is surprisingly similar to that of AS-48 despite low sequence identity, different oligomeric state, and disparate function. CclA folds into a compact globular bundle, comprised of four helices surrounding a hydrophobic core. NMR studies show two fluoride ion binding modes for CclA. Our findings suggest that although other circular bacteriocins are likely to have diverse mechanisms of action, many may have a common structural motif. This shared three-dimensional arrangement resembles the fold of mammalian saposins, peptides that either directly lyse membranes or serve as activators of lipid-degrading enzymes. PMID:19692336

Martin-Visscher, Leah A.; Gong, Xiandi; Duszyk, Marek; Vederas, John C.

2009-01-01

92

Common use of inaccurate antibody assays to identify infection status with herpes simplex virus type 2.  

PubMed

In recent proficiency testing of herpes simplex virus type-specific serologic evidence by the College of American Pathologists, commercially available herpes simplex virus antibody assays that were not glycoprotein-G based demonstrated high false-positive rates (14%-88%) for herpes simplex virus type-2 antibodies in sera that were positive for herpes simplex virus type-1 antibodies but negative for herpes simplex virus type-2 antibodies. Herpes simplex virus serologic testing should be performed with only glycoprotein-G-based tests. PMID:16098855

Morrow, Rhoda Ashley; Brown, Zane A

2005-08-01

93

Autoantibodies in chronic delta virus infection recognize a common protein of 46 kD in rat forestomach basal cell layer and stellate thymic epithelial cells.  

PubMed Central

Chronic hepatitis delta virus infection is associated with the presence of autoantibodies to rat forestomach and thymus in approximately 60% of patients' sera. We have characterized the antigen against which these autoantibodies are directed as a protein of 46 kD by immunoblotting studies on rat forestomach and thymus extracts. Normal human sera or sera from patients with other hepatic or non-hepatic autoimmune disorders did not bind to this protein. The immunoblot assay was more sensitive than immunofluorescence. Maximal titre was 1:10,000 versus 1:5120. By techniques of elution of specific antibodies from immunoblots, our results showed that the same antigen was present in both tissues. This antigen did not share common epitopes with hepatitis delta virus (HDV). Patients' sera depleted of basal cell layer and thymic stellate epithelial cell antibodies by absorption with the corresponding tissue extract maintained the HDV antibody titres. The autoimmune phenomena observed in patients with HDV infection seems to be a colateral process induced by the replication of delta virus in the host. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:2680184

Amengual, M J; Catalfamo, M; Pujol, A; Juarez, C; Gelpi, C; Rodriguez, J L

1989-01-01

94

Phosphate transporters in marine phytoplankton and their viruses: cross-domain commonalities in viral-host gene exchanges  

PubMed Central

Phosphate (PO4) is an important limiting nutrient in marine environments. Marine cyanobacteria scavenge PO4 using the high-affinity periplasmic phosphate binding protein PstS. The pstS gene has recently been identified in genomes of cyanobacterial viruses as well. Here, we analyse genes encoding transporters in genomes from viruses that infect eukaryotic phytoplankton. We identified inorganic PO4 transporter-encoding genes from the PHO4 superfamily in several virus genomes, along with other transporter-encoding genes. Homologues of the viral pho4 genes were also identified in genome sequences from the genera that these viruses infect. Genome sequences were available from host genera of all the phytoplankton viruses analysed except the host genus Bathycoccus. Pho4 was recovered from Bathycoccus by sequencing a targeted metagenome from an uncultured Atlantic Ocean population. Phylogenetic reconstruction showed that pho4 genes from pelagophytes, haptophytes and infecting viruses were more closely related to homologues in prasinophytes than to those in what, at the species level, are considered to be closer relatives (e.g. diatoms). We also identified PHO4 superfamily members in ocean metagenomes, including new metagenomes from the Pacific Ocean. The environmental sequences grouped with pelagophytes, haptophytes, prasinophytes and viruses as well as bacteria. The analyses suggest that multiple independent pho4 gene transfer events have occurred between marine viruses and both eukaryotic and bacterial hosts. Additionally, pho4 genes were identified in available genomes from viruses that infect marine eukaryotes but not those that infect terrestrial hosts. Commonalities in marine host-virus gene exchanges indicate that manipulation of host-PO4 uptake is an important adaptation for viral proliferation in marine systems. Our findings suggest that PO4-availability may not serve as a simple bottom-up control of marine phytoplankton. PMID:21914098

Monier, Adam; Welsh, Rory M; Gentemann, Chelle; Weinstock, George; Sodergren, Erica; Armbrust, E Virginia; Eisen, Jonathan A; Worden, Alexandra Z

2012-01-01

95

Veterinary Virologists Share Avian AVIAN INFLUENZA INFECTIONS CAUSED BY VIRUSES OF THE ASIAN HPAI  

E-print Network

OF THE ASIAN HPAI H5N1 subtype have spread from East and Southeast Asia to Europe, the Middle East, and Africa, and the full genetic sequences will be available in GenBank. The Asian HPAI H5N1 virus is spreading very in the region of the parathyroid area." (2). Law's group did not have the sophisticated technical tools to prove

Kalueff, Allan V.

96

Comprehensive Mapping of Common Immunodominant Epitopes in the West Nile Virus Nonstructural Protein 1 Recognized by Avian Antibody Responses  

PubMed Central

West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that primarily infects birds but occasionally infects humans and horses. Certain species of birds, including crows, house sparrows, geese, blue jays and ravens, are considered highly susceptible hosts to WNV. The nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of WNV can elicit protective immune responses, including NS1-reactive antibodies, during infection of animals. The antigenicity of NS1 suggests that NS1-reactive antibodies could provide a basis for serological diagnostic reagents. To further define serological reagents for diagnostic use, the antigenic sites in NS1 that are targeted by host immune responses need to be identified and the potential diagnostic value of individual antigenic sites also needs to be defined. The present study describes comprehensive mapping of common immunodominant linear B-cell epitopes in the WNV NS1 using avian WNV NS1 antisera. We screened antisera from chickens, ducks and geese immunized with purified NS1 for reactivity against 35 partially overlapping peptides covering the entire WNV NS1. This study identified twelve, nine and six peptide epitopes recognized by chicken, duck and goose antibody responses, respectively. Three epitopes (NS1-3, 14 and 24) were recognized by antibodies elicited by immunization in all three avian species tested. We also found that NS1-3 and 24 were WNV-specific epitopes, whereas the NS1-14 epitope was conserved among the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) serocomplex viruses based on the reactivity of avian WNV NS1 antisera against polypeptides derived from the NS1 sequences of viruses of the JEV serocomplex. Further analysis showed that the three common polypeptide epitopes were not recognized by antibodies in Avian Influenza Virus (AIV), Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), Duck Plague Virus (DPV) and Goose Parvovirus (GPV) antisera. The knowledge and reagents generated in this study have potential applications in differential diagnostic approaches and subunit vaccines development for WNV and other viruses of the JEV serocomplex. PMID:22347477

Sun, Encheng; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Nihong; Yang, Tao; Xu, Qingyuan; Qin, Yongli; Bu, Zhigao; Yang, Yinhui; Lunt, Ross A.; Wang, Linfa; Wu, Donglai

2012-01-01

97

Isolation of an influenza virus, similar to A\\/Port Chalmers\\/1\\/73 (H3N2) from a common murre at Sakhalin Island in U.S.S.R (Strain A\\/CommonMurre\\/Sakhalin\\/1\\/74)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary An influenza A virus isolated from the cloaca of a common murre was characterized antigenically as H3N2 and was most closely related to the A\\/Port Chalmers\\/1\\/73 strain. Serological studies of sera collected from common murres in the area of virus isolation showed that 21 per cent of the birds had antibodies to Hong Kong influenza virus.

A. A. Sazonov; D. K. Lvov; R. G. Webster; T. V. Sokolova; N. A. Braude; N. V. Portyanko

1977-01-01

98

Multidisciplinary teams, and parents, negotiating common ground in shared-care of children with long-term conditions: A mixed methods study  

PubMed Central

Background Limited negotiation around care decisions is believed to undermine collaborative working between parents of children with long-term conditions and professionals, but there is little evidence of how they actually negotiate their respective roles. Using chronic kidney disease as an exemplar this paper reports on a multi-method study of social interaction between multidisciplinary teams and parents as they shared clinical care. Methods Phases 1 and 2: a telephone survey mapping multidisciplinary teams’ parent-educative activities, and qualitative interviews with 112 professionals (Clinical-psychologists, Dietitians, Doctors, Nurses, Play-specialists, Pharmacists, Therapists and Social-workers) exploring their accounts of parent-teaching in the 12 British children’s kidney units. Phase 3: six ethnographic case studies in two units involving observations of professional/parent interactions during shared-care, and individual interviews. We used an analytical framework based on concepts drawn from Communities of Practice and Activity Theory. Results Professionals spoke of the challenge of explaining to each other how they are aware of parents’ understanding of clinical knowledge, and described three patterns of parent-educative activity that were common across MDTs: Engaging parents in shared practice; Knowledge exchange and role negotiation, and Promoting common ground. Over time, professionals had developed a shared repertoire of tools to support their negotiations with parents that helped them accomplish common ground during the practice of shared-care. We observed mutual engagement between professionals and parents where a common understanding of the joint enterprise of clinical caring was negotiated. Conclusions For professionals, making implicit knowledge explicit is important as it can provide them with a language through which to articulate more clearly to each other what is the basis of their intuition-based hunches about parents’ support needs, and may help them to negotiate with parents and accelerate parents’ learning about shared caring. Our methodology and results are potentially transferrable to shared management of other conditions. PMID:23835151

2013-01-01

99

Developmental and hypoxia-induced cell death share common ultrastructural and biochemical apoptotic features in the central nervous system.  

PubMed

Hypoxic insults during the perinatal period lead to motor and cognitive impairments that later appear during childhood. In the adult brain, hypoxic events often lead to necrotic neuronal death, depending on the region and intensity of the event. During development an active apoptotic cell death occurs and could be an important variable affecting the hypoxic insult outcome. In the present work we performed a comparative study, in a chick embryo model, of the phenotypes and molecular markers exhibited during developmental and hypoxic cell death (HxCD). Ultrastructural analysis of optic tectum cells of embryos subjected to hypoxia (8% O2, 60 min) revealed a clear apoptotic morphology that did not differ from the one exhibited during developmental cell death. Integrity of plasma membrane, condensation of chromatin in round well-defined bodies, and gradual shrinkage of the cell are all hallmarks of the apoptotic process and were present in both control and hypoxic cells. To elucidate if hypoxic and developmental cell deaths share a common mechanism we evaluated the activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. A basal cleavage of caspase-9 and cytochrome c release was observed by co-immunofluorescence in control embryos, but hypoxic insult significantly increased the incidence of this colocalization. Caspase-8 cleavage remained unchanged after the hypoxic insult, suggesting that the extrinsic pathway would not be involved in hypoxic death. We also observed a significant decrease of Akt activation immediately after hypoxia, possibly facilitating the later release of cytochrome c. In addition we analyzed the influence of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) in neuronal survival. Transection of RGC fibers at embryonic day (ED) 3 did not induce any change in developmental and HxCD at ED12. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that a hypoxic insult in the developing brain triggers the same apoptotic pathway as the active developmental death. PMID:23933309

Pozo Devoto, V M; Bogetti, M E; Fiszer de Plazas, S

2013-11-12

100

Microbial Gutta-Percha Degradation Shares Common Steps with Rubber Degradation by Nocardia nova SH22a  

PubMed Central

Nocardia nova SH22a, a bacterium capable of degrading gutta-percha (GP) and natural rubber (NR), was used to investigate the GP degradation mechanism and the relations between the GP and NR degradation pathways. For this strain, a protocol of electroporation was systematically optimized, and an efficiency of up to 4.3 × 107 CFU per ?g of plasmid DNA was achieved. By applying this optimized protocol to N. nova SH22a, a Tn5096-based transposon mutagenesis library of this bacterium was constructed. Among about 12,000 apramycin-resistant transformants, we identified 76 stable mutants defective in GP or NR utilization. Whereas 10 mutants were specifically defective in GP utilization, the growth of the other 66 mutants was affected on both GP and NR. This indicated that the two degradation pathways are quite similar and share many common steps. The larger number of GP-degrading defective mutants could be explained in one of two ways: either (i) the GP pathway is more complex and harbors more specific steps or (ii) the steps for both pathways are almost identical, but in the case of GP degradation there are fewer enzymes involved in each step. The analysis of transposition loci and genetic studies on interesting genes confirmed the crucial role of an ?-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase in the degradation of both GP and NR. We also demonstrated the probable involvement of enzymes participating in oxidoreduction reactions, ?-oxidation, and the synthesis of complex cell envelope lipids in the degradation of GP. PMID:23220954

Luo, Quan; Hiessl, Sebastian; Poehlein, Anja

2013-01-01

101

Psychological Factors Determining Individual Compliance with Rules for Common Pool Resource Management: The Case of a Cuban Community Sharing a Solar Energy System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on individuals’ subjective reasons for complying with rules for common pool resource management. We examine\\u000a the topic of individual rule compliance, which the commons literature has addressed only marginally, and outline recent empirical\\u000a findings. Hypotheses are derived based on rule compliance theory and explored using data gathered in a Cuban community sharing\\u000a a solar energy system. The

Annette Jenny; Fernando Hechavarria Fuentes; Hans-Joachim Mosler

2007-01-01

102

Identification of a common helper provirus integration site in Abelson murine leukemia virus-induced lymphoma DNA.  

PubMed Central

Abelson murine leukemia virus induces oligoclonal pre-B lymphoma in mice. The expression of the v-abl oncogene in target cells does not appear to be sufficient for tumor induction in several mouse strains, and additional genetic events are thought to be required. We postulated that the helper Moloney murine leukemia virus might induce these events, and its potential role as an insertional mutagen was assessed by the search of a common helper provirus integration site in Abelson murine leukemia virus lymphomas. Molecular cloning of cellular sequences adjacent to Moloney proviruses enabled us to identify a cellular region, designated Ahi-1, which was found occupied by the helper proviruses in 16% of Abelson pre-B-cell lymphomas. All proviruses for which the precise integration site within Ahi-1 could be mapped were found to be in the same orientation. Ahi-1 has been mapped to mouse chromosome 10 and represents a new common proviral integration site. These data suggest that the helper virus contributes to the induction of secondary genetic events which may be important for the development of Abelson murine leukemia virus-induced pre-B-cell lymphoma. Images PMID:2845118

Poirier, Y; Kozak, C; Jolicoeur, P

1988-01-01

103

Woodchuck hepatitis virus is a more efficient oncogenic agent than ground squirrel hepatitis virus in a common host.  

PubMed

Chronic infection with hepatitis B viruses (hepadnaviruses) is a major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the incubation time varies from 1 to 2 years to several decades in different host species infected with indigenous viruses. To discern the influence of viral and host factors on the kinetics of induction of HCC, we exploited the recent observation that ground squirrel hepatitis virus (GSHV) is infectious in woodchucks (C. Seeger, P. L. Marion, D. Ganem, and H. E. Varmus, J. Virol. 61:3241-3247, 1987) to compare the pathogenic potential of GSHV and woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) in chronically infected woodchucks. Chronic GSHV infection in woodchucks produces mild to moderate portal hepatitis, similar to that observed in woodchucks chronically infected with WHV. However, HCC developed in GSHV carriers about 18 months later than in WHV carriers. Thus, although both viruses are oncogenic in woodchucks, GSHV and WHV differ in oncogenic determinants that can affect the kinetics of appearance of HCC in chronically infected animals. PMID:2002538

Seeger, C; Baldwin, B; Hornbuckle, W E; Yeager, A E; Tennant, B C; Cote, P; Ferrell, L; Ganem, D; Varmus, H E

1991-04-01

104

GeneScan Reverse Transcription-PCR Assay for Detection of Six Common Respiratory Viruses in Young Children Hospitalized with Acute Respiratory Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assay based on automated fluorescent capillary electrophoresis and GeneScan software analysis was developed to detect six common respiratory viruses in clinical specimens from young children. Assays for human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV); human parainfluenza viruses 1, 2, and 3 (HPIV1, -2, and -3, respectively); and influenza A and B viruses were incorporated into a single standard

Dean D. Erdman; Geoffrey A. Weinberg; Kathryn M. Edwards; Frances J. Walker; Barbara C. Anderson; Jorn Winter; Monica Gonzalez; Larry J. Anderson

2003-01-01

105

Team Project: Team Design Specification CSCE 121 Spring 2011 (507, 508) this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0  

E-print Network

. Think about the game you have selected, and consider how the game rules map to code. Take into account game), what options are available to the player? How are those options created in code? (For example under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License by Zachary O. Toups 1 Team Game

Toups, Zach

106

Identification and Partial Characterisation of Lettuce big-vein associated virus and Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus in Common Weeds Found Amongst Spanish Lettuce Crops and their Role in Lettuce Big-vein Disease Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential role of 10 frequently occurring weed species found amongst Spanish lettuce crops as host plants for the two\\u000a viruses associated with the lettuce big-vein disease, Lettuce big-vein associated virus (LBVaV) and Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus (MLBVV), was studied. The results showed that both viruses can infect naturally growing Sonchus oleraceus (common sowthistle) plants, the unique susceptible species detected

Jose A. Navarro; Francisco Botella; Antonio Marhuenda; Pedro Sastre; M. Amelia Sánchez-Pina; Vicente Pallas

2005-01-01

107

Population structure within lineages of Wheat streak mosaic virus derived from a common founding event exhibits stochastic variation inconsistent with the deterministic quasi-species model.  

PubMed

Structure of Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) populations derived from a common founding event and subjected to serial passage at high multiplicity of infection (MOI) was evaluated. The founding population was generated by limiting dilution inoculation. Lineages of known pedigree were sampled at passage 9 (two populations) and at passage 15, with (three populations) or without mixing (four populations) of lineages at passage 10. Polymorphism within each population was assessed by sequencing 17-21 clones containing a 1371 nt region (WSMV-Sidney 81 nts 8001-9371) encompassing the entire coat protein cistron and flanking regions. Mutation frequency averaged approximately 5.0 x 10(-4)/nt across all populations and ranged from 2.4 to 11.6 x 10(-4)/nt within populations, but did not consistently increase or decrease with the number of passages removed from the founding population. Shared substitutions (19 nonsynonymous, 10 synonymous, and 3 noncoding) occurred at 32 sites among 44 haplotypes. Only four substitutions became fixed (frequency = 100%) within a population and nearly one third (10/32) never achieved a frequency of 10% or greater in any sampled population. Shared substitutions were randomly distributed with respect to genome position, with transitions outnumbering transversions 5.4:1 and a clear bias for A to G and U to C substitutions. Haplotype composition of each population was unique with complexity of each population varying unpredictably, in that the number and frequency of haplotypes within a lineage were not correlated with number of passages removed from the founding population or whether the population was derived from a single or mixed lineage. The simplest explanation is that plant virus lineages, even those propagated at high MOI, are subject to frequent, narrow genetic bottlenecks during systemic movement that result in low effective population size and stochastic changes in population structure upon serial passage. PMID:16181653

French, Roy; Stenger, Drake C

2005-12-20

108

Population structure within lineages of Wheat streak mosaic virus derived from a common founding event exhibits stochastic variation inconsistent with the deterministic quasi-species model  

SciTech Connect

Structure of Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) populations derived from a common founding event and subjected to serial passage at high multiplicity of infection (MOI) was evaluated. The founding population was generated by limiting dilution inoculation. Lineages of known pedigree were sampled at passage 9 (two populations) and at passage 15, with (three populations) or without mixing (four populations) of lineages at passage 10. Polymorphism within each population was assessed by sequencing 17-21 clones containing a 1371 nt region (WSMV-Sidney 81 nts 8001-9371) encompassing the entire coat protein cistron and flanking regions. Mutation frequency averaged {approx}5.0 x 10{sup -4}/nt across all populations and ranged from 2.4 to 11.6 x 10{sup -4}/nt within populations, but did not consistently increase or decrease with the number of passages removed from the founding population. Shared substitutions (19 nonsynonymous, 10 synonymous, and 3 noncoding) occurred at 32 sites among 44 haplotypes. Only four substitutions became fixed (frequency = 100%) within a population and nearly one third (10/32) never achieved a frequency of 10% or greater in any sampled population. Shared substitutions were randomly distributed with respect to genome position, with transitions outnumbering transversions 5.4:1 and a clear bias for A to G and U to C substitutions. Haplotype composition of each population was unique with complexity of each population varying unpredictably, in that the number and frequency of haplotypes within a lineage were not correlated with number of passages removed from the founding population or whether the population was derived from a single or mixed lineage. The simplest explanation is that plant virus lineages, even those propagated at high MOI, are subject to frequent, narrow genetic bottlenecks during systemic movement that result in low effective population size and stochastic changes in population structure upon serial passage.

French, Roy [Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture and Department of Plant Pathology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583 (United States); Stenger, Drake C. [Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture and Department of Plant Pathology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583 (United States)]. E-mail: dstenger@unlnotes.unl.edu

2005-12-20

109

Multiplex RT-PCR detection of three common viruses infecting orchids.  

PubMed

A multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was developed for simultaneous detection of three orchid viruses: cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV), odontoglossum ringspot virus (ORSV), and orchid fleck virus (OFV). Primers were used to amplify nucleocapsid protein gene fragments of 845 bp (ORSV), 505 bp (CymMV) and 160 bp (OFV). A 60-bp amplicon of plant glyceraldehyde-3-phophate dehydrogenase mRNA was included as an internal control against false negatives. The assay was validated against 31 collected plants from six orchid genera and compared with results obtained by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The RT-PCR assay proved more sensitive than TEM for detection of OFV. PMID:24980395

Ali, Raymond N; Dann, Alison L; Cross, Peter A; Wilson, Calum R

2014-11-01

110

People who share a culture share language, customs, history, and values and pass on those attributes to their children. The reality of being Deaf * encompasses a whole set of shared experiences with a common  

E-print Network

attributes to their children. The reality of being Deaf * encompasses a whole set of shared experiences-spatial language used by people who are Deaf, Hard of Hearing and Hearing within the Deaf community. ASL is unique, Deaf people are adept at understanding one another where their Hearing counterparts struggle

111

Role of a Common Frame of Reference in Cognitive Cooperation: Sharing Tasks between Agents in Air Traffic Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   This study deals with cognitive cooperation in the context of the design of cooperative computer support for sharing aircraft\\u000a conflict detection and resolution tasks between human and machine in air traffic control. In order to specify some necessary\\u000a cooperative capabilities of such a system, we have observed an artificial situation on a simulator where two radar controllers\\u000a (RCs) had

Jean-michel Hoc; X. Carlier

2002-01-01

112

Urologists’ Attitudes Regarding Information Sharing with Prostate Cancer Patients—Is There a Common Ground for Collaboration with Family Physicians?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinicians often fail to adequately meet prostate cancer patients’ information needs, and patients may receive different kinds\\u000a of information from their doctors. This study aims to describe urologists’ attitudes regarding information sharing with prostate\\u000a cancer patients and to compare these findings with the previously published attitudes of Israeli family physicians. A questionnaire\\u000a (11 items) was mailed to 87 board-certified practicing

Orit Cohen Castel; Mordechai Alperin; Lea Ungar; Ina Kravtsov; Gilad E. Amiel; Khaled Karkabi

2011-01-01

113

Common Genetic and Non-shared Environmental Factors Contribute to the Association between Socioemotional Dispositions and the Externalizing Factor in Children  

PubMed Central

Background Childhood behavioral disorders including conduct disorder (CD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. Prior twin research shows that common sets of genetic and environmental factors are associated with these various disorders and they form a latent factor called Externalizing. The developmental propensity model posits that CD develops in part from socioemotional dispositions of Prosociality, Negative Emotionality, and Daring, and recent research has supported the expected genetic and environmental associations between these dispositions and CD. This study examined the developmental propensity model in relation to the broader Externalizing factor that represents the covariance among behavior disorders in children. Methods Parents of 686 6- to 12-year-old twin pairs rated them on symptoms of CD, ADHD, and ODD using the Disruptive Behavior Disorder scale and on Prosociality, Negative Emotionality, and Daring using the Child and Adolescent Dispositions Scale. A latent factor multivariate Cholesky model was used with each disposition latent factor comprised of respective questionnaire items and the Externalizing factor comprised of symptom dimensions of CD, ADHD inattention, ADHD hyperactivity/impulsivity, and ODD. Results Results supported the hypothesis that the socioemotional dispositions and the Externalizing factor have genetic factors in common, but there was not a single genetic factor associated with all of the constructs. As expected, non-shared environment factors were shared by the dispositions and Externalizing factor but, again, no single non-shared environmental factor was common to all constructs. A shared environmental factor was associated with both Negative Emotionality and Externalizing. Conclusions The developmental propensity model was supported and appears to extend to the broader externalizing spectrum of childhood disorders. Socioemotional dispositions of prosociality, negative emotionality, and (to a lesser extent) daring may contribute to the covariation among behavioral disorders and perhaps to their comorbid expression through common sets of primarily genetic but also environmental factors. PMID:23017065

Taylor, Jeanette; Allan, Nicholas; Mikolajewski, Amy J.; Hart, Sara A.

2012-01-01

114

The potential distance of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus dispersal by mallard, common teal and Eurasian pochard.  

PubMed

Waterbirds represent the major natural reservoir for low pathogenic (LP) avian influenza viruses (AIV). Among the wide diversity of subtypes that have been described, two of them (H5 and H7) may become highly pathogenic (HP) after their introduction into domestic bird populations and cause severe outbreaks, as is the case for HP H5N1 in South-Eastern Asia. Recent experimental studies demonstrated that HP H5N1 AIV infection in ducks does not necessarily have significant pathological effects. These results suggest that wild migratory ducks may asymptomatically carry HP AIV and potentially spread viruses over large geographical distances. In this study, we investigated the potential spreading distance of HP AIV by common teal (Anas crecca), mallard (A. platyrhynchos), and Eurasian pochard (Aythya ferina). Based on capture-mark-recapture method, we characterized their wintering movements from a western Mediterranean wetland (Camargue, South of France) and identified the potential distance and direction of virus dispersal. Such data may be crucial in determining higher-risk areas in the case of HP AIV infection detection in this major wintering quarter, and may serve as a valuable reference for virus outbreaks elsewhere. PMID:20112048

Brochet, Anne-Laure; Guillemain, Matthieu; Lebarbenchon, Camille; Simon, Géraldine; Fritz, Hervé; Green, Andy J; Renaud, François; Thomas, Frédéric; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel

2009-09-01

115

Virus Membrane Fusion Proteins: Biological Machines that Undergo a Metamorphosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusion proteins from a group of widely disparate viruses, including the paramyxovirus F protein, the HIV and SIV gp160 proteins, the retroviral Env protein, the Ebola virus Gp, and the influenza virus haemagglutinin, share a number of common features. All contain multiple glycosylation sites, and must be trimeric and undergo proteolytic cleavage to be fusogenically active. Subsequent to proteolytic cleavage,

Rebecca Ellis Dutch; Theodore S. Jardetzky; Robert A. Lamb

2000-01-01

116

Pea Embryonic Tissues Show Common Responses to the Replication of a Wide Range of Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of pea embryonic tissues to the replication of a range of different viruses was investigated using in situ hybridization to analyze changes in the expression of two host genes, heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) and lipoxygenase (lox1). Excised pea embryos were infected using microprojectile bombardment with a nonseed transmissible strain of Pea seed-borne mosaic potyvirus, or with Pea

Margarita Escaler; Miguel A. Aranda; Carole L. Thomas; Andrew J. Maule

2000-01-01

117

Sjögren's syndrome, hepatitis C virus and B-Cell lymphoproliferation. Common immunopathogenic mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hepatitis C virus (HCV) has a triple tropism: hepatotropism, lymphotropism and sialotropism. Patients with HCV chronic infec- tion present some extrahepatic manifestations that may mimic the cli- nical, immunologic and histological manifestations of primary Sjögrens syndrome (SS). HCV patients with sicca symptomatology and positi- ve autoantibodies could be misdiagnosed as «primary» SS. Neverthe- less, there are several clinical and

M. Ramos-Casals; M. García-Carrasco

118

Ecological Routes of Avian Influenza Virus Transmission to a Common Mesopredator: An Experimental Evaluation of Alternatives  

PubMed Central

Background Wild raccoons have been shown to be naturally exposed to avian influenza viruses (AIV). However, the mechanisms associated with these natural exposures are not well-understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We experimentally tested three alternative routes (water, eggs, and scavenged waterfowl carcasses) of AIV transmission that may explain how raccoons in the wild are exposed to AIV. Raccoons were exposed to 1) water and 2) eggs spiked with an AIV (H4N6), as well as 3) mallard carcasses experimentally inoculated with the same virus. Three of four raccoons exposed to the high dose water treatment yielded apparent nasal shedding of >102.0 PCR EID50 equivalent/mL. Little to no shedding was observed from the fecal route. The only animals yielding evidence of serologic activity during the study period were three animals associated with the high dose water treatment. Conclusions/Significance Overall, our results indicate that virus-laden water could provide a natural exposure route of AIV for raccoons and possibly other mammals associated with aquatic environments. However, this association appears to be related to AIV concentration in the water, which would constitute an infective dose. In addition, strong evidence of infection was only detected in three of four animals exposed to a high dose (e.g., 105.0 EID50/mL) of AIV in water. As such, water-borne transmission to raccoons may require repeated exposures to water with high concentrations of virus. PMID:25127468

Root, J. Jeffrey; Bentler, Kevin T.; Shriner, Susan A.; Mooers, Nicole L.; VanDalen, Kaci K.; Sullivan, Heather J.; Franklin, Alan B.

2014-01-01

119

Metagenomic Analysis of the Viromes of Three North American Bat Species: Viral Diversity among Different Bat Species That Share a Common Habitat?  

PubMed Central

Effective prediction of future viral zoonoses requires an in-depth understanding of the heterologous viral population in key animal species that will likely serve as reservoir hosts or intermediates during the next viral epidemic. The importance of bats as natural hosts for several important viral zoonoses, including Ebola, Marburg, Nipah, Hendra, and rabies viruses and severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV), has been established; however, the large viral population diversity (virome) of bats has been partially determined for only a few of the ?1,200 bat species. To assess the virome of North American bats, we collected fecal, oral, urine, and tissue samples from individual bats captured at an abandoned railroad tunnel in Maryland that is cohabitated by 7 to 10 different bat species. Here, we present preliminary characterization of the virome of three common North American bat species, including big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), tricolored bats (Perimyotis subflavus), and little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus). In samples derived from these bats, we identified viral sequences that were similar to at least three novel group 1 CoVs, large numbers of insect and plant virus sequences, and nearly full-length genomic sequences of two novel bacteriophages. These observations suggest that bats encounter and disseminate a large assortment of viruses capable of infecting many different animals, insects, and plants in nature. PMID:20926577

Donaldson, Eric F.; Haskew, Aimee N.; Gates, J. Edward; Huynh, Jeremy; Moore, Clea J.; Frieman, Matthew B.

2010-01-01

120

Metagenomic analysis of the viromes of three North American bat species: viral diversity among different bat species that share a common habitat.  

PubMed

Effective prediction of future viral zoonoses requires an in-depth understanding of the heterologous viral population in key animal species that will likely serve as reservoir hosts or intermediates during the next viral epidemic. The importance of bats as natural hosts for several important viral zoonoses, including Ebola, Marburg, Nipah, Hendra, and rabies viruses and severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV), has been established; however, the large viral population diversity (virome) of bats has been partially determined for only a few of the ?1,200 bat species. To assess the virome of North American bats, we collected fecal, oral, urine, and tissue samples from individual bats captured at an abandoned railroad tunnel in Maryland that is cohabitated by 7 to 10 different bat species. Here, we present preliminary characterization of the virome of three common North American bat species, including big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), tricolored bats (Perimyotis subflavus), and little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus). In samples derived from these bats, we identified viral sequences that were similar to at least three novel group 1 CoVs, large numbers of insect and plant virus sequences, and nearly full-length genomic sequences of two novel bacteriophages. These observations suggest that bats encounter and disseminate a large assortment of viruses capable of infecting many different animals, insects, and plants in nature. PMID:20926577

Donaldson, Eric F; Haskew, Aimee N; Gates, J Edward; Huynh, Jeremy; Moore, Clea J; Frieman, Matthew B

2010-12-01

121

A Reevaluation of the Common Factor Theory of Shared Variance Among Age, Sensory Function, and Cognitive Function in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common cause hypothesis of the relationship among age, sensory measures, and cognitive measures in very old adults was reevaluated. Both sensory function and processing speed were evaluated as mediators of the rela- tionship between age and cognitive function. Cognitive function was a latent variable that comprised 3 factors in- cluding memory, speed, and verbal ability. The sample was population

Kaarin J. Anstey; Mary A. Luszcz; Linnett Sanchez

2001-01-01

122

Discovering Common Ground: How Future Search Conferences Bring People Together To Achieve Breakthrough Innovation, Empowerment, Shared Vision, and Collaborative Action.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 35 papers about planning and holding future search conferences, as well as their benefits and likely future directions. The following papers are included: "Applied Common Sense" (Weisbord); "Inventing the Search Conference" (Weisbord); "Building Collaborative Communities" (Schindler-Rainman, Lippitt); "Parallel Paths to…

Weisbord, Marvin R.; And Others

123

Comprehensive Mapping of Common Immunodominant Epitopes in the Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus E2 Protein Recognized by Avian Antibody Responses  

PubMed Central

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne virus that can cause both human and equine encephalitis with high case fatality rates. EEEV can also be widespread among birds, including pheasants, ostriches, emu, turkeys, whooping cranes and chickens. The E2 protein of EEEV and other Alphaviruses is an important immunogenic protein that elicits antibodies of diagnostic value. While many therapeutic and diagnostic applications of E2 protein-specific antibodies have been reported, the specific epitopes on E2 protein recognized by the antibody responses of different susceptible hosts, including avian species, remain poorly defined. In the present study, the avian E2-reactive polyclonal antibody (PAb) response was mapped to linear peptide epitopes using PAbs elicited in chickens and ducks following immunization with recombinant EEEV E2 protein and a series of 42 partially overlapping peptides covering the entire EEEV E2 protein. We identified 12 and 13 peptides recognized by the chicken and duck PAb response, respectively. Six of these linear peptides were commonly recognized by PAbs elicited in both avian species. Among them five epitopes recognized by both avian, the epitopes located at amino acids 211–226 and 331–352 were conserved among the EEEV antigenic complex, but not other associated alphaviruses, whereas the epitopes at amino acids 11–26, 30–45 and 151–166 were specific to EEEV subtype I. The five common peptide epitopes were not recognized by avian PAbs against Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) and Duck Plague Virus (DPV). The identification and characterization of EEEV E2 antibody epitopes may be aid the development of diagnostic tools and facilitate the design of epitope-based vaccines for EEEV. These results also offer information with which to study the structure of EEEV E2 protein. PMID:23922704

Sun, EnCheng; Zhao, Jing; Sun, Liang; Xu, QingYuan; Yang, Tao; Qin, YongLi; Wang, WenShi; Wei, Peng; Sun, Jing; Wu, DongLai

2013-01-01

124

A Recombinant of Bean common mosaic virus Induces Temperature-Insensitive Necrosis in an I Gene-Bearing Line of Common Bean.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The I gene is a single, dominant gene conferring temperature-sensitive resistance to all known strains of Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). However, the closely related Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) induces whole plant necrosis in I-bearing genotypes of common bean, and the presence of additional, recessive genes is required to prevent this severe whole plant necrotic reaction caused by BCMNV. Almost all known BCMNV isolates have so far been classified as having pathotype VI based on their interactions with the five BCMV resistance genes, and all have a distinct serotype A. Here, we describe a new isolate of BCMV, RU1M, capable of inducing whole plant necrosis in the presence of the I gene, that appears to belong to pathotype VII and exhibits B-serotype. Unlike other isolates of BCMV, RU1M was able to induce severe whole plant necrosis below 30°C in bean cultivar Jubila that carries the I gene and a protective recessive gene bc-1. The whole genome of RU1M was cloned and sequenced and determined to be 9,953 nucleotides long excluding poly(A), coding for a single polyprotein of 3,186 amino acids. Most of the genome was found almost identical (>98%) to the BCMV isolate RU1-OR (also pathotype VII) that did not induce necrotic symptoms in 'Jubila'. Inspection of the nucleotide sequences for BCMV isolates RU1-OR, RU1M, and US10 (all pathotype VII) and three closely related sequences of BCMV isolates RU1P, RU1D, and RU1W (all pathotype VI) revealed that RU1M is a product of recombination between RU1-OR and a yet unknown potyvirus. A 0.8-kb fragment of an unknown origin in the RU1M genome may have led to its ability to induce necrosis regardless of temperature in beans carrying the I gene. This is the first report of a BCMV isolate inducing temperature-insensitive necrosis in an I gene containing bean genotype. PMID:24875385

Feng, Xue; Poplawsky, Alan R; Karasev, Alexander V

2014-11-01

125

The shared CTLA4-ICOS risk locus in celiac disease, IgA deficiency and common variable immunodeficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

IgA deficiency (IgAD) and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) often co-occur in families, associating with chronic inflammatory diseases such as celiac disease (CD). ICOS (inducible co-stimulator) and CTLA4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein-4) may be important in both disorders, as ICOS is necessary for Ig class-switching and CTLA4 negatively regulates T-cell activation. Linkage and association of CD with CTLA4-ICOS is well documented, we

K Haimila; E Einarsdottir; A de Kauwe; L L E Koskinen; Q Pan-Hammarström; T Kaartinen; K Kurppa; F Ziberna; S Vatta; A Ventura; I R Korponay-Szabo; R Ádány; Z Pocsai; G Széles; E Dukes; K Kaukinen; M Mäki; S Koskinen; J Partanen; L Hammarström; P Saavalainen

2009-01-01

126

Enhanced HIV-1 immunotherapy by commonly arising antibodies that target virus escape variants.  

PubMed

Antibody-mediated immunotherapy is effective in humanized mice when combinations of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) are used that target nonoverlapping sites on the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope. In contrast, single bNAbs can control simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) infection in immune-competent macaques, suggesting that the host immune response might also contribute to the control of viremia. Here, we investigate how the autologous antibody response in intact hosts can contribute to the success of immunotherapy. We find that frequently arising antibodies that normally fail to control HIV-1 infection can synergize with passively administered bNAbs by preventing the emergence of bNAb viral escape variants. PMID:25385756

Klein, Florian; Nogueira, Lilian; Nishimura, Yoshiaki; Phad, Ganesh; West, Anthony P; Halper-Stromberg, Ariel; Horwitz, Joshua A; Gazumyan, Anna; Liu, Cassie; Eisenreich, Thomas R; Lehmann, Clara; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Williams, Constance; Shingai, Masashi; Martin, Malcolm A; Bjorkman, Pamela J; Seaman, Michael S; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Karlsson Hedestam, Gunilla B; Nussenzweig, Michel C

2014-11-17

127

Constraints on viral evolution during chronic hepatitis C virus infection arising from a common-source exposure.  

PubMed

Extraordinary viral sequence diversity and rapid viral genetic evolution are hallmarks of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Viral sequence evolution has previously been shown to mediate escape from cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) and neutralizing antibody responses in acute HCV infection. HCV evolution continues during chronic infection, but the pressures driving these changes are poorly defined. We analyzed plasma virus sequence evolution in 5.2-kb hemigenomes from multiple longitudinal time points isolated from individuals in the Irish anti-D cohort, who were infected with HCV from a common source in 1977 to 1978. We found phylogenetically distinct quasispecies populations at different plasma time points isolated late in chronic infection, suggesting ongoing viral evolution and quasispecies replacement over time. We saw evidence of early pressure driving net evolution away from a computationally reconstructed common ancestor, known as Bole1b, in predicted CTL epitopes and E1E2, with balanced evolution toward and away from the Bole1b amino acid sequence in the remainder of the genome. Late in chronic infection, the rate of evolution toward the Bole1b sequence increased, resulting in net neutral evolution relative to Bole1b across the entire 5.2-kb hemigenome. Surprisingly, even late in chronic infection, net amino acid evolution away from the infecting inoculum sequence still could be observed. These data suggest that, late in chronic infection, ongoing HCV evolution is not random genetic drift but rather the product of strong pressure toward a common ancestor and concurrent net ongoing evolution away from the inoculum virus sequence, likely balancing replicative fitness and ongoing immune escape. PMID:22973048

Bailey, Justin R; Laskey, Sarah; Wasilewski, Lisa N; Munshaw, Supriya; Fanning, Liam J; Kenny-Walsh, Elizabeth; Ray, Stuart C

2012-12-01

128

Constraints on Viral Evolution during Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection Arising from a Common-Source Exposure  

PubMed Central

Extraordinary viral sequence diversity and rapid viral genetic evolution are hallmarks of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Viral sequence evolution has previously been shown to mediate escape from cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) and neutralizing antibody responses in acute HCV infection. HCV evolution continues during chronic infection, but the pressures driving these changes are poorly defined. We analyzed plasma virus sequence evolution in 5.2-kb hemigenomes from multiple longitudinal time points isolated from individuals in the Irish anti-D cohort, who were infected with HCV from a common source in 1977 to 1978. We found phylogenetically distinct quasispecies populations at different plasma time points isolated late in chronic infection, suggesting ongoing viral evolution and quasispecies replacement over time. We saw evidence of early pressure driving net evolution away from a computationally reconstructed common ancestor, known as Bole1b, in predicted CTL epitopes and E1E2, with balanced evolution toward and away from the Bole1b amino acid sequence in the remainder of the genome. Late in chronic infection, the rate of evolution toward the Bole1b sequence increased, resulting in net neutral evolution relative to Bole1b across the entire 5.2-kb hemigenome. Surprisingly, even late in chronic infection, net amino acid evolution away from the infecting inoculum sequence still could be observed. These data suggest that, late in chronic infection, ongoing HCV evolution is not random genetic drift but rather the product of strong pressure toward a common ancestor and concurrent net ongoing evolution away from the inoculum virus sequence, likely balancing replicative fitness and ongoing immune escape. PMID:22973048

Bailey, Justin R.; Laskey, Sarah; Wasilewski, Lisa N.; Munshaw, Supriya; Fanning, Liam J.; Kenny-Walsh, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

129

Identification and simulation of shifted periodicities common to protein coding genes of eukaryotes, prokaryotes and viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of nucleotides in protein coding genes is studied with autocorrelation functions. The autocorrelation functionYRY (N)iYRY,analysing the occurrence probability of thei-motifYRY(N)iYRY(two motifsYRYseparated by anyibasesN, R= purine = Adenine or Guanine,Y= pyrimidine = Cytosine or Thymine,N = RorY) in the protein coding genes of eukaryotes, prokaryotes and viruses, reveals the classical periodicity 0 modulo 3 associated with the normal frame

Didier G. Arquès; Jean-Christophe Lapayre; Christian J. Michel

1995-01-01

130

Inter and intralineage recombinants are common in natural populations of Turnip mosaic virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recombination map of the genome of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) was assembled using data from 19 complete genomic sequences, previously reported, and a composite sample of three regions of the genome, one-third in total, of a representative Asia-wide collection of 70 isolates. Thus, a total of 89 isolates of worldwide origin was analysed for recombinants. Eighteen recombination sites were

Zhongyang Tan; Yasuhiko Wada; Jishuang Chen; Kazusato Ohshima

2004-01-01

131

Symbionts commonly provide broad spectrum resistance to viruses in insects: a comparative analysis of Wolbachia strains.  

PubMed

In the last decade, bacterial symbionts have been shown to play an important role in protecting hosts against pathogens. Wolbachia, a widespread symbiont in arthropods, can protect Drosophila and mosquito species against viral infections. We have investigated antiviral protection in 19 Wolbachia strains originating from 16 Drosophila species after transfer into the same genotype of Drosophila simulans. We found that approximately half of the strains protected against two RNA viruses. Given that 40% of terrestrial arthropod species are estimated to harbour Wolbachia, as many as a fifth of all arthropods species may benefit from Wolbachia-mediated protection. The level of protection against two distantly related RNA viruses--DCV and FHV--was strongly genetically correlated, which suggests that there is a single mechanism of protection with broad specificity. Furthermore, Wolbachia is making flies resistant to viruses, as increases in survival can be largely explained by reductions in viral titer. Variation in the level of antiviral protection provided by different Wolbachia strains is strongly genetically correlated to the density of the bacteria strains in host tissues. We found no support for two previously proposed mechanisms of Wolbachia-mediated protection--activation of the immune system and upregulation of the methyltransferase Dnmt2. The large variation in Wolbachia's antiviral properties highlights the need to carefully select Wolbachia strains introduced into mosquito populations to prevent the transmission of arboviruses. PMID:25233341

Martinez, Julien; Longdon, Ben; Bauer, Simone; Chan, Yuk-Sang; Miller, Wolfgang J; Bourtzis, Kostas; Teixeira, Luis; Jiggins, Francis M

2014-09-01

132

Symbionts Commonly Provide Broad Spectrum Resistance to Viruses in Insects: A Comparative Analysis of Wolbachia Strains  

PubMed Central

In the last decade, bacterial symbionts have been shown to play an important role in protecting hosts against pathogens. Wolbachia, a widespread symbiont in arthropods, can protect Drosophila and mosquito species against viral infections. We have investigated antiviral protection in 19 Wolbachia strains originating from 16 Drosophila species after transfer into the same genotype of Drosophila simulans. We found that approximately half of the strains protected against two RNA viruses. Given that 40% of terrestrial arthropod species are estimated to harbour Wolbachia, as many as a fifth of all arthropods species may benefit from Wolbachia-mediated protection. The level of protection against two distantly related RNA viruses – DCV and FHV – was strongly genetically correlated, which suggests that there is a single mechanism of protection with broad specificity. Furthermore, Wolbachia is making flies resistant to viruses, as increases in survival can be largely explained by reductions in viral titer. Variation in the level of antiviral protection provided by different Wolbachia strains is strongly genetically correlated to the density of the bacteria strains in host tissues. We found no support for two previously proposed mechanisms of Wolbachia-mediated protection — activation of the immune system and upregulation of the methyltransferase Dnmt2. The large variation in Wolbachia's antiviral properties highlights the need to carefully select Wolbachia strains introduced into mosquito populations to prevent the transmission of arboviruses. PMID:25233341

Martinez, Julien; Longdon, Ben; Bauer, Simone; Chan, Yuk-Sang; Miller, Wolfgang J.; Bourtzis, Kostas; Teixeira, Luis; Jiggins, Francis M.

2014-01-01

133

Common Cold Self Care The "common cold" is inflammation of the upper respiratory tract caused a variety of different viruses. Antibiotics do not  

E-print Network

a variety of different viruses. Antibiotics do not cure viral infections and, in fact, may be harmful for 3 to 4 weeks. Cold viruses are spread from person to person through coughs, sneezes, and mucus-the-counter medications may help you feel better while your body's own defenses are combating the virus. If you have fever

134

Epstein-Barr Virus Infection is Common in Inflamed Gastrointestinal Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is present in the malignant epithelial cells of 10% of all gastric adenocarcinomas, however localization of the virus in normal gastrointestinal mucosa is largely unexplored. In the current study, we measured EBV DNA and localized viral gene products in gastritis specimens (n=89), normal gastric and colonic mucosa (n=14), Crohn’s disease (n=9), and ulcerative colitis (n=11) tissues. Methods A battery of sensitive and specific quantitative polymerase chain reactions targeted six disparate regions of the EBV genome: BamH1W, EBNA1, LMP1, LMP2, BZLF1, and EBER1. EBV infection was localized by EBV-encoded RNA (EBER) in situ hybridization and by immunohistochemical stains for viral latent proteins LMP1 and LMP2 and for viral lytic proteins BMRF1 and BZLF1. B lymphocytes were identified using CD20 immunostains. Results EBV DNA was essentially undetectable in normal gastric mucosa but was present in 46% of gastritis lesions, 44% of normal colonic mucosa, 55% of Crohn’s disease, and 64% of ulcerative colitis samples. Levels of EBV DNA exceeded what would be expected based on the numbers of B lymphocytes in inflamed tissues, suggesting that EBV is preferentially localized to inflammatory gastrointestinal lesions. Histochemical staining revealed EBER expression in lymphoid cells of some PCR-positive lesions. The viral lytic viral proteins, BMRF1 and BZLF1, were expressed in lymphoid cells of two ulcerative colitis tissues, both of which had relatively high viral loads by quantitative PCR. Conclusion EBV-infected lymphocytes are frequently present in inflamed gastric and colonic mucosa. Active viral replication in some lesions raises the possibility of virus-related perpetuation of gastrointestinal inflammation. PMID:22410851

Ryan, Julie L.; Shen, You-Jun; Morgan, Douglas R.; Thorne, Leigh B.; Kenney, Shannon C.; Dominguez, Ricardo L.; Gulley, Margaret L.

2012-01-01

135

Genetics of resistance to the geminivirus, Bean dwarf mosaic virus, and the role of the hypersensitive response in common bean.  

PubMed

Bean dwarf mosaic virus (BDMV) is a single-stranded DNA virus (genus: Begomovirus, family: Geminiviridae) that infects common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and causes stunted plant growth, and mosaic and mottle symptoms in leaves. BDMV shows differential pathogenicity in common bean, infecting germplasm of the Andean gene pool (e.g., the snap bean cultivar Topcrop), but not that of the Middle American gene pool (e.g., the pinto bean cultivar Othello). Resistance to BDMV in Othello is associated with development of a hypersensitive response (HR) in vascular (phloem) tissues. In this study, Middle American germplasm representing the four recognized races (i.e., Durango, Guatemala, Jalisco, and Mesoamerica) and the parents of Othello were inoculated with BDMV and a BDMV-green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter. All genotypes showed partial or complete resistance to BDMV and BDMV-GFP, indicating the widespread distribution of resistance in the Middle American gene pool. A number of BDMV-resistant germplasm did not show the HR, indicating it is not correlated with resistance. In the F(1), F(2), and F(3) of reciprocal crosses between Othello and Topcrop, a single dominant allele, Bdm, conferred BDMV resistance. PMID:14625673

Seo, Y-S; Gepts, P; Gilbertson, R L

2004-03-01

136

Aerosolized Rift Valley Fever Virus Causes Fatal Encephalitis in African Green Monkeys and Common Marmosets  

PubMed Central

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a veterinary and human disease in Africa and the Middle East. The causative agent, RVF virus (RVFV), can be naturally transmitted by mosquito, direct contact, or aerosol. We sought to develop a nonhuman primate (NHP) model of severe RVF in humans to better understand the pathogenesis of RVF and to use for evaluation of medical countermeasures. NHP from four different species were exposed to aerosols containing RVFV. Both cynomolgus and rhesus macaques developed mild fevers after inhalation of RVFV, but no other clinical signs were noted and no macaque succumbed to RVFV infection. In contrast, both marmosets and African green monkeys (AGM) proved susceptible to aerosolized RVF virus. Fever onset was earlier with the marmosets and had a biphasic pattern similar to what has been reported in humans. Beginning around day 8 to day 10 postexposure, clinical signs consistent with encephalitis were noted in both AGM and marmosets; animals of both species succumbed between days 9 and 11 postexposure. Marmosets were susceptible to lower doses of RVFV than AGM. Histological examination confirmed viral meningoencephalitis in both species. Hematological analyses indicated a drop in platelet counts in both AGM and marmosets suggestive of thrombosis, as well as leukocytosis that consisted mostly of granulocytes. Both AGM and marmosets would serve as useful models of aerosol infection with RVFV. PMID:24335307

Hartman, Amy L.; Powell, Diana S.; Bethel, Laura M.; Caroline, Amy L.; Schmid, Richard J.; Oury, Tim

2013-01-01

137

Murine leukemia virus envelope gp70 is a shared biomarker for the high-sensitivity quantification of murine tumor burden  

PubMed Central

The preclinical development of anticancer drugs including immunotherapeutics and targeted agents relies on the ability to detect minimal residual tumor burden as a measure of therapeutic efficacy. Real-time quantitative (qPCR) represents an exquisitely sensitive method to perform such an assessment. However, qPCR-based applications are limited by the availability of a genetic defect associated with each tumor model under investigation. Here, we describe an off-the-shelf qPCR-based approach to detect a broad array of commonly used preclinical murine tumor models. In particular, we report that the mRNA coding for the envelope glycoprotein 70 (gp70) encoded by the endogenous murine leukemia virus (MuLV) is universally expressed in 22 murine cancer cell lines of disparate histological origin but is silent in 20 out of 22 normal mouse tissues. Further, we detected the presence of as few as 100 tumor cells in whole lung extracts using qPCR specific for gp70, supporting the notion that this detection approach has a higher sensitivity as compared with traditional tissue histology methods. Although gp70 is expressed in a wide variety of tumor cell lines, it was absent in inflamed tissues, non-transformed cell lines, or pre-cancerous lesions. Having a high-sensitivity biomarker for the detection of a wide range of murine tumor cells that does not require additional genetic manipulations or the knowledge of specific genetic alterations present in a given neoplasm represents a unique experimental tool for investigating metastasis, assessing antitumor therapeutic interventions, and further determining tumor recurrence or minimal residual disease. PMID:24482753

Scrimieri, Francesca; Askew, David; Corn, David J; Eid, Saada; Bobanga, Iuliana D; Bjelac, Jaclyn A; Tsao, Matthew L; Allen, Frederick; Othman, Youmna S; Wang, Shih-Chung G; Huang, Alex Y

2013-01-01

138

Crystal Structures of the Staphylococcal Toxin SSL5 in Complex With Sialyl-Lewis X Reveal a Conserved Binding Site That Shares Common Features With Viral And Bacterial Sialic Acid-Binding Proteins  

SciTech Connect

Staphylococcus aureus is a significant human pathogen. Among its large repertoire of secreted toxins is a group of staphylococcal superantigen-like proteins (SSLs). These are homologous to superantigens but do not have the same activity. SSL5 is shown here to bind to human granulocytes and to the cell surface receptors for human IgA (Fc alphaRI) and P-selectin [P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1)] in a sialic acid (Sia)-dependent manner. Co-crystallization of SSL5 with the tetrasaccharide sialyl Lewis X (sLe(X)), a key determinant of PSGL-1 binding to P-selectin, led to crystal structures of the SSL5-sLe(X) complex at resolutions of 1.65 and 2.75 A for crystals at two pH values. In both structures, sLe(X) bound to a specific site on the surface of the C-terminal domain of SSL5 in a conformation identical with that bound by P-selectin. Conservation of the key carbohydrate binding residues indicates that this ability to bind human glycans is shared by a substantial subgroup of the SSLs, including SSL2, SSL3, SSL4, SSL5, SSL6, and SSL11. This indicates that the ability to target human glycans is an important property of this group of toxins. Structural comparisons also showed that the Sia binding site in SSL5 contains a substructure that is shared by other Sia binding proteins from bacteria as well as viruses and represents a common binding motif.

Baker, H.M.; Basu, I.; Chung, M.C.; Caradoc-Davies, T.; Fraser, J.D.; Baker, E.N.

2009-06-02

139

Viruses in subgroup 2 of the genus Ilarvirus share both serological relationships and characteristics at the molecular level.  

PubMed

Sequence data have been determined for 5 members of subgroup 2 of the genus Ilarvirus. These data support the known serological relationships among accepted members of this group and indicate that the ilarvirus Hydrangea mosaic virus (HdMV) is an isolate of Elm mottle virus (EMoV). The close relationships between members of this subgroup, exhibited through the coat proteins coded on RNA 3, extend to the other genomic molecules. Primers designed from the sequences of RNA 1 and RNA 2 of EMoV amplified fragments from all other subgroup 2 viruses but not from other ilarviruses. Although closely related, members of this subgroup occur naturally in distinctly different host species. The possible origins of the viruses are discussed in relation to similarities among the genomic molecules, in particular RNA 3. PMID:14551826

Scott, S W; Zimmerman, M T; Ge, X

2003-10-01

140

Distinct Intracellular Trafficking of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Gag during Viral Assembly and Budding Revealed by Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation Assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retroviral Gag polyproteins are necessary and sufficient for virus budding. Numerous studies of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag assembly and budding mechanisms have been reported, but relatively little is known about these fundamental pathways among animal lentiviruses. While there may be a general assumption that lentiviruses share common assembly mechanisms, studies of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) have

Jing Jin; Timothy Sturgeon; Chaoping Chen; Simon C. Watkins; Ora A. Weisz; Ronald C. Montelaro

2007-01-01

141

The Potential Distance of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Dispersal by Mallard, Common Teal and Eurasian  

E-print Network

investigated the potential spreading distance of HP AIV by common teal (Anas crecca), mallard (A. platyrhynchos, approximately 1­5% of migratory mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and other dabbling ducks are infected with LP AIV Don~ana-CSIC, C/ Ame´rico Vespucio s/n, 41092 Sevilla, Spain Abstract: Waterbirds represent the major

Green, Andy J.

142

Common Wart  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Common Wart A parent's guide to condition and treatment information A A A This image displays a large wart on ... over 100 types of the human papillomavirus (HPV). Common warts are usually found on areas of the ...

143

Identification of new isolates of Turnip mosaic virus that cluster with less common viral strains.  

PubMed

Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) was found infecting cultivated brassicas and wild and cultivated ornamental Brassicaceae plants in different regions of Spain. Five new TuMV isolates, originating from different host plant species (Brassica cretica, Brassica juncea, Brassica napus, Eruca vesicaria subsp. sativa and Sisymbrium orientale), have been identified. The nucleotide sequences of the coat protein (CP) genes of the five isolates were determined. Phylogenetic analysis of the CP sequences showed that the five isolates grouped into two different clusters. The three isolates from the central region of Spain clustered with a previously reported Pisum sativum isolate from southeastern Spain, whereas the other two isolates from the eastern region clustered with two Italian and two Greek isolates. Both clusters were genetically distinct and belonged to the multi-lineage group OBR. The OBR group contains mainly TuMV isolates from hosts other than Brassica spp. and Raphanus sativus and mostly originating from Mediterranean countries. These new sequences provide further phylogenetic resolution of the OBR group. Although new TuMV isolates have been found in Spain, they were not associated with any serious disease outbreaks. PMID:17347771

Sánchez, F; Rodríguez-Mateos, M; Touriño, A; Fresno, J; Gómez-Campo, C; Jenner, C E; Walsh, J A; Ponz, F

2007-01-01

144

Achieving visibility? Use of non-verbal communication in interactions between patients and pharmacists who do not share a common language.  

PubMed

Despite the seemingly insatiable interest in healthcare professional-patient communication, less attention has been paid to the use of non-verbal communication in medical consultations. This article considers pharmacists' and patients' use of non-verbal communication to interact directly in consultations in which they do not share a common language. In total, 12 video-recorded, interpreted pharmacy consultations concerned with a newly prescribed medication or a change in medication were analysed in detail. The analysis focused on instances of direct communication initiated by either the patient or the pharmacist, despite the presence of a multilingual pharmacy assistant acting as an interpreter. Direct communication was shown to occur through (i) the demonstration of a medical device, (ii) the indication of relevant body parts and (iii) the use of limited English. These connections worked to make patients and pharmacists visible to each other and thus to maintain a sense of mutual involvement in consultations within which patients and pharmacists could enact professionally and socially appropriate roles. In a multicultural society this work is important in understanding the dynamics involved in consultations in situations in which language is not shared and thus in considering the development of future research and policy. PMID:24641161

Stevenson, Fiona

2014-06-01

145

Common Vision--Shared Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been only a few years since the state of Montana adopted revised standards for Information Literacy/Library Media. In the years since their adoption, the district's curriculum review team, made up of K-12 school librarians, defined the local curriculum directly from these standards. As Montana's school librarians reflect on their…

Olszewski, Chris M.

2014-01-01

146

Shared lives, shared energy  

SciTech Connect

A social experiment in Denmark is described in which 25 families combine private ownership (each family owns its own home) and collectivism (each family owns 1/25 of the grounds, large common house and other facilities). The superinsulated individual homes are small (< 1000 ft/sup 2/) but the common house (7800 ft/sup 2/) provides dining and meeting facilities for all 25 families as well as a central heating plant. Heat may be supplied from solar, wind and/or oil-fired boiler. Adequate hot water storage is provided using solar collectors and a 55 kW Vesta wind generator (surplus power is sold). All south facing roof surfaces are fitted with solar collectors (4455 ft/sup 2/ total). A total of 70% of the energy used is produced on site (solar and wind). The manner of living and sharing (child care, automobiles, cooking, etc.) is described as well as typical floor plans for the units. Other collective housing in Denmark is described and it is postulated that overdrevet may serve as a model. (MJJ)

Madsen, P.; Goss, K.

1982-07-01

147

Vaccinia Virus Proteins A52 and B14 Share a Bcl-2-Like Fold but Have Evolved to Inhibit NF-?B rather than Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Vaccinia virus (VACV), the prototype poxvirus, encodes numerous proteins that modulate the host response to infection. Two such proteins, B14 and A52, act inside infected cells to inhibit activation of NF-?B, thereby blocking the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We have solved the crystal structures of A52 and B14 at 1.9 Å and 2.7 Å resolution, respectively. Strikingly, both these proteins adopt a Bcl-2–like fold despite sharing no significant sequence similarity with other viral or cellular Bcl-2–like proteins. Unlike cellular and viral Bcl-2–like proteins described previously, A52 and B14 lack a surface groove for binding BH3 peptides from pro-apoptotic Bcl-2–like proteins and they do not modulate apoptosis. Structure-based phylogenetic analysis of 32 cellular and viral Bcl-2–like protein structures reveals that A52 and B14 are more closely related to each other and to VACV N1 and myxoma virus M11 than they are to other viral or cellular Bcl-2–like proteins. This suggests that a progenitor poxvirus acquired a gene encoding a Bcl-2–like protein and, over the course of evolution, gene duplication events have allowed the virus to exploit this Bcl-2 scaffold for interfering with distinct host signalling pathways. PMID:18704168

Chen, Ron A.-J.; Whalen, Daniel M.; Abrescia, Nicola G. A.; Alderton, David; Owens, Raymond J.; Stuart, David I.; Smith, Geoffrey L.; Grimes, Jonathan M.

2008-01-01

148

CRISPRs of Enterococcus faecalis and E. hirae isolates from pig feces have species-specific repeats but share some common spacer sequences.  

PubMed

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) are currently a topic of interest in microbiology due to their role as a prokaryotic immune system. Investigations of CRISPR distribution and characterization to date have focused on pathogenic bacteria, while less is known about CRISPR in commensal bacteria, where they may have a significant role in the ecology of the microbiota of humans and other animals, and act as a recorder of interactions between bacteria and viruses. A combination of PCR and sequencing was used to determine prevalence and distribution of CRISPR arrays in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus hirae isolates from the feces of healthy pigs. Both type II CRISPR-Cas and Orphan CRISPR (without Cas genes) were detected in the 195 isolates examined. CRISPR-Cas was detected in 52 (46/88) and 42 % (45/107) E. faecalis and E. hirae isolates, respectively. The prevalence of Orphan CRISPR arrays was higher in E. faecalis isolates (95 %, 84/88) compared with E. hirae isolates (49 %, 53/107). Species-specific repeat sequences were identified in Orphan CRISPR arrays, and 42 unique spacer sequences were identified. Only two spacers matched previously characterized pig virome sequences, and many were apparently derived from chromosomal sequences of enterococci. Surprisingly, 17 (40 %) of the spacers were detected in both species. Shared spacer sequences are evidence of a lack of species specificity in the agents and mechanisms responsible for integration of spacers, and the abundance of spacer sequences corresponding to bacterial chromosomal sequences reflects interspecific interactions within the intestinal microbiota. PMID:23535981

Katyal, Isha; Chaban, Bonnie; Ng, Beata; Hill, Janet E

2013-07-01

149

Regional Clustering of Shared Neutralization Determinants on Primary Isolates of Clade C Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 from South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clade C is one of the most prevalent genetic subtypes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in the world today and one of the least studied with respect to neutralizing antibodies. Most information on HIV-1 serology as it relates to neutralization is derived from clade B. Clade C primary isolates of HIV-1 from South Africa and Malawi were shown

Renata Bures; Lynn Morris; Carolyn Williamson; Gita Ramjee; Mark Deers; Susan A. Fiscus; Salim Abdool-Karim; David C. Montefiori

2002-01-01

150

Stability of porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus in the presence of fomites commonly found on farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survival of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was determined in or on 16 fomites (3 solid, 6 porous, and 7 liquid). Samples for virus isolation were obtained on day-0 through day 11, assayed in cell cultures, and stained with fluorescent antibody conjugate. The virus was recovered only on day-0 samples of alfalfa, wood shavings, straw, plastic, boot

Eugene C. Pirtle; George W. Beran

151

The Academic Common Market is an interstate agreement among southern states for sharing academic uncommon programs. Participating states are able to make arrangements for their residents who qualify for admission to enroll in specific programs in other st  

E-print Network

of Philosophy Sport Physiology and Performance Delaware Bachelor of Science in Dental Hygiene - (on-site and onThe Academic Common Market is an interstate agreement among southern states for sharing academic as an Academic Common Market student, you must: (1) be accepted for admission into a program to which your state

Karsai, Istvan

152

A viral resistance gene from common bean functions across plant families and is up-regulated in a non-virus-specific manner  

PubMed Central

Genes involved in a viral resistance response in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Othello) were identified by inoculating a geminivirus reporter (Bean dwarf mosaic virus expressing the green fluorescent protein), extracting RNA from tissue undergoing the defense response, and amplifying sequences with degenerate R gene primers. One such gene (a TIR-NBS-LRR gene, RT4-4) was selected for functional analysis in which transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana were generated and screened for resistance to a range of viruses. This analysis revealed that RT4-4 did not confer resistance to the reporter geminivirus; however, it did activate a resistance-related response (systemic necrosis) to seven strains of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) from pepper or tomato, but not to a CMV strain from common bean. Of these eight CMV strains, only the strain from common bean systemically infected common bean cv. Othello. Additional evidence that RT4-4 is a CMV R gene came from the detection of resistance response markers in CMV-challenged leaves of RT4-4 transgenic plants, and the identification of the CMV 2a gene product as the elicitor of the necrosis response. These findings indicate that RT4-4 functions across two plant families and is up-regulated in a non-virus-specific manner. This experimental approach holds promise for providing insights into the mechanisms by which plants activate resistance responses against pathogens. PMID:16880399

Seo, Young-Su; Rojas, Maria R.; Lee, Jung-Youn; Lee, Sang-Won; Jeon, Jong-Seong; Ronald, Pamela; Lucas, William J.; Gilbertson, Robert L.

2006-01-01

153

A viral resistance gene from common bean functions across plant families and is up-regulated in a non-virus-specific manner.  

PubMed

Genes involved in a viral resistance response in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Othello) were identified by inoculating a geminivirus reporter (Bean dwarf mosaic virus expressing the green fluorescent protein), extracting RNA from tissue undergoing the defense response, and amplifying sequences with degenerate R gene primers. One such gene (a TIR-NBS-LRR gene, RT4-4) was selected for functional analysis in which transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana were generated and screened for resistance to a range of viruses. This analysis revealed that RT4-4 did not confer resistance to the reporter geminivirus; however, it did activate a resistance-related response (systemic necrosis) to seven strains of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) from pepper or tomato, but not to a CMV strain from common bean. Of these eight CMV strains, only the strain from common bean systemically infected common bean cv. Othello. Additional evidence that RT4-4 is a CMV R gene came from the detection of resistance response markers in CMV-challenged leaves of RT4-4 transgenic plants, and the identification of the CMV 2a gene product as the elicitor of the necrosis response. These findings indicate that RT4-4 functions across two plant families and is up-regulated in a non-virus-specific manner. This experimental approach holds promise for providing insights into the mechanisms by which plants activate resistance responses against pathogens. PMID:16880399

Seo, Young-Su; Rojas, Maria R; Lee, Jung-Youn; Lee, Sang-Won; Jeon, Jong-Seong; Ronald, Pamela; Lucas, William J; Gilbertson, Robert L

2006-08-01

154

Multiple cytokines sharing the common receptor ? chain can induce CD154/CD40 ligand expression by human CD4+ T lymphocytes via a cyclosporin A-resistant pathway  

PubMed Central

Expression of CD154/CD40 ligand (CD154/CD40L), an important molecular component of CD4+ T-cell help, can be triggered by T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation. Dephosphorylation of the transcriptional element Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells-1 (NFAT1) is a critical activation step in the TCR-initiated signal transduction cascade which promotes CD154/CD40L expression. Cyclosporin A (CsA), which interferes with NFAT1 activation, has been shown to be an effective inhibitor of TCR-triggered CD154/CD40L expression by resting T cells. We now report that recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) is also capable of inducing CD154/CD40L on CD4+ T lymphoblasts via a pathway triggered independently of the CD3/TCR receptor complex. Recombinant IL-2-mediated CD154/CD40L expression, in contrast to that triggered by CD3/TCR stimulation, is only partially inhibited by CsA. The capacity of rIL-2 to induce CD154/CD40L expression by T lymphoblasts also extends to a restricted number of cytokines sharing the cytokine receptor common ? chain, including IL-15, and, to a lesser extent, IL-7, but not IL-4. A similar CsA-resistant CD154/CD40L induction pathway can be triggered in primary T cells by the combination of anti-CD3 stimulation and recombinant lymphokines. In contrast to T lymphoblasts, the CsA-resistant CD154/CD40L induction in primary lymphocytes can be efficiently triggered by multiple cytokines which bind the common ? chain receptor family. The data outline a novel pathway of CD154/CD40L induction which is, at least in part, independent of NFAT1 and resistant to CsA. A more complete understanding of the mechanisms governing CD154/CD40L expression may facilitate the rational design of specifically targeted immunotherapeutic agents. PMID:11722644

Fayen, John D

2001-01-01

155

A method to manage and share anti-retroviral (ARV) therapy information of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients in Vietnam.  

PubMed

Management of antiretroviral (ARV) drug and HIV patients data is an important component of Vietnam Administration of HIV/AIDS Control (VAAC) Department and hospitals/health care units when people often travel in other places of Vietnam; therefore, it would lead to a number of medical errors in treatment as well as patients do not adhere to ARV therapy. In this paper, we describe a system that manages and shares antiretroviral therapy information of 4438 HIV patients in three healthcare centers in Hanoi capital of Vietnam. The overall design considerations, architecture and the integration of centralized database and decentralized management for the system are also presented. The findings from this study can serve as a guide to consider in the implementation model of health care to manage and share information of patients not only in HIV infection, but also in the other chronic and non-communicable diseases. PMID:23769644

Nguyen, Phung Anh; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Minamareddy, Priti; Lee, Peisan; Ngo, Thuy Dieu; Iqbal, Usman; Nguyen, Phuong Hoang; Jian, Wen-Shan; Li, Yu-Chuan Jack

2013-08-01

156

Two Zebrafish Alcohol Dehydrogenases Share Common Ancestry with Mammalian Class I, II, IV, and V Alcohol Dehydrogenase Genes but Have Distinct Functional Characteristics*  

PubMed Central

Ethanol is teratogenic to many vertebrates. We are utilizing zebrafish as a model system to determine whether there is an association between ethanol metabolism and ethanol-mediated developmental toxicity. Here we report the isolation and characterization of two cDNAs encoding zebrafish alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs). Phylogenetic analysis of these zebrafish ADHs indicates that they share a common ancestor with mammalian class I, II, IV, and V ADHs. The genes encoding these zebrafish ADHs have been named Adh8a and Adh8b by the nomenclature committee. Both genes were genetically mapped to chromosome 13. The 1450-bp Adh8a is 82, 73, 72, and 72% similar at the amino acid level to the Baltic cod ADH8 (previously named ADH1), the human ADH1B2, the mouse ADH1, and the rat ADH1, respectively. Also, the 1484-bp Adh8b is 77, 68, 67, and 66% similar at the amino acid level to the Baltic cod ADH8, the human ADH1B2, the mouse ADH1, and the rat ADH1, respectively. ADH8A and ADH8B share 86% amino acid similarity. To characterize the functional properties of ADH8A and ADH8B, recombinant proteins were purified from SF-9 insect cells. Kinetic studies demonstrate that ADH8A metabolizes ethanol, with a Vmax of 13.4 nmol/min/mg protein, whereas ADH8B does not metabolize ethanol. The ADH8A Km for ethanol as a substrate is 0.7 mM. 4-Methyl pyrazole, a classical competitive inhibitor of class I ADH, failed to inhibit ADH8A. ADH8B has the capacity to efficiently biotransform longer chain primary alcohols (?5 carbons) and S-hydroxymethlyglutathione, whereas ADH8A does not efficiently metabolize these substrates. Finally, mRNA expression studies indicate that both ADH8A and ADH8B mRNA are expressed during early development and in the adult brain, fin, gill, heart, kidney, muscle, and liver. Together these results indicate that class I-like ADH is conserved in zebrafish, albeit with mixed functional properties. PMID:15231826

Reimers, Mark J.; Hahn, Mark E.; Tanguay, Robert L.

2012-01-01

157

A Glimpse of the genomic diversity of haloarchaeal tailed viruses  

PubMed Central

Tailed viruses are the most common isolates infecting prokaryotic hosts residing in hypersaline environments. Archaeal tailed viruses represent only a small portion of all characterized tailed viruses of prokaryotes. But even this small dataset revealed that archaeal tailed viruses have many similarities to their counterparts infecting bacteria, the bacteriophages. Shared functional homologs and similar genome organizations suggested that all microbial tailed viruses have common virion architectural and assembly principles. Recent structural studies have provided evidence justifying this thereby grouping archaeal and bacterial tailed viruses into a single lineage. Currently there are 17 haloarchaeal tailed viruses with entirely sequenced genomes. Nine viruses have at least one close relative among the 17 viruses and, according to the similarities, can be divided into three groups. Two other viruses share some homologs and therefore are distantly related, whereas the rest of the viruses are rather divergent (or singletons). Comparative genomics analysis of these viruses offers a glimpse into the genetic diversity and structure of haloarchaeal tailed virus communities. PMID:24659986

Sencilo, Ana; Roine, Elina

2014-01-01

158

Virus-independent and common transcriptome responses of leafhopper vectors feeding on maize infected with semi-persistently and persistent propagatively transmitted viruses  

PubMed Central

Background Insects are the most important epidemiological factors for plant virus disease spread, with >75% of viruses being dependent on insects for transmission to new hosts. The black-faced leafhopper (Graminella nigrifrons Forbes) transmits two viruses that use different strategies for transmission: Maize chlorotic dwarf virus (MCDV) which is semi-persistently transmitted and Maize fine streak virus (MFSV) which is persistently and propagatively transmitted. To date, little is known regarding the molecular and cellular mechanisms in insects that regulate the process and efficiency of transmission, or how these mechanisms differ based on virus transmission strategy. Results RNA-Seq was used to examine transcript changes in leafhoppers after feeding on MCDV-infected, MFSV-infected and healthy maize for 4 h and 7 d. After sequencing cDNA libraries constructed from whole individuals using Illumina next generation sequencing, the Rnnotator pipeline in Galaxy was used to reassemble the G. nigrifrons transcriptome. Using differential expression analyses, we identified significant changes in transcript abundance in G. nigrifrons. In particular, transcripts implicated in the innate immune response and energy production were more highly expressed in insects fed on virus-infected maize. Leafhoppers fed on MFSV-infected maize also showed an induction of transcripts involved in hemocoel and cell-membrane linked immune responses within four hours of feeding. Patterns of transcript expression were validated for a subset of transcripts by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction using RNA samples collected from insects fed on healthy or virus-infected maize for between a 4 h and seven week period. Conclusions We expected, and found, changes in transcript expression in G. nigrifrons feeding of maize infected with a virus (MFSV) that also infects the leafhopper, including induction of immune responses in the hemocoel and at the cell membrane. The significant induction of the innate immune system in G. nigrifrons fed on a foregut-borne virus (MCDV) that does not infect leafhoppers was less expected. The changes in transcript accumulation that occur independent of the mode of pathogen transmission could be key for identifying insect factors that disrupt vector-mediated plant virus transmission. PMID:24524215

2014-01-01

159

ECHO virus  

MedlinePLUS

Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that lead to gastrointestinal infection and skin rashes. ... Echovirus is one of several families of viruses that affect the ... are common. In the US, they are most common in the summer and ...

160

Comparative study of inactivation of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 by commonly used antiseptic agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study of the different reactions of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 to Lysol, Listerine, bleach, rubbing alcohol, Alcide disinfectant (Alcide Corp., Westport, Conn.), and various pHs, temperatures, and UV light exposures was performed. Both types of stock virus (titers of approximately 10(6) and 10(5.5) for types 1 and 2, respectively) were inactivated by 0.5% Lysol in

W. S. Croughan; A. M. Behbehani

1988-01-01

161

Identification of radically different variants of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Eastern Europe: towards a common ancestor for European and American viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined 22 partial porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) ORF5 sequences, representing pathogenic field strains mainly from Poland and Lithuania, and two currently available European-type live PRRSV vaccines. Also, the complete ORF7 of two Lithuanian and two Polish strains was sequenced. We found that Polish, and in particular Lithuanian, PRRSV sequences were exceptionally different from the European prototype,

T. Stadejek; A. Stankevicius; T. Storgaard; M. B. Oleksiewicz; S. Bela; T. W. Drew; Z. Pejsak

162

Common Wart  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Common Wart Information for adults A A A This image displays an unusual "horseshoe-shaped" wart on chin. Overview Warts ... over 100 types of the human papillomavirus (HPV). Common warts are usually found on areas of the ...

163

The capsid protein p38 of turnip crinkle virus is associated with the suppression of cucumber mosaic virus in Arabidopsis thaliana co-infected with cucumber mosaic virus and turnip crinkle virus.  

PubMed

Infection of plants by multiple viruses is common in nature. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) belong to different families, but Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana are commonly shared hosts for both viruses. In this study, we found that TCV provides effective resistance to infection by CMV in Arabidopsis plants co-infected by both viruses, and this antagonistic effect is much weaker when the two viruses are inoculated into different leaves of the same plant. However, similar antagonism is not observed in N. benthamiana plants. We further demonstrate that disrupting the RNA silencing-mediated defense of the Arabidopsis host does not affect this antagonism, but capsid protein (CP or p38)-defective mutant TCV loses the ability to repress CMV, suggesting that TCV CP plays an important role in the antagonistic effect of TCV toward CMV in Arabidopsis plants co-infected with both viruses. PMID:25092463

Chen, Ying-Juan; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Jian; Deng, Xing-Guang; Zhang, Ping; Zhu, Tong; Chen, Li-Juan; Bao, Wei-Kai; Xi, De-Hui; Lin, Hong-Hui

2014-08-01

164

Universities Scotland, NUS Scotland and UCU Scotland share a common interest in working for a university sector which provides wide opportunity  

E-print Network

, and that learners are able to enter university at the point which best reflects their prior learning (for example in high-quality research. GOVERNANCE We share an interest in the autonomous, effective and transparent making process. This should be based not only on institutional autonomy but also individual academic

Halligan, Daniel

165

Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) as a Nonhuman Primate Model To Assess the Virulence of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) produces the most severe human arboviral disease in North America (NA) and is a potential biological weapon. However, genetically and antigenically distinct strains from South America (SA) have seldom been associated with human disease or mortality despite serological evidence of infection. Because mice and other small rodents do not respond differently to the NA versus

A. Paige Adams; Judith F. Aronson; Suzette D. Tardif; Jean L. Patterson; Kathleen M. Brasky; Robert Geiger; M. de la Garza; R. Carrion; S. C. Weaver

2008-01-01

166

Remotely Operated Aircraft (ROA) Impact on the National Airspace System (NAS) Work Package: Data Modeling and Sharing Perspective for Development of a Common Operating Picture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents analyses that were performed in support of Task #3 of Work Package #3 (WP3), ROA Impact on the NAS. The purpose of the overall work package was to determine if there are any serious issues that would prevent or prohibit ROA's flying in the NAS on a routine basis, and if so, what actions should be taken to address them. The purpose of Task #3 was to look at this problem from the perspective of data modeling and sharing.

2007-01-01

167

Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans  

MedlinePLUS

... What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Language: English Español Share ... Human Infection with Avian Influenza A Viruses Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Although avian influenza A viruses ...

168

About Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs)  

MedlinePLUS

... Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Share Compartir About Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Overview Describes HPIVs, who is at risk, symptoms, how the viruses spread... Symptoms & Illnesses Lists symptoms and illnesses caused ...

169

The Potential Distance of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Dispersal by Mallard, Common Teal and Eurasian Pochard  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waterbirds represent the major natural reservoir for low pathogenic (LP) avian influenza viruses (AIV). Among the wide diversity\\u000a of subtypes that have been described, two of them (H5 and H7) may become highly pathogenic (HP) after their introduction into\\u000a domestic bird populations and cause severe outbreaks, as is the case for HP H5N1 in South-Eastern Asia. Recent experimental\\u000a studies demonstrated

Anne-Laure Brochet; Matthieu Guillemain; Camille Lebarbenchon; Géraldine Simon; Hervé Fritz; Andy J. Green; François Renaud; Frédéric Thomas; Michel Gauthier-Clerc

2009-01-01

170

A common structural core in the internal ribosome entry sites of picornavirus, hepatitis C virus, and pestivirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cap-independent translations of viral RNAs of enteroviruses and rhinoviruses, cardioviruses and aphthoviruses, hepatitis A and C viruses (HAV and HCV), and pestivirus are initiated by the direct binding of 40S ribosomal subunits to acis-acting genetic element termed theinternal ribosome entry site (IRES) orribosome landing pad (RLP) in the 5' noncoding region (5'NCR). RNA higher ordered structure models for these IRES

Shu-Yun Le; Aleem Siddiqui; Jacob V. Maizel

1996-01-01

171

Comparative study of inactivation of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 by commonly used antiseptic agents.  

PubMed

A comparative study of the different reactions of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 to Lysol, Listerine, bleach, rubbing alcohol, Alcide disinfectant (Alcide Corp., Westport, Conn.), and various pHs, temperatures, and UV light exposures was performed. Both types of stock virus (titers of approximately 10(6) and 10(5.5) for types 1 and 2, respectively) were inactivated by 0.5% Lysol in 5 min; by Listerine (1:1 mixtures) in 5 min; by 2,000 ppm (2,000 microliters/liter) of bleach in 10 min; by rubbing alcohol (1:1 mixtures) at zero time; by Alcide disinfectant (0.2 ml of virus plus 2.0 ml of Alcide) at zero time; by pHs 3, 5, and 11 in 10 min; and by a temperature of 56 degrees C in 30 min. A germicidal lamp (model G30TB; General Electric Co., Schenectady, N.Y.) (30 W) at a distance of 48 cm failed to completely inactivate the two types in 15 min. Type 1 showed slightly more resistance to Listerine and bleach and significantly more resistance to heat; moreover, pH 9 did not affect the infectivity of either type after 10 min. PMID:2830306

Croughan, W S; Behbehani, A M

1988-02-01

172

Comparative study of inactivation of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 by commonly used antiseptic agents  

SciTech Connect

A comparative study of the different reactions of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 to Lysol, Listerine, bleach, rubbing alcohol, Alcide disinfectant (Alcide Corp., Westport, Conn.), and various pHs, temperatures, and UV light exposures was performed. Both types of stock virus (titers of approximately 10(6) and 10(5.5) for types 1 and 2, respectively) were inactivated by 0.5% Lysol in 5 min; by Listerine (1:1 mixtures) in 5 min; by 2000 ppm (2000 microliters/liter) of bleach in 10 min; by rubbing alcohol (1:1 mixtures) at zero time; by Alcide disinfectant (0.2 ml of virus plus 2.0 ml of Alcide) at zero time; by pHs 3, 5, and 11 in 10 min; and by a temperature of 56 degrees C in 30 min. A germicidal lamp at a distance of 48 cm failed to completely inactivate the two types in 15 min. Type 1 showed slightly more resistance to Listerine and bleach and significantly more resistance to heat; moreover, pH 9 did not affect the infectivity of either type after 10 min.

Croughan, W.S.; Behbehani, A.M.

1988-02-01

173

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 United States License. To view a copy of this license, visit  

E-print Network

/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA.W. 1980. From arsenic to DDT: A history of entomology in western Canada, xii + 357 pp. University

Aiken, Ron

174

Response of Hepatitis C Virus to Long-Term Passage in the Presence of Alpha Interferon: Multiple Mutations and a Common Phenotype  

PubMed Central

Cell culture-produced hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been subjected to up to 100 serial passages in human hepatoma cells in the absence or presence of different doses of alpha interferon (IFN-?). Virus survival, genetic changes, fitness levels, and phenotypic traits have been examined. While high initial IFN-? doses (increasing from 1 to 4 IU/ml) did not allow HCV survival beyond passage 40, a gradual exposure (from 0.25 to 10 IU/ml) allowed the virus to survive for at least 100 passages. The virus passaged in the presence of IFN-? acquired IFN-? resistance as evidenced by enhanced progeny production and viral protein expression in an IFN-? environment. A partial IFN-? resistance was also noted in populations passaged in the absence of IFN-?. All lineages acquired adaptative mutations, and multiple, nonsynonymous mutations scattered throughout the genome were present in IFN-?-selected populations. Comparison of consensus sequences indicates a dominance of synonymous versus nonsynonymous substitutions. IFN-?-resistant populations displayed decreased sensitivity to a combination of IFN-? and ribavirin. A phenotypic trait common to all assayed viral populations is the ability to increase shutoff host cell protein synthesis, accentuated in infections with IFN-?-selected populations carried out in the presence of IFN-?. The trait was associated with enhanced phosphorylation of protein kinase R (PKR) and eIF2?, although other contributing factors are likely. The results suggest that multiple, independent mutational pathways can confer IFN-? resistance to HCV and might explain why no unified picture has been obtained regarding IFN-? resistance in vivo. PMID:23637397

Perales, Celia; Beach, Nathan M.; Gallego, Isabel; Soria, Maria Eugenia; Quer, Josep; Esteban, Juan Ignacio; Rice, Charles

2013-01-01

175

Long-range mapping of Mis-2, a common provirus integration site identified in murine leukemia virus-induced thymomas and located 160 kilobase pairs downstream of Myb.  

PubMed Central

The nondefective Moloney murine leukemia virus (MuLV) induces clonal or oligoclonal T-cell tumors in mice or rats. The proviruses of these nondefective MuLVs have been shown to act as insertion mutagens most frequently activating an adjacent cellular gene involved in cell growth control. Mutations by provirus insertions, recognized as common provirus integration sites, have been instrumental in identifying novel cellular genes involved in tumor formation. We have searched for new common provirus integration sites in Moloney MuLV-induced thymomas. Using cellular sequences flanking a provirus cloned from one of these tumors, we found one region, designated Mis-2, which was the target of provirus integration in a low (3%) percentage of these tumors. Mis-2 was mapped on mouse chromosome 10, approximately 160 kbp downstream of myb. The Mis-2 region may contain a novel gene involved in tumor development. Images PMID:8371338

Villeneuve, L; Jiang, X; Turmel, C; Kozak, C A; Jolicoeur, P

1993-01-01

176

Human Parainfluenza Viruses  

MedlinePLUS

... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) commonly cause respiratory ... HPIVs Are Not the Same as Influenza (Flu) Viruses People usually get HPIV infections in the spring, ...

177

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)  

MedlinePLUS

... been added to your dashboard . RSV Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common virus that infects the lungs and breathing passages. Almost ... antiviral is medicine that kills infections caused by viruses. How can you help protect your baby from ...

178

Obesity Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Obesity has many causes, but there is growing evidence that common viruses may contribute to the condition in some people. Recently, Nikhil Dhurandhar and his colleagues at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center infected human stem cells with Ad-36, a common virus known to be associated with obesity in humans. They found that the cells they exposed to the virus accumulated a much higher amount of fat than uninfected cells.

Science Update (AAAS;)

2007-06-12

179

Making the Common Good Common  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How are independent schools to be useful to the wider world? Beyond their common commitment to educate their students for meaningful lives in service of the greater good, can they educate a broader constituency and, thus, share their resources and skills more broadly? Their answers to this question will be shaped by their independence. Any…

Chase, Barbara

2011-01-01

180

About sharing  

E-print Network

This thesis is about multidominance or sharing in syntax. The term sharing is used in a technical sense, to refer to a situation where a syntactic node has more than one mother. I assume that multidominance is allowed by ...

Gra?anin Yuksek, Martina

2007-01-01

181

The genes encoding the peripheral cannabinoid receptor and alpha-L-fucosidase are located near a newly identified common virus integration site, Evi11.  

PubMed Central

A new common region of virus integration, Evi11, has been identified in two retrovirally induced murine myeloid leukemia cell lines, NFS107 and NFS78. By interspecific backcross analysis, it was shown that Evi11 is located at the distal end of mouse chromosome 4, in a region that shows homology with human 1p36. The genes encoding the peripheral cannabinoid receptor (Cnr2) and alpha-L-fucosidase (Fuca1) were identified near the integration site by using a novel exon trapping system. Cnr2 is suggested to be the target gene for viral interference in Evi11, since proviruses are integrated in the first intron of Cnr2 and retroviral integrations alter mRNA expression of Cnr2 in NFS107 and NFS78. In addition, proviral integrations were demonstrated within the 3' untranslated region of Cnr2 in five independent newly derived CasBrM-MuLV (mouse murine leukemia virus) tumors, CSL13, CSL14, CSL16, CSL27, and CSL97. The Cnr2 gene encodes a seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptor which is normally expressed in hematopoietic tissues. Our data suggest that the peripheral cannabinoid receptor gene might be involved in leukemogenesis as a result of aberrant expression of Cnr2 due to retroviral integration in Evi11. PMID:9261404

Valk, P J; Hol, S; Vankan, Y; Ihle, J N; Askew, D; Jenkins, N A; Gilbert, D J; Copeland, N G; de Both, N J; Lowenberg, B; Delwel, R

1997-01-01

182

Different functions of the common P/V/W and V-specific domains of rinderpest virus V protein in blocking IFN signalling  

PubMed Central

The V proteins of paramyxoviruses are composed of two evolutionarily distinct domains, the N-terminal 75?% being common to the viral P, V and W proteins, and not highly conserved between viruses, whilst the remaining 25?% consists of a cysteine-rich V-specific domain, which is conserved across almost all paramyxoviruses. There is evidence supporting a number of different functions of the V proteins of morbilliviruses in blocking the signalling pathways of type I and II IFNs, but it is not clear which domains of V are responsible for which activities and whether all these activities are required for effective blockade of IFN signalling. We have shown here that the two domains of rinderpest virus V protein have distinct functions: the N-terminal domain acted to bind STAT1, whilst the C-terminal V-specific domain interacted with the IFN receptor-associated kinases Jak1 and Tyk2. Effective blockade of IFN signalling required the intact V protein. PMID:24158397

Chinnakannan, Senthil K.; Holzer, Barbara; Bernardo, Beatriz Sanz; Nanda, Sambit K.

2014-01-01

183

High Affinity Peptide Inhibitors of the Hepatitis C Virus NS3-4A Protease Refractory to Common Resistant Mutants  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3-4A protease is essential for viral replication. All current small molecular weight drugs against NS3-4A are substrate peptidomimetics that have a similar binding and resistance profile. We developed inhibitory peptides (IPs) capping the active site and binding via a novel “tyrosine” finger at an alternative NS3-4A site that is of particular interest for further HCV drug development. The peptides are not cleaved due to a combination of geometrical constraints and impairment of the oxyanion hole function. Selection and optimization through combinatorial phagemid display, protein crystallography, and further modifications resulted in a 32-amino acid peptide with a Ki of 0.53 nm. Inhibition of viral replication in cell culture was demonstrated by fusion to a cell-penetrating peptide. Negligible susceptibility to known (A156V and R155K) resistance mutations of the NS3-4A protease was observed. This work shows for the first time that antiviral peptides can target an intracellular site and reveals a novel druggable site on the HCV protease. PMID:22965230

Kugler, Jonas; Schmelz, Stefan; Gentzsch, Juliane; Haid, Sibylle; Pollmann, Erik; van den Heuvel, Joop; Franke, Raimo; Pietschmann, Thomas; Heinz, Dirk W.; Collins, John

2012-01-01

184

flvi-1, a common integration domain of feline leukemia virus in naturally occurring lymphomas of a particular type.  

PubMed Central

A locus in feline DNA, termed flvi-1, which may play an important role in the natural induction of lymphomas by feline leukemia virus (FeLV) was identified. Examination of a bank of 21 naturally occurring FeLV-positive feline lymphomas revealed that FeLV proviral integration occurs at flvi-1 in four independent tumors (19%). Independent integrations occurred within a 2.4-kilobase region of flvi-1, the probability of which by random chance can be estimated as 10(-16). Several lines of evidence, including sequence analysis of the long terminal repeat, demonstrated that proviruses integrated at flvi-1 are exogenously acquired and are oriented in the same transcriptional direction with respect to the locus. Molecularly cloned flvi-1 did not hybridize with probes representing several previously described proviral integration domains or with probes representing 10 oncogenes. The natural feline lymphomas examined in this study were heterogeneous with respect to tissue of origin, cell type, and number of monoclonal proviral integrations. The four tumors in which flvi-1 is interrupted were classified as members of a phenotypic subgroup containing seven lymphomas, i.e., at least four (57%) of seven lymphomas of this type contained FeLV proviral integration at flvi-1. Members of this phenotypic subgroup are non-T-cell lymphomas isolated from the spleen and contain an average of three proviruses, compared with an average of eight among all of the tumors examined. The small number of proviral integrations in tumors of this subgroup suggests that an early proviral integration event into flvi-1 can induce malignant change. Images PMID:2161948

Levesque, K S; Bonham, L; Levy, L S

1990-01-01

185

Structural Analysis of DFG-in and DFG-out Dual Src-Abl Inhibitors Sharing a Common Vinyl Purine Template  

SciTech Connect

Bcr-Abl is the oncogenic protein tyrosine kinase responsible for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Treatment of the disease with imatinib (Gleevec) often results in drug resistance via kinase mutations at the advanced phases of the disease, which has necessitated the development of new mutation-resistant inhibitors, notably against the T315I gatekeeper mutation. As part of our efforts to discover such mutation resistant Abl inhibitors, we have focused on optimizing purine template kinase inhibitors, leading to the discovery of potent DFG-in and DFG-out series of Abl inhibitors that are also potent Src inhibitors. Here we present crystal structures of Abl bound by two such inhibitors, based on a common N9-arenyl purine, and that represent both DFG-in and -out binding modes. In each structure the purine template is bound deeply in the adenine pocket and the novel vinyl linker forms a non-classical hydrogen bond to the gatekeeper residue, Thr315. Specific template substitutions promote either a DFG-in or -out binding mode, with the kinase binding site adjusting to optimize molecular recognition. Bcr-Abl T315I mutant kinase is resistant to all currently marketed Abl inhibitors, and is the focus of intense drug discovery efforts. Notably, our DFG-out inhibitor, AP24163, exhibits modest activity against this mutant, illustrating that this kinase mutant can be inhibited by DFG-out class inhibitors. Furthermore our DFG-out inhibitor exhibits dual Src-Abl activity, absent from the prototypical DFG-out inhibitor, imatinib as well as its analog, nilotinib. The data presented here provides structural guidance for the further design of novel potent DFG-out class inhibitors against Src, Abl and Abl T315I mutant kinases.

Zhou, Tianjun; Commodore, Lois; Huang, Wei-Sheng; Wang, Yihan; Sawyer, Tomi K.; Shakespeare, William C.; Clackson, Tim; Zhu, Xiaotian; Dalgarno, David C. (ARIAD)

2010-09-30

186

Effects of Two Commonly Found Strains of Influenza A Virus on Developing Dopaminergic Neurons, in Relation to the Pathophysiology of Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Influenza virus (InfV) infection during pregnancy is a known risk factor for neurodevelopment abnormalities in the offspring, including the risk of schizophrenia, and has been shown to result in an abnormal behavioral phenotype in mice. However, previous reports have concentrated on neuroadapted influenza strains, whereas increased schizophrenia risk is associated with common respiratory InfV. In addition, no specific mechanism has been proposed for the actions of maternal infection on the developing brain that could account for schizophrenia risk. We identified two common isolates from the community with antigenic configurations H3N2 and H1N1 and compared their effects on developing brain with a mouse modified-strain A/WSN/33 specifically on the developing of dopaminergic neurons. We found that H1N1 InfV have high affinity for dopaminergic neurons in vitro, leading to nuclear factor kappa B activation and apoptosis. Furthermore, prenatal infection of mothers with the same strains results in loss of dopaminergic neurons in the offspring, and in an abnormal behavioral phenotype. We propose that the well-known contribution of InfV to risk of schizophrenia during development may involve a similar specific mechanism and discuss evidence from the literature in relation to this hypothesis. PMID:23251423

Landreau, Fernando; Galeano, Pablo; Caltana, Laura R.; Masciotra, Luis; Chertcoff, Agustin; Pontoriero, A.; Baumeister, Elsa; Amoroso, Marcela; Brusco, Herminia A.; Tous, Monica I.; Savy, Vilma L.; Lores Arnaiz, Maria del Rosario; de Erausquin, Gabriel A.

2012-01-01

187

Common Host-Derived Chemicals Increase Catches of Disease-Transmitting Mosquitoes and Can Improve Early Warning Systems for Rift Valley Fever Virus  

PubMed Central

Rift Valley fever (RVF), a mosquito-borne zoonosis, is a major public health and veterinary problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Surveillance to monitor mosquito populations during the inter-epidemic period (IEP) and viral activity in these vectors is critical to informing public health decisions for early warning and control of the disease. Using a combination of field bioassays, electrophysiological and chemical analyses we demonstrated that skin-derived aldehydes (heptanal, octanal, nonanal, decanal) common to RVF virus (RVFV) hosts including sheep, cow, donkey, goat and human serve as potent attractants for RVFV mosquito vectors. Furthermore, a blend formulated from the four aldehydes and combined with CO2-baited CDC trap without a light bulb doubled to tripled trap captures compared to control traps baited with CO2 alone. Our results reveal that (a) because of the commonality of the host chemical signature required for attraction, the host-vector interaction appears to favor the mosquito vector allowing it to find and opportunistically feed on a wide range of mammalian hosts of the disease, and (b) the sensitivity, specificity and superiority of this trapping system offers the potential for its wider use in surveillance programs for RVFV mosquito vectors especially during the IEP. PMID:23326620

Tchouassi, David P.; Sang, Rosemary; Sole, Catherine L.; Bastos, Armanda D. S.; Teal, Peter E. A.; Borgemeister, Christian; Torto, Baldwyn

2013-01-01

188

Genetic analysis of endogenous xenotropic murine leukemia viruses: association with two common mouse mutations and the viral restriction locus Fv-1.  

PubMed Central

We have defined 40 endogenous xenotropic virus (Xmv) loci from several common inbred strains of mice by examining provirus-cell DNA junction fragments in recombinant inbred mice. Some inbred strains carried unique proviruses, but most Xmv loci were present in several strains, indicating that many Xmv integration events preexisted modern inbreeding. It was also clear that most Xmv junction fragment variation between inbred strains resulted from independent integration events and not modification or restriction site polymorphism following integration. Chromosomal assignments were determined for 32 Xmv loci by comparing their recombinant inbred strain distribution patterns to those of known genetic markers. The Xmv loci were generally dispersed throughout the genome, but several chromosomal regions contained more than one provirus. Furthermore, several close genetic associations with cellular genes were discovered. Four Xmv loci were closely linked to Fv-1b, a dominant viral resistance gene present in C57BL/6J, BALB/cJ, A/J, and several other strains. Xmv-28 was closely linked to rd (retinal degeneration), and Xmv-10 was closely linked to a (non-agouti), both of which are old mutations as inferred from their broad distribution in mice. We suggest that Xmv integration contributed to genetic diversity in the past and that much of this diversity exists today in common laboratory strains. Images PMID:2564439

Frankel, W N; Stoye, J P; Taylor, B A; Coffin, J M

1989-01-01

189

Shared Destinies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes examples of high schools sharing their physical fitness and recreation facilities with other community groups, discussing the benefits and inevitable scheduling and programming challenges. (EV)

Bynum, Marvin

2003-01-01

190

Common Cold  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site provides comprehensive information, selected by medical doctors, about the common cold. "The goal is to provide a framework for critical thinking which will allow informed decisions about medical care for the common cold." The section entitled Understanding Colds gives a detailed overview of how the cold virus invades the human body and how cold symptoms are caused. Information about preventing colds, and some of the complications that can occur are also included. The Special Features section includes one of the most interesting parts of the site -- Myths of the Common Cold. This site should be interesting to almost anyone, but perhaps more so for those of us who have recently had a cold.

1999-01-01

191

A series of eIF4E alleles at the Bc-3 locus are associated with recessive resistance to Clover yellow vein virus in common bean.  

PubMed

Clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV) is capable of causing severe damage to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production worldwide. The snap bean market class is particularly vulnerable because infection may lead to distortion and necrosis of the fresh green pods and rejection of the harvest. Three putatively independent recessive genes (cyv, desc, bc-3) have been reported to condition resistance to ClYVV; however, their allelic relationships have not been resolved. We identified, evaluated, and characterized the phenotypic and molecular genetic variation present in 21 informative common bean genotypes for resistance to ClYVV. Allelism testing phenotypes from multiple populations provided clear evidence that the three genes were a series of recessive alleles at the Bc-3 locus that condition unique potyvirus strain- and species-specific resistance spectra. Candidate gene analysis revealed complete association between the recessive resistance alleles and unique patterns of predicted amino acid substitutions in P. vulgaris eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (PveIF4E). This led to the discovery and characterization of two novel PveIF4E alleles associated with resistance to ClYVV, PveIF4E (3) , and PveIF4E (4) . We developed KASPar allele-specific SNP genotyping assays and demonstrated their ability to accurately detect and differentiate all of the PveIF4E haplotypes present in the germplasm, allelism testing, and in three separate segregating populations. The results contribute to an enhanced understanding and accessibility of the important potyvirus resistance conditioned by recessive alleles at Bc-3. The KASPar assays should be useful to further enable germplasm exploration, allelic discrimination, and marker-assisted introgression of bc-3 alleles in common bean. PMID:23933781

Hart, John P; Griffiths, Phillip D

2013-11-01

192

Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV) and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... Healthcare Providers Media Policy Makers  Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV) and Pregnancy Language: English Español (Spanish) Share Compartir LCMV (Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus) is a virus that can cause infection in ...

193

A Shared Transcription Termination Signal on Negative and Ambisense RNA Genome Segments of Rift Valley Fever, Sandfly Fever Sicilian, and Toscana Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Phlebovirus genus (family Bunyaviridae) is composed of a diverse group of arboviruses that cause disease syndromes ranging from mild febrile illness to hemorrhagic fever with high fatality. Although antigenically similar, these viruses differ by approximately 25% at the genome level, and their ecologies, including geo- graphic ranges, preferred vector species, and hosts, vary considerably. In contrast to other ambisense

Cesar G. Albarino; Brian H. Bird; Stuart T. Nichol

2007-01-01

194

'Berries' and Rock Share Common Origins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This false-color composite image, taken at a region of the rock outcrop dubbed 'Shoemaker's Patio' near the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's landing site, shows finely layered sediments, which have been accentuated by erosion. The sphere-like grains or 'blueberries' distributed throughout the outcrop can be seen lining up with individual layers. This observation indicates that the spherules are geologic features called concretions, which form in pre-existing wet sediments. Other sphere-like grains, such as impact spherules or volcanic lapilli (fragments of material etween 2 and 64 millimeters or .08 and 2.5 inches in maximum dimension that are ejected from a volcano) are thought to be deposited with sediments and thus would form layers distinct from those of the rocks. This image was captured by the rover's panoramic camera on the 50th martian day, or sol, of the mission. Data from the camera's infrared, green and violet filters were used to create this false-color picture.

2004-01-01

195

Comparing Ethnic Conflicts: Common Patterns, Shared Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Notwithstanding predictions over the past century and a half that minorities defined in ethnic, linguistic, or cultural terms would gradually reconcile themselves to coexistence in states dominated by metropolitan cultures, difficulties arising from the mobilization of minority communities continue to be pronounced at the beginning of the twenty-first century. This article provides an overview of the extent of ethnic division

John Coakley

2009-01-01

196

Notes from the field: a cluster of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infections transmitted through organ transplantation - Iowa, 2013.  

PubMed

On April 26, 2013, the United Network for Organ Sharing reported to CDC a cluster of ill organ transplant recipients in Iowa with a common organ donor. Infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) was suspected. LCMV is a rodent-borne virus that most commonly causes nonfatal, influenza-like illness and occasional aseptic meningitis, but when transmitted through organ transplantation or in utero can cause severe, life-threatening disease. PMID:24647402

Schafer, Ilana J; Miller, Rachel; Ströher, Ute; Knust, Barbara; Nichol, Stuart T; Rollin, Pierre E

2014-03-21

197

A genomic survey of thirty soybean-infecting bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) isolates from China pointed BCMV as a potential threat to soybean production.  

PubMed

Widely known as a severe pathogen of bean plants, the bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) has been reported to infect soybeans only sporadically and the involved strains were all found in China regions. To explore variations among soybean-infecting BCMV strains, hundreds of soybean mosaic leave samples were collected throughout China, with a total of 30 BCMV isolates detected and their genomes sequenced. These newly obtained genomes, together with 16 other BCMV genomes available in GenBank were examined from multiple aspects to characterize BCMV evolutionary processes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that both soybean-infecting BCMVs (group I) and peanut-infecting BCMVs (group II) are distantly related to other BCMVs, suggesting ancestral differentiation and host adaptation. Genetic variation analysis showed that P1, P3 and 6K2 genes and the beginning portion of CP gene showed higher levels of variation relative to other genes. Moreover, selection analyses further confirmed that a number of sites within the P1 and P3 genes have suffered positive selection. These obtained BCMV sequences also exhibit high recombination frequencies, indicating a more dynamic evolutionary history. Finally, 12 different soybean cultivars were challenged with two BCMV isolates (DXH015 and HZZB011), with most of the cultivars successfully infected. These findings suggest that BCMV is indeed a potential threat to soybean production. PMID:25107622

Zhou, Guang-Can; Wu, Xiao-Yi; Zhang, Yan-Mei; Wu, Ping; Wu, Xun-Zong; Liu, Li-Wei; Wang, Qiang; Hang, Yue-Yu; Yang, Jia-Yin; Shao, Zhu-Qing; Wang, Bin; Chen, Jian-Qun

2014-10-13

198

Characterization of pal-1, a common proviral insertion site in murine leukemia virus-induced lymphomas of c-myc and Pim-1 transgenic mice.  

PubMed Central

Insertional mutagenesis with Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV) in c-myc and Pim-1 transgenic mice permits the identification of oncogenes that collaborate with the transgenes in lymphomagenesis. The recently identified common insertion site pal-1, in MoMLV-induced lymphomas, is located in a region in which several independent integration clusters are found: eis-1, gfi-1, and evi-5. Proviral insertions of MoMLV in the different integration clusters upregulate the transcriptional activity of the Gfi-1 gene, which is located within the pal-1 locus. The eis-1/pal-1/gfi-1/evi-5 locus serves as a target for MoMLV proviral insertions in pre-B-cell lymphomas of Emu-myc transgenic mice (20%) and in T-cell lymphomas of H-2K-myc (75%) and Emu-pim-1 (93%) transgenic mice. Many tumors overexpress both Gfi-1 as well as Myc and Pim gene family members, indicating that Gfi-1 collaborates with Myc and Pim in lymphomagenesis. Proviral integrations in the previously identified insertion site bmi-1 are, however, mutually exclusive with integrations in the eis-1/pal-1/gfi-1/evi-5 locus. This finding suggests that Bmi-1 and Gfi-1 belong to the same complementation group in lymphoid transformation. PMID:8985317

Scheijen, B; Jonkers, J; Acton, D; Berns, A

1997-01-01

199

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV): Diagnosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content ... t need to visit a healthcare provider. The virus generally runs its course with the help of ...

200

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV): Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content ... get beter. Good handwashing can prevent spread the virus. In more severe cases, people with RSV might ...

201

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV): Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content ... to six days after being exposed to the virus. However, RSV can be particularly dangerous in premature ...

202

The fourth genus in the Orthomyxoviridae: sequence analyses of two Thogoto virus polymerase proteins and comparison with influenza viruses.  

PubMed

The tick-borne Thogoto virus (THOV) is the type species of a newly recognized fourth genus, Thogotovirus, in the family Orthomyxoviridae. Because of the distant relationship of THOV with the influenza viruses, determination of its genomic information can potentially be used to identify important domains in influenza virus proteins. We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the second longest RNA segment of THOV. The molecule comprises 2212 nucleotides with a single large open reading frame encoding a protein of 710 amino acids, estimated Mr 81,284. The protein shares 77% amino acid similarity with the PB1-like protein of Dhori virus, a related tick-borne virus, and 50-53% with the PB1 polymerase proteins of influenza virus A, B and C. All the motifs characteristic of RNA-dependent polymerases were identified including the SSDD motif common to all RNA-dependent RNA polymerases, indicating that the THOV protein is functionally analogous to the influenza virus PB1 proteins and involved in chain elongation. We also report the corrected sequence of the third longest RNA segment of THOV, encoding a protein which shares 44-47% amino acid similarity with the PA-like polymerase proteins of influenza virus A, B and C. The biological significance of conserved domains in these orthomyxovirid proteins is discussed. PMID:9282786

Leahy, M B; Dessens, J T; Weber, F; Kochs, G; Nuttall, P A

1997-08-01

203

NF-?B directly mediates epigenetic deregulation of common microRNAs in Epstein-Barr virus-mediated transformation of B-cells and in lymphomas  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have negative effects on gene expression and are major players in cell function in normal and pathological conditions. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of resting B lymphocytes results in their growth transformation and associates with different B cell lymphomas. EBV-mediated B cell transformation involves large changes in gene expression, including cellular miRNAs. We performed miRNA expression analysis in growth transformation of EBV-infected B cells. We observed predominant downregulation of miRNAs and upregulation of a few miRNAs. We observed similar profiles of miRNA expression in B cells stimulated with CD40L/IL-4, and those infected with EBNA-2- and LMP-1-deficient EBV particles, suggesting the implication of the NF-kB pathway, common to all four situations. In fact, the NF-kB subunit p65 associates with the transcription start site (TSS) of both upregulated and downregulated miRNAs following EBV infection This occurs together with changes at histone H3K27me3 and histone H3K4me3. Inhibition of the NF-kB pathway impairs changes in miRNA expression, NF-kB binding and changes at the above histone modifications near the TSS of these miRNA genes. Changes in expression of these miRNAs also occurred in diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCL), which are strongly NF-kB dependent. Our results highlight the relevance of the NF-kB pathway in epigenetically mediated miRNA control in B cell transformation and DLBCL. PMID:25200074

Vento-Tormo, Roser; Rodríguez-Ubreva, Javier; Lisio, Lorena Di; Islam, Abul B. M. M. K.; Urquiza, Jose M.; Hernando, Henar; López-Bigas, Nuria; Shannon-Lowe, Claire; Martínez, Nerea; Montes-Moreno, Santiago; Piris, Miguel A.; Ballestar, Esteban

2014-01-01

204

NF-?B directly mediates epigenetic deregulation of common microRNAs in Epstein-Barr virus-mediated transformation of B-cells and in lymphomas.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have negative effects on gene expression and are major players in cell function in normal and pathological conditions. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of resting B lymphocytes results in their growth transformation and associates with different B cell lymphomas. EBV-mediated B cell transformation involves large changes in gene expression, including cellular miRNAs. We performed miRNA expression analysis in growth transformation of EBV-infected B cells. We observed predominant downregulation of miRNAs and upregulation of a few miRNAs. We observed similar profiles of miRNA expression in B cells stimulated with CD40L/IL-4, and those infected with EBNA-2- and LMP-1-deficient EBV particles, suggesting the implication of the NF-kB pathway, common to all four situations. In fact, the NF-kB subunit p65 associates with the transcription start site (TSS) of both upregulated and downregulated miRNAs following EBV infection This occurs together with changes at histone H3K27me3 and histone H3K4me3. Inhibition of the NF-kB pathway impairs changes in miRNA expression, NF-kB binding and changes at the above histone modifications near the TSS of these miRNA genes. Changes in expression of these miRNAs also occurred in diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCL), which are strongly NF-kB dependent. Our results highlight the relevance of the NF-kB pathway in epigenetically mediated miRNA control in B cell transformation and DLBCL. PMID:25200074

Vento-Tormo, Roser; Rodríguez-Ubreva, Javier; Lisio, Lorena Di; Islam, Abul B M M K; Urquiza, Jose M; Hernando, Henar; López-Bigas, Nuria; Shannon-Lowe, Claire; Martínez, Nerea; Montes-Moreno, Santiago; Piris, Miguel A; Ballestar, Esteban

2015-01-01

205

Tracking a Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students simulate the spread of a virus such as HIV through a population by "sharing" (but not drinking) the water in a plastic cup with several classmates. Although invisible, the water in a few of the cups has already be tainted with the "virus" (sodium carbonate). After all the students have shared their liquids, the contents of the cups are tested for the virus with phenolphthalein, a chemical that causes a striking color change in the presence of sodium carbonate. Students then set about trying to determine which of their classmates were the ones originally infected with the virus.

Engineering K-Phd Program

206

Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID)  

MedlinePLUS

... on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Primary Immune Deficiency Diseases Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) Crystal structure of the antibody immunoglobulin ...

207

Transfer in Reinforcement Learning via Shared Features  

E-print Network

We present a framework for transfer in reinforcement learning based on the idea that related tasks share some common features, and that transfer can be achieved via those shared features. The framework attempts to capture ...

Konidaris, George

208

Fair Shares  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use this activity to build division and number sense into any snack time or whenever there are a limited set of things to share among a group: If we deal these out, could everyone get two pieces? five pieces? more? Predict how much everyone will get, then try it and see. For a harder variation, try to find a way to divide up the food so that there is just one item left. Available as a web page, downloadable pdf, and in Spanish.

2010-01-01

209

The MYC, TERT, and ZIC1 Genes Are Common Targets of Viral Integration and Transcriptional Deregulation in Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup J-Induced Myeloid Leukosis  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The integration of retroviruses into the host genome following nonrandom genome-wide patterns may lead to the deregulation of gene expression and oncogene activation near the integration sites. Slow-transforming retroviruses have been widely used to perform genetic screens for the identification of genes involved in cancer. To investigate the involvement of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) integration in myeloid leukosis (ML) in chickens, we utilized an ALV-J insertional identification platform based on hybrid capture target enrichment and next-generation sequencing (NGS). Using high-definition mapping of the viral integration sites in the chicken genome, 241 unique insertion sites were obtained from six different ALV-J-induced ML samples. On the basis of previous statistical definitions, MYC, TERT, and ZIC1 genes were identified as common insertion sites (CIS) of provirus integration in tumor cells; these three genes have previously been shown to be involved in the malignant transformation of different human cell types. Compared to control samples, the expression levels of all three CIS genes were significantly upregulated in chicken ML samples. Furthermore, they were frequently, but not in all field ML cases, deregulated at the mRNA level as a result of ALV-J infection. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the relationship between multipathotypes associated with ALV-J infection and the molecular background of tumorigenesis. IMPORTANCE ALV-Js have been successfully eradicated from chicken breeding flocks in the poultry industries of developed countries, and the control and eradication of ALV-J in China are now progressing steadily. To further study the pathogenesis of ALV-J infections, it will be necessary to elucidate the in vivo viral integration and tumorigenesis mechanism. In this study, 241 unique insertion sites were obtained from six different ALV-J-induced ML samples. In addition, MYC, TERT, and ZIC1 genes were identified as the CIS of ALV-J in tumor cells, which might be a putative “driver” for the activation of the oncogene. In addition, the CIS genes showed deregulated expression compared to nontumor samples. These results have potentially important implications for the mechanism of viral carcinogenesis. PMID:24371071

Li, Yuhao; Liu, Xuemei; Yang, Zhen; Xu, Chenggang; Liu, Di; Qin, Jianru; Dai, Manman; Hao, Jianyong; Feng, Min; Huang, Xiaorong; Tan, Liqiang

2014-01-01

210

Charge sharing in common-grid pixelated CdZnTe detectors Jae Cheon Kim , Stephen E. Anderson, Willy Kaye, Feng Zhang, Yuefeng Zhu, Sonal Joshi Kaye, Zhong He  

E-print Network

. A detailed system modeling package considering charge induction, electronic noise, pulse shaping, and ASIC-pixel events occur by either multiple gamma- ray interactions or charge sharing from a single electron cloud between adjacent pixels. Charge-shared events happen when an electron cloud created underneath the gap

He, Zhong

211

Information partnerships--shared data, shared scale.  

PubMed

How can one company gain access to another's resources or customers without merging ownership, management, or plotting a takeover? The answer is found in new information partnerships, enabling diverse companies to develop strategic coalitions through the sharing of data. The key to cooperation is a quantum improvement in the hardware and software supporting relational databases: new computer speeds, cheaper mass-storage devices, the proliferation of fiber-optic networks, and networking architectures. Information partnerships mean that companies can distribute the technological and financial exposure that comes with huge investments. For the customer's part, partnerships inevitably lead to greater simplification on the desktop and more common standards around which vendors have to compete. The most common types of partnership are: joint marketing partnerships, such as American Airline's award of frequent flyer miles to customers who use Citibank's credit card; intraindustry partnerships, such as the insurance value-added network service (which links insurance and casualty companies to independent agents); customer-supplier partnerships, such as Baxter Healthcare's electronic channel to hospitals for medical and other equipment; and IT vendor-driven partnerships, exemplified by ESAB (a European welding supplies and equipment company), whose expansion strategy was premised on a technology platform offered by an IT vendor. Partnerships that succeed have shared vision at the top, reciprocal skills in information technology, concrete plans for an early success, persistence in the development of usable information for all partners, coordination on business policy, and a new and imaginative business architecture. PMID:10107083

Konsynski, B R; McFarlan, F W

1990-01-01

212

Appendix B: Some Common Abbreviations  

MedlinePLUS

Appendix B: Some Common Abbreviations To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. This is a list of some common abbreviations and acronyms. This appendix supplements the MedlinePlus ...

213

Characterization of a novel Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR)-TIR gene differentially expressed in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Othello) undergoing a defence response to the geminivirus Bean dwarf mosaic virus.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar (cv.) Othello develops a hypersensitive response-associated vascular resistance to infection by Bean dwarf mosaic virus (BDMV), a single-stranded DNA virus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae). A PCR-based cDNA subtraction approach was used to identify genes involved in this resistance response. Eighteen clones, potentially involved with BDMV resistance, were identified based upon being up-regulated in BDMV-infected tissues and/or having sequence similarity with known resistance-associated genes. Analysis of these clones revealed potential genes involved in pathogen defence, including pathogenesis-related protein genes and resistance gene analogues (RGAs). Further characterization of one RGA, F1-10, revealed that it encodes a predicted protein with a double Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) motif. Full-length (F1-10) and spliced (F1-10sp) forms of the RGA were strongly up-regulated in BDMV-infected cv. Othello hypocotyl tissues by 4 days post-inoculation, but not in equivalent mock-inoculated tissues. In agroinfiltration experiments, F1-10, but not F1-10sp, mediated resistance to BDMV in the susceptible common bean cv. Topcrop. By contrast, transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana lines expressing F1-10 or F1-10sp were not resistant to BDMV. Interestingly, when these transgenic lines were inoculated with the potyvirus Bean yellow mosaic virus, some F1-10 lines showed a more severe symptom phenotype compared with non-transgenic control plants. Based on these findings, F1-10 was named: Phaseolus vulgaris VIRUS response TIR-TIR GENE 1 (PvVTT1). PMID:20507487

Seo, Young-Su; Jeon, Jong-Seong; Rojas, Maria R; Gilbertson, Robert L

2007-03-01

214

Virus Movement Maintains Local Virus Population Diversity  

SciTech Connect

Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material.

J. Snyder; B. Wiedenheft; M. Lavin; F. Roberto; J. Spuhler; A. Ortmann; T. Douglas; M. Young

2007-11-01

215

Virus movement maintains local virus population diversity.  

PubMed

Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material. PMID:18025457

Snyder, Jamie C; Wiedenheft, Blake; Lavin, Matthew; Roberto, Francisco F; Spuhler, Josh; Ortmann, Alice C; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark

2007-11-27

216

Detection of novel murine mammary tumor viruses by interspecies immunoassays.  

PubMed

Radioimmunoassays were developed that can detect antigenic determinants common to mammary tumor viruses (MTV's) of four distinct Mus species: M. musculus, M. cervicolor, M. cookll, and M. caroll. The radioimmunoassays were based on the immunologic cross-reactivity observed between the murine mammary tumor viruses (MuMTV) of M. musculus and type B retrovirus isolated from M. cervicolor. Both of the glycoproteins of MuMTV (gp52, gp36) shared antigenic determinants with virions of M. cervicolor mammary tumor virus. Interspecies radioimmunoassays for gp52 and gp36 were developed and used to detect viruses in the milk of noninbred feral Mus species and MuMTV-related translational products in mammary tumors in these species. Type C and type D retroviruses, as well as the M432 retrovirus of M. cervicolor, did not react in either assay. Both interspecies immunoassays were therefore specific for the detection of distinct MuMTV-related antigenic determinants. PMID:6154165

Teramoto, Y A; Hand, P H; Callahan, R; Schlom, J

1980-04-01

217

Sharing values, sharing a vision  

SciTech Connect

Teamwork, partnership and shared values emerged as recurring themes at the Third Technology Transfer/Communications Conference. The program drew about 100 participants who sat through a packed two days to find ways for their laboratories and facilities to better help American business and the economy. Co-hosts were the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, where most meetings took place. The conference followed traditions established at the First Technology Transfer/Communications Conference, conceived of and hosted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory in May 1992 in Richmond, Washington, and the second conference, hosted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in January 1993 in Golden, Colorado. As at the other conferences, participants at the third session represented the fields of technology transfer, public affairs and communications. They came from Department of Energy headquarters and DOE offices, laboratories and production facilities. Continued in this report are keynote address; panel discussion; workshops; and presentations in technology transfer.

Not Available

1993-12-31

218

About Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)  

MedlinePLUS

... Providers Laboratory Testing References & Resources About Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Share Compartir On this Page Symptoms Transmission Diagnosis Prevention & Treatment Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), also known as human herpesvirus 4, is ...

219

Oncolytic Virus Therapy of Glioblastoma Multiforme - Concepts and Candidates  

PubMed Central

Twenty years of oncolytic virus (OV) development have created a field that is driven by the potential promise of lasting impact on our cancer treatment repertoire. With the field constantly expanding – over 20 viruses have been recognized as potential OVs – new virus candidates continue to emerge even as established viruses reach clinical trials. They all share the defining commonalities of selective replication in tumors, subsequent tumor cell lysis, and dispersion within the tumor. Members from diverse virus classes with distinctly different biologies and host species have been identified. Of these viruses, 15 have been tested on human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). So far, 20 clinical trials have been conducted or initiated using attenuated strains of 7 different oncolytic viruses against GBM. In this review, we present an overview of viruses that have been developed or considered for GBM treatment. We outline the principles of tumor targeting and selective viral replication, which include mechanisms of tumor-selective binding, and molecular elements usurping cellular biosynthetic machinery in transformed cells. Results from clinical trials have clearly established the proof of concept and have confirmed the general safety of OV application in the brain. The moderate clinical efficacy has not yet matched the promising preclinical lab results; next-generation OVs that are either “armed” with therapeutic genes or that are embedded in a multimodality treatment regimen should enhance the clinical results. PMID:22290260

Wollmann, Guido; Ozduman, Koray; van den Pol, Anthony N.

2012-01-01

220

Development of Monoclonal Antibodies that Recognize a Type2 Specific and a Common Epitope on the Nucleoprotein of Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two monoclonal antibodies were produced against the nucleoproteins of two strains of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). One antibody, 1NDW14D, obtained by immunizing BALB\\/c mice with the nucleoprotein from Dworshak IHNV strain DW2, universally recognized IHNV in tests of direct and indirect fluorescence. The second antibody, 2NH105B, obtained by immunization with the nucleoprotein from an IHNV strain isolated from rainbow

Sandra S. Ristow; Jeanene M. Arnzen

1989-01-01

221

COMMON CABBAGE VARIETAL TRIAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven common cabbage varieties from 6 different seed companies were evaluated for their yield and other agronomic characters in order to select the good cabbage varieties that have high and stable yield, early and uniform maturity and resistant to soft rot, black rot and mosaic virus diseases. The experiment was conducted from November 23, 1989 to February 12, 1990 in

NGUYEN VAN EM

222

Mobile Proactive secret sharing  

E-print Network

This thesis describes mobile proactive secret sharing (MPSS), an extension of proactive secret sharing. Mobile proactive secret sharing is much more flexible than proactive secret sharing in terms of group membership: ...

Schultz, David Andrew

2007-01-01

223

PoS(EXPReS09)030 ! Copyright owned by the author(s) under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike Licence. http://pos.sissa.it  

E-print Network

Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike Licence. http://pos.sissa.it The future of e-VLBI Huib Jan van Langevelde And Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University Postbus 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, the Netherlands E-mail: langevelde)030 The Future of e-VLBI van Langevelde 2 1. Introduction VLBI is undergoing a silent revolution by providing

van Langevelde, Huib Jan

224

Copyright owned by the author(s) under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike Licence. http://pos.sissa.it The future of VLBI has begun!  

E-print Network

-NonCommercial-ShareAlike Licence. http://pos.sissa.it The future of VLBI has begun! Huib Jan van Langevelde1 The Joint Institute Postbus 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, the Netherlands E-mail: langevelde@jive.nl With the exceptional progress e! Huib van Langevelde 2 1.Introduction VLBI is undergoing a silent revolution by providing real

van Langevelde, Huib Jan

225

Oxylipin Biosynthesis Genes Positively Regulate Programmed Cell Death during Compatible Infections with the Synergistic Pair Potato Virus X-Potato Virus Y and Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus  

PubMed Central

One of the most severe symptoms caused by compatible plant-virus interactions is systemic necrosis, which shares common attributes with the hypersensitive response to incompatible pathogens. Although several studies have identified viral symptom determinants responsible for systemic necrosis, mechanistic models of how they contribute to necrosis in infected plants remain scarce. Here, we examined the involvement of different branches of the oxylipin biosynthesis pathway in the systemic necrosis response caused either by the synergistic interaction of Potato virus X with Potato virus Y (PVX-PVY) or by Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in Nicotiana benthamiana. Silencing either 9-lipoxygenase (LOX), 13-LOX, or ?-dioxygenase-1 (?-DOX-1) attenuated the programmed cell death (PCD)-associated symptoms caused by infection with either PVX-PVY or TSWV. In contrast, silencing of the jasmonic acid perception gene, COI1 (Coronatine insensitive 1), expedited cell death during infection with compatible viruses. This correlated with an enhanced expression of oxylipin biosynthesis genes and dioxygenase activity in PVX-PVY-infected plants. Moreover, the Arabidopsis thaliana double lox1 ?-dox-1 mutant became less susceptible to TSWV infection. We conclude that oxylipin metabolism is a critical component that positively regulates the process of PCD during compatible plant-virus interactions but does not play a role in restraining virus accumulation in planta. PMID:23487466

Garcia-Marcos, Alberto; Pacheco, Remedios; Manzano, Aranzazu; Aguilar, Emmanuel

2013-01-01

226

Can power be shared?  

PubMed

Dental insurance began with a partnership between dental service organizations and state dental associations with a view toward expanding the number of Americans receiving oral health care and as a means for permitting firms and other organizations to offer employee benefits. The goals have been achieved, but the alliance between dentistry and insurance has become strained. A lack of dialogue has fostered mutual misconceptions, some of which are reviewed in this paper. It is possible that the public, the profession, and the dental insurance industry can all be strengthened, but only through power-sharing around the original common objective. PMID:24761578

Ten Pas, William S

2013-01-01

227

Fim-1, Fim-2/c-fms, and Fim-3, three common integration sites of Friend murine leukemia virus in myeloblastic leukemias, map to mouse chromosomes 13, 18, and 3, respectively.  

PubMed Central

Three common proviral integration sites, Fim-1, Fim-2/c-fms, and Fim-3, have been described in mouse myeloid leukemias induced by the Friend murine leukemia virus. The nature and function of Fim-1 and Fim-3 are still unknown since no transcript from these loci has been detected so far. To identify these two loci, we undertook their chromosomal localization using restriction fragment length polymorphism detected between C57BL/6 mice and the wild-derived inbred strain of Mus spretus. Using interspecific backcross analysis, we mapped Fim-1 to mouse chromosome 13 and Fim-3 to mouse chromosome 3. Interestingly, Fim-3 is tightly linked to Evi-1, another common integration site of ecotropic virus involved in another model of mouse myeloid leukemogenesis. Fim-2 spans the 5' end of the c-fms gene, which encodes for the macrophage-colony-stimulating factor receptor. We located the c-fms gene on the D band of chromosome 18 by in situ hybridization. Images PMID:2902233

Sola, B; Simon, D; Mattei, M G; Fichelson, S; Bordereaux, D; Tambourin, P E; Guenet, J L; Gisselbrecht, S

1988-01-01

228

Donkey orchid symptomless virus: a viral 'platypus' from Australian terrestrial orchids.  

PubMed

Complete and partial genome sequences of two isolates of an unusual new plant virus, designated Donkey orchid symptomless virus (DOSV) were identified using a high-throughput sequencing approach. The virus was identified from asymptomatic plants of Australian terrestrial orchid Diuris longifolia (Common donkey orchid) growing in a remnant forest patch near Perth, western Australia. DOSV was identified from two D. longifolia plants of 264 tested, and from at least one plant of 129 Caladenia latifolia (pink fairy orchid) plants tested. Phylogenetic analysis of the genome revealed open reading frames (ORF) encoding seven putative proteins of apparently disparate origins. A 69-kDa protein (ORF1) that overlapped the replicase shared low identity with MPs of plant tymoviruses (Tymoviridae). A 157-kDa replicase (ORF2) and 22-kDa coat protein (ORF4) shared 32% and 40% amino acid identity, respectively, with homologous proteins encoded by members of the plant virus family Alphaflexiviridae. A 44-kDa protein (ORF3) shared low identity with myosin and an autophagy protein from Squirrelpox virus. A 27-kDa protein (ORF5) shared no identity with described proteins. A 14-kDa protein (ORF6) shared limited sequence identity (26%) over a limited region of the envelope glycoprotein precursor of mammal-infecting Crimea-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (Bunyaviridae). The putative 25-kDa movement protein (MP) (ORF7) shared limited (27%) identity with 3A-like MPs of members of the plant-infecting Tombusviridae and Virgaviridae. Transmissibility was shown when DOSV systemically infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Structure and organization of the domains within the putative replicase of DOSV suggests a common evolutionary origin with 'potexvirus-like' replicases of viruses within the Alphaflexiviridae and Tymoviridae, and the CP appears to be ancestral to CPs of allexiviruses (Alphaflexiviridae). The MP shares an evolutionary history with MPs of dianthoviruses, but the other putative proteins are distant from plant viruses. DOSV is not readily classified in current lower order virus taxa. PMID:24223974

Wylie, Stephen J; Li, Hua; Jones, Michael G K

2013-01-01

229

Diverse inter-continental and host lineage reassortant avian influenza A viruses in pelagic seabirds.  

PubMed

Avian influenza A viruses (AIVs) often infect waterfowl, gulls and shorebirds, but other bird groups including pelagic seabirds also serve as hosts. In this study, we analyzed 21 AIVs found in two distant breeding colonies of Common Murre (Uria aalge) in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, during 2011. Phylogenetic analyses and genotype assignments were performed for the 21 Common Murre viruses together with all Common and Thick-billed Murre (Uria lomvia) AIV sequences available in public sequence databases. All fully characterized viruses from the Common Murres in 2011 were H1N2 subtype, but the genome sequences revealed greater diversity and the viruses belonged to four distinct genotypes. The four genotypes shared most segments in common, but reassortment was observed for PB2 and M segments. This provided direct genetic data of AIV diversification through segment reassortment during an outbreak of AIV infection in high-density breeding colonies. Analysis of the total collection of available murre viruses revealed a diverse collection of subtypes and gene lineages with high similarity to those found in viruses from waterfowl and gulls, and there was no indication of murre-specific AIV gene lineages. Overall, the virus gene pool in murres was predominantly made up of AIV lineages associated with waterfowl, but also featured considerable gull lineage genes and inter-continental reassortments. In particular, all but one of the 21 Common Murre viruses from 2011 in Newfoundland contained 1 or 2 Eurasian segments and 16 contained 1 gull lineage segment. This mosaic nature of characterized murre AIV genomes might reflect an under-recognized role of these pelagic seabirds in virus transmission across space and between bird host taxa. PMID:24462905

Huang, Yanyan; Robertson, Gregory J; Ojkic, Davor; Whitney, Hugh; Lang, Andrew S

2014-03-01

230

Oncolytic Myxoma Virus: The path to clinic  

PubMed Central

Many common neoplasms are still noncurative with current standards of cancer therapy. More therapeutic modalities need to be developed to significantly prolong the lives of patients and eventually cure a wider spectrum of cancers. Oncolytic virotherapy is one of the promising new additions to clinical cancer therapeutics. Successful oncolytic virotherapy in the clinic will be those strategies that best combine tumor cell oncolysis with enhanced immune responses against tumor antigens. The current candidate oncolytic viruses all share the common property that they are relatively nonpathogenic to humans, yet they have the ability to replicate selectively in human cancer cells and induce cancer regression by direct oncolysis and/or induction of improved anti-tumor immune responses. Many candidate oncolytic viruses are in various stages of clinical and preclinical development. One such preclinical candidate is myxoma virus (MYXV), a member of the Poxviridae family that, in its natural setting, exhibits a very restricted host range and is only pathogenic to European rabbits. Despite its narrow host range in nature, MYXV has been shown to productively infect various classes of human cancer cells. Several preclinical in vivo modeling studies have demonstrated that MYXV is an attractive and safe candidate oncolytic virus, and hence, MYXV is currently being developed as a potential therapeutic for several cancers, such as pancreatic cancer, glioblastoma, ovarian cancer, melanoma, and hematologic malignancies. This review highlights the preclinical cancer models that have shown the most promise for translation of MYXV into human clinical trials. PMID:23726825

Chan, Winnie M.; Rahman, Masmudur M.; McFadden, Grant

2013-01-01

231

Modulation of the host microenvironment by a common non-oncolytic mouse virus leads to inhibition of plasmacytoma development through NK cell activation.  

PubMed

Although many cells undergo transformation, few actually develop into tumours, due to successful mechanisms of immunosurveillance. To investigate whether an infectious agent may play a role in this process, the growth of a plasmacytoma was investigated in mice infected by lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus. Acutely infected animals were significantly protected against tumour development. The mechanisms responsible for this protection were analysed in mice deficient for relevant immune cells or molecules and after in vivo cell depletion. This protection by viral infection correlated with NK cell activation and with IFN-? production. It might also be related to activation of NK/T-cells, although this remains to be proven formally. Therefore, our results indicated that infections with benign micro-organisms may protect the host against cancer development, through non-specific stimulation of the host's innate immune system and especially of NK cells. PMID:24739273

Thirion, Gaëtan; Saxena, Anubha; Hulhoven, Xavier; Markine-Goriaynoff, Dominique; Van Snick, Jacques; Coutelier, Jean-Paul

2014-07-01

232

Lunch & Learn Cost Sharing  

E-print Network

as spending on the sponsored project #12;Cost Sharing in OMNI "Child" Budget Checking Parent Direct Child for a transaction to "pass" budget checking #12;Cost Sharing in OMNI Project examples with cost sharing child Parent certain types of auxiliaries are allowable as cost share #12;Cost Sharing Transactions Attachment 1 #12

McQuade, D. Tyler

233

What Are Common Treatments for Down Syndrome?  

MedlinePLUS

... Publications En Español What are common treatments for Down syndrome? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... Content There is no single, standard treatment for Down syndrome. Treatments are based on each individual's physical and ...

234

What Are Common Symptoms of Down Syndrome?  

MedlinePLUS

... Publications En Español What are common symptoms of Down syndrome? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content The symptoms of Down syndrome vary from person to person, and people with ...

235

What Are Common Treatments for Turner Syndrome?  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources and Publications What are common treatments for Turner syndrome? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Although there is no cure for Turner syndrome, some treatments can help minimize its symptoms. These ...

236

What Are Common Symptoms of Phenylketonuria (PKU)?  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources and Publications What are common symptoms of phenylketonuria (PKU)? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Children with untreated PKU appear normal at birth. But by age 3 ...

237

Human Commonalities and Art  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educator Ernest Boyer believed that well-educated students should do more than master isolated facts. They should understand the "connectedness of things." He suggested organizing curriculum thematically around eight commonalities shared by people around the world. In the book "The Basic School: A Community for Learning," Boyer recommends that…

Passmore, Kaye

2008-01-01

238

The Common Geometry Module (CGM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Common Geometry Module (CGM) is a code library which provides geometry functionality used for mesh generation and other applications. This functionality includes that commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry creation, query and modification; CGM also includes capabilities not commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry decomposition tools and support for shared material interfaces. CGM is built

Tautges; Timothy James

2004-01-01

239

Spectrum sharing for unlicensed bands  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study a spectrum sharing problem in an unlicensed band where multiple systems coexist and interfere with each other. We first analyze a cooperative setting where all the systems collaborate to achieve a common goal. Under the assumptions that the systems communicate with Gaussian signals and treat interference as noise, we study the structure of the optimal power allocations. We

Raul Etkin; Abhay Parekh; David Tse

2007-01-01

240

Spectrum sharing for unlicensed bands  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study a spectrum sharing problem in an unlicensed band where multiple systems coexist and interfere with each other. We first analyze a cooperative setting where all the systems collaborate to achieve a common goal. Under the assumptions that the systems communicate with Gaussian signals and treat interference as noise, we study the structure of the optimal power allocations. We

Raul Etkin; Abhay Parekh; David Tse

2005-01-01

241

The Icsbp locus is a common proviral insertion site in mature B-cell lymphomas/plasmacytomas induced by exogenous murine leukemia virus  

SciTech Connect

ICSBP (interferon consensus sequence binding protein)/IRF8 (interferon regulatory factor 8) is an interferon gamma-inducible transcription factor expressed predominantly in hematopoietic cells, and down-regulation of this factor has been observed in chronic myelogenous leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia in man. By screening about 1200 murine leukemia virus (MLV)-induced lymphomas, we found proviral insertions at the Icsbp locus in 14 tumors, 13 of which were mature B-cell lymphomas or plasmacytomas. Only one was a T-cell lymphoma, although such tumors constituted about half of the samples screened. This indicates that the Icsbp locus can play a specific role in the development of mature B-lineage malignancies. Two proviral insertions in the last Icsbp exon were found to act by a poly(A)-insertion mechanism. The remaining insertions were found within or outside Icsbp. Since our results showed expression of Icsbp RNA and protein in all end-stage tumor samples, a simple tumor suppressor function of ICSBP is not likely. Interestingly, proviral insertions at Icsbp have not been reported from previous extensive screenings of mature B-cell lymphomas induced by endogenous MLVs. We propose that ICSBP might be involved in an early modulation of an immune response to exogenous MLVs that might also play a role in proliferation of the mature B-cell lymphomas.

Ma Shiliang [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Aarhus, C.F. Mollers Alle, Bldg. 130, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Sorensen, Annette Balle [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Aarhus, C.F. Mollers Alle, Bldg. 130, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Kunder, Sandra [Institute of Pathology, GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Sorensen, Karina Dalsgaard [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Aarhus, C.F. Mollers Alle, Bldg. 130, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia [Institute of Pathology, GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Morris, David W. [Sagres Discovery, Davis, CA 95617 (United States); Schmidt, Joerg [Department of Comparative Medicine, GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Pedersen, Finn Skou [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Aarhus, C.F. Mollers Alle, Bldg. 130, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)]. E-mail: fsp@mb.au.dk

2006-09-01

242

Milk is a common ingredient in many fried foods. Allergen cross contact can occur through the use of shared frying oil. Analytical methods are needed to determine the level of protein contamination in re-used oil. This study  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT Milk is a common ingredient in many fried foods. Allergen cross contact can occur through the Pierce 660 nm total protein assay as well as four commercial ELISA kits (Veratox for Total Milk Allergen% of children aged 5 to 17 years and adults (1). Milk is one of the eight major food allergens recognized

Heller, Barbara

243

Immunology of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 500 million people worldwide are persistently infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and\\/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) and are at risk of developing chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite many common features in the pathogenesis of HBV- and HCV-related liver disease, these viruses markedly differ in their virological properties and in their immune escape and

Michelina Nascimbeni; Barbara Rehermann

2005-01-01

244

Whole-genome sequencing of a green bush viper reovirus reveals a shared evolutionary history between reptilian and unusual mammalian orthoreoviruses.  

PubMed

In this study, we sequenced the whole genome of a reovirus isolated from a green bush viper (Atheris squamigera). The bush viper reovirus shared several features with other orthoreoviruses, including its genome organization. In phylogenetic analysis, this strain was monophyletic with Broome virus and baboon orthoreovirus, indicating that these viruses might have originated from a common ancestor. These new molecular data supplement previous information based mainly on biological properties of reptilian reoviruses, confirming their taxonomic position and broadening our knowledge of the evolution of members of the genus Orthoreovirus. PMID:23921622

Bányai, Krisztián; Borzák, Réka; Ihász, Katalin; Fehér, Enik?; Dán, Ádám; Jakab, Ferenc; Papp, Tibor; Hetzel, Udo; Marschang, Rachel E; Farkas, Szilvia L

2014-01-01

245

Structural Studies of the Parainfluenza Virus 5 Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase Tetramer in Complex with Its Receptor, Sialyllactose  

SciTech Connect

The paramyxovirus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) functions in virus attachment to cells, cleavage of sialic acid from oligosaccharides, and stimulating membrane fusion during virus entry into cells. The structural basis for these diverse functions remains to be fully understood. We report the crystal structures of the parainfluenza virus 5 (SV5) HN and its complexes with sialic acid, the inhibitor DANA, and the receptor sialyllactose. SV5 HN shares common structural features with HN of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and human parainfluenza 3 (HPIV3), but unlike the previously determined HN structures, the SV5 HN forms a tetramer in solution, which is thought to be the physiological oligomer. The sialyllactose complex reveals intact receptor within the active site, but no major conformational changes in the protein. The SV5 HN structures do not support previously proposed models for HN action in membrane fusion and suggest alternative mechanisms by which HN may promote virus entry into cells.

Yuan, Ping; Thompson, Thomas B.; Wurzburg, Beth A.; Paterson, Reay G.; Lamb, Robert A.; Jardetzky, Theodore S. (NWU)

2010-03-08

246

Molecular evolution of viruses of the family Filoviridae based on 97 whole-genome sequences.  

PubMed

Viruses in the Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus genera (family Filoviridae) have been associated with large outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever in human and nonhuman primates. The first documented cases occurred in primates over 45 years ago, but the amount of virus genetic diversity detected within bat populations, which have recently been identified as potential reservoir hosts, suggests that the filoviruses are much older. Here, detailed Bayesian coalescent phylogenetic analyses are performed on 97 whole-genome sequences, 55 of which are newly reported, to comprehensively examine molecular evolutionary rates and estimate dates of common ancestry for viruses within the family Filoviridae. Molecular evolutionary rates for viruses belonging to different species range from 0.46 × 10(-4) nucleotide substitutions/site/year for Sudan ebolavirus to 8.21 × 10(-4) nucleotide substitutions/site/year for Reston ebolavirus. Most recent common ancestry can be traced back only within the last 50 years for Reston ebolavirus and Zaire ebolavirus species and suggests that viruses within these species may have undergone recent genetic bottlenecks. Viruses within Marburg marburgvirus and Sudan ebolavirus species can be traced back further and share most recent common ancestors approximately 700 and 850 years before the present, respectively. Examination of the whole family suggests that members of the Filoviridae, including the recently described Lloviu virus, shared a most recent common ancestor approximately 10,000 years ago. These data will be valuable for understanding the evolution of filoviruses in the context of natural history as new reservoir hosts are identified and, further, for determining mechanisms of emergence, pathogenicity, and the ongoing threat to public health. PMID:23255795

Carroll, Serena A; Towner, Jonathan S; Sealy, Tara K; McMullan, Laura K; Khristova, Marina L; Burt, Felicity J; Swanepoel, Robert; Rollin, Pierre E; Nichol, Stuart T

2013-03-01

247

Molecular Evolution of Viruses of the Family Filoviridae Based on 97 Whole-Genome Sequences  

PubMed Central

Viruses in the Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus genera (family Filoviridae) have been associated with large outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever in human and nonhuman primates. The first documented cases occurred in primates over 45 years ago, but the amount of virus genetic diversity detected within bat populations, which have recently been identified as potential reservoir hosts, suggests that the filoviruses are much older. Here, detailed Bayesian coalescent phylogenetic analyses are performed on 97 whole-genome sequences, 55 of which are newly reported, to comprehensively examine molecular evolutionary rates and estimate dates of common ancestry for viruses within the family Filoviridae. Molecular evolutionary rates for viruses belonging to different species range from 0.46 × 10?4 nucleotide substitutions/site/year for Sudan ebolavirus to 8.21 × 10?4 nucleotide substitutions/site/year for Reston ebolavirus. Most recent common ancestry can be traced back only within the last 50 years for Reston ebolavirus and Zaire ebolavirus species and suggests that viruses within these species may have undergone recent genetic bottlenecks. Viruses within Marburg marburgvirus and Sudan ebolavirus species can be traced back further and share most recent common ancestors approximately 700 and 850 years before the present, respectively. Examination of the whole family suggests that members of the Filoviridae, including the recently described Lloviu virus, shared a most recent common ancestor approximately 10,000 years ago. These data will be valuable for understanding the evolution of filoviruses in the context of natural history as new reservoir hosts are identified and, further, for determining mechanisms of emergence, pathogenicity, and the ongoing threat to public health. PMID:23255795

Carroll, Serena A.; Towner, Jonathan S.; Sealy, Tara K.; McMullan, Laura K.; Khristova, Marina L.; Burt, Felicity J.; Swanepoel, Robert; Rollin, Pierre E.

2013-01-01

248

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection Information for adults A A A When HIV is first contracted, there may be ... 1–6 weeks following exposure to HIV (the human immunodeficiency virus). Chronic infection with this virus can ...

249

Lettuce Necrotic Yellows Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A DESTRUCTIVE virus disease of lettuce, causing extensive crop losses sometimes as high as 100 per cent, was recognized in Victoria in 1954 as being distinct from the lettuce mosaic disease. Until 1959, however, all attempts to transmit the virus to lettuce with aphids which commonly infest lettuce, with thrips, leaf-hoppers and sap inoculation methods were unsuccessful. In that year

L. L. Stubbs; R. G. GROGAN

1963-01-01

250

Shared versus distributed memory multiprocessors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The question of whether multiprocessors should have shared or distributed memory has attracted a great deal of attention. Some researchers argue strongly for building distributed memory machines, while others argue just as strongly for programming shared memory multiprocessors. A great deal of research is underway on both types of parallel systems. Special emphasis is placed on systems with a very large number of processors for computation intensive tasks and considers research and implementation trends. It appears that the two types of systems will likely converge to a common form for large scale multiprocessors.

Jordan, Harry F.

1991-01-01

251

Publicly Verifiable Secret Sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

. A secret sharing scheme allows to share a secret among several participants such that only certain groups of them can recover it. Verifiable secret sharing has been proposed to achieve security against cheating participants. Its first realization had the special property that everybody, not only the participants, can verify that the shares are correctly distributed. We will call such

Markus Stadler

1996-01-01

252

The Origins of Shared Intuitions of Justice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrary to the common wisdom among criminal law scholars, the empirical evidence reveals that people's intuitions of justice are often specific, nuanced, and widely shared. Indeed, with regard to the core harms and evils to which criminal law addresses itself – physical aggression, takings without consent, and deception in transactions – the shared intuitions are stunningly consistent, across cultures as

Paul H. Robinson; Robert O. Kurzban; Owen D. Jones

2006-01-01

253

Awareness and coordination in shared workspaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Awareness of individual and group activities is critical to successful collaboration and is commonly supported in CSCW systems by active, information generation mechanisms separate from the shared workspace. These mechanisms pena~ise information providers, presuppose relevance to the recipient, and make access difficult, We discuss a study of shared editor use which suggests that awareness information provided and exploited passively through

Paul Dourish; Victoria Bellotti

1992-01-01

254

Black like Me: A Shared Ethnography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focused on a concept entitled shared ethnography. The researcher and youth participants share race in common. Critical Race Theory was used to analyze the reflective journal. An after school science program in a high poverty urban environment provided the context for this study. The findings of the study suggested that when researcher…

Catlin, Janell N.

2008-01-01

255

Small-World File-Sharing Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web caches, content distribution networks, peer-to-peer file sharing networks, distributed file system s, and data grids all have in common that they involve a community of users who generate requests for shared data. In each case, overall system performance can be improved significantly if we can first identify and then exploit interesting structure within a community's access patterns. To this

Adriana Iamnitchi; Matei Ripeanu; Ian T. Foster

2003-01-01

256

Car Sharing Scheme Car Share Scheme  

E-print Network

Car Sharing Scheme Car Share Scheme The cost is now reduced to £10 per member of staff per car that is used to travel to and from work on occasions, i.e. where two cars may have originally been parked on Campus at the same time the scheme is aimed at reducing this to one car. Staff members who car

Martin, Ralph R.

257

Range-wide genetic population structure of common pochard (Aythya ferina): a potentially important vector of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses  

PubMed Central

An understanding of the distribution and spatial structure of the natural vectors of zoonothic pathogens is of interest for effective disease control and prevention. Here, we investigate the range-wide population genetic structure of common pochard (Aythya ferina), a long-distance migratory duck and potential vector of highly pathogenic avian influenza. We collected several hundred samples from breeding and wintering grounds across Eurasia including some H5N1-positive individuals and generated partial sequences of the mitochondrial control region and multilocus microsatellite genotypes. Genetic differentiation among breeding populations was significant for both marker types but higher for maternally inherited mtDNA than for biparentally inherited nuclear markers. There was only weak genetic divergence between ducks sampled in Europe and East Asia, and genetic differentiation between populations was not generally associated with geographical distance. No evidence of genetic substructure was detected for ducks sampled on the European wintering grounds. Our results suggest limited breeding-site fidelity, especially in females, but extensive population admixture on the wintering grounds. The specific role of pochards as natural vectors of zoonotic pathogens and in particular H5N1 remains to be clarified but our results point to wintering grounds as potential hotspots for disease transmission. PMID:22393520

Liu, Yang; Keller, Irene; Heckel, Gerald

2011-01-01

258

Common Cold  

MedlinePLUS

... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In the course of a year, people ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest ...

259

Safe Computing: An Overview of Viruses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computer virus is a program that replicates itself, in conjunction with an additional program that can harm a computer system. Common viruses include boot-sector, macro, companion, overwriting, and multipartite. Viruses can be fast, slow, stealthy, and polymorphic. Anti-virus products are described. (MLH)

Wodarz, Nan

2001-01-01

260

Isolation and Phylogenetic Analysis of Novel Viruses Infecting the Phytoplankton Phaeocystis globosa (Prymnesiophyceae)  

PubMed Central

Viruses infecting the harmful bloom-causing alga Phaeocystis globosa (Prymnesiophyceae) were readily isolated from Dutch coastal waters (southern North Sea) in 2000 and 2001. Our data show a large increase in the abundance of putative P. globosa viruses during blooms of P. globosa, suggesting that viruses are an important source of mortality for this alga. In order to examine genetic relatedness among viruses infecting P. globosa and other phytoplankton, DNA polymerase gene (pol) fragments were amplified and the inferred amino acid sequences were phylogenetically analyzed. The results demonstrated that viruses infecting P. globosa formed a closely related monophyletic group within the family Phycodnaviridae, with at least 96.9% similarity to each other. The sequences grouped most closely with others from viruses that infect the prymnesiophyte algae Chrysochromulina brevifilum and Chrysochromulina strobilus. Whether the P. globosa viruses belong to the genus Prymnesiovirus or form a separate group needs further study. Our data suggest that, like their phytoplankton hosts, the Chrysochromulina and Phaeocystis viruses share a common ancestor and that these prymnesioviruses and their algal host have coevolved. PMID:15184176

Brussaard, C. P. D.; Short, S. M.; Frederickson, C. M.; Suttle, C. A.

2004-01-01

261

Common Childhood Vaccine Cuts 'Superbug' Infection: Study  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Common Childhood Vaccine Cuts 'Superbug' Infection: Study Cases of ... infections, pneumonia and meningitis. It is the most common vaccine-preventable bacterial cause of death, the researchers ...

262

Statistical physics techniques provide insight into spreading patterns of cellphone viruses  

E-print Network

of market share, an MMS virus would be able to infect a large fraction of unprotected smartphones with that OS in just a few hours. By contrast, at 30 percent market share, a BT virus could infect nearly all in OS market share; its BT and MMS infective powers would dominate at different market shares. IMPACT

Entekhabi, Dara

263

Generalized quantum secret sharing  

SciTech Connect

We explore a generalization of quantum secret sharing (QSS) in which classical shares play a complementary role to quantum shares, exploring further consequences of an idea first studied by Nascimento, Mueller-Quade, and Imai [Phys. Rev. A 64, 042311 (2001)]. We examine three ways, termed inflation, compression, and twin thresholding, by which the proportion of classical shares can be augmented. This has the important application that it reduces quantum (information processing) players by replacing them with their classical counterparts, thereby making quantum secret sharing considerably easier and less expensive to implement in a practical setting. In compression, a QSS scheme is turned into an equivalent scheme with fewer quantum players, compensated for by suitable classical shares. In inflation, a QSS scheme is enlarged by adding only classical shares and players. In a twin-threshold scheme, we invoke two separate thresholds for classical and quantum shares based on the idea of information dilution.

Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Srikanth, R. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Optics Group, Raman Research Institute, Bangalore-560080 (India)

2005-01-01

264

Creating Equal Shares  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students practice fractions by sharing certain numbers of objects among different numbers of people. They begin with unit fractions and move to sharing multiple objects among multiple people, in which a < b, and to produce fractions less than one.

Wnet

2008-08-25

265

Recoverable distributed shared memory  

E-print Network

Distributed Shared Memory (DSM) is a model for interprocess communication, implemented on top of message passing systems. In this model, processes running on separate hosts can access a shared, coherent memory address space, provided...

Kanthadai, Sundarrajan S

2012-06-07

266

Clays, common  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the common clay industry worldwide for 1997 is discussed. Sales of common clay in the U.S. increased from 26.2 Mt in 1996 to an estimated 26.5 Mt in 1997. The amount of common clay and shale used to produce structural clay products in 1997 was estimated at 13.8 Mt.

Virta, R.L.

1998-01-01

267

DATA SHARING WORKBOOK Introduction  

E-print Network

DATA SHARING WORKBOOK · Introduction · Protecting the Rights and Privacy of Human Subjects · Protecting Proprietary Data · Examples of Data Sharing o Data Archives o Federated Data Systems o Data ______________________________________________________________________________ INTRODUCTION Scientists working in many different areas are already sharing their data through a variety

Baker, Chris I.

268

Profit sharing and innovation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the effect of profit-sharing on product and process innovation. Profit-sharing is a credible commitment of the companies to let the employees participate in any efficiency gain. Resistance against technical progress becomes less plausible. Moreover, employees are stimulated to share their specific information advantage on possibilities to optimize the production process and products with the management. Using survey data

Kris Aerts; Kornelius Kraft

2008-01-01

269

Evolutionary relatedness of the predicted gene product of RNA segment 2 of the tick-borne Dhori virus and the PB1 polymerase gene of influenza viruses.  

PubMed

The complete nucleotide sequence of the second largest RNA segment of Dhori/India/1313/61 virus was determined and the deduced amino acid sequence was compared with the polymerase (P) proteins of influenza A, B, and C viruses. RNA segment 2 (2224 nucleotides) of Dhori virus contains a single long open reading frame that can encode a 716-amino acid polypeptide (81.3 kDa). The predicted polypeptide shares between 27 and 31% sequence identities with the PB1 polypeptides of influenza A, B, and C viruses. Among the regions most highly conserved are the sequences around the Asp-Asp motif common to many RNA polymerases. In spite of the high level of sequence identity between the Dhori RNA segment 2 gene product and the influenza A, B, and C virus PB1 proteins the amino acid composition of the Dhori protein indicates an acidic charge feature at pH 7.0 in contrast to the basic nature of the PB1 proteins of the influenza viruses. We suggest that the Dhori PB1-like protein be designated the P alpha protein of this virus. PMID:2024457

Lin, D A; Roychoudhury, S; Palese, P; Clay, W C; Fuller, F J

1991-05-01

270

Full Genome Characterization of the Culicoides-Borne Marsupial Orbiviruses: Wallal Virus, Mudjinbarry Virus and Warrego Viruses  

PubMed Central

Viruses belonging to the species Wallal virus and Warrego virus of the genus Orbivirus were identified as causative agents of blindness in marsupials in Australia during 1994/5. Recent comparisons of nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) sequences have provided a basis for the grouping and classification of orbivirus isolates. However, full-genome sequence data are not available for representatives of all Orbivirus species. We report full-genome sequence data for three additional orbiviruses: Wallal virus (WALV); Mudjinabarry virus (MUDV) and Warrego virus (WARV). Comparisons of conserved polymerase (Pol), sub-core-shell ‘T2’ and core-surface ‘T13’ proteins show that these viruses group with other Culicoides borne orbiviruses, clustering with Eubenangee virus (EUBV), another orbivirus infecting marsupials. WARV shares <70% aa identity in all three conserved proteins (Pol, T2 and T13) with other orbiviruses, consistent with its classification within a distinct Orbivirus species. Although WALV and MUDV share <72.86%/67.93% aa/nt identity with other orbiviruses in Pol, T2 and T13, they share >99%/90% aa/nt identities with each other (consistent with membership of the same virus species - Wallal virus). However, WALV and MUDV share <68% aa identity in their larger outer capsid protein VP2(OC1), consistent with membership of different serotypes within the species - WALV-1 and WALV-2 respectively. PMID:25299687

Belaganahalli, Manjunatha N.; Maan, Sushila; Maan, Narender S.; Pritchard, Ian; Kirkland, Peter D.; Brownlie, Joe; Attoui, Houssam; Mertens, Peter P. C.

2014-01-01

271

Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus dual infection  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) share common mode of transmission and both are able to induce a chronic infection. Dual HBV/HCV chronic coinfection is a fairly frequent occurrence, especially in high endemic areas and among individuals at high risk of parenterally transmitted infections. The intracellular interplay between HBV and HCV has not yet been sufficiently clarified, also due to the lack of a proper in vitro cellular model. Longitudinal evaluation of serum HBV DNA and HCV RNA amounts has revealed that complex virological profiles may be present in coinfected patients. Dual HBV/HCV infection has been associated to a severe course of the liver disease and to a high risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite the clinical importance, solid evidence and clear guidelines for treatment of this special population are still lacking. This review summarizes the available data on the virological and clinical features as well as the therapeutic options of the dual HBV/HCV infection, and highlights the aspects that need to be better clarified. PMID:25356020

Caccamo, Gaia; Saffioti, Francesca; Raimondo, Giovanni

2014-01-01

272

Assessment of Genetic Associations between Common Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in RIG-I-Like Receptor and IL-4 Signaling Genes and Severe Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Children: A Candidate Gene Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

The majority of cases of severe pediatric respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection occur in otherwise healthy infants who have no identifiable risk factors, suggesting that additional subclinical factors, such as population genetic variation, influence the course of RSV infection. The objective of this study was to test if common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding for immune signalling components of the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) and IL-4-signalling pathways affect the outcome of RSV infection in early life. We genotyped 8 SNPs using allele-specific probes combined with real-time PCR. Each of the SNPs tested had previously been established to have a functional impact on immune responsiveness and two of the SNPs in the IL4 and IL4R genes had previously been associated with severe RSV bronchiolitis. Association with susceptibility to severe RSV infection was tested by statistically comparing genotype and allele frequencies in infants and young children hospitalized with severe RSV bronchiolitis (n?=?140) with two control groups—children who tested positive for RSV but did not require hospitalization (n?=?100), and a general population control group (n?=?285). Our study was designed with sufficient power (>80%) to detect clinically-relevant associations with effect sizes ?1.5. However, we detected no statistically significant differences in allele and genotype frequencies of the investigated SNPs between the inpatient and control groups. To conclude, we could not replicate the previously reported association with SNPs in the IL4 and IL4R genes in our independent cohort, nor did we find that common SNPs in genes encoding for RLRs and the downstream adapter MAVS were associated with susceptibility to severe RSV infections. Despite the existing evidence demonstrating a functional immunological impact of these SNPs, our data suggest that the biological effect of each individual SNP is unlikely to affect clinical outcomes of RSV infection. PMID:24949794

Marr, Nico; Hirschfeld, Aaron F.; Lam, Angie; Wang, Shirley; Lavoie, Pascal M.; Turvey, Stuart E.

2014-01-01

273

Avian bic, a Gene Isolated from a Common Retroviral Site in Avian Leukosis Virus-Induced Lymphomas That Encodes a Noncoding RNA, Cooperates with c-myc in Lymphomagenesis and Erythroleukemogenesis  

PubMed Central

bic is a novel gene identified at a common retroviral integration site in avian leukosis virus-induced lymphomas and has been implicated as a collaborator with c-myc in B lymphomagenesis. It lacks an extensive open reading frame and is believed to function as an untranslated RNA (W. Tam, Gene 274:157-167, 2001; W. Tam, D. Ben-Yehuda, and W. S. Hayward, Mol. Cell. Biol. 17:1490-1502, 1997). The oncogenic potential of bic, particularly its ability to cooperate with c-myc in oncogenesis, was tested directly by expressing c-myc and bic, either singly or in pairwise combination, in cultured chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) and in chickens using replication-competent retrovirus vectors. Coexpression of c-myc and bic in CEFs caused growth enhancement of cells. Most importantly, chick oncogenicity assays demonstrated that bic can cooperate with c-myc in lymphomagenesis and erythroleukemogenesis. The present study provides direct evidence for the involvement of untranslated RNAs in oncogenesis and provides further support for the role of noncoding RNAs as riboregulators. PMID:11932393

Tam, Wayne; Hughes, Stephen H.; Hayward, William S.; Besmer, Peter

2002-01-01

274

Chlorella viruses isolated in China  

SciTech Connect

Plaque-forming viruses of the unicellular, eukaryotic, exsymbiotic, Chlorella-like green algae strain NC64A, which are common in the United States, were also present in fresh water collected in the People's Republic of China. Seven of the Chinese viruses were examined in detail and compared with the Chlorella viruses previously isolated in the United States. Like the American viruses, the Chinese viruses were large polyhedra and sensitive to chloroform. They contained numerous structural proteins and large double-stranded DNA genomes of at least 300 kilobase pairs. Each of the DNAs from the Chinese viruses contained 5-methyldeoxycytosine, which varied from 12.6 to 46.7% of the deoxycytosine, and N{sup 6}-methyldeoxyadenosine, which varied from 2.2 to 28.3% of the deoxyadenosine. Four of the Chinese virus DNAs hybridized extensively with {sup 32}P-labeled DNA from the American virus PBCV-1, and three hybridized poorly.

Zhang, Y.; Burbank, D.E.; Van Etten, J.L. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln (USA))

1988-09-01

275

Evidence for two subtypes of Ebola virus based on oligonucleotide mapping of RNA.  

PubMed

Ebola viruses isolated during outbreaks of acute hemorrhagic fever in Africa from 1976 to 1979 were examined by T1 oligonucleotide mapping of virion RNA. Two Ebola virus subtypes distinguishable by their oligonucleotide patterns were involved in the outbreaks of the disease during this three-year period. The first type was isolated in Zaire in 1976 and again in 1977; the second type caused outbreaks in Sudan in 1976 and again in 1979. Oligonucleotide patterns of the two groups of Ebola viruses (Zaire and Sudan) were remarkably similar within the group but differed between groups by approximately 60 oligonucleotides. We can conclude from this study (1) that the outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever which occurred concurrently in 1976 in Zaire and Sudan were caused by viruses that are genetically distinct; (2) that compared with other RNA viruses there was an unusually high genetic stability among viruses within Zaire and Sudan over two- and three-year periods, respectively; and (3) that the two genetic subtypes probably evolved from a common ancestor since they share common oligonucleotides. PMID:6827144

Cox, N J; McCormick, J B; Johnson, K M; Kiley, M P

1983-02-01

276

Common cold  

MedlinePLUS

... and before eating and preparing food. Disinfect your environment. Clean commonly touched surfaces (such as sink handles, ... system work properly. Eat yogurt that contains "active cultures." These may help prevent colds. Probiotics may help ...

277

Mobiphos: a collocated-synchronous mobile photo sharing application  

Microsoft Academic Search

People use photographs for numerous reasons with one of the most common uses of both analog and digital photographs is as an artifact to share and discuss with others. While the practic e of photo sharing has been thoroughly examined in the HCI community, there is currently very little research on easily capturing and sharing content within groups of collocated

James Clawson; Amy Voida; Nirmal J. Patel; Kent Lyons

2008-01-01

278

Rheumatoid arthritis synovial membrane contains a 62,000-molecular-weight protein that shares an antigenic epitope with the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded associated nuclear antigen.  

PubMed Central

A monoclonal antibody, selected for reactivity with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded antigen EBNA-1, exhibited strong reactivity with the synovial lining cells in joint biopsies from 10 of 12 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and adherent cells eluted from these tissues. No staining of RA synovial membrane frozen tissue sections or eluted synovial-lining cells was obtained with monoclonal antibodies directed against other EBV-encoded antigens (anti-p160, anti-gp200/350) or with monoclonal antibodies directed against antigens encoded by cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex viruses, or human T cell leukemia virus type I. Among 12 osteoarthritis and normal synovial biopsies only rare reactive cells were noted. Characterization of the antigen(s) in RA synovium by the Western immunoblotting technique revealed a 62,000-molecular-weight (mol-wt) protein, in contrast to the 70,000-85,000-mol-wt EBNA-1 antigen found in EBV-transformed cells. The structural basis for the cross-reactivity of the RA synovial membrane 62,000-mol-wt protein and the EBNA-1 antigen appears to reside in the glycine-alanine rich region of these molecules. A rabbit antibody directed against a synthetic peptide (IR3-VI-2) derived from the glycine-alanine-rich region of EBNA-1 reacted with the 70,000-85,000-mol-wt EBNA-1 antigen in EBV-infected cells and with the 62,000-mol-wt molecule in RA synovial membrane extracts. Since strong antibody responses to EBNA-1 are known to exist in RA patients, these results suggest that immune responses to a cross-reactive antigen may play a role in the pathogenesis of RA. Images PMID:2422209

Fox, R; Sportsman, R; Rhodes, G; Luka, J; Pearson, G; Vaughan, J

1986-01-01

279

Bat flight and zoonotic viruses  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts.

O'Shea, Thomas; Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

2014-01-01

280

Chimpanzees Share Forbidden Fruit  

PubMed Central

The sharing of wild plant foods is infrequent in chimpanzees, but in chimpanzee communities that engage in hunting, meat is frequently used as a ‘social tool’ for nurturing alliances and social bonds. Here we report the only recorded example of regular sharing of plant foods by unrelated, non-provisioned wild chimpanzees, and the contexts in which these sharing behaviours occur. From direct observations, adult chimpanzees at Bossou (Republic of Guinea, West Africa) very rarely transferred wild plant foods. In contrast, they shared cultivated plant foods much more frequently (58 out of 59 food sharing events). Sharing primarily consists of adult males allowing reproductively cycling females to take food that they possess. We propose that hypotheses focussing on ‘food-for-sex and -grooming’ and ‘showing-off’ strategies plausibly account for observed sharing behaviours. A changing human-dominated landscape presents chimpanzees with fresh challenges, and our observations suggest that crop-raiding provides adult male chimpanzees at Bossou with highly desirable food commodities that may be traded for other currencies. PMID:17849015

Hockings, Kimberley J.; Humle, Tatyana; Anderson, James R.; Biro, Dora; Sousa, Claudia; Ohashi, Gaku; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

2007-01-01

281

On secret sharing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract-A,“secret sharing,system”,permits,a secret,to be shared among n trustees in such a way that any k of them can recover the secret, but any k - 1 have complete,uncertainty,about it. A linear coding,scheme for secret sharing is exhibited which subsumes,the polynomial,interpolation method,proposed,by Shamir,and,can also he viewed,as a deterministic version of Blakley’s probabilistic method. Bounds on the maximum,value of n for a

Ehud D. Karnin; J. W. Greene; Martin E. Hellman

1983-01-01

282

What Are Common Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Symptoms?  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources and Publications En Español What are common TBI symptoms? Skip sharing on social media links Share ... a sign of severe TBI. Symptoms of Mild TBI A person with a mild TBI may experience: ...

283

Autism: Many Genes, Common Pathways?  

PubMed Central

Autism is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental syndrome with a complex genetic etiology. It is still not clear whether autism comprises a vast collection of different disorders akin to intellectual disability or a few disorders sharing common aberrant pathways. Unifying principles among cases of autism are likely to be at the level of brain circuitry in addition to molecular pathways. PMID:18984147

Geschwind, Daniel H.

2009-01-01

284

Profiling mRNAs of two Cuscuta species reveals possible candidate transcripts shared by parasitic plants.  

PubMed

Dodders are among the most important parasitic plants that cause serious yield losses in crop plants. In this report, we sought to unveil the genetic basis of dodder parasitism by profiling the trancriptomes of Cuscuta pentagona and C. suaveolens, two of the most common dodder species using a next-generation RNA sequencing platform. De novo assembly of the sequence reads resulted in more than 46,000 isotigs and contigs (collectively referred to as expressed sequence tags or ESTs) for each species, with more than half of them predicted to encode proteins that share significant sequence similarities with known proteins of non-parasitic plants. Comparing our datasets with transcriptomes of 12 other fully sequenced plant species confirmed a close evolutionary relationship between dodder and tomato. Using a rigorous set of filtering parameters, we were able to identify seven pairs of ESTs that appear to be shared exclusively by parasitic plants, thus providing targets for tailored management approaches. In addition, we also discovered ESTs with sequences similarities to known plant viruses, including cryptic viruses, in the dodder sequence assemblies. Together this study represents the first comprehensive transcriptome profiling of parasitic plants in the Cuscuta genus, and is expected to contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of parasitic plant-host plant interactions. PMID:24312295

Jiang, Linjian; Wijeratne, Asela J; Wijeratne, Saranga; Fraga, Martina; Meulia, Tea; Doohan, Doug; Li, Zhaohu; Qu, Feng

2013-01-01

285

Profiling mRNAs of Two Cuscuta Species Reveals Possible Candidate Transcripts Shared by Parasitic Plants  

PubMed Central

Dodders are among the most important parasitic plants that cause serious yield losses in crop plants. In this report, we sought to unveil the genetic basis of dodder parasitism by profiling the trancriptomes of Cuscuta pentagona and C. suaveolens, two of the most common dodder species using a next-generation RNA sequencing platform. De novo assembly of the sequence reads resulted in more than 46,000 isotigs and contigs (collectively referred to as expressed sequence tags or ESTs) for each species, with more than half of them predicted to encode proteins that share significant sequence similarities with known proteins of non-parasitic plants. Comparing our datasets with transcriptomes of 12 other fully sequenced plant species confirmed a close evolutionary relationship between dodder and tomato. Using a rigorous set of filtering parameters, we were able to identify seven pairs of ESTs that appear to be shared exclusively by parasitic plants, thus providing targets for tailored management approaches. In addition, we also discovered ESTs with sequences similarities to known plant viruses, including cryptic viruses, in the dodder sequence assemblies. Together this study represents the first comprehensive transcriptome profiling of parasitic plants in the Cuscuta genus, and is expected to contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of parasitic plant-host plant interactions. PMID:24312295

Wijeratne, Saranga; Fraga, Martina; Meulia, Tea; Doohan, Doug; Li, Zhaohu; Qu, Feng

2013-01-01

286

INFECTIOUS DOSE OF NORWALK VIRUS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Norwalk virus and related viruses (caliciviruses) have been identified as a common cause of waterborne disease. Moreover, there are many outbreaks of waterborne disease every year where the causative agent was never identified, and it is thought that many of these are due to ...

287

Circular quantum secret sharing  

E-print Network

A circular quantum secret sharing protocol is proposed, which is useful and efficient when one of the parties of secret sharing is remote to the others who are in adjacent, especially the parties are more than three. We describe the process of this protocol and discuss its security when the quantum information carrying is polarized single photons running circularly. It will be shown that entanglement is not necessary for quantum secret sharing. Moreover, the theoretic efficiency is improved to approach 100% as almost all the instances can be used for generating the private key, and each photon can carry one bit of information without quantum storage. It is straightforwardly to utilize this topological structure to complete quantum secret sharing with multi-level two-particle entanglement in high capacity securely.

Fu-Guo Deng; Hong-Yu Zhou andGui Lu Long

2006-12-03

288

Accelerating Spectrum Sharing Technologies  

SciTech Connect

Spectrum sharing potentially holds the promise of solving the emerging spectrum crisis. However, technology innovators face the conundrum of developing spectrum sharing technologies without the ability to experiment and test with real incumbent systems. Interference with operational incumbents can prevent critical services, and the cost of deploying and operating an incumbent system can be prohibitive. Thus, the lack of incumbent systems and frequency authorization for technology incubation and demonstration has stymied spectrum sharing research. To this end, industry, academia, and regulators all require a test facility for validating hypotheses and demonstrating functionality without affecting operational incumbent systems. This article proposes a four-phase program supported by our spectrum accountability architecture. We propose that our comprehensive experimentation and testing approach for technology incubation and demonstration will accelerate the development of spectrum sharing technologies.

Juan D. Deaton; Lynda L. Brighton; Rangam Subramanian; Hussein Moradi; Jose Loera

2013-09-01

289

Share My Screen Pro  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you work with people all over the country or the world, it can be hard to share information and visuals quickly. Share My Screen Pro allows users to do just that, complete with two way audio and instant messaging. Visitors can watch a short video here to get oriented and after that, it's rather easy to get started with the program. This version is compatible with all computers running Windows 2000 and newer as well as iOS and Android phones.

2013-07-18

290

Most parsimonious haplotype allele sharing determination  

PubMed Central

Background The "common disease – common variant" hypothesis and genome-wide association studies have achieved numerous successes in the last three years, particularly in genetic mapping in human diseases. Nevertheless, the power of the association study methods are still low, in particular on quantitative traits, and the description of the full allelic spectrum is deemed still far from reach. Given increasing density of single nucleotide polymorphisms available and suggested by the block-like structure of the human genome, a popular and prosperous strategy is to use haplotypes to try to capture the correlation structure of SNPs in regions of little recombination. The key to the success of this strategy is thus the ability to unambiguously determine the haplotype allele sharing status among the members. The association studies based on haplotype sharing status would have significantly reduced degrees of freedom and be able to capture the combined effects of tightly linked causal variants. Results For pedigree genotype datasets of medium density of SNPs, we present two methods for haplotype allele sharing status determination among the pedigree members. Extensive simulation study showed that both methods performed nearly perfectly on breakpoint discovery, mutation haplotype allele discovery, and shared chromosomal region discovery. Conclusion For pedigree genotype datasets, the haplotype allele sharing status among the members can be deterministically, efficiently, and accurately determined, even for very small pedigrees. Given their excellent performance, the presented haplotype allele sharing status determination programs can be useful in many downstream applications including haplotype based association studies. PMID:19379528

Cai, Zhipeng; Sabaa, Hadi; Wang, Yining; Goebel, Randy; Wang, Zhiquan; Xu, Jiaofen; Stothard, Paul; Lin, Guohui

2009-01-01

291

Hepatitis C virus infection in the human immunodeficiency virus infected patient.  

PubMed

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) share the same transmission routes; therefore, coinfection is frequent. An estimated 5-10 million individuals alone in the western world are infected with both viruses. The majority of people acquire HCV by injection drug use and, to a lesser extent, through blood transfusion and blood products. Recently, there has been an increase in HCV infections among men who have sex with men. In the context of effective antiretroviral treatment, liver-related deaths are now more common than Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome-related deaths among HIV-HCV coinfected individuals. Morbidity and mortality rates from chronic HCV infection will increase because the infection incidence peaked in the mid-1980s and because liver disease progresses slowly and is clinically silent to cirrhosis and end-stage-liver disease over a 15-20 year time period for 15%-20% of chronically infected individuals. HCV treatment has rapidly changed with the development of new direct-acting antiviral agents; therefore, cure rates have greatly improved because the new treatment regimens target different parts of the HCV life cycle. In this review, we focus on the epidemiology, diagnosis and the natural course of HCV as well as current and future strategies for HCV therapy in the context of HIV-HCV coinfection in the western world. PMID:25232248

Clausen, Louise Nygaard; Lundbo, Lene Fogt; Benfield, Thomas

2014-09-14

292

Hepatitis C virus infection in the human immunodeficiency virus infected patient  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) share the same transmission routes; therefore, coinfection is frequent. An estimated 5-10 million individuals alone in the western world are infected with both viruses. The majority of people acquire HCV by injection drug use and, to a lesser extent, through blood transfusion and blood products. Recently, there has been an increase in HCV infections among men who have sex with men. In the context of effective antiretroviral treatment, liver-related deaths are now more common than Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome-related deaths among HIV-HCV coinfected individuals. Morbidity and mortality rates from chronic HCV infection will increase because the infection incidence peaked in the mid-1980s and because liver disease progresses slowly and is clinically silent to cirrhosis and end-stage-liver disease over a 15-20 year time period for 15%-20% of chronically infected individuals. HCV treatment has rapidly changed with the development of new direct-acting antiviral agents; therefore, cure rates have greatly improved because the new treatment regimens target different parts of the HCV life cycle. In this review, we focus on the epidemiology, diagnosis and the natural course of HCV as well as current and future strategies for HCV therapy in the context of HIV-HCV coinfection in the western world.

Clausen, Louise Nygaard; Lundbo, Lene Fogt; Benfield, Thomas

2014-01-01

293

Loss of Anti-Viral Immunity by Infection with a Virus Encoding a Cross-Reactive Pathogenic Epitope  

PubMed Central

T cell cross-reactivity between different strains of the same virus, between different members of the same virus group, and even between unrelated viruses is a common occurrence. We questioned here how an intervening infection with a virus containing a sub-dominant cross-reactive T cell epitope would affect protective immunity to a previously encountered virus. Pichinde virus (PV) and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) encode subdominant cross-reactive NP205–212 CD8 T cell epitopes sharing 6 of 8 amino acids, differing only in the MHC anchoring regions. These pMHC epitopes induce cross-reactive but non-identical T cell receptor (TCR) repertoires, and structural studies showed that the differing anchoring amino acids altered the conformation of the MHC landscape presented to the TCR. PV-immune mice receiving an intervening infection with wild type but not NP205-mutant LCMV developed severe immunopathology in the form of acute fatty necrosis on re-challenge with PV, and this pathology could be predicted by the ratio of NP205-specific to the normally immunodominant PV NP38–45 -specific T cells. Thus, cross-reactive epitopes can exert pathogenic properties that compromise protective immunity by impairing more protective T cell responses. PMID:22536152

Chen, Alex T.; Cornberg, Markus; Gras, Stephanie; Guillonneau, Carole; Rossjohn, Jamie; Trees, Andrew; Emonet, Sebastien; de la Torre, Juan C.; Welsh, Raymond M.; Selin, Liisa K.

2012-01-01

294

Infotech. Cyber security. Health care learns to share scares and solutions.  

PubMed

Health care information technology leaders and others are coming together to share scary experiences and develop best practices to guard against crippling computer viruses, scheming hackers and other cyber threats. PMID:15192882

Colias, Mike

2004-05-01

295

Implementing Explicit and Finding Implicit Sharing in Embedded DSLs  

E-print Network

Aliasing, or sharing, is prominent in many domains, denoting that two differently-named objects are in fact identical: a change in one object (memory cell, circuit terminal, disk block) is instantly reflected in the other. Languages for modelling such domains should let the programmer explicitly define the sharing among objects or expressions. A DSL compiler may find other identical expressions and share them, implicitly. Such common subexpression elimination is crucial to the efficient implementation of DSLs. Sharing is tricky in embedded DSL, since host aliasing may correspond to copying of the underlying objects rather than their sharing. This tutorial summarizes discussions of implementing sharing in Haskell DSLs for automotive embedded systems and hardware description languages. The technique has since been used in a Haskell SAT solver and the DSL for music synthesis. We demonstrate the embedding in pure Haskell of a simple DSL with a language form for explicit sharing. The DSL also has implicit sharing,...

Kiselyov, Oleg

2011-01-01

296

Shared Memory Consistency Models: A Tutorial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parallel systems that support the shared memory abstraction are becoming widely accepted in many areas of computing. Writing correct and efficient programs for such systems requires a formal specification of memory semantics, called a memory consistency model . The most intuitive model— sequential consistency—greatly restricts the use of many performance optimizations commonly used by uniprocessor hardware and compiler designers, thereby

Sarita V. Adve; Kourosh Gharachorloo

1996-01-01

297

Shared Memory Consistency Models: A Tutorial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Parallel systems that support the shared memory abstraction are becoming widely accepted in many areas of computing Writing correct and efficient programs for such systems requires a formal specification of memory semantics, called a memory consistency model The most intuitive model - sequential consistency - greatly restricts the use of many performance optimizations commonly used by uniprocessor hardware and

Kourosh Gharachorloo; Sarita V. Adve

1995-01-01

298

ONESPACE: Shared Depth-Corrected Video Interaction  

E-print Network

], and more recently popular- ized by video game systems, where people interact with a mirrored video imageONESPACE: Shared Depth-Corrected Video Interaction Abstract Video conferencing commonly employs a video portal metaphor to connect individuals from remote spaces. In this work, we explore an alternate

Greenberg, Saul

299

Isolation and characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants infectious to brain-derived cells: detection of common point mutations in the V3 region of the env gene of the variants.  

PubMed Central

T-cell-line-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 cannot infect CD4-positive, brain-derived cells. We isolated several new variants that readily infected brain-derived cells. Mutation of proline to serine, to alanine, or to threonine in the well-conserved GPGR sequence in the V3 region of the envelope glycoprotein was found in all these variants. This indicates the importance of amino acid sequences at the tip of the V3 region for brain cell tropism of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. PMID:7980782

Shimizu, N S; Shimizu, N G; Takeuchi, Y; Hoshino, H

1994-01-01

300

Ebola Virus Defective Interfering Particles and Persistent Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ebola virus (Zaire subtype) is associated with high mortality disease outbreaks that commonly involve human to human transmission. Surviving patients can show evidence of prolonged virus persistence. The potential for Ebola virus to generate defective interfering (DI) particles and establish persistent infections in tissue culture was investigated. It was found that serial undiluted virus passages quickly resulted in production of

Philippe Calain; Martha C. Monroe; Stuart T. Nichol

1999-01-01

301

Cedar Virus: A Novel Henipavirus Isolated from Australian Bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Henipavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae contains two viruses, Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) for which pteropid bats act as the main natural reservoir. Each virus also causes serious and commonly lethal infection of people as well as various species of domestic animals, however little is known about the associated mechanisms of pathogenesis. Here, we report the

Glenn A. Marsh; Carol de Jong; Jennifer A. Barr; Mary Tachedjian; Craig Smith; Deborah Middleton; Meng Yu; Shawn Todd; Adam J. Foord; Volker Haring; Jean Payne; Rachel Robinson; Ivano Broz; Gary Crameri; Hume E. Field; Lin-Fa Wang

2012-01-01

302

Cedar Virus: A Novel Henipavirus Isolated from Australian Bats  

PubMed Central

The genus Henipavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae contains two viruses, Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) for which pteropid bats act as the main natural reservoir. Each virus also causes serious and commonly lethal infection of people as well as various species of domestic animals, however little is known about the associated mechanisms of pathogenesis. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a new paramyxovirus from pteropid bats, Cedar virus (CedPV), which shares significant features with the known henipaviruses. The genome size (18,162 nt) and organization of CedPV is very similar to that of HeV and NiV; its nucleocapsid protein displays antigenic cross-reactivity with henipaviruses; and it uses the same receptor molecule (ephrin- B2) for entry during infection. Preliminary challenge studies with CedPV in ferrets and guinea pigs, both susceptible to infection and disease with known henipaviruses, confirmed virus replication and production of neutralizing antibodies although clinical disease was not observed. In this context, it is interesting to note that the major genetic difference between CedPV and HeV or NiV lies within the coding strategy of the P gene, which is known to play an important role in evading the host innate immune system. Unlike HeV, NiV, and almost all known paramyxoviruses, the CedPV P gene lacks both RNA editing and also the coding capacity for the highly conserved V protein. Preliminary study indicated that CedPV infection of human cells induces a more robust IFN-? response than HeV. PMID:22879820

Barr, Jennifer A.; Tachedjian, Mary; Smith, Craig; Middleton, Deborah; Yu, Meng; Todd, Shawn; Foord, Adam J.; Haring, Volker; Payne, Jean; Robinson, Rachel; Broz, Ivano; Crameri, Gary; Field, Hume E.; Wang, Lin-Fa

2012-01-01

303

Virus Present At Birth Causes More Than 10 Percent of Hearing-Loss Cases in Kids  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Virus Present at Birth Causes More Than 10 Percent ... But only one in 10 children with the virus shows symptoms, and screening is not routine, said ...

304

Practical Mobile Proactive Secret Sharing  

E-print Network

Secret sharing schemes are needed to store and protect secrets in large scale distributed systems. These schemes protect a secret by dividing the it into shares and distributing the shares to multiple shareholders. This ...

Dryjanski, David

2008-01-01

305

HydroShare: An online, collaborative environment for the sharing of hydrologic data and models (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HydroShare is an online, collaborative system being developed for sharing hydrologic data and models. The goal of HydroShare is to enable scientists to easily discover and access data and models, retrieve them to their desktop or perform analyses in a distributed computing environment that may include grid, cloud or high performance computing model instances as necessary. Scientists may also publish outcomes (data, results or models) into HydroShare, using the system as a collaboration platform for sharing data, models and analyses. HydroShare is expanding the data sharing capability of the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System by broadening the classes of data accommodated, creating new capability to share models and model components, and taking advantage of emerging social media functionality to enhance information about and collaboration around hydrologic data and models. One of the fundamental concepts in HydroShare is that of a Resource. All content is represented using a Resource Data Model that separates system and science metadata and has elements common to all resources as well as elements specific to the types of resources HydroShare will support. These will include different data types used in the hydrology community and models and workflows that require metadata on execution functionality. HydroShare will use the integrated Rule-Oriented Data System (iRODS) to manage federated data content and perform rule-based background actions on data and model resources, including parsing to generate metadata catalog information and the execution of models and workflows. This presentation will introduce the HydroShare functionality developed to date, describe key elements of the Resource Data Model and outline the roadmap for future development.

Tarboton, D. G.; Idaszak, R.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Ames, D.; Goodall, J. L.; Band, L. E.; Merwade, V.; Couch, A.; Arrigo, J.; Hooper, R. P.; Valentine, D. W.; Maidment, D. R.

2013-12-01

306

Controlled Quantum Secret Sharing  

E-print Network

We present a new protocol in which a secret multiqubit quantum state $\\ket{\\Psi}$ is shared by $n$ players and $m$ controllers, where $\\ket{\\Psi}$ is the encoding state of a quantum secret sharing scheme. The players may be considered as field agents responsible for carrying out a task, using the secret information encrypted in $\\ket{\\Psi}$, while the controllers are superiors who decide if and when the task should be carried out and who to do it. Our protocol only requires ancillary Bell states and Bell-basis measurements.

Chi-Yee Cheung

2005-08-24

307

Multiparty Quantum Secret Sharing  

E-print Network

Based on a quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocol [Phys. Rev. A69(04)052319], we propose a $(n,n)$-threshold scheme of multiparty quantum secret sharing of classical messages (QSSCM) using only single photons. We take advantage of this multiparty QSSCM scheme to establish a scheme of multiparty secret sharing of quantum information (SSQI), in which only all quantum information receivers collaborate can the original qubit be reconstructed. A general idea is also proposed for constructing multiparty SSQI schemes from any QSSCM scheme.

Zhan-jun Zhang; Yong Li; Zhong-xiao Man

2004-12-27

308

Multiparty quantum secret sharing  

SciTech Connect

Based on a quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocol [Phys. Rev. A 69 052319 (2004)], we propose a (n,n)-threshold scheme of multiparty quantum secret sharing of classical messages (QSSCM) using only single photons. We take advantage of this multiparty QSSCM scheme to establish a scheme of multiparty secret sharing of quantum information (SSQI), in which only all quantum information receivers collaborate can the original qubit be reconstructed. A general idea is also proposed for constructing multiparty SSQI schemes from any QSSCM scheme.

Zhang Zhanjun [School of Physics and Material Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China); Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Li Yong [Department of Physics, Huazhong Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Man Zhongxiao [Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China)

2005-04-01

309

Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of deformed wing viruses isolated from South Korea.  

PubMed

Deformed wing virus (DWV) is one of the most common viral infection in honeybees. Phylogenetic trees were constructed for 16 partial nucleotide sequences of the structural polyprotein region and the RNA helicase region of South Korean DWVs. The sequences were compared with 10 previously reported DWV sequences from different countries and the sequences of two closely related viruses, Kakugo virus (KGV) and Varroa destructor virus-1 (VDV-1). The phylogeny based on these two regions, the Korean DWV genomes were highly conserved with 95-100% identity, while they also shared 93-97% similarity with genotypes from other countries, although they formed a separate cluster. To investigate this phenomenon in more detail, the complete DWV genome sequences of Korea-1 and Korea-2 were determined and aligned with six previously reported complete DWV genome sequences from different countries, as well as KGV and VDV-1, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed. The two Korean DWVs shared 96.4% similarity. Interestingly, the Korea-2 genome was more similar to the USA (96.5%) genome than the Korea-1. The Korean genotypes highly conserved with USA (96%) but low similarity with the United Kingdom3 (UK3) genome (89%). The end of the 5' untranslated region (UTR), the start of the open reading frame (ORF) region, and the 3' UTR were variable and contained several substitutions/transitions. This phenomenon may be explained by intramolecular recombination between the Korean and other DWV genotypes. PMID:24035266

Reddy, Kondreddy Eswar; Noh, Jin Hyeong; Yoo, Mi-Sun; Kim, Young-Ha; Kim, Nam-Hee; Doan, Huong Thi Thanh; Ramya, Mummadireddy; Jung, Suk-Chan; Van Quyen, Dong; Kang, Seung-Won

2013-12-27

310

Adelaide River virus nucleoprotein gene: analysis of phylogenetic relationships of ephemeroviruses and other rhabdoviruses.  

PubMed

The nucleotide sequence of the Adelaide River virus (ARV) genome was determined from the 3' terminus to the end of the nucleoprotein (N) gene. The 3' leader sequence comprises 50 nucleotides and shares a common terminal trinucleotide (3' UGC-), a conserved U-rich domain and a variable AU-rich domain with other animal rhabdoviruses. The N gene comprises 1355 nucleotides from the transcription start sequence (AACAGG) to the poly(A) sequence [CATG(A)7] and encodes a polypeptide of 429 amino acids. The N protein has a calculated molecular mass of 49429 Da and a pI of 5.4 and, like the bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) N protein, features a highly acidic C-terminal domain. Analysis of amino acid sequence relationships between all available rhabdovirus N proteins indicated that ARV and BEFV are closely related viruses (48.3% similarity) which share higher sequence similarity to vesiculoviruses than to lyssaviruses. Phylogenetic trees based on a multiple sequence alignment of all available rhabdovirus N protein sequences demonstrated clustering of viruses according to genome organization, host range and established taxonomic relationships. PMID:9049348

Wang, Y; Cowley, J A; Walker, P J

1995-04-01

311

Glycoprotein D Homologs in Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1, Pseudorabies Virus, and Bovine Herpes Virus Type 1 Bind Directly to Human HveC (Nectin-1) with Different Affinities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distinct subsets of human receptors for alphaherpesviruses mediate the entry of herpes simplex virus (HSV), pseudorabies virus (PrV), or bovine herpes virus type 1 (BHV-1) into cells. Glycoprotein D (gD) is essential for receptor-mediated entry of all three viruses into cells. However, the gD homologs of these viruses share only 22–33% amino acid identity. Several entry receptors for HSV have

Sarah A. Connolly; J. Charles Whitbeck; Ann H. Rux; Claude Krummenacher; Sylvia van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk; Gary H. Cohen; Roselyn J. Eisenberg

2001-01-01

312

Measles virus for cancer therapy  

PubMed Central

Measles virus offers an ideal platform from which to build a new generation of safe, effective oncolytic viruses. Occasional "spontaneous" tumor regressions have occurred during natural measles infections, but common tumors do not express SLAM, the wild-type MV receptor, and are therefore not susceptible to the virus. Serendipitously, attenuated vaccine strains of measles virus have adapted to use CD46, a regulator of complement activation that is expressed in higher abundance on human tumor cells than on their non transformed counterparts. For this reason, attenuated measles viruses are potent and selective oncolytic agents showing impressive antitumor activity in mouse xenograft models. The viruses can be engineered to enhance their tumor specificity, increase their antitumor potency and facilitate noninvasive in vivo monitoring of their spread. A major impediment to the successful deployment of oncolytic measles viruses as anticancer agents is the high prevalence of pre-existing anti measles immunity, which impedes bloodstream delivery and curtails intratumoral virus spread. It is hoped that these problems can be addressed by delivering the virus inside measles-infected cell carriers and/or by concomitant administration of immunosuppressive drugs. From a safety perspective, population immunity provides an excellent defense against measles spread from patient to carers and, in fifty years of human experience, reversion of attenuated measles to a wild type pathogenic phenotype has not been observed. Clinical trials testing oncolytic measles viruses as an experimental cancer therapy are currently underway. PMID:19203112

Russell, Stephen J.; Whye Peng, Kah

2014-01-01

313

Virus-specific HLA-restricted lysis of herpes simplex virus-infected human monocytes and macrophages mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes  

SciTech Connect

Freshly-isolated peripheral blood human monocytes and 5 day in vitro cultured macrophages were infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), labeled with /sup 51/Cr, and used as target cells in a 12-14 hour cell-mediated cytotoxicity assay. Mononuclear leukocytes (MNL) from HSV-1 non-immune individuals, whether unstimulated or stimulated with HSV-1 antigen, did not mediate significant lysis of either target cell. HSV-immune MNL, both freshly-isolated and cultured for 5 days without antigen, demonstrated only low levels of natural killer (NK) cell-mediate lysis. MNL from HSV-immune individuals incubated for 5 days in vitro with HSV-1 antigen mediated significant virus-specific lysis of both target cells. Mean virus-specific lysis of autologous monocytes was 8.5(/+-/2.0)% compared to a three-fold greater virus-specific lysis of autologous macrophages. Greater than 70% of this lytic activity was mediated by Leu-11-negative, T3-positive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Allogeneic target cells lacking a common HLA determinant were not significantly lysed while T8-positive CTL mediated infrequent lysis of target cells sharing a common HLA-A and/or HLA-B determinant. T4-positive lymphocytes were demonstrated to be the predominant cell mediating lysis of autologous target cells and allogeneic target cells sharing both HLA-A and/or HLA-B plus HLA-DR determinants with the CTL; the T4-positive cell was the sole CTL mediator of lysis of allogeneic target cells having a common HLA-DR determinant.

Torpey, D.J. III

1987-01-01

314

HIV1 and microvesicles from T cells share a common glycome, arguing for a common origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

HIV-1 is a master at deceiving the immune system and usurping host biosynthetic machinery. Although HIV-1 is coated with host-derived glycoproteins, only glycosylation of viral gp120 has been described. Here we use lectin microarray technology to analyze the glycome of intact HIV-1 virions. We show that the glycan coat of human T cell line–derived HIV-1 matches that of native immunomodulatory

Lakshmi Krishnamoorthy; Julian W Bess; Alex B Preston; Kunio Nagashima; Lara K Mahal

2009-01-01

315

Prediction of HIV1 virus-host protein interactions using virus and host sequence motifs  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Host protein-protein interaction networks are altered by invading virus proteins, which create new interactions, and modify or destroy others. The resulting network topology favors excessive amounts of virus production in a stressed host cell network. Short linear peptide motifs common to both virus and host provide the basis for host network modification. METHODS: We focused our host-pathogen study on

Perry Evans; William Dampier; Lyle Ungar; Aydin Tozeren

2009-01-01

316

Think before You Share  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in the US are increasingly discovering that online socializing is far from private and that sharing personal details on social-networking Web sites, such as Facebook, can have unintended consequences. A growing number of colleges are moving to disabuse students of the notion that the Internet is their private playground and what they type…

Read, Brock

2006-01-01

317

INFORMATION SECURITY & SHARED LEADERSHIP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much research has been conducted to look for predictors of positive information security results. To date, no research has yet looked at the potential relationships between shared and vertical leadership behaviors and security results. This paper proposes an empirical study to measure these factors and results and examine the relationships among them. Background Do the leadership style and leadership behaviors

Paul D. Witman

318

Sharing Expertise: Consulting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A special breed of superintendents who have developed expertise in a particular area find ways of sharing it in other venues as outside consultants. They pull extra duty to put their special skills into practice, to give back to their communities, to stay current and grounded in the field, or to enhance their professional reputations. They teach…

Graves, Bill

2011-01-01

319

Personalizing shared ubiquitous devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Everywhere we go, we are surrounded by shared devices: TVs, stereos, and appliances in the home; copiers, fax machines, and projectors in the office; phones and vending machines in public. Because these devices don't know who we are, they provide the same user interface and functionality to everyone. This lack of personalization in the real world is reminiscent of the

David M. Hilbert; Jonathan Trevor

2004-01-01

320

Shared Primary Health Care  

PubMed Central

Primary health care delivery in large urban centers may be shared between family physicians and specialists. This study examined screening and health promotion interventions by obstetrician-gynecologists as part of an annual examination of asymptomatic women. Procedures most closely linked to gynecological practice were performed most frequently. PMID:21229004

Yaffe, Mark J.; Toop, Jo-Ann

1991-01-01

321

Shared Memory in Multiprocessors  

E-print Network

Shared Memory in Multiprocessors Axel Jantsch Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) Stockholm, Sweden #12;Axel Jantsch 1992: Ph.D. from Vienna University of Technology on Hardware Synthesis July 2011 Consistency Relaxed Consistency Models 6 #12;The Many Cores Era Source: International Roadmap

Jantsch, Axel

322

Sharing Research Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are many ways to share a collection of data and students' thinking about that data. Explaining the results of science inquiry is important--working scientists and amateurs both contribute information to the body of scientific knowledge. Students can collect data about an activity that is already happening in a classroom (e.g., the qualities…

Ashbrook, Peggy

2011-01-01

323

Learning to Share  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the tug-of-war between researchers and IT for supercomputing resources, a centralized approach can help both sides get more bang for their buck. As 2010 began, the University of Washington was preparing to launch its first shared high-performance computing cluster, a 1,500-node system called Hyak, dedicated to research activities. Like other…

Raths, David

2010-01-01

324

Sharing Scoring Guides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Composition theory and research indicate that, whether they use a holistic or an analytic rubric, teachers should share their scoring guide with their students. Both students and teachers benefit in substantial ways when students draft and revise their written work in the context of the rubric their teachers will use to assess student writing.…

Soles, Derek

325

Training, sharing, finding applications  

E-print Network

Training, sharing, finding applications Cataloguing ant species, Santo expedition, Vanuatu #12 of its mission is to meet the scientific training needs of its Southern partners. The Institute has long Master's grants, 20 in-service training grants and 25 scientific exchange grants. With this system

326

Knowledge Sharing at Conferences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To improve the quality in teaching and learning, opportunities need to be provided where practitioners and researchers meet and share visions, disseminate findings, co-construct ideas, and set research agendas together. Visiting a conference is one well-known and established way to do this. But are they effective? A survey was conducted among the…

De Vries, Bregje; Pieters, Jules

2007-01-01

327

MoBlogs, Sharing Situations, and Lived Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter considers shared encounters through blogging in the light of John Urry’s new mobilities paradigm. We review relevant\\u000a literature on mobile blogging (moblogging) – blogging, pervasive image capture and sharing, moblogging and video blogging\\u000a – and describe common issues with these digital content sharing practices. We then document some features of how technology\\u000a affords “reflexive encounters” through the description

Connor Graham; Mark Rouncefield; Christine Satchell

2010-01-01

328

Sequence similarity between Borna disease virus p40 and a duplicated domain within the paramyxovirus and rhabdovirus polymerase proteins.  

PubMed Central

We report the sequence of a Borna disease virus clone (pBDV-40) that encodes a 40-kDa protein (p40) found in the nuclei of infected cells. Comparative sequence analysis indicates that p40 is distantly similar to two different regions in the L-polymerase proteins encoded by paramyxoviruses and rhabdoviruses. The p40 sequence similarity indicates a previously undetected duplication in these viral polymerases. Phylogenetic reconstruction suggests that the gene that encodes p40 last shared a common ancestor with these viral polymerase genes prior to the duplication event. These findings support the hypothesis that Borna disease virus is a negative-strand RNA virus and suggest that p40 is involved in transcription and/or replication. The discovery of a duplication within the polymerase proteins of paramyxoviruses and rhabdoviruses has profound implications for the mapping of enzymatic activities within these multifunctional proteins. Images PMID:1404604

McClure, M A; Thibault, K J; Hatalski, C G; Lipkin, W I

1992-01-01

329

Bacteriophage P23-77 Capsid Protein Structures Reveal the Archetype of an Ancient Branch from a Major Virus Lineage  

PubMed Central

Summary It has proved difficult to classify viruses unless they are closely related since their rapid evolution hinders detection of remote evolutionary relationships in their genetic sequences. However, structure varies more slowly than sequence, allowing deeper evolutionary relationships to be detected. Bacteriophage P23-77 is an example of a newly identified viral lineage, with members inhabiting extreme environments. We have solved multiple crystal structures of the major capsid proteins VP16 and VP17 of bacteriophage P23-77. They fit the 14 Å resolution cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction of the entire virus exquisitely well, allowing us to propose a model for both the capsid architecture and viral assembly, quite different from previously published models. The structures of the capsid proteins and their mode of association to form the viral capsid suggest that the P23-77-like and adeno-PRD1 lineages of viruses share an extremely ancient common ancestor. PMID:23623731

Rissanen, Ilona; Grimes, Jonathan M.; Pawlowski, Alice; Mantynen, Sari; Harlos, Karl; Bamford, Jaana K.H.; Stuart, David I.

2013-01-01

330

Homogeneous Family Sharing: Technical report  

E-print Network

Homogeneous Family Sharing: Technical report Xin Qi Andrew C. Myers {qixin, andru with new func- tionality. This paper introduces homogeneous family sharing, implemented in the J&h language to the original (heterogeneous) class sharing mechanism, homogeneous family sharing provides useful new

Myers, Andrew C.

331

Virus World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the Institute for Molecular Virology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, this Web site offers high quality virus images that may be used for seminar presentations or any other noncommercial use. Users can choose from American Society for Virology conference poster images, enhanced EM pictures, and images of virology-related book and journal covers. Images may be searched by virus name; the results page will provide links to summary information from the Protein Data Bank and to the Scripps Research Institute's Virus Particle Explorer. Movie animations and relevant links are provided for some of the virus images. Users can also access tutorials on virus structure and other topics.

2002-01-01

332

Bench-to-bedside review: Rare and common viral infections in the intensive care unit – linking pathophysiology to clinical presentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral infections are common causes of respiratory tract disease in the outpatient setting but much less common in the intensive care unit. However, a finite number of viral agents cause respiratory tract disease in the intensive care unit. Some viruses, such as influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and varicella-zoster virus (VZV), are relatively common. Others, such as adenovirus,

Nicholas Stollenwerk; Richart W Harper; Christian E Sandrock

2008-01-01

333

Clinical and biological differences between recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections  

SciTech Connect

The major features that distinguish recurrent herpes simplex virus infections from zoster are illustrated in this article by two case histories. The clinical and epidemiologic features that characterize recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections are reviewed. It is noted that herpesvirus infections are more common and severe in patients with cellular immune deficiency. Each virus evokes both humoral and cellular immune response in the course of primary infection. DNA hybridization studies with RNA probes labelled with sulfur-35 indicate that herpes simplex viruses persist within neurons, and that varicella-zoster virus is found in the satellite cells that encircle the neurons.

Straus, S.E. (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD (USA))

1989-12-01

334

Occurrence and prevalence of seven bee viruses in Apis mellifera and Apis cerana apiaries in China.  

PubMed

Populations of Apis mellifera and Apis cerana in China were surveyed for seven bee viruses: acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), deformed wing virus (DWV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), sacbrood virus (SBV), and Isreal acute paralysis virus (IAPV). No KBV was detected from any samples of the two species. In A. mellifera, DWV was the most prevalent virus, but in A. cerana, SBV was the dominant. Simultaneous multiple infections of viruses were common in both species. This is the first report of detection of IAPV and CBPV in A. cerana. PMID:22062807

Ai, Hongxia; Yan, Xun; Han, Richou

2012-01-01

335

Occurrence of latent virus infection in visually-rated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of latent infections was studied in five cowpeas varieties. Seeds of the varieties were planted and the seedlings inoculated with antigens from Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) genus Cucumovirus, Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) genus Potyvirus (Blackeye cowpea mosaic virus strain), Southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV) genus Sobemovirus and Cowpea mottle virus (CPMoV) genus Carmovirus seven days after planting.

Olusola O. Odedara; Jacqueline D A. Hughes; Babajide O. Odu

2009-01-01

336

Lessons learned from Asian tsunami disaster: sharing knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creating an organised common platform to capture, organise and share the knowledge on disaster management strategies is considered vital to enhance the effectiveness of future disaster management efforts. Hence, ensuring the availability and accessibility of accurate and reliable disaster risk information when required entails an efficient system for knowledge sharing. This paper highlights the importance of knowledge and good practice

Chaminda Pathirage; Richard Haigh; David Baldry

337

Multimedia Shared Stories: Teaching Literacy Skills to Diverse Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through research, shared stories have demonstrated their effectiveness in teaching literacy skills to students with disabilities, including students who are culturally and linguistically diverse. In an effort to keep pace with ever-changing technology, shared stories can be transformed into a multimedia experience using software that is commonly

Rivera, Christopher J.

2013-01-01

338

Environmental Contributions to the Stability of Antisocial Behavior over Time: Are They Shared or Non-shared?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has recently been argued that shared environmental influences are moderate, identifiable, and persistent sources of individual\\u000a differences in most forms of child and adolescent psychopathology, including antisocial behavior. Unfortunately, prior studies\\u000a examining the stability of shared environmental influences over time were limited by possible passive gene-environment correlations,\\u000a shared informants effects, and\\/or common experiences of trauma. The current study sought

S. Alexandra Burt; Matt McGue; William G. Iacono

2010-01-01

339

Let's You Do That: Sharing the Cognitive Burdens of Dialogue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three accounts of common ground maintenance make different assumptions about speakers' responsibilities regarding listener-privileged information. Duplicated responsibility requires each interlocutor to assimilate the other's knowledge before designing appropriate utterances. Shared responsibility appeals to least collaborative effort [Clark, H.…

Bard, E. G.; Anderson, A. H.; Chen, Y.; Nicholson, H. B. M.; Havard, C.; Dalzel-Job, S.

2007-01-01

340

Common Respiratory Diseases Tied to Lung Cancer Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Common Respiratory Diseases Tied to Lung Cancer Risk Chronic ... Diseases FRIDAY, Aug. 15, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Three common respiratory diseases seem to be associated with an ...

341

Application and management of commonality within NASA systems  

E-print Network

Commonality can be defined as the sharing of assets such as components, designs, processes, technologies, interfaces, and/or infrastructure across systems. Through commonality, NASA has the opportunity to develop, produce, ...

Rhodes, Richard Alexander

2010-01-01

342

Shared Activity Coordination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interacting agents that interleave planning and execution must reach consensus on their commitments to each other. In domains where agents have varying degrees of interaction and different constraints on communication and computation, agents will require different coordination protocols in order to efficiently reach consensus in real time. We briefly describe a largely unexplored class of real-time, distributed planning problems (inspired by interacting spacecraft missions), new challenges they pose, and a general approach to solving the problems. These problems involve self-interested agents that have infrequent communication but collaborate on joint activities. We describe a Shared Activity Coordination (SHAC) framework that provides a decentralized algorithm for negotiating the scheduling of shared activities in a dynamic environment, a soft, real-time approach to reaching consensus during execution with limited communication, and a foundation for customizing protocols for negotiating planner interactions. We apply SHAC to a realistic simulation of interacting Mars missions and illustrate the simplicity of protocol development.

Clement, Bradley J.; Barrett, Anthony C.

2003-01-01

343

Welding Qualification Sharing  

SciTech Connect

ASME Section IX, 'Welding Qualifications', requires that each organization qualify its own welders and welding procedures. Qualification responsibility cannot be subcontracted, and qualifications administered by one organization cannot be transferred to another organization. This requirement has become the subject of close scrutiny as the demand for efficiency, particularly among nuclear plant owners, has increased. Two recent Code Cases change procedure and performance qualification requirements for the better. The first, N-573, enables nuclear plant owners to share welding procedure qualifications. The second, N-600, enables nuclear plant owners to share welder performance qualifications. Several owners have reduced costs using N-573. N-600, because it is relatively new, has not yet been implemented. Its potential for cost savings, though, is equivalent to that afforded by N-573. This paper discusses ASME Section IX's procedure and performance qualification philosophy, assesses that philosophy in light of today's welding environment, and discusses implementation of Code Cases N-573 and N-600. (authors)

Newton, Bruce [Welding Services, Inc., 2225 Skyland Court, Norcross, GA 30071 (United States)

2002-07-01

344

Shared Health Governance  

PubMed Central

Health and Social Justice (Ruger 2009a) developed the “health capability paradigm,” a conception of justice and health in domestic societies. This idea undergirds an alternative framework of social cooperation called “shared health governance” (SHG). SHG puts forth a set of moral responsibilities, motivational aspirations, and institutional arrangements, and apportions roles for implementation in striving for health justice. This article develops further the SHG framework and explains its importance and implications for governing health domestically. PMID:21745082

Ruger, Jennifer Prah

2014-01-01

345

Dare to Share Fairly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This iOS app from Math Playground is a visual math tool for children who are learning how to divide larger numbers. Children drag place value blocks, which model the given dividend to individual mats, which represent the divisor to demonstrate fair sharing. If needed, there is a place value exchange section and a bin for remainders. The standard division algorithm is presented for comparison.

King, Colleen

2013-06-13

346

Sharing Medicine: The Candidacy of Medicines and Other Household Items for Sharing, Dominican Republic  

PubMed Central

Background People share medicines and problems can result from this behavior. Successful interventions to change sharing behavior will require understanding people’s motives and purposes for sharing medicines. Better information about how medicines fit into the gifting and reciprocity system could be useful in designing interventions to modify medicine sharing behavior. However, it is uncertain how people situate medicines among other items that might be shared. This investigation is a descriptive study of how people sort medicines and other shareable items. Methods and Findings This study in the Dominican Republic examined how a convenience sample (31 people) sorted medicines and rated their shareability in relation to other common household items. We used non-metric multidimensional scaling to produce association maps in which the distances between items offer a visual representation of the collective opinion of the participants regarding the relationships among the items. In addition, from a pile sort constrained by four categories of whether sharing or loaning the item was acceptable (on a scale from not shareable to very shareable), we assessed the degree to which the participants rated the medicines as shareable compared to other items. Participants consistently grouped medicines together in all pile sort activities; yet, medicines were mixed with other items when rated by their candidacy to be shared. Compared to the other items, participants had more variability of opinion as to whether medicines should be shared. Conclusions People think of medicines as a distinct group, suggesting that interventions might be designed to apply to medicines as a group. People’s differing opinions as to whether it was appropriate to share medicines imply a degree of uncertainty or ambiguity that health promotion interventions might exploit to alter attitudes and behaviors. These findings have implications for the design of health promotion interventions to impact medicine sharing behavior. PMID:24971939

Dohn, Michael N.; Pilkington, Hugo

2014-01-01

347

CHLORELLA VIRUSES  

PubMed Central

Chlorella viruses or chloroviruses are large, icosahedral, plaque?forming, double?stranded?DNA—containing viruses that replicate in certain strains of the unicellular green alga Chlorella. DNA sequence analysis of the 330?kbp genome of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV?1), the prototype of this virus family (Phycodnaviridae), predict ?366 protein?encoding genes and 11 tRNA genes. The predicted gene products of ?50% of these genes resemble proteins of known function, including many that are completely unexpected for a virus. In addition, the chlorella viruses have several features and encode many gene products that distinguish them from most viruses. These products include: (1) multiple DNA methyltransferases and DNA site?specific endonucleases, (2) the enzymes required to glycosylate their proteins and synthesize polysaccharides such as hyaluronan and chitin, (3) a virus?encoded K+ channel (called Kcv) located in the internal membrane of the virions, (4) a SET domain containing protein (referred to as vSET) that dimethylates Lys27 in histone 3, and (5) PBCV?1 has three types of introns; a self?splicing intron, a spliceosomal processed intron, and a small tRNA intron. Accumulating evidence indicates that the chlorella viruses have a very long evolutionary history. This review mainly deals with research on the virion structure, genome rearrangements, gene expression, cell wall degradation, polysaccharide synthesis, and evolution of PBCV?1 as well as other related viruses. PMID:16877063

Yamada, Takashi; Onimatsu, Hideki; Van Etten, James L.

2007-01-01

348

Viruses of haloarchaea.  

PubMed

In hypersaline environments, haloarchaea (halophilic members of the Archaea) are the dominant organisms, and the viruses that infect them, haloarchaeoviruses are at least ten times more abundant. Since their discovery in 1974, described haloarchaeoviruses include head-tailed, pleomorphic, spherical and spindle-shaped morphologies, representing Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, Pleolipoviridae, Sphaerolipoviridae and Fuselloviridae families. This review overviews current knowledge of haloarchaeoviruses, providing information about classification, morphotypes, macromolecules, life cycles, genetic manipulation and gene regulation, and host-virus responses. In so doing, the review incorporates knowledge from laboratory studies of isolated viruses, field-based studies of environmental samples, and both genomic and metagenomic analyses of haloarchaeoviruses. What emerges is that some haloarchaeoviruses possess unique morphological and life cycle properties, while others share features with other viruses (e.g., bacteriophages). Their interactions with hosts influence community structure and evolution of populations that exist in hypersaline environments as diverse as seawater evaporation ponds, to hot desert or Antarctic lakes. The discoveries of their wide-ranging and important roles in the ecology and evolution of hypersaline communities serves as a strong motivator for future investigations of both laboratory-model and environmental systems. PMID:25402735

Luk, Alison W S; Williams, Timothy J; Erdmann, Susanne; Papke, R Thane; Cavicchioli, Ricardo

2014-01-01

349

Open membranes are the precursors for assembly of large DNA viruses  

PubMed Central

Summary Nucleo cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) are a group of double-stranded DNA viruses that replicate their DNA partly or entirely in the cytoplasm in association with viral factories (VFs). They share about 50 genes suggesting that they are derived from a common ancestor. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron tomography (ET) we showed that the NCLDV vaccinia virus (VACV) acquires its membrane from open membrane intermediates, derived from the ER. These open membranes contribute to the formation of a single open membrane of the immature virion, shaped into a sphere by the assembly of the viral scaffold protein on its convex side. We now compare VACV with the NCLDV Mimivirus by TEM and ET and show that the latter also acquires its membrane from open membrane intermediates that accumulate at the periphery of the cytoplasmic VF. In analogy to VACV this membrane is shaped by the assembly of a layer on the convex side of its membrane, likely representing the Mimivirus capsid protein. By quantitative ET we show for both viruses that the open membrane intermediates of assembly adopt an ‘open-eight’ conformation with a characteristic diameter of 90 nm for Mimi- and 50 nm for VACV. We discuss these results with respect to the common ancestry of NCLDVs and propose a hypothesis on the possible origin of this unusual membrane biogenesis. PMID:23751082

Suarez, Cristina; Welsch, Sonja; Chlanda, Petr; Hagen, Wim; Hoppe, Simone; Kolovou, Androniki; Pagnier, Isabelle; Raoult, Didier; Locker, Jacomine Krijnse

2014-01-01

350

Akabane and bovine ephemeral fever virus infections.  

PubMed

Akabane and bovine ephemeral fever viruses are exotic to the American continent. Both viruses are spread by insect vectors, and each causes disease of varying severity in food-producing animals. However, there are few other similarities between the agents and the diseases that they cause. They do not share the same insect vectors, the mammalian host range is different, and the clinical manifestations of virus infection vary markedly. Akabane virus is a cause of severe congenital defects, but adult animals show no signs of infection. In contrast, bovine ephemeral fever virus causes a febrile illness affecting mainly mature animals. If introduced to North America, it is probable that there would be significant economic losses, at least until endemic virus transmission patterns were established. Subsequently, it is likely that there would be patterns of alternate disease outbreaks followed by interepidemic periods in which there is a minor clinical effect. PMID:12442580

Kirkland, Peter D

2002-11-01

351

The genome of Oryctes rhinoceros nudivirus provides novel insight into the evolution of nuclear arthropod-specific large circular double-stranded DNA viruses.  

PubMed

The Oryctes rhinoceros nudivirus (OrNV) is a dsDNA virus with enveloped, rod-shaped virions. Its genome is 127,615 bp in size and contains 139 predicted protein-coding open reading frames (ORFs). In-depth genome sequence comparisons revealed a varying number of shared gene homologues, not only with other nudiviruses (NVs) and baculoviruses, but also with other arthropod-specific large dsDNA viruses, including the so-called Monodon baculovirus (MBV), the salivary gland hypertrophy viruses (SGHVs) and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Nudivirus genomes contain 20 baculovirus core gene homologues associated with transcription (p47, lef-8, lef-9, lef-4, vlf-1, and lef-5), replication (dnapol and helicase), virus structure (p74, pif-1, pif-2, pif-3, 19kda/pif-4, odv-e56/pif-5, vp91, vp39, and 38K), and unknown functions (ac68, ac81, and p33). Most strikingly, a set of homologous genes involved in peroral infection (p74, pif-1, pif-2, and pif-3) are common to baculoviruses, nudiviruses, SGHVs, and WSSV indicating an ancestral mode of infection in these highly diverged viruses. A gene similar to polyhedrin/granulin encoding the baculovirus occlusion body protein was identified in non-occluded NVs and in Musca domestica SGHV evoking the question of the evolutionary origin of the baculovirus polyhedrin/granulin gene. Based on gene homologies, we further propose that the shrimp MBV is an occluded member of the nudiviruses. We conclude that baculoviruses, NVs and the shrimp MBV, the SGHVs and WSSV share the significant number of conserved genetic functions, which may point to a common ancestry of these viruses. PMID:21380757

Wang, Yongjie; Bininda-Emonds, Olaf R P; van Oers, Monique M; Vlak, Just M; Jehle, Johannes A

2011-06-01

352

Entire genome sequence analysis of genotype IX Newcastle disease viruses reveals their early-genotype phylogenetic position and recent-genotype genome size  

PubMed Central

Background Six nucleotide (nt) insertion in the 5'-noncoding region (NCR) of the nucleoprotein (NP) gene of Newcaslte disease virus (NDV) is considered to be a genetic marker for recent genotypes of NDV, which emerged after 1960. However, F48-like NDVs from China, identified a 6-nt insert in the NP gene, have been previously classified into genotype III or genotype IX. Results In order to clarify their phylogenetic position and explore the origin of NDVs with the 6-nt insert and its significance in NDV evolution, we determined the entire genome sequences of five F48-like viruses isolated in China between 1946 and 2002 by RT-PCR amplification of overlapping fragments of full-length genome and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. All the five NDV isolates shared the same genome size of 15,192-nt with the recent genotype V-VIII viruses whereas they had the highest homology with early genotype III and IV isolates. Conclusions The unique characteristic of the genome size and phylogenetic position of F48-like viruses warrants placing them in a separate geno-group, genotype IX. Results in this study also suggest that genotype IX viruses most likely originate from a genotype III virus by insertion of a 6-nt motif in the 5'-NCR of the NP gene which had occurred as early as in 1940 s, and might be the common origin of genotype V-VIII viruses. PMID:21396134

2011-01-01

353

The structure of a thermophilic archaeal virus shows a dsDNA viral capsid type that spans all domains of life  

SciTech Connect

Of the three domains of life (Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea), the least understood is Archaea and its associated viruses. Many Archaea are extremophiles, with species that are capable of growth at some of the highest temperatures and extremes of pH of all known organisms. Phylogenetic rRNA-encoding DNA analysis places many of the hyperthermophilic Archaea (species with an optimum growth >80°C) at the base of the universal tree of life, suggesting that thermophiles were among the first forms of life on earth. Very few viruses have been identified from Archaea as compared to Bacteria and Eukarya. We report here the structure of a hyperthermophilic virus isolated from an archaeal host found in hot springs in Yellowstone National Park. The sequence of the circular double-stranded DNA viral genome shows that it shares little similarity to other known genes in viruses or other organisms. By comparing the tertiary and quaternary structures of the coat protein of this virus with those of a bacterial and an animal virus, we find conformational relationships among all three, suggesting that some viruses may have a common ancestor that precedes the division into three domains of life >3 billion years ago.

G. Rice; L. Tang; K. Stedman; F. Roberto; J. Spuhler; E. Gillitzer; J. E. Johnson; T. Douglas; M. Young

2004-05-01

354

The Sharing Economy: Moving People with Shared Cars and Bikes  

E-print Network

The Sharing Economy: Moving People with Shared Cars and Bikes Susan Shaheen Fleets of cars and trucks in a network of locations · Allows households-income residents and college students · Provides car use without bearing full ownership

Kammen, Daniel M.

355

Young Children's Understanding of Cultural Common Ground  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Human social interaction depends on individuals identifying the common ground they have with others, based both on personally shared experiences and on cultural common ground that all members of the group share. We introduced 3- and 5-year-old children to a culturally well-known object and a novel object. An experimenter then entered and asked,…

Liebal, Kristin; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

2013-01-01

356

A comparative cell biological analysis reveals only limited functional homology between the NS5A proteins of hepatitis C virus and GB virus B.  

PubMed

GB virus B (GBV-B) is the closest relative to hepatitis C virus (HCV) with which it shares a common genome organization, however, unlike HCV in humans, it generally causes an acute resolving hepatitis in New World monkeys. It is important to understand the factors regulating the different disease profiles of the two viruses and in this regard, as well as playing a key role in viral RNA replication, the HCV NS5A non-structural protein modulates a variety of host-cell signalling pathways. We have shown previously that HCV NS5A, expressed either alone, or in the context of the complete polyprotein, inhibits the Ras-extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (Erk) pathway and activates the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. In this report, we investigate whether these functions are shared by GBV-B NS5A. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that a C-terminally FLAG-tagged GBV-B NS5A exhibited a punctate cytoplasmic distribution. However, unlike HCV NS5A, the GBV-B protein did not partially co-localize with early endosomes. Utilizing a transient luciferase reporter system, we observed that GBV-B NS5A failed to inhibit Ras-Erk signalling, however GBV-B NS5A expression did result in the elevation of beta-catenin-dependent transcription via activation of the PI3K pathway. These effects of GBV-B and HCV NS5A on the PI3K and Ras-Erk pathways were confirmed in cells harbouring subgenomic replicons derived from the two viruses. Based on these data we speculate that the differential effects of the two NS5A proteins on cellular signalling pathways may contribute to the differences in the natural history of the two viruses. PMID:18632962

Mankouri, Jamel; Milward, Andrew; Pryde, Kenneth R; Warter, Lucile; Martin, Annette; Harris, Mark

2008-08-01

357

Modelling Shared State in a Shared Action Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The I\\/O automation model of N.A. Lynch and M.R. Tuttle (1987) is extended to allow modeling of shared memory systems, as well as systems that include both shared memory and shared action communication. A full range of types of atomic accesses to shared memory is allowed, from basic reads and writes to read-modify-write. The extended model supports system description, verification,

Kenneth J. Goldman; Nancy A. Lynch

1990-01-01

358

Cache Fusion: Extending Shared-Disk Clusters with Shared Caches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cache Fusion TM is a fundamental component of Oracle's Real Application Cluster configuration, a shared-cache clustered-database architecture that transparently extends database applications from single systems to multi-node shared-disk clusters. In classic shared-disk implementations, the disk is the medium for data sharing and data blocks are shipped between nodes through disk writes and reads under the arbitration of a distrib- uted

Tirthankar Lahiri; Vinay Srihari; Wilson Chan; N. Macnaughton; Sashikanth Chandrasekaran

2001-01-01

359

Laser Capture Microdissection Assessment of Virus Compartmentalization in the Central Nervous Systems of Macaques Infected with Neurovirulent Simian Immunodeficiency Virus  

PubMed Central

Nonhuman primate-simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) models are powerful tools for studying the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in the brain. Our laboratory recently isolated a neuropathogenic viral swarm, SIVsmH804E, a derivative of SIVsmE543-3, which was the result of sequential intravenous passages of viruses isolated from the brains of rhesus macaques with SIV encephalitis. Animals infected with SIVsmH804E or its precursor (SIVsmH783Br) developed SIV meningitis and/or encephalitis at high frequencies. Since we observed macaques with a combination of meningitis and encephalitis, as well as animals in which meningitis or encephalitis was the dominant component, we hypothesized that distinct mechanisms could be driving the two pathological states. Therefore, we assessed viral populations in the meninges and the brain parenchyma by laser capture microdissection. Viral RNAs were isolated from representative areas of the meninges, brain parenchyma, terminal plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and from the inoculum, and the SIV envelope fragment was amplified by PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of envelope sequences from the conventional progressors revealed compartmentalization of viral populations between the meninges and the parenchyma. In one of these animals, viral populations in meninges were closely related to those from CSF and shared signature truncations in the cytoplasmic domain of gp41, consistent with a common origin. Apart from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging, CSF is the most accessible assess to the central nervous system for HIV-1-infected patients. However, our results suggest that the virus in the CSF may not always be representative of viral populations in the brain and that caution should be applied in extrapolating between the properties of viruses in these two compartments. PMID:23720733

Matsuda, Kenta; Brown, Charles R.; Foley, Brian; Goeken, Robert; Whitted, Sonya; Dang, Que; Wu, Fan; Plishka, Ronald; Buckler-White, Alicia

2013-01-01

360

Share with Charm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SHARE with CHARM program (SHAREv3) implements the statistical hadronization model description of particle production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Given a set of statistical parameters, SHAREv3 program evaluates yields and therefore also ratios, and furthermore, statistical particle abundance fluctuations. The physical bulk properties of the particle source are evaluated based on all hadrons produced, including the fitted yields. The bulk properties can be prescribed as a fit input complementing and/or replacing the statistical parameters. The modifications and improvements in the SHARE suite of programs are oriented towards recent and forthcoming LHC hadron production results including charm hadrons. This SHAREv3 release incorporates all features seen previously in SHAREv1.x and v2.x and, beyond, we include a complete treatment of charm hadrons and their decays, which further cascade and feed lighter hadron yields. This article is a complete and self-contained manual explaining and introducing both the conventional and the extended capabilities of SHARE with CHARM. We complement the particle list derived from the Particle Data Group tabulation (Beringer, 2012) composed of up, down, strange u,d,s quarks (including resonances) with hadrons containing charm c,c¯ quarks. We provide a table of the charm hadron decays including partial widths. The branching ratios of each charm hadron decay add to unity, which is achieved by including some charm hadron decay channels based on theoretical consideration in the absence of direct experimental information. A very successful interpretation of all available LHC results has been already obtained using this program.

Petran, M.; Letessier, J.; Rafelski, J.; Torrieri, G.

2014-07-01

361

A simple tool for neuroimaging data sharing  

PubMed Central

Data sharing is becoming increasingly common, but despite encouragement and facilitation by funding agencies, journals, and some research efforts, most neuroimaging data acquired today is still not shared due to political, financial, social, and technical barriers to sharing data that remain. In particular, technical solutions are few for researchers that are not a part of larger efforts with dedicated sharing infrastructures, and social barriers such as the time commitment required to share can keep data from becoming publicly available. We present a system for sharing neuroimaging data, designed to be simple to use and to provide benefit to the data provider. The system consists of a server at the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility (INCF) and user tools for uploading data to the server. The primary design principle for the user tools is ease of use: the user identifies a directory containing Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) data, provides their INCF Portal authentication, and provides identifiers for the subject and imaging session. The user tool anonymizes the data and sends it to the server. The server then runs quality control routines on the data, and the data and the quality control reports are made public. The user retains control of the data and may change the sharing policy as they need. The result is that in a few minutes of the user’s time, DICOM data can be anonymized and made publicly available, and an initial quality control assessment can be performed on the data. The system is currently functional, and user tools and access to the public image database are available at http://xnat.incf.org/. PMID:24904398

Haselgrove, Christian; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Kennedy, David N.

2014-01-01

362

On the Size of Shares for Secret Sharing Schemes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A secret sharing scheme permits a secret to be shared among participants insuch a way that only qualified subsets of participants can recover the secret, butany non-qualified subset has absolutely no information on the secret. The set ofall qualified subsets defines the access structure to the secret. Sharing schemes areuseful in the management of cryptographic keys and in multy-party secure

Renato M. Capocelli; Alfredo De Santis; Luisa Gargano; Ugo Vaccaro

1991-01-01

363

Share the Science!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students who participate in community outreach programs develop a positive awareness for civic duty and observe applications of their learning (Waldstein and Reiher 2001). Teachers and students discover the most vivid benefits of service learning when they participate themselves: Students are energized and the school builds a stronger link with the community. This article describes how high school chemistry students partnered with a local children's museum for service learning and outreach. The activities and benefits of the volunteer curriculum are also discussed. The project illustrates the powerful connection between what students learn and how they can share it with others.

Bergman, Daniel

2004-05-01

364

Ebola virus.  

PubMed

Ebola virus was first identified as a filovirus in 1976, following epidemics of severe haemorrhagic fever in sub-Saharan Africa. Further outbreaks have occurred since, but, despite extensive and continued investigations, the natural reservoir for the virus remains unknown. The mortality rate is high and there is no cure for Ebola virus infection. Molecular technology is proving useful in extending our knowledge of the virus. Identification of the host reservoir, control and prevention of further outbreaks, rapid diagnosis of infection, and vaccine development remain areas of continued interest in the fight against this biosafety level-four pathogen. PMID:10795373

Streether, L A

1999-01-01

365

Effect and utilization of common source inductance in synchronous rectification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synchronous rectification is widely used in low voltage high current applications to reduce conduction loss. Common source inductance is the inductance shared by gate driver loop and main power transfer path. Minimization of common source inductance has been accepted as a common design rule for power converters using power MOSFET. In this paper, the effects of commons source inductance for

Bo Yang; Jason Zhang

2005-01-01

366

Data sharing in group work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data sharing is fundamental to computer-supported cooperative work: People share information through explicit communication channels and through their coordinated use of shared databases. This paper examines the data management requirements of group work applications on the basis of experience with three prototype systems and on observations from the literature. Database and object management technologies that support these requirements are briefly

Irene Greif; Sunil K. Sarin

1987-01-01

367

Fractions: How to Fair Share  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children learn from a very early age what it means to get their "fair share." Whether it is candy or birthday cake, many children successfully create equal-size groups or parts of a collection or whole but later struggle to create fair shares of multiple wholes, such as fairly sharing four pies among a family of seven. Recent research suggests…

Wilson, P. Holt; Edgington, Cynthia P.; Nguyen, Kenny H.; Pescosolido, Ryan S.; Confrey, Jere

2011-01-01

368

Common and unique features of viral RNA-dependent polymerases.  

PubMed

Eukaryotes and bacteria can be infected with a wide variety of RNA viruses. On average, these pathogens share little sequence similarity and use different replication and transcription strategies. Nevertheless, the members of nearly all RNA virus families depend on the activity of a virally encoded RNA-dependent polymerase for the condensation of nucleotide triphosphates. This review provides an overview of our current understanding of the viral RNA-dependent polymerase structure and the biochemistry and biophysics that is involved in replicating and transcribing the genetic material of RNA viruses. PMID:25080879

Te Velthuis, Aartjan J W

2014-11-01

369

Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) in Infants and Babies  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) A parent's guide for infants and babies A A A This image displays grouped blisters within an inflamed area of skin typical of herpes simplex. Overview Herpes infections are caused by both herpes ...

370

Ebola Anxiety: a Bigger Threat Now Than the Virus Itself  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Ebola Anxiety: A Bigger Threat Now Than the Virus ... Tuesday, October 21, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Anxiety Ebola TUESDAY, Oct. 21, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Headlines remain ...

371

Microarray hybridization for assessment of the genetic stability of chimeric West Nile/dengue 4 virus.  

PubMed

Genetic stability is an important characteristic of live viral vaccines because an accumulation of mutants can cause reversion to a virulent phenotype as well as a loss of immunogenic properties. This study was aimed at evaluating the genetic stability of a live attenuated West Nile (WN) virus vaccine candidate that was generated by replacing the pre-membrane and envelope protein genes of dengue 4 virus with those from WN. Chimeric virus was serially propagated in Vero, SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma and HeLa cells and screened for point mutations using hybridization with microarrays of overlapping oligonucleotide probes covering the entire genome. The analysis revealed several spontaneous mutations that led to amino acid changes, most of which were located in the envelope (E) and non-structural NS4A, NS4B, and NS5 proteins. Viruses passaged in Vero and SH-SY5Y cells shared two common mutations: G(2337) C (Met(457) Ile) in the E gene and A(6751) G (Lys(125) Arg) in the NS4A gene. Quantitative assessment of the contents of these mutants in viral stocks indicated that they accumulated independently with different kinetics during propagation in cell cultures. Mutant viruses grew better in Vero cells compared to the parental virus, suggesting that they have a higher fitness. When tested in newborn mice, the cell culture-passaged viruses did not exhibit increased neurovirulence. The approach described in this article could be useful for monitoring the molecular consistency and quality control of vaccine strains. PMID:21360544

Laassri, Majid; Bidzhieva, Bella; Speicher, James; Pletnev, Alexander G; Chumakov, Konstantin

2011-05-01

372

Action of commonly used disinfectants against enteroviruses.  

PubMed

The virucidal effect of some of the most commonly used hospital disinfectants against Coxsackie B4, Echovirus 11, Poliovirus type 1 and Rotavirus have been evaluated. It was found that 'Chloros', 'Totacide 28' and methylated spirits were completely virucidal to all the viruses under study. 'Stericol' and 'Lysol' had a limited effect while 'Hibiscrub' and 'Savlon' had no effect at all. PMID:6195231

Narang, H K; Codd, A A

1983-06-01

373

Computational genomic analysis of hemorrhagic fever viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of distinct viruses are known as hemorrhagic fever viruses based on a shared ability to induce hemorrhage by poorly\\u000a understood mechanisms, typically involving the formation of blood clots (“disseminated intravascular coagulation”). It is\\u000a well documented that selenium plays a significant role in the regulation of blood clotting via its effects on the thromboxane\\/prostacyclin\\u000a ratio, and effects on the

Chandra Sekar Ramanathan; Ethan Will Taylor

1997-01-01

374

University Reactor Sharing Program  

SciTech Connect

Research projects supported by the program include items such as dating geological material and producing high current super conducting magnets. The funding continues to give small colleges and universities the valuable opportunity to use the NSC for teaching courses in nuclear processes; specifically neutron activation analysis and gamma spectroscopy. The Reactor Sharing Program has supported the construction of a Fast Neutron Flux Irradiator for users at New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology and the University of Houston. This device has been characterized and has been found to have near optimum neutron fluxes for A39/Ar 40 dating. Institution final reports and publications resulting from the use of these funds are on file at the Nuclear Science Center.

W.D. Reese

2004-02-24

375

SHARED TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER PROGRAM  

SciTech Connect

The program established a collaborative process with domestic industries for the purpose of sharing Navy-developed technology. Private sector businesses were educated so as to increase their awareness of the vast amount of technologies that are available, with an initial focus on technology applications that are related to the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies (Hydrogen) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. Specifically, the project worked to increase industry awareness of the vast technology resources available to them that have been developed with taxpayer funding. NAVSEA-Carderock and the Houston Advanced Research Center teamed with Nicholls State University to catalog NAVSEA-Carderock unclassified technologies, rated the level of readiness of the technologies and established a web based catalog of the technologies. In particular, the catalog contains technology descriptions, including testing summaries and overviews of related presentations.

GRIFFIN, JOHN M. HAUT, RICHARD C.

2008-03-07

376

Sharing Teaching Ideas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first idea presented is an activity aimed at teaching students to reduce a fraction to lowest terms by looking for the greatest common factor (GCF) of the numerator and denominator. The second idea looks at ways to construct solution problems that are challenging but which do not bog pupils down. (MP)

Mathematics Teacher, 1982

1982-01-01

377

Ethical Dimensions of Shared Ethnicity, Language, and Immigration Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article I illustrate how some commonalities that I share with my participants--ethnic background, native language, and immigration experience--create unexpected ethical concerns. I explore how these commonalities facilitate the establishment of rapid intimacy, at the same time creating the temptations of over-identification and blurring…

Victoria, Mabelle P.

2011-01-01

378

Academic Libraries and Shared Reading Programs. The College Connection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the summer, thousands of soon-to-be college students will read books as part of campus-wide "shared reading" programs (also referred as to common reader programs, one book programs, etc.). Such programs are designed to provide incoming students with a common experience and invite exploration of particular themes (e.g., diversity, etc.),…

Kasowitz-Scheer, Abby

2007-01-01

379

Common Conditions in Newborns  

MedlinePLUS

... Baby > Common Conditions in Newborns Ages & Stages Listen Common Conditions in Newborns Article Body Some physical conditions are especially common during the first couple of weeks after birth. ...

380

Dual infections of feeder pigs with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus followed by porcine respiratory coronavirus or swine influenza virus: a clinical and virological study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dual infections of pigs with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) followed by a second common respiratory virus, either porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV) or swine influenza virus (SIV), were studied. The aim was to determine if dual infections, as compared to single virus infections, result in enhanced clinical manifestations. It was also examined if PRRSV replication affects replication of

Kristien Van Reeth; Hans Nauwynck; Maurice Pensaert

1996-01-01

381

Comparing the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics and the NAEP Framework. Achieving the Common Core  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) Initiative, states and territories have collaborated in the development of a common core of standards in English Language Arts and mathematics for grades kindergarten through twelve that are now being adopted by states. Designed not only for the purpose of providing strong, shared expectations, the…

Achieve, Inc., 2010

2010-01-01

382

Comparing the Common Core State Standards and Singapore's Mathematics Syllabus. Achieving the Common Core  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) Initiative, states and territories have collaborated in the development of a common core of standards in English Language Arts and mathematics for grades kindergarten through twelve that are now being adopted by states. Designed not only for the purpose of providing strong, shared expectations, the…

Achieve, Inc., 2010

2010-01-01

383

The science of sharing and the sharing of science  

PubMed Central

Why do members of the public share some scientific findings and not others? What can scientists do to increase the chances that their findings will be shared widely among nonscientists? To address these questions, we integrate past research on the psychological drivers of interpersonal communication with a study examining the sharing of hundreds of recent scientific discoveries. Our findings offer insights into (i) how attributes of a discovery and the way it is described impact sharing, (ii) who generates discoveries that are likely to be shared, and (iii) which types of people are most likely to share scientific discoveries. The results described here, combined with a review of recent research on interpersonal communication, suggest how scientists can frame their work to increase its dissemination. They also provide insights about which audiences may be the best targets for the diffusion of scientific content. PMID:25225360

Milkman, Katherine L.; Berger, Jonah

2014-01-01

384

Secret Sharing and Proactive Renewal of Shares in Hierarchical Groups  

E-print Network

Secret sharing in user hierarchy represents a challenging area for research. Although a lot of work has already been done in this direc- tion, this paper presents a novel approach to share a secret among a hierarchy of users while overcoming the limitations of the already exist- ing mechanisms. Our work is based on traditional (k +1; n)-threshold secret sharing, which is secure as long as an adversary can compromise not more than k secret shares. But in real life it is often feasible for an adversary to obtain more than k shares over a long period of time. So, in our work we also present a way to overcome this vulnerability, while implementing our hierarchical secret sharing scheme. The use of Elliptic Curve Cryptography makes the computations easier and faster in our work.

Naskar, Ruchira; 10.5121/ijcsit.2010.2312

2010-01-01

385

The science of sharing and the sharing of science.  

PubMed

Why do members of the public share some scientific findings and not others? What can scientists do to increase the chances that their findings will be shared widely among nonscientists? To address these questions, we integrate past research on the psychological drivers of interpersonal communication with a study examining the sharing of hundreds of recent scientific discoveries. Our findings offer insights into (i) how attributes of a discovery and the way it is described impact sharing, (ii) who generates discoveries that are likely to be shared, and (iii) which types of people are most likely to share scientific discoveries. The results described here, combined with a review of recent research on interpersonal communication, suggest how scientists can frame their work to increase its dissemination. They also provide insights about which audiences may be the best targets for the diffusion of scientific content. PMID:25225360

Milkman, Katherine L; Berger, Jonah

2014-09-16

386

Student Perceptions of Computer Viruses: 1991 versus 1993.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparison of responses from 181 (of 196) business students surveyed in 1991 with those from 155 (of 175) surveyed in 1993 showed the latter group more aware of computer viruses and more active in detection and prevention. No differences were found in understanding of the dangers of disk sharing and of getting viruses from vendor packages. (SK)

Jones, Mary C.

1994-01-01

387

Directed-Graph Epidemiological Models of Computer Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The strong analogy between biological viruses and their computational counterparts has motivated the authors to adapt the techniques of mathematical epidemiology to the study of computer virus propagation. In order to allow for the most general patterns of program sharing, a standard epidemiological model is extended by placing it on a directed graph and a combination of analysis and simulation

Jeffrey O. Kephart; Steve R. White

1991-01-01

388

Human MxA protein inhibits tick-borne Thogoto virus but not Dhori virus.  

PubMed Central

Thogoto and Dhori viruses are tick-borne orthomyxoviruses infecting humans and livestock in Africa, Asia, and Europe. Here, we show that human MxA protein is an efficient inhibitor of Thogoto virus but is inactive against Dhori virus. When expressed in the cytoplasm of stably transfected cell lines, MxA protein interfered with the accumulation of Thogoto viral RNA and proteins. Likewise, MxA(R645), a mutant MxA protein known to be active against influenza virus but inactive against vesicular stomatitis virus, was equally efficient in blocking Thogoto virus growth. Hence, a common antiviral mechanism that is distinct from the antiviral action against vesicular stomatitis virus may operate against both influenza virus and Thogoto virus. When moved to the nucleus with the help of a foreign nuclear transport signal, MxA(R645) remained active against Thogoto virus, indicating that a nuclear step of virus replication was inhibited. In contrast, Dhori virus was not affected by wild-type or mutant MxA protein, indicating substantial differences between these two tick-transmitted orthomyxoviruses. Human MxB protein had no antiviral activity against either virus. PMID:7745744

Frese, M; Kochs, G; Meier-Dieter, U; Siebler, J; Haller, O

1995-01-01

389

Performance isolation: sharing and isolation in shared-memory multiprocessors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shared-memory multiprocessors (SMPs) are being extensively used as general-purpose servers. The tight coupling of multiple processors, memory, and I\\/O provides enormous computing power in a single system, and enables the efficient sharing of these resources.The operating systems for these machines (UNIX or Windows NT) provide very few controls for sharing the resources of the system among the active tasks or

Ben Verghese; Anoop Gupta; Mendel Rosenblum

1998-01-01

390

Emerging Viruses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Emerging viruses are those "whose incidence in humans has increased in the past 2 decades or threatens to increase in the near future." This week's Topic in Depth focuses on sites related to viruses, particularly those that are considered "emerging."The first site (1) is an essay by Alison Jacobson of the University of Capetown that discusses some emerging and potentially emerging viruses, along with factors that contribute to the threat. From a US government interagency working group, the second report (2) focuses on the responses to infectious disease outbreaks, including drugs, vaccines, and government response. A World Health Organization site (3) highlights recent reports of infectious disease, archived by date and by disease. This ThinkQuest site (4) gives a basic introduction to viruses and how they cause infections. An online virology tutorial (5) by Ed Rybicki of the University of Cape Town serves as a lesson on the basics of virology for a more advanced student. The next two sites focus on the specifics of selected viruses. From the Institute for Molecular Virology (6) comes a resource on Marburg and Ebola viruses, and from the National Biological Information Infrastructure (7) is a site on West Nile Virus. The last resource (8) is a scholarly journal from the Centers for Disease Control that presents some of the latest scientific research on emerging diseases.

Lee, Amy.

2002-01-01

391

Host range expansion of honey bee Black Queen Cell Virus in the bumble bee, Bombus huntii  

E-print Network

Host range expansion of honey bee Black Queen Cell Virus in the bumble bee, Bombus huntii Wenjun evidence that Black Queen Cell Virus (BQCV), one of the most prevalent honey bee viruses, can cause transmission. The fact that bumble bees and honey bees are able to share nectar and pollen resources

392

Hepatocellular carcinoma, human immunodeficiency virus and viral hepatitis in the HAART era  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is rising. HCC in HIV almost invariably occurs in the context of hepatitis C virus (HCV) or hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection and, on account of shared modes of transmission, this occurs in more than 33% and 10% of patients with HIV worldwide respectively. It has yet

Douglas C Macdonald; Mark Nelson; Mark Bower; Thomas Powles

2008-01-01

393

Transplacental Chikungunya Virus Antibody Kinetics, Thailand  

PubMed Central

Antibodies to chikungunya virus were detected by hemagglutination-inhibition assay in 33.6% of 2,000 infants' cord sera at delivery. Follow-up of 24 seropositive infants showed that the half-life of antibody persistence was 35.5 days. Chikungunya virus infection is common in Thailand, and routine use of diagnostic assays is needed. PMID:17283634

Endy, Timothy P.; Simasathien, Sriluck; Kerdpanich, Angkool; Polprasert, Napuschon; Aree, Chanchai; Vaughn, David W.; Nisalak, Ananda

2006-01-01

394

Data sharing in neuroimaging research  

PubMed Central

Significant resources around the world have been invested in neuroimaging studies of brain function and disease. Easier access to this large body of work should have profound impact on research in cognitive neuroscience and psychiatry, leading to advances in the diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric and neurological disease. A trend toward increased sharing of neuroimaging data has emerged in recent years. Nevertheless, a number of barriers continue to impede momentum. Many researchers and institutions remain uncertain about how to share data or lack the tools and expertise to participate in data sharing. The use of electronic data capture (EDC) methods for neuroimaging greatly simplifies the task of data collection and has the potential to help standardize many aspects of data sharing. We review here the motivations for sharing neuroimaging data, the current data sharing landscape, and the sociological or technical barriers that still need to be addressed. The INCF Task Force on Neuroimaging Datasharing, in conjunction with several collaborative groups around the world, has started work on several tools to ease and eventually automate the practice of data sharing. It is hoped that such tools will allow researchers to easily share raw, processed, and derived neuroimaging data, with appropriate metadata and provenance records, and will improve the reproducibility of neuroimaging studies. By providing seamless integration of data sharing and analysis tools within a commodity research environment, the Task Force seeks to identify and minimize barriers to data sharing in the field of neuroimaging. PMID:22493576

Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Breeze, Janis L.; Ghosh, Satrajit; Gorgolewski, Krzysztof; Halchenko, Yaroslav O.; Hanke, Michael; Haselgrove, Christian; Helmer, Karl G.; Keator, David B.; Marcus, Daniel S.; Poldrack, Russell A.; Schwartz, Yannick; Ashburner, John; Kennedy, David N.

2012-01-01

395

DEVELOPMENT OF A MOLECULAR METHOD TO IDENTIFY HEPATITIS E VIRUS  

EPA Science Inventory

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a waterborne emerging pathogen that causes significant illness in the developing world. Thus far, an HEV outbreak has not been reported in the U.S., although a swine variant of the virus is common in Midwestern hogs. Because viruses isolated from two ...

396

Algebraic Specification of Computer Viruses and Their Environments  

E-print Network

the two formalisms are compared. 1 Introduction Computer viruses are (often harmful) computer programs creation and modification is at the core of the flexibility and efficiency of modern computers; for example to developers of anti-virus software by highlight- ing the commonality between different computer viruses, e

Fisher, Michael

397

Efficacy of Disinfectants and Hand Sanitizers Against Avian Respiratory Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY. Disinfectants play a major role in the control of animal diseases by decontaminating the farm environment. We evaluated the virucidal efficacy of nine commonly used disinfectants on a nonporous surface contaminated experimentally with avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), avian influenza virus, or Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Phenolic compounds and glutaraldehyde were found to be the most effective against all three viruses.

Devi P. Patnayak; Minakshi Prasad; Yashpal S. Malik; M. A. Ramakrishnan; Sagar M. Goyal

2008-01-01

398

Strategies to introduce resistance to prune dwarf virus in almond  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - Prune dwarf virus (PDV) and Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) contribute to significant losses in almond productivity, in Portugal and in other countries. The establishment of new orchards with healthy certified trees does not guarantee virus eradication for long periods. Both PDV and PNRSV can be transferred through pollen, making cross-pollination (obligatory for seed set) a common source

H. Raquel; T. Lourenço; C. Moit; S. Silva; M. M. Oliveira

399

Computer viruses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The worm, Trojan horse, bacterium, and virus are destructive programs that attack information stored in a computer's memory. Virus programs, which propagate by incorporating copies of themselves into other programs, are a growing menace in the late-1980s world of unprotected, networked workstations and personal computers. Limited immunity is offered by memory protection hardware, digitally authenticated object programs,and antibody programs that kill specific viruses. Additional immunity can be gained from the practice of digital hygiene, primarily the refusal to use software from untrusted sources. Full immunity requires attention in a social dimension, the accountability of programmers.

Denning, Peter J.

1988-01-01

400

Hepatitis viruses: a pandora's box?  

PubMed

The term hepatitis virus is reserved for those viruses that are predominantly hepatotropic, although several new agents have been assigned to this category in the absence of hepatotropism and clinical disease. The hepatitis viruses can be broadly divided into those transmitted via the fecal-oral route, and those by blood, blood products and body fluids. Hepatitis A (picornaviridae), hepatitis B (hepadnaviridae) and hepatitis C (flaviviridae) represent the major public health problems. The epidemiology of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) is changing in response to vaccination. In the case of HAV, older age groups are now deemed at risk, particularly of fulminant hepatitis if exposed over the age of 50. Chronic hepatitis B in some regions is now predominantly of the so-called precore mutant type where high levels of HBV replication persist in the presence of anti-hepatitis B virus (HBe) antibodies. The HBV vaccination is among the most cost-effective health care measures. The epidemiological significance of mutations found increasingly in the HBV S gene isolated from vaccinated children is unclear. Evidence that hepatitis G and TT virus are significant causes of hepatitis is lacking. Of interest, however, is the finding that the related GBV-B agent of monkeys may be a model for developing new antiviral agents against HCV. Animal models of hepatitis infections are providing new insights into the pathogenesis of hepatitis in humans. Indeed it is possible that hepatitis E is primarily an agent of pigs and other domesticated livestock. Intriguingly, the new TT virus shares many properties with the circoviruses, significant pathogens of chickens and pigs. The challenge in the next decade will be to assess the significance of these new agents in terms of public health and resources. Value judgements will have to be made in assessing the risks associated with blood containing trace amounts of these adventitious agents. PMID:12534779

Howard, Colin R

2002-12-01

401

An examination of shared vision in the school improvement process of one Indiana high school  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this phenomenological study was to investigate the experience of shared vision in the school improvement process of one Indiana high school. Shared vision is often promoted as a critical step in successful school-improvement processes. The experience of obtaining a shared vision in an educational environment, however, is not commonly described the literature. This research seeks to describe

Linda J Coleman

2007-01-01

402

REVISITING COMMONS – ARE COMMON PROPERTY REGIMES IRRATIONAL?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper revisits the debate about communal management of natural resources and brings together various issues confronting it. Much of the criticism against common property regimes stems from an incorrect modeling of a common property situation, and misunderstandings about the terms and their wrong usage. Models of collective action (Hardin’s tragedy of the Commons, Olson’s Logic of Collective Action, and

Lubna Hasan

2002-01-01

403

46 CFR 535.311 - Low market share agreements-exemption.  

...FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS...market share agreement means any agreement among ocean common carriers which contains none of...

2014-10-01

404

Lagos bat virus in Kenya.  

PubMed

During lyssavirus surveillance, 1,221 bats of at least 30 species were collected from 25 locations in Kenya. One isolate of Lagos bat virus (LBV) was obtained from a dead Eidolon helvum fruit bat. The virus was most similar phylogenetically to LBV isolates from Senegal (1985) and from France (imported from Togo or Egypt; 1999), sharing with these viruses 100% nucleoprotein identity and 99.8 to 100% glycoprotein identity. This genome conservancy across space and time suggests that LBV is well adapted to its natural host species and that populations of reservoir hosts in eastern and western Africa have sufficient interactions to share pathogens. High virus concentrations, in addition to being detected in the brain, were detected in the salivary glands and tongue and in an oral swab, suggesting that LBV is transmitted in the saliva. In other extraneural organs, the virus was generally associated with innervations and ganglia. The presence of infectious virus in the reproductive tract and in a vaginal swab implies an alternative opportunity for transmission. The isolate was pathogenic for laboratory mice by the intracerebral and intramuscular routes. Serologic screening demonstrated the presence of LBV-neutralizing antibodies in E. helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus fruit bats. In different colonies the seroprevalence ranged from 40 to 67% and 29 to 46% for E. helvum and R. aegyptiacus, respectively. Nested reverse transcription-PCR did not reveal the presence of viral RNA in oral swabs of bats in the absence of brain infection. Several large bat roosts were identified in areas of dense human populations, raising public health concerns for the potential of lyssavirus infection. PMID:18305130

Kuzmin, Ivan V; Niezgoda, Michael; Franka, Richard; Agwanda, Bernard; Markotter, Wanda; Beagley, Janet C; Urazova, Olga Y; Breiman, Robert F; Rupprecht, Charles E

2008-04-01

405

DEVELOPMENT OF MULTIPLEX RT-PCR FOR THE DETECTION OF REOVIRUS, HEPATITIS A VIRUS, POLIOVIRUS, NORWALK VIRUS AND ROTAVIRUS  

EPA Science Inventory

Water sources are often found to be contaminated by enteric viruses. This is a public health concern as food and waterborne outbreaks caused by enteric viruses such as noroviruses, rotaviruses, hepatitis A virus (HAV) and enteroviruses are a common occurrence. All of these viru...

406

West Nile Virus Infection and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... a virus that can infect humans, birds, mosquitoes, horses and some other mammals. It is commonly found ... States. You cannot get WNV from birds or horses. If an infected mosquito bites a human, the ...

407

Some Ideal Secret Sharing Schemes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a secret sharing scheme, a dealer has a secret. The dealer gives each participant in the scheme a share of the secret.\\u000a There is a set ? of subsets of the participants with the property that any subset of participants that is in ? can determine\\u000a the secret. In a perfect secret sharing scheme, any subset of participants that

Ernest F. Brickell

1989-01-01

408

HIV virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

HIV is a virus that can be transmitted through fluids exchanged in sexual activity. HIV eventually causes AIDS. AIDS patients have compromised immune systems and they eventually die from diseases that healthy humans would normally fight off very easily.

Carl Henderson (National Institutes of Health;)

2005-12-09

409

Quantum secret sharing without entanglement  

E-print Network

After analysing the main quantum secret sharing protocol based on the entanglement states, we propose an idea to directly encode the qubit of quantum key distributions, and then present a quantum secret sharing scheme where only product states are employed. As entanglement, especially the inaccessable multi-entangled state, is not necessary in the present quantum secret sharing protocol, it may be more applicable when the number of the parties of secret sharing is large. Its theoretic efficiency is also doubled to approach 100%.

Guo-Ping Guo; Guang-Can Guo

2002-12-10

410

Viruses of eukaryotice green algae  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of our research was to develop the Chlorella-PBCV-1 virus system so that it can be used as a model system for studying gene expression in a photosynthetic eukaryote. We have made considerable progress and have learned much about PBCV-1 and its replication cycle. In addition, several significant discoveries were made in the last 3 to 4 years. These discoveries include: (i) the finding that morphologically similar, plaque forming, dsDNA containing viruses are common in nature and can be isolated readily from fresh water, (ii) the finding that all of these Chlorella viruses contain methylated bases which range in concentration from 0.1% to 47.5% m{sup 5}dC and 0 to 37% m{sup 6}dA and (iii) the discovery that infection with at least some of these viruses induces the appearance of DNA modification/restriction systems. 26 refs.

Van Etten, J.L.

1989-01-01

411

Efficient vaccine against the virus causing a lethal disease in cultured Cyprinus carpio  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have isolated a virus, which causes a mortal disease in cultured ornamental Koi and Common carps (Cyprinus carpio) in many countries worldwide. This unclassified virus, which causes nephritis and gill necrosis, and so has been given the name carp nephritis and gill necrosis virus (CNGV), has a morphology resembling the herpes virus, but bears a genomic DNA of ca

Ariel Ronen; Ayana Perelberg; Julia Abramowitz; Marina Hutoran; Simon Tinman; Izhak Bejerano; Michael Steinitz; Moshe Kotler

2003-01-01

412

The virus status of raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of field observations for virus symptoms, mechanical inoculation to herbaceous test plants, and grafting to Rubus indicators, 6 distinct viruses were identified in red raspberry, and tobacco streak virus was identified in a bramble selection. Cherry leaf roll and raspberry bushy dwarf viruses and raspberry yellows disease were found commonly in all the major raspberry producing regions.

A. T. Jones; G. A. Wood

1979-01-01

413

Pervasive Sharing of Genetic Effects in Autoimmune Chris Cotsapas1,2,3,4,5.  

E-print Network

Pervasive Sharing of Genetic Effects in Autoimmune Disease Chris Cotsapas1,2,3,4,5. , Benjamin F between common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and risk of common autoimmune and inflammatory (immune-mediated) diseases, some of which are shared between two diseases. Along with epidemiological

Abecasis, Goncalo

414

Tools for the Common Core Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bill McCallum, a leader in the development of the Common Core State Standards for mathematics, maintains this blog to share news about the progress of some tools and projects being developed to support implementation of the CCSS. From the Tools page he has linked a downloadable hyperlinked version of the mathematics standards, which facilitates navigation.

2011-01-01

415

Eleven Previously Unreported Common Proper Motion Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents information on 11 pairs of stars extracted from the UCAC4 catalog (Zacharias et al., 2012) where the similarities in the proper motions in both right ascension and in declination strongly suggest that the pairs share a common proper motion.

Chivers, James

2014-10-01

416

Knowledge Sharing: Developing from within  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: If collaboration and knowledge sharing lie at the core of providing added-value to either services or products can we improve this process? The purpose of this paper is to suggest that it can be improved and this lies in how we develop the systems that support collaboration and knowledge sharing. This can be achieved within the…

Patrick, Keith; Dotsika, Fefie

2007-01-01

417

Specification of Fuel Share Models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Suppose that there are several options that can provide the same energy service. Since the options are perfect substitutes, the isoquants are straight lines. A fuel share model forecasts the market share for each option. If a cost function is used to fore...

D. B. Reister

1986-01-01

418

A Revolution in Knowledge Sharing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses why new best practices in information sharing are substantially reinventing all organizations, and why knowledge sharing, if it sparks innovation, changes in organizational dynamics, and new sources of value, can offer strategic differentiation in academia and e-learning. (EV)

Norris, Donald M.; Mason, Jon; Robson, Robby; Lefrere, Paul; Collier, Geoff

2003-01-01

419

REMOTE Shared Memory Buffer #2  

E-print Network

#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;REMOTE Shared Memory Buffer #2 Computer or BackPlane #2 Computer or BackPlane #3 LOCAL Processes Processes #5 NML Server for Buffer #1 NML Server for Buffer #2 ProcessProcessProcess #4 #6 Process Process Process #3#2#1 Computer or BackPlane #1 Shared Memory Buffer #1 #12

420

Dream Sharing as Social Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was administered to 241 individuals whose questionnaire responses were analyzed to determine if they told their dreams to others, to whom they told their dreams, for what purpose, and in what social contexts dreams were shared. Respondents were also asked whether there were types of dreams they would not tell and individuals with whom they would not share

Barbara Vann; Neil Alperstein

2000-01-01

421

Knowledge Sharing for Ambient Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge sharing is a key issue of ambient intelligence, es- pecially when several autonomous systems or agents coexist. We propose the concept of virtual knowledge communities to make agents share and gain access to the information they are most interested in quickly and eciently. In our approach, agents can dynamically choose to join, leave, create and destroy communities. A Jade-based

Pierre Maret; Mark Hammond; Jacques Calmet

422

Function Sharing in Mechanical Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Function sharing in mechanical design is the si- multaneous implementation of several functions with a single structural element. If automo- biles were designed without function sharing they would be relatively large, expensive and unre- liable. But because elements like the sheet- metal body implement many functions (electrical ground, structural support, aerodynamic faring, weather protection, and aesthetics among others) automobiles perform

Karl T. Ulrich; Warren P. Seering

1988-01-01

423

Knowledge sharing: developing from within  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – If collaboration and knowledge sharing lie at the core of providing added-value to either services or products can we improve this process? The purpose of this paper is to suggest that it can be improved and this lies in how we develop the systems that support collaboration and knowledge sharing. This can be achieved within the development process,

Keith Patrick; Fefie Dotsika

2007-01-01

424

The Future of Shared Governance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education has relied on the power of collaborative decision making on college and university campuses through the model of shared governance since the early 1900s. However, the principles of shared governance are now more thoroughly tested than ever before. In response to these simultaneous pressures and challenges, the leadership of…

Crellin, Matthew A.

2010-01-01

425

Transforming Institutions through Shared Governance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shared governance is a basic tenet of higher education and is frequently referred to. For shared governance to be successful, board members, administrators, and faculty members must learn to have respect for and confidence in each other, acting inclusively, transparently, and responsibly. Boards need to be active and involved, participating in…

Bornstein, Rita

2012-01-01

426

Sharing Data in the Global Ocean Observing System (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the evolution of data sharing in the field of physical oceanography to highlight the challenges now before us. Synoptic global observation of the ocean from space and in situ platforms has significantly matured over the last two decades. In the early 1990’s the community data sharing challenges facing the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) largely focused on the behavior of individual scientists. Satellite data sharing depended on the policy of individual agencies. Global data sets were delivered with considerable delay and with enormous personal sacrifice. In the 2000’s the requirements for global data sets and sustained observations from the likes of the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change have led to data sharing and cooperation at a grander level. It is more effective and certainly more efficient. The Joint WMO/IOC Technical Commission on Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM) provided the means to organize many aspects of data collection and data dissemination globally, for the common good. In response the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites organized Virtual Constellations to enable the assembly and sharing of like kinds of satellite data (e.g., sea surface topography, ocean vector winds, and ocean color). Individuals in physical oceanography have largely adapted to the new rigors of sharing data for the common good, and as a result of this revolution new science has been enabled. Primary obstacles to sharing have shifted from the individual level to the national level. As we enter into the 2010’s the demands for ocean data continue to evolve with an expanded requirement for more real-time reporting and broader disciplinary coverage, to answer key scientific and societal questions. We are also seeing the development of more numerous national contributions to the global observing system. The drivers for the establishment of global ocean observing systems are expanding beyond climate to include biological and biogeochemical issues (e.g. biodiversity and ecosystem services, fisheries collapse, and ocean acidification). This expanded suite of demands and drivers challenge us further to share data for the common good across specialties. This requires that more ocean scientific communities and national ocean observing programs move towards maturity in terms of global data collection capability, sharing capacity, and data management standards. In oceanography the time has arrived for a cultural shift toward more shared collective observing capabilities. Necessarily we must also rapidly move toward harmony in national data sharing policies for the ocean environment. Building capacity to share ocean observations has been an objective for decades and has resulted in an expanded understanding of technologies and management policies that foster data sharing and provenance tracking.

Lindstrom, E. J.; McCurdy, A.; Young, J.; Fischer, A. S.

2010-12-01

427

Page 1 of 3 Common Reading Program Peer Helper  

E-print Network

Page 1 of 3 Common Reading Program Peer Helper Position Description Position Title: Community students. POSITION DESCRIPTION The goal of the Common Reading Program is to give every newly admitted student a common and shared academic experience ­ one that encourages a sense of community and provides

de Leon, Alex R.

428

Who Let the Virus In?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fifty-second monthly installment of our "What A Year!" website project, introducing life science breakthroughs to middle and high school students and their teachers. Respiratory syncytial virus, RSV for short, is so common that almost every child in the United States under two years of age has been infected once, and that half of children under three have been infected at least twice.

2011-11-01

429

A proposal for a bean common mosaic subgroup of potyviruses.  

PubMed

In order to elucidate the taxonomic positions of bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and blackeye cowpea mosaic virus (B1CMV), several strains of these viruses were compared on the basis of host ranges, antigenic properties established with antisera to virions and to N-terminal peptide domains of their coat proteins, and high performance liquid chromatographic peptide profiles. The comparison includes three strains of BCMV, viz. NL1, NL3 and NY15, four strains of B1CMV, viz. Fla, Ind, NR, and W, and the Moroccan isolate (Mor) of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), formerly designated as B1CMV-Mor. Based on these parameters, Fla, NR, and W are strains of one virus, whereas NL3, Ind and CABMV-Mor (and possibly NL1 and NY15) are separate viruses. In view of these characteristics which allow similar viruses to be separated, we propose that these viruses be included in a bean common mosaic subgroup of the genus Potyvirus. PMID:1450765

Dijkstra, J; Khan, J A

1992-01-01

430

The Evolution of the Peer-to-Peer File Sharing Industry and the Security Risks for Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peer-to-peer file sharing is a growing security risk for firms and individuals. Users who participate in these networks to share music, pictures, and video are subject to many security risks including inadvertent publishing of private information, exposure to viruses and worms, and the consequences of spyware. In this paper, we examine the peer-to-peer file sharing phenomena, including an overview of

M. Eric Johnson; Dan Mcguire; Nicholas D. Willey

2008-01-01

431

New Method Using a Positively Charged Microporous Filter and Ultrafiltration for Concentration of Viruses from Tap Water ?  

PubMed Central

The methods used to concentrate enteric viruses from water have remained largely unchanged for nearly 30 years, with the most common technique being the use of 1MDS Virozorb filters followed by organic flocculation for secondary concentration. Recently, a few studies have investigated alternatives; however, many of these methods are impractical for use in the field or share some of the limitations of this traditional method. In the present study, the NanoCeram virus sampler, an electropositive pleated microporous filter composed of microglass filaments coated with nanoalumina fibers, was evaluated. Test viruses were first concentrated by passage of 20 liters of seeded water through the filter (average filter retention efficiency was ?99.8%), and then the viruses were recovered using various salt-based or proteinaceous eluting solutions. A 1.0% sodium polyphosphate solution with 0.05 M glycine was determined to be the most effective. The recovered viruses were then further concentrated using Centricon Plus-70 centrifugal ultrafilters to a final volume of 3.3 (±0.3 [standard deviation]) ml; this volume compares quite favorably to that of previously described methods, such as organic flocculation (?15 to 40 ml). The overall virus recovery efficiencies were 66% for poliovirus 1, 83% for echovirus 1, 77% for coxsackievirus B5, 14% for adenovirus 2, and 56% for MS2 coliphage. In addition, this method appears to be compatible with both cell culture and PCR assays. This new approach for the recovery of viruses from water is therefore a viable alternative to currently used methods when small volumes of final concentrate are an advantage. PMID:21441329

Ikner, Luisa A.; Soto-Beltran, Marcela; Bright, Kelly R.

2011-01-01

432

Public sharing of research datasets: a pilot study of associations  

PubMed Central

The public sharing of primary research datasets potentially benefits the research community but is not yet common practice. In this pilot study, we analyzed whether data sharing frequency was associated with funder and publisher requirements, journal impact factor, or investigator experience and impact. Across 397 recent biomedical microarray studies, we found investigators were more likely to publicly share their raw dataset when their study was published in a high-impact journal and when the first or last authors had high levels of career experience and impact. We estimate the USA’s National Institutes of Health (NIH) data sharing policy applied to 19% of the studies in our cohort; being subject to the NIH data sharing plan requirement was not found to correlate with increased data sharing behavior in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Studies published in journals that required a database submission accession number as a condition of publication were more likely to share their data, but this trend was not statistically significant. These early results will inform our ongoing larger analysis, and hopefully contribute to the development of more effective data sharing initiatives. PMID:21339841

Piwowar, Heather A.; Chapman, Wendy W.

2010-01-01

433

What Are Common Treatments for Problems of Puberty?  

MedlinePLUS

... common treatments for problems of puberty? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Precocious Puberty There are a number of reasons to treat precocious puberty. 1 Treatment for precocious puberty can help stop puberty until the child is closer to the normal time for sexual ...

434

Nonlinear secret image sharing scheme.  

PubMed

Over the past decade, most of secret image sharing schemes have been proposed by using Shamir's technique. It is based on a linear combination polynomial arithmetic. Although Shamir's technique based secret image sharing schemes are efficient and scalable for various environments, there exists a security threat such as Tompa-Woll attack. Renvall and Ding proposed a new secret sharing technique based on nonlinear combination polynomial arithmetic in order to solve this threat. It is hard to apply to the secret image sharing. In this paper, we propose a (t, n)-threshold nonlinear secret image sharing scheme with steganography concept. In order to achieve a suitable and secure secret image sharing scheme, we adapt a modified LSB embedding technique with XOR Boolean algebra operation, define a new variable m, and change a range of prime p in sharing procedure. In order to evaluate efficiency and security of proposed scheme, we use the embedding capacity and PSNR. As a result of it, average value of PSNR and embedding capacity are 44.78 (dB) and 1.74t?log2 m? bit-per-pixel (bpp), respectively. PMID:25140334

Shin, Sang-Ho; Lee, Gil-Je; Yoo, Kee-Young

2014-01-01

435

Lateral Gene Transfer of Family A DNA Polymerases between Thermophilic Viruses, Aquificae, and Apicomplexa  

PubMed Central

Bioinformatics and functional screens identified a group of Family A-type DNA Polymerase (polA) genes encoded by viruses inhabiting circumneutral and alkaline hot springs in Yellowstone National Park and the US Great Basin. The proteins encoded by these viral polA genes (PolAs) shared no significant sequence similarity with any known viral proteins but were remarkably similar to PolAs encoded by two of three families of the bacterial phylum Aquificae and by several apicoplast-targeted PolA-like proteins found in the eukaryotic phylum Apicomplexa, which includes the obligate parasites Plasmodium, Babesia, and Toxoplasma. The viral gene products share signature elements previously associated only with Aquificae and Apicomplexa PolA-like proteins and were similar to proteins encoded by prophage elements of a variety of otherwise unrelated Bacteria, each of which additionally encoded a prototypical bacterial PolA. Unique among known viral DNA polymerases, the viral PolA proteins of this study share with the Apicomplexa proteins large amino-terminal domains with putative helicase/primase elements but low primary sequence similarity. The genomic context and distribution, phylogeny, and biochemistry of these PolA proteins suggest that thermophilic viruses transferred polA genes to the Apicomplexa, likely through secondary endosymbiosis of a virus-infected proto-apicoplast, and to the common ancestor of two of three Aquificae families, where they displaced the orthologous cellular polA gene. On the basis of biochemical activity, gene structure, and sequence similarity, we speculate that the xenologous viral-type polA genes may have functions associated with diversity-generating recombination in both Bacteria and Apicomplexa. PMID:23608703

Schoenfeld, Thomas W.; Murugapiran, Senthil K.; Dodsworth, Jeremy A.; Floyd, Sally; Lodes, Michael; Mead, David A.; Hedlund, Brian P.

2013-01-01

436

Sleep Woes Common Among Troubled Young Children, Study Says  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Sleep Woes Common Among Troubled Young Children, Study Says ... 28, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Child Behavior Disorders Sleep Disorders Toddler Health TUESDAY, Oct. 28, 2014 (HealthDay ...

437

Depression After Heart Attack May Be More Common for Women  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Depression After Heart Attack May Be More Common for ... Preidt Wednesday, October 22, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Depression Heart Attack Women's Health WEDNESDAY, Oct. 22, 2014 ( ...

438

2012 Graduate School of Science Current Course Descriptions Common Courses  

E-print Network

when passing along basic science to the society and sharing them, and practice by writing, Science, Public Speaking, Writing, Presentation Skills 35616-4014 English for Scientific Researchers2012 Graduate School of Science Current Course Descriptions Common Courses Science Communication

Sano, Masaki

439

Hepatocellular carcinoma: management of an increasingly common problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common cancer that typically occurs in the setting of cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis virus infections. Hepatitis B and C account for approximately 80% of cases worldwide. HCC is cur- rently the fifth most common malignancy in men and the eighth in women worldwide; its incidence is increasing dramatically in many parts of the world. Recognition

Gary L. Davis; Jane Dempster; James D. Meler; Douglas W. Orr; Mark W. Walberg; Brian Brown; Brian D. Berger; John K. O'Connor; Robert M. Goldstein

2008-01-01

440

Sharing polarization within quantum subspaces  

SciTech Connect

Given an ensemble of n spins, at least some of which are partially polarized, we investigate the sharing of this polarization within a subspace of k spins. We assume that the sharing results in a pseudopure state, characterized by a single purity parameter which we call the bias. As a concrete example we consider ensembles of spin-1/2 nuclei in liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance systems. The shared bias levels are compared with some current entanglement bounds to determine whether the reduced subspaces can give rise to entangled states.

Anwar, M. S.; Jones, J. A.; Duckett, S. B. [Centre for Quantum Computation, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom) and National Centre for Physics, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Centre for Quantum Computation, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Department of Chemistry, University of York, Heslington, York, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

2006-02-15

441

The ecology of viruses that infect eukaryotic algae.  

PubMed

Because viruses of eukaryotic algae are incredibly diverse, sweeping generalizations about their ecology are rare. These obligate parasites infect a range of algae and their diversity can be illustrated by considering that isolates range from small particles with ssRNA genomes to much larger particles with 560?kb dsDNA genomes. Molecular research has also provided clues about the extent of their diversity especially considering that genetic signatures of algal viruses in the environment rarely match cultivated viruses. One general concept in algal virus ecology that has emerged is that algal viruses are very host specific and most infect only certain strains of their hosts; with the exception of viruses of brown algae, evidence for interspecies infectivity is lacking. Although some host-virus systems behave with boom-bust oscillations, complex patterns of intraspecies infectivity can lead to host-virus coexistence obfuscating the role of viruses in host population dynamics. Within the framework of population dynamics, host density dependence is an important phenomenon that influences virus abundances in nature. Variable burst sizes of different viruses also influence their abundances and permit speculations about different life strategies, but as exceptions are common in algal virus ecology, life strategy generalizations may not be broadly applicable. Gaps in knowledge of virus seasonality and persistence are beginning to close and investigations of environmental reservoirs and virus resilience may answer questions about virus inter-annual recurrences. Studies of algal mortality have shown that viruses are often important agents of mortality reinforcing notions about their ecological relevance, while observations of the surprising ways viruses interact with their hosts highlight the immaturity of our understanding. Considering that just two decades ago algal viruses were hardly acknowledged, recent progress affords the optimistic perspective that future studies will provide keys to unlocking our understanding of algal virus ecology specifically, and aquatic ecosystems generally. PMID:22360532

Short, Steven M

2012-09-01

442

A DNA Virus of Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the viruses infecting most species. Even in groups as well-studied as Drosophila, only a handful of viruses have been well-characterized. A viral metagenomic approach was used to explore viral diversity in 83 wild-caught Drosophila innubila, a mushroom feeding member of the quinaria group. A single fly that was injected with, and died from, Drosophila C Virus (DCV) was added to the sample as a control. Two-thirds of reads in the infected sample had DCV as the best BLAST hit, suggesting that the protocol developed is highly sensitive. In addition to the DCV hits, several sequences had Oryctes rhinoceros Nudivirus, a double-stranded DNA virus, as a best BLAST hit. The virus associated with these sequences was termed Drosophila innubila Nudivirus (DiNV). PCR screens of natural populations showed that DiNV was both common and widespread taxonomically and geographically. Electron microscopy confirms the presence of virions in fly fecal material similar in structure to other described Nudiviruses. In 2 species, D. innubila and D. falleni, the virus is associated with a severe (?80–90%) loss of fecundity and significantly decreased lifespan. PMID:22053195

Unckless, Robert L.

2011-01-01

443

Another Really, Really Big Virus  

PubMed Central

Viruses with genomes larger than 300 kb and up to 1.2 Mb, which encode hundreds of proteins, are being discovered and characterized with increasing frequency. Most, but not all, of these large viruses (often referred to as giruses) infect protists that live in aqueous environments. Bioinformatic analyses of metagenomes of aqueous samples indicate that large DNA viruses are quite common in nature and await discovery. One issue that is perhaps not appreciated by the virology community is that large viruses, even those classified in the same family, can differ significantly in morphology, lifestyle, and gene complement. This brief commentary, which will mention some of these unique properties, was stimulated by the characterization of the newest member of this club, virus CroV (Fischer, M.G.; Allen, M.J.; Wilson, W.H.; Suttle, C.A. Giant virus with a remarkable complement of genes infects marine zooplankton. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2010, 107, 19508–19513 [1]). CroV has a 730 kb genome (with ?544 protein-encoding genes) and infects the marine microzooplankton Cafeteria roenbergensis producing a lytic infection. PMID:21994725

Van Etten, James L.

2011-01-01

444

Ebola virus defective interfering particles and persistent infection.  

PubMed

Ebola virus (Zaire subtype) is associated with high mortality disease outbreaks that commonly involve human to human transmission. Surviving patients can show evidence of prolonged virus persistence. The potential for Ebola virus to generate defective interfering (DI) particles and establish persistent infections in tissue culture was investigated. It was found that serial undiluted virus passages quickly resulted in production of an evolving population of virus minireplicons possessing both deletion and copyback type DI genome rearrangements. The tenth undiluted virus passage resulted in the establishment of virus persistently infected cell lines. Following one or two crises, these cells were stably maintained for several months with continuous shedding of infectious virus. An analysis of the estimated genome lengths of a selected set of the Ebola virus minireplicons and standard filoviruses revealed no obvious genome length rule, such as "the rule of six" found for the phylogenetically related Paramyxovirinae subfamily viruses. Minimal promoters for Ebola virus replication were found to be contained within 156 and 177 nucleotide regions of the genomic and antigenomic RNA 3' termini, respectively, based on the length of authentic termini retained in the naturally occurring minireplicons analyzed. In addition, using UV-irradiated preparations of virus released from persistently infected cells, it was demonstrated that Ebola virus DI particles could potentially be used as natural minireplicons to assay standard virus support functions. PMID:10489346

Calain, P; Monroe, M C; Nichol, S T

1999-09-15

445

The Effects of Task Structure on Time-sharing Efficiency and Resource Allocation Optimality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A distinction was made between two aspects of time sharing performance: time sharing efficiency and attention allocation optimality. A secondary task technique was employed to evaluate the effects of the task structures of the component time shared tasks on both aspects of the time sharing performance. Five pairs of dual tasks differing in their structural configurations were investigated. The primary task was a visual/manual tracking task which requires spatial processing. The secondary task was either another tracking task or a verbal memory task with one of four different input/output configurations. Congruent to a common finding, time-sharing efficiency was observed to decrease with an increasing overlap of resources utilized by the time shared tasks. Research also tends to support the hypothesis that resource allocation is more optimal when the time shared tasks placed heavy demands on common processing resources than when they utilized separate resources.

Tsang, P. S.; Wickens, C. D.

1984-01-01

446

Information sharing promotes prosocial behaviour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More often than not, bad decisions are bad regardless of where and when they are made. Information sharing might thus be utilized to mitigate them. Here we show that sharing information about strategy choice between players residing on two different networks reinforces the evolution of cooperation. In evolutionary games, the strategy reflects the action of each individual that warrants the highest utility in a competitive setting. We therefore assume that identical strategies on the two networks reinforce themselves by lessening their propensity to change. Besides network reciprocity working in favour of cooperation on each individual network, we observe the spontaneous emergence of correlated behaviour between the two networks, which further deters defection. If information is shared not just between individuals but also between groups, the positive effect is even stronger, and this despite the fact that information sharing is implemented without any assumptions with regard to content.

Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

2013-05-01

447

Common Career Technical Core: Common Standards, Common Vision for CTE  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides an overview of the National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium's (NASDCTEc) Common Career Technical Core (CCTC), a state-led initiative that was created to ensure that career and technical education (CTE) programs are consistent and high quality across the United States. Forty-two states