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1

Performance evaluation of a pediatric viscous impeller pump for Fontan cavopulmonary assist  

PubMed Central

Purpose The anatomic and physiologic constraints for pediatric cavopulmonary assist differ markedly from adult Fontan circulations due to smaller vessel sizes and risk of elevated pulmonary resistance. In this study, hemodynamic and hemolysis performance capability of a catheter-based viscous impeller pump (VIP) to power the Fontan circulation is assessed at a pediatric scale (~15 kg) and performance range (0-30 mmHg). Methods Computer simulation and mock circulation studies were conducted to assess the hydraulic performance, acute hemodynamic response to different levels VIP support, and the potential for vena cavae collapse. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were used to estimate VIP hydraulic performance, shear rates, and potential for hemolysis. Hemolysis was quantified in a mock loop with fresh bovine blood. Results A VIP augmented 4-way total cavopulmonary connection flow at pediatric scales and restored systemic pressures and flows to biventricular values, without causing flow obstruction or suction. VIP generated flows up to 4.1 L/min and pressure heads of up to 38 mmHg at 11,000 rpm. Maximal shear rate was 160 Pa, predicting low hemolysis risk. Observed hemolysis was low with plasma free hemoglobin of 11.4 mg/dL/hr. Conclusions A VIP will augment Fontan cavopulmonary flow in the proper pressure and flow ranges, with low hemolysis risk under more stringent pediatric scale and physiology compared to adult scale. This technology may be developed to simultaneously reduce systemic venous pressure and improve cardiac output after stage-2 or -3 Fontan repair. It may serve to compress surgical staging, lessening the pathophysiologic burden of repair. PMID:22421403

Giridharan, GA; Koenig, SC; Kennington, J; Sobieski, MA; Chen, J; Frankel, SH; Rodefeld, MD

2012-01-01

2

High Head Unshrouded Impeller Pump Stage Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Objective to develop an unshrouded impeller design, which a meets the performance requirements of a 3-stage fuel pump with a 2-stage pump design, has been accomplished. Performance of the baseline unshrouded impeller has been experimentally verified. Unshrouded impeller trade study and final 6+6 unshrouded impeller configuration has been presented. Structurally viable, 6+6-impeller design concept has been produced. Based on results presented in this study, at a nominal 10% tip-clearance, the 6+6 impeller design would increase payload to orbit by almost 625 lbs. per engine. The RLV vehicle requires 7 engines, therefore, application of high head unshrouded technology would increase payload capability by as much as 4,375 lbs. per vehicle.

Williams, Robert W.; Skelley, Stephen E.; Stewart, Eric T.; Droege, Alan R.; Prueger, George H.; Chen, Wei-Chung; Williams, Morgan; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

3

Trim or Replace Impellers on Oversized Pumps  

SciTech Connect

One in a series of tip sheets to help manufacturers optimize their industrial pumping systems. As a result of conservative engineering practices, pumps are often substantially larger than they need to be for an industrial plant's process requirements. Centrifugal pumps can often be oversized because of ''rounding up'', trying to accommodate gradual increases in pipe surface roughness and flow resistance over time, or anticipating future plant capacity expansions. In addition, the plant's pumping requirements might not have been clearly defined during the design phase. Because of this conservative approach, pumps can have operating points completely different from their design points. The pump head is often less than expected, while the flow rate is greater. This can cause cavitation and waste energy as the flow rate typically must be regulated with bypass or throttle control. Oversized and throttled pumps that produce excess pressure are excellent candidates for impeller replacement or ''trimming'', to save energy and reduce costs. Trimming involves machining the impeller to reduce its diameter. Trimming should be limited to about 75% of a pump's maximum impeller diameter, because excessive trimming can result in a mismatched impeller and casing. As the impeller diameter decreases, added clearance between the impeller and the fixed pump casing increases internal flow recirculation, causes head loss, and lowers pumping efficiency. For manufacturing standardization purposes, pump casings and shafts are designed to accommodate impellers in a range of sizes. Many pump manufacturers provide pump performance curves that indicate how various models will perform with different impeller diameters or trims. The impeller should not be trimmed any smaller than the minimum diameter shown on the curve. Net positive suction head requirements (NPSHR) usually decrease at lower flow rates and can increase at the higher end of the pump head curve. The NPSHR at a given flow rate will normally be greater with a smaller impeller, but engineers should consult with the pump manufacturer to determine variations in NPSHR before trimming the impeller. Manufacturers can often provide trim correction charts based on historical test data.

Not Available

2006-09-01

4

Rotordynamic characteristics of a shrouded pump impeller  

E-print Network

ROTORDYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF A SHROUDED PUMP IMPELLER A Thesis by MAGDY SOBHY ABOU-EL-KHEIR Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... May 1991 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering ROTORDYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF A SHROUDED PUMP IMPELLER A Thesis by MAGDY SOBHY ABOU-EL-KHEIR Approved as to style and content by: ~i' g gwAcmwe. Erian Baskharone (Chair of Committee...

Abou-El-Kheir, Magdy Sobhy

1991-01-01

5

Effect of impeller flow path on pump performance and impeller stability of the monopivot circulatory pump.  

PubMed

The effect of a cutout on the pump pressure-flow characteristics and the impeller stability was quantified using computational fluid dynamics analysis in order to provide good hemocompatibility of the monopivot extracorporeal circulation pump. As a result, the following findings were clarified. The pump pressure is lower in the cutout model than in the no-cutout model. The impeller stability with respect to the buoyancy of the impeller is better in the cutout model than in the no-cutout model. The impeller stability with respect to the impeller tilt is better in the cutout model than in the no-cutout model. Therefore, the cutout model, in which the geometry corresponds to the commercialized pump, was likely to be better than the no-cutout model because the stability that has the possibility to decrease the gap instantaneously to increase hemolysis despite the impeller rotational speed slightly. PMID:24110293

Nishida, Masahiro; Nakayama, Kento; Kosaka, Ryo; Maruyama, Osamu; Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Kuwana, Katsuyuki; Yamane, Takashi

2013-01-01

6

CFD analysis of pump consortium impeller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current design of high performance turbopumps for rocket engines requires effective and robust analytical tools to provide design impact in a productive manner. The main goal of this study is to develop a robust and effective computational fluid dynamics (CFD) pump model for general turbopump design and analysis applications. A Navier-Stokes flow solver, FDNS, embedded with the extended k-epsilon turbulence model and with appropriate moving interface boundary conditions, is developed to analyze turbulent flows in the turbomachinery devices. The FDNS code was benchmarked with its numerical predictions of the pump consortium inducer, and provides satisfactory results. In the present study, a CFD analysis of the pump consortium impeller will be conducted with the application of the FDNS code. The pump consortium impeller, with partial blades, is the new design concept of the advanced rocket engine.

Cheng, Gary C.; Chen, Y. S.; Williams, R. W.

1992-01-01

7

Some unsteady fluid forces on pump impellers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Special analyses of all the forces and moments acting on a typical centrifugal pump impeller/volute combination are presented. These exhibit shaft frequencies, blade passing frequencies, and beat frequencies associated with a whirl motion imposed on the shaft in order to measure rotordynamic forces. Among other features the unsteady thrust was found to contain a surprisingly large blade passing harmonic. While previous studies have explored the magnitudes of the steady fluid-induced radial forces and the fluid-induced rotordynamic forces for this typical centrifugal pump impeller/volute combination, this paper presents information on the steady bending moments and rotordynamic moments due to the fluid flow. These imply certain axial locations for the lines of action of the radial and rotordynamic forces. Data on the lines of action are presented and allow inferences on the sources of the forces.

Miskovish, R. S.; Brennen, C. E.

1992-01-01

8

Optimization and Inverse Design of Pump Impeller  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As for pump impellers, the meridional flow channel and blade-to-blade flow channel, which are relatively independent of each other but greatly affect performance, are designed in parallel. And the optimization design is used for the former and the inverse design is used for the latter. To verify this new design method, a mixed-flow impeller was made. Next, we use Tani's inverse design method for the blade loading of inverse design. It is useful enough to change a deceleration rate freely and greatly. And it can integrally express the rear blade loading of various methods by NACA, Zangeneh and Stratford. We controlled the deceleration rate by shape parameter m, and its value became almost same with Tani's recommended value of the laminar airfoil.

Miyauchi, S.; Zhu, B.; Luo, X.; Piao, B.; Matsumoto, H.; Sano, M.; Kassai, N.

2012-11-01

9

Centrifugal blood pump with a magnetically suspended impeller.  

PubMed

A centrifugal blood pump with a magnetically suspended impeller has been developed. It has a single inlet and outlet, and it generates centrifugal forces by the rotating impeller. The fluid-dynamical design for inflow and outflow through the impeller leads to elimination of the axial force and unbalanced radial force acting on the impeller. Consequently, three-component control systems, instead of five-component ones, are enough to position the impeller. The magnetically suspended impeller rotates by the magnetic coupling with the permanent magnets embedded in the outer rotator of the motor. This pump has enough performance to function as a blood pump. Further research on the null-power magnetic suspension and the generation of an efficient rotating magnetic field is in progress. PMID:10078266

Akamatsu, T; Nakazeki, T; Itoh, H

1992-06-01

10

Analyses of hydrodynamic radial forces on centrifugal pump impellers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental and theoretical study of the hydrodynamic interactions occurring between a centrifugal pump impeller and a volute is presented. The theoretical analysis provides a quasi-one-dimensional treatment of the flow in the volute, and it is extended to include the hydrodynamic force perturbations caused by the impeller whirling eccentrically in the volute. It is noted that these perturbations are often destabilizing. The theoretical models were found to accurately predict the radial forces caused by the flow through the impeller. The pressure acting on the front shroud of the impeller is shown to have a significant effect on the destabilizing hydrodyamic forces.

Adkins, D. R.; Brennen, C. E.

1988-01-01

11

Distinctive feature of self-oscillations (surging) of impeller pumps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been established experimentally and confirmed analytically that before the stall of a centrifugal impeller pump, self-oscillations (surging) of the pump are set up in the region of ascending cavitation branchings of its monotonically decreasing head characteristic. Beyond this region, the pumping mode of such a pump is absolutely stable. It has been established that changes in the nonstationary operation of a centrifugal impeller pump produced by variation of its wave resistance are diametrically opposite in character in cavitation and cavitation-free modes.

Gotsulenko, V. V.; Gotsulenko, V. N.

2012-01-01

12

Proposal of Unique Process Pump with Floating Type Centrifugal Impeller (Preliminarily Report : Axial Thrust of Impeller with Driving Shaft)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors have proposed the unique centrifugal pump, in which the impeller dose not have the driving shaft but is driven by the magnetic induction, namely Lorentz force, without the stay. Then, the rotating posture of the impeller is not stable, just like UFO. To make the rotating posture of the impeller stable irrespective of the operating condition, the pressure in the impeller casing was investigated experimentally while the impeller rotates at the steady state, as the preliminarily stage. The pressure, as well known, fluctuates periodically in response to the blade number. Besides, the pressure on the impeller shrouds decreases with the increase of the gap between the front shroud and the suction cover where the water leaks to the suction pipe, and is distorted in the peripheral direction. Such pressure conditions contribute directly to the hydraulic force acting on the impeller. The unstable behaviors of the impeller are induced from the above hydraulic forces, which change unsteadily in the radial and the peripheral directions in the impeller casing. The forces are affected by not only the operating condition but also the rotating posture of the impeller.

Kawashima, Ryunosuke; Kanemoto, Toshiaki; Sakamoto, Kengo; Uno, Mitsuo

2010-06-01

13

Fluid-structure interaction forces at pump-impeller-shroud surfaces for axial vibration analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The axial forces developed on a pump impeller shroud surfaces are analyzed using a bulk-flow model of the leakage path between the impeller and the housing. Shear stresses at the impeller and the housing surfaces are modeled according to Hirs's turbulent lubrication model. The calculated results yield predictions of resonance peaks of the fluid within the annulus formed by the impeller shroud and housing. Numerical results are presented for a double-suction single-stage pump, showing that the direct stiffness of the perturbed impeller shroud forces is negligible; the forces become important only for pumps with very low axial natural frequencies in comparison to the running speed.

Childs, D. W.

1991-01-01

14

Toward a durable impeller pump with mechanical bearings.  

PubMed

Our former work demonstrated that our impeller pump could support the circulation of experimental animals for several months without harm to blood elements or organ function. The termination of the experiments was mostly related to wear of the mechanical bearing and thrombosis along the bearing. To solve the bearing problem, we investigated a magnetic bearing in our lab, which resulted in some new problems, such as complicated design and control, considerable energy consumption, and lesser reliability. Progress in developing an impeller pump for long-term application has recently been achieved. Instead of using a sliding bearing system, we devised a rolling bearing system. Its service life is more than 10 years because of a wearproof roller made of ultra high molecular weight polythene. To avoid thrombus formation, we introduced a special purge system to the bearing, allowing the saline with heparin to be infused through the bearing into the pump. The bearing, therefore, keeps working in the saline, and no thrombus will be formed. Animal experiments demonstrated that a 30 ml fluid infusion per hour is enough to prevent thrombus formation. With these improvements, the impeller pump has continuously run for 8 months, and no bearing wear can be measured. The device, weighing 150 g, is fully implantable, consumes approximately 9.6 watts, and delivers a 9L/min blood flow against a 120 mm Hg mean pressure and reaches a highest total efficiency of 24.7% for the motor (including the controller) and pump. The system can produce both pulsatile and nonpulsatile flow according to requirements. PMID:12059003

Qian, K X; Zeng, Pei; Ru, W M; Yuan, H Y; Feng, Z G; Li, L

2002-01-01

15

Experimental Study of Unshrouded Impeller Pump Stage Sensitivity to Tip Clearance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This viewgraph presentation provides information on an experiment. Its objective is to experimentally determine unshrouded impeller performance sensitivity to tip clearance. The experiment included: Determining impeller efficiency at scaled operating conditions in water at MSFC's Pump Test Equipment (PTE) Facility; Testing unshrouded impeller at three different tip clearances; Testing each tip clearance configuration at on- and off-design conditions, and collecting

Robert W. Williams; Thomas Zoladz; Anne K. Storey; Stephen E. Skelley

2002-01-01

16

Inviscid-viscous interaction method for three-dimensional inverse design of centrifugal impellers  

SciTech Connect

A three-dimensional design method for the design of the blade geometry of centrifugal compressor impellers is presented. In this method the blade shape is computed for a specified circulation distribution, normal (or tangential) thickness distribution, and meridional geometry. As the blade shapes are computed by using an inviscid slip (or flow tangency) condition, the viscous effects are introduced indirectly by using a viscous/inviscid procedure. The three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver developed by Dawes is used as the viscous method. Two different approaches are described for incorporating the viscous effects into the inviscid design method. One method is based on the introduction of an aerodynamic blockage distribution throughout the meridional geometry, while in the other approach a vorticity term directly related to the entropy gradients in the machine is introduced. The method is applied to redesign the blade geometry of Eckardt's 30 deg backswept impeller as well as a generic high pressure ratio (transonic) impeller. The results indicate that the entropy gradient approach can fairly accurately represent the viscous effects in the machine.

Zangeneh, M. (University College of London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1994-04-01

17

Interaction of impeller and guide vane in a series-designed axial-flow pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the interaction of the impeller and guide vane in a series-designed axial-flow pump was examined through the implementation of a commercial CFD code. The impeller series design refers to the general design procedure of the base impeller shape which must satisfy the various flow rate and head requirements by changing the impeller setting angle and number of blades of the base impeller. An arc type meridional shape was used to keep the meridional shape of the hub and shroud with various impeller setting angles. The blade angle and the thickness distribution of the impeller were designed as an NACA airfoil type. In the design of the guide vane, it was necessary to consider the outlet flow condition of the impeller with the given setting angle. The meridional shape of the guide vane were designed taking into consideration the setting angle of the impeller, and the blade angle distribution of the guide vane was determined with a traditional design method using vane plane development. In order to achieve the optimum impeller design and guide vane, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics and the DOE method were applied. The interaction between the impeller and guide vane with different combination set of impeller setting angles and number of impeller blades was addressed by analyzing the flow field of the computational results.

Kim, S.; Choi, Y. S.; Lee, K. Y.; Kim, J. H.

2012-11-01

18

Design optimization of a centrifugal pump impeller and volute using computational fluid dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, optimization of the impeller and design of volute were carried out in order to improve the performance of a centrifugal pump. Design parameters from vane plane development for impeller design were selected and effect of the design parameters on the performance of the pump was analyzed using CFD and Response Surface Method to optimized impeller. This study also proposed the optimization geometry of pump impeller for performance improvement through the results from numerical analysis that was obtained optimum design pump; efficiency 98.2% and head 64.5m. In addition, the pump design method was suggested by designing volute which was suitable for the optimized impeller through volute design where Stepanoff theory was applied and numerical analysis.

Kim, J. H.; Oh, K. T.; Pyun, K. B.; Kim, C. K.; Choi, Y. S.; Yoon, J. Y.

2012-11-01

19

Evaluation of subgrid-scale models in large-eddy simulations of turbulent flow in a centrifugal pump impeller  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current research of large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent flow in pumps mainly concentrates in applying conventional subgrid-scale (SGS) model to simulate turbulent flow, which aims at obtaining the flow field in pump. The selection of SGS model is usually not considered seriously, so the accuracy and efficiency of the simulation cannot be ensured. Three SGS models including Smagorinsky-Lilly model, dynamic Smagorinsky model and dynamic mixed model are comparably studied by using the commercial CFD code Fluent combined with its user define function. The simulations are performed for the turbulent flow in a centrifugal pump impeller. The simulation results indicate that the mean flows predicted by the three SGS models agree well with the experimental data obtained from the test that detailed measurements of the flow inside the rotating passages of a six-bladed shrouded centrifugal pump impeller performed using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV). The comparable results show that dynamic mixed model gives the most accurate results for mean flow in the centrifugal pump impeller. The SGS stress of dynamic mixed model is decompose into the scale similar part and the eddy viscous part. The scale similar part of SGS stress plays a significant role in high curvature regions, such as the leading edge and training edge of pump blade. It is also found that the dynamic mixed model is more adaptive to compute turbulence in the pump impeller. The research results presented is useful to improve the computational accuracy and efficiency of LES for centrifugal pumps, and provide important reference for carrying out simulation in similar fluid machineries.

Yang, Zhengjun; Wang, Fujun; Zhou, Peijian

2012-09-01

20

Static and Dynamic Analysis of a Pump Impeller with a Balancing Device Part I: Static Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This part of the work presents the design and static analysis of an impeller for a single-stage pump. The impeller is directly connected with a balancing device. The impeller needs to have a properly designed system of longitudinal and lateral clearances on both sides. With the simplifying assumptions concerning the flow and distribution of pressure in the longitudinal and lateral clearances, the static analysis involved deriving relationships between the impeller geometry and the basic performance parameters of the pump. A numerical example was used to show the calculation procedure of static characteristics for the predetermined parameters

Kundera, C.; Martsinkovsky, V. A.

2014-08-01

21

Static and Dynamics of a Pump Impeller with a Balancing Device Part II: Dynamic Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the theoretical study of the system comprising an impeller and a balancing device. It deals with the dynamic analysis of the system, i.e., the axial vibrations of the impeller, and the system stability. The dynamic analysis took into account linearized hydrodynamic forces and moments generated in the longitudinal clearances of the seals of the impeller. The theoretical analysis was supplemented with a numerical example with characteristics determined for a real single-stage centrifugal pump

Martsinkovsky, V. A.; Zhulyov, A.; Kundera, C.

2014-08-01

22

A novel permanent maglev impeller TAH: most requirements on blood pumps have been satisfied.  

PubMed

Based on the development of an impeller total artificial heart (TAH) (1987) and a permanent maglev (magnetic levitation) impeller pump (2002), as well as a patented magnetic bearing and magnetic spring (1996), a novel permanent maglev impeller TAH has been developed. The device consists of a rotor and a stator. The rotor is driven radially. Two impellers with different dimensions are fixed at both the ends of the rotor. The levitation of the rotor is achieved by using two permanent magnetic bearings, which have double function: radial bearing and axial spring. As the rotor rotates at a periodic changing speed, two pumps deliver the pulsatile flow synchronously. The volume balance between the two pumps is realized due to self-modulation property of the impeller pumps, without need for detection and control. Because the hemo-dynamic force acting on the left impeller is larger than that on the right impeller, and this force during systole is larger than that during diastole, the rotor reciprocates axially once a cycle. This is beneficial to prevent the thrombosis in the pump. Furthermore, a small flow via the gap between stator and rotor from left pump into right pump comes to a full washout in the motor and the pumps. Therefore, it seems neither mechanical wear nor thrombosis could occur. The previously developed prototype impeller TAH had demonstrated that it could operate in animal experiments indefinitely, if the bearing would not fail to work. Expectantly, this novel permanent magnetic levitation impeller TAH with simplicity, implantability, pulsatility, compatibility and durability has satisfied the most requirements on blood pumps and will have more extensive applications in experiments and clinics. PMID:12873075

Qian, K X; Zeng, P; Ru, W M; Yuan, H Y

2003-07-01

23

Experimental measurements of hydrodynamic radial forces and stiffness matrices for a centrifugal pump-impeller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of the steady-state hydrodynamic forces on a centrifugal pump impeller are presented as a function of position within two geometrically different volutes. These correspond to the forces experienced by the impeller at zero whirl frequency. The hydrodynamic force matrices derived from these measurements exhibit both diagonal and off-diagonal terms of substantial magnitude. These terms are of the form which would tend to excite a whirl motion in a rotordynamic analysis of the pump; this may be the cause of 'rough running' reported in many pumps. Static pressure measurements in the impeller discharge flow show that the hydrodynamic force on the impeller contains a substantial component due to the nonisotropy of the net momentum flux leaving the impeller. A similar breakdown of the contributions to the stiffness matrices reveals that the major component of these matrices results from the nonisotropy of the momentum flux.

Chamieh, D. S.; Acosta, A. J.; Brennen, C. E.; Caughey, T. K.

1985-01-01

24

A Navier-Stokes solution of the three-dimensional viscous compressible flow in a centrifugal compressor impeller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two-dimensional time-dependent computer code was utilized to calculate the three-dimensional steady flow within the impeller blading. The numerical method is an explicit time marching scheme in two spatial dimensions. Initially, an inviscid solution is generated on the hub blade-to-blade surface by the method of Katsanis and McNally (1973). Starting with the known inviscid solution, the viscous effects are calculated through iteration. The approach makes it possible to take into account principal impeller fluid-mechanical effects. It is pointed out that the second iterate provides a complete solution to the three-dimensional, compressible, Navier-Stokes equations for flow in a centrifugal impeller. The problems investigated are related to the study of a radial impeller and a backswept impeller.

Harp, J. L., Jr.

1977-01-01

25

Chronic left ventricular assist in calves with a pulsatile impeller pump.  

PubMed

The author's impeller pump was further evaluated as a left ventricular assist device in calves. The longest survival was achieved in the last three calves for more than 6 weeks (62, 54, 46 days, respectively). The hemochemical measurements showed that no blood damage and no organ dysfunction occurred during the experiments. Termination of the experiments was because of bearing failure without exception. Therefore, a magnetic bearing was investigated and intended for use in the impeller pump. PMID:9116360

Qian, K X; Zheng, M

1997-01-01

26

Effects of meridional flow passage shape on hydraulic performance of mixed-flow pump impellers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the process of designing the mixed-flow pump impeller, the meridional flow passage shape directly affects the obtained meridional flow field, which then has an influence on the three-dimensional impeller shape. However, the meridional flow passage shape is too complicated to be described by a simple formula for now. Therefore, reasonable parameter selection for the meridional flow passage is essential to the investigation. In order to explore the effects of the meridional flow passage shape on the impeller design and the hydraulic performance of the mixed-flow pump, the hub and shroud radius ratio (HSRR) of impeller and the outlet diffusion angle (ODA) of outlet zone are selected as the meridional flow passage parameters. 25 mixed-flow pump impellers, with specific speed of 496 under the design condition, are designed with various parameter combinations. Among these impellers, one with HSRR of 1.94 and ODA of 90° is selected to carry out the model test and the obtained experimental results are used to verify accuracies of the head and the hydraulic efficiency predicted by numerical simulation. Based on SIMPLE algorithm and standard k- ? two-equation turbulence model, the three-dimensional steady incompressible Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved and the effects of different parameters on hydraulic performance of mixed-flow pump impellers are analyzed. The analysis results demonstrate that there are optimal values of HSRR and ODA available, so the hydraulic performance and the internal flow of mixed-flow pumps can be improved by selecting appropriate values for the meridional flow passage parameters. The research on these two parameters, HSRR and ODA, has further illustrated influences of the meridional flow passage shape on the hydraulic performance of the mixed-flow pump, and is beneficial to improving the design of the mixed-flow pump impeller.

Bing, Hao; Cao, Shuliang; Tan, Lei; Zhu, Baoshan

2013-05-01

27

Investigation of the flow in the impeller side clearances of a centrifugal pump with volute casing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper is concerned with the fluid flow in the impeller side clearances of a centrifugal pump with volute casing. The flow conditions in these small axial gaps are of significant importance for a number of effects such as disk friction, leakage losses or hydraulic axial thrust to name but a few. In the investigated single stage pump, the flow pattern in the volute turns out to be asymmetric even at design flow rate. To gain a detailed insight into the flow structure, numerical simulations of the complete pump including the impeller side clearances are accomplished. Additionally, the hydraulic head and the radial pressure distributions in the impeller side clearances are measured and compared with the numerical results. Two configurations of the impeller, either with or without balancing holes, are examined. Moreover, three different operating points, i.e.: design point, part load or overload conditions are considered. In addition, analytical calculations are accomplished to determine the pressure distributions in the impeller side clearances. If accurate boundary conditions are available, the 1D flow models used in this paper can provide reasonable results for the radial static pressure distribution in the impeller side clearances. Furthermore, a counter rotating wake region develops in the rear impeller side clearances in absence of balancing holes which severely affects the inflow and outflow conditions of the cavity in circumferential direction.

Will, Björn-Christian; Benra, Friedrich-Karl; Dohmen, Hans-Josef

2012-06-01

28

Dynamic characteristics of a magnetically levitated impeller in a centrifugal blood pump.  

PubMed

Centrifugal blood pumps that employ hybrid active/passive magnetic bearings to support noncontact impellers have been developed in order to reduce bearing wear, pump size, the power consumption of the active magnetic bearing, and blood trauma. However, estimates made at the design stage of the vibration of the impeller in the direction of passive suspension during pump operation were inaccurate, because the influence of both the pumping fluid and the rotation of the impeller on the dynamic characteristics was not fully recognized. The purpose of this study is to investigate the dynamic characteristics in a fluid of a magnetically levitated rotating impeller by measuring both the frequency response to sinusoidal excitation of the housing over a wide frequency range and the displacement due to input of a pulsatile flow during left ventricular (LV) assist. The excitation tests were conducted under conditions in which the impeller was levitated in either air or water, and with or without rotation. The experimental and analytical results indicate that vibration of the impeller due to the external force in water was decreased, compared with that in air due to the hydraulic force of water. The axial resonant frequency rose quadratically with rotational speed, and the tilt mode had two resonant frequencies while rotating due to the gyroscopic effect. With the pump inserted into a mock systemic circulatory loop, the dynamic stability of the impeller when pulsatile pressure was applied during LV assist was verified experimentally. The amplitudes of vibration in response to the pulsatile flow in the passively constrained directions were considerably smaller in size than the dimensions of initial gaps between the impeller and the pump housing. PMID:17437499

Asama, Junichi; Shinshi, Tadahiko; Hoshi, Hideo; Takatani, Setsuo; Shimokohbe, Akira

2007-04-01

29

Blood flow analysis for the secondary impeller of an IVAS heart pump.  

PubMed

The rotodynamic heart pump (IVAS), designed by the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, includes a secondary flow path along the journal bearing, through a secondary impeller, and over the rotor outer surface. The flow behaviors of the blood through the journal bearing and the secondary impeller are investigated by a computational fluid dynamics method that solves the 3-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations using a new solution algorithm. Results of the analyses include: 1) the blood flow patterns within the journal bearing, 2) the effect of the non-uniform bearing clearance on the flow patterns of the impeller cavity, 3) the flow patterns around a secondary impeller blade that include effects of tip clearance and the gap between the blade and the inner or outer side wall, 4) effects of the blade angles on the secondary impeller performance, and 5) the shear stress distribution. PMID:9360151

Nakamura, S; Ding, W; Smith, W A; Golding, L A

1997-01-01

30

Laser velocimeter measurements in shrouded and unshrouded radial flow pump impellers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shrouded and unshrouded versions of a four-vaned radial flow impeller with a design flow coefficient of 0.063 were tested in a volute pump using a two-component frequency-shifted laser velocimeter. Velocity profiles were measured at six flow rates and at four radial and six circumferential positions in the volute. The variations of the velocity from blade to blade and in the axial direction were measured and are presented. A passage vortex caused by tip leakage and relative casing wall velocity was found in the unshrouded impeller. The tip leakage did not accumulate in the suction wake region; the suction wake region was only 30 to 50 percent as large in the unshrouded impeller as compared to the shrouded impeller. The slip was 30 percent higher in the unshrouded impeller and the variation of slip with flow rate is presented. At no measured position in the impellers did the slip factor reach unity; the closest approach was 0.90. Reverse loadings of the vanes at outer radii were found for flow rates below the impeller/volute matching point for both impellers.

Hamkins, C. P.; Flack, R. D.

1986-01-01

31

Experimental research and numerical simulation on impeller exit flow field of bulb tubular pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three dimensional Laser Doppler Velocimetry (3D-LDV) technique was used to measure the impeller exit flow field of bulb tubular pump, the average velocity distribution of the exit section was obtained, and the energy performance of bulb tubular pump was obtained by model test. The flow field of tubular pump also simulated by CFD based on Navier-Stokes equations and RNG k-epsilon model. The calculated performance curve was consistent with the model test results, and the calculated velocities of impeller exit compared with the LDV measurement results, it was shown that the distribution of circumferential velocity and axial velocity were close to each other, but the radial velocity deviation between the LDV results and the CFD ones was obviously, the reasons of deviation were analyzed. The experimental results can provide the references for the impeller and diffuser design of tubular pumps, it also can improve the accuracy of calculation and perfect simulation.

Jin, Y.; Liu, C.; Zhou, J. R.

2012-11-01

32

More than 1 year continuous operation of a centrifugal pump with a magnetically suspended impeller.  

PubMed

The authors have been developing a centrifugal pump with a magnetically suspended impeller (MSCP) designed for total artificial heart and long-term ventricular support. The MSCP consists of a magnetic bearing, an impeller and housing, and a driving motor. The impeller is suspended by a magnetic bearing, therefore providing contact free rotation of the impeller inside the pump. This study was designed to evaluate long-term durability and nonthrombogenicity of the MSCP in a chronic sheep model. The blood contacting surfaces of the pump and conduits were completely modified by a heparin immobilization technique (Hepaface). The MSCP was placed paracorporeally as a left heart bypass between left ventricle and descending aorta in three adult sheep. Coumadin was given orally to maintain prothrombin time at 15-20 sec. The coagulation and hematologic parameters, including plasma free hemoglobin, were periodically monitored throughout the experiment. Under daily movement in the cage, the pump could produce average flow rates of 3-6 L/min (50-100 ml/kg) at 1,700-2,000 rpm. Although the arterial pulse contour decreased, there was no physiologic deterioration. The axial impeller excursion monitored by a position sensor was < 25 microns. Plasma free hemoglobin level remained at < 5 mg/dl throughout the experiment. There was no increase in the motor current, which indicates no massive thrombus formation around the impeller. One experiment was terminated at 70 days due to Hall sensor dysfunction of the motor. The retrieved pump was entirely free from thrombus formation. There was no detectable thrombus formation inside the pump or the inflow and outflow conduits. Hematologic, renal, and hepatic parameters remained within the normal range throughout the experiment. The other two sheep have survived for more than 395 and 41 days without major complication. These studies demonstrated that the MSCP has significant potential for long-term use. PMID:9360103

Nojiri, C; Kijima, T; Maekawa, J; Horiuchi, K; Kido, T; Sugiyama, T; Mori, T; Sugiura, N; Asada, T; Shimane, H; Nishimura, K; Ban, T; Akamatsu, T; Ozaki, T; Ito, H; Suzuki, M; Akutsu, T

1997-01-01

33

Viscous pumping inspired by flexible propulsion  

E-print Network

Fluid-suspended microorganisms have evolved different swimming and feeding strategies in order to cope with an environment dominated by viscous effects. For instance ciliated organisms rely on the collective motion of flexible appendices to move and feed. By performing a non-reciprocal motion, flexible filaments can produce a net propulsive force, or pump fluid, in the absence of inertia. Inspired by such fundamental concept, we propose a strategy to produce macroscopic pumping and mixing in creeping flow. We measure experimentally the net motion of a Newtonian viscous fluid induced by the reciprocal motion of a flapper. When the flapper is rigid no net motion is induced. In contrast, when the flapper is made of a flexible material, a net fluid pumping is measured. We quantify the effectiveness of this pumping strategy and show that optimal pumping is achieved when the length of the flapper is on the same order as the elasto-hydrodynamic penetration length. We finally discuss the possible applications of flex...

Arco, Roger M; Lauga, Eric; Zenit, Roberto

2014-01-01

34

Numerical investigation of pressure fluctuation for a mixed flow pump impeller and vanes diffuser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to investigate the effect of rotor-stator interaction between impeller and vanes diffuser on the pressure fluctuation of a mixed flow pump, the pressure fluctuations at three representative locations under the design condition are obtained, unsteady flow feature is analyzed by RNG ?-? turbulence model with sliding mesh technology. Experimental results show that there is the positive slope of head-flow performance curve under 0.6 and 0.85 design condition, which unsteady prediction is not seen based on Reynolds-averaged equation. The pressure fluctuation is analysed by the characteristics of amplitude and frequency, the amplitude of pressure fluctuation, which the maximum is in the rim of impeller outlet and the minimum is in the hub of impeller inlet, is gradually increasing along the hub to rim, the amplitude of monitoring points located the rim of impeller inlet and impeller and vanes diffuser is two times than the hub. The amplitude of pressure fluctuation, which the maximum is in the vanes diffuser outlet, is gradually increasing along impeller inlet to vanes diffuser outlet, while there is a low-frequency pressure fluctuation caused by unsteady flow in the vanes diffuser.

Li, Y. B.; Li, R. N.; Chen, X. R.; Zhao, W. G.; Shen, L. X.

2012-11-01

35

Permanent magnetic-levitation of rotating impeller: a decisive breakthrough in the centrifugal pump.  

PubMed

Magnetic bearings have no mechanical contact between the rotor and stator, and a rotary pump with magnetic bearings therefore has no mechanical wear and thrombosis. The magnetic bearings available, however, contain electromagnets, are complicated to control and have high energy consumption. Therefore, it is difficult to apply an electromagnetic bearing to a rotary pump without disturbing its simplicity, reliability and ability to be implanted. The authors have developed a levitated impeller pump using only permanent magnets. The rotor is supported by permanent radial magnetic forces. The impeller is fixed on one side of the rotor; on the other side the rotor magnets are mounted. Opposite these rotor magents, a driving magnet is fastened to the motor axis. Thereafter, the motor drives the rotor via magnetic coupling. In laboratory tests with saline, where the rotor is still or rotates at under 4,000 rpm, the rotor magnets have one point in contact axially with a spacer between the rotor magnets and the driving magnets. The contacting point is located in the center of the rotor. As the rotating speed increases gradually to more than 4000 rpm, the rotor will disaffiliate from the stator axially, and become fully levitated. Since the axial levitation is produced by hydraulic force and the rotor magnets have a giro-effect, the rotor rotates very stably during levitation. As a left ventricular assist device, the pump works in a rotating speed range of 5,000-8,000 rpm, and the levitation of the impeller is assured by use of the pump. The permanent maglev impeller pump retains the advantages of the rotary pump but overcomes the disadvantages of the leviated pump with electromagnetic-bearing, and has met with most requirements of artificial heart blood pumps, thus promising to have more applications than previously. PMID:11924845

Qian, K X; Zeng, P; Ru, W M; Yuan, H Y; Feng, Z G; Li, L

2002-01-01

36

A compact highly efficient and low hemolytic centrifugal blood pump with a magnetically levitated impeller.  

PubMed

A magnetically levitated (maglev) centrifugal blood pump (CBP), intended for use as a ventricular assist device, needs to be highly durable and reliable for long-term use without any mechanical failure. Furthermore, maglev CBPs should be small enough to be implanted into patients of various size and weight. We have developed a compact maglev CBP employing a two-degree-of-freedom controlled magnetic bearing, with a magnetically suspended impeller directly driven by an internal brushless direct current (DC) motor. The magnetic bearing actively controls the radial motion of the impeller and passively supports axial and angular motions using a permanent magnet embedded in the impeller. The overall dimensions of the maglev CBP are 65 mm in diameter and 40 mm in height. The total power consumption and pump efficiency for pumping 6 L/min against a head pressure of 105 mm Hg were 6.5 W and 21%, respectively. To evaluate the characteristics of the maglev CBP when subjected to a disturbance, excitation of the base, simulating the movement of the patient in various directions, and the sudden interception of the outlet tube connected with the pump in a mock circulatory loop, simulating an unexpected kink and emergent clamp during a heart surgery, were tested by monitoring the five-degree-of-freedom motion of the impeller. Furthermore, the hemolytic characteristics of the maglev CBP were compared with those of the Medtronic Biomedicus BPX-80, which demonstrated the superiority of the maglev CBP. PMID:16480390

Asama, Junichi; Shinshi, Tadahiko; Hoshi, Hideo; Takatani, Setsuo; Shimokohbe, Akira

2006-03-01

37

Premature failure of a vacuum pump impeller rotor recovered from a pitch impregnation plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vacuum pump that was integral to a pitch impregnation system had rapidly deteriorated, leading to compromise in quality of products being manufactured. It was found that a particular vacuum impeller rotor group had worn, with unacceptable vacuum levels being the result. A replacement rotor was installed whilst cause of premature failure was investigated. However, in a matter of just

C. R. Gagg; P. R. Lewis; C. Tsang

2008-01-01

38

Disposable MagLev centrifugal blood pump utilizing a cone-shaped impeller.  

PubMed

To enhance the durability and reduce the blood trauma of a conventional blood pump with a cone-shaped impeller, a magnetically levitated (MagLev) technology has been applied to the BioPump BPX-80 (Medtronic Biomedicus, Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA), whose impeller is supported by a mechanical bearing. The MagLev BioPump (MagLev BP), which we have developed, has a cone-shaped impeller, the same as that used in the BPX-80. The suspension and driving system, which is comprised of two degrees of freedom, radial-controlled magnetic bearing, and a simply structured magnetic coupling, eliminates any physical contact between the impeller and the housing. To reduce both oscillation of the impeller and current in the coils, the magnetic bearing system utilizes repetitive and zero-power compensators. In this article, we present the design of the MagLev mechanism, measure the levitational accuracy of the impeller and pressure-flow curves (head-quantity [HQ] characteristics), and describe in vitro experiments designed to measure hemolysis. For the flow-induced hemolysis of the initial design to be reduced, the blood damage index was estimated by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Stable rotation of the impeller in a prototype MagLev BP from 0 to 2750 rpm was obtained, yielding a flow rate of 5 L/min against a head pressure in excess of 250 mm Hg. Because the impeller of the prototype MagLev BP is levitated without contact, the normalized index of hemolysis was 10% less than the equivalent value with the BPX-80. The results of the CFD analysis showed that the shape of the outlet and the width of the fluid clearances have a large effect on blood damage. The prototype MagLev BP satisfied the required HQ characteristics (5 L/min, 250 mm Hg) for extracorporeal circulation support with stable levitation of the impeller and showed an acceptable level of hemolysis. The simulation results of the CFD analysis indicated the possibility of further reducing the blood damage of the prototype MagLev BP. PMID:20528854

Hijikata, Wataru; Sobajima, Hideo; Shinshi, Tadahiko; Nagamine, Yasuyuki; Wada, Suguru; Takatani, Setsuo; Shimokohbe, Akira

2010-08-01

39

Investigation of CFD calculation method of a centrifugal pump with unshrouded impeller  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, relatively large errors are found in numerical results in some low-specific-speed centrifugal pumps with unshrouded impeller because the effect of clearances and holes are not accurately modeled. Establishing an accurate analytical model to improve performance prediction accuracy is therefore necessary. In this paper, a three-dimensional numerical simulation is conducted to predict the performance of a low-specific-speed centrifugal pump, and the modeling, numerical scheme, and turbulent selection methods are discussed. The pump performance is tested in a model pump test bench, and flow rate, head, power and efficiency of the pump are obtained. The effect of taking into consideration the back-out vane passage, clearance, and balance holes is analyzed by comparing it with experimental results, and the performance prediction methods are validated by experiments. The analysis results show that the pump performance can be accurately predicted by the improved method. Ignoring the back-out vane passage in the calculation model of unshrouded impeller is found to generate better numerical results. Further, the calculation model with the clearances and balance holes can obviously enhance the numerical accuracy. The application of disconnect interface can reduce meshing difficulty but increase the calculation error at the off-design operating point at the same time. Compared with the standard k-?, renormalization group k-?, and Spalart-Allmars models, the Realizable k-? model demonstrates the fastest convergent speed and the highest precision for the unshrouded impeller flow simulation. The proposed modeling and numerical simulation methods can improve the performance prediction accuracy of the low-specific-speed centrifugal pumps, and the modeling method is especially suitable for the centrifugal pump with unshrouded impeller.

Wu, Dazhuan; Yang, Shuai; Xu, Binjie; Liu, Qiaoling; Wu, Peng; Wang, Leqin

2014-03-01

40

Rotordynamic coefficients for shrouded pump impellers: comparisons between a new computer solution and test results  

E-print Network

study- (fl/o&=0. 3) Error analysis for increasing N, 38 NOMENCLATURE (A) (a) iE)l (b) P~G, H, I, J~R K, k, C, c, M, m (( n 5) (tinct) u q 'v I w W; x, y, z global and elemental matrices of influence in the finite element equations global... on Impeller of Volute Casing Pumps. Flow Research on Blading, editor L. S. Dzung, Elsevier Publ. Co. , Netherlands, pp. 305-321. Franz, R. J. and Amdt, N. K. E. , 1986, " Measurements of Hydrodynamic Forces on a Two-Dimensional Impeller and a Modified...

Daniel, Arul Sathyasundar

1992-01-01

41

Analysis on the influence of the pump start transient performance with different inertia impeller  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Centrifugal pump start-up time is very short, in the boot process, the instantaneous head and flow will have an impact role to the pipeline, and however the moment of inertia is one of the main factors affecting centrifugal pump boot acceleration. We analyzed the pump start-up transient characteristics with the different moment of inertia of the impeller corresponding to the different materials, there are three different moment of inertia of the impeller have been selected. At first, we use the "Flowmaster" fluid system simulation software do the outer characteristics simulation to the selected-model, get the time - flow and the time - speed curve. Then, do the experiments research in the process when pump start-up, and compare with the simulation result. At last use the outer characteristics simulation result as the boundary, using the ANASYS CFX software do the transient simulation to the three groups with different inertia pump impeller, and draw the pressure distribution picture. In according to the analysis, we can confirm that the impact of inertia is one of the factors in the stability during the pump star, and we can get that the greater moment of inertia, the longer the boot stable. We also can get that combined Flowmaster with ANSYS can solved engineering practice problem in fluid system conveniently, and take it easy to solve the similar problem.

Tang, Y.; Cheng, J.; Liu, E. H.; Tang, L. D.

2012-11-01

42

Investigations of turbulent flows in a tubular pump and structural stresses of its impeller  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on Navier-Stokes equations and RNG k-epsilon turbulence model, numerical simulation was carried out to investigate turbulent flows in tubular pumps and structural stresses of its impeller using commercial software of ANSYS Workbench. Firstly, the calculated velocity and pressure distributions in tubular pumps show that the whole flow pattern is uniform except for that in the region in the front of the pier in the discharge passage. The predicted spiral streamlines in the front of the discharge passage indicate that there exists an unrecovered velocity circulation. The computed reasonable distributions of the static pressure show the minimum happens at inlet edges on the suction surfaces of the blades which probably causes cavitations. One-way fluid-structure interaction method was then employed to make a further static structural analysis of the impeller, and the predicted stresses and deformations of the blades show that the maximal equivalent stress exists in the joint between the blades and the hub on pressure surfaces of the impeller, the maximum of total deformations of the blades increases as the radius increases. The maximal exists near the impeller rim at the inlet and outlet edges. The calculated results will provide references for further design and research of tubular pumps.

Tang, X. L.; Jia, Y. X.; Wang, F. J.; Zhou, D. Q.; Xiao, R. F.; Yang, W.; Wu, Y. L.

2012-11-01

43

An ultradurable and compact rotary blood pump with a magnetically suspended impeller in the radial direction.  

PubMed

A magnetically suspended centrifugal blood pump has been developed with a self-bearing motor for long-term ventricular assist systems. The rotor of the self-bearing motor is not only actively suspended in the radial direction, but also is rotated by an electromagnetic field. The pump has a long lifetime because there are no mechanical parts such as seals and motor bearings. An outer rotor mechanism was adopted for the self-bearing motor. The stator was constructed in the central space of the motor. The rotor shaped thin ring was set at the circumferential space of the stator. Six vanes were extended from the upper surface of the rotor toward the center of the pump to construct an open-type impeller. The outer diameter and the height of the impeller are 63 mm and 34 mm, respectively. The magnetic bearing method and the servomotor mechanism were adopted to levitate and rotate the rotor. Radial movements of the rotor and rotation are controlled actively by using electromagnets in the stator. Axial movement and tilt of the rotor are restricted by passive stability to simplify the control. The radial gap between the rotor and the stator is 1 mm. A closed-loop circuit filled with water was used to examine basic performance of the pump. Maximum flow rate and pressure head were 8 L/min and 200 mm Hg, respectively. Maximum amplitude of radial displacement of the impeller was 0.15 mm. The impeller could be suspended completely without touching the casing wall during the entire pumping process. Power consumption of the pump was only 9.5 W to produce a flow rate of 5 L/min against a pressure head of 100 mm Hg. We conclude that the pump has sufficient performance for the implantable ventricular assist system. PMID:11403671

Masuzawa, T; Kita, T; Okada, Y

2001-05-01

44

Effects of volute geometry and impeller orbit on the hydraulic performance of a centrifugal pump  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Overall performance data was taken for a Plexiglas water pump with a logarithmic spiral volute and rectangular cross sectioned flow channels. Parametric studies were made in which the center of the impeller was offset from the design center of the volute. The rig was also designed such that the impeller was allowed to synchronously orbit by a fixed amount about any center. The studies indicate that decreasing the tongue clearance decreases the head at low flowrates and increases the head at high flowrates. Also, decreasing the volute area in the first half of the volute and holding the tongue clearance the same, resulted in a decreased head for low flowrates but performance at high flowrates was not affected. Finally, the overall hydraulic performance was not affected by the impeller orbitting about the volute center.

Flack, R. D.; Lanes, R. F.

1983-01-01

45

Axial reciprocation of rotating impeller: a new concept of antithrombogenecity in centrifugal pump.  

PubMed

For long-term application, rotary pumps have to solve the problems of bearing wear and thrombosis along the bearing. Most investigators choose the magnetic bearing to realize zero-friction and no contact between the rotor and stator; the former avoids the mechanical wear and the latter eliminates the possibility of thrombus formation. The authors have tried and found, however, that it is difficult to apply a magnetic bearing to the rotary pump without disturbing its simplicity, reliability and implantability, and have therefor developed a much simpler and much more creative approach to achieve the same results. Instead of using a sliding bearing, a rolling bearing has been devised for the pump, and its friction is about 1/15 of the sliding bearing. Furthermore, a wear-proof material of ultra-high-molecular weight polythene has been adopted to make the rollers, and its anti-wear property is 8 times better than metal. Thereby, the service life of the bearing has been prolonged to ten years according to the documents provided by the producer. In order to prevent the thrombus formation along the bearing, the impeller reciprocates axiallly as the impeller changes its rotating speed periodically to produce a pulsatile flow. The reciprocation is the result of the effects of a magnetic force between the motor rotor and stator, and a hydraulic force between the blood flow and the impeller. Similar to a piston pump, the oscillating impeller can make the blood flow in and out of the bearing, resulting in wash-out once a circle. This obviously helps to prevent thombosis along the bearing and in the pump. The endurance tests with saline of this novel pump demonstrated the durabililty of the device. It promises to be able to assist the circulation of patients permanently, and to be able to replace heart transplantation in the future. PMID:11345097

Qian, K X; Zeng, P; Ru, W M; Yuan, H Y; Feng, Z G; Li, L

2001-01-01

46

ON THE PARTICLE TRAJECTORIES IN DREDGE PUMP IMPELLERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In dredging, specific knowledge of particle flow through pipes and pumps is required so that the design of the various components can be optimized for the requirements of mixture flow. In the absence of theoretical knowledge, experimental results are used to predict losses in pipelines and the performance of pumps. This approach, while sufficient for application in general, is not

C. F. Hofstra; C. van Rhee; S. A. Miedema; A. M. Talmon

47

Long-term survival of experimental calves with a left ventricular assist impeller pump.  

PubMed

An impeller pump has been evaluated chronically in calves as a left ventricular assist device. In a group of 18 calves, three survived approx. 2 months (62, 54 and 46 days, respectively) while earlier calves survived less than 14 days. The termination of the experiments was due to bearing wear, which resulted in pump failure. The pump delivered nonpulsatile or pulsatile blood flow, according to the heart function. All the haemochemical data remained within normal or acceptable ranges during the experiments. Further improvement is now concentrated on developing a magnetic bearing to solve the problem of bearing wear. PMID:9457701

Qian, K X; Zheng, M

1997-10-01

48

Axial reciprocation of rotating impeller: a novel approach to preventing thrombosis in centrifugal pump.  

PubMed

For long-term application, rotary pumps have to solve the problems of bearing wear and thrombosis along the bearing. Some investigators choose the magnetic bearing for zero friction and to provide no contact between the rotor and stator; the former avoids the mechanical wear and the latter eliminates the possibility of thrombus formation. The authors have tried and have found, however, that it is difficult to apply a magnetic bearing to the rotary pump without disturbing its simplicity, reliability, and implantability, and have therefore developed a much simpler approach to achieve the same results. Instead of using a sliding bearing, a rolling bearing has been devised, and its friction is about 1/15 that of the sliding bearing. Furthermore, a wearproof material of ultra high molecular weight polythene has been adopted to make the rollers, and its antiwear property is eight times better than metal. The service life of the bearing has thus been prolonged. To prevent thrombus formation along the bearing, the impeller reciprocates axially as the impeller changes its rotating speed periodically to produce a pulsatile flow. The reciprocation is the result of the effects of a magnetic force between the motor rotor and stator and a hydraulic force between the blood flow and the impeller. Similar to a piston pump, the oscillating impeller can make the blood flow in and out of the bearing, resulting in washout with fresh blood once a cycle. This obviously helps to prevent thrombosis along the bearing and in the pump. Endurance tests with saline of this novel pump demonstrated device durability, promising long-term assisted circulation. PMID:12296579

Qian, K X; Zeng, P; Ru, W M; Yuan, H Y

2002-01-01

49

Performance analysis of axial flow pump on gap changing between impeller and guide vane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to study the influence on gap changing of the static and dynamic components in axial flow pump, the axial flow pump model (TJ04-ZL-06) that used in the eastern of south-to-north water diversion project was selected. Steady turbulence field with different gaps was simulated by standard ?-? turbulence model and double-time stepping methods. Information on the pressure distribution and velocity distribution of impeller surfaces were obtained. Then, calculated results were compared with the test results and analyzed. The results show that the performance of pump is not sensitive with the axial gap width under design conditions and the large flow rate condition. With increasing gap width, it will be improved in low flow rate condition. The attack angle of impeller inlet in small flow rate condition become small and the flow separation phenomenon can be observed in this condition. The axial velocity distribution of impeller outlet is nonlinear and to increase the axial gap is to improve the flow pattern near the hub effectively. The trend of calculating results is identical with test. It will play a guiding role to the axial pump operation and design in south-to-north water diversion project.

Wang, W. J.; Liang, Q. H.; Wang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yin, G.; Shi, X. X.

2013-12-01

50

Effects of the primary passage on the flow through the secondary passage of a shrouded-impeller pump  

E-print Network

-connected domain will provide the increased accuracy desired by the rotordynamic analysis community. 52 REFERENCES Abou-E1-Kheir, Magdy, "Rotordynamic Characteristics of a Shrouded Pump Impeller. " M. S. Thesis, Texas A&M University, 1991. Baldwin, B. S...

Wyman, Nicholas James

1994-01-01

51

Fabrication of a fully magnetic impeller for improvement of the magnetic properties of a pump with a power harvester  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An all-in-one wireless pump with a power generator was developed for use in biomedical applications. The developed pump is driven by an external rotating magnetic field. Thus, the performance of the system is limited by the magnetic properties of the rotor. To improve the magnetic properties of the magnetic all-in-one pump, a fully magnetic impeller was fabricated with magnetic powder (Sm2Fe17N3) because sintered magnetic materials have a lower degree of freedom for shape. The magnetic moment (M) and coercive force (Hc) of the fully magnetic impeller are 0.993 Am2 and 0.82 MA/m, respectively. We analyzed the magnetic properties of the fully magnetic impeller using simulation and experiments. In addition, we investigated the improved performance of the all-in-one pump system using the fully magnetic impeller.

Kim, Sung Hoon; Shin, Jaewon; Hashi, Shuichiro; Ishiyama, Kazushi; Ozaki, Masaru; Matsumura, Syuji

2012-04-01

52

J-2X Fuel Pump Impeller Seal Simulations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The J-2X engine was originally designed for the upper stage of the previously cancelled Crew Launch Vehicle. Although the Crew Launch Vehicle was cancelled the J-2X engine, which is currently undergoing hot-fire testing, may be used on future programs. The J-2X engine is a direct descendent of the J-2 engine which powered the upper stage during the Apollo program. Many changes including a thrust increase from 230K to 294K lbf have been implemented in this engine. The rotor-dynamic stability of the fuel turbopump is highly dependent on the tangential velocity of the fluid as it enters the the front face impeller seal. Rotor-dynamic analysis predicts that a much lower tangential velocity will be required for stability than was needed for previous engines. The geometry at the seal entrance for this engine is very complex and vastly different than previous engines. In order to better determine the fluid dynamics and tangential velocity in this seal several CFD simulations were performed. The results of these simulations show that for this seal geometry a great reduction in the tangential velocity is to be expected. The simulations also provided insight into methods that could be employed to drive the swirl velocity to near zero. Unsteady and time-averaged results of several simulations will be presented.

Schmauch, Preston B.; West, Jeffrey S.

2011-01-01

53

Static stress and modal analysis on the impeller of screw centrifugal pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The modeling of the screw centrifugal pump was set up with Pro/E, the meshing of the fluid domain and the impeller were completed with ICEM, CFD and Workbench respectively. The 3-D steady turbulence flow in the pump was simulated by using ANSYS CFX under the design condition to get the pressure distribution on the surface of the blades. The static pressure and modal analysis were set using sequential coupling technique based on the simulation result. The results show that the maximum equivalent stress which is far less than the permissible stress occurs at the blade connected with the hub; the maximum deformation of the impeller occurs at the edge of the blade inlet; the deformation domain increase with the frequency ascended.

Yuan, S. Q.; Li, T.; Yuan, J. P.; Zhou, J. J.

2012-11-01

54

Antithrombogenicity of the Gyro permanently implantable pump with the RPM dynamic suspension system for the impeller.  

PubMed

In 1995, a group at Baylor College of Medicine started to develop the NEDO biventricular assist device (BVAD) using two Gyro permanently implantable (PI) centrifugal pumps. This pump consists of a sealless pump housing and an impeller supported with a double pivot bearing. In May 2001, an RPM dynamic suspension system (RPM-DS) for the impeller was developed to improve durability and antithrombogenicity without a complex magnetic suspension system. From March 2000 to March 2002, eight BVAD bovine experimental studies were performed for more than 1 month. Two pumps were implanted in two cases without the RPM-DS (group A) and in six cases with the RPM-DS (group B). In group A, the survival period was 45 and 50 days. The primary reason for termination was an increase in the requiring power, which was related to deposition of white thrombus on the bottom bearing. In group B, the survival period was 37, 48, 51, 60, 80, and 90 days. The reasons for termination were not related to thrombus formation. No thrombus was observed in the pumps except for one right pump. In that experiment, the thrombus formation may have occurred when that pump had a low flow rate at a level of 1 L/min for 6 hr. These studies demonstrate the apparent antithrombogenic effect of RPM-DS. The NEDO BVAD is ready to move into a 3-month preclinical system evaluation. PMID:14616527

Ichikawa, Seiji; Nonaka, Kenji; Motomura, Tadashi; Ishitoya, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Kuniyoshi; Ashizawa, Satoshi; Shinohara, Toshiyuki; Sumikura, Hirohito; Ichihashi, Fumiyuki; Oestmann, Daniel; Nosé, Yukihiko

2003-10-01

55

Hydraulic optimization of a double-channel pump's impeller based on multi-objective genetic algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can give a lot of potentially very useful information for hydraulic optimization design of pumps, however, it cannot directly state what kind of modification should be made to improve such hydrodynamic performance. In this paper, a more convenient and effective approach is proposed by combined using of CFD, multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA) and artificial neural networks (ANN) for a double-channel pump's impeller, with maximum head and efficiency set as optimization objectives, four key geometrical parameters including inlet diameter, outlet diameter, exit width and midline wrap angle chosen as optimization parameters. Firstly, a multi-fidelity fitness assignment system in which fitness of impellers serving as training and comparison samples for ANN is evaluated by CFD, meanwhile fitness of impellers generated by MOGA is evaluated by ANN, is established and dramatically reduces the computational expense. Then, a modified MOGA optimization process, in which selection is performed independently in two sub-populations according to two optimization objectives, crossover and mutation is performed afterword in the merged population, is developed to ensure the global optimal solution to be found. Finally, Pareto optimal frontier is found after 500 steps of iterations, and two optimal design schemes are chosen according to the design requirements. The preliminary and optimal design schemes are compared, and the comparing results show that hydraulic performances of both pumps 1 and 2 are improved, with the head and efficiency of pump 1 increased by 5.7% and 5.2%, respectively in the design working conditions, meanwhile shaft power decreased in all working conditions, the head and efficiency of pump 2 increased by 11.7% and 5.9%, respectively while shaft power increased by 5.5%. Inner flow field analyses also show that the backflow phenomenon significantly diminishes at the entrance of the optimal impellers 1 and 2, both the area of vortex and intensity of vortex decreases in the whole flow channel. This paper provides a promising tool to solve the hydraulic optimization problem of pumps' impellers.

Zhao, Binjuan; Wang, Yu; Chen, Huilong; Qiu, Jing; Hou, Duohua

2015-03-01

56

On the use of a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver for rocket engine pump impeller design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 3D Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes Solver and a Fast Grid Generator (FGG), developed specially for centrifugal impeller design, were incorporated into the pump impeller design process. The impeller performance from the CFD analysis was compared to one-dimensional prediction. Both analyses showed good agreement of the impeller hydraulic efficiency, 94.5 percent, but with an 8 percent discrepancy of Euler head prediction. The impeller blade angle, discharge hub to shroud width, axial length and blade stacking were systematically changed to achieve an optimum impeller design. Impeller overall efficiency, loss distribution, hub-to-tip flow angle distortion and blade-to-blade flow angle change are among those criteria used to evaluate impeller performance. Two grid sizes, one with 10 K grid points and one with 80 K grid points were used to evaluate grid dependency issues. The effects of grid resolution on the accuracy and turnaround time are discussed. In conclusion, it is demonstrated that CFD can be effectively used for design and optimization of rocket engine pump components.

Chen, Wei-Chung; Prueger, George H.; Chan, Daniel C.; Eastland, Anthony H.

1992-01-01

57

Prediction of flow- induced dynamic stress in an axial pump impeller using FEM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Axial pumps play an important role in water supply and flood control projects. Along with growing requirements for high reliability and large capacity, the dynamic stress of axial pumps has become a key problem. Unsteady flow is a significant reason which results structural dynamic stress of a pump. This paper reports on a flow-induced dynamic stress simulation in an axial pump impeller at three flow conditions by using FEM code. The pressure pulsation obtained from flow simulation using CFD code was set as the force boundary condition. The results show that the maximum stress of impeller appeared at joint between blade and root flange near trailing edge or joint between blade and root flange near leading edge. The dynamic stress of the two zones was investigated under three flow conditions (0.8Qd, 1.0Qd, 1.1Qd) in time domain and frequency domain. The frequencies of stress at zones of maximum stress are 22.9Hz and 37.5Hz as the fundamental frequency and its harmonics. The fundamental frequencies are nearly equal to vane passing frequency (22.9 Hz) and 3 times blade passing frequency (37.5Hz). The first dominant frequency at zones of maximum stress is equal to the vane passing frequency due to rotor-stator interaction between the vane and the blade. This study would be helpful for axial pumps in reducing stress, improving structure design and fatigue life.

Y Gao, J.; Hou, Y. S.; Xi, S. Z.; Cai, Z. H.; Yao, P. P.; Shi, H. L.

2013-12-01

58

Technical note: a durable impeller pump with rolling bearing and purge system.  

PubMed

Our former works demonstrated that the authors' impeller pump could support the circulation of experimental animals for several months without harm to blood elements and organ function of the animals. The termination of the experiments was mostly related to wear of the mechanical bearing and the thrombosis along the bearing. To solve the bearing problem, a magnetic bearing was investigated in our laboratory, resulting in some new problems, such as complicated design and control, considerable energy consumption and lower reliability. Progress in developing an impeller pump for long-term application has been achieved recently. Instead of using a slide bearing, a rolling bearing system has been devised. Its service life is more than ten years due to a wear-proof roller made of ultra-high molecular weight poythene. In order to avoid thrombus formation, a special purge system was introduced to the bearing, thus saline with heparin can be infused through the bearing into the pump. Therefore, the bearing keeps working in the saline, and no thrombus will be formed along the beating. The animal experiments demonstrated that 30 cc fluid infusion per hour continuously or interruptedly is enough to prevent the thrombus formation. With these improvements, the impeller pump was continuously run for one year and no bearing wear was measured in the endurance test. The device weighing 150g is fully implantable, consumes around 9.6 W electric energy by delivering 9 l min(-1) blood flow against 120 mmHg mean pressure and reaches a highest total efficiency, 24.7%, of motor (including controller) and pump at this point, which can produce both pulsatile and non-pulsatile flow according to the requirements. PMID:11780770

Qian, K X; Zeng, P; Ru, W M; Yuan, H Y

2001-01-01

59

Rapid manufacturing techniques in the development of an axial blood pump impeller.  

PubMed

This paper presents a comparison of manufacturing techniques used in the development of an axial blood pump impeller. In this development process the impeller was designed and its performance was evaluated with the aid of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Prototypes of those designs where the CFD results show promise were needed in sufficient quantities at a low cost for experimental validation of the CFD results. As the impeller is less than 16 mm in diameter with a maximum blade thickness of about 1.5 mm, innovative manufacturing techniques are explored in this paper to determine the best process for quick fabrication of prototypes that are dimensionally accurate, structurally robust and low in cost. Four rapid prototyping techniques were explored. The completed parts were compared on the basis of manufacturing time, quality and strength of parts obtained, manufacturing cost and also in vitro performances. Based on these studies, it was concluded that selective laser sintering (SLS) is the most appropriate method for the quick production of prototype parts for evaluation of pump performance. PMID:14702984

Chan, W K; Wong, Y W; Chua, C K; Lee, C W; Feng, C

2003-01-01

60

Optimum geometry of interblade passages in impellers of thermomolecular vacuum pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Certain performance parameters of turbomolecular vacuum pumps, namely the maximum pressure ratio tau(max) at equal opposing molecule fluxes and the maximum probability of molecule transfer of suction K(max) under equal pressures on both sides, depend largely on the geometry of the interblade passages in the impellers. A composite universal relation was established for determining the slant angle of interblade passages or blade generatrices as well as the relative aperture or closure of the passage exit section. This exponential relation between pressure ratio tau and probability of molecule transfer K is tau = ae(sup bK)+c, where the empirical constant alpha b,c are determined from known or given tau(max,n) and K(max,1). This relation is based on an exact solution of the problem of minimizing the number of impellers (n) and optimizing the interblade passage on the suction side.

Demikov, K. Y.

1984-08-01

61

Numerical prediction and performance experiment in a deep-well centrifugal pump with different impeller outlet width  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existing research of the deep-well centrifugal pump mainly focuses on reduce the manufacturing cost and improve the pump performance, and how to combine above two aspects together is the most difficult and important topic. In this study, the performances of the deep-well centrifugal pump with four different impeller outlet widths are studied by the numerical, theoretical and experimental methods in this paper. Two stages deep-well centrifugal pump equipped with different impellers are simulated employing the commercial CFD software to solve the Navier-Stokes equations for three-dimensional incompressible steady flow. The sensitivity analyses of the grid size and turbulence model have been performed to improve numerical accuracy. The flow field distributions are acquired and compared under the design operating conditions, including the static pressure, turbulence kinetic energy and velocity. The prototype is manufactured and tested to certify the numerical predicted performance. The numerical results of pump performance are higher than the test results, but their change trends have an acceptable agreement with each other. The performance results indicted that the oversize impeller outlet width leads to poor pump performances and increasing shaft power. Changing the performance of deep-well centrifugal pump by alter impeller outlet width is practicable and convenient, which is worth popularizing in the engineering application. The proposed research enhances the theoretical basis of pump design to improve the performance and reduce the manufacturing cost of deep-well centrifugal pump.

Shi, Weidong; Zhou, Ling; Lu, Weigang; Pei, Bing; Lang, Tao

2013-01-01

62

Chaotic mixing of a viscous fluid in a screw impeller mixer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies on model systems1,2 have established the potential utility of the theory of chaotic systems for the analysis of mixing in laminar flow fields. Here we present an application of the theory to the mixing, under creeping flow conditions, in a screw impeller mixer, which is used in a number of industrial mixing operations. The flow in the system

D. V. Khakhar; G. Sridhar

1991-01-01

63

A cost-effective extracorporeal magnetically-levitated centrifugal blood pump employing a disposable magnet-free impeller.  

PubMed

In the field of rotary blood pumps, contactless support of the impeller by a magnetic bearing has been identified as a promising method to reduce blood damage and enhance durability. The authors developed a two-degrees-of-freedom radial controlled magnetic bearing system without a permanent magnet in the impeller in order that a low-cost disposable pump-head for an extracorporeal centrifugal blood pump could be manufactured more easily. Stable levitation and contactless rotation of the 'magnet-free' impeller were realized for a prototype blood-pump that made use of this magnetic bearing. The run-out of the impeller position at between 1000 r/min and 3000 r/min was less than 40 microm in the radial-controlled directions. The total power consumption of the magnetic bearing was less than 1 W at the same rotational speeds. When the pump was operated, a flow rate of 5 l/min against a head pressure of 78.66 kPa was achieved at a rotational speed of 4000 r/min, which is sufficient for extracorporeal circulation support. The proposed technology offers the advantage of low-cost mass production of disposable pump heads. PMID:22320054

Hijikata, W; Mamiya, T; Shinshi, T; Takatani, S

2011-12-01

64

Comparison of hydraulic and hemolytic properties of different impeller designs of an implantable rotary blood pump by computational fluid dynamics.  

PubMed

A mixed-flow blood pump for long-term applications has been developed at the Helmholtz-Institute in Aachen, Germany. Central features of this implantable pump are a centrally integrated motor, a blood-immersed mechanical bearing, magnetic coupling of the impeller, and a shrouded impeller, which allows a relatively wide clearance. The aim of the study was a numerical analysis of hydraulic and hemolytic properties of different impeller design configurations. In vitro testing and numerical simulation techniques (computational fluid dynamics [CFD]) were applied to achieve a comprehensive overview. Pressure-flow charts were experimentally measured in a mock loop in order to validate the CFD data. In vitro hemolysis tests were performed at the main operating point of each impeller design. General flow patterns, pressure-flow charts, secondary flow rates, torque, and axial forces on the impeller were calculated by means of CFD. Furthermore, based on streak line techniques, shear stress (stress loading), exposure times, and volume percentage with critical stress loading have been determined. Comparison of CFD data with pressure head measurements showed excel-lent agreement. Also, impressive trend conformity was observed between in-vitro hemolysis results and numerical data. Comparison of design variations yielded clear trends and results. Design C revealed the best hydraulic and hemolytic properties and was chosen as the final design for the mixed-flow rotary blood pump. PMID:15384994

Arvand, Arash; Hahn, Nicole; Hormes, Marcus; Akdis, Mustafa; Martin, Michael; Reul, Helmut

2004-10-01

65

Study on stable equilibrium of levitated impeller in rotary pump with passive magnetic bearings.  

PubMed

It is widely acknowledged that the permanent maglev cannot achieve stable equilibrium; the authors have developed, however, a stable permanent maglev centrifugal blood pump. Permanent maglev needs no position detection and feedback control of the rotor, nevertheless the eccentric distance (ED) and vibration amplitude (VA) of the levitator have been measured to demonstrate the levitation and to investigate the factors affecting levitation. Permanent maglev centrifugal impeller pump has a rotor and a stator. The rotor is driven by stator coil and levitated by two passive magnetic bearings. The rotor position is measured by four Hall sensors, which are distributed evenly and peripherally on the end of the stator against the magnetic ring of the bearing on the rotor. The voltage differences of the sensors due to different distances between the sensors and the magnetic ring are converted into ED. The results verify that the rotor can be disaffiliated from the stator if the rotating speed and the flow rate of the pump are large enough, that is, the maximal ED will reduce to about half of the gap between the rotor and the stator. In addition, the gap between rotor and stator and the viscosity of the fluid to be pumped also affect levitation. The former has an optimal value of approximately 2% of the radius of the rotor. For the latter, levitation stability is better with higher viscosity, meaning smaller ED and VA. The pressure to be pumped has no effect on levitation. PMID:16531346

Qian, K X; Wan, F K; Ru, W M; Zeng, P; Yuan, H Y

2006-01-01

66

Modal behavior of a reduced scale pump-turbine impeller. Part 1: Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental investigation has been carried out to quantify the effects of surrounding fluid on the modal behavior of a reduced scale pump-turbine impeller. The modal properties of the fluid-structure system have been obtained by Experimental Modal Analysis (EMA) with the impeller suspended in air and inside a water reservoir. The impeller has been excited with an instrumented hammer and the response has been measured by means of miniature accelerometers. The Frequency Response Functions (FRF's) have been obtained from a large number of impacting positions in order to ensure the identification of the main mode shapes. As a result, the main modes of vibration have been well characterized both in air and in water in terms of natural frequency, damping ratio and mode shape. The first mode is the 2 Nodal Diameter (ND), the second one is the 0ND and the following ones are the 3ND coupled with the 1ND. The visual observation of the animated mode shapes and the level of the Modal Assurance Criterion (MAC) have permitted to correlate the homologous modes of vibration of the fluid-structure system in air and in water. From this comparison the added mass effect on the natural frequencies and the fluid effect on the damping ratios have been quantified for the most significant modes. With the surrounding water, the natural frequencies decrease in average by 10%. On the other hand, the damping ratios increase in average by 0.5%. In any case, the damping ratio appears to decrease with the frequency value of the mode.

Escaler, X.; Hütter, J. K.; Egusquiza, E.; Farhat, M.; Avellan, F.

2010-08-01

67

Simulation and experiment of the effect of clearance of impeller wear-rings on the performance of centrifugal pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of clearance of impeller wear-rings on the performance of a centrifugal pump was investigated numerically and experimentally. The whole flow field model including front and back shrouds of pump was designed so as to accurately calculate the head and efficiency of the centrifugal pump. Based on RNG k-? turbulence model, three wear-rings schemes were established, and the effects of clearance of impeller wear-rings on the hydraulic efficiency and mechanical efficiency of the centrifugal pump was analyzed, chiefly from the turbulent kinetic energy, vorticity and radial force angles. According to the results, it can be drawn that the head and total efficiency of the centrifugal pump increase as the clearance value of wear-rings narrows. The following reasons may account for it: firstly, as the clearance value of wear-rings declines, the turbulent kinetic energy and energy dissipation decrease within the impeller, and the impact of secondary flow at the inlet of impeller on the mainstream weakens slowly, which leads to a lower hydraulic loss, thus a higher hydraulic efficiency; secondly, radial force decreases with the clearance value of wear-rings, so the eccentric whirl of centrifugal pump is dampened, which results in a lower mechanical loss and a higher mechanical efficiency; thirdly, the front shroud leakage diminishes with the clearance value of wear-rings, therefore, the volume loss is reduced and volume efficiency improved. Finally, the first wear-ring scheme of impeller is adopted after comprehensive comparison of these three wear-ring schemes, because its efficiency is highest and it satisfies the requirements of the engineering application.

Chen, S. X.; Pan, Z. Y.; Wu, Y. L.; Zhang, D. Q.

2012-11-01

68

Effect of vortical structures on cavitation on impeller blades in pumps with suction chambers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A double-suction pump operating at relatively low suction head and with poorly designed suction chambers was analysed by the computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Two impeller geometries were considered - one with thicker and one with thin layer of predicted vapour cavity on blades. Steady-state simulations (SSS) were performed with shear-stress- transport (SST) turbulence model with curvature correction (CC). Transient simulations were performed with scale-adaptive-simulation SST (SAS-SST) model with CC. For both analysed geometries, transient simulations predicted higher maximal thickness of cavities than SSS. In transient simulations it was observed that, because of poor design of suction chambers, near the rib of the suction chambers two stronger (non-cavitating) vortices appeared. Near the main vortical structures, vortices with smaller intensity appeared, with direction of rotation opposite to the main vortices. Depending on their position and direction of rotation, the vortices either decreased or increased the extent of cavitation. The most important adverse effect was to increase the size of the sheet cavity by local elongation and thickening. The local effect seemed to be more pronounced for impeller with smaller thickness of sheet cavity.

Škerlavaj, A.; Pavlin, R.

2014-12-01

69

Generating an indicator for pump impeller damage using half and full spectra, fuzzy preference-based rough sets and PCA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parameters that vary monotonically with damage propagation are useful in condition monitoring. However, it is not easy to find such parameters especially for complex systems like pumps. A method using half and full spectra, fuzzy preference-based rough sets and principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed to generate such an indicator for tracking impeller damage in a centrifugal slurry pump. Half and full spectra are used for extracting features related to pump health status. A fuzzy preference-based rough set model is employed in the process of selecting features reflecting the damage propagation monotonically. PCA is used to condense the features and generate an indicator which represents the damage propagation. The effectiveness of the proposed method is tested using laboratory experimental data. Results show that the indicator generated by the proposed method can clearly and monotonically distinguish the health status of the pump impeller.

Zhao, Xiaomin; Zuo, Ming J.; Patel, Tejas H.

2012-04-01

70

Industrial Pumps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flow inducer is a device that increases the pump intake capacity of a Worthington Centrifugal pump. It lifts the suction pressure sufficiently for the rotating main impeller of the centrifugal pump to operate efficiently at higher fluid intake levels. The concept derives from 1960's NASA technology which was advanced by Worthington Pump Division. The pumps are used to recirculate wood molasses, a highly viscous substance.

1986-01-01

71

Dynamic stress analysis of sewage centrifugal pump impeller based on two-way coupling method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current research on the operational reliability of centrifugal pumps has mainly focused on hydrodynamic instability. However, the interaction between the fluid and structure has not been sufficiently considered; this interaction can cause vibration and dynamic stress, which can affect the reliability. In this study, the dynamic stresses in a single-blade centrifugal pump impeller are analysed under different operating conditions; the two-way coupling method is used to calculate the fluid-structure interaction. Three-dimensional unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved with the SST k-? turbulence model for the fluid in the whole flow passage, while transient structure dynamic analysis is used with the finite element method for the structure side. The dynamic stresses in the rotor system are computed according to the fourth strength theory. The stress results show that the highest stress is near the loose bearing and that the equivalent stress increases with the flow rate because the dynamic stresses are closely related to the pressure load. The stress distributions on the blade pressure side, suction side, leading edge, and trailing edge are each analysed for different flow rates; the highest stress distribution is found on the pressure side. On the blade pressure side, a relatively large stress is found near the trailing edge and hub side. Based on these results, a stress distribution prediction method is proposed for centrifugal pumps, which considers the interaction between the fluid and structure. The method can be used to check the dynamic stress at different flow rates when optimising the pump design to increase the pump reliability.

Pei, Ji; Yuan, Shouqi; Yuan, Jianping

2014-03-01

72

Research of fluid-induced pressure fluctuation due to impeller-volute interaction in a centrifugal pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fluid pressure fluctuation generated by unsteady flow is a very important factor to induce vibration of the centrifugal pump. The relative movement between impeller and volute generates an unsteady interaction which affects not only the overall pump performance, but is also responsible for pressure fluctuations. Pressure fluctuations interact with the volute casing or even with the circuit and give rise to dynamic effects over the mechanical parts, which are one of the most important sources of vibration and hydraulic noise. To investigate the flow characteristic in the centrifugal pump, the unsteady flow is simulated by CFD methods in this paper. Unsteady flow characteristic in the centrifugal pump is obtained considering the impeller-volute interaction in the whole flow field. Based on the unsteady flow simulation, amplitude-frequency characteristics of the pressure fluctuation in the centrifugal pump are obtained through setting up monitoring point at the impeller outlet. The research shows that the frequency component include the blade passing frequency as the main component, the multiplication of blade passing frequency, and the harmonic interference due to the unsteady flow.

Liu, Q. Z.; Yang, K.; Y Li, D.; Gong, R. Z.

2013-12-01

73

Studies of the impact of prerotation problem of the secondary impeller on performance of multi-stage centrifugal pumps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In engineering practice, part of the multi-stage centrifugal pumps is designed without space guide vanes due to the size restrictions and the volute is distorted much in shape. In these pumps, tangential velocity of the fluid at the outlet of the first-stage impeller is so great that it has caused a prerotation problem which will affect the inlet flow conditions of the secondary impeller leading to serious efficiency and head decline of the secondary impeller. The head problem of the second stage in multi-stage centrifugal pumps caused by prerotation at the entrance of the second stage was analyzed and the internal hydraulic performance was optimized by setting clapboards in the volute in this paper. CFD numerical simulation method combined with experiment was applied to predict the effect of internal clapboards on the performance of the centrifugal pump. The original prototype was transformed according to the simulation result and tested to verify the optimization work. The experiment result shows that hydraulic performance is remarkably improved compared with the original one and the prerotation problem is basically solved.

Zhai, L. L.; Wu, P.; Jiang, Q. L.; Wang, L. Q.

2012-11-01

74

Data reduction problems using a 3-hole directional pressure probe to investigate mean flow characteristics in the vaneless gap between impeller and diffuser radial pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among several different measurement techniques that have been already performed and presented in a radial impeller pump model including PIV, a directional pressure probe has been used to obtain mean velocity field and stagnation pressure between impeller outlet and the inlet vaned diffuser sections. These measurements are supposed to get more information not only about global pump head coefficient including vaned diffuser ones but also about impeller performances itself. Pressure probe information is affected by rotor-stator interactions and impeller rotation, and this paper presents a way to explain and correct pressure probe indications in order to achieve a better evaluation of overall impeller mean performances. The use of unsteady RANS calculation results is found to be a useful way to perform better data reduction analysis for this purpose.

Cherdieu, P.; Dupont, P.; Bayeul-Lainé, A. C.; Dazin, A.; Bois, G.

2013-12-01

75

Unshrouded Centrifugal Turbopump Impeller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ratio of rocket engine thrust to weight is a limiting constraint in placing more payload into orbit at a low cost. A key component of an engine's overall weight is the turbopump weight, Reducing the turbopump weight can result in significant engine weight reduction and hence, increased delivered payload. There are two main types of pumps: centrifugal and axial pumps. These types of pumps can be further sub-divided into those with shrouds and those without shrouds (unshrouded pumps). Centrifugal pumps can achieve the same pump discharge pressure as an axial pump and it requires fewer pump stages and lower pump weight than an axial pump. Also, with unshrouded centrifugal pumps (impeller), the number of stages and weight can be further reduced. However. there are several issues with regard to using an unshrouded impeller: 1) there is a pump performance penalty due to the front open face recirculation flow; 2) there is a potential pump axial thrust problem from the unbalanced front open face and the back shroud face; and, 3) since test data is very linu'ted for this configuration, there is uncertainty in the magnitude and phase of the rotordynamics forces due to the front impeller passage. The purpose of the paper is to discuss the design of an unshrouded impeller and to examine the design's hydrodynamic performance, axial thrust, and rotordynamics performance. The design methodology will also be discussed. This work will help provide some guidelines for unshrouded impeller design. In particular, the paper will discuss the design of three unshrouded impellers - one with 5 full and 5 partial blades (5+5). one with 6+6 blades and one with 8+8 blades. One of these designs will be selected for actual fabrication and flow test. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to help design and optimize the unshrouded impeller. The relative pump performance penalty is assessed by comparing the CFD results of the unshrouded impeller with the equivalent shrouded impeller for a particular design. Limited unshrouded - versus - shrouded impeller data from the J-2 pump is used to anchor the CFD. Since no detailed impeller blade force data is available, axial thrust and rotordynamic force predictions are based on the CFD model. For the axial thrust, the impeller front flow passage axial force is integrated from the CFD results and compared to the equivalent shrouded impeller axial force. For the rotordynamics forces, the fluid reaction forces are computed from unsteady flow CFD results using a moving boundary method; the rotor- shaft is moved at several whirl-to-speed frequency ratios to extract the rotordynamics coefficients.

Prueger, George; Williams, Morgan; Chen, Wei; Paris, John; Stewart, Eric; Williams, Robert

1999-01-01

76

Investigation of unsteady flow-induced impeller oscillations of a single-blade pump under off-design conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The periodically unsteady flow-induced impeller oscillations for a single-blade pump are investigated both numerically and experimentally under off-design conditions. A partitioned strategy with load transfer method is selected for achieving successful fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulations with strong two-way coupling. Three-dimensional, unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved with a shear stress transport turbulence model for the fluid side, while a transient structure dynamic analysis with the finite element method is employed for the structure side. Radial deflections of the pump impeller are successfully measured using proximity sensors to validate the FSI results. The comparison of the deflection results focuses on both phase and amplitude aspects under different operational conditions. The FSI calculation results are confirmed by the experiment, but deviations are still observed for about half of an impeller rotation. Therefore, a rigorous analysis of the comparison between the angles of the obtained x and y components is carried out to understand the cause of the deviation. Meanwhile, the transient pressure measured at the casing by both computational fluid dynamics and experimental methods is qualitatively analyzed. Furthermore, hydrodynamic forces are also analyzed considering a strong FSI effect in both the rotating and stationary coordinate frame under off-design conditions to understand the behavior of the transient excitation forces, which directly lead to the rotor deflection.

Pei, J.; Dohmen, H. J.; Yuan, S. Q.; Benra, F.-K.

2012-11-01

77

Experimental study on a centrifugal pump with an open impeller during startup period  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transient performance of fluid machinery during transient operating periods, such as startup and stopping, has been drawn more attentions recently due to the growing engineering needs. In this paper, the transient behavior of a prototype centrifugal pump with an open impeller during rapid startup period is studied experimentally. The variations of the rotational speed, flow rate, head, and shaft power during rapid startup period are recorded in experiments at different discharge valve openings. In addition, the non-dimensional flow rate and head are also used to analyze the transient behavior. The research result shows that the rise characteristic of the rotational speed is not basically changed by working points, while mainly depends on the startup characteristics of the driving motor. Compared with the rapid rise of the rotational speed, the flow rate rises slowly in the initial stage of startup. Moreover, the flow rate lags behind the rotational speed to rise to final stable value, and the delay becomes more severe with the increase of the discharge valve opening. The shaft power impact phenomenon generally exists in the process of startup. The non-dimensional analysis shows that the non-dimensional head is very high at the very beginning of startup, and quickly falls to the minimum, then gradually rises to final stable value, while the non-dimensional flow rate always shows the rise tendency during whole startup period. In conclusion, it is found from the non-dimensional results that the quasi-steady analysis is unable to accurately assess the transient flow during startup period.

Zhang, Yuliang; Zhu, Zuchao; Jin, Yingzi; Cui, Baoling; Li, Yi; Dou, Huashu

2013-02-01

78

Design rules for pumping and metering of highly viscous fluids in microfluidics  

E-print Network

Design rules for pumping and metering of highly viscous fluids in microfluidics Sarah L. Perry.1039/c0lc00035c The use of fluids that are significantly more viscous than water in microfluidics has a theoretical treatment for the flow of highly viscous fluids in deforming microfluidic channels, particularly

Kenis, Paul J. A.

79

Application of a computational engineering system to analysis of a rocket engine pump impeller  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has extensive potential as an engineering analysis tool and is being applied in the aerospace industry with increasing frequency. A computational design system that integrates CFD flow solvers and related analysis tools is being developed. This system addresses all aspects of the CFD analysis cycle including hardware surface definition, grid generation, flow solution, and postprocessing. The framework for this system is described in detail. Finally, use of the system is illustrated through application to analysis of the Space Transportation Main Engine impeller.

Barson, Steven L.; Ascoli, Edward P.; Chan, Daniel C.; Decroix, Michele E.; Sindir, Munir M.

1992-07-01

80

Computational fluid dynamics verified the advantages of streamlined impeller design in improving flow patterns and anti-haemolysis properties of centrifugal pump.  

PubMed

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technology was applied to predict the flow patterns in the authors' streamlined blood pump and an American bio-pump with straight vanes and shroud, respectively. Meanwhile, haemolysis comparative tests of the two pumps were performed to verify the theoretical analysis. The results revealed that the flow patterns in the streamlined impeller are coincident with its logarithmic vanes and parabolic shroud, and there is neither separate flow nor impact in the authors' pump. In the bio-pump, the main flow has the form of logarithmic spiral in vertical section and parabola in cross section, thus there are both stagnation and swirl between the main flow and the straight vanes and shroud. Haemolysis comparative tests demonstrated that the authors' pump has an index of haemolysis of 0.030, less than that of the bio-pump (0.065). PMID:17060163

Qian, K X; Wang, F Q; Zeng, P; Ru, W M; Yuan, H Y; Feng, Z G

2006-01-01

81

Laser velocimetry study of the flow field in a centrifugal pump with a shrouded impeller  

E-print Network

the importance of the underlying fluid mechanics. The complex interactions which occur between the fluid and the rotating parts of the pump are not clearly understood. Consequently, modern designs cannot fully compensate for the adverse effects... instabilities which damage the pump. The other limiting phenomena is cavitation. Here, localized increases The ASME Journal of Fluids Engineering was used for style and format. in velocity, which result from curvature effects or from a reduction of the cross...

Moran, Michael Kevin

1994-01-01

82

Space Shuttle Main Engine structural analysis and data reduction/evaluation. Volume 7: High pressure fuel turbo-pump third stage impeller analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This volume summarizes the analysis used to assess the structural life of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) High Pressure Fuel Turbo-Pump (HPFTP) Third Stage Impeller. This analysis was performed in three phases, all using the DIAL finite element code. The first phase was a static stress analysis to determine the mean (non-varying) stress and static margin of safety for the part. The loads involved were steady state pressure and centrifugal force due to spinning. The second phase of the analysis was a modal survey to determine the vibrational modes and natural frequencies of the impeller. The third phase was a dynamic response analysis to determine the alternating component of the stress due to time varying pressure impulses at the outlet (diffuser) side of the impeller. The results of the three phases of the analysis show that the Third Stage Impeller operates very near the upper limits of its capability at full power level (FPL) loading. The static loading alone creates stresses in some areas of the shroud which exceed the yield point of the material. Additional cyclic loading due to the dynamic force could lead to a significant reduction in the life of this part. The cyclic stresses determined in the dynamic response phase of this study are based on an assumption regarding the magnitude of the forcing function.

Pool, Kirby V.

1989-01-01

83

A finite-element-based perturbation model for the rotordynamic analysis of shrouded pump impellers: Part 1: Model development and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study concerns the rotor dynamic characteristics of fluid-encompassed rotors, with special emphasis on shrouded pump impellers. The core of the study is a versatile and categorically new finite-element-based perturbation model, which is based on a rigorous flow analysis and what we have generically termed the 'virtually' deformable finite-element approach. The model is first applied to the case of a smooth annular seal for verification purposes. The rotor excitation components, in this sample problem, give rise to a purely cylindrical, purely conical, and a simultaneous cylindrical/conical rotor whirl around the housing centerline. In all cases, the computed results are compared to existing experimental and analytical data involving the same seal geometry and operating conditions. Next, two labyrinth-seal configurations, which share the same tooth-to-tooth chamber geometry but differ in the total number of chambers, were investigated. The results, in this case, are compared to experimental measurements for both seal configurations. The focus is finally shifted to the shrouded-impeller problem, where the stability effects of the leakage flow in the shroud-to-housing secondary passage are investigated. To this end, the computational model is applied to a typical shrouded-impeller pump stage, fabricated and rotor dynamically tested by Sulzer Bros., and the results compared to those of a simplified 'bulk-flow' analysis and Sulzer Bros.' test data. In addition to assessing the computed rotor dynamic coefficients, the shrouded-impeller study also covers a controversial topic, namely that of the leakage-passage inlet swirl, which was previously cited as the origin of highly unconventional (resonance-like) trends of the fluid-exerted forces. In order to validate this claim, a 'microscopic' study of the fluid/shroud interaction mechanism is conducted, with the focus being on the structure of the perturbed flow field associated with the impeller whirl. The conclusions of this study were solidified by the outcome of a numerical-certainty exercise, where the grid dependency of the numerical results is objectively examined. The final phase of the shrouded-impeller investigation involves the validation of a built-in assumption, in all other perturbation models, whereby single-harmonic tangential distributions of all the flow thermophysical properties are imposed. The last phase of the investigation course is aimed at verifying the fine details of the perturbed flow field in light of recent set of detailed LDA measurements in a smooth annular seal. Grid dependency of the fluid-induced forces is also investigated, and specific recommendations are made.

Baskharone, Erian A.

1993-09-01

84

A finite-element-based perturbation model for the rotordynamic analysis of shrouded pump impellers: Part 1: Model development and applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study concerns the rotor dynamic characteristics of fluid-encompassed rotors, with special emphasis on shrouded pump impellers. The core of the study is a versatile and categorically new finite-element-based perturbation model, which is based on a rigorous flow analysis and what we have generically termed the 'virtually' deformable finite-element approach. The model is first applied to the case of a smooth annular seal for verification purposes. The rotor excitation components, in this sample problem, give rise to a purely cylindrical, purely conical, and a simultaneous cylindrical/conical rotor whirl around the housing centerline. In all cases, the computed results are compared to existing experimental and analytical data involving the same seal geometry and operating conditions. Next, two labyrinth-seal configurations, which share the same tooth-to-tooth chamber geometry but differ in the total number of chambers, were investigated. The results, in this case, are compared to experimental measurements for both seal configurations. The focus is finally shifted to the shrouded-impeller problem, where the stability effects of the leakage flow in the shroud-to-housing secondary passage are investigated. To this end, the computational model is applied to a typical shrouded-impeller pump stage, fabricated and rotor dynamically tested by Sulzer Bros., and the results compared to those of a simplified 'bulk-flow' analysis and Sulzer Bros.' test data. In addition to assessing the computed rotor dynamic coefficients, the shrouded-impeller study also covers a controversial topic, namely that of the leakage-passage inlet swirl, which was previously cited as the origin of highly unconventional (resonance-like) trends of the fluid-exerted forces. In order to validate this claim, a 'microscopic' study of the fluid/shroud interaction mechanism is conducted, with the focus being on the structure of the perturbed flow field associated with the impeller whirl. The conclusions of this study were solidified by the outcome of a numerical-certainty exercise, where the grid dependency of the numerical results is objectively examined. The final phase of the shrouded-impeller investigation involves the validation of a built-in assumption, in all other perturbation models, whereby single-harmonic tangential distributions of all the flow thermophysical properties are imposed. The last phase of the investigation course is aimed at verifying the fine details of the perturbed flow field in light of recent set of detailed LDA measurements in a smooth annular seal. Grid dependency of the fluid-induced forces is also investigated, and specific recommendations are made.

Baskharone, Erian A.

1993-01-01

85

Design of a high-pressure circulating pump for viscous liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of a reciprocating dual action piston pump capable of circulating viscous fluids at pressures of up to 34 MPa (5000 psi) and temperatures up to 80 °C is described. The piston of this pump is driven by a pair of solenoids energized alternatively by a 12 V direct current power supply controlled by an electronic controller facilitating continuously adjustable flow rates. The body of this seal-less pump is constructed using off-the-shelf parts eliminating the need for custom made parts. Both the electronic controller and the pump can be assembled relatively easily. Pump performance has been evaluated at room temperature (22 °C) and atmospheric pressure using liquids with low and moderately high viscosities, such as ethanol and corn oil, respectively. At ambient conditions, the pump delivered continuous flow of ethanol and corn oil at a flow rate of up to 170 and 17 cm3/min, respectively. For pumping viscous fluids comparable to corn oil, an optimum reciprocation frequency was ascertained to maximize flow rate. For low viscosity liquids such as ethanol, a linear relationship between the flow rate and reciprocation frequency was determined up to the maximum reciprocation frequency of the pump. Since its fabrication, the pump has been used in our laboratory for circulating triglycerides in contact with supercritical carbon dioxide at pressures of up to 25 MPa (3600 psi) and temperatures up to 70 °C on a daily basis for a total of more than 1500 h of operation functioning trouble free.

Seifried, Bernhard; Temelli, Feral

2009-07-01

86

Design of a high-pressure circulating pump for viscous liquids.  

PubMed

The design of a reciprocating dual action piston pump capable of circulating viscous fluids at pressures of up to 34 MPa (5000 psi) and temperatures up to 80 degrees C is described. The piston of this pump is driven by a pair of solenoids energized alternatively by a 12 V direct current power supply controlled by an electronic controller facilitating continuously adjustable flow rates. The body of this seal-less pump is constructed using off-the-shelf parts eliminating the need for custom made parts. Both the electronic controller and the pump can be assembled relatively easily. Pump performance has been evaluated at room temperature (22 degrees C) and atmospheric pressure using liquids with low and moderately high viscosities, such as ethanol and corn oil, respectively. At ambient conditions, the pump delivered continuous flow of ethanol and corn oil at a flow rate of up to 170 and 17 cm3/min, respectively. For pumping viscous fluids comparable to corn oil, an optimum reciprocation frequency was ascertained to maximize flow rate. For low viscosity liquids such as ethanol, a linear relationship between the flow rate and reciprocation frequency was determined up to the maximum reciprocation frequency of the pump. Since its fabrication, the pump has been used in our laboratory for circulating triglycerides in contact with supercritical carbon dioxide at pressures of up to 25 MPa (3600 psi) and temperatures up to 70 degrees C on a daily basis for a total of more than 1500 h of operation functioning trouble free. PMID:19655978

Seifried, Bernhard; Temelli, Feral

2009-07-01

87

Incompressible viscous flow computations for the pump components and the artificial heart  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A finite-difference, three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes formulation to calculate the flow through turbopump components is utilized. The solution method is based on the pseudocompressibility approach and uses an implicit-upwind differencing scheme together with the Gauss-Seidel line relaxation method. Both steady and unsteady flow calculations can be performed using the current algorithm. In this work, the equations are solved in steadily rotating reference frames by using the steady-state formulation in order to simulate the flow through a turbopump inducer. Eddy viscosity is computed by using an algebraic mixing-length turbulence model. Numerical results are compared with experimental measurements and a good agreement is found between the two. Included in the appendix is a paper on incompressible viscous flow through artificial heart devices with moving boundaries. Time-accurate calculations, such as impeller and diffusor interaction, will be reported in future work.

Kiris, Cetin

1992-01-01

88

Waterjet Impeller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Marshall space Flight Center engineers helped North American Marine Jet (NAMJ), Inc. improve the proposed design of a new impeller for a jet-propulsion system. With a three-dimensional computer model of the new marine jet engine blades, engineers were able to quickly create a solid polycarbonate model of it. The rapid prototyping allowed the company to avoid many time-consuming and costly steps in creating the impeller.

1996-01-01

89

Pressure and momentum field investigation of a centrifugal pump through dynamic loading of a semi-open impeller  

E-print Network

A study was performed to investigate the variation in the forces and moments acting on the front and back sides of a semi-open impeller. Three rotational speeds and five volumetric flow rates for each speed were identified as the operating...

Anwer, Sohaib

1998-01-01

90

Waterjet Impeller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

North American Marine Jet (NAMJ), Inc. received assistance from Marshall Space Flight Center engineers in the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) branch of the Structure and Dynamics Laboratory in improving the proposed design of a new impeller for their jet-propulsion systems. Marshall used advanced CFD techniques, which included creating a three-dimensional computer model of the impeller for analysis. With Marshall input, the company modified the design, then Marshall used a computer model to make a solid polycarbonate model. The rapid prototyping allowed the company to avoid many time- consuming and costly steps in creating the impeller model. NAMJ is now able to compete with Pacific-area and European manufacturers who have traditionally dominated the market.

1996-01-01

91

Computation of the flow field in a centrifugal impeller with splitter blades  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To support the design effort of the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) Fuel Pump Stage, viscous flow calculations were performed in a centrifugal impeller with splitter blades. These calculations were carried out with a Navier-Stokes solver (MINT), which employs a linearized block-implicit Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) procedure to iteratively solve a finite difference form of the system of conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy in body-fitted coordinates. A computational grid was generated algebraically for the 'channel' between two main blades of the impeller and extended both upstream of the impeller inlet and downstream of the impeller exit so that the appropriate boundary conditions could be applied. The results of the calculations show that although the overall level of flow distortion near the impeller exit is not very large, there is a noticeable difference between the flow patterns in the two 'passages' (one passage between the pressure side of the splitter blade and the suction side of the next full blade).

Dejong, Frederik J.; Choi, Sang-Keun; Govindan, T. R.; Sabnis, Jayant S.

1992-01-01

92

Compressibility effects on rotor forces in the leakage path between a shrouded pump impeller and its housing  

E-print Network

-Order uations The path and circumferential velocity distribution and the leakage rate for a centered impeller position are defined by the following zeroth-order governing equations. ~ Continuity Equation r"puuipp = 1 ~ Path-Momentum Equation 2 1 dPp dpi...?- ? -A, ? ? ? + +j tuT ? +A, j ~Z, dPp R~ dPu j mTuep tfPp r ' ds -s ds pg ds pp [Aj = + a~~ a, ~~gz u~ u~ u~ dpu bL, . ' A~ ? '-j ds rump P, . (40) Atu Ass A~ Ass dp0 Pp Pp 25 H u~ dPo . I'Tdz G +F +j po dpo o ho ds dz~ie ds u~ (41...

Cao, Nhai The

1993-01-01

93

PIV measurements of flow in an aerated tank stirred by a down- and an up-pumping axial flow impeller  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid phase hydrodynamics in an aerated tank stirred by a down- and an up-pumping pitched blade turbine have been investigated using particle image velocimetry. The effect of agitator configuration and the gas phase on the mean velocity fields and turbulent quantities in the vessel have been investigated. The global mean gas holdup has also been evaluated for the two pumping

J. AUBIN; N Le Sauze; J Bertrand; D. F Fletcher; C Xuereb

2004-01-01

94

Numerical and experimental study of Newtonian and non-Newtonian flow in a spiral viscous pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need to transport small volumes of viscous media is a vital part of microfluidic devices vital to applications in biotechnology, chemistry and electronics. A novel Archimedian viscous micropump was developed in an attempt to achieve precise and accurate delivery of fluid in a robust and industrially viable package. The pump consists of a two-disc system, where one is patterned with a spiral rectangular channel of variable width and the other is smooth and has a rate of rotation ( ?) in order to pump the fluid. The width of the channel is variable along its length in order to achieve a constant local Reynolds number and avoid recirculation zones along the spiral, which is described r = a + b ?^c , where ( r ) is the radius at the spiral centerline and ( ?) is the angle. Numerical and analytical studies of the proposed model will be presented, exhibiting a linear relationship between the flow ( Q ) and ( ?). Results from experiments with a simplified prototype will also be presented supporting the analytical and numerical studies.

M{Aa}Rtensson, Gustaf; Gustafsson, Andreas

2009-11-01

95

Assessment of Cavitation-Erosion Resistance of Potential Pump Impeller Materials for Mercury Service at the Spallation Neutron Source  

SciTech Connect

Using a standard vibratory horn apparatus, the relative cavitation-erosion resistance of a number of cast alloys in mercury was evaluated to facilitate material selection decisions for Hg pumps. The performance of nine different alloys - in the as-cast condition as well as following a case-hardening treatment intended to increase surface hardness - was compared in terms of weight loss and surface profile development as a function of sonication time in Hg at ambient temperature. The results indicated that among several potentially suitable alloys, CD3MWCuN perhaps exhibited the best overall resistance to cavitation in both the as-cast and surface treated conditions while the cast irons examined were found unsuitable for service of this type. However, other factors, including cost, availability, and vendor schedules may influence a material selection among the suitable alloys for Hg pumps.

Pawel, Steven J [ORNL

2007-03-01

96

Turbulent flow and pressure fluctuation prediction of the impeller in an axial-flow pump based on LES  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Large Eddy Simulation method with sliding mesh technique has been used for analyzing the unsteady flow in an axial-flow pump at five different flow rates. The tip leakage flow in the tip-gap region and the pressure pulsations on the blade surface were examined. The results indicate that the agreement between predicted pump performance and experimental data was reasonably good. The dominate tip-leakage vortex(TLV) extended to the pressure side of the neighboring blade for all five investigated flow rates. As the flow rate increases from 0.7Qd to 1.2Qd, the angle between the dominate TLV and the blade reduced from 20 deg to 14 deg. The results also showed that the amplitude of pressure fluctuation on the near-tip zone of the blade surface increases as the flow rate farer from the design flow rate, especially on the pressure side of the blade. At the 0.7Qd operation condition, the pressure fluctuation amplitude of the monitoring point PP3 (at the near-tip zone on the pressure side of the blade close to the blade leading edge) was 8.5 times of the one at design flow rate, and the high-frequency(18fr) pulsation occurred due to tip leakage vortex. When the flow rate was more than 1.0Qd, the pressure fluctuations of PP3 was dominated by the rotation frequency(fr).

Shen, J. F.; Li, Y. J.; Liu, Z. Q.; Tang, X. L.

2013-12-01

97

Viscous pumping and the spin-down of thermospheric gyres and jets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Strong gyres and jets can be generated at auroral latitudes in the thermosphere by enhanced electric fields during geomagnetic substorms. Typical height profiles of ion density suggest that the ion drag force should generate large curvature in the vertical profile of the winds in the highly viscous region of the thermosphere above about 200 km. It is proposed that the poststorm spin-down of these gyres and jets proceeds via Ekman circulations driven by the curvatures in the height profiles of the winds. Analytic and numerical calculations of the ageostrophic winds forced by curvature in model geostrophic wind profiles show that the ageostrophic wind speeds and directions depend mainly on the kinematic viscosity in the region of curvature and the total change in shear in the geostrophic wind. Ageostrophic wind speeds for typical thermospheric jets can exceed 200 m/s (about 50 percent of the jet winds). Spin-down times of thermospheric jets and cyclonic gyres by the Ekman pumping mechanism are estimated at less than about 6 hours.

Walterscheid, R. L.; Schubert, G.

1986-01-01

98

Creating A Data Base For Design Of An Impeller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes use of Taguchi method of parametric design to create data base facilitating optimization of design of impeller in centrifugal pump. Data base enables systematic design analysis covering all significant design parameters. Reduces time and cost of parametric optimization of design: for particular impeller considered, one can cover 4,374 designs by computational simulations of performance for only 18 cases.

Prueger, George H.; Chen, Wei-Chung

1993-01-01

99

Viscous flow prediction within a centrifugal impeller  

E-print Network

by performing an order of magnitude study on equation (8). d' ? +- aW , aW e' a6 Bm W (11) Where the coefficients d' and e' are derived in Appendix B. Equation 11 may then be numerically integrated by assuming that the relative velocity gradient... w + A4 + A + A6) 4 ae 5 amae aW W aW sin u w '+ ' '+ W W +2w m am r ae r m e (A- 7a) sin n W m 40 1aP aW e aw e a w ? ? +v(~+B ? +B e pr ae an 1 an 2 ae aw + B3 ? + B4 W ae aw aw +B5 + ? 2 aeam am where aW + B ? ) e 6 am (A- 7...

Wohlschlegel, David Hale

1976-01-01

100

Liquid Scavenger for Separator/Pump  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pump for hydrogen modified to remove moisture that condenses in impeller stage. Impeller-pump housing has circumferential groove leading to exit hole near high-pressure outlet. As impeller disk rotates, flings water droplets condensed in pump toward groove. Aerodynamic drag drives water around groove to exit hole.

Berg, P. F.

1986-01-01

101

Power recovery turbine pump  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an energy recovery pump turbine for use in industrial processes where a fluid is pumped at a high pressure into the process and at least a portion of the fluid is discharged from the process at a high pressure. It comprises a central body portion that defines a turbine impeller cavity and a pump impeller cavity; a

R. A. Oklejas; E. Jr. Oklejas

1991-01-01

102

Floating portable pump  

SciTech Connect

A floating portable pump is constructed of a float defining a well for containing water, a centrifugal pump supported on the float with its impeller shaft extending vertically and with its suction inlet submerged in water in the well, and an internal combustion engine arranged to drive the pump impeller. The pump and engine are secured together on the float in an arrangement such that the engine causes rotation of the pump impeller to cause the pump to draw water from the well through its suction inlet and discharge water from the pump discharge.

Eberhardt, H. A.

1985-11-19

103

Swimming and pumping by helical waves in viscous and viscoelastic fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study helical bodies of arbitrary cross-sectional profile as they swim or transport fluid by the passage of helical waves. Many cases are explored: the external flow problem of swimming in a cylindrical tube or an infinite domain, the internal fluid pumping problem, and confined/unconfined swimming and internal pumping in a viscoelastic (Oldroyd-B) fluid. A helical coordinate system allows for the analytical calculation of swimming and pumping speeds and fluid velocities in the asymptotic regime of nearly cylindrical bodies. In a Newtonian flow, a matched asymptotic analysis results in corrections to the swimming speed accurate to fourth-order in the small wave amplitude, and the results compare favorably with full numerical simulations. We find that the torque-balancing rigid body rotation generally opposes the direction of wave passage, but not always. Confinement can result in local maxima and minima of the swimming speed in the helical pitch, and the effects of confinement decrease exponentially fast with the diameter of the tube. In a viscoelastic fluid, we find that the effects of fluid elasticity on swimming and internal pumping modify the Newtonian results through the mode-dependent complex viscosity, even in a confined domain.

Li, Lei; Spagnolie, Saverio E.

2015-02-01

104

Transient internal characteristic study of a centrifugal pump during startup process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transient process of a centrifugal pump existed in a variety of occasions. There were a lot of researches in the external characteristic in startup process and stopping process, but internal characteristics were less observed and studied. Study of the internal flow field had significant meanings. The performance of a pump could be evaluated and improved by revealing the flow field. In the other hand, the prediction of external characteristic was based on the correct analysis of the internal flow. In this paper, theoretical method and numerical simulation were used to study the internal characteristic of a centrifugal pump. The theoretical study showed that the relative flow in an impeller was composed of homogeneous flow and axial vortex flow. The vortex intensity was mainly determined by angular velocity of impeller, flow channel width and blade curvature. In order to get the internal flow field and observe the evolution of transient internal flow in the impeller, Computational Fluid Dynamics(CFD) were used to study the three-dimensional unsteady incompressible viscous flows in a centrifugal pump during starting period. The Dynamic Mesh (DM) method with non-conformal grid boundaries was applied to get the external characteristic and internal flow field. The simulate model included three pumps with different blade numbers and the same blade curvature. The relative velocity vector showed that there was a big axial vortex in impeller channel. At the beginning, the vortex was raised in the pressure side of the impeller outlet and with time went on, it shifted to the middle flow channel of the impeller and the vortex intensity increased. When the speed and flow rate reached a definite value, the influence of the axial vortex began to get smaller. The vortex developed faster when the flow channel got narrower. Due to the evolution of axial vortex, the slip factor during starting period was smaller than that in quasi-steady condition. As a result, transient head was lower than quasi-steady head in startup process.

Hu, F. F.; Ma, X. D.; Wu, D. Z.; Wang, L. Q.

2012-11-01

105

Axial Pump  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A rotary blood pump includes a pump housing for receiving a flow straightener, a rotor mounted on rotor bearings and having an inducer portion and an impeller portion, and a diffuser. The entrance angle, outlet angle, axial and radial clearances of blades associated with the flow straightener, inducer portion, impeller portion and diffuser are optimized to minimize hemolysis while maintaining pump efficiency. The rotor bearing includes a bearing chamber that is filled with cross-linked blood or other bio-compatible material. A back emf integrated circuit regulates rotor operation and a microcomputer may be used to control one or more back emf integrated circuits. A plurality of magnets are disposed in each of a plurality of impeller blades with a small air gap. A stator may be axially adjusted on the pump housing to absorb bearing load and maximize pump efficiency.

Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor); Akkerman, James W. (Inventor); Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor); VanDamm, George Arthur (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Svejkovsky, Paul A. (Inventor); Benkowski, Robert J. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

106

Rotary blood pump  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A blood pump that comprises a pump housing having a blood flow path therethrough, a blood inlet, and a blood outlet; a stator mounted to the pump housing, the stator having a stator field winding for producing a stator magnetic field; a flow straightener located within the pump housing, and comprising a flow straightener hub and at least one flow straightener blade attached to the flow straightener hub; a rotor mounted within the pump housing for rotation in response to the stator magnetic field, the rotor comprising an inducer and an impeller; the inducer being located downstream of the flow straightener, and comprising an inducer hub and at least one inducer blade attached to the inducer hub; the impeller being located downstream of the inducer, and comprising an impeller hub and at least one impeller blade attached to the impeller hub; and preferably also comprising a diffuser downstream of the impeller, the diffuser comprising a diffuser hub and at least one diffuser blade. Blood flow stagnation and clot formation within the pump are minimized by, among other things, providing the inducer hub with a diameter greater than the diameter of the flow straightener hub; by optimizing the axial spacing between the flow straightener hub and the inducer hub, and between the impeller hub and the diffuser hub; by optimizing the inlet angle of the diffuser blades; and by providing fillets or curved transitions between the upstream end of the inducer hub and the shaft mounted therein, and between the impeller hub and the shaft mounted therein.

Benkowski, Robert J. (Inventor); Kiris, Cetin (Inventor); Kwak, Dochan (Inventor); Rosenbaum, Bernard J. (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); DeBakey, Michael E. (Inventor)

1999-01-01

107

A novel impeller TAH using magnetic bearings for load reduction.  

PubMed

A novel impeller TAH (total artificial heart), i.e. bi-ventricular assist impeller pumps, has been developed. The device consists of a rotor with motor magnets and two impellers, a stator with motor coil and iron core, and two pump housings. In both sides of the rotor magnets, as well as the stator coil core, a pair of magnetic bearings was devised to partly counteract the attractive forces between the rotor magnets and the stator coil core. This means the magnetic bearings are used for load reduction. On hydrodynamic testing, the two pumps both produced a flow rate as high as 6 l min(-1) and the left pump had a pressure head of 150 mm Hg, and that of the right pump was 50 mm Hg. The highest efficiency of the device, including the motor, the two pumps and the controller, reached 14.7%. The device, weighing 250 g, had a length of 80 mm and a diameter of 40 mm at its largest point. Currently in the world, this is a unique TAH, which is electrically powered and driven by a single motor and has only one moving part, can produce either pulsatile or non-pulsatile flow, both pumps eject flow synchronistically by pulsatile mode, and the volume equilibrium of the two pumps can be achieved automatically without the need for control. PMID:12487713

Qian, K X; Ru, W M; Zeng, P; Yuan, H Y

2002-01-01

108

CFD Parametric Study of Consortium Impeller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current design of high performance turbopumps for rocket engines requires effective and robust analytical tools to provide design impact in a productive manner. The main goal of this study is to develop a robust and effective computational fluid dynamics (CFD) pump model for general turbopump design and analysis applications. A Finite Difference Navier-Stokes flow solver, FDNS, which includes the extended k-epsilon turbulence model and appropriate moving interface boundary conditions, was developed to analyze turbulent flows in turbomachinery devices. A second-order central difference scheme plus adaptive dissipation terms was employed in the FDNS code, along with a predictor plus multi-corrector pressure-based solution procedure. The multi-zone, multi-block capability allows the FDNS code to efficiently solve flow fields with complicated geometry. The FDNS code has been benchmarked by analyzing the pump consortium inducer, and it provided satisfactory results. In the present study, a CFD parametric study of the pump consortium impeller was conducted using the FDNS code. The pump consortium impeller, with partial blades, is a new design concept of the advanced rocket engines. The parametric study was to analyze the baseline design of the consortium impeller and its modification which utilizes TANDEM blades. In the present study, the TANDEM blade configuration of the consortium impeller considers cut full blades for about one quarter chord length from the leading edge and clocks the leading edge portion with an angle of 7.5 or 22.5 degrees. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect and trend of the TANDEM blade modification and provide the result as a design guideline. A 3-D flow analysis, with a 103 x 23 x 30 mesh grid system and with the inlet flow conditions measured by Rocketdyne, was performed for the baseline consortium impeller. The numerical result shows that the mass flow rate splits through various blade passages are relatively uniform. Due to the complexity of blade geometries, the TANDEM blade configurations were analyzed with the multi-zone grid structure. Both the 7.5 deg- and the 22.5 deg-clocking TANDEM blade cases utilized a 80K mesh system. The numerical result of two TANDEM blade modifications indicates the efficiency and the head are worse than those of the baseline case due to larger flow distortion. The gap between the TANDEM blade and the full blade allows the flow passes through and heavily loads the pressure side of the partial blade such that flow reversal occurs near the suction side of the splitter. The flow split at the exit of impeller blades is very non-uniform for TANDEM blade cases, and this will greatly induce the side load on the diffuser. Therefore, the TANDEM blade modification in the present CFD analysis does not improve the performance of the consortium impeller.

Cheng, Gary C.; Chen, Y. S.; Garcia, Roberto; Williams, Robert W.

1993-01-01

109

Mathematical modeling of fluid flow in aluminum ladles for degasification with impeller - injector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work a fundamental Eulerian mathematical model was developed to simulate fluid flow in a water physical model of an aluminum ladle equipped with impeller for degassing treatment. The effect of critical process parameters such as rotor speed, gas flow rate on the fluid flow and vortex formation was analyzed with this model. Commercial CFD code PHOENICS 3.4 was used to solve all conservation equations governing the process for this twophase fluid flow system. The mathematical model was successfully validated against experimentally measured liquid velocity and turbulent profiles in a physical model. From the results it was concluded that the angular speed of the impeller is the most important parameter promoting better stirred baths. Pumping effect of the impeller is increased as impeller rotation speed increases. Gas flow rate is detrimental on bath stirring and diminishes pumping effect of impeller.

Ramos-Gómez, E.; González-Rivera, C.; Ramírez-Argáez, M. A.

2012-09-01

110

Studies of the flow of air in a model mixed-flow pump by laser Doppler anemometry. Part 2: Velocity measurements within the impeller  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behavior of air in the rotor of a model mixed-flow bowl pump was investigated using a laser Doppler anemometer. The model was operated at 4 different flowrates at the same rotational speed (1200 rpm); the best efficiency point, and 3 off-design points in an unstable region of the performance characteristic. For each flowrate, the blade-to-blade distributions of three-dimensional velocities were mapped within the rotor, and at inlet and outlet. The results of the flow surveys show complex flow phenomena occurring within the model, and the way the structure of the flow changes as the flowrate is reduced. The velocity distributions observed at the best efficiency point, and the predictions of a through-flow calculation used in the computer-aided design process for this machine are compared.

Carey, C.; Fraser, S. M.; Rachman, D.; Wilson, G.

1985-11-01

111

CFD analyses for advanced pump design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As one of the activities of the NASA/MSFC Pump Stage Technology Team, the present effort was focused on using CFD in the design and analysis of high performance rocket engine pumps. Under this effort, a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code was used for various inducer and impeller flow field calculations. An existing algebraic grid generation procedure was-extended to allow for nonzero blade thickness, splitter blades, and hub/shroud cavities upstream or downstream of the (main) blades. This resulted in a fast, robust inducer/impeller geometry/grid generation package. Problems associated with running a compressible flow code to simulate an incompressible flow were resolved; related aspects of the numerical algorithm (viz., the matrix preconditioning, the artificial dissipation, and the treatment of low Mach number flows) were addressed. As shown by the calculations performed under the present effort, the resulting code, in conjunction with the grid generation package, is an effective tool for the rapid solution of three-dimensional viscous inducer and impeller flows.

Dejong, F. J.; Choi, S.-K.; Govindan, T. R.

1994-01-01

112

Physical aspects of liquid-impelled loop reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The liquid-impelled loop reactor (LLR) is a reactor that consists of two parts : the main tube and the circulation tube. Both parts are in open connection at the bottom and at the top. The reactor is filled with a liquid phase: the continuous phase. Another liquid phase is injected in the main tube by means of pumping. This liquid

Sonsbeek van H. M

1992-01-01

113

Design and Test of Mixed-flow Impellers III : Design and Experimental Results for Impeller Model MFI-2A and Comparison with Impeller Model MFI-1A  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mixed-flow impeller was designed to give a prescribed blade-surface velocity distribution at mean blade height for a given hub-shroud profile. The blade shape at mean blade height, which was produced by the prescribed velocity distribution, was extended by means of radial lines to form the composite blade shape from hub to shroud. The resulting blade was relatively thick; therefore, it was necessary to retain the inverse blade taper which resulted from extension of the radial lines in order to prevent merging or near merging of the separate blades near the hub. For the first test version of the impeller, designated the MFI-2A, the blade height was arbitrarily made greater than that for the basic impeller (the MFI-2) to allow for viscous effects. At design equivalent speed of 1400 feet per second the peak pressure ratio and maximum adiabatic efficiency were 3.95 and 79 percent, respectively. The adiabatic efficiency of the MFI-2A is four points lower than that for impeller model MFI-1A, but because of the higher slip factor for the MFI-2A, the pressure ratios are approximately equal. The procedures followed in the design of the MFI-1A and MFI-2A were, in general, the same; and, although the prescribed initial condition resulted in geometrical configurations that were quite dissimilar, the resulting performance characteristics compare favorably with designs for which considerable development work has been necessary.

Hamrick, Joseph T; Osborn, Walter M; Beede, William L

1953-01-01

114

Apparatus for pumping liquids at or below the boiling point  

DOEpatents

A pump comprises a housing having an inlet and an outlet. An impeller assembly mounted for rotation within the housing includes a first impeller piece having a first mating surface thereon and a second impeller piece having a second mating surface therein. The second mating surface of the second impeller piece includes at least one groove therein so that at least one flow channel is defined between the groove and the first mating surface of the first impeller piece. A drive system operatively associated with the impeller assembly rotates the impeller assembly within the housing.

Bingham, Dennis N. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2002-01-01

115

Consider zig-zag impeller for desalination projects  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the application of a novel pump with a zig-zag impeller that is suited for vapor condensation. The pump is proposed to be used as the vapor condensation portion of a vapor desalination plant. Small scale testing is currently under way. No additional heat needs to be added to the seawater which boils by application of a vacuum to the desalting tank. The zig-zag pump then condenses the resulting pure water vapor and pumps it to a holding tank.

O'Keefe, W.

1993-10-01

116

The influence of impeller type on mean drop size and drop size distribution in an agitated vessel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most work on agitated liquid–liquid dispersions, Rushton turbines have been used. Here, mean drop size and drop size distributions are reported for six different impellers covering 3 generic types over a range of mean specific energy dissipation rates. Both viscous and non-viscous dispersed phases have been used at concentrations by volume of 1 and 5%. It has been found

A. W. Pacek; S. Chamsart; A. W. Nienow; A. Bakker

1999-01-01

117

76 FR 34192 - Commercial and Industrial Pumps  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Efficiency for Single Stage Centrifugal Pumps'' \\8\\ show that for typical...Efficiency for Single Stage Centrifugal Pumps,'' Varese, Italy: European...Centrifugal (Radial) Flow Centrifugal pumps use bladed impellers with...

2011-06-13

118

Impeller flow field characterization with a laser two-focus velocimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes, prevalent in the rocket engine turbomachinery industry, necessitates data of sufficient quality and quantity to benchmark computational codes. Existing data bases for typical rocket engine configurations, in particular impellers, are limited. In addition, traditional data acquisition methods have several limitations: typically transducer uncertainties are 0.5% of transducer full scale and traditional pressure probes are unable to provide flow characteristics in the circumferential (blade-to-blade) direction. Laser velocimetry circumvents these limitations by providing +0.5% uncertainty in flow velocity and +0.5% uncertainty in flow angle. The percent of uncertainty in flow velocity is based on the measured value, not full range capability. The laser electronics multiple partitioning capability allows data acquired between blades as the impeller rotates, to be analyzed separately, thus providing blade-to-blade flow characterization. Unlike some probes, the non-intrusive measurements made with the laser velocimeter does not disturb the flow. To this end,, and under Contract (NAS8-38864) to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), an extensive test program was undertaken at Rocketdyne. Impellers from two different generic rocket engine pump configurations were examined. The impellers represent different spectrums of pump design: the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) high pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP) impeller was designed in the 1 1970's the Consortium for CFD application in Propulsion Technology Pump Stage Technology Team (Pump Consortium) optimized impeller was designed with the aid of modern computing techniques. The tester configuration for each of the impellers consisted of an axial inlet, an inducer, a diffuser, and a crossover discharge. While the tested configurations were carefully chosen to be representative of generic rocket engine pumps, several features of both testers were intentionally atypical. A crossover discharge, downstream of the impeller, rather than a volute discharge was used to minimize asymmetric flow conditions that might be reflected in the impeller discharge flow data. Impeller shroud wear ring radial clearances were purposely close to minimize leakage flow, thus increasing confidence in using the inlet data as an input to CFD programs. The empirical study extensively examined the flow fields of the two impellers via performance of laser two-focus velocimeter surveys in an axial plane upstream of the impellers and in multiple radial planes downstream of the impellers. Both studies were performed at the impeller design flow coefficients. Inlet laser surveys that provide CFD code inlet boundary conditions were performed in one axial plane, with ten radial locations surveyed. Three wall static pressures, positioned circumferentially around the impeller inlet, were used to identify asymmetrical pressure distributions in the inlet survey plane. impeller discharge flow characterization consisted of three radial planes for the SSME HPFTP impeller and two radial planes for the Pump Consortium optimized impeller. &Housing wall static pressures were placed to correspond to the radial locations surveyed with the laser velocimeter. Between five and thirteen axial stations across the discharge channel width were examined in each radial plane during the extensive flow mapping. The largely successful empirical flow characterization of two different impellers resulted in a substantial contribution to the limited existing data base, and yielded accurate data for CFD code benchmarking.

Brozowski, L. A.; Ferguson, T. V.; Rojas, L.

1993-07-01

119

Impeller for Water Jet Propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Marshall Space Flight Center engineers helped North American Marine Jet (NAMJ), Inc. improve the proposed design of a new impeller for jet propulsion system. With a three-dimensional computer model of the new marine jet engine blades, engineers were able to quickly create a solid ploycarbonate model of it. The rapid prototyping allowed the company to avoid many time-consuming and costly steps in creating the impeller.

2004-01-01

120

Evaluation of the impeller shroud performance of an axial flow ventricular assist device using computational fluid dynamics.  

PubMed

Generally, there are two types of impeller design used in the axial flow blood pumps. For the first type, which can be found in most of the axial flow blood pumps, the magnet is embedded inside the impeller hub or blades. For the second type, the magnet is embedded inside the cylindrical impeller shroud, and this design has not only increased the rotating stability of the impeller but has also avoided the flow interaction between the impeller blade tip and the pump casing. Although the axial flow blood pumps with either impeller design have been studied individually, the comparisons between these two designs have not been conducted in the literature. Therefore, in this study, two axial flow blood pumps with and without impeller shrouds were numerically simulated with computational fluid dynamics and compared with each other in terms of hydraulic and hematologic performances. For the ease of comparison, these two models have the same inner components, which include a three-blade straightener, a two-blade impeller, and a three-blade diffuser. The simulation results showed that the model with impeller shroud had a lower static pressure head with a lower hydraulic efficiency than its counterpart. It was also found that the blood had a high possibility to deposit on the impeller shroud inner surface, which greatly enhanced the possibility of thrombus formation. The blood damage indices in both models were around 1%, which was much lower than the 13.1% of the axial flow blood pump of Yano et al. with the corresponding experimental hemolysis of 0.033 g/100 L. PMID:20883393

Su, Boyang; Chua, Leok P; Lim, Tau M; Zhou, Tongming

2010-09-01

121

Impeller tandem blade study with grid embedding for local grid refinement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flow non-uniformity at the discharge of high power density impellers can result in significant unsteady interactions between impeller blades and downstream diffuser vanes. These interactions result in degradation of both performance and pump reliability. The MSFC Pump Technology Team has recognized the importance of resolving this problem and has thus initiated the development and testing of a high head coefficient impeller. One of the primary goals of this program is to improve impeller performance and discharge flow uniformity. The objective of the present work is complimentary. Flow uniformity and performance gains were sought through the application of a tandem blade arrangement. The approach adopted was to numerically establish flow characteristics at the impeller discharge for the baseline MSFC impeller and then parametrically evaluate tandem blade configurations. A tandem design was sought that improves both impeller performance and discharge uniformity. The Navier-Stokes solver AEROVISC was used to conduct the study. Grid embedding is used to resolve local gradients while attempting to minimize model size. Initial results indicate that significant gains in flow uniformity can be achieved through the tandem blade concept and that blade clocking rather than slot location is the primary driver for flow uniformity.

Bache, George

1992-01-01

122

Numerical studies in a centrifugal pump with the improved blade considering cavitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a centrifugal pump with the improved blade for cavitation is studied numerically. A 3D impeller with logarithmic spiral blade profile was designed by the in-house hydraulic design code using a centrifugal pump geometric parameters, and the blade profile curve of suction side on the designed impeller is replaced by a combination of tangent line and circle arc line. The cavitation flows in the centrifugal pump with designed impeller, modified impeller and centrifugal pump spectrum impeller are respectively calculated by two-phase CFD simulation at three flow rates. The tests of the centrifugal pump have been conducted to verify numerical simulation. The effects of designed impeller and modified impeller on hydraulic efficiency, critical cavitation number, cavitation length, head drop performance and vapor cavity distribution in impeller are investigated. The results show that the modification of blade profile curve of suction side can improve the cavitation performance of an impeller and hydraulic efficiency of centrifugal pump. Compared with designed impeller, the critical cavitation number of centrifugal pump with modified impeller decrease by 26.5% under the same flow rate coefficient, and the cavitation intensity in the modified impeller is weakened effectively. The hydraulic efficiency of modified impeller also increases by 4.9%.

Song, P. F.; Zhang, Y. X.; Xu, C.; Zhou, X.; Zhang, J. Y.

2015-01-01

123

Rotary blood pump  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A rotary blood pump is presented. The pump includes a pump housing for receiving a flow straightener, a rotor mounted on rotor bearings and having an inducer portion and an impeller portion, and a diffuser. The entrance angle, outlet angle, axial, and radial clearances of the blades associated with the flow straightener, inducer portion, impeller portion, and diffuser are optimized to minimize hemolysis while maintaining pump efficiency. The rotor bearing includes a bearing chamber that is filled with crosslinked blood or other bio-compatible material. A back emf integrated circuit regulates rotor operation and a microcomputer may be used to control one or more back emf integrated circuits. A plurality of magnets are disposed in each of a plurality of impeller blades with a small air gap. A stator may be axially adjusted on the pump housing to absorb bearing load and maximize pump efficiency.

Bozeman, Richard J. (inventor); Akkerman, James W. (inventor); Aber, Greg S. (inventor); Vandamm, George A. (inventor); Bacak, James W. (inventor); Svejkovsky, Paul A. (inventor); Benkowski, Robert J. (inventor)

1993-01-01

124

Design of centrifugal impeller blades  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper restricts itself to radial impellers with cylindrical blades since, as Prasil has shown, the flow about an arbitrarily curved surface of revolution may be reduced to this normal form we have chosen by a relatively simple conformal transformation. This method starts from the simple hypotheses of the older centrifugal impeller theory by first assuming an impeller with an infinite number of blades. How the flow is then modified is then investigated. For the computation of flow for a finite number of blades, the approximation method as developed by Munk, Prandtl and Birnbaum, or Glauert is found suitable. The essential idea of this method is to replace the wing by a vortex sheet and compute the flow as the field of these vortices. The shape of the blades is then obtained from the condition that the flow must be along the surface of the blade.

Betz, A; Flugge-Lotz, I

1939-01-01

125

Engine water pump assembly and method of making same  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an automotive engine water pump assembly having a rotatable shaft with a drive end provided with connection means for rotating the shaft and an opposite impeller end upon which a water impeller is mounted, and with the shaft being divided along its length into a bearing portion adjacent the drive end and a sealing portion adjacent the impeller end;

K. F. Hale; J. Paliwoda; V. Propst

1988-01-01

126

[A permanent implantable pulsatile impeller heart with a specially devised needle bearing].  

PubMed

The author's implantable pulsatile impeller pump can assist the circulation of the calves for several months. The termination of the experiments was related to wear of the mechanical bearing, which resulted in vibration of the rotor and pump failure. It seemed as if the experiments could have lasted indefinitely if the bearing had not failed. To solve the problem of bearing wear, a specially devised rolling bearing was investigated and applied to the impeller pump. Its service life is more than 10 years due to the wear-proof roller made of ultra-highmolecular weight polythene. This newly devised impeller heart promises to have long-term and permanent applications. Compared with the magnetic bearing, the rolling bearing has the advantages of simpler construction and control, no consumption of energy, and better reliability. PMID:11332123

Qian, K; Zeng, P; Ru, W; Yuan, H; Feng, Z; Li, L

2001-03-01

127

LH2 pump component development testing in the electric pump room at test cell C inducer no. 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The characteristics of a turbine pump for use with the nuclear engine for rocket vehicles are discussed. It was determined that the pump will be a two stage centrifugal pump with both stages having backswept impellers and an inducer upstream of the first stage impeller. The test program provided demonstration of the ability of the selected design to meet the imposed requirements.

Andrews, F. X.; Brunner, J. J.; Kirk, K. G.; Mathews, J. P.; Nishioka, T.

1972-01-01

128

Prediction of outlet flow characteristics of centrifugal impellers. I - Consideration of velocity distortion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analytical method for predicting the outlet flow characteristics from a centrifugal impeller is proposed. The method takes hub-to-shroud and blade-to-blade velocity distortion into consideration, and its usefulness is confirmed by measurements with pump impellers. It is concluded that, in calculating the theoretical head coefficient and the slip factor from the measured velocity of the absolute flow at the impeller outlet, the mass-averaged velocity of the section should be used. To get satisfactory prediction of the outlet flow characteristics, the increment of the wall shearing stress near the inlet of the parallel-walled diffuser channel due to the nonuniform flow must be considered. The influence of velocity distortion in the hub-to-shroud direction should be considered when the parallel-walled diffuser width is larger than the impeller exit width.

Kurokawa, J.; Hode, S.

1985-07-01

129

[Improved design of permanent maglev impeller assist heart].  

PubMed

Magnetic bearing has no mechanical contact between the rotor and stator. And a rotary pump with magnetic bearing has therefore no mechanical wear and thrombosis due to bearing. The available magnetic bearings, however, are devised with electric magnets, need complicated control and remarkable energy consumption. Resultantly, it is difficult to apply an electric magnetic bearing to rotary pump without disturbing its simplicity, implantability and reliability. The authors have developed a levitated impeller pump merely with permanent magnets. The rotor is supported by permanent magnetic forces radially. On one side of the rotor, the impeller is fixed; and on the other side of the rotor, the driven magnets are mounted. Opposite to this driven magnets, a driving motor coil with iron corn magnets is fastened to the motor axis. Thereafter, the motor drives the rotor via a rotating magnetic field. By laboratory tests with saline, if the rotor stands still or rotates under 4,000 rpm, the rotor has one-point contact axially with the driving motor coil. The contacting point is located in the center of the rotor. As the rotating speed increases gradually to more than 4,000 rpm, the rotor will detache from the stator axially. Then the rotor will be fully levitated. Since the axial levitation is produced by hydraulic force and the driven magnets have a gyro-effect, the rotor rotates very steadly during levitation. As a left ventricular assist device, the pump works in a rotating speed range of 5,000-8,000 rpm, the levitation of the impeller hence is ensured by practical use of the pump. PMID:12561356

Qian, Kunxi; Zeng, Pei; Ru, Weimin; Yuan, Haiyu

2002-12-01

130

Pressure oscillation in the leakage annulus between a shrouded impeller and its housing due to impeller-discharge-pressure disturbances  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The perturbed flow in the leakage path between a shrouded-pump impeller and its housing is analyzed using experiences with the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), high pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP) wearing-ring seals. Analysis is based on a bulk-flow model which consists of the path-momentum, circumferential momentum, and continuity equations. The pressure oscillations in the leakage annulus are driven by a circumferential variation of the impeller discharge pressure. It is shown that the occurrence and nature of the pressure oscillations depend on the tangential-velocity ratio of the fluid entering the seal, the order of the Fourier coefficient, the closeness of the precessional frequency of the rotating pressure field to the first natural frequency of the fluid annulus, and the clearance of the wearing-ring seal. The results obtained may explain the internal melting observed on SSME HPFTP seal parts.

Childs, D. W.

1992-01-01

131

Scaling of impeller response to impeller-diffuser interactions in centrifugal compressors  

E-print Network

A numerical investigation has been conducted to quantify the effect of impeller-diffuser interaction on changes in impeller performance. An assessment is made of the hypothesis that the nondimensional parameter characterizing ...

Tarr, David Landon

2008-01-01

132

Variable Speed Pumping: A  

E-print Network

• Flow control can be achieved by using ASDs, trimming impellers, installing multiple pumps, or adding a multi-speed motor. • Consider ASDs as an option when pumps operate at least 2,000 hours per year and process flow rate requirements vary by 30 % or more over time.

unknown authors

133

Blade design loads on the flow exciting force in centrifugal pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The three-dimensional viscous flow field of two centrifugal pumps, which have the same volute, design head, design flow rate and rotational speed but the blade design load, are analyzed based on large eddy simulation. The comparisons are implemented including the hydraulic efficiencies, flow field characteristics, pressure pulsations and unsteady forces applied on the impellers to investigate the effect of the design blade load on hydraulic performance and flow exciting force. The numerical results show that the efficiency of the pump, the impeller blade of which has larger design load, is improved by 1.1%~2.9% compared to the centrifugal pump with lower blade design load. The pressure fluctuation of the pump with high design load is more remarkable. Its maximum amplitude of coefficient of static pressure is higher by 43% than the latter. At the same time the amplitude of unsteady radial force is increased by 11.6% in the time domain. The results also imply that the blade design load is an important factor on the excitation force in centrifugal pumps.

Xu, Y.; Yang, A. L.; Langand, D. P.; Dai, R.

2012-11-01

134

Oxygen mass transfer in a stirred tank bioreactor using different impeller configurations for environmental purposes.  

PubMed

In this study, a miniature stirred tank bioreactor was designed for treatment of waste gas containing benzene, toluene and xylene. Oxygen mass transfer characteristics for various twin and single-impeller systems were investigated for 6 configurations in a vessel with 10 cm of inner diameter and working volume of 1.77L. Three types of impellers, namely, Rushton turbine, Pitched 4blades and Pitched 2blades impellers with downward pumping have been used. Deionized water was used as a liquid phase. With respect to other independent variables such as agitation speed, aeration rate, type of sparger, number of impellers, the relative performance of these impellers was assessed by comparing the values of (KLa) as a key parameter. Based on the experimental data, empirical correlations as a function of the operational conditions have been proposed, to study the oxygen transfer rates from air bubbles generated in the bioreactor. It was shown that twin Rushton turbine configuration demonstrates superior performance (23% to 77% enhancement in KLa) compared with other impeller compositions and that sparger type has negligible effect on oxygen mass transfer rate. Agitation speeds of 400 to 800 rpm were the most efficient speeds for oxygen mass transfer in the stirred bioreactor. PMID:23369581

Karimi, Ali; Golbabaei, Farideh; Mehrnia, Momammad Reza; Neghab, Masoud; Mohammad, Kazem; Nikpey, Ahmad; Pourmand, Mohammad Reza

2013-01-01

135

SSME HPOTP impeller backcavity CFD analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ball bearings behind the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) HPOTP preburner pump have a history of premature wear requiring their replacement. Extensive tests have been conducted in an attempt to identify the operating factors that contribute to the wear. It has been conjectured that the coolant inflow velocity swirl pattern can aid bearing operation by matching ball orbit speed and thus affect bearing life. However, control of the velocity distribution up to now could only be achieved by trial and error following hardware testing. Observation of hardware from recent flight and development operation led to the hypothesis that certain assemblies with more extensive grinding patterns on the backwall of the impeller for rotor balancing correlated with improved bearing wear. To analytically evaluate the effect of cavity configuration on the flowfield, 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses of various geometries was successfully executed using REACT3D. Height of the anti-vortex ribs on the stationary wall was varied, as was the configuration of the rotating wall, from smooth to simulations of various grindout patterns. The results obtained indicate the effects of the various geometries and provide valuable guidelines for cavity modification to optimize bearing cooling.

Hsu, W. W.; Lin, S. J.

1992-01-01

136

Vibration analysis of large centrifugal pump rotors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through the critical speed of centrifugal pumps, internal flow field and the force of the impeller, we analyze centrifugal pump vibration. Using finite element analysis software ANSYS to calculate the natural frequency of the rotor system and the critical speed; with the help of the Fluent software to simulate pump internal flow field, we conclude that speed increase will not cause intense vibration of the fluid in the pump. Using unsteady numerical simulation we discovered that in an impeller suffering transient radial force cyclical change periodically, as well as the frequency size determined by the product of the impeller speed and number of blades, resonance phenomena should make impeller to transient radial force frequency. If wanting to avoid pump resonance when it is running away, the transient radial force frequency should avoid the frequency range which can cause resonance.

Y Zhao, W.; Ge, J. G.; Ma, D.; Li, C. M.; Bao, S. B.

2013-12-01

137

A three-dimensional potential flow analysis of dynamic fluid forces acting on a whirling centrifugal impeller bounded by a volute  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An unsteady three-dimensional potential flow model was developed. The panel method, as developed by Hess and Smith, formed the basis for this model. Instantaneous and time-averaged dynamic fluid forces, acting on whirling centrifugal impellers, were computed. Unbounded impellers and impellers bounded by a volute were analyzed. Inertial, damping, and stiffness matrices were presented for both types of impellers. For the unbounded impeller, the radial and tangential forces remained constant in time. Therefore, the rotor dynamic matrices possessed skew-symmetry. When bounded impellers were operated at design flows and beyond, the rotor dynamic matrices could be approximated by skew-symmetry matrices. For both the unbound and bound impeller analyses, the panel method correctly predicted radial force trends with increasing flow. However, for negative whirl speed ratios, the radial force predictions were underestimated. In the case of the unbound impeller, cross-coupling stiffness coefficients were accurately predicted at design flows and above. The destabilizing cross-coupling stiffness coefficients, which were found experimentally at flows below the design point, were not predicted by the panel method. The computational technique developed has the capability of assessing dynamic fluid forces acting on a single stage centrifugal pump. It provides analytical verification of the existence of a subsynchronous whirl instability region for centrifugal pumps bounded by a volute.

Waite, David Marc

1988-06-01

138

PIV measurements of flow in a centrifugal blood pump: steady flow.  

PubMed

Magnetically suspended left ventricular assist devices have only one moving part, the impeller. The impeller has absolutely no contact with any of the fixed parts, thus greatly reducing the regions of stagnant or high shear stress that surround a mechanical or fluid bearing. Measurements of the mean flow patterns as well as viscous and turbulent stresses were made in a shaft-driven prototype of a magnetically suspended centrifugal blood pump at several constant flow rates (3-9 L/min) using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The chosen range of flow rates is representative of the range over which the pump may operate while implanted. Measurements on a three-dimensional measurement grid within several regions of the pump, including the inlet, blade passage, exit volute, and diffuser are reported. The measurements are used to identify regions of potential blood damage due to high shear stress and/or stagnation of the blood, both of which have been associated with blood damage within artificial heart valves and diaphragm-type pumps. Levels of turbulence intensity and Reynolds stresses that are comparable to those in artificial heart valves are reported. At the design flow rate (6 L/min), the flow is generally well behaved (no recirculation or stagnant flow) and stress levels are below levels that would be expected to contribute to hemolysis or thrombosis. The flow at both high (9 L/min) and low (3 L/min) flow rates introduces anomalies into the flow, such as recirculation, stagnation, and high stress regions. Levels of viscous and Reynolds shear stresses everywhere within the pump are below reported threshold values for damage to red cells over the entire range of flow rates investigated; however, at both high and low flow rate conditions, the flow field may promote activation of the clotting cascade due to regions of elevated shear stress adjacent to separated or stagnant flow. PMID:15971702

Day, Steven W; McDaniel, James C

2005-04-01

139

Pump CFD code validation tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pump CFD code validation tests were accomplished by obtaining nonintrusive flow characteristic data at key locations in generic current liquid rocket engine turbopump configurations. Data were obtained with a laser two-focus (L2F) velocimeter at scaled design flow. Three components were surveyed: a 1970's-designed impeller, a 1990's-designed impeller, and a four-bladed unshrouded inducer. Two-dimensional velocities were measured upstream and downstream of the two impellers. Three-dimensional velocities were measured upstream, downstream, and within the blade row of the unshrouded inducer.

Brozowski, L. A.

1993-12-01

140

In vivo evaluation of the NEDO biventricular assist device with an RPM dynamic impeller suspension system.  

PubMed

Since 1995, the Baylor College of Medicine group has been developing the NEDO Gyro permanent implantable (PI) pump. The Gyro PI pump has achieved outstanding results up to 284 days with no thrombus formation during the left ventricular assist device (LVAD) animal experiments. However, in biventricular assist device (BVAD) animal experiments, thrombus formation did occur. An in vitro experiment showed the reason for thrombus formation was caused by the missed magnetic balance between the impeller and the actuator. On the basis of this result, the revolutions per minute (RPM) impeller suspension system was developed. Six long-term animal studies were performed in bovine models. Survival periods were 90, 80, 60, 51, 48, and 37 days, respectively. No thrombus was observed in the pumps with the exception of one right pump. In that experiment, the thrombus formation may have occurred when the pump had a low flow because of outflow kinking. In this article, the antithrombogenic effect of this RPM impeller suspension system will be discussed. PMID:14524568

Ichikawa, Seiji; Linneweber, Joerg; Motomura, Tadashi; Ishitoya, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Kuniyoshi; Ashizawa, Satoshi; Murai, Noriyuki; Nishimura, Ikuya; Sumikura, Hirohito; Glueck, Julia A; Shinohara, Toshiyuki; Oestmann, Daniel J; Nosé, Yukihiko

2003-01-01

141

Wind-powered impeller-mixer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention is an energy-saving means for providing turbulence as well as circulation to liquids in a controlled natural purification system for advanced waste water treatment and algae farming. The wind-powered impeller-mixers are used in the algae growing reactors of a controlled natural purification system. The invention consists of a vertical vane type windmill that turns an impeller blade to

P. A. Freeman; W. J. Thompson

1981-01-01

142

Prediction of Microporosity in Shrouded Impeller Castings  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Morris Bean and Company was to link computer models of heat and fluid flow with previously developed quality criteria for the prediction of microporosity in a Al-4.5% Cu alloy shrouded impeller casting. The results may be used to analyze the casting process design for the commercial production of 206 o alloy shrouded impeller castings. Test impeller castings were poured in the laboratory for the purpose of obtaining thermal data and porosity distributions. Also, a simulation of the test impeller casting was conducted and the results validated with porosity measurements on the test castings. A comparison of the predicted and measured microporosity distributions indicated an excellent correlation between experiments and prediction. The results of the experimental and modeling studies undertaken in this project indicate that the quality criteria developed for the prediction of microporosity in Al-4.5% Cu alloy castings can accurately predict regions of elevated microporosity even in complex castings such as the shrouded impeller casting. Accordingly, it should be possible to use quality criteria for porosity prediction in conjunction with computer models of heat and fluid flow to optimize the casting process for the production of shrouded impeller castings. Since high levels of microporosity may be expected to result in poor fatigue properties, casting designs that are optimized for low levels of microporosity should exhibit superior fatigue life.

Viswanathan, S. Nelson, C.D.

1998-09-01

143

Impeller deflection and modal finite element analysis.  

SciTech Connect

Deflections of an impeller due to centripetal forces are calculated using finite element analysis. The lateral, or out of plane, deflections are an important design consideration for this particular impeller because it incorporates an air bearing with critical gap tolerances. The target gap distance is approximately 10 microns at a rotational velocity of 2500 rpm. The centripetal forces acting on the impeller cause it deflect in a concave fashion, decreasing the initial gap distance as a function of radial position. This deflection is characterized for a previous and updated impeller design for comparative purposes. The impact of design options such as material selection, geometry dimensions, and operating rotational velocity are also explored, followed by a sensitivity study with these parameters bounded by specific design values. A modal analysis is also performed to calculate the impeller's natural frequencies which are desired to be avoided during operation. The finite element modeling techniques continue to be exercised by the impeller design team to address specific questions and evaluate conceptual designs, some of which are included in the Appendix.

Spencer, Nathan A.

2013-10-01

144

Pump Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA handbook on a general purpose titanium alloy was used by Sundstrand Corporation in design calculation for casting titanium impellers. Information contributed substantially to improved impeller design.

1981-01-01

145

Flow Pattern Characterization for a Centrifugal Impeller  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a model for characterizing the flow pattern of a centrifugal impeller attending to the severity of the reverse flow. The model assumes 1) a definition of an escaping particle as the one that flows in every operational point from the trailing edge towards the leading edge of the impeller blades, and 2) a characterization of flow where an operational point is said to have a theoretical flow pattern if it is not possible to establish a fully-reversed escaping particle on it. Therefore, the first part of the article is focused on defining an escaping particle for a centrifugal compressor. The model locates over the map of a centrifugal impeller the line that splits the map in two regions: the region on the right hand side, where a theoretical flow pattern can exist, and the region on the left, where a theoretical flow pattern cannot exist. Therefore, the locus of this line marks a frontier where the expected performance of the impeller cannot be sustained as high as expected. The second part of the article uses a high-performance commercial centrifugal impeller wheel for contrasting the model. A qualitative characterization of the surge line, conclusions and discussions are presented.

Benavides, Efrén M.

2014-08-01

146

Study of blade clearance effects on centrifugal pumps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program of analysis, design, fabrication, and testing has been conducted to develop and experimentally verify analytical models to predict the effects of impeller blade clearance on centrifugal pumps. The effect of tip clearance on pump efficiency, and the relationship between the head coefficient and torque loss with tip clearance was established. Analysis were performed to determine the cost variation in design, manufacture, and test that would occur between unshrouded and shrouded impellers. An impeller, representative of typical rocket engine impellers, was modified by removing its front shroud to permit variation of its blade clearances. It was tested in water with special instrumentation to provide measurements of blade surface pressures during operation. Pump performance data were obtained from tests at various impeller tip clearances. Blade pressure data were obtained at the nominal tip clearance. Comparisons of predicted and measured data are given.

Hoshide, R. K.; Nielson, C. E.

1972-01-01

147

A teaspoon pump for pumping blood with high hydraulic efficiency and low hemolysis potential.  

PubMed

Virtually all blood pumps contain some kind of rubbing, sliding, closely moving machinery surfaces that are exposed to the blood being pumped. These valves, internal bearings, magnetic bearing position sensors, and shaft seals cause most of the problems with blood pumps. The original teaspoon pump design prevented the rubbing, sliding machinery surfaces from contacting the blood. However, the hydraulic efficiency was low because the blood was able to "slip around" the rotating impeller so that the blood itself never rotated fast enough to develop adequate pressure. An improved teaspoon blood pump has been designed and tested and has shown acceptable hydraulic performance and low hemolysis potential. The new pump uses a nonrotating "swinging" hose as the pump impeller. The fluid enters the pump through the center of the swinging hose; therefore, there can be no fluid slip between the revolving blood and the revolving impeller. The new pump uses an impeller that is comparable to a flexible garden hose. If the free end of the hose were swung around in a circle like half of a jump rope, the fluid inside the hose would rotate and develop pressure even though the hose impeller itself did not "rotate"; therefore, no rotating shaft seal or internal bearings are required. PMID:8817965

Dame, D

1996-06-01

148

Axisymmetric supersonic flow in rotating impellers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

General equations are developed for isentropic, frictionless, axisymmetric flow in rotating impellers with blade thickness taken into account and with blade forces eliminated in favor of the blade-surface function. It is shown that the total energy of the gas relative to the rotating coordinate system is dependent on the stream function only, and that if the flow upstream of the impeller is vortex-free, a velocity potential exists which is a function of only the radial and axial distances in the impeller. The characteristic equations for supersonic flow are developed and used to investigate flows in several configurations in order to ascertain the effect of variations of the boundary conditions on the internal flow and the work input. Conditions varied are prerotation of the gas, blade turning rate, gas velocity at the blade tips, blade thickness, and sweep of the leading edge.

Goldstein, Arthur W

1952-01-01

149

Passive magnetic bearing in the 3rd generation miniature axial flow pump-the valvo pump 2.  

PubMed

The new miniature axial flow pump (valvo pump 2) that is installed at the base of the ascending aorta consists of a six-phase stator, an impeller in which four neodymium magnets are incorporated, and passive magnetic bearings that suspend the impeller for axial levitation. The impeller is sustained by hydrodynamic force between the blade tip of the impeller and the inner housing of the stator. The passive magnetic bearing consists of a ring neodymium magnet and a columnar neodymium magnet. The ring neodymium magnet is set in the stationary side and the columnar neodymium magnet is incorporated in the impeller shaft. Both neodymium magnets are coaxially mounted, and the anterior and posterior passive magnetic bearings suspend the impeller by repulsion force against the hydrodynamic force that acts to move the impeller in the inflow port direction. The passive magnetic bearing was evaluated by a tensile test, and the levitation force of 8.5 N and stiffness of 2.45 N/mm was obtained. Performance of the axial flow pump was evaluated by an in vitro experiment. The passive magnetic bearing showed sufficient levitation capacity to suspend the impeller in an axial direction. In conclusion, the passive magnetic bearing is promising to be one of levitation technology for the third-generation axial flow blood pump. PMID:25407124

Okamoto, Eiji; Ishida, Yuya; Yano, Tetsuya; Mitamura, Yoshinori

2014-11-19

150

Combined electrical and mechanical model of electric submersible pumps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electric submersible pump unit consists of a pump powered by a medium-voltage three-phase induction motor. The power transmission system is integrated with the riser pipes. Starting the pump causes heavy dynamic stresses on the motor shaft and the mechanical connection between pump (impellers) and shaft. The motor and its load will generate transient torque pulsations that may be damaging

Olav Vaag Thorsen; Magnus Dalva

2001-01-01

151

Research on energy conversion mechanism of a screw centrifugal pump under the water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to research screw centrifugal pump impeller power capability and energy conversion mechanism, we used Navier-Stokes equation and standard k-? equation turbulence model on the basis of the Euler equations to carry out screw centrifugal pump internal flow numerical simulation. This was explored by simulating specific design conditions; the medium is water, variation of speed and pressure of flow filed under the action of the impeller, and the screw centrifugal impeller shroud line and wheel line segment take monitoring sites. The monitoring points are between dynamic head and static head change to analyze the energy conversion capability along the impeller corners of screw centrifugal pump. The results show that the energy of fluid of the screw centrifugal pump is provided by spiral segment, the spiral segment in front of the impeller has played a multi-level role, it has significant reference value to research the energy conversion mechanism of screw centrifugal pump under solid-liquid two phase.

Quan, H.; Li, R. N.; Su, Q. M.; Han, W.; Cheng, X. R.; Shen, Z. J.

2013-12-01

152

Flow study on a newly developed impeller for a left ventricular assist device.  

PubMed

Nowadays, left ventricular assist devices are usually designed as high-speed, electric, rotary blood pumps. The pump drains blood from the left ventricular apex via an inlet cannula and ejects into the aortic root via an outlet conduit. To develop a high-performance pump, the present study utilizes partial differential equations to generate a surface representation of the impeller of the blood pump. Flow analysis around the impeller is performed by using the finite volume method to solve the fully incompressible three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations along with the k-epsilon turbulence model. The numerical results highlight flow features in the end-wall region of the pump, namely the clearance leakage cross-flow, and the vortex associated with this leakage. These secondary flows induce major energy losses in the pumping device. On the test study, a test loop was proposed to measure the performance characteristics. It was shown that the design would provide a flow rate of 4.4 l/min with a pressure head of 122 mmHg. The DC motor power under these conditions was about 6 W and the rotational speed was 4500 rpm. Both the flow rate and head can satisfy the demand for the left artificial heart to work normally. PMID:14598109

Hsu, Cheung-Hwa

2003-01-01

153

Submersible canned motor transfer pump  

DOEpatents

A transfer pump used in a waste tank for transferring high-level radioactive liquid waste from a waste tank and having a column assembly, a canned electric motor means, and an impeller assembly with an upper impeller and a lower impeller connected to a shaft of a rotor assembly. The column assembly locates a motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller assembly which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste, into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to cool and/or lubricate the radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the upper impeller and electric motor means grind large particles in the liquid waste flow. Slots in the static bearing member of the radial bearing assemblies further grind down the solid waste particles so that only particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass therethrough, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the transfer pump. The column assembly is modular so that sections can be easily assembled, disassembled and/or removed. A second embodiment employs a stator jacket which provides an alternate means for cooling the electric motor means and lubricating and/or cooling the bearing assemblies, and a third embodiment employs a variable level suction device which allows liquid waste to be drawn into the transfer pump from varying and discrete levels in the waste tank.

Guardiani, Richard F. (Ohio Township, Allegheny County, PA); Pollick, Richard D. (Sarver, PA); Nyilas, Charles P. (Monroeville, PA); Denmeade, Timothy J. (Lower Burrell, PA)

1997-01-01

154

Method for Reducing Pumping Damage to Blood  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods are provided for minimizing damage to blood in a blood pump wherein the blood pump comprises a plurality of pump components that may affect blood damage such as clearance between pump blades and housing, number of impeller blades, rounded or flat blade edges, variations in entrance angles of blades, impeller length, and the like. The process comprises selecting a plurality of pump components believed to affect blood damage such as those listed herein before. Construction variations for each of the plurality of pump components are then selected. The pump components and variations are preferably listed in a matrix for easy visual comparison of test results. Blood is circulated through a pump configuration to test each variation of each pump component. After each test, total blood damage is determined for the blood pump. Preferably each pump component variation is tested at least three times to provide statistical results and check consistency of results. The least hemolytic variation for each pump component is preferably selected as an optimized component. If no statistical difference as to blood damage is produced for a variation of a pump component, then the variation that provides preferred hydrodynamic performance is selected. To compare the variation of pump components such as impeller and stator blade geometries, the preferred embodiment of the invention uses a stereolithography technique for realizing complex shapes within a short time period.

Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor); Akkerman, James W. (Inventor); Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor); VanDamm, George Arthur (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Svejkovsky, Robert J. (Inventor); Benkowski, Robert J. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

155

Computational flow study of the continuous flow ventricular assist device, prototype number 3 blood pump.  

PubMed

A computational fluid dynamics study of blood flow in the continuous flow ventricular assist device, Prototype No. 3 (CFVAD3), which consists of a 4 blade shrouded impeller fully supported in magnetic bearings, was performed. This study focused on the regions within the pump where return flow occurs to the pump inlet, and where potentially damaging shear stresses and flow stagnation might occur: the impeller blade passages and the narrow gap clearance regions between the impeller-rotor and pump housing. Two separate geometry models define the spacing between the pump housing and the impeller's hub and shroud, and a third geometry model defines the pump's impeller and curved blades. The flow fields in these regions were calculated for various operating conditions of the pump. Pump performance curves were calculated, which compare well with experimentally obtained data. For all pump operating conditions, the flow rates within the gap regions were predicted to be toward the inlet of the pump, thus recirculating a portion of the impeller flow. Two smaller gap clearance regions were numerically examined to reduce the recirculation and to improve pump efficiency. The computational and geometry models will be used in future studies of a smaller pump to determine increased pump efficiency and the risk of hemolysis due to shear stress, and to insure the washing of blood through the clearance regions to prevent thrombosis. PMID:10848679

Anderson, J B; Wood, H G; Allaire, P E; Bearnson, G; Khanwilkar, P

2000-05-01

156

Optimization and analysis of centrifugal pump considering fluid-structure interaction.  

PubMed

This paper presents the optimization of vibrations of centrifugal pump considering fluid-structure interaction (FSI). A set of centrifugal pumps with various blade shapes were studied using FSI method, in order to investigate the transient vibration performance. The Kriging model, based on the results of the FSI simulations, was established to approximate the relationship between the geometrical parameters of pump impeller and the root mean square (RMS) values of the displacement response at the pump bearing block. Hence, multi-island genetic algorithm (MIGA) has been implemented to minimize the RMS value of the impeller displacement. A prototype of centrifugal pump has been manufactured and an experimental validation of the optimization results has been carried out. The comparison among results of Kriging surrogate model, FSI simulation, and experimental test showed a good consistency of the three approaches. Finally, the transient mechanical behavior of pump impeller has been investigated using FSI method based on the optimized geometry parameters of pump impeller. PMID:25197690

Zhang, Yu; Hu, Sanbao; Zhang, Yunqing; Chen, Liping

2014-01-01

157

Computation of incompressible viscous flows through turbopump components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flow through pump components, such as an inducer and an impeller, is efficiently simulated by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The solution method is based on the pseudocompressibility approach and uses an implicit-upwind differencing scheme together with the Gauss-Seidel line relaxation method. the equations are solved in steadily rotating reference frames and the centrifugal force and the Coriolis force are added to the equation of motion. Current computations use a one-equation Baldwin-Barth turbulence model which is derived from a simplified form of the standard k-epsilon model equations. The resulting computer code is applied to the flow analysis inside a generic rocket engine pump inducer, a fuel pump impeller, and SSME high pressure fuel turbopump impeller. Numerical results of inducer flow are compared with experimental measurements. In the fuel pump impeller, the effect of downstream boundary conditions is investigated. Flow analyses at 80 percent, 100 percent, and 120 percent of design conditions are presented.

Kiris, Cetin; Chang, Leon

1993-01-01

158

Portable engine-pump assembly  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a portable engine-pump assembly that is compact and light in weight comprising: an internal combustion engine mounted with its crankshaft extending vertically, a centrifugal pump having an impeller mounted for rotation on a pump shaft within a volute chamber, means mounting the pump on and immediately beneath the engine with the pump shaft extending vertically in accurate alignment and concentricity with the engine crankshaft, means coupling the engine crankshaft and the pump shaft together so that the engine crankshaft drives the pump shaft, the pump comprising a pump body defining the volute chamber and providing a pump inlet passage and a pump discharge passage oriented in generally horizontal directions, the pump body defining an inlet chamber providing passages for the flow of liquid from the pump inlet passage into the impeller from both above and below same and including an upper body portion and a lower body portion, and an exhaust system for the engine including an exhaust passage contained in the upper body portion, a muffler having an inlet, and means providing flow communication between the exhaust passage and the inlet of the muffler.

Eberhardt, H.A.

1987-02-17

159

Microcomputer Analysis of Pumping System Performance  

E-print Network

produced by the pump for a given series computers, has been developed to permit the capacity, as well as the brake horsepower, analysis of pump operation based on descriptions efficiency, and net positive suction head. Pump of the piping system... and demand profile to be performance can be shown as a single line curve served, the pump equipment, and control options depicting one impeller diameter or as multiple specified by the user. It is designed to assist curves for the performance of several...

Bierschenk, J. L.; Schmidt, P. S.

160

Engineering Aspects in Blood Pump Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA turbomachinery computer codes assisted in the design of the Cleveland Clinic Foundation's centrifugal bladed blood pump. The codes were originally developed for the aerospace industry, but are applicable to the blood pump because of a high degree of synergy with this application. Traditional turbomachinery design criteria were used in the design of the blood pump centrifugal impeller and volute casing. The fluid dynamic performance of the blood pump is meeting the engineering design goals of flow rate and pressure rise.

Golding, Leonard; Veres, Joseph P.

1997-01-01

161

Viscous Fluids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the similarities and differences in the behaviors of elastic solids and viscous fluids. Several types of fluid behaviors are described—Bingham plastic, Newtonian, shear thinning and shear thickening—along with their respective shear stress vs. rate of shearing strain diagrams. In addition, fluid material properties such as viscosity are introduced, along with the methods that engineers use to determine those physical properties.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

162

Experimental determination of dynamic characteristics of the VentrAssist implantable rotary blood pump.  

PubMed

The VentrAssist implantable rotary blood pump, intended for long-term ventricular assist, is under development and is currently being tested for its rotor-dynamic stability. The pump consists of a shaftless impeller, which also acts as the rotor of the brushless DC motor. The impeller remains passively suspended in the pump cavity by hydrodynamic forces, which result from the small clearances between the outside surfaces of the impeller and the pump cavity. These small clearances range from approximately 50 microm to 230 microm in size in the version of pump reported here. This article presents experimental investigation into the dynamic characteristics of the impeller-bearing-pump housing system of the rotary blood pump for increasing pump speeds at different flow rates. The pump was mounted on a suspension system consisting of a platform and springs, where the natural frequency and damping ratio for the suspension system were determined. Real-time measurements of the impeller's displacement were performed using Hall effect sensors. A vertical disturbance force was exerted onto the pump housing, causing the impeller to be displaced in vertical direction from its dynamic equilibrium position within the pump cavity. The impeller displacement was represented by a decaying sine wave, which indicated the impeller restoring to its equilibrium position. From the decaying sine wave the natural frequency and stiffness coefficient of the system were determined. Furthermore, the logarithmic decrement method was used to determine the damping ratio and eventually the damping coefficient of the system. Results indicate that stiffness and damping coefficients increased as flow rate and pump speed increased, representing an increase in stability with these changing conditions. However, pump speed had a greater influence on the stiffness and damping coefficients than flow rate did, which was evident through dynamic analysis. Overall the experimental method presented in this article was successful in determining the dynamic characteristics of the system. PMID:15554937

Chung, Michael K H; Zhang, Nong; Tansley, Geoff D; Qian, Yi

2004-12-01

163

Impeller improves mixing efficiency, reduces capital and operating costs  

SciTech Connect

This article is an evaluation of an impeller which improves mixing efficiency, thereby reducing capital and operating costs. Designed with contoured blades shaped like airplane wings, the impeller provides a significantly increased axial flow component as compared to a conventional flat bladed axial flow turbine impeller. This strong downward flow not only improves mixing and/or reduces power consumption, but also allows the impeller to be positioned higher above the tank bottom. Developed by using lasers to measure flow patterns in test vessels, the impeller concentrates its flow component, up to 70% more mixing is achieved at the same power input. To achieve process results equivalent to that of a conventional axial flow turbine, use of this impeller reduces power consumption by 50%. This provides not only energy savings, bur reduces the size and capital cost of motors and agitator drive systems.

Not Available

1982-11-01

164

Fault-tolerant strategies for an implantable centrifugal blood pump using a radially controlled magnetic bearing.  

PubMed

In our laboratory, an implantable centrifugal blood pump (CBP) with a two degrees-of-freedom radially controlled magnetic bearing (MB) to support the impeller without contact has been developed to assist the pumping function of the weakened heart ventricle. In order to maintain the function of the CBP after damage to the electromagnets (EMs) of the MB, fault-tolerant strategies for the CBP are proposed in this study. Using a redundant MB design, magnetic levitation of the impeller was maintained with damage to up to two out of a total of four EMs of the MB; with damage to three EMs, contact-free support of the impeller was achieved using hydrodynamic and electromagnetic forces; and with damage to all four EMs, the pump operating point, of 5 l/min against 100 mmHg, was achieved using the motor for rotation of the impeller, with contact between the impeller and the stator. PMID:21382738

Pai, Chi Nan; Shinshi, Tadahiko

2011-10-01

165

Satellite Propellant Pump Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Glenn initiated a satellite propellant pump technology demonstration program. The goal was to demonstrate the technologies for a 60 percent efficient pump at 1 gpm flow rate and 500 psia pressure rise. The pump design and analysis used the in-house developed computer codes named PUMPA and HPUMP3D. The requirements lead to a 4-stage impeller type pump design with a tip diameter of 0.54 inches and a rotational speed of 57,000 rpm. Analyses indicated that flow cavitation was not a problem in the design. Since the flow was incompressible, the stages were identical. Only the 2-stage pump was designed, fabricated, assembled, and tested for demonstration. Water was selected as the surrogate fluid for hydrazine in this program. Complete mechanical design including stress and dynamic analyses were conducted. The pump was driven by an electric motor directly coupled to the impellers. Runs up to 57,000 rpm were conducted, where a pressure rise of 200 psia at a flow rate of 0.8 gpm was measured to validate the design effort.

Schneider, Steven J.; Veres, Joseph P.; Hah, Chunill; Nerone, Anthony L.; Cunningham, Cameron C.; Kraft, Thomas G.; Tavernelli, Paul F.; Fraser, Bryan

2005-01-01

166

Alignment and operability analysis of a vertical sodium pump  

SciTech Connect

With the objective of identifying important alignment features of pumps such as FFTF, HALLAM, EBR II, PNC, PHENIX, and CRBR, alignment of the vertical sodium pump for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) is investigated. The CRBRP pump includes a flexibly coupled pump shaft and motor shaft, two oil-film tilting-pad hydrodynamic radial bearings in the motor plus a vertical thrust bearing, and two sodium hydrostatic bearings straddling the double-suction centrifugal impeller in the pump.

Gupta, V.K.; Fair, C.E.

1981-01-01

167

Mathematical Modeling of Fluid Flow in a Water Physical Model of an Aluminum Degassing Ladle Equipped with an Impeller-Injector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, a 3D numerical simulation using a Euler-Euler-based model implemented into a commercial CFD code was used to simulate fluid flow and turbulence structure in a water physical model of an aluminum ladle equipped with an impeller for degassing treatment. The effect of critical process parameters such as rotor speed, gas flow rate, and the point of gas injection (conventional injection through the shaft vs a novel injection through the bottom of the ladle) on the fluid flow and vortex formation was analyzed with this model. The commercial CFD code PHOENICS 3.4 was used to solve all conservation equations governing the process for this two-phase fluid flow system. The mathematical model was reasonably well validated against experimentally measured liquid velocity and vortex sizes in a water physical model built specifically for this investigation. From the results, it was concluded that the angular speed of the impeller is the most important parameter in promoting better stirred baths and creating smaller and better distributed bubbles in the liquid. The pumping effect of the impeller is increased as the impeller rotation speed increases. Gas flow rate is detrimental to bath stirring and diminishes the pumping effect of the impeller. Finally, although the injection point was the least significant variable, it was found that the "novel" injection improves stirring in the ladle.

Gómez, Eudoxio Ramos; Zenit, Roberto; Rivera, Carlos González; Trápaga, Gerardo; Ramírez-Argáez, Marco A.

2013-04-01

168

Influence of impeller speed upon the pullulan fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The effect of impeller speed on pullulan production and the morphology ofAureobasidiumpullulans in batch culture was studied. Pullulan production and the percentage of yeast cells in the culture rose with impeller speed, as did molecular weight of the polysaccharide.

B McNeil; B Kristiansen

1987-01-01

169

Strength and dynamic characteristics analyses of wound composite axial impeller  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A low cost, light weight, high performance composite material turbomachinery impeller with a uniquely designed blade patterns is analyzed. Such impellers can economically enable refrigeration plants to use water as a refrigerant (R718). A strength and dynamic characteristics analyses procedure is developed to assess the maximum stresses and natural frequencies of these wound composite axial impellers under operating loading conditions. Numerical simulation using FEM for two-dimensional and three-dimensional impellers was investigated. A commercially available software ANSYS is used for the finite element calculations. Analysis is done for different blade geometries and then suggestions are made for optimum design parameters. In order to avoid operating at resonance, which can make impellers suffer a significant reduction in the design life, the designer must calculate the natural frequency and modal shape of the impeller to analyze the dynamic characteristics. The results show that using composite Kevlar fiber/epoxy matrix enables the impeller to run at high tip speed and withstand the stresses, no critical speed will be matched during start-up and shut-down, and that mass imbalances of the impeller shall not pose a critical problem.

Wang, Jifeng; Olortegui-Yume, Jorge; Müller, Norbert

2012-03-01

170

Computer aided manufacturing technologies for centrifugal compressor impellers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CAD\\/CAM technologies for manufacturing centrifugal compressor impellers and turbine blades are investigated in this research. The control data points of an impeller or a blade were obtained by using the reverse engineering method. The obtained data were used as the input data for UG CAD\\/CAM software to construct the CAD model. Increasing the machining efficiency during the rough and

Shang-Liang Chen; Wen-Tsai Wang

2001-01-01

171

Failure analysis of an MVR (mechanical vapor recompressor) Impeller  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the root cause failure analysis of a mechanical vapor recompressor (MVR) impeller used in a dairy processing plant. An impeller blade was thrown during commissioning after approximately 150h of service. Visual examination of the blade’s fracture surface indicated that the crack growth mechanism was fatigue and this was confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) examinations. A detailed

Keith Alexander; Brian Donohue; Troy Feese; Gordon Vanderlinden; Milo Kral

2010-01-01

172

Optimization of integrated impeller mixer via radiotracer experiments.  

PubMed

Radiotracer experiments are carried out in order to determine the mean residence time (MRT) as well as percentage of dead zone, V dead (%), in an integrated mixer consisting of Rushton and pitched blade turbine (PBT). Conventionally, optimization was performed by varying one parameter and others were held constant (OFAT) which lead to enormous number of experiments. Thus, in this study, a 4-factor 3-level Taguchi L9 orthogonal array was introduced to obtain an accurate optimization of mixing efficiency with minimal number of experiments. This paper describes the optimal conditions of four process parameters, namely, impeller speed, impeller clearance, type of impeller, and sampling time, in obtaining MRT and V dead (%) using radiotracer experiments. The optimum conditions for the experiments were 100 rpm impeller speed, 50 mm impeller clearance, Type A mixer, and 900 s sampling time to reach optimization. PMID:24741344

Othman, N; Kamarudin, S K; Takriff, M S; Rosli, M I; Engku Chik, E M F; Adnan, M A K

2014-01-01

173

Optimization of Integrated Impeller Mixer via Radiotracer Experiments  

PubMed Central

Radiotracer experiments are carried out in order to determine the mean residence time (MRT) as well as percentage of dead zone, Vdead (%), in an integrated mixer consisting of Rushton and pitched blade turbine (PBT). Conventionally, optimization was performed by varying one parameter and others were held constant (OFAT) which lead to enormous number of experiments. Thus, in this study, a 4-factor 3-level Taguchi L9 orthogonal array was introduced to obtain an accurate optimization of mixing efficiency with minimal number of experiments. This paper describes the optimal conditions of four process parameters, namely, impeller speed, impeller clearance, type of impeller, and sampling time, in obtaining MRT and Vdead (%) using radiotracer experiments. The optimum conditions for the experiments were 100?rpm impeller speed, 50?mm impeller clearance, Type A mixer, and 900?s sampling time to reach optimization. PMID:24741344

Othman, N.; Kamarudin, S. K.; Takriff, M. S.; Rosli, M. I.; Engku Chik, E. M. F.; Adnan, M. A. K.

2014-01-01

174

Incompressible Navier-Stokes Calculations in Pump Flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flow through pump components, such as the SSME-HPFTP Impeller and an advanced rocket pump impeller, is efficiently simulated by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The solution method is based on the pseudo compressibility approach and uses an implicit-upwind differencing scheme together with the Gauss-Seidel line relaxation method. The equations are solved in steadily rotating reference frames and the centrifugal force and the Coriolis force are added to the equation of motion. Current computations use one-equation Baldwin-Barth turbulence model which is derived from a simplified form of the standard k-epsilon model equations. The resulting computer code is applied to the flow analysis inside an 11-inch SSME High Pressure Fuel Turbopump impeller, and an advanced rocket pump impeller. Numerical results of SSME-HPFTP impeller flow are compared with experimental measurements. In the advanced pump impeller, the effects of exit and shroud cavities are investigated. Flow analyses at design conditions will be presented.

Kiris, Cetin; Chang, Leon; Kwak, Dochan

1993-01-01

175

Novel maglev pump with a combined magnetic bearing.  

PubMed

The newly developed pump is a magnetically levitated centrifugal blood pump in which active and passive magnetic bearings are integrated to construct a durable ventricular assist device. The developed maglev centrifugal pump consists of an active magnetic bearing, a passive magnetic bearing, a levitated impeller, and a motor stator. The impeller is set between the active magnetic bearing and the motor stator. The active magnetic bearing uses four electromagnets to control the tilt and the axial position of the impeller. The radial movement of the levitated impeller is restricted with the passive stability dependent upon the top stator and the passive permanent magnetic bearing to reduce the energy consumption and the control system complexity. The top stator was designed based upon a magnetic field analysis to develop the maglev pump with sufficient passive stability in the radial direction. By implementing this analysis design, the oscillating amplitude of the impeller in the radial direction was cut in half when compared with the simple shape stator. This study concluded that the newly developed maglev centrifugal pump displayed excellent levitation performance and sufficient pump performance as a ventricular assist device. PMID:15745134

Onuma, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Michiko; Masuzawa, Toru

2005-01-01

176

Submersible canned motor mixer pump  

DOEpatents

A mixer pump used in a waste tank for mobilizing high-level radioactive liquid waste having a column assembly containing power cables, a motor housing with electric motor means which includes a stator can of a stator assembly and a rotor can of a rotor assembly, and an impeller assembly with an impeller connected to a shaft of the rotor assembly. The column assembly locates the motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to lubricate radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the impeller and electric motor means act to grind down large particles in the liquid waste flow. These larger particles are received in slots in the static bearing members of the radial bearing assemblies. Only solid waste particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass therethrough, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the mixer pump.

Guardiani, Richard F. (Ohio Township, PA); Pollick, Richard D. (Sarver, PA)

1997-01-01

177

Submersible canned motor mixer pump  

DOEpatents

A mixer pump is described used in a waste tank for mobilizing high-level radioactive liquid waste having a column assembly containing power cables, a motor housing with electric motor means which includes a stator can of a stator assembly and a rotor can of a rotor assembly, and an impeller assembly with an impeller connected to a shaft of the rotor assembly. The column assembly locates the motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to lubricate radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the impeller and electric motor means act to grind down large particles in the liquid waste flow. These larger particles are received in slots in the static bearing members of the radial bearing assemblies. Only solid waste particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass there through, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the mixer pump. 10 figs.

Guardiani, R.F.; Pollick, R.D.

1997-10-07

178

Submersible canned motor transfer pump  

DOEpatents

A transfer pump is described which is used in a waste tank for transferring high-level radioactive liquid waste from a waste tank and having a column assembly, a canned electric motor means, and an impeller assembly with an upper impeller and a lower impeller connected to a shaft of a rotor assembly. The column assembly locates a motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller assembly which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste, into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to cool and/or lubricate the radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the upper impeller and electric motor means grind large particles in the liquid waste flow. Slots in the static bearing member of the radial bearing assemblies further grind down the solid waste particles so that only particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass there through, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the transfer pump. The column assembly is modular so that sections can be easily assembled, disassembled and/or removed. A second embodiment employs a stator jacket which provides an alternate means for cooling the electric motor means and lubricating and/or cooling the bearing assemblies, and a third embodiment employs a variable level suction device which allows liquid waste to be drawn into the transfer pump from varying and discrete levels in the waste tank. 17 figs.

Guardiani, R.F.; Pollick, R.D.; Nyilas, C.P.; Denmeade, T.J.

1997-08-19

179

Cavitation performance and flow characteristic in a centrifugal pump with inlet guide vanes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of prewhirl regulation by inlet guide vanes (IGVs) on cavitation performance and flow characteristic in a centrifugal pump is investigated. At the impeller inlet, the streamlines are regulated by the IGVs, and the axial velocity distribution is also influenced by the IGVs. Due to the total pressure loss on the IGVs, the cavitation performance of the centrifugal pump degrades. The cavitation area in impeller with IGVs is larger than one without IGVs. The specify values of total pressure loss between the suction pipe inlet and impeller inlet for three cavitation conditions show that the IGVs will generate additional pressure loss, which is related to the IGVs angles and cavitation conditions.

Tan, L.; Zha, L.; Cao, S. L.; Wang, Y. C.; Gui, S. B.

2015-01-01

180

Design optimization of flow channel and performance analysis for a new-type centrifugal blood pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a new-type centrifugal blood pump, whose impeller is suspended inside a pump chamber with hydraulic bearings, is presented. In order to improve the hydraulic performance of the pump, an internal flow simulation is conducted to compare the effects of different geometrical parameters of pump flow passage. Based on the numerical results, the pumps can satisfy the operation parameters and be free of hemolysis. It is noted that for the pump with a column-type supporter at its inlet, the pump head and hydraulic efficiency decreases compared to the pump with a step-type support structure. The performance drop is caused by the disturbed flow upstream impeller inlet. Further, the unfavorable flow features such as reverse flow and low velocity in the pump may increases the possibility of thrombus. It is also confirmed that the casing shape can little influence pump performance. Those results are helpful for design optimization in blood pump development.

Ji, J. J.; Luo, X. W.; Y Wu, Q.

2013-12-01

181

27. LEUPOLD AND STEVENS MIDGET CURRENT METER (WITH ALTERNATE IMPELLER) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

27. LEUPOLD AND STEVENS MIDGET CURRENT METER (WITH ALTERNATE IMPELLER) AND FOLDING SCALE (MEASURED IN INCHES). - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

182

Numerical Investigations of Slip Phenomena in Centrifugal Compressor Impellers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study systematically investigates the slip phenomena in the centrifugal air compressor impellers by CFD. Eight impeller blades for different specific speeds, wrap angles and exit blade angles are designed by compressor design software to analyze their flow fields. Except for the above three variables, flow rate and number of blades are the other two. Results show that the deviation angle decreases as the flow rate increases. The specific speed is not an important parameter regarding deviation angle or slip factor for general centrifugal compressor impellers. The slip onset position is closely related to the position of the peak value in the blade loading factor distribution. When no recirculation flow is present at the shroud, the variations of slip factor under various flow rates are mainly determined by difference between maximum blade angle and exit blade angle, ??max-2. The solidity should be of little importance to slip factor correlations in centrifugal compressor impellers.

Huang, Jeng-Min; Luo, Kai-Wei; Chen, Ching-Fu; Chiang, Chung-Ping; Wu, Teng-Yuan; Chen, Chun-Han

2013-03-01

183

Canned pump having a high inertia flywheel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A canned pump is described which includes a motor, impeller, shaft, and high inertia flywheel mounted within a hermetically sealed casing. The flywheel comprises a heavy metal disk made preferably of a uranium alloy with a stainless steel shell sealably enclosing the heavy metal. The outside surfaces of the stainless steel comprise thrust runners and a journal for mating with,

L. Veronesi; A. A. Raimondi

1989-01-01

184

Design of a Bearingless Blood Pump  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the field of open heart surgery, centrifugal blood pumps have major advantages over roller pumps. The main drawbacks to centrifugal pumps are however problems with the bearings and with the sealing of the rotor shaft. In this paper we present a concept for a simple, compact and cost effective solution for a blood pump with a totally magnetically suspended impeller. It is based on the new technology of the 'Bearingless Motor' and is therefore called the 'Bearingless Blood Pump.' A single bearingless slice motor is at the same time a motor and a bearing system and is able to stabilize the six degrees of freedom of the pump impeller in a very simple way. Three degrees of freedom are stabilized actively (the rotation and the radial displacement of the motor slice). The axial and the angular displacement are stabilized passively. The pump itself (without the motor-stator and the control electronics) is built very simply. It consists of two parts only: the impeller with the integrated machine rotor and the housing. So the part which gets in contact with blood and has therefore to be disposable, is cheap. Fabricated in quantities, it will cost less than $10 and will therefore be affordable for the use in a heart-lung-machine.

Barletta, Natale; Schoeb, Reto

1996-01-01

185

Impeller Metrology for Pipeline Compressors Using Computed Radiography  

SciTech Connect

A new, quantitative method is described to measure features in pipeline impellers using computed radiography (CR). This capability, with an accuracy approaching 5 mils, is required to optimize the impeller design for high efficiency. The large area coverage, simplicity, and high spatial resolution of CR are ideal for this application. A novel phantom and image processing algorithm chain was used to demonstrate measurement repeatability of 99.9% (1 mil) using CR.

Nelson, G.; Gordon, T.; Bueno, C.; Noonan, D. [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, NY 12302 (United States); George, S.; Mahesh, A.; Korukonda, S. [DepartmentGE Global Research, Bangalore, 560066 (India); Fabbri, M.; Cantelli, U.; Marcucci, N. [GE Oil and Gas, Florence 50127 (Italy)

2006-03-06

186

Numerical simulation of impeller-volute interaction in centrifugal compressors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical procedure to predict the impeller-volute interaction in a single-stage centrifugal compressor is presented. The method couples a three-dimensional unsteady flow calculation in the impeller with a three-dimensional time-averaged flow calculation in the volute through an iterative updating of the boundary conditions on the interface of both calculation domains. The method has been used to calculate the flow in

K. Hillewaert; R. A. Van den Braembussche

1999-01-01

187

Implantable centrifugal pump with hybrid magnetic bearings.  

PubMed

Test methods and results of in vitro assessment of a centrifugal pump with a magnetically suspended impeller are provided. In vitro blood tests have been completed with a resulting normalized milligram index of hemolysis (NmIH) of 12.4 +/- 4.1, indicating that hemolysis is not a problem. Hydraulic characterization of the system with water has shown that a nominal pumping condition of 6 L/min at 100 mmHg was met at 2,200 rpm. Maximum clinically usable cardiac output is predicted be 10 L/min. The magnetic bearing supported impeller did not contact the housing and was shown to be stable under a variety of pumping conditions. The driving motor efficiency is 75% at the nominal condition. Finally, a description of the clinical version of the pump under development is provided. PMID:9804533

Bearnson, G B; Olsen, D B; Khanwilkar, P S; Long, J W; Sinnott, M; Kumar, A; Allaire, P E; Baloh, M; Decker, J

1998-01-01

188

Centrifugal Pumps for Swimming Pools. National Sanitation Foundation Standard Number 17.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The pumps discussed herein are intended to be used for recirculating water in swimming pools, both public and private. Included are the basic components which may be a part of a pump such as the housing, strainer, impeller, valves, and such other parts as are attached or a part of the pump as supplied by the manufacturer. This standard is intended…

National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI. Committee for Swimming Pool Equipment Standards.

189

Fluid pumping apparatus  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus suitable for coupling seismic or other downhole sensors to a borehole wall in high temperature and pressure environments. In one embodiment, one or more metal bellows mounted to a sensor module are inflated to clamp the sensor module within the borehole and couple an associated seismic sensor to a borehole wall. Once the sensing operation is complete, the bellows are deflated and the sensor module is unclamped by deflation of the metal bellows. In a further embodiment, a magnetic drive pump in a pump module is used to supply fluid pressure for inflating the metal bellows using borehole fluid or fluid from a reservoir. The pump includes a magnetic drive motor configured with a rotor assembly to be exposed to borehole fluid pressure including a rotatable armature for driving an impeller and an associated coil under control of electronics isolated from borehole pressure.

West, Phillip B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2006-01-17

190

Computational fluid dynamic design of rocket engine pump components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integration of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for design and analysis of turbomachinery components is needed as the requirements of pump performance and reliability become more stringent for the new generation of rocket engine. A fast grid generator, designed specially for centrifugal pump impeller, which allows a turbomachinery designer to use CFD to optimize the component design will be presented. The CFD grid is directly generated from the impeller blade G-H blade coordinates. The grid points are first generated on the meridional plane with the desired clustering near the end walls. This is followed by the marching of grid points from the pressure side of one blade to the suction side of a neighboring blade. This fast grid generator has been used to optimize the consortium pump impeller design. A grid dependency study has been conducted for the consortium pump impeller. Two different grid sizes, one with 10,000 grid points and one with 80,000 grid points were used for the grid dependency study. The effects of grid resolution on the turnaround time, including the grid generation and completion of the CFD analysis, is discussed. The impeller overall mass average performance is compared for different designs. Optimum design is achieved through systematic change of the design parameters. In conclusion, it is demonstrated that CFD can be effectively used not only for flow analysis but also for design and optimization of turbomachinery components.

Chen, Wei-Chung; Prueger, George H.; Chan, Daniel C.; Eastland, Anthony H.

1992-01-01

191

A new magnetically suspended centrifugal pump: in vitro and preliminary in vivo assessment.  

PubMed

To overcome problems derived from the shaft within the conventional centrifugal pump, we have been developing a new centrifugal pump, namely a magnetically suspended centrifugal pump (MSCP), which has no shaft and operates as a noncontacting and bearingless pump. The impeller is suspended magnetically between the magnetic bearing and the driving motor. Hemolysis tests were performed in comparison with the Biopump (BP80, BioMedicus). The index of hemolysis (IH) was significantly lower in the MSCP than in the Biopump. In addition, a smaller gap in the MSCP induced lower hemolysis. In preliminary studies using mongrel dogs, the layer of thrombus adherent to the impeller was observed in a few hours, which impaired the pumping efficiency. However, by using an impeller coated with silicone, no aggregations of platelets or fibrin on the impeller were observed in 24 h of continuous pumping. In conclusion, the MSCP had a gentler influence on blood cells than the Biopump, and the impeller coated with silicone may contribute to the long-term pumping of the MSCP. PMID:8712956

Park, C H; Nishimura, K; Akamatsu, T; Tsukiya, T; Matsuda, K; Ban, T

1996-02-01

192

Analysis of the performances of an axial flow tandem pump based on CFD computations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tandem pump, compared with multistage pump, goes without guide vanes between impellers. Significant reduction of the axial geometry scale, resulting from lack of guide vanes, makes great sense to high-speed propulsion. Direct interactions between front and rear impellers may lead to special flows, which are different from those in a multistage pump. There are few studies of these differences. In this article, CFD computations of flows in an axial flow tandem pump are conducted to predict the performances. FBM turbulence model, which is introduced to commercial software, is used for the simulations. Circulation coefficient is defined to help analyze energy characteristics. The results demonstrate that power of the tandem pump increases slowly as discharge is getting larger. The tandem pump has better adaptability under large discharge conditions. The head of the rear impeller is not sensitive to discharge's change, which results from that the front impeller weakens the influence of discharge's change on the rear impeller, so pump's energy characteristics may be improved.

Zhao, Y.; Bai, Z. Y.; Zhang, M. D.; Wang, G. Y.

2012-11-01

193

The effect of gas fraction on centrifugal pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to study the multiphase flow field in M125 centrifugal pump, three-dimensional modeling was used for internal flow through three-dimensional software Pro/E. Then based on SST turbulence model combining with Rayleigh-Plesset cavitation model, and structured grid to simulate the hydraulic characteristics of volute and impeller within different gas conditions. The velocity, pressure and gas volume fraction distributions of the interior flow field of volute and impeller were obtained and analyzed, which revealed the effect of gas fractions on the flow characteristic of the centrifugal pump.

Zhu, Z. T.; Wang, Y.; Zhao, L. F.; Ning, C.; Xie, S. F.; Liu, Z. C.

2015-01-01

194

Research on design multi-points performance curves of pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The centrifugal pump's performance curves are the most important chart to reveal relevance of different performance parameters. They can show pump's function comprehensively and graphically. However these curves can't be predicted and designed precisely, duo to the complicated flow inside the impeller and the incomplete way to design pump. The complete shape of performance curves can be gained only after test. With the development of industry, many applications need the pump operating well at different flow conditions. It means the pump's performance curves should pass some specific points. This is a problem to the designer who still uses the traditional way to design pumps. In this paper, the Design of experiments was applied to arrange a plan of experiments. Because the theory equations of performance curves contain many geometry factors of impeller, changing these factors have different influence on the shape of curves, the relationship between geometry factors and the performance under different operation points been attained after using variance analysis to deal with experiment data. The relevant regression models and graphs were drawn to help understand these relationships. Depending on the predicted values of geometry factors pump's impeller was redesigned, and the pump's performance been simulated for saving time and cost. Test shows that the shape of performance curves satisfy design objective, this example can be taken as a reference of pump's specific designs.

Li, L.; Li, H.; Xu, D. H.

2012-11-01

195

Analysis of novel low specific speed pump designs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Centrifugal pumps with very low specific speed present significant design challenges. Narrow blade channels, large surface area of hub and shroud discs relative to the blade area, and the presence of significant of blade channel vortices are typical features linked with the difficulty to achieve head and efficiency requirements for such designs. This paper presents an investigation of two novel designs of very low specific speed impellers: impeller having blades with very thick trailing edges and impeller with thick trailing edges and recirculating channels, which are bored along the impeller circumference. Numerical simulations and experimental measurements were used to study the flow dynamics of those new designs. It was shown that thick trailing edges suppress local eddies in the blade channels and decrease energy dissipation due to excessive swirling. Furthermore the recirculating channels will increase the circumferential velocity component on impeller outlet thus increasing the specific energy, albeit adversely affecting the hydraulic efficiency. Analysis of the energy dissipation in the volute showed that the number of the recirculating channels, their geometry and location, all have significant impact on the magnitude of dissipated energy and its distribution which in turn influences the shape of the head curve and the stability of the pump operation. Energy dissipation within whole pump interior (blade channels, volute, rotor- stator gaps) was also studied.

Klas, R.; Pochylý, F.; Rudolf, P.

2014-12-01

196

Rotating Instability of a Centrifugal Compressor with 2-Dimensional Impeller  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated on details of flow characteristics of a compressor with 2-dimensional impeller at various flow rates. Experiment for a low speed compressor model in a water reservoir was performed to analyze the flow field in the vaneless diffuser and volute casing, which was done by PIV measurement. It was also focused on the periodic flow patterns occurring at low flow rate near unstable operating region of the compressor. At low flow rate condition, the flow visualization clearly shows that the flow energy from impeller is highly accumulated at the compressor exit by the blockage effect of a flow damper and consequently the reverse flow occurs in the diffuser.

Kang, Kyung Jun; Shin, You Hwan; Kim, Kwang Ho

2010-06-01

197

Numerical simulation of impeller-volute interaction in centrifugal compressors  

SciTech Connect

A numerical procedure to predict the impeller-volute interaction in a single-stage centrifugal compressor is presented. The method couples a three-dimensional unsteady flow calculation in the impeller with a three-dimensional time-averaged flow calculation in the volute through an iterative updating of the boundary conditions on the interface of both calculation domains. The method has been used to calculate the flow in a compressor with an external volute at off-design operation. Computed circumferential variations of flow angles, total temperature, and pressure are shown and compared with measurements. The good agreement between the predictions and measurements confirms the validity of the approach.

Hillewaert, K.; Van den Braembussche, R.A. [von Karman Inst. for Fluid Dynamics, St-Genesius-Rode (Belgium)

1999-07-01

198

Transformation of vibration signals in rotary blood pumps: the diagnostic potential of pump failure.  

PubMed

Although non-destructive and continuous monitoring is indispensable for long-term circulatory support with rotary blood pumps, a practical monitoring system has not yet been developed. The objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of detecting pump failure caused by thrombus formation through the monitoring of vibration signals. The data acquisition equipment included vibration pickups, a charge amplifier, vibration analysis systems, and exclusive hardware. A pivot-bearing centrifugal pump with a mock circuit was investigated for vibration analysis. To simulate the four common areas of thrombus formation, we used a piece of silicon attached to each of the following four locations: the total area of the bottom of the impeller, an eccentric shape on the bottom of the impeller, a circular shape around the shaft top, and an eccentric shape on the top of the impeller. Vibration signals were picked up, and the power spectrum density analysis was performed at pump rotational speeds of 2100, 2400, and 3000 rpm. In this study, pump failure could be detected, and the types of imitation thrombi could be determined. We conclude that vibration detection with a computerized analysis system is a potentially valuable diagnostic tool for long-term circulatory support with rotary blood pumps. PMID:23625149

Kawahito, Koji

2013-09-01

199

Carbon monoxide mass transfer for syngas fermentation in a stirred tank reactor with dual impeller configurations.  

PubMed

This study compares the power demand and gas-liquid volumetric mass transfer coefficient, kLa, in a stirred tank reactor (STR) (T = 0.211 m) using different impeller designs and schemes in a carbon monoxide-water system, which is applicable to synthesis gas (syngas) fermentation. Eleven different impeller schemes were tested over a range of operating conditions typically associated with the "after large cavity" region (ALC) of a Rushton-type turbine (D/T = 0.35). It is found that the dual Rushton-type impeller scheme exhibits the highest volumetric mass transfer rates for all operating conditions; however, it also displays the lowest mass transfer performance (defined as the volumetric mass transfer coefficient per unit power input) for all conditions due to its high power consumption. Dual impeller schemes with an axial flow impeller as the top impeller show improved mass transfer rates without dramatic increases in power draw. At high gas flow rates, dual impeller schemes with a lower concave impeller have kLa values similar to those of the Rushton-type dual impeller schemes but show improved mass transfer performance. It is believed that the mass transfer performance can be further enhanced for the bottom concave impeller schemes by operating at conditions beyond the ALC region defined for Rushton-type impellers because the concave impeller can handle higher gas flow rates prior to flooding. PMID:17326659

Ungerman, Andrew J; Heindel, Theodore J

2007-01-01

200

New concepts and new design of permanent maglev rotary artificial heart blood pumps.  

PubMed

According to tradition, permanent maglev cannot achieve stable equilibrium. The authors have developed, to the contrary, two stable permanent maglev impeller blood pumps. The first pump is an axially driven uni-ventricular assist pump, in which the rotor with impeller is radially supported by two passive magnetic bearings, but has one point contact with the stator axially at standstill. As the pump raises its rotating speed, the increasing hydrodynamic force of fluid acting on the impeller will make the rotor taking off from contacting point and disaffiliate from the stator. Then the rotor becomes fully suspended. The second pump is a radially driven bi-ventricular assist pump, i.e., an impeller total artificial heart. Its rotor with two impellers on both ends is supported by two passive magnetic bearings, which counteract the attractive force between rotor magnets and stator coil iron core. The rotor is affiliated to the stator radially at standstill and becomes levitated during rotation. Therefore, the rotor keeps concentric with stator during rotation but eccentric at standstill, as is confirmed by rotor position detection with Honeywell sensors. It concludes that the permanent maglev needs action of a non-magnetic force to achieve stability but a rotating magnetic levitator with high speed and large inertia can maintain its stability merely with passive magnetic bearings. PMID:16183322

Qian, K X; Zeng, P; Ru, W M; Yuan, H Y

2006-05-01

201

Estimation of changes in dynamic hydraulic force in a magnetically suspended centrifugal blood pump with transient computational fluid dynamics analysis.  

PubMed

The effect of the hydraulic force on magnetically levitated (maglev) pumps should be studied carefully to improve the suspension performance and the reliability of the pumps. A maglev centrifugal pump, developed at Ibaraki University, was modeled with 926 376 hexahedral elements for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses. The pump has a fully open six-vane impeller with a diameter of 72.5 mm. A self-bearing motor suspends the impeller in the radial direction. The maximum pressure head and flow rate were 250 mmHg and 14 l/min, respectively. First, a steady-state analysis was performed using commercial code STAR-CD to confirm the model's suitability by comparing the results with the real pump performance. Second, transient analysis was performed to estimate the hydraulic force on the levitated impeller. The impeller was rotated in steps of 1 degrees using a sliding mesh. The force around the impeller was integrated at every step. The transient analysis revealed that the direction of the radial force changed dynamically as the vane's position changed relative to the outlet port during one circulation, and the magnitude of this force was about 1 N. The current maglev pump has sufficient performance to counteract this hydraulic force. Transient CFD analysis is not only useful for observing dynamic flow conditions in a centrifugal pump but is also effective for obtaining information about the levitation dynamics of a maglev pump. PMID:19894088

Masuzawa, Toru; Ohta, Akiko; Tanaka, Nobuatu; Qian, Yi; Tsukiya, Tomonori

2009-01-01

202

Magnetically suspended centrifugal blood pump with a radial magnetic driver.  

PubMed

A new magnetic bearing has been designed to achieve a low electronic power requirement and high stiffness. The magnetic bearing consists of 1) radial passive forces between the permanent magnet ring mounted inside the impeller rotor and the electromagnet core materials in the pump casing and 2) radial active forces generated by the electromagnets using the two gap sensor signals. The magnetic bearing was assembled into a centrifugal rotary blood pump (CRBP) driven with a radial, magnetic coupled driver. The impeller vane shape was designed based upon the computational fluid dynamic simulation. The diameter and height of the CRBP were 75 mm and 50 mm, respectively. The magnetic bearing system required the power of 1.0-1.4 W. The radial impeller movement was controlled to within +/- 10 microm. High stiffness in the noncontrolled axes, Z, phi, and theta, was obtained by the passive magnetic forces. The pump flow of 5 L/min against 100 mm Hg head pressure was obtained at 1,800 rpm with the electrical to hydraulic efficiency being greater than 15%. The Normalized Index of Hemolysis (NIH) of the magnetic bearing CRBP was one fifth of the BioPump BP-80 and one half of the NIKKISO HPM-15 after 4 hours. The newly designed magnetic bearing with two degrees of freedom control in combination with optimized impeller vane was successful in achieving an excellent hemolytic performance in comparison with the clinical centrifugal blood pumps. PMID:15745136

Hoshi, Hideo; Katakoa, Kiroyuki; Ohuchi, Katsuhiro; Asama, Jun-ichi; Shinshi, Tadahiko; Shimokohbe, Akira; Takatani, Setsuo

2005-01-01

203

Influence of blade angle distribution along leading edge on cavitation performance of a centrifugal pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of blade angle distribution along leading edge on cavitation performance of centrifugal pumps is analysed in the present paper. Three sets of blade angle distribution along leading edge for three blade inlet angles are chosen to design nine centrifugal pump impellers. The RNG k-epsilon turbulence model and the Zwart-Gerber-Belamri cavitation model are employed to simulate the cavitation flows in centrifugal pumps with different impellers and the same volute. The numerical results are compared with the experimental data, and the comparison proves that the numerical simulation can accurately predict the cavitation performance of centrifugal pumps. On the basis of the numerical simulations, the pump head variations with pump inlet pressure, and the flow details in centrifugal pump are revealed to demonstrate the influence of blade angle distribution along leading edge on cavitation performances of centrifugal pumps.

Xu, Y.; Tan, L.; Cao, S. L.; Wang, Y. C.; Meng, G.; Qu, W. S.

2015-01-01

204

Suspending Insoluble Solids Waste Tanks with Shrouded Axial Impeller Mixers  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site is in the process of removing waste (sludge and salt cake) from million gallon waste tanks. The authors are conducted a test program to determine mixer requirements for suspending sludge heels using shrouded axial impeller mixers. The authors will present and discuss the data generated during the tests.

Poirier, M.R.

1998-11-09

205

SSME Investment in Turbomachinery Inducer Impeller Design Tools and Methodology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Within the rocket engine industry, SSME turbomachines are the de facto standards of success with regard to meeting aggressive performance requirements under challenging operational environments. Over the Shuttle era, SSME has invested heavily in our national inducer impeller design infrastructure. While both low and high pressure turbopump failures/anomaly resolution efforts spurred some of these investments, the SSME program was a major benefactor of key areas of turbomachinery inducer-impeller research outside of flight manifest pressures. Over the past several decades, key turbopump internal environments have been interrogated via highly instrumented hot-fire and cold-flow testing. Likewise, SSME has sponsored the advancement of time accurate and cavitating inducer impeller computation fluid dynamics (CFD) tools. These investments together have led to a better understanding of the complex internal flow fields within aggressive high performing inducers and impellers. New design tools and methodologies have evolved which intend to provide confident blade designs which strike an appropriate balance between performance and self induced load management.

Zoladz, Thomas; Mitchell, William; Lunde, Kevin

2010-01-01

206

Failure analysis of MVR (machinery vapor recompressor) impeller blade  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation studies an accident resulting from the breakdown of an MVR impeller blade. Visual, stereoscopic and, SEM examinations have been carried out to find out the causes of the MVR blade defects. The results show that failure of the MVR blade was due to material casting defects. An initial crack started from casting defects where stress intensified and then,

Tae-Gu Kim; Hong-Chul Lee

2003-01-01

207

Canned pump having a high inertia flywheel  

DOEpatents

A canned pump is described which includes a motor, impeller, shaft, and high inertia flywheel mounted within a hermetically sealed casing. The flywheel comprises a heavy metal disk made preferably of a uranium alloy with a stainless steel shell sealably enclosing the heavy metal. The outside surfaces of the stainless steel comprise thrust runners and a journal for mating with, respectively, thrust bearing shoes and radial bearing segments. The bearings prevent vibration of the pump and, simultaneously, minimize power losses normally associated with the flywheel resulting from frictionally pumping surrounding fluid. 5 figs.

Veronesi, L.; Raimondi, A.A.

1989-12-12

208

Canned pump having a high inertia flywheel  

DOEpatents

A canned pump is described which includes a motor, impeller, shaft, and high inertia flywheel mounted within a hermetically sealed casing. The flywheel comprises a heavy metal disk made preferably of a uranium alloy with a stainless steel shell sealably enclosing the heavy metal. The outside surfaces of the stainless steel comprise thrust runners and a journal for mating with, respectively, thrust bearing shoes and radial bearing segments. The bearings prevent vibration of the pump and, simultaneously, minimize power losses normally associated with the flywheel resulting from frictionally pumping surrounding fluid.

Veronesi, Luciano (O'Hara Twp., Allegheny County, PA); Raimondi, ALbert A. (Monroeville Borough, Allegheny County, PA)

1989-01-01

209

Pump station for radioactive waste water  

DOEpatents

A pump station for transferring radioactive particle containing waste water, includes: (a.) an enclosed sump having a vertically elongated right frusto conical wall surface and a bottom surface and (b.) a submersible volute centrifugal pump having a horizontally rotating impeller and a volute exterior surface. The sump interior surface, the bottom surface and the volute exterior surface are made of stainless steel having a 30 Ra or finer surface finish. A 15 Ra finish has been found to be most cost effective. The pump station is used for transferring waste water, without accumulation of radioactive fines.

Whitton, John P.; Klos, Dean M.; Carrara, Danny T.; Minno, John J.

2003-11-18

210

Effect of temperature on resonance of impellers  

E-print Network

Domain Waveform Analysis The Vibration Signal is picked up by an Accelerometer on an Oscilloscope. 3. Components of a Complex Signal 4. Campbell Diagram 5. Gas Turbine Vibration Limits-Erdman 6. Suggested Vibration Limits-Sundt 7. Nomograph... of the AStiE J 1 of ~Ef 1 o f t P 3, gears 4. pumps, fans, propellers, compressors 5. Bearings 6. unbalance in rotor 7. clearance 8. frame stiffness 9. foundation ~C1 x llibrati ~Si ~ tu Once a machine is designed and assembled, it will have its own...

Dave, Ashok M

1978-01-01

211

Viscous Buckle Folding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In order to better understand ductile deformation and the growth of folds students perform a series of experiments with readily available viscous analog materials. Students begin by exploring the concept of viscosity and viscous flow problems by using Stoke's Law to measure viscosity of corn syrup from the terminal velocity of a falling steel ball. The students then complete a second series of experiments folding a stiffer material (fruit leather) within a corn syrup matrix. By varying the thickness of the fruit leather layer they discover the linear relationship between layer thickness and dominant wavelength predicted by viscous fold theory.

Phil Resor

212

Resources Improving Pumping System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, DOE and Hydraulic  

E-print Network

Consider impeller trimming when any of the following apply: • The head provided by an oversized, throttled pump exceeds process requirements. • System bypass valves are open, indicating excess flow rate. • The pump is operating far from its design point. • The operating head and (or) flow rate are greater than process requirements.

unknown authors

213

Computational fluid dynamics analysis of the pediatric tiny centrifugal blood pump (TinyPump).  

PubMed

We have developed a tiny rotary centrifugal blood pump for the purpose of supporting circulation of children and infants. The pump is designed to provide a flow of 0.1-4.0 L/min against a head pressure of 50-120 mm Hg. The diameter of the impeller is 30 mm with six straight vanes. The impeller is supported by a hydrodynamic bearing at its center and rotated with a radial coupled magnetic driver. The bearing that supports rotation of the impeller of the tiny centrifugal blood pump is very critical to achieve durability, and clot-free and antihemolytic performance. In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed to quantify the secondary flow through the hydrodynamic bearing at the center of the impeller and investigated the effects of bearing clearance on shear stress to optimize hemolytic performance of the pump. Two types of bearing clearance (0.1 and 0.2 mm) were studied. The wall shear stress of the 0.1-mm bearing clearance was lower than that of 0.2-mm bearing clearance at 2 L/min and 3000 rpm. This was because the axial component of the shear rate significantly decreased due to the narrower clearance even though the circumferential component of the shear rate increased. Hemolysis tests showed that the normalized index of hemolysis was reduced to 0.0076 g/100 L when the bearing clearance was reduced to 0.1 mm. It was found that the CFD prediction supported the experimental trend. The CFD is a useful tool for optimization of the hydrodynamic bearing design of the centrifugal rotary blood pump to optimize the performance of the pump in terms of mechanical effect on blood cell elements, durability of the bearing, and antithrombogenic performance. PMID:16683958

Kido, Kazuyuki; Hoshi, Hideo; Watanabe, Nobuo; Kataoka, Hiroyuki; Ohuchi, Katsuhiro; Asama, Junichi; Shinshi, Tadahiko; Yoshikawa, Masaharu; Takatani, Setsuo

2006-05-01

214

Integrable viscous conservation laws  

E-print Network

We propose an extension of the Dubrovin-Zhang perturbative approach to the study of normal forms for non-Hamiltonian integrable scalar conservation laws. The explicit computation of the first few corrections leads to the conjecture that such normal forms are parameterized by one single functional parameter, named viscous central invariant. A constant valued viscous central invariant corresponds to the well-known Burgers hierarchy. The case of a linear viscous central invariant provides a viscous analog of the Camassa-Holm equation, that formerly appeared as a reduction of a two-component Hamiltonian integrable systems. We write explicitly the negative and positive hierarchy associated with this equation and prove the integrability showing that they can be mapped respectively into the heat hierarchy and its negative counterpart, named the Klein-Gordon hierarchy. A local well-posedness theorem for periodic initial data is also proven. We show how transport equations can be used to effectively construct asymptotic solutions via an extension of the quasi-Miura map that preserves the initial datum. The method is alternative to the method of the string equation for Hamiltonian conservation laws and naturally extends to the viscous case. Using these tools we derive the viscous analog of the Painlev\\'e I2 equation that describes the universal behaviour of the solution at the critical point of gradient catastrophe.

Alessandro Arsie; Paolo Lorenzoni; Antonio Moro

2014-06-25

215

Inlet and outlet devices for rotary blood pumps.  

PubMed

The purposes of inlet and outlet devices for rotary blood pumps, including inducers and diffusers for axial pumps, inlet and exit volutes for centrifugal pumps, and inlet and outlet cannulas, are to guide the blood into the impeller, where the blood is accelerated, and to convert the high kinetic energy into pressure after the impeller discharge, respectively. The designs of the inlet and outlet devices have an important bearing on the pump performance. Their designs are highly dependent on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis, guided by intuition and experience. For inlet devices, the design objectives are to eliminate separated flow, to minimize recirculation, and to equalize the radial components of velocity. For outlet devices, the design goals are to reduce speed, to minimize energy loss, and to avoid flow separation and whirl. CFD analyses indicate the velocity field and pressure distribution. Geometrical optimization of these components has been implemented in order to improve the flow pattern. PMID:15384997

Song, Xinwei; Wood, Houston G; Allaire, Paul E; Antaki, James F; Olsen, Don B

2004-10-01

216

Parametric performance evaluation of a hydraulic centrifugal pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parametric study of a hydraulic centrifugal pump with backward curved blades has been performed numerically using three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The shear stress transport turbulence model was used for analysis of turbulence. The finite volume method and an unstructured grid system were used for the numerical solution. The optimal grid system in the computational domain was selected through a grid dependency test. Tested parameters were related to the geometry of the impeller and volute: seven variables defining the hub and shroud contours and the blades angle of impeller, and two variables defining the inlet width and expansion angle of volute. The effects of these parameters on the hydrodynamic performance of the centrifugal pump have been investigated. It was found that the centrifugal water pump with the twisted blades has the enhancing efficiency compared to the straight blades pump.

Heo, M. W.; Kim, K. Y.; Ma, S. B.; Yoo, I. S.; Choi, W. C.; Kim, J. H.; Choi, Y. S.

2014-12-01

217

Probabilistic Reliability Validation of an Impeller Using DARWIN(tm)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DARWIN (Design Assessment of Reliability With INspection) is a computer program for the prediction of the probability of fracture in aircraft engine rotor disks. Its risk prediction process includes finite element analysis based stress distribution, fracture mechanics based crack growth calculations, material defect distributions and nondestructive inspection simulation. Southwest Research Institute is developing this program as part of the Turbine Rotor Material Design (TRMD) contract under FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) sponsorship. As part of the TRMD program, Honeywell is conducting failure risk prediction validation of DARWIN for hard alpha analysis using actual component experience. Specifically, the case considered herein involves a fielded impeller that has accumulated significant service cycles but has not experienced any hard alpha issues in the field. However, during routine production overspeed an impeller of this type did experience a spin-pit event due to a hard alpha inclusion. This case challenges the two extremes of risk prediction process. First, the overspeed spin-pit case will be analyzed for DARWIN validation from the standpoint of high failures per cycle (single cycle failure). Second, the same impeller will be analyzed using field conditions for DARWIN validation from the "null hypothesis" (extremely low failures per cycle) probability standpoint. Figure 1 shows the stress results for the spin-pit overspeed condition. This work presents the results of the DARWIN predicted failure risk probability and shows calibration results with both field and spin-pit experience.

Muju, Sandeep; Nelson, Rick; Lentz, Jeff

2002-10-01

218

A hydrodynamically suspended, magnetically sealed mechanically noncontact axial flow blood pump: design of a hydrodynamic bearing.  

PubMed

To overcome the drive shaft seal and bearing problem in rotary blood pumps, a hydrodynamic bearing, a magnetic fluid seal, and a brushless direct current (DC) motor were employed in an axial flow pump. This enabled contact-free rotation of the impeller without material wear. The axial flow pump consisted of a brushless DC motor, an impeller, and a guide vane. The motor rotor was directly connected to the impeller by a motor shaft. A hydrodynamic bearing was installed on the motor shaft. The motor and the hydrodynamic bearing were housed in a cylindrical casing and were waterproofed by a magnetic fluid seal, a mechanically noncontact seal. Impeller shaft displacement was measured using a laser sensor. Axial and radial displacements of the shaft were only a few micrometers for motor speed up to 8500 rpm. The shaft did not make contact with the bearing housing. A flow of 5 L/min was obtained at 8000 rpm at a pressure difference of 100 mm Hg. In conclusion, the axial flow blood pump consisting of a hydrodynamic bearing, a magnetic fluid seal, and a brushless DC motor provided contact-free rotation of the impeller without material wear. PMID:17343698

Mitamura, Yoshinori; Kido, Kazuyuki; Yano, Tetsuya; Sakota, Daisuke; Yambe, Tomoyuki; Sekine, Kazumitsu; OKamoto, Eiji

2007-03-01

219

Computational fluid dynamics analysis to establish the design process of a centrifugal blood pump: second report.  

PubMed

To establish an efficient design process for centrifugal blood pumps, the results of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis were compared to the results of flow visualization tests and hemolysis tests, using the Nikkiso centrifugal blood pump. CFD analysis revealed that the radial gap greatly affected the shear stress in the outlet diffuser. The hemolysis study also indicated a similar tendency. To see the flow behind the impeller, we conducted a comparative study between models with and without washout holes using the CFD technique. CFD analysis indicated that flow and pressure distributions behind the impeller were different between both models, and a particle was observed to remain longer behind the impeller in the model without washout holes. In the future, CFD analysis could be a useful tool for developing blood pumps in comparison to flow visualization tests and hemolysis tests. PMID:10463504

Miyazoe, Y; Sawairi, T; Ito, K; Konishi, Y; Yamane, T; Nishida, M; Asztalos, B; Masuzawa, T; Tsukiya, T; Endo, S; Taenaka, Y

1999-08-01

220

The optimization of a low specific speed pipeline pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A low specific speed pipeline pump is researched to improve work performance through several certain modifications. The target is to raise the pump's head up to 80m and increase its total efficiency to 26.5% when the volume flow rate is 6.3m3/h with a rotatory speed of 2960rpm. CFD Numerical simulation is employed to predict the hydraulic performance of the pump. The volute is redesigned and splitters are imported to change the structure of the impeller. A lot of factors are taken into account, for instance number of vanes, forms of vanes, width of the volute, shape of volute's cross section, etc. These transformations ameliorate the distribution of pressure and velocity in the impeller and volute that finally increase the pump's hydraulic efficiency. The impeller trim has also been made according to the affinity law to fatherly decrease the disc friction which causes pump's mechanical loss and then achieves the optimization goal finally. It is a practical case in low specific speed pump's optimization and conclusions given at the end may be experience in the design of this sort of device.

Zhao, A.; Wu, P.; Wu, D. Z.; Wang, L. Q.

2013-12-01

221

Split driveshaft pump for hazardous fluids  

DOEpatents

A pump having a split driveshaft for use in pumping hazardous fluids wherein only one driveshaft becomes contaminated by the fluid while the second remains isolated from the fluid. The pump has a first portion and a second portion. The first portion contains a pump motor, the first driveshaft, a support pedestal, and vapor barriers and seals. The second portion contains a second, self-lubricating driveshaft and an impeller. The first and second driveshafts are connected together by a releasable coupling. A shield and a slinger deployed below the coupling prevent fluid from the second portion from reaching the first portion. In operation, only the second assembly comes into contact with the fluid being pumped, so the risk of contamination of the first portion by the hazardous fluid is reduced. The first assembly can be removed for repairs or routine maintenance by decoupling the first and second driveshafts and disconnecting the motor from the casing.

Evans, II, Thomas P. (Aiken, SC); Purohit, Jwalit J. (Evans, GA); Fazio, John M. (Orchard Park, NY)

1995-01-01

222

Concrete volute pumps: technology review and improvement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When pumps need to deliver large water flow rates (typically more than 5 m3.s-1), concrete volute pumps (CVP) offer an interesting alternative to standard vertical wet-pit pumps. One of the major advantages of CVP is its simplicity in terms of design, manufacturability and maintainability. In addition, CVP geometrical arrangement allows to reach high performances in terms of hydraulic and mechanical behaviour. These advantages can be specifically appreciated when such pumps are used in the energy field for Power Plants which need high flow rate and reliability, and can lead to important financial savings over the Plant lifetime compared to vertical wet-pit pumps. Finally, as CVP was for a long time limited to total head rise lower than 30 mWC, it was established through CFD analysis that the addition of guide vanes between the impeller and the volute allows to achieve higher head rise without risk.

Pruničres, R.; Longatte, F.; Catelan, F. X.; Philippot, J. M.

2012-11-01

223

Feasibility of a TinyPump system for pediatric CPB, ECMO, and circulatory assistance: hydrodynamic performances of the modified pump housing for implantable TinyPump.  

PubMed

The TinyPump is a miniature centrifugal blood pump with an extremely small priming volume of 5 ml, allowing blood transfusion free cardiopulmonary bypass as well as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in pediatric patients. In this study, a new pump housing with the angled inlet port (25 degrees toward impeller center with respect to the flow axis) was designed to optimize the pump displaced volume and to extend the application of the TinyPump to implantable support The fluid dynamic performance analysis revealed that the head pressure losses increased from 3 to 17 mm Hg in comparison with straight port design as the pump rotational speed increased from 2,000 to 4,000 rpm. This was probably caused by perturbed flow patterns at the site of the inlet bent port area and streamline hitting the off-center of the impeller. No significant effect on pumping efficiency was observed because of modification in inlet port design. Modification in the inflow and outflow port designs together with the drive mechanism reduces the height of the pump system, including the motor, to 27 mm yielding the displaced volume of 68 ml in comparison with 40 mm of the paracorporeal system with the displaced volume of 105 ml. Further analysis in terms of hemolytic as well as antithrombogenic performance will be carried out to finalize the housing design for the implantable version of the TinyPump. PMID:18043159

Yokoyama, Naoyuki; Suzuki, Masaaki; Hoshi, Hideo; Ohuchi, Katsuhiro; Fujimoto, Tetsuo; Takatani, Setsuo

2007-01-01

224

Numerical analysis of the internal flow field in screw centrifugal blood pump based on CFD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As to the impeller blood pump, the high speed of the impeller, the local high shear force of the flow field and the flow dead region are the main reasons for blood damage. The screw centrifugal pump can effectively alleviate the problems of the high speed and the high shear stress for the impeller. The softness and non-destructiveness during the transfer process can effectively reduce the extent of the damage. By using CFD software, the characteristics of internal flow are analyzed in the screw centrifugal pump by exploring the distribution rules of the velocity, pressure and shear deformation rate of the blood when it flows through the impeller and the destructive effects of spiral blades on blood. The results show that: the design of magnetic levitation solves the sealing problems; the design of regurgitation holes solves the problem of the flow dead zone; the magnetic levitated microcirculation screw centrifugal pump can effectively avoid the vortex, turbulence and high shear forces generated while the blood is flowing through the pump. Since the distribution rules in the velocity field, pressure field and shear deformation rate of the blood in the blood pump are comparatively uniform and the gradient change is comparatively small, the blood damage is effectively reduced.

Han, W.; Han, B. X.; Y Wang, H.; Shen, Z. J.

2013-12-01

225

A magnetically levitated centrifugal blood pump with a simple-structured disposable pump head.  

PubMed

A magnetically levitated centrifugal blood pump (MedTech Dispo) has been developed for use in a disposable extracorporeal system. The design of the pump is intended to eliminate mechanical contact with the impeller, to facilitate a simple disposable mechanism, and to reduce the blood-heating effects that are caused by motors and magnetic bearings. The bearing rotor attached to the impeller is suspended by a two degrees-of-freedom controlled radial magnetic bearing stator, which is situated outside the rotor. In the space inside the ringlike rotor, a magnetic coupling disk is placed to rotate the rotor and to ensure that the pump head is thermally isolated from the motor. In this system, the rotor can exhibit high passive stiffness due to the novel design of the closed magnetic circuits. The disposable pump head, which has a priming volume of 23 mL, consists of top and bottom housings, an impeller, and a rotor with a diameter of 50 mm. The pump can provide a head pressure of more than 300 mm Hg against a flow of 5 L/min. The normalized index of hemolysis of the MedTech Dispo is 0.0025 +/- 0.0005 g/100 L at 5 L/min against 250 mm Hg. This is one-seventh of the equivalent figure for a Bio Pump BPX-80 (Medtronic, Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA), which has a value of 0.0170 +/- 0.0096 g/100 L. These results show that the MedTech Dispo offers high pumping performance and low blood trauma. PMID:18638307

Hijikata, Wataru; Shinshi, Tadahiko; Asama, Junichi; Li, Lichuan; Hoshi, Hideo; Takatani, Setsuo; Shimokohbe, Akira

2008-07-01

226

Viscous Cardassian universe  

E-print Network

The viscous Cardassian cosmology is discussed, assuming that there is a bulk viscosity in the cosmic fluid. The dynamical analysis indicates that there exists a singular curve in the phase diagram of viscous Cardassian model. In the viscous PL model, the equation-of-state parameter $w_{k}$ is no longer a constant and it can cross the cosmological constant divide $w_{\\Lambda}=-1$, in contrast with same problem of the ordinary PL model. Other models possess with similar characteristics. For MP and exp models, $w_{k}$ evolves more near -1 than the case without viscosity. The bulk viscosity also effect the virialization process of a collapse system in the universe: $\\frac{R_{vir}}{R_{ta}}$ is increasingly large when the bulk viscosity is increasing. In other words, the bulk viscosity retards the progress of collapse system. In addition, we fit the viscous Cardassian models to current type Ia supernovae data and give the best fit value of the model parameters including the bulk viscosity coefficient $\\tau$.

Chang-Bo Sun; Jia-Ling Wang; Xin-Zhou Li

2009-03-18

227

Viscous Hydraulic Jumps Submitted by  

E-print Network

Viscous Hydraulic Jumps Submitted by Jeffrey M. Aristoff, Jeffrey D. Leblanc, Annette E. Hosoi, and John W. M. Bush, Massachusetts Institute of Technology We examine the form of the viscous hydraulic of height 2­10 mm. Elegaard et al.1 first demonstrated that the axial symme- try of the viscous hydraulic

Bush, John W.M.

228

Numerical study of cavitation flows inside a tubular pumping station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on RNG k-epsilon turbulence model and the full cavitation model, the cavitation flows inside a low-head tubular-pump model were predicted by using the FLUENT software. For a operating case of given flow rate, cavitation happens near the inlet on the suction surfaces of the impeller blades at the initial cavitating stage, and the cavitating area spreads to the impeller passage and hub as NPSH (net positive suction head) decreases, which will affect energy transformation. For various operating cases of cavitation flows at the given flow rates, the predicted velocity and pressure distributions as well as the vapor volumetric fraction are systematically analyzed. Finally, the cavitation performance curve of the tubular-pump model is obtained by means of the further post-processing. All the comparisons and analysis can be further employed to optimize the hydraulic and structural design of the tubular pump and to guide its safe operation.

Tang, X. L.; Huang, W.; Wang, F. J.; Yang, W.; Wu, Y. L.

2012-11-01

229

Global design optimization for an axial-flow tandem pump based on surrogate method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tandem pump, compared with multistage pump, goes without guide vanes between impellers. Better cavitation performance and significant reduction of the axial geometry scale is important for high-speed propulsion. This study presents a global design optimization method based on surrogated method for an axial-flow tandem pump to enhance trade-off performances: energy and cavitation performances. At the same time, interactions between impellers and impacts on the performances are analyzed. Fixed angle of blades in impellers and phase angle are performed as design variables. Efficiency and minimum average pressure coefficient (MAPC) on axial sectional surface in front impeller are the objective function, which can represent energy and cavitation performances well. Different surrogate models are constructed, and Global Sensitivity Analysis and Pareto Front method are used. The results show that, 1) Influence from phase angle on performances can be neglected compared with other two design variables, 2) Impact ratio of fixed angle of blades in two impellers on efficiency are the same as their designed loading distributions, which is 4:6, 3) The optimization results can enhance the trade-off performances well: efficiency is improved by 0.6%, and the MAPC is improved by 4.5%.

Li, D. H.; Zhao, Y.; Y Wang, G.

2013-12-01

230

An experimental study on pump clogging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For sewage pump that various foreign substance is flowed into, anti-clogging performance is a factor as important as pump efficiency in order to avoid clogging trouble by foreign substance. Many investigations about pump inner flow and pump efficiency estimation have been carried out conventionally in order to realize coexistence with anti-clogging performance and pump performance. And these results have been reflected in construction of the running water section design method. As a index of anti-clogging performance, "impeller passage diameter" which is diameter of spherical solid that can pass through the pump is used widely. And there are various type of the sewage pump which have large impeller passage diameter. However real cause of clog is not a solid, and it is fibrous material such as towel and clothes, vinyl and paper diaper. In most case these material accumulate in the pump, so that clog is occurred. In this study, for the purpose of quantification of anti-clogging performance against fibrous materials, the factor that affect to clogging of pump was investigated by pump model test using a string. The test is done based on Taguchi method. In this test, type of the pump model, diameter of the string, material of the string, length of the string and flow rate are selected for the factor, and the effect that they have on the clogging of the pump was investigated. As a result of this test, it was made clear that length of the string has a strong influence on the clogging of the pump. And from the result of this test, evaluation method of anti-clogging performance of the pump against fibrous material by using string was considered. According to the result of above test based on Taguchi method, it was assumed that quantification of anti-clogging performance against fibrous materials is possible by flowing plural strings into the pump and calculating the probability of passing. Plurality sewage pumps of different types were evaluated based on this assumption. And It was confirmed that it is possible to compare anti clogging performance of the pump against fibrous materials quantitatively. And the specification of the string was selected according to the result of the test based on Taguchi method. By this method, one of the evaluation method on anti-clogging performance against fibrous materials was established.

Isono, M.; Nohmi, M.; Uchida, H.; Kawai, M.; Kudo, H.; Kawahara, T.; Miyagawa, K.; Saito, S.

2014-03-01

231

[A new approach for improving antithrombogenicity in centrifugal pump].  

PubMed

For long-term application of the rotary pumps, it is necessary to solve the problems of bearing wear and thrombosis along the bearing. Currently, many investigators choose the magnetic bearing to realize zero-friction and no contact between the rotor and stator; the former avoids the mechanical wear and the latter eliminates the possibility of thrombus formation. We tried and found that it is difficult to apply a magnetic bearing to rotary pump without disturbing its simplicity, reliability and implantable; therefore, we have developed a much simpler and much more creative approach to achieving the same results. Instead of the sliding bearing, a rolling bearing has been devised for the pump; its friction is about 1/15 of the sliding bearing. Furthermore, a wear-proof material of ultra-high-molecular weight polythene has been adopted in making the rollers, their anti-wear property in 8 times better than that of metal. Thereby, the service life of the bearing has extended to several years. For preventing the thrombus formation along the bearing, the impeller reciprocation axially as the impeller changes its rotating speed periodically to produce a pulsatile flow. The reciprocation is a result of the effects of a magnetic force between the motor rotor and stator, and a hydraulic force between the blood flow and the impeller. Similar to piston pump, the oscillating impeller can make the blood in and out of the bearing, resulting in wash-out once a circle. This is obviously beneficial to preventing thrombosis along the bearing and in the pump. The endurance tests with saline of this novel pump demonstrated a durability of the device. It promises to be able to assist the circulation of the patients permanently and to be able to replace the heart transplantation in the future. PMID:14565033

Qian, Kunxi; Zeng, Pei; Ru, Weimin; Yuan, Haiyu

2003-09-01

232

Numerical simulation of an axial blood pump.  

PubMed

The axial blood pump with a magnetically suspended impeller is superior to other artificial blood pumps because of its small size. In this article, the distributions of velocity, path line, pressure, and shear stress in the straightener, the rotor, and the diffuser of the axial blood pump, as well as the gap zone were obtained using the commercial software, Fluent (version 6.2). The main focus was on the flow field of the blood pump. The numerical results showed that the axial blood pump could produce 5.14 L/min of blood at 100 mm Hg through the outlet when rotating at 11,000 rpm. However, there was a leakage flow of 1.06 L/min in the gap between the rotor cylinder and the pump housing, and thus the overall flow rate the impeller could generate was 6.2 L/min. The numerical results showed that 75% of the scalar shear stresses (SSs) were less than 250 Pa, and 10% were higher than 500 Pa within the whole pump. The high SS region appeared around the blade tip where a large variation of velocity direction and magnitude was found, which might be due to the steep angle variation at the blade tip. Because the exposure time of the blood cell at the high SS region within the pump was relatively short, it might not cause serious damage to the blood cells, but the improvement of blade profile should be considered in the future design of the axial pump. PMID:17584481

Chua, Leok Poh; Su, Boyang; Lim, Tau Meng; Zhou, Tongming

2007-07-01

233

Blood Pump Bearing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus is provided for a blood pump bearing system within a pump housing to support long-term highspeed rotation of a rotor with an impeller blade having a plurality of individual magnets disposed thereon to provide a small radial air gap between the magnets and a stator of less than 0.025 inches. The bearing system may be mounted within a flow straightener, diffuser, or other pump element to support the shaft of a pump rotor. The bearing system includes a zirconia shaft having a radiused end. The radiused end has a first radius selected to be about three times greater than the radius of the zirconia shaft. The radiused end of the zirconia shaft engages a flat sapphire endstone. Due to the relative hardness of these materials a flat is quickly produced during break-in on the zirconia radiused end of precisely the size necessary to support thrust loads whereupon wear substantially ceases. Due to the selection of the first radius, the change in shaft end-play during pump break-in is limited to a total desired end-play of less than about 0.010 inches. Radial loads are supported by an olive hole ring jewel that makes near line contact around the circumference of the Ir shaft to support big speed rotation with little friction. The width of olive hole ring jewel is small to allow heat to conduct through to thereby prevent heat build-up in the bearing. A void defined by the bearing elements may fill with blood that then coagulates within the void. The coagulated blood is then conformed to the shape of the bearing surfaces.

Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor)

2000-01-01

234

Blood Pump Bearing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods and apparatus are provided for a blood pump bearing system within a pump housing to support long-term high-speed rotation of a rotor with an impeller blade having a plurality of individual magnets disposed thereon to provide a small radial air gap between the magnets and a stator of less than 0.025 inches. The bearing system may be mounted within a flow straightener, diffuser, or other pump element to support the shaft of a pump rotor. The bearing system includes a zirconia shaft having a radiused end. The radiused end has a first radius selected to be about three times greater than the radius of the zirconia shaft. The radiused end of the zirconia shaft engages a flat sapphire endstone. Due to the relative hardness of these materials a flat is quickly produced during break-in on the zirconia radiused end of precisely the size necessary to support thrust loads whereupon wear substantially ceases. Due to the selection of the first radius, the change in shaft end-play during pump break-in is limited to a total desired end-play of less than about 0.010 inches. Radial loads are supported by an olive hole ring jewel that makes near line contact around the circumference of the shaft to support high speed rotation with little friction. The width of olive hole ring jewel is small to allow heat to conduct through to thereby prevent heat build-up in the bearing. A void defined by the bearing elements may fill with blood that then coagulates within the void. The coagulated blood is then conformed to the shape of the bearing surfaces.

Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor)

1999-01-01

235

The Design of a Closed-Type-Impeller Blower for a 500kg Capacity Rotary Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blower was specifically designed to ensure a near-complete standardization in the design of EMR500. The suction conditions and other application data are used to calculate parameters such as the suction specific speed, specific speed, required shaft power, required impeller dimension and volute dimensions. The impeller was made to be of the closed type because of the level of pressure

Adekunle Taofeek Oyelami; Olawale Oluwadare Olaniyan; Dalyop Iliya; Abimbola Samson Idowu

236

Design of a Gas-Liquid Unbaffled Stirred Tank with a Concave Blade Impeller  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental investigation of unbaffled multiphase (gas-liquid) stirred tanks is conducted with the use of a concave blade impeller to analyze mass transfer, gassed power, and gas holdup. The experiments are carried out with various impeller diameter to tank diameter ratios and impeller clearances. The design criterion for the mass transfer rate is proposed, and its prediction capability is found to be satisfactory. The results show that the gassed power is dependent on the impeller diameter to tank diameter ratio and impeller clearance. The design criteria for gassed power to ungassed power ratio and gas holdup are also introduced. Multiphase modeling is done by employing the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques to observe the characteristic flow pattern transition and to carry out a qualitative analysis of the mass transfer rate.

Devi, T. T.; Kumar, Bimlesh

2015-01-01

237

Activities of the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center pump stage technology team  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to advance rocket propulsion technology, the Consortium for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Application in Propulsion Technology has been formed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The Consortium consists of three Teams: the turbine stage team, the pump stage team (PST), and the combustion devices team. The PST has formulated and is implementing a plan for pump technology development whose end product will be validated CFD codes suitable for application to pump components, test data suitable for validating CFD codes, and advanced pump components optimized using CFD codes. The PST's work during the fall of 1991 and the winter and spring of 1992 is discussed in this paper. This work is highlighted by CFD analyses of an advanced impeller design and collection of laser two-focus velocimeter data for the Space Shuttle Main Engine High Pressure Fuel Pump impeller.

Garcia, R.; Mcconnaughey, P.; Eastland, A.

1992-01-01

238

Viscous Marangoni propulsion  

E-print Network

Marangoni propulsion is a form of locomotion wherein an asymmetric release of surfactant by a body located at the surface of a liquid leads to its directed motion. We present in this paper a mathematical model for Marangoni propulsion in the viscous regime. We consider the case of a thin rigid circular disk placed at the surface of a viscous fluid and whose perimeter has a prescribed concentration of an insoluble surfactant, to which the rest of its surface is impenetrable. Assuming a linearized equation of state between surface tension and surfactant concentration, we derive analytically the surfactant, velocity and pressure fields in the asymptotic limit of low Capillary, Peclet and Reynolds numbers. We then exploit these results to calculate the Marangoni propulsion speed of the disk. Neglecting the stress contribution from Marangoni flows is seen to over-predict the propulsion speed by 50%.

Eric Lauga; Anthony M. J. Davis

2012-12-05

239

Discrete Viscous Threads  

E-print Network

We present a continuum-based discrete model for thin threads of viscous fluid by drawing upon the Rayleigh analogy to elastic rods, demonstrating canonical coiling, folding, and breakup in dynamic simulations. Our derivation emphasizes space-time symmetry, which sheds light on the role of time-parallel transport in eliminating—without approximation—all but an O(n) band of entries of the physical system’s energy Hessian. The result is a fast, unified, implicit treatment of viscous threads and elastic rods that closely reproduces a variety of fascinating physical phenomena, including hysteretic transitions between coiling regimes, competition between surface tension and gravity, and the first numerical fluidmechanical sewing machine. The novel implicit treatment also yields an order of magnitude speedup in our elastic rod dynamics.

Miklós Bergou; Basile Audoly; Etienne Vouga; Max Wardetzky; Eitan Grinspun

240

Effect of impeller design and spacing on gas exchange in a percutaneous respiratory assist catheter.  

PubMed

Providing partial respiratory assistance by removing carbon dioxide (CO2 ) can improve clinical outcomes in patients suffering from acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute respiratory distress syndrome. An intravenous respiratory assist device with a small (25 Fr) insertion diameter eliminates the complexity and potential complications associated with external blood circuitry and can be inserted by nonspecialized surgeons. The impeller percutaneous respiratory assist catheter (IPRAC) is a highly efficient CO2 removal device for percutaneous insertion to the vena cava via the right jugular or right femoral vein that utilizes an array of impellers rotating within a hollow-fiber membrane bundle to enhance gas exchange. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of new impeller designs and impeller spacing on gas exchange in the IPRAC using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and in vitro deionized water gas exchange testing. A CFD gas exchange and flow model was developed to guide a progressive impeller design process. Six impeller blade geometries were designed and tested in vitro in an IPRAC device with 2- or 10-mm axial spacing and varying numbers of blades (2-5). The maximum CO2 removal efficiency (exchange per unit surface area) achieved was 573 ± 8 mL/min/m(2) (40.1 mL/min absolute). The gas exchange rate was found to be largely independent of blade design and number of blades for the impellers tested but increased significantly (5-10%) with reduced axial spacing allowing for additional shaft impellers (23 vs. 14). CFD gas exchange predictions were within 2-13% of experimental values and accurately predicted the relative improvement with impellers at 2- versus 10-mm axial spacing. The ability of CFD simulation to accurately forecast the effects of influential design parameters suggests it can be used to identify impeller traits that profoundly affect facilitated gas exchange. PMID:24749994

Jeffries, R Garrett; Frankowski, Brian J; Burgreen, Greg W; Federspiel, William J

2014-12-01

241

Computational fluid dynamics analysis of a centrifugal blood pump with washout holes.  

PubMed

The authors studied avoidance of coagulation occurrence using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis from the fluid dynamical point of view. Concerning centrifugal pumps, blood coagulation sometimes occurs at the region behind the impeller where the flow is generally stagnant. Therefore, we conducted a thorough study with the specimen pump with and without washout holes, mocking up the Nikkiso HPM-15. As the result, the model with washout holes indicated that the fluid rotates rapidly at the vicinity of the shaft and generates washout effects near the stationary rear casing. On the other hand, the model without washout holes showed that fluid cannot be quickly shipped out of the area behind the impeller and rotates mildly around the shaft. To clarify the moving relations between the impeller and the fluid, validation studies by comparing the results of CFD analysis and flow visualization experiments are ongoing; thus far, the studies show that CFD results are similar to the results from flow visualization experiments. PMID:10971255

Tsukamoto, Y; Ito, K; Sawairi, T; Konishi, Y; Yamane, T; Nishida, M; Masuzawa, T; Tsukiya, T; Endo, S; Taenaka, Y

2000-08-01

242

Numerical calculation and optimal design of a hot water circulation pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of hot water circulation pump head shortage is common. In this paper, numerical simulation technology, combined with orthogonal experimental design, was used to research optimal designs to improve the hot water circulation pump's head. CFX software was used to calculate the flow field in the pump, and the head-flow rate curve could be achieved. The accuracy of CFD was validated through comparison between numerical and experimental data. According to the experience, the number of impeller blades, thickness and width of impeller outlet were changed to improve the hot water circulation pump's head. A three factors and level values of model pump orthogonal experiment was designed, and numerical simulation of whole flow field based on CFX was adopted to implement the orthogonal experiment. Finally, the best designed scheme for model pump was obtained. The analysis of results indicates that the head of hot water circulation pump has increased by 7.77% at rated conditions. The distribution in impellers' internal flow field is symmetrical, and accords with the law of fluids flow in the common centrifugal pump.

Zhang, H.; Y Kong, F.; Xia, B.; Tan, L. W.

2013-12-01

243

Performance analysis of mini centrifugal pump with splitter blades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design method for a mini centrifugal pump is not established because the internal flow condition for these small-sized fluid machines is not clarified and conventional theory is not suitable for small-sized pumps. Then, a semi-open impeller for the mini centrifugal pump with 55mm impeller diameter is adopted in this research to take simplicity and maintenance into consideration. Splitter blades are adopted in this research to improve the performance and internal flow condition of mini centrifugal pump having large blade outlet angle. The performance tests are conducted with these rotors in order to investigate the effect of the splitter blades on the performance and internal flow condition of the mini centrifugal pump. A three dimensional steady numerical flow analysis is conducted to analyze rotor, volute efficiency and loss caused by a vortex. It is clarified from the experimental results that the performance of the mini centrifugal pump is improved by the effect of the splitter blades. Flow condition at outlet of the rotor becomes uniform and back flow regions are suppressed in the case with the splitter blades. Further, the volute efficiency increases and the vortex loss decreases. In the present paper, the performance of the mini centrifugal pump is shown and the flow condition is clarified with the results of the experiment and the numerical flow analysis. Furthermore, the performance analyses of the mini centrifugal pumps with and without the splitter blades are conducted.

Shigemitsu, T.; Fukutomi, J.; Wada, T.; Shinohara, H.

2013-12-01

244

Physiologic analysis of cardiac cycle in an implantable impeller centrifugal left ventricular assist device.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the physiologic relationship between the cardiac cycle and the nonpulsatile impeller centrifugal Taita No.1 left ventricular assist device (T-LVAD) in a chronic animal study. The relationship of the cardiac cycle, pump flow, aortic pressure, left ventricle pressure, and pump power were analyzed by 5 phases in 4 stages. The isovolumetric ventricular phase is from mitral valve closure (MVC) to aortic valve opening (AVO) and is called Stage 1. The ejection phase is from AVO to aortic valve closure (AVC) and is called Stage 2. The isovolumetric relaxation phase is from AVC to MVC and is called Stage 3. The passive filling and atrial contraction phase is from MVC to mitral valve opening (MVO) and called Stage 4. Based on evidence from the physiologic volume change of the left ventricle, the change of pump flow of the T-LVAD in a cardiac cycle by variable voltages of pump control was evaluated using animal models. After left posteriolateral thoracotomy via the fifth intercostal space under general anesthesia, the nonpulsatile centrifugal T-LVAD was implanted into 2 healthy calves. The inflow of the T-LVAD was inserted into the left ventricle through the mitral valve via the left atrial appendage. The arterial blood pressure waveform was measured and recorded on the outflow of the T-LVAD. The 4 phases of a cardiac cycle were defined as MVC-AVO (Stage 1), AVO-AVC (Stage 2), AVC-MVO (Stage 3) and MVC-MVO (Stage 4) according to the outflow pressure of the outflow of the T-LVAD and differential pressure between the outflow and inflow of the T-LVAD. We carried out the real-time waveform measurement for electrocardiogram, the outflow pressure, the T-LVAD flow and the speed, as well as open loop and constant voltage (V). In a cardiac cycle, the sensing current of the T-LVAD was inverse to the speed. The flow of the T-LVAD at the 4 stages was measured individually and analyzed with different control voltages from 10 to 18 V. The highest flow ratio of MVC-AVC/AVC-MVC was noted when the T-LVAD worked on 14 V. By using analysis methodology of the flow ratio of a cardiac cycle, the optimal physiologically effective control of the T-LVAD might be achieved. PMID:11531711

Chou, N K; Wang, S S; Chu, S H; Chen, Y S; Lin, Y H; Chang, C J; Shyu, J J; Jan, G J

2001-08-01

245

Reaction-driven viscous fingering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental demonstration of reaction-driven viscous fingering developing when a more viscous solution of a reactant A displaces a less viscous miscible solution of another reactant B is presented. In the absence of reaction, such a displacement of one fluid by another more mobile one is classically stable. However, a simple A+B ->C reaction can destabilize this interface if the product C is either more or less viscous than both reactant solutions. Using the pH dependence of the viscosity of some polymer solutions, we provide experimental evidence of both scenarios. We demonstrate quantitatively that reactive viscous fingering results from the build-up in time of non-monotonic viscosity profiles with patterns behind or ahead of the reaction zone respectively depending on whether the product is more or less viscous than the reactants. The experimental findings are backed up by numerical simulations.

de Wit, A.; Riolfo, L. A.; Iwata, S.; Maes, R.; Trevelyan, P. M. J.; Nagatsu, Y.

2011-11-01

246

Numerical analysis of rotating stall instabilities of a pump- turbine in pump mode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rotating stall may occur at part load flow of a pump-turbine in pump mode. Unstable flow structures developing under stall condition can lead to a sudden drop of efficiency, high dynamic load and even cavitation. CFD simulations on a pump-turbine model in pump mode were carried out to reveal the onset and developed mechanisms of these unstable flow phenomena at part load. The simulation results of energy-discharge and efficiency characteristics are in good agreement with those obtained by experiments. The more deviate from design conditions with decreasing flow rate, the more flow separations within the vanes. Under specific conditions, four stationary separation zones begin to progress on the circumference, rotating at a fraction of the impeller rotation rate. Rotating stalls lead to the flow in the vane diffuser channels alternating between outward jet flow and blockage. Strong jets impact the spiral casing wall causing high pressure pulsations. Severe separations of the stall cells disturb the flow inducing periodical large amplitude pressure fluctuations, of which the intensity at different span wise of the guide vanes is different. The enforced rotating nonuniform pressure distributions on the circumference lead to dynamic uniform forces on the impeller and guide vanes. The results show that the CFD simulations are capable to gain the complicated flow structure information for analysing the unstable characteristics of the pump mode at part load.

Xia, L. S.; Cheng, Y. G.; Zhang, X. X.; Yang, J. D.

2014-12-01

247

Optimization of a continuous hybrid impeller mixer via computational fluid dynamics.  

PubMed

This paper presents the preliminary steps required for conducting experiments to obtain the optimal operating conditions of a hybrid impeller mixer and to determine the residence time distribution (RTD) using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In this paper, impeller speed and clearance parameters are examined. The hybrid impeller mixer consists of a single Rushton turbine mounted above a single pitched blade turbine (PBT). Four impeller speeds, 50, 100, 150, and 200 rpm, and four impeller clearances, 25, 50, 75, and 100 mm, were the operation variables used in this study. CFD was utilized to initially screen the parameter ranges to reduce the number of actual experiments needed. Afterward, the residence time distribution (RTD) was determined using the respective parameters. Finally, the Fluent-predicted RTD and the experimentally measured RTD were compared. The CFD investigations revealed that an impeller speed of 50 rpm and an impeller clearance of 25 mm were not viable for experimental investigations and were thus eliminated from further analyses. The determination of RTD using a k-? turbulence model was performed using CFD techniques. The multiple reference frame (MRF) was implemented and a steady state was initially achieved followed by a transient condition for RTD determination. PMID:25170524

Othman, N; Kamarudin, S K; Takriff, M S; Rosli, M I; Engku Chik, E M F; Meor Adnan, M A K

2014-01-01

248

Investigation of the hydraulic design for a high-performance centrifugal pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the hydraulic design in terms of high efficiency and good cavitation performance of centrifugal pumps for water supplies. The subject of the investigation was the centrifugal pump, which consists of a suction bend, impeller, diffuser, and discharge volute. The investigation was basically conducted using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with design of experiments (DOE) and an optimization technique. The suction bend design was implemented first to obtain a uniform flow at the impeller inlet to provide good cavitation performance. We investigated the sensitivity of each parameter value comprising the suction bend configuration for obtaining uniform flow using a parameter design technique with DOE and CFD analyses. The key parameters that enable a better flow field were estimated efficiently and the values of the parameters were adjusted to obtain the optimized configuration. On the other hand, to achieve high performance of the impeller and diffuser shape, the effect of the configuration parameter values on hydraulic loss was also examined using the parameter design based on CFD and a multi-objective optimization technique. The investigation for obtaining a shape achieving high hydraulic efficiency was made practical by taking into account the trade-off of performance characteristics, i.e., performance instability at a low flow rate and gradient of the head curve. When predicting hydraulic performance, it is important to investigate the interaction of flow between the impeller and diffuser to accurately simulate the flow field. The combined analysis of the impeller and diffuser, therefore, was implemented using unsteady flow simulation, and the results were applied to the parameter design using an optimization technique. Finally, the unsteady flow calculation of a complete pump was carried out to confirm the appropriateness of the hydraulic design. The hydraulic performance of the pump was also confirmed using a model pump test. As the result of these investigations, the hydraulic shape of a high-efficiency and high-cavitation centrifugal pump was developed.

Nagahara, T.; Okihara, T.; Torii, D.

2012-11-01

249

Numerical simulation and performance prediction in multi-stage submersible centrifugal pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to study the inner flow field of multi-stage submersible centrifugal pump, the model named QD3-60/4-1.1 was selected. Steady turbulence characteristics of impellers, diffusers and return channel were calculated by Fluent software, the SIMPLEC algorithm and RNG ?-? turbulence model with sliding mesh technology. Then, the distributions of pressure, velocity and Turbulence kinetic energy was obtained and the distributions of velocity field of a channel were analysed. The results show that the static pressure in impeller is increasing with the increasing of radius. The circumferential component of relative velocity is in the opposite direction of impeller rotating. At the same radius, the component value of pressure surface is larger than suction surface. With the increasing of flow rate, absolute velocity and relative velocity flow angle are becoming small, in opposite of the relative velocity and absolute velocity flow angle. The high turbulent zone of impeller is located in the gap of impellers and diffusers. Flow similarity and structure similarity of the multi-stage submersible pump are confirmed.

Wang, W. J.; Li, G. D.; Wang, Y.; Cui, Y. R.; Yin, G.; Peng, S.

2013-12-01

250

Teflon lined process pumps save over $25,000/yr in acid regeneration plant  

SciTech Connect

Armco's Eastern Steel Division Works in Ashland, KY includes an acid regeneration plant that uses the spray/roaster process to recover hydrochloric acid and high purity iron oxides from spent pickling liquor. Two centrifugal pumps, one operating and one on standby, were used to pump the corrosive and erosive mixture at 175-200/sup 0/F to the spray nozzles in the roaster. The impeller, casing and other wetted parts were of an acid resistant exotic metal, but the pumps had a service life of only 2 to 3 months. The impellers had to be replaced after about six weeks because of wear that reduced the discharge pressure and impaired the performance of the spray nozzles. Maintaining the pumps and replacing them several times a year was extremely expensive, since each pump cost about $6000. A 3 X 1 1/2 X 8 1/2'' centrifugal pump specifically designed for severe corrosive service was installed on a trial basis in February 1980. The process pump is built to AVS standards and features a 3/16'' thick fluoropolymer liner molded in place to the ductile iron case, and a fully open faced ductile iron impeller encapsulated with fluoropolymer. The pumps have been available for a number of years with liners and impeller coverings of Du Pont's Teflon-FEP fluorocarbon, and the acid regenerating plant has been using them in various corrosive applications since the startup in 1972. The acid regeneration plant is very pleased with the trouble-free performance of the Teflon-FEP lined pumps. They are reliable, essentially maintenance free, and maintain the discharge pressures required for efficient operation of the spray nozzles.

Ross, L. (Armco, Inc., Ashland, KY); Gaines, A.

1982-03-01

251

Relativistic Viscous Universe Models  

E-print Network

The research on relativistic universe models with viscous fluids is reviewed. Viscosity may have been of significance during the early inflationary era, and may also be of importance for the late time evolution of the Universe. Bulk viscosity and shear viscosity cause exponential decay of anisotropy, while nonlinear viscosity causes power-law decay of anisotropy. We consider also the influence from turbulence, in connection with future singularities of the universe (Big Rip and Little Rip). Finally, we review some recent developments of causal cosmology theories.

Iver Brevik; Řyvind Grřn

2014-09-30

252

Counter-rotating type pump-turbine unit cooperating with wind power unit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This serial research proposes the hybrid power system combined the wind power unit with the counter-rotating type pump-turbine unit, to provide the constant output for the grid system, even at the suddenly fluctuating/turbulent wind. In this paper, the tandem impellers of the counter-rotating type pumping unit was operated at the turbine mode, and the performances and the flow conditions were investigated numerically and experimentally. The 3-D turbulent flows in the runners were simulated at the steady state condition by using the commercial CFD code of ANSYS-CFX ver.12 with the SST turbulence model. While providing the pump unit for the turbine mode, the maximum hydraulic efficiency is close to one of the counter-rotating type hydroelectric unit designed exclusively for the turbine mode. Besides, the runner/impeller of the unit works evidently so as to coincide the angular momentum change through the front runners/impellers with that through the rear runners/impellers, namely to take the axial flow at not only the inlet but also the outlet without the guide vanes. These results show that this type of unit is effective to work at not only the pumping but also the turbine modes.

Murakami, Tengen; Kanemoto, Toshiaki

2013-02-01

253

Investigation of component failures in downhole geothermal pumping systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This study investigated component failures in electric, downhole submersible pumps which prevented the attainment of one year continuous downhole running times in geothermal wells at temperatures up to 375/sup 0/F. The feasibility of a pressurized motor to prevent brine intrusion was investigated, as well as improved pothead and packoff designs, and brine scale buildup on impeller sleeve bearings and thrust washers. (ACR)

Werner, D.K.

1985-03-15

254

The analysis of unsteady characteristics in the low specific speed centrifugal pump with drainage gaps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gap drainage impeller is a new structure of impeller which is based on the idea of flow control, and it has been validated in experiments that this structure can increase the pump efficiency. The purpose of this paper is to explore a valid numerical analysis method for the simulation of low specific speed centrifugal pump, and then investigate the unsteady characteristics of the gap drainage impeller pump. The internal flow numerical simulations were done at multi-flow rates, and the calculated results were analyzed based on comparison with the experimental data of hydraulic performance, pressure pulsation and vibration acceleration. It was confirmed that: the results from the simulation tend to agree well with the experiments; the unsteady method is generally superior to the steady method in computing robustness and prediction accuracy at partial flow rates; the wall friction and clearance leakage should be considered in the performance prediction of the low specific centrifugal pump; the frequency spectra of pressure fluctuation is mainly controlled by the rotor-stator interaction, and the overall energy of pressure fluctuation and vibration is increased in part-load working conditions, especially at large flow rates; the pressure pulsation and the impeller radial fluid force are uneven in circumference, and they propagate in the opposite direction of the shaft rotating; however, the calculation error is considerable when comparing with experiments, and the reasons for which should be researched furthermore.

Zhu, B.; Chen, H. X.; Wei, Q.; Zhang, R.

2012-11-01

255

Fluid dynamic characteristics of the VentrAssist rotary blood pump.  

PubMed

The VentrAssist pump has no shaft or seal, and the device is unique in design because the rotor is suspended passively by hydrodynamic forces, and urging is accomplished by an integrated direct current motor rotor that also acts as the pump impeller. This device has led to many challenges in its fluidic design, namely large flow-blockage from impeller blades, low stiffness of bearings with concomitant impeller displacement under pulsatile load conditions, and very small running clearances. Low specific speed and radial blade off-flow were selected in order to minimize the hemolysis. Pulsatile and steady-flow tests show the impeller is stable under normal operating conditions. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used to optimize flow paths and reduce net axial force imbalance to acceptably small values. The latest design of the pump achieved a system efficiency of 18% (in 30% hematocrit of red blood cells suspended in phosphate-buffered saline), and efficiency was optimized over the range of operating conditions. Parameters critical to improving pump efficiency were investigated. PMID:10886070

Tansley, G; Vidakovic, S; Reizes, J

2000-06-01

256

Rotordynamic forces acting on a centrifugal open impeller in whirling motion by using active magnetic bearing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rotordynamic forces acting on a centrifugal open impeller of a rocket engine turbopump were measured using a rotordynamic test stand controlled by active magnetic bearings. The tangential rotordynamic force ft had a small constantly negative value in the measured range. The direct stiffness K had a positive value under various test conditions. In general, direct stiffness K of a closed impeller had a negative value because of the Bernoulli effect. In the case of open impellers, the Bernoulli effect is speculated to be smaller because the absence of a front shroud makes K positive.

Nagao, N.; Eguchi, M.; Uchiumi, M.; Yoshida, Y.

2013-03-01

257

Development of a portable bridge-to-decision blood pump.  

PubMed

We are developing an axial-flow pump with a cylindrical-impeller without airfoils. In the mock experiments of HA02 model a pressure of 13.3 kPa was obtained at a rotational speed of 12500 rpm and flow of 5L/min. The obtained pressure with HA02 was almost double than an airfoil-type impeller. The 2D analysis of hydrodynamic bearings for the pump revealed that a section with 3 or more arcs is stable with respect to angular position, and a minimum bearing gap of 100 µm can be attained at a design bearing gap of 150 µm and at a groove depth of 100 µm. PMID:24110291

Yamane, T; Kitamura, K

2013-01-01

258

Development of a liquid hydrogen transfer pump system with MgB2 wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An electric pump composed of an MgB2 motor is combined with superconducting level sensors using thin CuNi-sheathed MgB2 wires to transfer liquid hydrogen. An impeller is attached to the lower end of a rotating shaft on the MgB2 motor and covered with an outer casing to form a centrifugal pump. Then, the MgB2 motor and impeller are placed vertically inside a cryostat with an infill of liquid hydrogen. A glass Dewar vessel is prepared to receive the liquid hydrogen transferred from the cryostat containing the MgB2 motor. The MgB2 sensors are used not only to detect the level of liquid hydrogen but also to control the electric pump on the basis of their pre-estimated calibration curves. By using the assembled pump system, the liquid hydrogen is successfully transferred from the cryostat to the glass Dewar vessel via a transfer tube.

Kajikawa, Kazuhiro; Kuga, Hirotsugu; Inoue, Takuro; Watanabe, Kazuki; Uchida, Yushi; Nakamura, Taketsune; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Hongo, Motoyuki; Kojima, Takayuki; Taguchi, Hideyuki; Naruo, Yoshihiro; Wakuda, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Kazuhide

259

A sealless centrifugal blood pump with passive magnetic and hydrodynamic bearings.  

PubMed

We are developing a permanently implantable ventricular assist system based on a sealless centrifugal blood pump. The impeller of the pump is supported by a passive radial magnetic bearing acting in synergy with hydrodynamic bearings. Torque is transmitted to the impeller by electromagnetic coupling via an integrated axial flux gap motor. Computer modeling has been used extensively to guide the hydraulic and electromagnetic design of the pump. As part of the development effort, a prototype system was built, which consisted of a radial magnetic bearing, an axial air gap motor, and a pivot bearing to constrain the axial motion. The following testing has been completed to validate the design. First, hydraulic tests have demonstrated sufficient hydraulic performance. Second, preliminary in vitro evaluation of hemolysis was low compared to that of a BioPump control. Third, a 6 h in vivo experiment was successfully completed. PMID:10463507

Wampler, R; Lancisi, D; Indravudh, V; Gauthier, R; Fine, R

1999-08-01

260

Micropump for viscous liquids and muds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work was focused on the development of a micropump that allows the transport of fluids with high viscosities or fluids containing pigments in a large amount. This new pump should be produced by means of silicon micromachining technologies. Due to adhesion forces as well as sedimentation processes the transport of highly viscous and particle loaded fluids is a difficult problem. Dead volumes must be surely avoided in the pump because they are preferred regions of adhesion and sedimentation, respectively. The developed micropump is nearly free of dead volumes. It consists of silicon chips and a PTFE-membrane bonded together without real gluing procedures. The silicon chips contain deep etched structures manufactured by simple wet chemical etching procedures. Pressure on the liquid can be generated inside the structures by pushing the elastic membrane. A pneumatic drive was used to deflect the membranes. In a peristaltic mode it was possible to pump liquids like honey or mustard with a noticeable flow rat up to 0.6 ml/min without any back flow.

Schwesinger, Norbert; Bechtel, Sasha

1998-09-01

261

Ultrasonic testing method for welds in natural-gas compressor impellers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research results were used to develop a high-productivity ultrasonic testing method for welds in natural-gas compressor impellers. Linear one-pass scanning was developed to improve the testing productivity.

N. G. Shmelev; Yu. G. Kazyulya

1985-01-01

262

Forced response of a centrifugal compressor stage due to the impeller-diffuser interaction  

E-print Network

The unsteady pressure field experienced by a centrifugal compressor stage can be dominated by of the impeller-diffuser interaction. The energy of the unsteady field, under certain aerodynamic and structural conditions, is ...

Walton, Edward James

2014-01-01

263

The role of impeller outflow conditions on the performance and stability of airfoil vaned radial diffusers  

E-print Network

This thesis quantifies the relative importance of the impeller outflow angle, Mach number, non-uniformity and unsteadiness on diffuser performance, through diffuser experiments in a compressor stage and in a swirling flow ...

Everitt, Jonathan (Jonathan Neil)

2014-01-01

264

Characterization of unsteady loading due to impeller-diffuser interaction in centrifugal compressors  

E-print Network

Time dependent simulations are used to characterize the unsteady impeller blade loading due to imipeller-diffuser interaction in centrifugal compressor stages. The capability of simulations are assessed by comparing results ...

Lusardi, Christopher (Christopher Dean)

2012-01-01

265

Effects of curvature and rotation on turbulence in the NASA low-speed centrifugal compressor impeller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flow in the NASA Low-Speed Impeller is affected by both curvature and rotation. The flow curves due to the following: (1) geometric curvature, e.g. the curvature of the hub and shroud profiles in the meridional plane and the curvature of the backswept impeller blades; and (2) secondary flow vortices, e.g. the tip leakage vortex. Changes in the turbulence and effective turbulent viscosity in the impeller are investigated. The effects of these changes on three-dimensional flow development are discussed. Two predictions of the flow in the impeller, one with, and one without modification to the turbulent viscosity due to rotation and curvature, are compared. Some experimental and theoretical background for the modified mixing length model of turbulent viscosity will also be presented.

Moore, Joan G.; Moore, John

1992-01-01

266

Pump impeller-shroud leakage path forces: their effect on a Jeffcott rotor  

E-print Network

Verification SUMMARY AND EXTENSIONS . REFERENCES Page tv v 1 3 13 15 15 17 17 21 23 23 27 29 30 30 34 34 37 45 48 50 LIST OF FIGURES Figure l. Figure 2. Figure 3. a. Figure 3. b. Figure 4. Page Typical single...% of shaft speed and a 12. 5% reduction in direct damping, 43 LIST OF TABLES Table l. a. Table l. b. Table 2. Table 3. Table 4. Coefficients for one wear ring seal. Wear zing seal flow parameters. Approximating coefficients for one leakage path...

Williams, James Philip

1988-01-01

267

Cavitation improvement of double suction centrifugal pump HPP Fuhren  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A double suction storage pump has been refurbished because of the strong cavitation which resulted in cavitation damage on blade and consequently in frequent repairs of the impeller. The analyses of the old and the new impeller were done by the computational fluid dynamics (CFD), performing transient simulations with the commercial solver Ansys CFX. In the simulations, the scale-adaptive-simulation with the curvature correction (SAS-CC) turbulence model was used. No model tests were carried out. Additionally, observations with the digital camera were made through the specially designed plexi-glass window, mounted at the lid at the suction side. The predicted pump head at the operating point agrees well with the pump characteristics measurements, performed with the direct thermodynamic method. The extent of the cavitation predicted by CFD is smaller than the observed one because the cloud cavitation was not predicted. The observations of the cavitation extent show that the impeller design is better than the old one, which was also possible to anticipate based on the CFD results.

Škerlavaj, A.; Titzschkau, M.; Pavlin, R.; Vehar, F.; Mežnar, P.; Lipej, A.

2012-11-01

268

Theoretical analysis of incompressible flow through a radial-inlet centrifugal impeller at various weight flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for the solution of the incompressible nonviscous flow through a centrifugal impeller, including the inlet region, is presented. Several numerical solutions are obtained for four weight flows through an impeller at one operating speed. These solutions are refined in the leading-edge region. The results are presented in a series of figures showing streamlines and relative velocity contours. A comparison is made with the results obtained by using a rapid approximate method of analysis.

Kramer, James J; Prian, Vasily D; Wu, Chung-Hua

1956-01-01

269

Weldability of 17-4 PH stainless steel in centrifugal compressor impeller applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weldability of 17-4 PH stainless steel for centrifugal compressor impeller was considered. Welding tests were carried out on the precipitation-hardened steel of the 17-4 PH type. Possibilities of joining centrifugal compressor impeller parts as important elements of turbo machines were considered. Two means of welding (111) and (114), as well as following heat treatment have been considered. The best results:

J. Nowacki

2004-01-01

270

Skylab viscous damper study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proposed magnetically anchored viscous fluid damper can maintain the Skylab in a gravity-gradient stabilized mode at the anticipated reboost altitudes. The parameters influencing damper performance (and thereby affecting the degree of risk) are: (1) amount of skylab pitch bias in the orbit plane which will result from aerodynamic trim conditions of the post-reboost configuration Skylab; (2) the lowest altitude to which the post-reboost Skylab will be allowed to decay prior to the next rendezvous; (3) maximum allowable weight and size of the proposed damper in order to match shuttle/TRS mission constraints; (4) the amount of magnetic materials expected to be in the vicinity of the damper.

1978-01-01

271

Variable Speed Pumping for Level Control  

E-print Network

choose a standard Goulds Model 3196 centrifugal pump. Our design point of 131 TDH at 125 GPM flow dictates the use of an 11-1/2 inch impeller, with a resulting efficiency of 50%. Standard design practice would indicate a 15 HP motor requirement... in the control room. Since ambient temperature around the inverters must be kept below 105?F, we installed muffin fans to circulate air past each unit's cooling fins and out of the panel. Rod-operated disconnect switches were mounted on the panel door...

Vasel, M.

1982-01-01

272

Reduced-order modeling for mistuned centrifugal impellers with crack damages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An efficient method for nonlinear vibration analysis of mistuned centrifugal impellers with crack damages is presented. The main objective is to investigate the effects of mistuning and cracks on the vibration features of centrifugal impellers and to explore effective techniques for crack detection. Firstly, in order to reduce the input information needed for component mode synthesis (CMS), the whole model of an impeller is obtained by rotation transformation based on the finite element model of a sector model. Then, a hybrid-interface method of CMS is employed to generate a reduced-order model (ROM) for the cracked impeller. The degrees of freedom on the crack surfaces are retained in the ROM to simulate the crack breathing effects. A novel approach for computing the inversion of large sparse matrix is proposed to save memory space during model order reduction by partitioning the matrix into many smaller blocks. Moreover, to investigate the effects of mistuning and cracks on the resonant frequencies, the bilinear frequency approximation is used to estimate the resonant frequencies of the mistuned impeller with a crack. Additionally, statistical analysis is performed using the Monte Carlo simulation to study the statistical characteristics of the resonant frequencies versus crack length at different mistuning levels. The results show that the most significant effect of mistuning and cracks on the vibration response is the shift and split of the two resonant frequencies with the same nodal diameters. Finally, potential quantitative indicators for detection of crack of centrifugal impellers are discussed.

Wang, Shuai; Zi, Yanyang; Li, Bing; Zhang, Chunlin; He, Zhengjia

2014-12-01

273

Use of CFD Analyses to Predict Disk Friction Loss of Centrifugal Compressor Impellers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve the total efficiency of centrifugal compressors, it is necessary to reduce disk friction loss, which is expressed as the power loss. In this study, to reduce the disk friction loss due to the effect of axial clearance and surface roughness is analyzed and methods to reduce disk friction loss are proposed. The rotating reference frame technique using a commercial CFD tool (FLUENT) is used for steady-state analysis of the centrifugal compressor. Numerical results of the CFD analysis are compared with theoretical results using established experimental empirical equations. The disk friction loss of the impeller is decreased in line with increments in axial clearance until the axial clearance between the impeller disk and the casing is smaller than the boundary layer thickness. In addition, the disk friction loss of the impeller is increased in line with the increments in surface roughness in a similar pattern as that of existing experimental empirical formulas. The disk friction loss of the impeller is more affected by the surface roughness than the change of the axial clearance. To minimize disk friction loss on the centrifugal compressor impeller, the axial clearance and the theoretical boundary layer thickness should be designed to be the same. The design of the impeller requires careful consideration in order to optimize axial clearance and minimize surface roughness.

Cho, Leesang; Lee, Seawook; Cho, Jinsoo

274

Hydraulic design and performance analysis of low specific speed centrifugal pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since low specific speed centrifugal pump with long narrow flow divergent channels has positive slope of head-capacity characteristic curve, low flow rate instability and high flow rate power overload, special events about its hydraulic design are still under study. This paper demonstrates a method for hydraulic design of low specific speed centrifugal pump complex impeller (with splitter blades) which is based on 2D flow theory. In this method, obtain the basic geometry parameters by empirical correlation, adjust impeller profile according to given flow cross section area distribution and wrapping angles distribution, relate the position of splitter blades to slip factor. Based on this method, low specific speed centrifugal pump impellers have been designed using the same design parameters (Head, Capacity, Rotation Speed, etc) with different factors. And 3D turbulent flow fields in design pumps have been solved by using RANS equations with RNG k-epsilon turbulence model. The investigation to the effects of different splitter blades on velocity distributions and pressure distributions along the flow channels and hydraulic performance of centrifugal pumps are presented. The result shows that properly placed splitter blades by choosing suitable design factors will improve the flow in the pump and enhance the hydraulic performance of it.

Zhou, X.; Zhang, Y. X.; Ji, Z. L.; Chen, L.

2012-11-01

275

INVESTIGATION OF HYDRAULIC PROBLEMS IN PUMPING STATION; CASE STUDY  

E-print Network

Pumping stations play an important role in agriculture development projects. Performance of the pumping stations should satisfy water requirements, and management. There are many problems face these pumping stations affecting their reliability and stability. Hydraulic problems are the most important item in the field of pumping station operation and design. Motivation of this research was presence of wear and pitting impellers and casing of double suction volute casing centrifugal pumps for Ahmed Orabee Pumping Station. Vibration level, hydraulic performance test and visual inspection of impeller wear and pitting show that cavitation problem is the cause of damage. Cavitation normally occurs when liquid at a constant temperature is subjected to vapor pressure either by static or dynamic means. If the local pressure somewhere in the fluid drops to or below vapor pressure and nuclei are present, vapor cavities can be formed. As long as the local pressure stays at vapor pressure and cavity has reached a critical diameter, it will continue to grow rapidly. If the surrounding pressure is above vapor pressure, the bubbles become unstable and collapse. The

M. A. Younes

276

Effect of the collector tube profile on Pitot pump performances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pitot pump is composed of the rotating casing with the impeller channel and the pitot tube type collector as the discharge line. The radial impeller feeds water to the rotating casing. The water rotating together with the casing is caught by the stationary pitot tube type collector, and then discharges to the outside. This type pump, as the extra high head pump, is provided mainly for boiler feed systems, and has been designed by trial and error. To optimize the pump profiles, it is desirable to investigate not only performances but also internal flow conditions. This paper discusses experimentally and numerically the relation between the pump performances and the flow conditions in the rotating casing. The moderately larger dimensions of the collector make the pump head and the discharge high with the higher hydraulic efficiency. The flow in the casing is almost the forced vortex type whose velocity is in proportion to the radius but the core velocity is affected with the drag force of the stationary collector. Based upon the above results, the profile of the pitot tube type collector was optimized with the numerical simulation.

Komaki, K.; Kanemoto, T.; Sagara, K.; Umekage, T.

2013-12-01

277

Modeling and control of a magnetic bearing system for the magnetically suspended centrifugal blood pump.  

PubMed

We have developed a centrifugal blood pump with a magnetically suspended impeller to reduce the hemolysis level for long-term use. The main advance we have made was simplifying the traditional 5 axes controlled magnetic bearing system, since the total device should ultimately be small enough to implant into a human body. A simplified magnetic bearing system with only 3 actively controlled axes was designed to levitate the impeller. The state equations of the magnetic bearing plant were established using Lagrange's methods, and using the results, a linear quadratic optimal controller was designed to regulate the position of the impeller. Flow rate and differential pressure of 5L/min and 300 mmHg, respectively at a motor speed of 2750 rpm was achieved from a mock circulation setup. These results show satisfactory performance as a cardiopulmonary bypass device. The lowering of pumping efficiency as the clearance between the impeller and pump housing increased was negligible. Thus for power efficiency, the smallest gap not leading to a hemolysis level rise can be determined as a feasible operation clearance. PMID:11075899

Kim, H; Kim, H C

2000-10-01

278

Investigation of the washout effect in a magnetically driven axial blood pump.  

PubMed

For a long-term implementation of the magnetically driven CircuLite blood pump system, it is extremely important to be able to ensure a minimum washout flow in order to avoid dangerous stagnation regions in the gap between the impeller and the motor casing as well as near the pivot-axle area at the holes in the impeller's hub. In general, stagnation zones are prone to thrombus formation. Here, the optimal impeller/motor gap width will be determined and the washout flow for different working conditions will be quantitatively calculated. The driving force for this secondary flow is mainly the strong pressure difference between both ends of the gap. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) will be used for this analysis. PMID:18959666

Triep, Michael; Brücker, Christoph; Kerkhoffs, Wolfgang; Schumacher, Oliver; Marseille, Oliver

2008-10-01

279

Development of a locally mass flux conservative computer code for calculating 3-D viscous flow in turbomachines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The VANS successive approximation numerical method was extended to the computation of three dimensional, viscous, transonic flows in turbomachines. A cross-sectional computer code, which conserves mass flux at each point of the cross-sectional surface of computation was developed. In the VANS numerical method, the cross-sectional computation follows a blade-to-blade calculation. Numerical calculations were made for an axial annular turbine cascade and a transonic, centrifugal impeller with splitter vanes. The subsonic turbine cascade computation was generated in blade-to-blade surface to evaluate the accuracy of the blade-to-blade mode of marching. Calculated blade pressures at the hub, mid, and tip radii of the cascade agreed with corresponding measurements. The transonic impeller computation was conducted to test the newly developed locally mass flux conservative cross-sectional computer code. Both blade-to-blade and cross sectional modes of calculation were implemented for this problem. A triplet point shock structure was computed in the inducer region of the impeller. In addition, time-averaged shroud static pressures generally agreed with measured shroud pressures. It is concluded that the blade-to-blade computation produces a useful engineering flow field in regions of subsonic relative flow; and cross-sectional computation, with a locally mass flux conservative continuity equation, is required to compute the shock waves in regions of supersonic relative flow.

Walitt, L.

1982-01-01

280

Numerical investigation of unsteady turbulent flow in a centrifugal pump at partial load  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unsteady non-cavitation and cavitation turbulent flows in a centrifugal pump at partial load condition are numerically investigated by CFX 13.0. The numerical framework employs the combination of RNG k-? turbulence model and transport equation cavitation model, in which the effects of compressibility of fluid on cavitation region and pressure fluctuation on saturation pressure are both taken into consideration. The good agreement between the numerical and experimental values validates that the numerical framework can accurately predict the turbulent flows in the centrifugal pump. The complex flow characteristics in impeller at non-cavitation and cavitation conditions are revealed. For the noncavitation flow, the dominant frequencies of pressure fluctuation of monitoring points in impeller are all the Impeller Rotation Frequency 24.17Hz. The maximum value of pressure fluctuation on the blade pressure side appears at the 0.8 chord length from the blade leading edge due to a clockwise rotating vortex, which incepts, develops and disappears when the corresponding blade passes through the volute tongue. The dominant frequencies of pressure fluctuation of monitoring points in volute are the Blade Pass Frequency 145 Hz or twice of it. The maximum value of pressure fluctuation in the volute appears near the tongue region, where the flow fields are uneven with strong second flow in the cross section. For the cavitation flow, as the cavitation develops at the blade leading edge, the turbulent flows in the impeller are greatly influenced by the bubble shedding and collapse. The maximum values of pressure fluctuation in impeller increase with the development of cavitation, and reach the largest magnification of about 2.0 in comparison to the non-cavitation flow when the pressure at the pump inlet is very low. The complicated phenomenon of unsteady turbulent flow in a centrifugal pump indicates that the vortex has great influence on the flow pattern.

Lei, T.; Baoshan, Z.; ShuLiang, C.; Yuchuan, W.; Xuhe, W.

2014-12-01

281

Viscous dark fluid universe  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the cosmological perturbation dynamics for a universe consisting of pressureless baryonic matter and a viscous fluid, the latter representing a unified model of the dark sector. In the homogeneous and isotropic background the total energy density of this mixture behaves as a generalized Chaplygin gas. The perturbations of this energy density are intrinsically nonadiabatic and source relative entropy perturbations. The resulting baryonic matter power spectrum is shown to be compatible with the 2dFGRS and SDSS (DR7) data. A joint statistical analysis, using also Hubble-function and supernovae Ia data, shows that, different from other studies, there exists a maximum in the probability distribution for a negative present value q{sub 0{approx_equal}}-0.53 of the deceleration parameter. Moreover, while previous descriptions on the basis of generalized Chaplygin-gas models were incompatible with the matter power-spectrum data since they required a much too large amount of pressureless matter, the unified model presented here favors a matter content that is of the order of the baryonic matter abundance suggested by big-bang nucleosynthesis.

Hipolito-Ricaldi, W. S. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Departamento de Ciencias Matematicas e Naturais, CEUNES, Rodovia BR 101 Norte, km. 60, CEP 29932-540, Sao Mateus, Espirito Santo (Brazil); Velten, H. E. S.; Zimdahl, W. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Departamento de Fisica, Av. Fernando Ferrari, 514, Campus de Goiabeiras, CEP 29075-910, Vitoria, Espirito Santo (Brazil)

2010-09-15

282

Inducer analysis/pump model development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current design of high performance turbopumps for rocket engines requires effective and robust analytical tools to provide design information in a productive manner. The main goal of this study was to develop a robust and effective computational fluid dynamics (CFD) pump model for general turbopump design and analysis applications. A finite difference Navier-Stokes flow solver, FDNS, which includes an extended k-epsilon turbulence model and appropriate moving zonal interface boundary conditions, was developed to analyze turbulent flows in turbomachinery devices. In the present study, three key components of the turbopump, the inducer, impeller, and diffuser, were investigated by the proposed pump model, and the numerical results were benchmarked by the experimental data provided by Rocketdyne. For the numerical calculation of inducer flows with tip clearance, the turbulence model and grid spacing are very important. Meanwhile, the development of the cross-stream secondary flow, generated by curved blade passage and the flow through tip leakage, has a strong effect on the inducer flow. Hence, the prediction of the inducer performance critically depends on whether the numerical scheme of the pump model can simulate the secondary flow pattern accurately or not. The impeller and diffuser, however, are dominated by pressure-driven flows such that the effects of turbulence model and grid spacing (except near leading and trailing edges of blades) are less sensitive. The present CFD pump model has been proved to be an efficient and robust analytical tool for pump design due to its very compact numerical structure (requiring small memory), fast turnaround computing time, and versatility for different geometries.

Cheng, Gary C.

1994-01-01

283

Cryogenic Viscous Compressor Development and Modeling for the ITER Vacuum System  

SciTech Connect

The ITER vacuum system requires a roughing pump system that can pump the exhaust gas from the torus cryopumps to the tritium exhaust processing plant. The gas will have a high tritium content and therefore conventional vacuum pumps are not suitable. A pump called a cryogenic viscous compressor (CVC) is being designed for the roughing system to pump from ~500 Pa to 10 Pa at flow rates of 200 Pa-m3/ s. A unique feature of this pump is that is allows any helium in the gas to flow through the pump where it is sent to the detritiation system before exhausting to atmosphere. A small scale prototype of the CVC is being tested for heat transfer characteristics and compared to modeling results to ensure reliable operation of the full scale CVC. Keywords- ITER; vacuum; fuel cycle

Baylor, Larry R [ORNL; Meitner, Steven J [ORNL; Barbier, Charlotte N [ORNL; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL; Edgemon, Timothy D [ORNL; Rasmussen, David A [ORNL; Hechler, Michael P [ORNL; Kersevan, R. [ITER Organization, Cadarache, France; Dremel, M. [General Atomics, San Diego; Pearce, R.J.H. [General Atomics, San Diego; Boissin, Jean Claude [Consultant

2011-01-01

284

Counter-rotating type axial flow pump unit in turbine mode for micro grid system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional type pumped storage system contributes to adjust the electric power unbalance between day and night, in general. This serial research proposes the hybrid power system combined the wind power unit with the pump-turbine unit, to provide the constant output for the grid system, even at the suddenly fluctuating/turbulent wind. In the pumping mode, the pump should operate unsteadily at not only the normal but also the partial discharge. The operation may be unstable in the rising portion of the head characteristics at the lower discharge, and/or bring the cavitation at the low suction head. To simultaneously overcome both weak points, the authors have proposed a superior pump unit that is composed of counter-rotating type impellers and a peculiar motor with double rotational armatures. This paper discusses the operation at the turbine mode of the above unit. It is concluded with the numerical simulations that this type unit can be also operated acceptably at the turbine mode, because the unit works so as to coincide the angular momentum change through the front runners/impellers with that thorough the rear runners/impellers, namely to take the axial flow at not only the inlet but also the outlet without the guide vanes.

Kasahara, R.; Takano, G.; Murakami, T.; Kanemoto, T.; Komaki, K.

2012-11-01

285

Influence of blade outlet angle on performance of low-specific-speed centrifugal pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to analyze the influence of blade outlet angle on inner flow field and performance of low-specific-speed centrifugal pump, the flow field in the pump with different blade outlet angles 32.5° and 39° was numerically calculated. The external performance experiment was also carried out on the pump. Based on SIMPLEC algorithm, time-average N-S equation and the rectified k-? turbulent model were adopted during the process of computation. The distributions of velocity and pressure in pumps with different blade outlet angles were obtained by calculation. The numerical results show that backflow areas exist in the two impellers, while the inner flow has a little improvement in the impeller with larger blade outlet angle. Blade outlet angle has a certain influence on the static pressure near the long-blade leading edge and tongue, but it has little influence on the distribution of static pressure in the passages of impeller. The experiment results show that the low-specific-speed centrifugal pump with larger blade outlet angle has better hydraulic performance.

Cui, Baoling; Wang, Canfei; Zhu, Zuchao; Jin, Yingzi

2013-04-01

286

Development of a compact, sealless, tripod supported, magnetically driven centrifugal blood pump.  

PubMed

In this study, a tripod supported sealless centrifugal blood pump was designed and fabricated for implantable application using a specially designed DC brushless motor. The tripod structure consists of 3 ceramic balls mounted at the bottom surface of the impeller moving in a polyethylene groove incorporated at the bottom pump casing. The follower magnet inside the impeller is coupled to the driver magnet of the motor outside the bottom pump casing, thus allowing the impeller to slide-rotate in the polyethylene groove as the motor turns. The pump driver has a weight of 230 g and a diameter of 60 mm. The acrylic pump housing has a weight of 220 g with the priming volume of 25 ml. At the pump rpm of 1,000 to 2,200, the generated head pressure ranged from 30 to 150 mm Hg with the maximum system efficiency being 12%. When the prototype pump was used in the pulsatile mock loop to assist the ventricle from its apex to the aorta, a strong correlation was obtained between the motor current and bypass flow waveforms. The waveform deformation index (WDI), defined as the ratio of the fundamental to the higher order harmonics of the motor current power spectral density, was computed to possibly detect the suction occurring inside the ventricle due to the prototype centrifugal pump. When the WDI was kept under the value of 0.20 by adjusting the motor rpm, it was successful in suppressing the suction due to the centrifugal pump in the ventricle. The prototype sealless, centrifugal pump together with the control method based on the motor current waveform analysis may offer an intermediate support of the failing left or right ventricle bridging to heart transplantation. PMID:10886073

Yuhki, A; Nogawa, M; Takatani, S

2000-06-01

287

Current status of the gyro centrifugal blood pump--development of the permanently implantable centrifugal blood pump as a biventricular assist device (NEDO project).  

PubMed

The New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) project was started in 1995. The goal is the development of a multipurpose, totally implantable biventricular assist device (BVAD) that can be used for any patient who suffers from severe heart failure. Our C1E3 (two-week pump) centrifugal pump, called the Gyro pump, has three design characteristics: a magnetic coupling and double pivot bearing system, an eccentric inlet port, and secondary vanes on the bottom of the impeller. The pump was miniaturized. The C1E3 evolved into the NEDO PI-601, a totally implantable centrifugal pump for BVAD. The current NEDO PI-710 pump (five-year pump) system includes a centrifugal pump with pivot bearings, a hydraulically-levitated impeller, an rpm-controlled miniaturized actuator (all-in-one actuator plus controller), an emergency clamp on the left outflow, and a Frank-Starling-type flow control. The final mass production model is now finalized, and the final animal study and two-year endurance studies are ongoing. PMID:15385004

Nosé, Yukihiko; Furukawa, Kojiro

2004-10-01

288

Development of a centrifugal pump with thick blades.  

PubMed

We have developed a centrifugal blood pump with thick impeller blades (60% of pitch) to obtain a small tip clearance. An unshrouded impeller with 6 backward curved thick blades was used to reduce the dead zone between the shroud and upper casing. A streamline angle in volute was uniform in circumferential direction by continuity and angular momentum conservation. To prove the effectiveness of small tip clearance, performance and hemolysis tests were conducted on pumps with a tip clearance of 0.5, 1.5, and 2.0 mm at exit with the blade thickness of 60% of pitch, and with that of 1.0, 2.0, and 2.5 mm at exit with the thickness of 40% of pitch. The results showed that the smaller the tip clearance, the better the hydrodynamic and hemolytic performance. The best result was seen in the pump with tip clearance of 0.5 mm with a blade thickness of 60% of pitch. These results suggest that a centrifugal pump with thick blades and a small tip clearance can be a promising alternative as a cardiopulmonary bypass pump. PMID:10718771

Kim, W G; Chung, C H; Yang, W S; Park, Y N; Kim, H I; Kim, H C; Kang, S H

2000-02-01

289

Mechanical axial flow blood pump to support cavopulmonary circulation.  

PubMed

We are developing a collapsible, percutaneously inserted, axial flow blood pump to support the cavopulmonary circulation in infants with a failing single ventricle physiology. An initial design of the impeller for this axial flow blood pump was performed using computational fluid dynamics analysis, including pressure-flow characteristics, scalar stress estimations, blood damage indices, and fluid force predictions. A plastic prototype was constructed for hydraulic performance testing, and these experimental results were compared with the numerical predictions. The numerical predictions and experimental findings of the pump performance demonstrated a pressure generation of 2-16 mm Hg for 50-750 ml/min over 5,500-7,500 RPM with deviation found at lower rotational speeds. The axial fluid forces remained below 0.1 N, and the radial fluid forces were determined to be virtually zero due to the centered impeller case. The scalar stress levels remained below 250 Pa for all operating conditions. Blood damage analysis yielded a mean residence time of the released particles, which was found to be less than 0.4 seconds for both flow rates that were examined, and a maximum residence time was determined to be less than 0.8 seconds. We are in the process of designing a cage with hydrodynamically shaped filament blades to act as a diffuser and optimizing the impeller blade shape to reduce the flow vorticity at the pump outlet. This blood pump will improve the clinical treatment of patients with failing Fontan physiology and provide a unique catheter-based therapeutic approach as a bridge to recovery or transplantation. PMID:19089799

Throckmorton, A L; Kapadia, J; Madduri, D

2008-11-01

290

The experimental study of matching between centrifugal compressor impeller and diffuser  

SciTech Connect

the centrifugal compressor for a marine use turbocharger with its design pressure ratio of 3.2 was tested with a vaneless diffuser and various vaned diffusers. Vaned diffusers were chosen to cover impeller operating range as broad as possible. The analysis of the static pressure ratio in the impeller and the diffusing system, consisting of the diffuser and scroll, showed that there were four possible combinations of characteristics of impeller pressure ratio and diffusing system pressure ratio. The flow rate, Q{sub P}, where the impeller achieved maximum static pressure ratio, was surge flow rate of the centrifugal compressor determined by the critical flow rate. In order to operate the compressor at a rate lower than Q{sub P}, the diffusing system, whose pressure recovery factor was steep negative slope near Q{sub P}, was needed. When the diffuser throat area was less than a certain value, the compressor efficiency deteriorated; however, the compressor stage pressure ratio was almost constant. In this study, by reducing the diffuser throat area, the compressor could be operated at a flow rate less than 40% of its design flow rate. Analysis of the pressure ratio in the impeller and diffusing systems at design and off-design speeds showed that the irregularities in surge line occurred when the component that controlled the negative slope on the compressor stage pressure ratio changed.

Tamaki, H.; Nakao, H.; Saito, M. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Turbomachinery and Engine Development Dept.

1999-01-01

291

Heat pumps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat pumps for residential/commercial space heating and hot tap water make use of free energy of direct or indirect solar heat and save from about 40 to about 70 percent of energy if compared to a conventional heating system with the same energy basis. In addition, the electrically driven compressor heat pump is able to substitute between 40% (bivalent alternative operation) to 100% (monovalent operation) of the fuel oil of an oilfired heating furnace. For average Central European conditions, solar space heating systems with high solar coverage factor show the following sequence of increasing cost effectiveness: pure solar systems (without heat pumps); heat pump assisted solar systems; solar assisted heat pump systems; subsoil/water heat pumps; air/water heat pumps; air/air heat pumps.

Gilli, P. V.

1982-11-01

292

Development of a miniature intraventricular axial flow blood pump.  

PubMed

A new intraventricular axial flow blood pump has been designed and developed as a totally implantable left ventricular assist device (LVAD). This pump consists of an impeller combined with a guide-vane, a tube housing, and a DC motor. The pump is introduced into the LV cavity through the LV apex, and the outlet cannula is passed antegrade across the aortic valve. Blood is withdrawn from the LV through the inlet ports at the pump base, and discharged to the ascending aorta. Our newly developed axial flow pump system has the following advantages: 1) it is a simple and compact system, 2) minimal blood stasis both in the device and the LV cavity, 3) minimal blood contacting surface of the pump, 4) easy accessibility with a less invasive surgical procedure, and 5) low cost. A pump flow > 5 L/min was obtained against 100 mmHg differential pressure in the mock circulatory system. The pump could produce a passive pulsatile flow effect with a beating heart more efficiently than other non-pulsatile pumps because of minimal pressure drop and inertia along the bypass tract. Anatomic fit studies using dissected hearts of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) cadavers showed that this pump could smoothly pass through the aortic valve without any interference with mitral valve function. Recently, a dynamic pressure groove bearing and a miniature lip seal have been developed. The dynamic pressure groove bearing has a simple structure and acts as a pressure resistant sealing mechanism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8268533

Yamazaki, K; Umezu, M; Koyanagi, H; Outa, E; Ogino, S; Otake, Y; Shiozaki, H; Fujimoto, T; Tagusari, O; Kitamura, M

1993-01-01

293

Effect of NACA Injection Impeller on Mixture Distribution of Double-Row Radial Aircraft Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NACA injection impeller was developed to improve the mixture distribution of aircraft engines by discharging the fuel from a centrifugal supercharger impeller and thus to promote a thorough mixing of fuel and charge air. Experiments with a double-row radial aircraft engine indicated that for the normal range of engine power the NACA injection impeller provided marked improvement in mixture distribution over the standard spray-bar injection system used in the same engine. The mixture distribution at cruising conditions was excellent; at 1200, 1500, and 1700 brake horsepower, the differences between the fuel-air ratios of the richest and the leanest cylinders were reduced to approximately one-third their former values.

Marble, Frank E; Ritter, William K; Miller, Mahlon A

1945-01-01

294

Optical Pumping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical pumping of ground-state and metastable atoms and ions is reviewed. We present a critical survey of the literature on pumping mechanisms, light propagation, relaxation mechanisms, spin exchange, and experimental details on the various atomic species which have been successfully pumped.

William Happer

1972-01-01

295

Numerical Simulation of Cavitation in a Centrifugal Pump at Low Flow Rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the full cavitation model which adopts homogeneous flow supposition and considering the compressibility effect on cavitation flow to modify the re-normalization group k-in turbulence model by the density function, a computational model is developed to simulate cavitation flow of a centrifugal pump at low flow rate. The Navier-Stokes equation is solved with the SIMPLEC algorithm. The calculated curves of net positive suction head available (NPSHa) HNPSHa agree well with the experimental data. The critical point of cavitation in centrifugal pump can be predicted precisely, and the NPSH critical values derived from simulation are consistent with the experimental data. Thus the veracity and reliability of this computational model are verified. Based on the result of numerical simulation, the distribution of vapor volume fraction in the impeller and pressure at the impeller inlet are analyzed. Cavities first appear on the suction side of the blade head near the front shroud. A large number of cavities block the impeller channels, which leads to the sudden drop of head at the cavitation critical point. With the reduction of NPSHa, the distribution of pressure at the impeller inlet is more uniform.

Tan, Lei; Cao, Shu-Liang; Wang, Yu-Ming; Zhu, Bao-Shan

2012-01-01

296

Unilateral contact induced blade/casing vibratory interactions in impellers: Analysis for rigid casings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This contribution addresses the vibratory analysis of unilateral-contact induced structural interactions between a bladed impeller and its surrounding rigid casing. Such assemblies can be found in helicopter or small aircraft engines for instance and the interactions of interest shall arise due to the always tighter operating clearances between the rotating and stationary components. The investigation is conducted by extending to cyclically symmetric structures an in-house time-marching based tool dedicated to unilateral contact occurrences in turbomachines. The main components of the considered impeller together with the associated assumptions and modelling principles considered in this work are detailed. Typical dynamical features of cyclically symmetric structures, such as the aliasing effect and frequency clustering are explored in this nonlinear framework by means of thorough frequency-domain analyses and harmonic trackings of the numerically predicted impeller displacements. Additional contact maps highlight the existence of critical rotational velocities at which displacements potentially reach high amplitudes due to the synchronization of the bladed assembly vibratory pattern with the shape of the rigid casing. The proposed numerical investigations are also compared to a simpler and (almost) empirical criterion: it is suggested, based on nonlinear numerical simulations with a linear reduced order model of the impeller and a rigid casing, that this criterion may miss important critical velocities emanating from the unfavorable combination of aliasing and contact-induced higher harmonics in the vibratory response of the impeller. Overall, this work suggests a way to enhance guidelines to improve the design of impellers in the context of nonlinear and nonsmooth dynamics.

Batailly, Alain; Meingast, Markus; Legrand, Mathias

2015-02-01

297

Investigation of the effect of impeller speed on granules formed using a PMA-1 high shear granulator.  

PubMed

Impeller speed was varied from 300 to 1500 rpm during the wet high shear granulation of a placebo formulation using a new vertical shaft PharmaMATRIX-1 granulator. The resulting granules were extensively analysed for differences caused by the varying impeller speed with emphasis on flowability. Microscopy showed that initial granules were formed primarily from microcrystalline cellulose at all tested impeller speeds. At low impeller speed of 300 rpm in the "bumpy" flow regime, forces from the impeller were insufficient to incorporate all the components of the formulation into the granules and to promote granule growth to a size that significantly improved flowability. The "roping" flow regime at higher impeller speeds promoted granule growth to a median particle size of at least 100 µm that improved the flowability of the mixture. Particle size distribution measurements and advanced indicators based on avalanching behavior, however, showed that an impeller speed of 700 rpm produced the largest fraction of optimal granules with the best flowability potential. This impeller speed allowed good development of "roping" flow for sufficient mixing, collision rates and kinetic energy for collisions while minimizing excessive centrifugal forces that promote buildup around the bowl perimeter. PMID:22436101

Logan, R; Briens, L

2012-11-01

298

Development of an explicit multigrid algorithm for quasi-three-dimensional viscous flows in turbomachinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A rapid quasi three-dimensional analysis was developed for blade-to-blade flows in turbomachinery. The analysis solves the unsteady Euler or thin layer Navier-Stokes equations in a body-fitted coordinate system. It accounts for the effects of rotation, radius change, and stream-surface thickness. The Baldwin-Lomax eddy-viscosity model is used for turbulent flows. The equations which are solved b a two-stage Runge-Kutta scheme made efficient by use of vectorization, a variable time-step, and a flux-based multigrid scheme, are described. A stability analysis is presented for the two-stage. Results for a flat-plate model problem show the applicability of the method to axial, radial, and rotating geometries. Results for a centrifugal impeller and a radial diffuser show that the quasi three-dimensional viscous analysis can be a practical design tool.

Chima, R. V.

1986-01-01

299

The Design and Analysis of Helium Turbine Expander Impeller with a Given All-Over-Controlled Vortex Distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To make the large-scale helium cryogenic system of fusion device EAST (experimental advanced super-conducting tokamak) run stably, as the core part, the helium turbine expander must meet the requirement of refrigeration capacity. However, previous designs were based on one dimension flow to determine the average fluid parameters and geometric parameters of impeller cross-sections, so that it could not describe real physical processes in the internal flow of the turbine expander. Therefore, based on the inverse proposition of streamline curvature method in the context of quasi-three-dimensional flows, the all-over-controlled vortex concept was adopted to design the impeller under specified condition. The wrap angle of the impeller blade and the whole flow distribution on the meridian plane were obtained; meanwhile the performance of the designed impeller was analyzed. Thus a new design method is proposed here for the inverse proposition of the helium turbine expander impeller.

Liu, Xiaodong; Fu, Bao; Zhuang, Ming

2014-03-01

300

Pump It!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Pumps are used to get drinking water to our houses every day! And in disaster situations, pumps are essential to keep flood water out. In this hands-on activity, student groups design, build, test and improve devices to pump water as if they were engineers helping a rural village meet their drinking water supply. Students keep track of their materials costs, and calculate power and cost efficiencies of the prototype pumps. They also learn about different types of pumps, how they work and useful applications.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

301

Thermal fluctuations in viscous cosmology  

E-print Network

In this paper we investigate the power spectrum of thermal fluctuations in very early stage of viscous cosmology. When the state parameter as well as the viscous coefficient of a barotropic fluid is properly chosen, a scale invariant spectrum with large non-Gaussianity can be obtained. In contrast to the results previously obtained in string gas cosmology and holographic cosmology, we find the non-Gaussianity in this context can be k-independent such that it is not suppressed at large scale, which is expected to be testified in future observation.

Wei-Jia Li; Yi Ling; Jian-Pin Wu; Xiao-Mei Kuang

2010-03-28

302

Method for producing viscous hydrocarbons  

DOEpatents

A method for recovering viscous hydrocarbons and synthetic fuels from a subterranean formation by drilling a well bore through the formation and completing the well by cementing a casing means in the upper part of the pay zone. The well is completed as an open hole completion and a superheated thermal vapor stream comprised of steam and combustion gases is injected into the lower part of the pay zone. The combustion gases migrate to the top of the pay zone and form a gas cap which provides formation pressure to produce the viscous hydrocarbons and synthetic fuels.

Poston, Robert S. (Winter Park, FL)

1982-01-01

303

Numerical analysis of the inner flow field of a biocentrifugal blood pump.  

PubMed

Implantable ventricular assist devices have been regarded as a promising instrument in the clinical treatment of patients with severe heart failures. In this article, a three-dimensional model of the Kyoto-NTN magnetically suspended centrifugal blood pump was generated and a computational fluid dynamics solution of the inner flow field of the pump including the static pressure distributions, velocity profiles, and the shear stress distributions of the blood was presented. The results revealed that reverse flow generally occurred in the impeller blade channels during the operation of the pump, due to the imbalance of the flow and the pressure gradient generated in the blade channels. The flow pattern at the exit of the blade channels was varying with its angular positions in the pump. The reverse flow at the exit of the impeller blade channels was found to be closely related with the static pressure distribution in the volute passage. Higher pressure in the volute caused severe backflow from the volute into the blade channels. To clarify the effects of a moving impeller on the blood, shear stresses of the blood in the pump were investigated according to the simulation results. The studies indicated that at the beginning of the splitter plate and the cutwater, the highest shear stress exceeded 700 Pa. At other regions such as the inlet and outlet of the impeller blade channels and some regions in the volute passage, shear stresses were found to be about 200 Pa. These areas are believed to have a high possibility of rendering blood trauma. PMID:16734599

Chua, Leok Poh; Song, Guoliang; Lim, Tau Meng; Zhou, Tongming

2006-06-01

304

Computation of stress distribution in a mixed flow pump based on fluid-structure interaction analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The internal flow evolution of the pump was induced with impeller movement. In various conditions, the peak load on centrifugal blade under the change of rotational speed or flow rate was also changed. It would cause an error when inertia load with a safety coefficient (that was difficult to ascertain) was applied in structure design. In order to accurately analyze the impeller stress under various conditions and improve the reliability of pump, based on a mixed flow pump model, the stress distribution characteristic was analyzed under different flow rates and rotational speeds. Based on a three-dimensional calculation model including impeller, guide blade, inlet and outlet, the three-dimension incompressible turbulence flow in the centrifugal pump was simulated by using the standard k-epsilon turbulence model. Based on the sequentially coupled simulation approach, a three-dimensional finite element model of impeller was established, and the fluid-structure interaction method of the blade load transfer was discussed. The blades pressure from flow simulation, together with inertia force acting on the blade, was used as the blade loading on solid surface. The Finite Element Method (FEM) was used to calculate the stress distribution of the blade respectively under inertia load, or fluid load, or combined load. The results showed that the blade stress changed with flow rate and rotational speed. In all cases, the maximum stress on the blade appeared on the pressure side near the hub, and the maximum static stress increased with the decreasing of the flow rate and the increasing of rotational speed. There was a big difference on the static stress when inertia load, fluid load and combined loads was applied respectively. In order to more accurately calculate the stress distribution, the structure analysis should be conducted due to combined loads. The results could provide basis for the stress analysis and structure optimization of pump.

Hu, F. F.; Chen, T.; Wu, D. Z.; Wang, L. Q.

2013-12-01

305

Measurements of gap pressure and wall shear stress of a blood pump model.  

PubMed

The centrifugal blood pump with a magnetically suspended impeller has shown its superiority as compared to other artificial hearts. However, there is still insufficient understanding of fluid mechanics related issues in the clearance gap. The design nature of the pump requires sufficient washout in the clearance between the impeller and stationary surfaces. As the gap is only 0.2 mm in width, it is very difficult to conduct measurements with present instrumentation. An enlarged model with 5:1 ratio of the pump has been designed and constructed according to specifications. Dimensionless gap pressure measurements of the model are very close to the prototype. The measurements of wall shear stress of the fluid flow in the clearance gap between the impeller face and inlet casing of a blood pump model were accomplished through hot-wire anemometry and rotating disk apparatus. Regions of relatively high and low shear stresses are identified. These correspond to spots where the likelihood of hemolysis and thrombus formation is high. With the use of dimensional analysis, it is found that the highest wall shear stress is equivalent to 146 Pa which is much lower than the threshold value of 400 Pa for hemolysis reported in the literature. PMID:10964038

Chua, L P; Akamatsu, T

2000-04-01

306

System analysis of the flow/pressure response of rotodynamic blood pumps.  

PubMed

Design of a rotodynamic blood pumping system to have a suitable, controllable output is a key configuration issue. This study evaluates the benefits of selecting the impeller running specific speed, motor speed-torque line, and pump operating logic to jointly combine into a suitable characteristic. In this study, a "constant" flow for a given choice of control parameter value was the selected objective. The operating condition selected for analysis was chosen to be typical of an implanted, chronic support pump. Open-loop operation, fixed torque, fixed power, and fixed power/rpm2 ratio were combined with choices of impeller diameter and speed and motor speed-torque line. It was found that setting the running specific speed at a higher value than that associated with the best efficiency point resulted in a much more controllable pump. Overall efficiency was only slightly penalized for the model impeller chosen. Power/rpm2 control followed by torque control were most effective. With these control modes, motor characteristics were not critical. PMID:10564294

Smith, W A; Goodin, M; Fu, M; Xu, L

1999-10-01

307

Study of a centrifugal blood pump in a mock loop system.  

PubMed

An implantable centrifugal blood pump (ICBP) is being developed to be used as a ventricular assist device (VAD) in patients with severe cardiovascular diseases. The ICBP system is composed of a centrifugal pump, a motor, a controller, and a power supply. The electricity source provides power to the controller and to a motor that moves the pump's rotor through magnetic coupling. The centrifugal pump is composed of four parts: external conical house, external base, impeller, and impeller base. The rotor is supported by a pivot bearing system, and its impeller base is responsible for sheltering four permanent magnets. A hybrid cardiovascular simulator (HCS) was used to evaluate the ICBP's performance. A heart failure (HF) (when the heart increases beat frequency to compensate for decrease in blood flow) was simulated in the HCS. The main objective of this work is to analyze changes in physiological parameters such as cardiac output, blood pressure, and heart rate in three situations: healthy heart, HF, and HF with left circulatory assistance by ICBP. The results showed that parameters such as aortic pressure and cardiac output affected by the HF situation returned to normal values when the ICBP was connected to the HCS. In conclusion, the test results showed satisfactory performance for the ICBP as a VAD. PMID:24237361

Uebelhart, Beatriz; da Silva, Bruno Utiyama; Fonseca, Jeison; Bock, Eduardo; Leme, Juliana; da Silva, Cibele; Leăo, Tarcísio; Andrade, Aron

2013-11-01

308

Magnetically suspended centrifugal blood pump with an axially levitated motor.  

PubMed

The longevity of a rotary blood pump is mainly determined by the durability of its wearing mechanical parts such as bearings and seals. Magnetic suspension techniques can be used to eliminate these mechanical parts altogether. This article describes a magnetically suspended centrifugal blood pump using an axially levitated motor. The motor comprises an upper stator, a bottom stator, and a levitated rotor-impeller between the stators. The upper stator has permanent magnets to generate an attractive axial bias force on the rotor and electric magnets to control the inclination of the rotor. The bottom stator has electric magnets to generate attractive forces and rotating torque to control the axial displacement and rotation of the rotor. The radial displacement of the rotor is restricted by passive stability. A shrouded impeller is integrated within the rotor. The performance of the magnetic suspension and pump were evaluated in a closed mock loop circuit filled with water. The maximum amplitude of the rotor displacement in the axial direction was only 0.06 mm. The maximum possible rotational speed during levitation was 1,600 rpm. The maximum pressure head and flow rate were 120 mm Hg and 7 L/min, respectively. The pump shows promise as a ventricular assist device. PMID:12823418

Masuzawa, Toru; Ezoe, Shiroh; Kato, Tsuyoshi; Okada, Yohji

2003-07-01

309

Gyro-effect stabilizes unstable permanent maglev centrifugal pump.  

PubMed

According to Earnshaw's Theorem (1839), the passive maglev cannot achieve stable equilibrium and thus an extra coil is needed to make the rotor electrically levitated in a heart pump. The author had developed a permanent maglev centrifugal pump utilizing only passive magnetic bearings, to keep the advantages but to avoid the disadvantages of the electric maglev pumps. The equilibrium stability was achieved by use of so-called "gyro-effect": a rotating body with certain high speed can maintain its rotation stably. This pump consisted of a rotor (driven magnets and an impeller), and a stator with motor coil and pump housing. Two passive magnetic bearings between rotor and stator were devised to counteract the attractive force between the motor coil iron core and the rotor driven magnets. Bench testing with saline demonstrated a levitated rotor under preconditions of higher than 3,250 rpm rotation and more than 1 l/min pumping flow. Rotor levitation was demonstrated by 4 Hall sensors on the stator, with evidence of reduced maximal eccentric distance from 0.15 mm to 0.07 mm. The maximal rotor vibration amplitude was 0.06 mm in a gap of 0.15 mm between rotor and stator. It concluded that Gyro-effect can help passive maglev bearings to achieve stabilization of permanent maglev pump; and that high flow rate indicates good hydraulic property of the pump, which helps also the stability of passive maglev pump. PMID:17380386

Qian, Kun-Xi

2007-03-01

310

Experimental study and numerical simulation of the solid-phase particles' influence on outside characteristics of slurry pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present solid-liquid two-phase flow pump faces two big problems: the low efficiency, the short life, then the concentration of the conveyed solid-phase media are the important factors which affect the outside characteristics about this two phase flow pump. This article presents the outside characteristics' experimental research and internal flow field's simulation analysis on AH type slurry pump which is product by Shijiazhuang Shi- Jiang pump industry, discusses the flow rule in the impeller, and summaries the influence of the solid phased particles' concentration on the performance of the slurry pump's outside characteristics. At last, the rationality and accuracy of the numerical calculation method are verified through the way of comparing numerical simulation with experimental results in this two phase flow pump. And the relation between slurry pump's outside characteristics and granule concentration is summarized, which provided theoretical guidance for the slurry pump's optimization design and selection.

Wang, P. W.; Zhao, J.; Zou, W. J.; Hu, S. G.

2012-11-01

311

CFD applications in pump flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the proposed paper is to develop a computational procedure that solves incompressible Navier-Stokes equations for pump flows. The solution method is based on the pseudo-compressibility approach and uses an implicit-upwind differencing scheme together with the Gauss-Seidel line relaxation method. The equations are solved in steadily rotating reference frames and the centrifugal force and the Coriolis force are added to the equation of motion. As a benchmark problem, the flow through the Rocketdyne inducer is numerically simulated. A coarse grid solution is obtained with a single zone by using an algebraic turbulence model. In multi-zone fine grid computation, a one-equation Baldwin-Barth turbulence model is utilized. Numerical results are compared with experimental measurements and a good agreement is found between the two. The resulting computer code is then applied to the flow analysis inside a two-stage fuel pump impeller operating at 80 percent, 100 percent, and 120 percent of design flow.

Kiris, Cetin; Chang, Liang; Kwak, Dochan

1992-01-01

312

Review on stress corrosion and corrosion fatigue failure of centrifugal compressor impeller  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corrosion failure, especially stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue, is the main cause of centrifugal compressor impeller failure. And it is concealed and destructive. This paper summarizes the main theories of stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue and its latest developments, and it also points out that existing stress corrosion cracking theories can be reduced to the anodic dissolution (AD), the hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC), and the combined AD and HIC mechanisms. The corrosion behavior and the mechanism of corrosion fatigue in the crack propagation stage are similar to stress corrosion cracking. The effects of stress ratio, loading frequency, and corrosive medium on the corrosion fatigue crack propagation rate are analyzed and summarized. The corrosion behavior and the mechanism of stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue in corrosive environments, which contain sulfide, chlorides, and carbonate, are analyzed. The working environments of the centrifugal compressor impeller show the behavior and the mechanism of stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue in different corrosive environments. The current research methods for centrifugal compressor impeller corrosion failure are analyzed. Physical analysis, numerical simulation, and the fluid-structure interaction method play an increasingly important role in the research on impeller deformation and stress distribution caused by the joint action of aerodynamic load and centrifugal load.

Sun, Jiao; Chen, Songying; Qu, Yanpeng; Li, Jianfeng

2015-01-01

313

Effect of blade tip configuration on tip clearance loss of a centrifugal impeller  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of blade tip configuration on the tip clearance loss was examined experimentally using an unshrouded centrifugal impeller with backward-leaning blades. Tips with rounded edges, sharp square edges, and edges with end plates were tested. The observed tip clearance effects could be theoretically predicted by assuming reasonable values of the contraction coefficent alpha = 0.91 for the round edge,

Masahiro Ishida; Hironobu Ueki; Yasutoshi Senoo

1989-01-01

314

Review on stress corrosion and corrosion fatigue failure of centrifugal compressor impeller  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corrosion failure, especially stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue, is the main cause of centrifugal compressor impeller failure. And it is concealed and destructive. This paper summarizes the main theories of stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue and its latest developments, and it also points out that existing stress corrosion cracking theories can be reduced to the anodic dissolution (AD), the hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC), and the combined AD and HIC mechanisms. The corrosion behavior and the mechanism of corrosion fatigue in the crack propagation stage are similar to stress corrosion cracking. The effects of stress ratio, loading frequency, and corrosive medium on the corrosion fatigue crack propagation rate are analyzed and summarized. The corrosion behavior and the mechanism of stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue in corrosive environments, which contain sulfide, chlorides, and carbonate, are analyzed. The working environments of the centrifugal compressor impeller show the behavior and the mechanism of stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue in different corrosive environments. The current research methods for centrifugal compressor impeller corrosion failure are analyzed. Physical analysis, numerical simulation, and the fluid-structure interaction method play an increasingly important role in the research on impeller deformation and stress distribution caused by the joint action of aerodynamic load and centrifugal load.

Sun, Jiao; Chen, Songying; Qu, Yanpeng; Li, Jianfeng

2015-03-01

315

32 Scientific American, January 2014 Photograph by Tktk Tktk Unconscious impulses and desires impel  

E-print Network

scientists who study the mind. Sigmund Freud's massive body of work emphasized the conscious as the locus many of our atti- tudes toward others. Sigmund Freud meditated on the mean- ing of the unconscious and desires impel what we think and do in ways Freud never dreamed of By John A. Bargh psychology Unconscious

Bargh, John A.

316

Department of Mechanical Engineering Fall 2012 Dresser-Rand 3 Adjustable Impeller Eye Labyrinth Seal  

E-print Network

Labyrinth Seal Overview Dresser-Rand is one of the leading manufacturers of centrifugal compressors efficiency is the impeller eye labyrinth seal, which reduces recirculation of flow. During the testing phase, Dresser-Rand varies labyrinth seal clearance to evaluate the impact of doing so on overall efficiency

Demirel, Melik C.

317

Numerical analysis of head degrade law under cavitation condition of contra-rotating axial flow waterjet pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to study the flow-head characteristic curve, the SST turbulence model, homogeneous multiphase model and Rayleigh-Plesset equation were applied to simulate the cavitation characteristics in contra-rotating axial flow waterjet pump under different conditions based on ANSYS CFX software. The distribution of cavity, pressure coefficient of the blade at the design point under different cavitation conditions were obtained. The analysis results of flow field show that the vapour volume distribution on the impeller indicates that the vapour first appears at the leading edge of blade and then extends to the outlet of impeller with the reduction of Net Positive Suction Head Allowance (NPSHA). The present study illustrates that the main reason for the decline of the pump performance is the development of cavitation, and the simulation can truly reflect the cavitation performance of the contra-rotating axial flow waterjet pump.

Huang, D.; Pan, Z. Y.

2015-01-01

318

Heart Pump Design for Cleveland Clinic Foundation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through a Lewis CommTech Program project with the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, the NASA Lewis Research Center is playing a key role in the design and development of a permanently implantable, artificial heart pump assist device. Known as the Innovative Ventricular Assist System (IVAS), this device will take on the pumping role of the damaged left ventricle of the heart. The key part of the IVAS is a nonpulsatile (continuous flow) artificial heart pump with centrifugal impeller blades, driven by an electric motor. Lewis is part of an industry and academia team, led by the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI), that is working with the Cleveland Clinic Foundation to make IVAS a reality. This device has the potential to save tens of thousands of lives each year, since 80 percent of heart attack victims suffer irreversible damage to the left ventricle, the part of the heart that does most of the pumping. Impeller blade design codes and flow-modeling analytical codes will be used in the project. These codes were developed at Lewis for the aerospace industry but will be applicable to the IVAS design project. The analytical codes, which currently simulate the flow through the compressor and pump systems, will be used to simulate the flow within the blood pump in the artificial heart assist device. The Interdisciplinary Technology Office heads up Lewis' efforts in the IVAS project. With the aid of numerical modeling, the blood pump will address many design issues, including some fluid-dynamic design considerations that are unique to the properties of blood. Some of the issues that will be addressed in the design process include hemolysis, deposition, recirculation, pump efficiency, rotor thrust balance, and bearing lubrication. Optimum pumping system performance will be achieved by modeling all the interactions between the pump components. The interactions can be multidisciplinary and, therefore, are influenced not only by the fluid dynamics of adjacent components but also by thermal and structural effects. Lewis-developed flow-modeling codes to be used in the pump simulations will include a one-dimensional code and an incompressible three-dimensional Navier-Stokes flow code. These codes will analyze the prototype pump designed by the Cleveland Clinic Foundation. With an improved understanding of the flow phenomena within the prototype pump, design changes to improve the performance of the pump system can be verified by computer prior to fabrication in order to reduce risks. The use of Lewis flow modeling codes during the design and development process will improve pump system performance and reduce the number of prototypes built in the development phase. The first phase of the IVAS project is to fully develop the prototype in a laboratory environment that uses a water/glycerin mixture as the surrogate fluid to simulate blood. A later phase of the project will include testing in animals for final validation. Lewis will be involved in the IVAS project for 3 to 5 years.

2005-01-01

319

Suppression of secondary flows in a double suction centrifugal pump with different loading distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secondary flow is one of the main reasons for low efficiency in double suction centrifugal pump. In a 3-D inverse design method, the pump blade could be designed by a specified loading distribution to control the flow field in pump. In order to study the influence of loading distribution on secondary flow of a double suction centrifugal pump, the external characteristics and the internal flow field of the pump with three kinds of loading distributions are analysed by using CFD approach. According to the simulation results, it is found that the form of fore-loading distribution at shroud and aft-loading distribution at hub could improve the optimal efficiency and broaden the high efficiency area of the pump. Furthermore, the secondary flow in impeller exit region and volute could be significantly suppressed if the slope of loading distribution curve of shroud is set to be -0.7.

Leng, H. F.; Wang, F. J.; Zhang, Z. C.; Yao, Z. F.; Zhou, P. J.

2013-12-01

320

Shape optimization of the diffuser blade of an axial blood pump by computational fluid dynamics.  

PubMed

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been a viable and effective way to predict hydraulic performance, flow field, and shear stress distribution within a blood pump. We developed an axial blood pump with CFD and carried out a CFD-based shape optimization of the diffuser blade to enhance pressure output and diminish backflow in the impeller-diffuser connecting region at a fixed design point. Our optimization combined a computer-aided design package, a mesh generator, and a CFD solver in an automation environment with process integration and optimization software. A genetic optimization algorithm was employed to find the pareto-optimal designs from which we could make trade-off decisions. Finally, a set of representative designs was analyzed and compared on the basis of the energy equation. The role of the inlet angle of the diffuser blade was analyzed, accompanied by its relationship with pressure output and backflow in the impeller-diffuser connecting region. PMID:20447042

Zhu, Lailai; Zhang, Xiwen; Yao, Zhaohui

2010-03-01

321

Computational fluid dynamics analysis of hydrodynamic bearings of the VentrAssist rotary blood pump.  

PubMed

The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package CFX-TASCflow was applied to simulate the flows through the blood pump hydrodynamic bearings. The three-dimensional flow patterns through the bearings were predicted and the hydraulic performance analyzed. The computations were carried out at 3 axial positions of the pump impeller. Net lift force away from the nearer part of the housing increased when the impeller moved closer to this part. Radial force and drag force were also found. Separated flows were observed at the leading and trailing edge of the bearing gap. To test the CFD package, a series of two-dimensional computations were also carried out for various bearing geometries. The results were compared with published experimental data. PMID:10886071

Qian, Y; Bertram, C D

2000-06-01

322

Performance and internal flow condition of mini centrifugal pump with splitter blades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mini centrifugal pumps having a diameter smaller than 100mm are employed in many fields. But the design method for the mini centrifugal pump is not established because the internal flow condition for these small-sized fluid machines is not clarified and conventional theory is not suitable for small-sized pumps. Therefore, mini centrifugal pumps with simple structure were investigated by this research. Splitter blades were adopted in this research to improve the performance and the internal flow condition of mini centrifugal pump which had large blade outlet angle. The original impeller without the splitter blades and the impeller with the splitter blades were prepared for an experiment. The performance tests are conducted with these rotors in order to investigate the effect of the splitter blades on performance and internal flow condition of mini centrifugal pump. On the other hand, a three dimensional steady numerical flow analysis is conducted with the commercial code (ANSYS-CFX) to investigate the internal flow condition in detail. It is clarified from the experimental results that the performance of the mini centrifugal pump is improved by the effect of the splitter blades. The blade-to-blade low velocity regions are suppressed in the case with the splitter blades and the total pressure loss regions are decreased. The effects of the splitter blades on the performance and the internal flow condition are discussed in this paper.

Shigemitsu, T.; Fukutomi, J.; Kaji, K.; Wada, T.

2012-11-01

323

Numerical analysis of blood flow in the clearance regions of a continuous flow artificial heart pump.  

PubMed

The CFVAD3 is the third prototype of a continuous flow ventricular assist device being developed for implantation in humans. The pump consists of a fully shrouded 4-blade impeller supported by magnetic bearings. On either side of this suspended rotating impeller is a small clearance region through which the blood flows. The spacing and geometry of these clearance regions are very important to the successful operation of this blood pump. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solutions for this flow were obtained using TascFlow, a software package available from AEA Technology, U.K. Flow in these clearance regions was studied parametrically by varying the size of the clearance, the blood flow rate into the pump, and the rotational speed of the pump. The numerical solutions yield the direction and magnitude of the flow and the dynamic pressure. Experimentally measured pump flow rates are compared to the numerical study. The results of the study provide guidance for improving pump efficiency. It is determined that current clearances can be significantly reduced to improve pump efficiency without negative impacts. PMID:10886072

Anderson, J; Wood, H G; Allaire, P E; Olsen, D B

2000-06-01

324

Cavitation performance improvement of high specific speed mixed-flow pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cavitation performance improvement of large hydraulic machinery such as pump and turbine has been a hot topic for decades. During the design process of the pumps, in order to minimize size, weight and cost centrifugal and mixed-flow pump impellers are required to operate at the highest possible rotational speed. The rotational speed is limited by the phenomenon of cavitation. The hydraulic model of high-speed mixed-flow pump with large flow rate and high pumping head, which was designed based on the traditional method, always involves poor cavitation performance. In this paper, on the basis of the same hydraulic design parameters, two hydraulic models of high-speed mixed-flow pump were designed by using different methods, in order to investigate the cavitation and hydraulic performance of the two models, the method of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was adopted for internal flow simulation of the high specific speed mixed-flow pump. Based on the results of numerical simulation, the influences of impeller parameters and three-dimensional configuration on pressure distribution of the blades' suction surfaces were analyzed. The numerical simulation results shows a better pressure distribution and lower pressure drop around the leading edge of the improved model. The research results could provide references to the design and optimization of the anti-cavitation blade.

Chen, T.; Sun, Y. B.; Wu, D. Z.; Wang, L. Q.

2012-11-01

325

Design of an integrated motor\\/controller drive for an automotive water pump application  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses key technical issues in the design of an integrated motor\\/controller drive unit for which the electric motor, its electronic controller, and load (a pump impeller) are all combined into a single structural assembly. A cost-based trade-off study is described that includes five different types of brushless machines, leading to the selection of an interior PM synchronous machine

Nathan C. Harris; Thomas M. Jahns; Surong Huang

2002-01-01

326

Effect of the NACA Injection Impeller on the Mixture Distribution of a Double-row Radial Aircraft Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For the normal range of engine power the impeller provided marked improvement over the standard spray-bar injection system. Mixture distribution at cruising was excellent, maximum cylinder temperatures were reduced about 30 degrees F, and general temperature distribution was improved. The uniform mixture distribution restored the normal response of cylinder temperature to mixture enrichment and it reduced the possibility of carburetor icing, while no serious loss in supercharger pressure rise resulted from injection of fuel near the impeller outlet. The injection impeller also furnished a convenient means of adding water to the charge mixture for internal cooling.

Marble, Frank E.; Ritter, William K.; Miller, Mahlon A.

1946-01-01

327

Well pump  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pump is described comprising a pump cylinder, a piston within the cylinder, an entrance for fluid below the piston, an outlet above the piston, and means for raising and lowering the piston, the piston comprising a cylindrical body or organic polymer having a diameter such as to fit closely in the cylinder, the piston including a first check valve

K. R. Ames; J. M. Doesburg

1987-01-01

328

Ferroelectric Pump  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A ferroelectric pump has one or more variable volume pumping chambers internal to a housing. Each chamber has at least one wall comprising a dome shaped internally prestressed ferroelectric actuator having a curvature and a dome height that varies with an electric voltage applied between an inside and outside surface of the actuator. A pumped medium flows into and out of each pumping chamber in response to displacement of the ferroelectric actuator. The ferroelectric actuator is mounted within each wall and isolates each ferroelectric actuator from the pumped medium, supplies a path for voltage to be applied to each ferroelectric actuator, and provides for positive containment of each ferroelectric actuator while allowing displacement of the entirety of each ferroelectric actuator in response to the applied voltage.

Jalink, Antony, Jr. (Inventor); Hellbaum, Richard F. (Inventor); Rohrbach, Wayne W. (Inventor)

2000-01-01

329

Optimization of centrifugal pump cavitation performance based on CFD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to further improve the cavitation performance of a centrifugal pump, slots on impeller blade near inlet were studied and six groups of hydraulic model were designed. Base on cavitating flow feature inside a centrifugal pump, bubble growth and implosion are calculated from the Rayleigh-Plesset equation which describes the dynamic behavior of spherical bubble and RNG ?-epsilon model was employed to simulate and analyze the internal two-phase flow of the model pump under the same conditions. The simulation results show that slots on blade near inlet could improve the cavitation performance and cavitation performance improvement of the second group was more obvious. Under the same conditions, the pressure on the back of blade near inlet was higher than the pressure on the back of unmodified blade near inlet, and energy distribution in the flow channel between the two blades was more uniform with a small change of head.

Xie, S. F.; Wang, Y.; Liu, Z. C.; Zhu, Z. T.; Ning, C.; Zhao, L. F.

2015-01-01

330

Small centrifugal pumps for low-thrust rocket engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Six small, low specific speed centrifugal pump configurations were designed, fabricated, and tested. The configurations included shrouded, and 25 and 100% admission open face impellers with 2 inch tip diameters; 25, 50, and 100% emission vaned diffusers; and volutes with conical exits. Impeller tip widths varied from 0.030 inch to 0.052 inch. Design specific speeds (N sub s = RPM*GPM**0.5.FT**0.75) were 430 (four configurations) and 215 (two configurations). The six configurations were tested with water as the pumped fluid. Noncavitating performance results are presented for the design speed of 24,500 rpm over a flowrate range from 1 to 6 gpm for the N sub s = 430 configurations and test speeds up to 29,000 rpm over a flowrate range from 0.3 to 1.2 gpm for the N sub s = 215 configurations. Cavitating performance results are presented over a flowrate range from 60 to 120% of design flow. Fabrication of the small pump conponents is also discussed.

Furst, R. B.

1986-01-01

331

SSME alternate turbopump (pump section) axial load analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flow balancing computer program constructed to calculate the axial loads on the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) alternate turbopumps (ATs) pump sections are described. The loads are used in turn to determine load balancing piston design requirements. The application of the program to the inlet section, inducer/impeller/stage, bearings, seals, labyrinth, damper, piston, face and corner, and stationary/rotating surfaces is indicated. Design analysis results are reported which show that the balancing piston's designs are adequate and that performance and life will not be degraded by the turbopump's axial load characteristics.

Crease, G. A.; Rosello, A., Jr.; Fetfatsidis, A. K.

1989-01-01

332

Centrifugal Pump Test Bed: A Senior Capstone Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A centrifugal pump test bed was designed, built and tested for the undergraduate mechanical engineering thermal fluids laboratory at Western Kentucky University. This project was funded through the Undergraduate Senior Project Grant Program sponsored by the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE) and is primarily intended for instructional situations. The project was executed over a two-semester Mechanical Engineering Senior Project design sequence, with a three-member student team planning the project design during the fall semester and executing the project construction and testing during the spring. The final system delivered uses two 1.0 horsepower pumps that can generate a range of volumetric flows and a piping system capable of varied impedances and flow paths. A useful innovation by the team was the capability of modifying pump impeller diameter, as well as flow paths. Existing hands-on laboratory courses now have a centrifugal pump test bed to demonstrate the full complement of pump similitude: series and parallel configurations, rotational speed effects, and varied impeller size. During the senior design course sequence, the students generated a design and selected critical components in the pump demonstration bed to provide the desired capabilities, executed the project construction demonstrating their ability to work together as a team, managed the project and maintained a schedule within time and fiscal budgetary constraints, and finally implemented appropriate testing of the final system through an experimental test plan to assure that the desired quality was achieved. This paper will detail project outcomes and faculty observations of the process and assessment of student work.

Choate, Robert

333

Automated non-invasive detection of pumping states in an implantable rotary blood pump.  

PubMed

With respect to rotary blood pumps used as left ventricular assist devices (LVADs), it is clinically important to control pump flow to avoid complications associated with over-or under-pumping of the native heart. By employing only the non-invasive observer of instantaneous pump impeller speed to assess flow dynamics, a number of physiologically significant pumping states may be detected. Based on a number of acute animal experiments, five such states were identified: regurgitant pump flow (PR), ventricular ejection (VE), non-opening of the aortic valve (ANO), and partial collapse (intermittent and continuous) of the ventricle wall (PVC-I and PVC-C). Two broader states, normal (corresponding to VE, ANO) and suction (corresponding to PVC-I, PVC-C) were readily discernable in clinical data from human patients implanted with LVADs. Based on data from both the animal experiments (N=6) and the human patients (N=10), a strategy for the automated non-invasive detection of significant pumping states has been developed and validated. Employing a classification and regression tree (CART), this system detects pumping states with a high degree of accuracy: state VE -87.5/100.0% (sensitivity/specificity); state ANO - 98.1/92.5%; state PVC-I - 90.0/90.2%; state PVC-C - 61.2/98.0%. With a simplified binary scheme differentiating suction and normal states, both states were detected without error in data from the animal experiments, and with a sensitivity/specificity, for detecting suction, of 99.2/98.3% in the human patient data. PMID:17946699

Karantonis, Dean M; Cloherty, Shaun L; Mason, David G; Salamonsen, Robert F; Ayre, Peter J; Lovell, Nigel H

2006-01-01

334

Computational fluid dynamics-based hydraulic and hemolytic analyses of a novel left ventricular assist blood pump.  

PubMed

The advent of various technologies has allowed mechanical blood pumps to become more reliable and versatile in recent decades. In our study group, a novel structure of axial flow blood pump was developed for assisting the left ventricle. The design point of the left ventricular assist blood pump 25 (LAP-25) was chosen at 4 Lpm with 100 mm Hg according to our clinical practice. Computational fluid dynamics was used to design and analyze the performance of the LAP-25. In order to obtain a required hydraulic performance and a satisfactory hemolytic property in the LAP-25 of a smaller size, a novel structure was developed including an integrated shroud impeller, a streamlined impeller hub, and main impeller blades with splitter blades; furthermore, tandem cascades were introduced in designing the diffuser. The results of numerical simulation show the LAP-25 can generate flow rates of 3-5 Lpm at rotational speeds of 8500-10,500 rpm, producing pressure rises of 27.5-148.3 mm Hg with hydraulic efficiency points ranging from 13.4 to 27.5%. Moreover, the fluid field and the hemolytic property of the LAP-25 were estimated, and the mean hemolysis index of the pump was 0.0895% with Heuser's estimated model. In conclusion, the design of the LAP-25 shows an acceptable result. PMID:21517911

Yang, Xiao-Chen; Zhang, Yan; Gui, Xing-Min; Hu, Sheng-Shou

2011-10-01

335

Formation of impeller-like helical DNA–silica complexes by polyamines induced chiral packing  

PubMed Central

The helicity of DNA and its long-range chiral packing are widespread phenomena; however, the packing mechanism remains poorly understood both in vivo and in vitro. Here, we report the extraordinary DNA chiral self-assembly by silica mineralization, together with circular dichroism measurements and electron microscopy studies on the structure and morphology of the products. Mg2+ ion and diethylenetriamine were found to induce right- and left-handed chiral DNA packing with two-dimensional-square p4mm mesostructures, respectively, to give corresponding enantiomeric impeller-like helical DNA–silica complexes. Moreover, formation of macroscopic impeller-like helical architectures depends on the types of polyamines and co-structure-directing agents and pH values of reaction solution. It has been suggested that interaction strength between negatively charged DNA phosphate strands and positively charged counterions may be the key factor for the induction of DNA packing handedness. PMID:24098845

Liu, Ben; Han, Lu; Che, Shunai

2012-01-01

336

Formation of impeller-like helical DNA-silica complexes by polyamines induced chiral packing.  

PubMed

The helicity of DNA and its long-range chiral packing are widespread phenomena; however, the packing mechanism remains poorly understood both in vivo and in vitro. Here, we report the extraordinary DNA chiral self-assembly by silica mineralization, together with circular dichroism measurements and electron microscopy studies on the structure and morphology of the products. Mg(2+) ion and diethylenetriamine were found to induce right- and left-handed chiral DNA packing with two-dimensional-square p4mm mesostructures, respectively, to give corresponding enantiomeric impeller-like helical DNA-silica complexes. Moreover, formation of macroscopic impeller-like helical architectures depends on the types of polyamines and co-structure-directing agents and pH values of reaction solution. It has been suggested that interaction strength between negatively charged DNA phosphate strands and positively charged counterions may be the key factor for the induction of DNA packing handedness. PMID:24098845

Liu, Ben; Han, Lu; Che, Shunai

2012-10-01

337

Research for the Fluid Field of the Centrifugal Compressor Impeller in Accelerating Startup  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to study the flow field in the impeller in the accelerating start-up process of centrifugal compressor, the 3-D and 1-D transient accelerated flow governing equations along streamline in the impeller of the centrifugal compressor are derived in detail, the assumption of pressure gradient distribution is presented, and the solving method for 1-D transient accelerating flow field is given based on the assumption. The solving method is achieved by programming and the computing result is obtained. It is obtained by comparison that the computing method is met with the test result. So the feasibility and effectiveness for solving accelerating start-up problem of centrifugal compressor by the solving method in this paper is proven.

Li, Xiaozhu; Chen, Gang; Zhu, Changyun; Qin, Guoliang

2013-03-01

338

Design and performance of family of diffusing scrolls with mixed-flow impeller and vaneless diffuser  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A family of diffusing scrolls was designed for use with a mixed-flow impeller and a small-diameter vaneless diffuser. The design theory, intended to maintain a uniform pressure around the scroll inlet, permits determination of the position of scroll cross sections of preassigned area by considering the radial variation in fluid density and the effects of friction along the scroll. Inasmuch as the design method leaves the cross-sectional shape undetermined, the effect of certain variations in scroll shape was investigated by studying scrolls having angles of divergence (of the scroll walls downstream of the entrance section) of 24 degrees, 40 degrees, and 80 degrees. A second 80 degree scroll was of asymmetrical construction and a third was plaster-cast instead of sand-cast. Each scroll was tested as a compressor component at actual impeller tip speeds of 700 to 1300 feet per second from full throttle to surge.

Brown, W Byron; Bradshaw, Guy R

1949-01-01

339

Insulin Pumps  

MedlinePLUS

... for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy ... You'll want to check with your insurance carrier before you buy a pump and supplies. Most ...

340

A flow visualization study of centrifugal blood pumps developed for long-term usage.  

PubMed

We have developed centrifugal pumps for long-term circulatory assistance, with the final goal of a completely implantable ventricular assist device or total artificial heart. The previous model, NCVC-0, was characterized by a nonseal design and few flow-stagnating parts and acquired high durability and antithrombogenicity. To improve its pumping performance, NCVC-0 was modified. In the new model, NCVC-1, the profile shape of the impeller was changed from flat to conical, the number of vanes from 4 to 6, and the vane entrance angle from 30 degrees to 60 degrees. A flow visualization study performed by means of a combination of the polystyrene tracer method and the light-cutting method indicated decreased flow turbulence between vanes in NCVC-1, which corresponded well with the increased pumping performance. Flow visualization is a useful method to evaluate the design elements that are closely related to the pumping performance of a centrifugal blood pump. PMID:8507164

Araki, K; Taenaka, Y; Masuzawa, T; Inoue, K; Nakatani, T; Kinoshita, M; Akagi, H; Baba, Y; Matsuo, Y; Sakaki, M

1993-05-01

341

Relativistic Shock Waves in Viscous Gluon Matter  

SciTech Connect

We solve the relativistic Riemann problem in viscous gluon matter employing a microscopic parton cascade. We demonstrate the transition from ideal to viscous shock waves by varying the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio eta/s from zero to infinity. We show that an eta/s ratio larger than 0.2 prevents the development of well-defined shock waves on time scales typical for ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. Comparisons with viscous hydrodynamic calculations confirm our findings.

Bouras, I.; Xu, Z.; El, A.; Fochler, O.; Greiner, C. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Molnar, E.; Niemi, H. [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Strasse 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Rischke, D. H. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Strasse 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

2009-07-17

342

Drop size distribution and holdup in a rotating impeller extraction column  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stagewise hydrodynamic model, applying drop population balance equations derived from models for breakage and coalescence\\u000a of drops in a countercurrent liquid-liquid extraction system, was developed to predict the drop size distribution and the\\u000a holdup of the dispersed phase in a rotating impeller extraction column. The drop size distributions were obtained by taking\\u000a the photographs of the dispersions at the

Yong Kuk Lee; Dong Pyo Ju; Chul Kim

1991-01-01

343

Time-derivative preconditioning for viscous flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A time-derivative preconditioning algorithm that is effective over a wide range of flow conditions from inviscid to very diffusive flows and from low speed to supersonic flows was developed. This algorithm uses a viscous set of primary dependent variables to introduce well-conditioned eigenvalues and to avoid having a nonphysical time reversal for viscous flow. The resulting algorithm also provides a mechanism for controlling the inviscid and viscous time step parameters to be of order one for very diffusive flows, thereby ensuring rapid convergence at very viscous flows as well as for inviscid flows. Convergence capabilities are demonstrated through computation of a wide variety of problems.

Choi, Yunho; Merkle, Charles L.

1991-01-01

344

Sugarcane bagasse enzymatic hydrolysis: rheological data as criteria for impeller selection.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to select an efficient impeller to be used in a stirred reactor for the enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse. All experiments utilized 100 g (dry weight)/l of steam-pretreated bagasse, which is utilized in Brazil for cattle feed. The process was studied with respect to the rheological behavior of the biomass hydrolysate and the enzymatic conversion of the bagasse polysaccharides. These parameters were applied to model the power required for an impeller to operate at pilot scale (100 l) using empirical correlations according to Nagata [16]. Hydrolysis experiments were carried out using a blend of cellulases, ?-glucosidase, and xylanases produced in our laboratory by Trichoderma reesei RUT C30 and Aspergillus awamori. Hydrolyses were performed with an enzyme load of 10 FPU/g (dry weight) of bagasse over 36 h with periodic sampling for the measurement of viscosity and the concentration of glucose and reducing sugars. The mixture presented pseudoplastic behavior. This rheological model allowed for a performance comparison to be made between flat-blade disk (Rushton turbine) and pitched-blade (45°) impellers. The simulation showed that the pitched blade consumed tenfold less energy than the flat-blade disk turbine. The resulting sugar syrups contained 22 g/l of glucose, which corresponded to 45% cellulose conversion. PMID:20844924

Pereira, Leonardo Tupi Caldas; Pereira, Lucas Tupi Caldas; Teixeira, Ricardo Sposina Sobral; Bon, Elba Pinto da Silva; Freitas, Suely Pereira

2011-08-01

345

Computation of viscous incompressible flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Incompressible Navier-Stokes solution methods and their applications to three-dimensional flows are discussed. A brief review of existing methods is given followed by a detailed description of recent progress on development of three-dimensional generalized flow solvers. Emphasis is placed on primitive variable formulations which are most promising and flexible for general three-dimensional computations of viscous incompressible flows. Both steady- and unsteady-solution algorithms and their salient features are discussed. Finally, examples of real world applications of these flow solvers are given.

Kwak, Dochan

1989-01-01

346

Coiling of a viscous filament  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A classic demonstration of fluid buckling is a daily occurence at the breakfast table, where a continuous stream of viscous fluid (honey) is often poured onto a flat surface (toast) from a sufficient height. The thin fluid filament quickly settles into a steady state; near the surface it bends into a helical shape while simultaneously rotating about the vertical and is laid out in a regular coil. This behavior is reminiscent of the coiling of a falling flexible rope. We derive a simple scaling law that predicts the coiling frequency in terms of the filament radius and the flow rate. We also verify this scaling law with the results of experiments.

Samuel, A. D. T.; Ryu, W. S.; Mahadevan, L.

1997-11-01

347

Inhomogeneous viscous fluids for inflation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we investigate inhomogeneous viscous fluid cosmology for inflation. Several toy models are presented in the attempt to analyze how inflation can be realized according with cosmological data by making use of an inhomogeneous EoS parameter for the fluid and/or by introducing a viscosity to have a graceful exit from inflation. The results will be compared with the ones of scalar field representation and discussed. We will pay attention on the possibility to recover the reheating and therefore the Friedmann universe.

Myrzakulov, Ratbay; Sebastiani, Lorenzo

2014-12-01

348

Inhomogeneous viscous fluids for inflation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we investigate inhomogeneous viscous fluid cosmology for inflation. Several toy models are presented in the attempt to analyze how inflation can be realized according with cosmological data by making use of an inhomogeneous EoS parameter for the fluid and/or by introducing a viscosity to have a graceful exit from inflation. The results will be compared with the ones of scalar field representation and discussed. We will pay attention on the possibility to recover the reheating and therefore the Friedmann universe.

Myrzakulov, Ratbay; Sebastiani, Lorenzo

2015-03-01

349

Determination of the cavitation characteristics of vane pumps in the presence of a ''scale effect''  

SciTech Connect

This article explains how the use of impeller cavitation locking conditions in the presence of a cavitation scale effect provides a means of substantially reducing the number of tests required to obtain the cavitation characteristics for several fixed values of one of the liquid parameters causing the appearance of the cavitation scale effect. By using the method proposed, 4 tests are required in total. Points out that the new method of testing the pump is less laborious since it does not require maintaining constant to a high accuracy for the total test period the parameters of the pumped liquid which determine the cavitation scale effect.

Shcherbatenko, I.V.

1982-09-01

350

Pivot wear of a centrifugal blood pump developed for circulatory assist.  

PubMed

We are developing a monopivot centrifugal pump for circulatory assist for a period of more than 2 weeks. The impeller is supported by a pivot bearing at one end and by a passive magnetic bearing at the other. The pivot undergoes concentrated exposure to the phenomena of wear, hemolysis, and thrombus formation. The pivot durability, especially regarding the combination of male/female pivot radii, was examined through rotating wear tests and animal tests. As a result, combinations of similar radii for the male/female pivots were found to provide improved pump durability. In the extreme case, the no-gap combination would result in no thrombus formation. PMID:19184290

Yamane, Takashi; Nonaka, Katsunobu; Miyoshi, Hisashi; Maruyama, Osamu; Nishida, Masahiro; Kosaka, Ryo; Sankai, Yoshiyuki; Tsutsui, Tatsuo

2008-01-01

351

Optimal hydraulic design of new-type shaft tubular pumping system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the characteristics of large flow rate, low-head, short annual operation time and high reliability of city flood-control pumping stations, a new-type shaft tubular pumping system featuring shaft suction box, siphon-type discharge passage with vacuum breaker as cutoff device was put forward, which possesses such advantages as simpler structure, reliable cutoff and higher energy performance. According to the design parameters of a city flood control pumping station, a numerical computation model was set up including shaft-type suction box, siphon-type discharge passage, pump impeller and guide vanes. By using commercial CFD software Fluent, RNG ?-epsilon turbulence model was adopted to close the three-dimensional time-averaged incompressible N-S equations. After completing optimal hydraulic design of shaft-type suction box, and keeping the parameters of total length, maximum width and outlet section unchanged, siphon-type discharge passages of three hump locations and three hump heights were designed and numerical analysis on the 9 hydraulic design schemes of pumping system were proceeded. The computational results show that the changing of hump locations and hump heights directly affects the internal flow patterns of discharge passages and hydraulic performances of the system, and when hump is located 3.66D from the inlet section and hump height is about 0.65D (D is the diameter of pump impeller), the new-type shaft tubular pumping system achieves better energy performances. A pumping system model test of the optimal designed scheme was carried out. The result shows that the highest pumping system efficiency reaches 75.96%, and when at design head of 1.15m the flow rate and system efficiency were 0.304m3/s and 63.10%, respectively. Thus, the validity of optimal design method was verified by the model test, and a solid foundation was laid for the application and extension of the new-type shaft tubular pumping system.

Zhu, H. G.; Zhang, R. T.; Zhou, J. R.

2012-11-01

352

Development of an explicit multigrid algorithm for quasi-three-dimensional viscous flows in turbo-machinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A rapid quasi three-dimensional analysis was developed for blade-to-blade flows in turbomachinery. The analysis solves the unsteady Euler or thin layer Navier-Stokes equations in a body-fitted coordinate system. It accounts for the effects of rotation, radius change, and stream-surface thickness. The Baldwin-Lomax eddy-viscosity model is used for turbulent flows. The equations which are solved by a two-stage Runge-Kutta scheme made efficient by use of vectorization, a variable time-step, and a flux-based multigrid scheme, are described. A stability analysis is presented for the two-stage scheme. Results for a flat-plate model problem show the applicability of the method to axial, radial, and rotating geometries. Results for a centrifugal impeller and a radial diffuser show that the quasi three-dimensional viscous analysis can be a practical design tool.

Chima, R. V.

1985-01-01

353

Third-generation blood pumps with mechanical noncontact magnetic bearings.  

PubMed

This article reviews third-generation blood pumps, focusing on the magnetic-levitation (maglev) system. The maglev system can be categorized into three types: (i) external motor-driven system, (ii) direct-drive motor-driven system, and (iii) self-bearing or bearingless motor system. In the external motor-driven system, Terumo (Ann Arbor, MI, U.S.A.) DuraHeart is an example where the impeller is levitated in the axial or z-direction. The disadvantage of this system is the mechanical wear in the mechanical bearings of the external motor. In the second system, the impeller is made into the rotor of the motor, and the magnetic flux, through the external stator, rotates the impeller, while the impeller levitation is maintained through another electromagnetic system. The Berlin Heart (Berlin, Germany) INCOR is the best example of this principle where one-axis control combination with hydrodynamic force achieves high performance. In the third system, the stator core is shared by the levitation and drive coil to make it as if the bearing does not exist. Levitronix CentriMag (Zürich, Switzerland), which appeared recently, employs this concept to achieve stable and safe operation of the extracorporeal system that can last for a duration of 14 days. Experimental systems including HeartMate III (Thoratec, Woburn, MA, U.S.A.), HeartQuest (WorldHeart, Ottawa, ON, Canada), MagneVAD (Gold Medical Technologies, Valhalla, NY, U.S.A.), MiTiHeart (MiTi Heart, Albany, NY, U.S.A.), Ibaraki University's Heart (Hitachi, Japan) and Tokyo Medical and Dental University/Tokyo Institute of Technology's disposable and implantable maglev blood pumps are also reviewed. In reference to second-generation blood pumps, such as the Jarvik 2000 (Jarvik Heart, New York, NY, U.S.A.), which is showing remarkable achievement, a question is raised whether a complicated system such as the maglev system is really needed. We should pay careful attention to future clinical outcomes of the ongoing clinical trials of the second-generation devices before making any further remarks. What is best for patients is the best for everyone. We should not waste any efforts unless they are actually needed to improve the quality of life of heart-failure patients. PMID:16683949

Hoshi, Hideo; Shinshi, Tadahiko; Takatani, Setsuo

2006-05-01

354

Viscous Cahn-Hilliard Equation II. Analysis*  

E-print Network

Viscous Cahn-Hilliard Equation II. Analysis* Centre for Mathematical Analysis and Its Applications-4040 Received December 2, 1994; revised April 19, 1995 The viscous Cahn-Hilliard equation may be viewed as a singular limit of the phase-field equations for phase transitions. It contains both the Allen-Cahn and Cahn-Hilliard

Stuart, Andrew

355

Enstrophy Growth in the Viscous Burgers Equation  

E-print Network

Background Results Proofs Enstrophy Growth in the Viscous Burgers Equation Dmitry PelinovskyMaster University) Enstrophy Growth in the Viscous Burgers Equation #12;Background Results Proofs Burgers Equation Enstropy growth Numerical results Summary Burgers equation (T = [0, 1], u R ) u t + 2u u x = 2u x2 x T

Pelinovsky, Dmitry

356

Interacting Holographic Viscous Dark Energy Model  

E-print Network

In this manuscript, we present a generalization of the interacting holographic dark energy model using the viscous generalized Chaplygin gas. We also study the model by considering a dynamical Newton's constant $G$. Then we reconstruct the potential and the dynamics of the scalar field which describe the viscous Chaplygin cosmology.

Mubasher Jamil; M. Umar Farooq

2009-10-15

357

Viscous-pendulum damper suppresses structural vibrations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The viscous pendulum damper consists of a cylinder containing round trays on which round lead slugs rest. When assembled, the container is filled with a viscous liquid and attached, with axis vertical, to the structure. The device permits varying the damping of structural vibrations.

Reed, W. H., III

1964-01-01

358

Dependence of penicillium chrysogenum growth, morphology, vacuolation, and productivity in fed-batch fermentations on impeller type and agitation intensity  

PubMed

The influence of the agitation conditions on the growth, morphology, vacuolation, and productivity of Penicillium chrysogenum has been examined in 6 L fed-batch fermentations. A standard Rushton turbine, a four-bladed paddle, and a six-bladed pitched blade impeller were compared. Power inputs per unit volume of liquid, P/VL, ranged from 0.35 to 7.4 kW/m3. The same fermentation protocol was used in each fermentation, including holding the dissolved oxygen concentration above 40% air saturation by gas blending. The mean projected area (for all dispersed types, including clumps) and the clump roughness were used to characterize the morphology. Consideration of clumps was vital as these were the predominant morphological form. For a given impeller, the batch-phase specific growth rates and the overall biomass concentrations increased with agitation intensity. Higher fragmentation at higher speeds was assumed to have promoted growth through increased formation of new growing tips. The mean projected area increased during the rapid growth phase followed by a sharp decrease to a relatively constant value dependent on the agitation conditions. The higher the speed, the lower the projected area for a given impeller type. The proportion by volume of hyphal vacuoles and empty regions decreased with speed, possibly due to fragmentation in the vacuolated regions. The specific penicillin production rate was generally higher with lower impeller speed for a given impeller type. The highest value of penicillin production as well as its rate was obtained using the Rushton turbine impeller at the lowest speed. At given P/VL, changes in morphology, specific growth rate, and specific penicillin production rate depended on impeller geometry. The morphological data could be correlated with either tip speed or the "energy dissipation/circulation function," but a reasonable correlation of the specific growth rate and specific production rate was only possible with the latter. Copyright 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:10099397

J sten P; Paul; Nienow; Thomas

1998-09-20

359

The study of a reactor cooling pump under two-phase flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the steady pressure field has been investigated numerically by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in a nuclear reactor cooling pump. As a multiphase approach the Eulerian-Eulerian two fluid model has been applied to calculated five computational models with different kinds of blades. The analysis of inner flow field of the five model pumps shows that the pressure in the impeller increases with the increase of the gas contents and the pressure distributions are irregular at the inlet of different blades when the gas contents less than 20%. With the increase of the number of blades, the vortexes at the outlet of impeller decrease whereas the vortexes in the deep of the volute markedly increases and high velocity of the fluid huddle is generated gradually at the outlet pipes. Under the action of centrifugal force and Coriolis force, gas phase mainly concentrated at the lower velocity and lower pressure area. The radial force on the impeller gradually increases with the increase of the gas contents.

Wang, P.; Yuan, S. Q.; Wang, X. L.; Zhang, F.

2015-01-01

360

Fluctuating pressures in pump diffuser and collector scrolls, part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cracking of scroll liners on the SSME High Pressure Fuel Turbo Pump (HPFTP) on hot gas engine test firings has prompted a study into the nature of pressure fluctuations in centrifugal pump states. The amplitudes of these fluctuations and where they originate in the pump stage are quantified. To accomplish this, a test program was conducted to map the pressure pulsation activity in a centrifugal pump stage. This stage is based on typical commercial (or generic) pump design practice and not the specialized design of the HPFTP. Measurements made in the various elements comprising the stage indicate that pulsation activity is dominated by synchronous related phenomena. Pulsation amplitudes measured in the scroll are low, on the order of 2 to 7 percent of the impeller exit tip speed velocity head. Significant non-sychronous pressure fluctuations occur at low flow, and while of interest to commercial pump designers, have little meaning to the HPFTP experience. Results obtained with the generic components do provide insights into possible pulsation related scroll failures on the HPFTP, and provide a basis for further study.

Sloteman, Donald P.

1989-01-01

361

Three-dimensional numerical prediction of stress loading of blood particles in a centrifugal pump.  

PubMed

The successful use of centrifugal pumps as temporary cardiac assist devices strongly depends on their degree of blood trauma. The mechanical stress loading experienced by cellular components on their passage through the pump is a major cause of blood trauma. Prediction of the mechanical stresses will assist optimization of pump design to minimize hemolysis and platelet activation. As a theoretical approach to this task., the determination of the complete three-dimensional (3D) flow field including all regions of high shear stress is therefore required. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package, TASCflow, was used to model flow within a commercially available pump, the Aries Medical Isoflow Pump. This pump was selected in order to demonstrate the ability of the CFD software to handle complex impeller geometries. A turbulence model was included, and the Newtonian as well as the Reynolds stress tensor calculated for each nodal point. A novel aspect was the assignment of scalar stress values to streaklines representing particle paths through the pump. Scalar stress values were obtained by formulating a theory that enables the comparison of a three-dimensional state of stress with a uniaxial stress as applied in all mechanical blood damage tests. Stress loading-time functions for fluid particles passing inlet, impeller, and outlet domains of the pump were obtained. These showed that particles undergo a complex, irregularly fluctuating stress loading. Future blood damage theories would have to consider an unsteady stress loading regime that realistically reflects the flow conditions occurring within the pump.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8572957

Bludszuweit, C

1995-07-01

362

Magnetically suspended rotary blood pump with radial type combined motor-bearing.  

PubMed

A magnetically suspended centrifugal blood pump is being developed with a combined motor-bearing for long-term ventricular assist systems. The combined motor-bearing actively suspends a rotor in a radial direction to deal with radial force unbalance in the pump and rotates the rotor by using the electric magnetic field. Therefore, the pump has no mechanical parts such as bearings of the motor and has a long lifetime. The developed pump consists of a thin rotor with a semi open-type 6 vane impeller and a stator to suspend and rotate the rotor. The rotor has 4-pole permanent magnets on the circumferential surface. The outer diameter and the thickness of the rotor are 60 mm and 8 mm, respectively. Axial movement and tilt of the rotor are restricted by passive stability based on the thin rotor structure. Radial movements of the rotor, such as levitation in radial direction and rotation, are controlled actively by using electric magnets of the stator. The electric magnet coils to produce levitation and rotation forces are constructed on the periphery stator. The p +/- 2-pole algorithm and the synchronous motor mechanism are adopted to levitate and rotate the rotor. The radial gap between the rotor and the stator is 1 mm. A closed-loop circuit filled with water was connected to the developed pump to examine the basic performance of the pump and the magnetic suspension system. Maximum rotational speed, flow rate, and head were 2,800 rpm, 11 L/min, and 270 mm Hg, respectively. The rotor with the impeller could be suspended completely during the entire pumping process. We conclude the pump with the combined motor-bearing has sufficient performance for the blood pump. PMID:10886067

Masuzawa, T; Kita, T; Matsuda, K; Okada, Y

2000-06-01

363

Injection pump  

Microsoft Academic Search

An injection pump includes a rotor having a central axial bore and a radial bore and rotated in relationship with an engine. A free piston reciprocably inserted in the central axial bore defines a first and second chamber. The first chamber includes a plurality of first radial passages and a radial spill port and communicate with the radial bore and

Hoshi

1984-01-01

364

Pumping Myocytes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We may not immediately think of our heart as a collection of individual cells. But it is the complex interaction of numerous cell types that give the heart its ability to pump blood. On this site, you will learn about the cells of the heart and you will get a see a video of the cells within the heart.

2010-01-01

365

Some Studies on Viscous Fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis, we study several issues involving incompressible viscous fluids with the slip boundary conditions and the motions of fluid-solid interactions. In the first part, we study the issue of the inviscid limit of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on the general smooth domains for completely slip boundary conditions. We verify an asymptotic expansion which involves a weak amplitude boundary layer with the same thickness as in the Prantle's theory. We improve the better regularity for the boundary layer and obtain the uniform Lp--estimates (3 < p ? 6) of the remainder. Then we improved these estimates to H 1--estimates. It is shown that the viscous solution converges to the solution of Euler equation in C([0, T]; H1(O)) as the viscosity tends to zero. In the second part, we consider the non-stationary problems of a class of non-Newtonian fluid which is a power law fluid with p > 3nn+2 in the half space with slip boundary conditions. We present the local pressure estimate with the Navier's slip boundary conditions. Using these estimates and an Linfinity -- truncation method, we can obtain that this system has at least one required weak solution. Finally, we investigate the motion of a general form rigid body with smooth boundary by an incompressible perfect fluid occupying R3 . Due to the domain occupied by the fluid depending on the time, this problem can be transformed into a new systems of the fluid in a fixed domain by the frame attached with the body. With the aid of Kato-Lai's theory, we construct a sequence of successive solutions to this problem in some unform time interval. Then by a fixed point argument, we have proved that the existence, uniqueness and persistence of the regularity for the solutions of original fluid-structure interaction problem.

Zang, Aibin

366

Flow visualization in a centrifugal blood pump with an eccentric inlet port.  

PubMed

Flow visualization analysis was applied to the Baylor/Miwatec centrifugal artificial heart to evaluate its fluid dynamic characteristics regarding antithrombogenicity. An eccentric vortex was found both in the upper and the lower gaps of the impeller, which is supposed to be caused by the eccentric inlet port. Therefore, one-way flow toward the outlet is formed and washes the pivot. The combination of an eccentric vortex and a pivot bearing that is washed is unique to the Baylor/Miwatec pump. For the male pivots exposed to periodic wash, the minimum shear rate around the bottom pivot was estimated to be 650/s, which is higher than the threshold for thrombus formation shown by other studies. The wall shear rate at the impeller bottom surface was found to be larger in the top contact mode than in the bottom contact mode. PMID:15153149

Yamane, Takashi; Kodama, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Yoshiro; Shinohara, Toshiyuki; Nosé, Yukihiko

2004-06-01

367

The comparative performance of Roots type aircraft engine superchargers as affected by change in impeller speed and displacement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the results of tests made on three sizes of roots type aircraft engine superchargers. The impeller contours and diameters of these machines were the same, but the length were 11, 8 1/4, and 4 inches, giving displacements of 0.509, 0.382, and 0.185 cubic foot per impeller revolution. The information obtained serves as a basis for the examination of the individual effects of impeller speed and displacement on performance and of the comparative performance when speed and displacement are altered simultaneously to meet definite service requirements. According to simple theory, when assuming no losses, the air weight handled and the power required for a given pressure difference are directly proportional to the speed and the displacement. These simple relations are altered considerably by the losses. When comparing the performance of different sizes of machines whose impeller speeds are so related that the same service requirements are met, it is found that the individual effects of speed and displacement are canceled to a large extent, and the only considerable difference is the difference in the power losses which decrease with increase in the displacement and the accompanying decrease in speed. This difference is small in relation to the net power of the engine supercharger unit, so that a supercharger with short impellers may be used in those applications where the space available is very limited with any considerable sacrifice in performance.

Ware, Marsden; Wilson, Ernest E

1929-01-01

368

Hydraulic design, numerical simulation and BVF diagnosis of high efficiency centrifugal pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under the Two-dimensional Flow Theory and the Velocity Coefficient Theory, a centrifugal-pump impeller has been designed, based on the parameters of IS150-125-250 centrifugal pump. And self-compiled programs have been used to complete the hydraulic design of the whole flow passage of centrifugal pump. The space bending and twisting characteristics of the design blade are more obvious. Then, numerical simulation is applied to the inner flow field of the two pumps using RANS (Reynolds Averaged N-S) Equation with a standard k-? two-equation turbulence model. The compare of the numerical simulation data of two centrifugal pumps, getting from 13 working points including design condition, shows that, the design pump has higher head and efficiency in the range of lower flow rate. Based on the numerical results of the inner flow of the design pump and model pump, the boundary vorticity flux (BVF) diagnostics has been used to analyze the BVF distribution of suction surface and pressure surface of two pumps. The result shows that, the BVF distribution of the design pump is more uniform and smooth, with smaller peak value.

Zhang, Y. X.; Chen, L.; Zhou, X.; Jiangand, C. W.; Su, M.

2012-11-01

369

In vitro evaluation of the TandemHeart pediatric centrifugal pump.  

PubMed

The pediatric TandemHeart pump is being developed for short-term circulatory support of patients varying in size from 2 to 40 kg. The pump withdraws blood from the left atrium via cannula inserted percutaneously, either through the right internal jugular vein or transhepatically, and pumps the blood back into the arterial system via the carotid or femoral artery. High resolution stereolithography (SLA) was used to create an upper housing and impeller design, which were assembled into a functional pump prototype. Pressure-flow characteristics of the pump were determined in a blood analogue solution and compared with the pressure-flow requirements of the intended cannulation. At 5,500 rpm, the pump was able to generate 0.4 L/min of flow with a pressure rise of 325 mm Hg and 2.0 L/min with a pressure rise of 250 mm Hg. The hydraulic performance of the pump will enable at least 50% of cardiac output when the arterial cannula is placed in the carotid artery. The hemolysis of the TandemHeart pediatric pump at 5,500 rpm was compared with the BP-50 pediatric centrifugal pump in vitro using bovine blood flowing at 0.4 L/min against 250 mm Hg. The TandemHeart pump produced a similar increase in plasma free hemoglobin levels during the duration of the 6 hour test. PMID:18043160

Svitek, Robert G; Smith, Douglas E; Magovern, James A

2007-01-01

370

Numerical study on matching structures improvement of vertical self-priming pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the vertical packingless self-priming pump which was designed by using traditional method, special water passage and cylindrical air-water separation chamber were used to ensure the self-priming performance. In order to identify the influence produced by different structures on the vertical self-priming pump and improve the hydraulic performance of the vertical packingless self-priming pump, a three-dimentional model of the vertical self-priming pump including inlet passage, impeller, volute, cylindrical air-water separation chamber and outlet pipe was established. The influences of different key parameters of hydraulic model and the matching structure on hydraulic performance of the self-priming pump such as the distance, height and angle between the outlet of the volute and inlet of the outlet pipe, were analyzed by using numerical method. Self-priming pump models with different matching structures of volute and outlet pipe were simulated and analyzed in detail. Based on the analysis, the advices of the matching structure design and key parameters selection are presented in this paper. The result of numerical analysis is used in optimizing design of the vertical packingless self-priming pump. Model pump performance test was carried out on an open type pump experiment system which consists of water reservoir, inlet pipe, self-priming pump, outlet pipe, flow rate and pressure transducers. The numerical and experimental results were matched very well. The performance of optimized products was verified by industrial applications.

Sun, Y. B.; Chen, T.; Wu, D. Z.; Wang, L. Q.

2012-11-01

371

18. Electrically driven pumps in Armory Street Pump House. Pumps ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. Electrically driven pumps in Armory Street Pump House. Pumps in background formerly drew water from the clear well. They went out of service when use of the beds was discontinued. Pumps in the foreground provide high pressure water to Hamden. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Armory Street Pumphouse, North side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

372

Bulk viscous cosmology: statefinder and entropy  

E-print Network

The statefinder diagnostic pair is adopted to differentiate viscous cosmology models and it is found that the trajectories of these viscous cosmology models on the statefinder pair $s-r$ plane are quite different from those of the corresponding non-viscous cases. Particularly for the quiessence model, the singular properties of state parameter $w=-1$ are obviously demonstrated on the statefinder diagnostic pair planes. We then discuss the entropy of the viscous / dissipative cosmology system which may be more practical to describe the present cosmic observations as the perfect fluid is just a global approximation to the complicated cosmic media in current universe evolution. When the bulk viscosity takes the form of $\\zeta=\\zeta_{1}\\dot{a}/a$($\\zeta_{1}$ is constant), the relationship between the entropy $S$ and the redshift $z$ is explicitly given out. We find that the entropy of the viscous cosmology is always increasing and consistent with the thermodynamics arrow of time for the universe evolution. With the parameter constraints from fitting to the 157 gold data of supernova observations, it is demonstrated that this viscous cosmology model is rather well consistent to the observational data at the lower redshifts, and together with the diagnostic statefinder pair analysis it is concluded that the viscous cosmic models tend to the favored $\\Lambda$CDM model in the later cosmic evolution, agreeable to lots of cosmological simulation results, especially to the fact of confidently observed current accelerating cosmic expansion.

M. Hu; Xin He Meng

2005-11-23

373

Design and optimization of a large flow rate booster pump in SWRO energy recovery system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is a high energy-consumption industry, so energy efficiency is an important issue. Energy recovery systems, which contain a pressure exchanger and a booster pump, are widely used in SWRO plants. As a key part of energy recovery system, the difficulty of designing booster pumps lies in high inlet pressure, high medium causticity and large flow rate. High inlet pressure adds difficulties to seal design, and large flow rate and high efficiency requirement bring high demand for hydraulic design. In this paper, a 625 m3/h booster pump is designed and optimized according to the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation results. The impeller and volute is well designed, a new type of high pressure mechanical seal is applied and axial force is well balanced. After optimization based on blade redesign, the efficiency of the pump was improved. The best efficiency reaches more than 85% at design point according to the CFD simulation result.

Lai, Z. N.; Wu, P.; Wu, D. Z.; Wang, L. Q.

2013-12-01

374

Types of Breast Pumps  

MedlinePLUS

... difficult to clean and dry. Battery-Powered and Electric Pumps A powered breast pump uses batteries or ... long tubes connecting the breast-shield to the electric pump. The pump has a control panel with ...

375

Performance of J33-A-23 Turbojet-Engine Compressor. II; Over-All Performance Characteristics of Compressor with 34-Blade Impeller at Equivalent Impeller Speeds from 6000 to 11.750 RPM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The J33-A-23 compressor with a 34-blade impeller was operated at ambient inlet temperature and an inlet pressure of 14 inches mercury absolute over a range of equivalent impeller speeds from 6000 to 11,750 rpm. Additional runs at equivalent speeds of 7,000, 10,000, and 11,750 rpm and ambient inlet temperature were made at inlet pressures of 5 and 10 inches mercury absolute. The results of this investigation are compared with those of the J33-A-23 compressor with a 17-blade impeller. At the design equivalent speed of 11,750 rpm the 533-A-23 compressor with a 34-blade impeller had a peak pressure ratio of 4.49 at an equivalent weight flow of 82.4 pounds per second and an adiabatic temperature-rise efficiency of 0.740. The maximum equivalent flow at design speed was 91.8 pounds per second. The peak efficiency at design speed (0.757) occurred at an equivalent weight flow of 85.5 pounds per second. The maximum adiabatic temperature- rise efficiency of 0.773 was obtained at an equivalent impeller speed of 10,000 rpm, an equivalent weight flow of 65.8 pounds per second, and a pressure ratio of 3.27. At equivalent impeller speeds of.l0,000 and 11,75O rpm a decrease in inlet pressure resulted in a decrease in maximum equivalent weight flow, peak pressure ratio, and peak adiabatic temperature- rise efficiency.

Beede, William L.; Kovach, Karl

1948-01-01

376

Numerical simulation of the effect of solid-volume fraction on induction force of screw centrifugal pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solid-liquid two-phase unsteady flow in a screw centrifugal pump was simulated with unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations and sliding mesh technology. The distribution of the pressure at volute outlet, radial force, axial force and total moment are presented in this paper. The effects of solid-phase volume fractions on the value and direction of the induction thrust are analyzed. Seven monitor points are arranged on the inner surface of volute along the impeller rotation. The characters of the induced force on the monitor points with different solid-phase volume fractions are investigated. The results indicated that different solid-volume fractions have litter effects on the trend and direction of pressure at volute, radial force, axial force and total moment during one period, but the value of induction forces increase with the increasing of solid-volume fraction; The pressure fluctuation on the monitor points has with different trends during one period, which depends on the direction of the monitor points and the rotor-stator interaction strength of impeller and volute. With the rotation of impeller, the values of pressure in the whole passage are further increased along the rotation direction with the role of impeller vane. Solid-phase volume fraction has few effects on change trend of induced thrust as radial force and axial force on the monitor points, but the values of pressure on the monitor points increase with the increasing of solid-volume fraction.

Han, W.; Ma, W.; Li, R. N.; Gao, Y.; Gao, H.

2012-11-01

377

Computational Approach for Developing Blood Pump  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of the computational approach to developing a ventricular assist device (VAD) which utilizes NASA aerospace technology. The VAD is used as a temporary support to sick ventricles for those who suffer from late stage congestive heart failure (CHF). The need for donor hearts is much greater than their availability, and the VAD is seen as a bridge-to-transplant. The computational issues confronting the design of a more advanced, reliable VAD include the modelling of viscous incompressible flow. A computational approach provides the possibility of quantifying the flow characteristics, which is especially valuable for analyzing compact design with highly sensitive operating conditions. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and rocket engine technology has been applied to modify the design of a VAD which enabled human transplantation. The computing requirement for this project is still large, however, and the unsteady analysis of the entire system from natural heart to aorta involves several hundred revolutions of the impeller. Further study is needed to assess the impact of mechanical VADs on the human body

Kwak, Dochan

2002-01-01

378

Experimental study of the pressure fluctuations in a pump turbine at large partial flow conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frequent shifts of output and operating mode require a pump turbine with excellent stability. Current researches show that large partial flow conditions in pump mode experience positive-slope phenomena with a large head drop. The pressure fluctuation at the positive slope is crucial to the pump turbine unit safety. The operating instabilities at large partial flow conditions for a pump turbine are analyzed. The hydraulic performance of a model pump turbine is tested with the pressure fluctuations measured at unstable operating points near a positive slope in the performance curve. The hydraulic performance tests show that there are two separated positive-slope regions for the pump turbine, with the flow discharge for the first positive slope from 0.85 to 0.91 times that at the maximum efficiency point. The amplitudes of the pressure fluctuations at these unstable large partial flow conditions near the first positive slope are much larger than those at stable operating condtions. A dominant frequency is measured at 0.2 times the impeller rotational frequency in the flow passage near the impeller exit, which is believed to be induced by the rotating stall in the flow passage of the wicket gates. The test results also show hysteresis with pressure fluctuations when the pump turbine is operated near the first positive slope. The hysteresis creates different pressure fluctuations for those operation points even though their flow rates and heads are similar respectively. The pressure fluctuation characteristics at large partial flow conditions obtained by the present study will be helpful for the safe operation of pumped storage units.

Ran, Hongjuan; Luo, Xianwu; Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Yao; Wang, Xin; Xu, Hongyuan

2012-11-01

379

Unsteady internal flow conditions of mini-centrifugal pump with splitter blades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mini centrifugal pumps having a diameter smaller than 100mm are employed in many fields. But the design method for the mini centrifugal pump is not established because the internal flow condition for these small-sized fluid machines is not clarified and conventional theory is not suitable for small-sized pumps. Therefore, mini centrifugal pumps with simple structure were investigated by this research. Splitter blades were adopted in this research to improve the performance and the internal flow condition of mini centrifugal pump which had large blade outlet angle. The original impeller without the splitter blades and the impeller with the splitter blades were prepared for experiment. The performance tests are conducted with these rotors in order to investigate the effect of the splitter blades on performance and internal flow condition of mini centrifugal pump. On the other hand, a three dimensional unsteady numerical flow analysis was conducted to investigate the change of the internal flow according to the rotor rotation. It is clarified from the experimental results that the performance of the mini centrifugal pump is improved by the splitter blades. The blade-to-blade low velocity region was suppressed in the case with the splitter blades. In addition to that, the unsteady flows near the volute casing tongue were suppressed due to the splitter blades. In the present paper, the performance of the mini centrifugal pump is shown and the unsteady flow condition is clarified with the results of the numerical flow analysis. Furthermore, the effects of the splitter blades on the performance and the unsteady internal flow condition are investigated.

Shigemitsu, T.; Fukutomi, J.; Kaji, K.; Wada, T.

2013-02-01

380

Hydraulic performance numerical simulation of high specific speed mixed-flow pump based on quasi three-dimensional hydraulic design method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research adopts the quasi three-dimensional hydraulic design method for the impeller of high specific speed mixed-flow pump to achieve the purpose of verifying the hydraulic design method and improving hydraulic performance. Based on the two families of stream surface theory, the direct problem is completed when the meridional flow field of impeller is obtained by employing iterative calculation to settle the continuity and momentum equation of fluid. The inverse problem is completed by using the meridional flow field calculated in the direct problem. After several iterations of the direct and inverse problem, the shape of impeller and flow field information can be obtained finally when the result of iteration satisfies the convergent criteria. Subsequently the internal flow field of the designed pump are simulated by using RANS equations with RNG k-? two-equation turbulence model. The static pressure and streamline distributions at the symmetrical cross-section, the vector velocity distribution around blades and the reflux phenomenon are analyzed. The numerical results show that the quasi three-dimensional hydraulic design method for high specific speed mixed-flow pump improves the hydraulic performance and reveal main characteristics of the internal flow of mixed-flow pump as well as provide basis for judging the rationality of the hydraulic design, improvement and optimization of hydraulic model.

Zhang, Y. X.; Su, M.; Hou, H. C.; Song, P. F.

2013-12-01

381

Cavitation performance prediction of mixed-flow pump based on CFD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method is used to investigate the three-dimensional cavitation flow fields in a mixed-flow pump with high specific speed. In the numerical modeling, the homogeneous mixture model and Navier-Stokes equation with RNG k-? turbulence model are employed. At the best efficiency condition, the cavitation location on the impeller blades and the distribution situation of vapor volume fraction were analyzed, as well as the performance curve between the pump's NPSHA and efficiency were predicted. The results show that, the cavitation directly affects the pressure distribution on impeller blade surfaces, and also results in change of the pump external characteristic. Under the primary cavitation condition, Water vapors first accumulate on the suction surface of blade's leading edge, which is close to the tip. With the decrease of inlet total pressure, the cavitation region extended towards the trailing edge and water vapor fraction volume become larger gradually. When cavitation is serious, water vapors mainly accumulate on the suction surface of blade's trailing edge. The prediction curve has the same trend as the practical curve, which can reveal the mixed-flow pump cavitation within the static characteristics.

Yang, F.; Liu, C.; Tang, F. P.

2012-11-01

382

Improvement of hemocompatibility for hydrodynamic levitation centrifugal pump by optimizing step bearings.  

PubMed

We have developed a hydrodynamic levitation centrifugal blood pump with a semi-open impeller for a mechanically circulatory assist. The impeller levitated with original hydrodynamic bearings without any complicated control and sensors. However, narrow bearing gap has the potential for causing hemolysis. The purpose of the study is to investigate the geometric configuration of the hydrodynamic step bearing to minimize hemolysis by expansion of the bearing gap. Firstly, we performed the numerical analysis of the step bearing based on Reynolds equation, and measured the actual hydrodynamic force of the step bearing. Secondly, the bearing gap measurement test and the hemolysis test were performed to the blood pumps, whose step length were 0 %, 33 % and 67 % of the vane length respectively. As a result, in the numerical analysis, the hydrodynamic force was the largest, when the step bearing was around 70 %. In the actual evaluation tests, the blood pump having step 67 % obtained the maximum bearing gap, and was able to improve the hemolysis, compared to those having step 0% and 33%. We confirmed that the numerical analysis of the step bearing worked effectively, and the blood pump having step 67 % was suitable configuration to minimize hemolysis, because it realized the largest bearing gap. PMID:22254562

Kosaka, Ryo; Yada, Toru; Nishida, Masahiro; Maruyama, Osamu; Yamane, Takashi

2011-01-01

383

Study on vibration characteristics of the shaft system for a dredging pump based on FEM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic characteristics of the shaft system for a dredging pump were studied with the Finite Element Method (FEM) by SAMCEF ROTOR. At first, the influence of the fluid-solid coupling interaction of mud water and impeller, water sealing and pump shaft on the lateral critical speeds were analyzed. The results indicated that the mud water must be taken into consideration, while the water sealing need not to. Then the effects of radial and thrust rolling bearings on the lateral critical speeds were discussed, which shows that the radial bearing close to the impeller has greatest impact on the 1st order critical speed. At last, the upper and lower limits of the critical speeds of lateral, axial and torsional vibration were calculated. The rated speed of the dredging pump was far less than the predicted critical speed, which can ensure the safe operation of the unit. Each vibration mode is also shown in this paper. This dynamic analysis method offers some reference value on the research of vibration and stability of the shaft system in dredging pump.

Zhai, L. M.; Qin, L.; Liu, C. Y.; Liu, X.; He, L. Y.; He, Y.; Wang, Z. W.

2012-11-01

384

Demonstration of a Low-Lift Heat Pump for High-Power Spacecraft Thermal Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the development and demonstration of a prototype low-lift heat pump for high-power spacecraft thermal control The low-lift heat pump was designed to provide 25 kW of cooling at 303 K and transport this waste heat to a radiator for heat rejection. To accomplish this, a demonstration heat pump with an evaporation temperature of 298 K and a condensing temperature of 301 K was designed and built. HFC-227ea was the working fluid. This effort resulted in optimization of the centrifugal compressor impeller, diffuser, and shroud designs through extensive experimental testing. The detailed design of a magnetic bearing centrifugal compressor was completed. A prototype heat pump thermal control system was designed and fabricated which contained prototypical cold plate and condenser designs. This prototype system was extensively tested and demonstrated to measure performance parameters such as power consumption, cooling capacity, system size and mass, and other key parameters. Finally, the experimental performance was input into the theoretical trade study allowing for a comparison of the actual performance of the low-lift heat pump to a single-phase pumped loop. Inputting the experimental low-lift heat pump performance into the trade study showed that the low-lift heat pump still has lower system mass than the single-phase pumped loop for all space temperatures considered. The experimental results very closely match the theoretical results used in the trade study.

Grzyll, Lawrence R.

2006-01-01

385

A new rotary blood pump for versatile extracorporeal circulation: the DeltaStream.  

PubMed

Today, rotary pumps are routinely used for extracorporeal circulation in different clinical settings and applications. A review of these applications and specific limitations in extracorporeal perfusion was performed and served as a basis for the development of the DeltaStream. The DeltaStreams is a miniaturized rotary blood pump of a new and unique design with an integrated drive unit. Despite its small design, the pump maintains a sufficient hydraulic capacity, which makes the DeltaStream very flexible for intra- and perioperative applications. It also opens the field for short-term ventricular assist devices (VAD) applications or use as a component in extracorporeal life support systems (ECLS). The DeltaStream and, specifically, its impeller design have been optimized with respect to haemolysis and nonthrombogenicity. Also, the pump facilitates an effective pulse generation in VAD applications and simulates heart action in a more physiological way than other rotary pumps or roller pumps. Hydraulic and haematological properties have been tested in vitro and in vivo. In a series of seven animal experiments in two different setups, the pump demonstrated its biocompatibility and applicability. Basic aspects of the DeltaStream pump concept as well as important console features are presented. A summary of the final investigation of this pump is given with focus on hydraulic capabilities and results from animal studies. PMID:12243443

Göbel, C; Arvand, A; Rau, G; Reul, H; Meyns, B; Flameng, W; Eilers, R; Marseille, O

2002-09-01

386

Numerical simulation of hydrodynamics in a pump-turbine at off-design operating conditions in turbine mode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrodynamics of a reduced-scaled model of a radial pump-turbine is investigated under off-design operating conditions, involving runaway and "S-shape" turbine brake curve at low positive discharge. It is a low specific speed pump-turbine machine of Francis type with 9 impeller blades and 20 stay vanes as well as 20 guide vanes. The computational domain includes the entire water passage from the spiral casing inlet to the draft tube outlet. Completely structured hexahedral meshes generated by the commercial software ANSYS-ICEM are employed. The unsteady incompressible simulations are performed using the commercial code ANSYS-CFX13. For turbulence modeling the standard k-? model is applied. The numerical results at different operating points are compared to the experimental results. The predicted pressure amplitude is in good agreement with the experimental data and the amplitude of normal force on impeller is in reasonable range. The detailed analysis reveals the onset of the flow instabilities when the machine is brought from a regular operating condition to runaway and turbine break mode. Furthermore, the rotating stall phenomena are well captured at runaway condition as well as low discharge operating condition with one stall cell rotating inside and around the impeller with about 70% of its frequency. Moreover, the rotating stall is found to be the effect of rotating flow separations developed in several consecutive impeller channels which lead to their blockage. The reliable simulation of S-curve characteristics in pump-turbines is a basic requirement for design and optimization at off-design operating conditions.

Yan, J. P.; Seidel, U.; Koutnik, J.

2012-11-01

387

Numerical simulation of unsteady viscous flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most unsteady viscous flows may be grouped into two categories, i.e., forced and self-sustained oscillations. Examples of forced oscillations occur in turbomachinery and in internal combustion engines while self-sustained oscillations prevail in vortex shedding, inlet buzz, and wing flutter. Numerical simulation of these phenomena was achieved due to the advancement of vector processor computers. Recent progress in the simulation of unsteady viscous flows is addressed.

Hankey, Wilbur L.

1987-01-01

388

Pipe effect in viscous liquids  

E-print Network

A detailed experimental and theoretical study has been performed about a phenomenon, not previously reported in the literature, occurring in highly viscous liquids: the formation of a definite pipe structure induced by the passage of a heavy body, this structure lasting for quite a long time. A very rich phenomenology (including mechanical, optical and structural effects) associated with the formation of the pipe has been observed in different liquids. Actually, the peculiar dynamical evolution of that structure does not appear as a trivial manifestation of standard relaxation or spurious effects. In particular we have revealed different time scales during the evolution of the pipe and a non-monotonous decreasing of the persistence time with decreasing viscosity (with the appearance of at least two different maxima). A microscopic model consistent with the experimental data, where the pipe behaves as a cylindrical dielectric shell, has been proposed. The general time evolution of the structure has been described in terms of a simple thermodynamical model, predicting several peculiarities effectively observed.

V. Capano; S. Esposito; G. Salesi

2008-12-23

389

Tensile and Creep Property Characterization of Potential Brayton Cycle Impeller and Duct Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper represents a status report documenting the work on creep of superalloys performed under Project Prometheus. Cast superalloys have potential applications in space as impellers within closed-loop Brayton cycle nuclear power generation systems. Likewise wrought superalloys are good candidates for ducts and heat exchangers transporting the inert working gas in a Brayton-based power plant. Two cast superalloys, Mar-M247LC and IN792, and a NASA GRC powder metallurgy superalloy, LSHR, are being screened to compare their respective capabilities for impeller applications. Several wrought superalloys including Hastelloy X, (Haynes International, Inc., Kokomo, IN), Inconel 617, Inconel 740, Nimonic 263, and Incoloy MA956 (Special Metals Corporation, Huntington, WV) are also being screened to compare their capabilities for duct applications. These proposed applications would require sufficient strength and creep resistance for long term service at temperatures up to 1200 K, with service times to 100,000 h or more. Conventional tensile and creep tests were performed at temperatures up to 1200 K on specimens extracted from the materials. Initial microstructure evaluations were also undertaken.

Gabb, Timothy P.; Gayda, John

2006-01-01

390

Creep Property Characterization of Potential Brayton Cycle Impeller and Duct Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cast superalloys have potential applications in space as impellers within closed-loop Brayton cycle nuclear power generation systems. Likewise wrought superalloys are good candidates for ducts and heat exchangers transporting the inert working gas in a Brayton-based power plant. Two cast superalloys, Mar-M247LC and IN792, and a NASA GRC powder metallurgy superalloy, LSHR, have been screened to compare their respective capabilities for impeller applications. Mar-M247LC has been selected for additional long term evaluations. Initial tests in helium indicate this inert environment may debit long term creep resistance of this alloy. Several wrought superalloys including Hastelloy(Registered TradeMark) X, Inconel(Registered TradeMark) 617, Inconel(Registered TradeMark) 740, Nimonic(Registered TradeMark) 263, Incoloy(Registered TradeMark) MA956, and Haynes 230 are also being screened to compare their capabilities for duct applications. Haynes 230 has been selected for additional long term evaluations. Initial tests in helium are just underway for this alloy. These proposed applications would require sufficient strength and creep resistance for long term service at temperatures up to 1200 K, with service times to 100,000 h or more. Therefore, long term microstructural stability is also being screened.

Gabb, Timothy P.; Gayda, john; Garg, Anita

2007-01-01

391

Scale-up of biotransformation process in stirred tank reactor using dual impeller bioreactor.  

PubMed

The gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient K(L)a in the fermenter is a strong function of mode of energy dissipation and physico-chemical properties of the liquid media. A combination of disc turbine (DT) and pitched blade turbine down flow (PTD) impellers has been tested in laboratory bioreactor for gas hold-up and gas-liquid mass transfer performance for the growth and biotransformation medium for an yeast isolate VS1 capable of biotransforming benzaldehyde to L-phenyl acetyl carbinol (L-PAC) and compared with those in water.Correlations have been developed for the prediction of the fractional gas hold-up and gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient for the above media. The mass transfer coefficient and respiration rate have been determined in the shake flask for the growth as well as for biotransformation medium. These results, then have been used to optimize the operating parameters (impeller speed and aeration) for growth and biotransformation in a laboratory bioreactor. The comparison of cell mass production and L-PAC production in the bioreactor has been done with that obtained in shake flask studies. PMID:11356367

Shukla, V B.; Parasu Veera, U; Kulkarni, P R.; Pandit, A B.

2001-07-01

392

Orthogonal decomposition as a design tool: With application to a mixing impeller  

SciTech Connect

Digital manufacturing eliminates the expense and time required to develop custom products. By utilizing this technology, designers can quickly create a customized product specifically for their performance needs. But the timescale and expense from the engineering design workflows used to develop these customized products have not been adapted from the workflows used in mass production. In many cases these customized designs build upon already successful mass-produced products that were developed using conventional engineering design workflows. Many times as part of this conventional design process significant time is spent creating and validating high fidelity models that accurately predict the performance of the final design. These existing validated high fidelity models used for the mass-produced design can be reused for analysis and design of unknown products. This thesis explores the integration of reduced order modeling and detailed analysis into the engineering design workflow developing a customized design using digital manufacturing. Specifically, detailed analysis is coupled with proper orthogonal decomposition to enable the exploration of the design space while simultaneously shaping the model representing the design. This revised workflow is examined using the design of a laboratory scale overhead mixer impeller. The case study presented here is compared with the design of the Kar Dynamic Mixer impeller developed by The Dow Chemical Company. The result of which is a customized design for a refined set of operating conditions with improved performance.

Sloan, Benjamin

2013-05-15

393

Effect of impeller type and agitation on the performance of pilot scale ASBR and AnSBBR applied to sanitary wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to assess the effect of agitation rate and impeller type in two mechanically stirred sequencing batch reactors: one containing granulated biomass (denominated ASBR) and the other immobilized biomass on polyurethane foam (denominated AnSBBR). Each configuration, with total volume of 1 m(3), treated 0.65 m(3) sanitary wastewater at ambient temperature in 8-h cycles. Three impeller types were assessed for each reactor configuration: flat-blade turbine impeller, 45 degrees -inclined-blade turbine impeller and helix impeller, as well as two agitation rates: 40 and 80 rpm, resulting in a combination of six experimental conditions. In addition, the ASBR was also operated at 20 rpm with a flat-blade turbine impeller and the AnSBBR was operated with a draft tube and helix impeller at 80 and 120 rpm. To quantify how impeller type and agitation rate relate to substrate consumption rate, results obtained during monitoring at the end of the cycle, as well as the time profiles during a cycle were analyzed. Increasing agitation rate from 40 rpm to 80 rpm in the AnSBBR improved substrate consumption rate whereas in the ASBR this increase destabilized the system, likely due to granule rupture caused by the higher agitation. The AnSBBR showed highest solids and substrate removal, highest kinetic constant and highest alkalinity production when using a helix impeller, 80 rpm, and no draft tube. The best condition for the ASBR was achieved with a flat-blade turbine impeller at 20 rpm. The presence of the draft tube in the AnSBBR did not show significant improvement in reactor efficiency. Furthermore, power consumption studies in these pilot scale reactors showed that power transfer required to improve mass transfer might be technically and economically feasible. PMID:20363066

de Novaes, Luciano Farias; Saratt, Bruna Luckmann; Rodrigues, José Alberto Domingues; Ratusznei, Suzana Maria; de Moraes, Deovaldo; Ribeiro, Rogers; Zaiat, Marcelo; Foresti, Eugenio

2010-08-01

394

Evaluation of Failed Crane Chempumps Used During Salt Well Pumping  

SciTech Connect

The Interim Stabilization Project is responsible for removing pumpable interstitial liquid from remaining single shelled tanks and transferring the waste to safer double-shelled tanks. This waste transfer is conducted by installing a saltwell pumping system within the designated single shell tank, and transferring the waste to double shelled tank using approved transfer lines. The saltwell pumping system is placed within a saltwell screen installed into the tank waste, the screen is designed to allow gravity flow of liquid into the screen and prevent solids from entering the pumping system. A foot valve consisting of a venturi jet and nozzle creates a suction, picking up waste at an equal rate as the out flow transfer rate of the saltwell system. A centrifugal pump is used to create the motive force across the eductor and drive the waste through the associated system piping and transfer lines leading to the double shelled tanks. The centrifugal pump that has typically been used in the saltwell pumping system installations is the Crane Chempump, model GA-1 1/2 K with 4 3/4 inch impeller. The following evaluation is not intended to be an all inclusive analysis of the operation of a saltwell system and associated pump. This evaluation will detail some of the noted failures in specific saltwell systems and document those findings. Due to the large number of saltwell systems installed over the duration of the Stabilization Project, only those saltwell systems installed over the last two years within S, SX, U, A and AX tank farms, shall be included in this evaluation. After identification of the pump failures mechanism, recommendations shall be identified to address potential means of improving overall operational efficiency and reducing overall equipment failures.

ELSEN, J.J.

2000-09-18

395

Computational fluid dynamics analysis of the pump parameters in the helical flow pump.  

PubMed

The helical flow pump (HFP) was invented to develop a total artificial heart at the University of Tokyo in 2005. The HFP consists of the multi-vane impeller involving rotor magnets, a motor stator and pump housing having double-helical volutes. To investigate the characteristics of the HFP, computational fluid dynamics analysis was performed. Validation of the computational model was performed with the data of the actual pump. A control computational model in which the vane area corresponded approximately to that of the actual pump was designed for the parametric study. The parametric study was performed varying the vane height, vane width and helical volute pitch. When the vane height was varied from 0.5 to 1.5 times that of the control computational model, the H-Q (pressure head vs. flow) and efficiency curves were translated in parallel with the vane height. When the vane height was two and three times that of the control computational model, the profile of these curves changed. From the results, the best proportion for the vane was considered to be a vane height between 1.5 and 2 times the vane width. The effect of vane width was not very strong compared to that of the vane height. A similar tendency in vane height was observed by varying the helical volute pitch. The best helical volute-pitch size is considered to be between 1.5 and 2 times the vane width. Although further study is necessary to determine the best values for these parameters, the characteristics of the pump parameters in the HFP could be approximately clarified. PMID:24318404

Hosoda, Kyohei; Ishii, Kohei; Isoyama, Takashi; Saito, Itsuro; Inoue, Yusuke; Ariyoshi, Kouki; Ono, Toshiya; Nakagawa, Hidemoto; Imachi, Kou; Kumagai, Hiroshi; Abe, Yusuke

2014-03-01

396

Getter pumping  

E-print Network

A surface may provide a useful pumping action when able to retain adsorbed gas molecules for the duration of a given experiment. To fulfil this condition at room temperature, strong binding forces, as those resulting from chemical reactions, are required. Materials able to react with gases to form stable chemical compounds are called getters. The two main families of getters (evaporable and non-evaporable, or NEG) are presented and discussed. Special emphasis is placed on the NEG strips currently used for the vacuum systems of particle accelerators, and on the newly developed NEG thin-film coatings, in view of their possible future applications.

Benvenuti, C

2007-01-01

397

Well pump  

DOEpatents

A well pump includes a piston and an inlet and/or outlet valve assembly of special structure. Each is formed of a body of organic polymer, preferably PTFE. Each includes a cavity in its upper portion and at least one passage leading from the cavity to the bottom of the block. A screen covers each cavity and a valve disk covers each screen. Flexible sealing flanges extend upwardly and downwardly from the periphery of the piston block. The outlet valve block has a sliding block and sealing fit with the piston rod.

Ames, Kenneth R. (Pasco, WA); Doesburg, James M. (Chicago, IL)

1987-01-01

398

Geothermal pump program  

SciTech Connect

The geothermal pump program for developing and testing improved downhole pumps is reviewed. Topics discussed include the Geothermal Pump Test Facility, the 80 horsepower REDA pump test, pressurized lubrication systems, the 300 horsepower REDA pump test in a MAGMA production well, advanced power, cable systems, and the East Mesa Test Facility.

Hanold, R.J.

1982-01-01

399

A miniature intraventricular axial flow blood pump that is introduced through the left ventricular apex.  

PubMed

A new intraventricular axial flow blood pump has been designed and developed as an implantable left ventricular assist device (LVAD). The pump consists of a tube housing (10 cm in length and 14 mm in diameter), a three-vane impeller combined with a guide vane, and a DC motor. This pump is introduced into the LV cavity through the LV apex, and the outlet cannula is passed antegrade across the aortic valve. Blood is withdrawn from the LV through the inlet ports at the pump base, and discharged into the ascending aorta. A pump flow of > 8 L/min was obtained against 90 mmHg differential pressure in the mock circulatory system. In an acute dog model, this pump could produce a sufficient output of 200 ml/kg/min. In addition, the pump flow profile demonstrated a pulsatile pattern, although the rotation speed was fixed. This is mainly due to the changes in flow rate during a cardiac cycle--that is, during systole, the flow rate increases to the maximum, while the differential pressure between the LV and the aorta decreases to the minimum. Thus, this simple and compact axial flow blood pump can be a potential LVAD, with prompt accessibility and need for less invasive surgical procedures. PMID:1457948

Yamazaki, K; Umezu, M; Koyanagi, H; Kitamura, M; Eishi, K; Kawai, A; Tagusari, O; Niinami, H; Akimoto, T; Nojiri, C

1992-01-01

400

Safety margin of magnetic coupling distance in decoupling of a pivot bearing-supported Gyro centrifugal pump (C1E3).  

PubMed

The pivot bearing-supported Gyro C1E3 centrifugal pump is driven by magnetic coupling. The magnetic coupling distance (MCD) between the impeller magnet and the driver magnet affects both hydraulic performance and hemolysis. Although a greater MCD causes less hemolysis, it increases the risk of decoupling of the impeller magnet. Therefore, it is important to consider the effect of the MCD on both hemolysis and decoupling when the C1E3 pump is applied in various circulatory assist conditions. This study investigates the effect of the MCD on decoupling in a C1E3 pump that is driven by the Nd-Fe-B composite ring-shaped magnets. The results will determine which MCD is the most practical in all assist device conditions. The MCD of the C1E3 pump was varied from 9.5 to 14.5 mm by inserting spacers between the bottom pump housing and the driver magnet. At a rotational speed just before the decoupling occurred, the flow rate and total pressure head were measured. The results revealed that a MCD between 9.5 and 14.5 mm was enough to produce a flow rate of more than 10 L/min without decoupling, and a MCD of less than 11.5 mm was required when the total pressure head was more than 500 mm Hg. Thus, the limiting factor for the MCD of the C1E3 pump is the total pressure head rather than the flow rate. An MCD of less than 11.5 mm is required to prevent decoupling of the impeller of the C1E3 pump with the specific Nd-Fe-B magnets in the full range of clinical circulatory assist conditions. PMID:8828776

Takami, Y; Nakazawa, T; Makinouchi, K; Glueck, J; Benkowski, R; Nosé, Y

1996-07-01

401

Simulating elliptic flow with viscous hydrodynamics  

SciTech Connect

In this work we simulate a viscous hydrodynamical model of noncentral Au-Au collisions in 2+1 dimensions, assuming longitudinal boost invariance. The model fluid equations were proposed by Oettinger and Grmela [Grmela, M., and Oettinger, H. C., Phys. Rev. E, 56, 6620 (1997)]. Freeze-out is signaled when the viscous corrections become large relative to the ideal terms. Then viscous corrections to the transverse momentum and differential elliptic flow spectra are calculated. When viscous corrections to the thermal distribution function are not included, the effects of viscosity on elliptic flow are modest. However, when these corrections are included, the elliptic flow is strongly modified at large p{sub T}. We also investigate the stability of the viscous results by comparing the nonideal components of the stress tensor ({pi}{sup ij}) and their influence on the v{sub 2} spectrum to the expectation of the Navier-Stokes equations ({pi}{sup ij}=-{eta}<{partial_derivative}{sub i}u{sub j}>). We argue that when the stress tensor deviates from the Navier-Stokes form the dissipative corrections to spectra are too large for a hydrodynamic description to be reliable. For typical Relativistic Heavy Ion Colloder initial conditions this happens for {eta}/s > or approx. 0.3.

Dusling, K.; Teaney, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York 11794-3800 (United States)

2008-03-15

402

Injection pump  

SciTech Connect

An injection pump includes a rotor having a central axial bore and a radial bore and rotated in relationship with an engine. A free piston reciprocably inserted in the central axial bore defines a first and second chamber. The first chamber includes a plurality of first radial passages and a radial spill port and communicate with the radial bore and the second pressure chamber includes a plurality of second radial passages and a discharge passage. A pair of plungers which is disposed in the radial bore is so constructed as to produce, in accordance with the revolution of the rotor, a compression period in which the liquid fuel is pressurized in the first pressure chamber and pressurized fuel in the second pressure chamber is supplied to the engine through the discharge passage, and a suction period in which the liquid fuel is supplied to the pressure chambers.

Hoshi, Y.

1984-05-01

403

Mean-field model of the von Kármán sodium dynamo experiment using soft iron impellers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been observed that dynamo action occurs in the von-Kármán-Sodium (VKS) experiment only when the rotating disks and the blades are made of soft iron. The purpose of this paper is to numerically investigate the role of soft iron in the VKS dynamo scenario. This is done by using a mean-field model based on an axisymmetric mean flow, a localized permeability distribution, and a localized ? effect modeling the action of the small velocity scales between the blades. The action of the rotating blades is modeled by an axisymmetric effective permeability field. Key properties of the flow giving to the numerical magnetic field a geometric structure similar to that observed experimentally are identified. Depending on the permeability of the disks and the effective permeability of the blades, the dynamo that is obtained is either oscillatory or stationary. Our numerical results confirm the leading role played by the ferromagnetic impellers. A scenario for the VKS dynamo is proposed.

Nore, C.; Léorat, J.; Guermond, J.-L.; Giesecke, A.

2015-01-01

404

Electrical method and apparatus for impelling the extruded ejection of high-velocity material jets  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus (10, 40) for producing high-velocity material jets provided. An electric current pulse generator (14, 42) is attached to an end of a coaxial two-conductor transmission line (16, 44) having an outer cylindrical conductor (18), an inner cylindrical conductor (20), and a solid plastic or ceramic insulator (21) therebetween. A coxial, thin-walled metal structure (22, 30) is conductively joined to the two conductors (18, 20) of the transmission line (16, 44). An electrical current pulse applies magnetic pressure to and possibly explosively vaporizes metal structure (22), thereby collapsing it and impelling the extruded ejection of a high-velocity material jet therefrom. The jet is comprised of the metal of the structure (22), together with the material that comprises any covering layers (32, 34) disposed on the structure. An electric current pulse generator of the explosively driven magnetic flux compression type or variety (42) may be advantageously used in the practice of this invention.

Weingart, Richard C. (Livermore, CA)

1989-01-01

405

An implantable aortic valvo-pump for destination therapy.  

PubMed

To investigate the possibility of a long-term applicable left ventricular assist device, a 23 mm outer diameter and 31 g weight implantable aortic valvo-pump was developed. It consists of a rotor and a stator; the rotor has a driven magnets assemble and an impeller, the stator has a motor coil with iron core and a outflow guide vane. The device locates the position of aortic valve, delivers the blood directly from left ventricle to aorta. Neither connecting conduits nor "bypass" circuits are necessary. Therefore, the device has promisingly better antithrombogenicity than other heart pumps. In hemodynamic testing, the pump can produce a blood flow of 7 l/min volume with 50 mmHg pressure increase at 15,000 rpm rotating speed, and at zero flow rate the pump can maintain a diastolic pressure over 80 mmHg at same rotating speed. For further studies the blood compatibility and the durability of the device are of most importance. PMID:16900420

Qian, Kun-Xi

2006-03-01

406

Controls of Wellbore Flow Regimes on Pump Effluent Composition  

SciTech Connect

Where well water and formation water are compositionally different or heterogeneous, pump effluent composition will vary due to partial mixing and transport induced by pumping. Investigating influences of purging and sampling methodology on composition variability requires quantification of wellbore flow regimes and mixing. As a basis for this quantification, analytical models simulating Poiseuille flow were developed to calculate flow paths and travel times. Finite element modeling was used to incorporate influences of mixing. Parabolic velocity distributions within the screened interval accelerate with cumulative inflow approaching the pump intake while an annulus of inflowing formation water contracts uniformly to displace an axial cylinder of pre-pumping well water as pumping proceeds. Increased dispersive mixing forms a more diffuse formation water annulus and the contribution of formation water to pump effluent increases more rapidly. Models incorporating viscous flow and diffusion scale mixing show that initially pump effluent is predominantly pre-pumping well water and compositions vary most rapidly. After two screen volumes of pumping, 94% of pump effluent is inflowing formation water. Where the composition of formation water and pre-pumping well water are likely to be similar, pump effluent compositions will not vary significantly and may be collected during early purging or with passive sampling. However, where these compositions are expected to be considerably different or heterogeneous, compositions would be most variable during early pumping, that is, when samples are collected during low-flow sampling. Purging of two screen volumes would be required to stabilize the content and collect a sample consisting of 94% formation water.

James Martin-Hayden; plummer; Sanford Britt

2014-01-01

407

Anisotropic viscous dissipation in transient reconnecting plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We examine the global energy losses associated with reconnecting coronal plasmas. Methods: Using planar magnetic reconnection simulations we compute resistive and bulk viscous losses in transient coronal plasmas. Resistive scalings are computed for the case of incompressible reconnection powered by large scale vortical flows. These results are contrasted with an example of magnetic merging driven by the coalescence instability. Results: We demonstrate that the large scale advective flows, required to sustain resistive current sheets, may be associated with viscous losses approaching flare-like rates of 1029 erg s-1 . More generally, bulk viscous dissipation appears likely to dominate resistive dissipation for a wide variety of magnetic merging models. We emphasize that these results have potentially important implications for understanding the flare energy budget.

Craig, I. J. D.

2010-06-01

408

Winding for linear pump  

DOEpatents

A winding and method of winding for a submersible linear pump for pumping liquid sodium are disclosed. The pump includes a stator having a central cylindrical duct preferably vertically aligned. The central vertical duct is surrounded by a system of coils in slots. These slots are interleaved with magnetic flux conducting elements, these magnetic flux conducting elements forming a continuous magnetic field conduction path along the stator. The central duct has placed therein a cylindrical magnetic conducting core, this core having a cylindrical diameter less than the diameter of the cylindrical duct. The core once placed to the duct defines a cylindrical interstitial pumping volume of the pump. This cylindrical interstitial pumping volume preferably defines an inlet at the bottom of the pump, and an outlet at the top of the pump. Pump operation occurs by static windings in the outer stator sequentially conveying toroidal fields from the pump inlet at the bottom of the pump to the pump outlet at the top of the pump. The winding apparatus and method of winding disclosed uses multiple slots per pole per phase with parallel winding legs on each phase equal to or less than the number of slots per pole per phase. The slot sequence per pole per phase is chosen to equalize the variations in flux density of the pump sodium as it passes into the pump at the pump inlet with little or no flux and acquires magnetic flux in passage through the pump to the pump outlet. 4 figs.

Kliman, G.B.; Brynsvold, G.V.; Jahns, T.M.

1989-08-22

409

Winding for linear pump  

DOEpatents

A winding and method of winding for a submersible linear pump for pumping liquid sodium is disclosed. The pump includes a stator having a central cylindrical duct preferably vertically aligned. The central vertical duct is surrounded by a system of coils in slots. These slots are interleaved with magnetic flux conducting elements, these magnetic flux conducting elements forming a continuous magnetic field conduction path along the stator. The central duct has placed therein a cylindrical magnetic conducting core, this core having a cylindrical diameter less than the diameter of the cylindrical duct. The core once placed to the duct defines a cylindrical interstitial pumping volume of the pump. This cylindrical interstitial pumping volume preferably defines an inlet at the bottom of the pump, and an outlet at the top of the pump. Pump operation occurs by static windings in the outer stator sequentially conveying toroidal fields from the pump inlet at the bottom of the pump to the pump outlet at the top of the pump. The winding apparatus and method of winding disclosed uses multiple slots per pole per phase with parallel winding legs on each phase equal to or less than the number of slots per pole per phase. The slot sequence per pole per phase is chosen to equalize the variations in flux density of the pump sodium as it passes into the pump at the pump inlet with little or no flux and acquires magnetic flux in passage through the pump to the pump outlet.

Kliman, Gerald B. (Schenectady, NY); Brynsvold, Glen V. (San Jose, CA); Jahns, Thomas M. (Schenectady, NY)

1989-01-01

410

Ion pump provides increased vacuum pumping speed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multiple-cell ion pumps with increased vacuum pumping speed are used for producing ultrahigh vacuums in vacuum tubes and mass spectrometers. The pump has eight cathode-anode magnetron cells arranged in a cylinder which increase the surface area of the cathode.

1965-01-01

411

Pumping viscoelastic two-fluid media  

E-print Network

Using a two-fluid model for viscoelastic polymer solutions, we study analytically fluid transport driven by a transverse, small amplitude traveling wave propagation. The pumping flow far from the waving boundary is shown to be strongly wave number and viscosity dependent, in contrast to a viscous Newtonian fluid. We find the two qualitatively different regimes: In one regime relevant to small wave numbers, the fluidic transport is almost the same as the Newtonian case, and uniform viscoelastic constitutive equations provide a good approximation. In the other regime, the pumping is substantially decreased because of the gel-like character. The boundary separating these two regimes is clarified. Our results suggest possible needs of two-fluid descriptions for the transport and locomotion in biological fluids with cilia and flagella.

Hirofumi Wada

2010-04-08

412

Viscous shock profiles and primitive formulations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Weak solutions of hyperbolic systems in primitive (non-conservation) form for which a consistent conservation form exists are considered. It is shown that primitive formulations, shock relations are not uniquely defined by the states to either side of the shock but also depend on the viscous path connecting the two. Scheme-dependent high order correction terms are derived that enforce consistent viscous shock profiles. The resulting primitive algorithm is conservative to the order of approximation. One dimensional Euler calculations of flows containing strong shocks clearly show that conservation errors in primitive flow calculations are of comparable quality.

Karni, S.

1990-01-01

413

Simultaneous viscous-inviscid coupling via transpiration  

SciTech Connect

In viscous-inviscid coupling analysis, the direct coupling technique and the inverse coupling technique are commonly adopted. However, stability and convergence of the algorithms derived are usually very unsatisfactory. Here, by using the transpiration technique to simulate the effect of the displacement thickness, a new simultaneous coupling method is derived. The integral boundary layer equations and the full potential equation are chosen to be the viscous-inviscid coupled system. After discretization, the Newton-Raphson technique is proposed to solve the coupled nonlinear system. Several numerical results are used to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method. 15 refs., 23 figs.

Yiu, K.F.C.; Giles, M.B. [Oxford Univ. Computing Lab. (United Kingdom)] [Oxford Univ. Computing Lab. (United Kingdom)

1995-09-01

414

Bounce solutions in viscous fluid cosmology  

E-print Network

We investigate the bounce cosmology induced by inhomogeneous viscous fluids in FRW space-time (non necessarly flat), taking into account the early-time acceleration after the bounce. Different forms for the scale factor and several examples of fluids will be considered. We also analyze the relation between bounce and finite-time singularities and between the corresponding fluids realizing this scenarios. In the last part of the work, the study is extended to the framework of $f(R)$-modified gravity, where the modification of gravity may also be considered as an effective (viscous) fluid producing the bounce.

Ratbay Myrzakulov; Lorenzo Sebastiani

2014-03-24

415

Dry vacuum pumps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For decades and for ultimate pressure below 1 mbar, oil-sealed Rotary Vane Pumps have been the most popular solution for a wide range of vacuum applications. In the late 80ies, Semiconductor Industry has initiated the development of the first dry roughing pumps. Today SC a